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Sample records for human activity patterns

  1. General human activity patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and interplay between human communication, movement, and social proximity by analyzing data collected from smartphones distributed among 638 individuals. The main question we consider is: to what extent do individuals act according to patterns shared across an entire population? Based on statistics of the entire population, we successfully predict 71\\% of the activity and 85\\% of the inactivity involved in communication, movement, and social proximity. We find that individual level statistics only result in marginally better predictions, indicating a high degree of shared activity patterns across the population. Finally, we predict short-term activity patterns using a generalized linear model, which suggests that a simple linear description might be sufficient to explain a wide range of actions, whether they be of social or of physical character.

  2. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

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    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  3. Universal activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Formentin, Marco; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new universal pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent's contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We show this universal behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one's environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns constrain future models of com...

  4. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

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    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  5. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

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    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  6. Circadian pattern and burstiness in human communication activity

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    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kertész, János; Kaski, Kimmo

    2011-01-01

    The temporal pattern of human communication is inhomogeneous and bursty, as reflected by the heavy tail distribution of the inter-event times. For the origin of this behavior two main mechanisms have been suggested: a) Externally driven inhomogeneities due to the circadian and weekly activity patterns and b) intrinsic correlation based inhomogeneity rooted deeply in the task handling strategies of humans. Here we address this question by providing systematic de-seasoning methods to remove the circadian and weekly patterns from the time series of communication events. We find that the heavy tails of the inter-event time distributions are robust with respect to this procedure indicating that burstiness is mostly caused by the latter mechanism b). Moreover, we find that our de-seasoning procedure improves the scaling behavior of the distribution.

  7. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

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    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  8. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis.

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    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S; Mniszewski, Susan M; Del Valle, Sara Y; Hyman, James M

    2014-12-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule's regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity's regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  9. A Pattern Mining Approach to Sensor-based Human Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Wu, Zhanqing

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing human activities from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing due to its potential in many applications such as assistive living and healthcare. This task is particularly challenging because human activities are often performed in not only...... in real life because activities can be interleaved and performed concurrently in many different ways. In this paper, we propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative pattern...... that describes significant changes between classes of data—to identify sensor features for classifying activities. Different from existing learning-based approaches which require different training datasets for building activity models, our activity models are built upon the sequential activity trace only...

  10. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

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    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  11. A THREE-STEP SPATIAL-TEMPORAL-SEMANTIC CLUSTERING METHOD FOR HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN ANALYSIS

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    W. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time to four dimensions (space, time and semantics. More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people “say” for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The

  12. Neural Activity Patterns in the Human Brain Reflect Tactile Stickiness Perception

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    Kim, Junsuk; Yeon, Jiwon; Ryu, Jaekyun; Park, Jang-Yeon; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2017-01-01

    Our previous human fMRI study found brain activations correlated with tactile stickiness perception using the uni-variate general linear model (GLM) (Yeon et al., 2017). Here, we conducted an in-depth investigation on neural correlates of sticky sensations by employing a multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) on the same dataset. In particular, we statistically compared multi-variate neural activities in response to the three groups of sticky stimuli: A supra-threshold group including a set of sticky stimuli that evoked vivid sticky perception; an infra-threshold group including another set of sticky stimuli that barely evoked sticky perception; and a sham group including acrylic stimuli with no physically sticky property. Searchlight MVPAs were performed to search for local activity patterns carrying neural information of stickiness perception. Similar to the uni-variate GLM results, significant multi-variate neural activity patterns were identified in postcentral gyrus, subcortical (basal ganglia and thalamus), and insula areas (insula and adjacent areas). Moreover, MVPAs revealed that activity patterns in posterior parietal cortex discriminated the perceptual intensities of stickiness, which was not present in the uni-variate analysis. Next, we applied a principal component analysis (PCA) to the voxel response patterns within identified clusters so as to find low-dimensional neural representations of stickiness intensities. Follow-up clustering analyses clearly showed separate neural grouping configurations between the Supra- and Infra-threshold groups. Interestingly, this neural categorization was in line with the perceptual grouping pattern obtained from the psychophysical data. Our findings thus suggest that different stickiness intensities would elicit distinct neural activity patterns in the human brain and may provide a neural basis for the perception and categorization of tactile stickiness. PMID:28936171

  13. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

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    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  14. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

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    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  15. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

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    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  16. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

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    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  17. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

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    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  18. Patterns of Activity in the Human Frontal and Parietal Cortex Differentiate Large and Small Saccades

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    Marie-Helene Grosbras

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well established that in monkeys’ main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to scan participants while they performed saccades towards targets at either short (4 degrees or large (30 degrees eccentricity. A regional multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA reveals that patterns of activity in the frontal (FEF and parietal eye fields discriminate between the execution of large or small saccades. This was not the case in the supplementary eye fields nor in the inferior precentral cortex. These findings provide the first evidence of a representation of saccadic eye movement size in the fronto-parietal occulomotor circuit. They shed light on the respective roles of the different cortical oculomotor regions with respect to space perception and exploration, as well as on the homology of eye movement control between human and non-human primates.

  19. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

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    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  20. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding.

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    van Stegeren, Anda H; Roozendaal, Benno; Kindt, Merel; Wolf, Oliver T; Joëls, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are usually well retained, an effect that depends on the release of adrenal stress hormones. Animal studies have shown that corticosterone and noradrenaline - representing the two main stress hormone systems - act in concert to enhance memory formation by actions involving the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we test whether interactions between these two stress hormone systems also affect human memory formation as well as the associated pattern of brain activation. To this end, forty-eight male human subjects received hydrocortisone, yohimbine or both before presentation of emotional and neutral pictures. Activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and PFC was monitored with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during encoding of these stimuli, when hormonal levels were elevated. Memory performance was tested 1 week later. We investigated whether an increased level of one of the two hormone systems would lead to differential effects compared to the combined application of the drugs on brain activation and memory performance. We report that the application of cortisol led to an overall enhancing effect on recognition memory, with no significant additional effect of yohimbine. However, during encoding the brain switched from amygdala/hippocampus activation with either hormone alone, to a strong deactivation of prefrontal areas under the influence of the combination of both exogenous hormones. Although we did not find evidence that exogenous stimulation of the noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems led to significant interaction effects on memory performance in this experiment, we conclude that stress hormone levels during encoding did differentially determine the activation pattern of the brain circuits here involved.

  1. Metabolic patterns and biotransformation activities of resveratrol in human glioblastoma cells: relevance with therapeutic efficacies.

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    Xiao-Hong Shu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans-resveratrol rather than its biotransformed monosulfate metabolite exerts anti-medulloblastoma effects by suppressing STAT3 activation. Nevertheless, its effects on human glioblastoma cells are variable due to certain unknown reason(s. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Citing resveratrol-sensitive UW228-3 medulloblastoma cell line and primarily cultured rat brain cells/PBCs as controls, the effect of resveratrol on LN-18 human glioblastoma cells and its relevance with metabolic pattern(s, brain-associated sulfotransferase/SULT expression and the statuses of STAT3 signaling and protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3 were elucidated by multiple experimental approaches. Meanwhile, the expression patterns of three SULTs (SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 in human glioblastoma tumors were profiled immunohistochemically. The results revealed that 100 µM resveratrol-treated LN-18 generated the same metabolites as UW228-3 cells, while additional metabolite in molecular weight of 403.0992 in negative ion mode was found in PBCs. Neither growth arrest nor apoptosis was found in resveratrol-treated LN-18 and PBC cells. Upon resveratrol treatment, the levels of SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 expression in LN-18 cells were more up-regulated than that expressed in UW228-3 cells and close to the levels in PBCs. Immunohistochemical staining showed that 42.0%, 27.1% and 19.6% of 149 glioblastoma cases produced similar SULT1A1, 1C2 and 4A1 levels as that of tumor-surrounding tissues. Unlike the situation in UW228-3 cells, STAT3 signaling remained activated and its protein inhibitor PIAS3 was restricted in the cytosol of resveratrol-treated LN-18 cells. No nuclear translocation of STAT3 and PIAS3 was observed in resveratrol-treated PBCs. Treatment with STAT3 chemical inhibitor, AG490, committed majority of LN-18 and UW228-3 cells but not PBCs to apoptosis within 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LN-18 glioblastoma cells are insensitive to resveratrol due to the

  2. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

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    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature.

  3. Impact of Bursty Human Activity Patterns on the Popularity of Online Content

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    Qiang Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of online content popularity has attracted more and more researches in recent years. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, temporal analysis about the dynamics of online content popularity in a massive system: Sina Microblog. We use time-stamped data to investigate the impact of bursty human comment patterns on the popularity of online microblog news. Statistical results indicate that the number of news and comments exhibits an exponential growth. The strength of forwarding and comment is characterized by bursts, displaying fat-tailed distribution. In order to characterize the dynamics of popularity, we explore the distribution of the time interval Δt between consecutive comment bursts and find that it also follows a power-law. Bursty patterns of human comment are responsible for the power-law decay of popularity. These results are well supported by both the theoretical analysis and empirical data.

  4. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

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    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  5. Human brain activity patterns beyond the isoelectric line of extreme deep coma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kroeger

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes. Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

  6. Human brain activity patterns beyond the isoelectric line of extreme deep coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Daniel; Florea, Bogdan; Amzica, Florin

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) reflects brain electrical activity. A flat (isoelectric) EEG, which is usually recorded during very deep coma, is considered to be a turning point between a living brain and a deceased brain. Therefore the isoelectric EEG constitutes, together with evidence of irreversible structural brain damage, one of the criteria for the assessment of brain death. In this study we use EEG recordings for humans on the one hand, and on the other hand double simultaneous intracellular recordings in the cortex and hippocampus, combined with EEG, in cats. They serve to demonstrate that a novel brain phenomenon is observable in both humans and animals during coma that is deeper than the one reflected by the isoelectric EEG, and that this state is characterized by brain activity generated within the hippocampal formation. This new state was induced either by medication applied to postanoxic coma (in human) or by application of high doses of anesthesia (isoflurane in animals) leading to an EEG activity of quasi-rhythmic sharp waves which henceforth we propose to call ν-complexes (Nu-complexes). Using simultaneous intracellular recordings in vivo in the cortex and hippocampus (especially in the CA3 region) we demonstrate that ν-complexes arise in the hippocampus and are subsequently transmitted to the cortex. The genesis of a hippocampal ν-complex depends upon another hippocampal activity, known as ripple activity, which is not overtly detectable at the cortical level. Based on our observations, we propose a scenario of how self-oscillations in hippocampal neurons can lead to a whole brain phenomenon during coma.

  7. Application of GPS Trajectory Data for Investigating the Interaction between Human Activity and Landscape Pattern: A Case Study of the Lijiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human activity and landscape pattern has been a hot research topic during the last few decades. However, scholars used to measure human activity by social, economic and humanistic indexes. These indexes cannot directly reflect human activity and are not suitable for fine-grained analysis due to the coarse spatial resolution. In view of the above problems, this paper proposes a method that obtains the intensity of human activity from GPS trajectory data, collects landscape information from remote sensing images and further analyzes the interaction between human activity and landscape pattern at a fine-grained scale. The Lijiang River Basin is selected as the study area. Experimental results show that human activity and landscape pattern interact synergistically in this area. Built-up land and water boost human activity, while woodland restrains human activity. The effect of human activity on landscape pattern differs by the land cover category. Overall, human activities make natural land, such as woodland and water, scattered and fragmented, but cause man-built land, such as built-up land and farmland, clustered and regular. Nevertheless, human activities inside and outside urban areas are the opposite. The research findings in this paper are helpful for designing and implementing sustainable management plans.

  8. Circadian pancreatic enzyme pattern and relationship between secretory and motor activity in fasting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jutta; Layer, Peter

    2002-08-01

    It is unknown whether nonparallel pancreatic enzyme output occurs under basal conditions in humans. We aimed to determine whether the circadian or wake-sleep cycle influences the relationship among pancreatic enzymes or between pancreatic secretory and jejunal motor activity. Using orojejunal multilumen intubation, we measured enzyme outputs and proximal jejunal motility index during consecutive daytime and nighttime periods in each of seven fasting, healthy volunteers. Enzyme outputs were correlated tightly during daytime phases of wakefulness and nighttime phases of sleep (r > 0.72, P activity was directly correlated with jejunal motility index (r > 0.50, P enzymes dominates throughout the circadian cycle. Nonparallel secretion during nocturnal phases of wakefulness may be due to merely circadian effects or to the coupling of the wake-sleep and the circadian cycle. The association between fluctuations of secretory and motor activity appears to be particularly tight during the night.

  9. Task-dependent spatial distribution of neural activation pattern in human rectus femoris muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2012-04-01

    Compartmentalization of skeletal muscle by multiple motor nerve branches, named as neuromuscular compartment (NMC), has been demonstrated in animals as well as humans. While different functional roles among individual NMCs were reported in the animal studies, no studies have clarified the region-specific functional role within a muscle related with NMCs arrangement in human skeletal muscle. It was reported that the rectus femoris (RF) muscle is innervated by two nerve branches attached at proximal and distal parts of the muscle. The purpose of the present study is to clarify the possible region-specific functional role in the human RF muscle. Multi-channel surface electromyography (SEMG) were recorded from the RF muscle by using 128 electrodes during two different submaximal isometric contractions that the muscle contributes, i.e. isometric knee extension and hip flexion, at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Results indicated that the central locus activation for the amplitude map of SEMG during hip flexion located at more proximal region compared with that during knee extension. Significant higher normalized root mean square (RMS) values were observed at the proximal region during the hip flexion in comparison to those at middle and distal regions at 60% and 80% of MVC (pMVC (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest possible region-specific functional role in the human RF muscle.

  10. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  11. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  12. Could periodic patterns in human mortality be sensitive to solar activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Díaz-Sandoval

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal behaviour of human diseases have been observed and reported in the literature for years. Although the Sun plays an essential role in the origin and evolution of life on Earth, it is barely taken into account in biological processes for the development of a specific disease. Higher mortality rates occur during the winter season in the Northern Hemisphere for several diseases, particularly diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. This increment has been associated with seasonal and social causes. However, is there more behind these correlations, in particular in terms of solar variability? In this paper we attempt to make a first step towards answering this question. A detailed wavelet analysis of periodicities for diseases from England and Wales seem to reveal that mortality periodicities (3 days to half a year could be due to the Earth's position around the Sun. Moreover, crosswavelet and wavelet coherence analysis show common features between medical diseases and solar proxies around solar maximum activity suggesting that this relation, if any, has to be searched in times of high solar activity.

  13. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail A; Kauffman, Matthew J; Middleton, Arthur D; Jimenez, Michael D; McWhirter, Douglas E; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    with migratory or resident prey populations, varying levels of human activity, and front-country rangelands with potential for conflicts with livestock.

  14. Elk migration patterns and human activity influence wolf habitat use in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Abigail; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Middleton, Arthur D.; Jimenez, Mike; McWhirter, Douglas; Barber, Jarrett; Gerow, Ken

    2012-01-01

    areas with migratory or resident prey populations, varying levels of human activity, and front-country rangelands with potential for conflicts with livestock.

  15. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations.

  16. Distinctive genetic activity pattern of the human dental pulp between deciduous and permanent teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    Full Text Available Human deciduous and permanent teeth exhibit different developmental processes, morphologies, histological characteristics and life cycles. In addition, their pulp tissues react differently to external stimuli, such as the pulp sensitivity test, dental trauma and pulp therapy materials. These suggest differences in gene expression and regulation, and in this study we compared gene-expression profiles of the human dental pulp from deciduous and permanent teeth. Pulp tissues from permanent premolars and deciduous molars aged 11-14 years were extirpated and mRNA was isolated for cDNA microarray analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Other teeth were used for immunohistochemical analysis (IHC. Microarray analysis identified 263 genes with a twofold or greater difference in expression level between the two types of pulp tissue, 43 and 220 of which were more abundant in deciduous and permanent pulp tissues, respectively. qPCR analysis was conducted for eight randomly selected genes, and the findings were consistent with the cDNA microarray results. IHC confirmed that insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1 was broadly expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue, but minimally expressed in permanent dental pulp tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that calbindin 1 (CALB1, leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5, and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor beta 1 (GABRB1 were abundantly expressed in permanent predentin/odontoblasts, but only minimally expressed in deciduous dental pulp tissue. These results show that deciduous and permanent pulp tissues have different characteristics and gene expression, suggesting that they may have different functions and responses to therapies focused on pulp or dentin regeneration.

  17. The dynamic pattern of human attention

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min

    2013-01-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show diverse dynamic patterns. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic pattern of human attention defined by the quantity of interests on subdisciplines in an online academic communication forum. Both the expansion and exploration of human attention have a power-law scaling relation with browsing actions, of which the exponent is close to that in one-dimension random walk. Furthermore, the memory effect of human attention is characterized by the power-law distributions of both the return interval time and return interval steps, which is reinforced by studying the attention shift that monotonically increase with the interval order between pairs of continuously segmental sequences of expansion. At last, the observing dynamic pattern of human attention in the browsing process is analytically described by a dynamic model whose generic mechanism is analogy to that of human spatial mobility. Thus, our work not only enlarges the research scope of human dynamics,...

  18. Laminar analysis of 7T BOLD using an imposed spatial activation pattern in human V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Jonathan R; Fischl, Bruce; Greve, Douglas N; Wald, Lawrence L

    2010-10-01

    With sufficient image encoding, high-resolution fMRI studies are limited by the biological point-spread of the hemodynamic signal. The extent of this spread is determined by the local vascular distribution and by the spatial specificity of blood flow regulation, as well as by measurement parameters that (i) alter the relative sensitivity of the acquisition to activation-induced hemodynamic changes and (ii) determine the image contrast as a function of vessel size. In particular, large draining vessels on the cortical surface are a major contributor to both the BOLD signal change and to the spatial bias of the BOLD activation away from the site of neuronal activity. In this work, we introduce a laminar surface-based analysis method and study the relationship between spatial localization and activation strength as a function of laminar depth by acquiring 1mm isotropic, single-shot EPI at 7 T and sampling the BOLD signal exclusively from the superficial, middle, or deep cortical laminae. We show that highly-accelerated EPI can limit image distortions to the point where a boundary-based registration algorithm accurately aligns the EPI data to the surface reconstruction. The spatial spread of the BOLD response tangential to the cortical surface was analyzed as a function of cortical depth using our surface-based analysis. Although sampling near the pial surface provided the highest signal strength, it also introduced the most spatial error. Thus, avoiding surface laminae improved spatial localization by about 40% at a cost of 36% in z-statistic, implying that optimal spatial resolution in functional imaging of the cortex can be achieved using anatomically-informed spatial sampling to avoid large pial vessels.

  19. Preparatory EMG activity reveals a rapid adaptation pattern in humans performing landing movements in blindfolded condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    The main questions addressed in this work were whether and how adaptation to suppression of visual information occurs in a free-fall paradigm, and the extent to which vision availability influences the control of landing movements. The prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude of four lower-limb muscles was investigated. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights in two experimental conditions: with and without vision. Experimental design precluded participants from estimating the height of the drop. Since cues provided by proprioceptive and vestibular information acquired during the first trials were processed, the nervous system rapidly adapted to the lack of visual information, and hence produced a motor output (i.e., prelanding EMG modulation) similar to that observed when performing the activity with vision available.

  20. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  1. Rotating waves during human sleep spindles organize global patterns of activity that repeat precisely through the night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Lyle; Piantoni, Giovanni; Koller, Dominik; Cash, Sydney S; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2016-01-01

    During sleep, the thalamus generates a characteristic pattern of transient, 11-15 Hz sleep spindle oscillations, which synchronize the cortex through large-scale thalamocortical loops. Spindles have been increasingly demonstrated to be critical for sleep-dependent consolidation of memory, but the specific neural mechanism for this process remains unclear. We show here that cortical spindles are spatiotemporally organized into circular wave-like patterns, organizing neuronal activity over tens of milliseconds, within the timescale for storing memories in large-scale networks across the cortex via spike-time dependent plasticity. These circular patterns repeat over hours of sleep with millisecond temporal precision, allowing reinforcement of the activity patterns through hundreds of reverberations. These results provide a novel mechanistic account for how global sleep oscillations and synaptic plasticity could strengthen networks distributed across the cortex to store coherent and integrated memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17267.001 PMID:27855061

  2. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, César A.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2008-06-01

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited owing to the lack of tools to monitor the time-resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six-month period. We find that, in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Lévy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time-independent characteristic travel distance and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that, despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns could impact all phenomena driven by human mobility, from epidemic prevention to emergency response, urban planning and agent-based modelling.

  3. Global Patterns of Human Synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Alfredo J; Benito, Rosa M; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2016-01-01

    Social media are transforming global communication and coordination and provide unprecedented opportunities for studying socio-technical domains. Here we study global dynamical patterns of communication on Twitter across many scales. Underlying the observed patterns is both the diurnal rotation of the earth, day and night, and the synchrony required for contingency of actions between individuals. We find that urban areas show a cyclic contraction and expansion that resembles heartbeats linked to social rather than natural cycles. Different urban areas have characteristic signatures of daily collective activities. We show that the differences detected are consistent with a new emergent global synchrony that couples behavior in distant regions across the world. Although local synchrony is the major force that shapes the collective behavior in cities, a larger-scale synchronization is beginning to occur.

  4. Natural and human induced seabed evolution : the occurrence of large-scale bad patterns and the effects of human activities on the North Sea seabed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Hennie Henriët

    2008-01-01

    The North Sea is a highly dynamic area, where a tidal current flows over a sandy seabed. It is an intensively used area where various human activities take place. The seabed is rich in oil and gas and there are a lot of oil and gas platforms connected to the shore with pipelines that are mostly buri

  5. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  6. Association of PM2.5 pollution with the pattern of human activity: A case study of a developed city in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Chengzhen; Chai, Pengfei; Lin, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Ye, Zhenhua; Gu, Mengjia; Lu, Huaichu; Shen, Peng; Jin, Mingjuan; Wang, Jianbing; Chen, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Recently, air pollution has attracted a substantial amount of attention in China, which can be influenced by a variety of factors, but the association between air pollution and human activity is not quite clear. Based on real-time online data (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014) of air pollution and meteorology reported by official sites, and demographic, economic, and environmental reform data in a statistical yearbook, the influences of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation intensity, and wind force) and human activities on PM2.5 pollution were explored. After correlation analysis, logistic regression analysis, and a nonparametric test, weak negative correlations between temperature and PM2.5 pollution were found. In most cases, festival and morning peak hours were protection and risk factors of PM2.5 pollution, respectively. In addition, government actions, such as an afforestation project and increasing financial expenditure for energy saving and environmental protection, could greatly contribute to alleviating pollution of PM2.5. The findings could help officials formulate effective laws and regulations, and then PM2.5 pollution related to the pattern of human activity would be ameliorated.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence o

  8. Evaluating the effect of human activity patterns on air pollution exposure using an integrated field-based and agent-based modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Beelen, Rob M. J.; de Bakker, Merijn P.; Karssenberg, Derek

    2015-04-01

    Constructing spatio-temporal numerical models to support risk assessment, such as assessing the exposure of humans to air pollution, often requires the integration of field-based and agent-based modelling approaches. Continuous environmental variables such as air pollution are best represented using the field-based approach which considers phenomena as continuous fields having attribute values at all locations. When calculating human exposure to such pollutants it is, however, preferable to consider the population as a set of individuals each with a particular activity pattern. This would allow to account for the spatio-temporal variation in a pollutant along the space-time paths travelled by individuals, determined, for example, by home and work locations, road network, and travel times. Modelling this activity pattern requires an agent-based or individual based modelling approach. In general, field- and agent-based models are constructed with the help of separate software tools, while both approaches should play together in an interacting way and preferably should be combined into one modelling framework, which would allow for efficient and effective implementation of models by domain specialists. To overcome this lack in integrated modelling frameworks, we aim at the development of concepts and software for an integrated field-based and agent-based modelling framework. Concepts merging field- and agent-based modelling were implemented by extending PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu), a field-based modelling library implemented in C++, with components for 1) representation of discrete, mobile, agents, 2) spatial networks and algorithms by integrating the NetworkX library (http://networkx.github.io), allowing therefore to calculate e.g. shortest routes or total transport costs between locations, and 3) functions for field-network interactions, allowing to assign field-based attribute values to networks (i.e. as edge weights), such as aggregated or averaged

  9. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Schneider, Christian M.; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; González, Marta C.

    2013-04-01

    The modeling of human mobility is adopting new directions due to the increasing availability of big data sources from human activity. These sources enclose digital information about daily visited locations of a large number of individuals. Examples of these data include: mobile phone calls, credit card transactions, bank notes dispersal, check-ins in internet applications, among several others. In this study, we consider the data obtained from smart subway fare card transactions to characterize and model urban mobility patterns. We present a simple mobility model for predicting peoples' visited locations using the popularity of places in the city as an interaction parameter between different individuals. This ingredient is sufficient to reproduce several characteristics of the observed travel behavior such as: the number of trips between different locations in the city, the exploration of new places and the frequency of individual visits of a particular location. Moreover, we indicate the limitations of the proposed model and discuss open questions in the current state of the art statistical models of human mobility.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in the human pituitary gland: expression and splicing pattern in adenomas versus normal pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhi, G; Albiger, N; Berlucchi, S; Gardiman, M; Scanarini, M; Scienza, R; Fassina, A; Mantero, F; Scaroni, C

    2007-07-01

    Pituitary adenomas are slow-growing tumours arising within the pituitary gland. If secreting, they give rise to well-known syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly; when hormonally inactive, they come to clinical attention often with local mass effects or pituitary deficiency. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear hormone receptor with a key role in fat and glucose metabolism, but also involved in several neoplasia, has recently been detected in pituitary adenomas. In the present study, we evaluated the occurrence and splicing profile of PPARgamma in 43 cases of pituitary adenoma of different subtypes and compared it to 12 normal pituitary glands. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, PPARgamma was expressed as much in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and ACTH-silent adenomas as in controls, with a moderate underexpression in somatotrophinomas and prolactinomas and overexpression in 54% of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). There was no apparent qualitative change in the splicing profile of pathological pituitary glands, nor was the presence of specific isoforms with dominant negative effects against PPARgamma detected. Western blotting revealed similar expression levels in the different subgroups of pituitary adenomas and normal glands. Immunohistochemistry confirmed PPARgamma expression in approximately one-half of analysed samples. The intra- and intergroup differences observed in pituitary adenomas may represent new elements in the process of understanding the different clinical responses of Cushing's and Nelson patients to PPARgamma-ligand treatment. Moreover, the higher level of PPARgamma expression detected in the NFPA subgroup may suggest its possible role as a molecular target in these pituitary adenomas, paving the way for investigations on the effectiveness of treatment with thiazolidinediones in such patients.

  11. Hominoid dispersal patterns and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Andreas; Borries, Carola

    2012-05-01

    Recent advances in DNA and isotope analyses have allowed tentative reconstructions of dispersal strategies of Plio-Pleistocene hominins.(1,2) Comparing their findings to dispersal patterns of some extant apes and humans suggested groups of related males and unrelated females in Neandertals indicating patrilocality(2) and Pan-like male philopatry in australopiths.(1) Here we review the demographic, ethnographic, and genetic evidence of dispersal patterns in extant apes and humans and compare the results to the suggestions for Plio-Pleistocene hominins. We find that alternative dispersal patterns, for example among gorillas or gibbons, could explain the findings of related or natal males in a confined geographic area. Based on sexual size dimorphism, we speculate that gorillas might currently be the best model for reconstructing dispersal in robust australopiths. Given that the sexual size dimorphism in other australopiths is still hotly debated, the question of which hominoid model best matches their dispersal pattern must remain unanswered. Neandertal dispersal patterns have been compared to patrilocality of modern humans. However, the latter is related to the advent of food production. Consequently, hunter-gatherers exhibiting primarily multilocality appear to be the better comparison for Neandertals. Overall, human-like patrilocality and Pan-like male philopatry appear to be poor models for the reconstruction of dispersal patterns in Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing

    2008-01-01

    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  13. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  14. Pattern designation of PCBs in human samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, M.S.; Fischbein, A.; Rosenman, K.D.; Levin, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    In order to asses the nature of PCB exposures in humans, statistical measures of PCB patterns in blood serum (as Aroclor 1254 or 1260) were made in 348 cases, representing several exposed and non-exposed groups. Although the cases were not representative of any population, most (252/348) had an Arcolor 1260 pattern, with evidence that PCB congeners in blood serum were usually derived from both Aroclor 1254 and 1260. The method is readily applied to routine packed column gc analysis.

  15. Patterns of interhemispheric correlation during human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg-Zylberbaum, J; Ramos, J

    1987-09-01

    Correlation patterns between the electroencephalographic activity of both hemispheres in adult subjects were obtained. The morphology of these patterns for one subject was compared with another subject's patterns during control situations without communication, and during sessions in which direct communication was stimulated. Neither verbalization nor visual or physical contact are necessary for direct communication to occur. The interhemispheric correlation patterns for each subject were observed to become similar during the communication sessions as compared to the control situations. These effects are not due to nonspecific factors such as habituation or fatigue. The results support the syntergic theory proposed by one of the authors (Grinberg-Zylberbaum).

  16. Small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J Paul; Michel, Martin C; Tate, Simon N; Trezise, Derek J

    2004-06-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in human tissues and their cellular localisation in samples of colon and corpus cavernosum. SK1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in neuronal tissues. SK2 mRNA distribution was restricted but more widespread than SK1, and was detected in adrenal gland, brain, prostate, bladder, liver and heart. SK3 mRNA was detected in almost every tissue examined. It was highly expressed in brain and in smooth muscle-rich tissues including the clitoris and the corpus cavernosum, and expression in the corpus cavernosum was upregulated up to 5-fold in patients undergoing sex-change operations. IK1 mRNA was present in surface-rich, secretory and inflammatory cell-rich tissues, highest in the trachea, prostate, placenta and salivary glands. In detailed immunohistochemical studies of the colon and the corpus cavernosum, SK1-like immunoreactivity was observed in the enteric neurons. SK3-like immunoreactivity was observed strongly in smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. IK1-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in inflammatory cells and enteric neurons of the colon, but absent in corpus cavernosum. These distinctive patterns of distribution suggest that these channels are likely to have different biological functions and could be specifically targeted for a number of human diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

  17. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  18. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities...

  19. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.

  20. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  1. Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand edu Castel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind. While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  2. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities. Th....... The recording and analysis of the thermal videos has been made in collaboration with Rikke Gade from the Visual Analytics of People Lab at Aalborg University....

  3. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadaro Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC. The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of swallowing.

  4. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  5. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  6. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in ..... determinants of high blood pressure in a group of urban Nigerians. J. Hum. ... Endurance exercise effects on quality of life and menopausal ...

  7. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Spadaro, Alessandro; Giannoni, Mario

    2008-03-26

    The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion.Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing.The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles), the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles) in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG) and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC) and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC). The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p swallowing was significantly higher in the SNOC subjects. Gender and age were not related to electromyographic activation. Healthy SOC and SNOC behaved in different ways. The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of swallowing.

  8. Inferring human mobility using communication patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Saramäki, Jari; Pan, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of mobility of individuals is crucial for a number of reasons, from city planning to disaster management. There are two common ways of quantifying the amount of travel between locations: by direct observations that often involve privacy issues, e.g., tracking mobile phone locations, or by estimations from models. Typically, such models build on accurate knowledge of the population size at each location. However, when this information is not readily available, their applicability is rather limited. As mobile phones are ubiquitous, our aim is to investigate if mobility patterns can be inferred from aggregated mobile phone call data. Using data released by Orange for Ivory Coast, we show that human mobility is well predicted by a simple model based on the frequency of mobile phone calls between two locations and their geographical distance. We argue that the strength of the model comes from directly incorporating the social dimension of mobility. Furthermore, as only aggregated call da...

  9. 河南沿黄湿地景观格局及其动态%Impacts of human activity and natural change on the wetland landscape pattern along the Yellow River in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国付; 丁圣彦

    2004-01-01

    By using GIS and remote sensing techniques, the paper discusses how human activities have changed along the Yellow River in Henan province, China and how these altered activities have influenced the wetland landscape pattern change from 1987 to 2002. Results show that the total area of the wetland reduces dramatically compared to 1987, the total area of wetland reduces by 19.18%, the number of the patches in 2002 increases by 21.17%, the density increases by 50%, and the total perimeter increases by 1,290,491 m. Disturbed by human activities, landscape diversity index decreases from 1.1740 in 1987 to 0.9803 in 2002. During the last 20 years, the total area of the rice wetland increases, while the others decrease. Among those, the area of the bulrush wetland decreases most. In 1987, it takes 0.5% of the total area, but in 2002, it only takes 0.11%. The interpenetration of human influences on the wetland natural system has been long and close. The impacts of human activities on the spatial pattern of the wetland landscape along the Yellow River in Henan from 1987 to 2002 are great.

  10. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Towards a physiology-based measure of pain: patterns of human brain activity distinguish painful from non-painful thermal stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin E Brown

    Full Text Available Pain often exists in the absence of observable injury; therefore, the gold standard for pain assessment has long been self-report. Because the inability to verbally communicate can prevent effective pain management, research efforts have focused on the development of a tool that accurately assesses pain without depending on self-report. Those previous efforts have not proven successful at substituting self-report with a clinically valid, physiology-based measure of pain. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and support vector machine (SVM learning can be jointly used to accurately assess cognitive states. Therefore, we hypothesized that an SVM trained on fMRI data can assess pain in the absence of self-report. In fMRI experiments, 24 individuals were presented painful and nonpainful thermal stimuli. Using eight individuals, we trained a linear SVM to distinguish these stimuli using whole-brain patterns of activity. We assessed the performance of this trained SVM model by testing it on 16 individuals whose data were not used for training. The whole-brain SVM was 81% accurate at distinguishing painful from non-painful stimuli (p<0.0000001. Using distance from the SVM hyperplane as a confidence measure, accuracy was further increased to 84%, albeit at the expense of excluding 15% of the stimuli that were the most difficult to classify. Overall performance of the SVM was primarily affected by activity in pain-processing regions of the brain including the primary somatosensory cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, primary motor cortex, and cingulate cortex. Region of interest (ROI analyses revealed that whole-brain patterns of activity led to more accurate classification than localized activity from individual brain regions. Our findings demonstrate that fMRI with SVM learning can assess pain without requiring any communication from the person being tested. We outline tasks that should be

  12. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmenta...

  13. Perceptual similarity of visual patterns predicts dynamic neural activation patterns measured with MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Susan G; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Grootswagers, Tijl; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Carlson, Thomas A

    2016-05-15

    Perceptual similarity is a cognitive judgment that represents the end-stage of a complex cascade of hierarchical processing throughout visual cortex. Previous studies have shown a correspondence between the similarity of coarse-scale fMRI activation patterns and the perceived similarity of visual stimuli, suggesting that visual objects that appear similar also share similar underlying patterns of neural activation. Here we explore the temporal relationship between the human brain's time-varying representation of visual patterns and behavioral judgments of perceptual similarity. The visual stimuli were abstract patterns constructed from identical perceptual units (oriented Gabor patches) so that each pattern had a unique global form or perceptual 'Gestalt'. The visual stimuli were decodable from evoked neural activation patterns measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG), however, stimuli differed in the similarity of their neural representation as estimated by differences in decodability. Early after stimulus onset (from 50ms), a model based on retinotopic organization predicted the representational similarity of the visual stimuli. Following the peak correlation between the retinotopic model and neural data at 80ms, the neural representations quickly evolved so that retinotopy no longer provided a sufficient account of the brain's time-varying representation of the stimuli. Overall the strongest predictor of the brain's representation was a model based on human judgments of perceptual similarity, which reached the limits of the maximum correlation with the neural data defined by the 'noise ceiling'. Our results show that large-scale brain activation patterns contain a neural signature for the perceptual Gestalt of composite visual features, and demonstrate a strong correspondence between perception and complex patterns of brain activity.

  14. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  15. Patterns of thermal constraint on ectotherm activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Leal, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Thermal activity constraints play a major role in many aspects of ectotherm ecology, including vulnerability to climate change. Therefore, there is strong interest in developing general models of the temperature dependence of activity. Several models have been put forth (explicitly or implicitly) to describe such constraints; nonetheless, tests of the predictive abilities of these models are lacking. In addition, most models consider activity as a threshold trait instead of considering continuous changes in the vigor of activity among individuals. Using field data for a tropical lizard (Anolis cristatellus) and simulations parameterized by our observations, we determine how well various threshold and continuous-activity models match observed activity patterns. No models accurately predicted activity under all of the thermal conditions that we considered. In addition, simulations showed that the performance of threshold models decreased as temperatures increased, which is a troubling finding given the threat of global climate change. We also find that activity rates are more sensitive to temperature than are the physiological traits often used as a proxy for fitness. We present a model of thermal constraint on activity that integrates aspects of both the threshold model and the continuous-activity model, the general features of which are supported by activity data from other species. Overall, our results demonstrate that greater attention should be given to fine-scale patterns of thermal constraint on activity.

  16. Consolidated Human Activities Database (CHAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) contains data obtained from human activity studies that were collected at city, state, and national levels. CHAD is...

  17. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  18. Activity Patterns of St. Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses in Free Ranging Birds during a Human Encephalitis Outbreak in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglia, Agustín Ignacio; Konigheim, Brenda Salomé; Boris, Analia Silvana; Aguilar, Juan Javier; Komar, Nicholas; Contigiani, Marta Silvia

    2016-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) (Flavivirus) is a reemerging arbovirus in the southern cone of South America. In 2005, an outbreak of SLEV in central Argentina resulted in 47 human cases with 9 deaths. In Argentina, the ecology of SLEV is poorly understood. Because certain birds are the primary amplifiers in North America, we hypothesized that birds amplify SLEV in Argentina as well. We compared avian SLEV seroprevalence in a variety of ecosystems in and around Córdoba city from 2004 (before the epidemic) and 2005 (during the epidemic). We also explored spatial patterns to better understand the local ecology of SLEV transmission. Because West Nile virus (WNV) was also detected in Argentina in 2005, all analyses were also conducted for WNV. A total of 980 birds were sampled for detection of SLEV and WNV neutralizing antibodies. SLEV seroprevalence in birds increased 11-fold from 2004 to 2005. Our study demonstrated that a high proportion (99.3%) of local birds were susceptible to SLEV infection immediately prior to the 2005 outbreak, indicating that the vertebrate host population was primed to amplify SLEV. SLEV was found distributed in a variety of environments throughout the city of Córdoba. However, the force of viral transmission varied among sites. Fine scale differences in populations of vectors and vertebrate hosts would explain this variation. In summary, we showed that in 2005, both SLEV and to a lesser extent WNV circulated in the avian population. Eared Dove, Picui Ground-Dove and Great Kiskadee are strong candidates to amplify SLEV because of their exposure to the pathogen at the population level, and their widespread abundance. For the same reasons, Rufous Hornero may be an important maintenance host for WNV in central Argentina. Competence studies and vector feeding studies are needed to confirm these relationships. PMID:27564679

  19. Distinct Pattern of Human Vδ1 T Cells Recognizing MICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Li; Lianxian Cui; Wei He

    2005-01-01

    γδ T cells represent one unique recognition pattern, the limited recognition, which distinguishes from the specific recognition for αβ T cells and pattern recognition for macrophages. Vδ1 γδ T cell is the major subset of human γδT cells, which predominates in mucosal tissue including the intestinal epithelia. Presently, a few antigens that human Vδ1TCR can recognize have been identified. Among them, MHC class Ⅰ chain-related molecules A (MICA)have been studied most intensively. Besides Vδ1TCR, MICA is also the ligand of NKG2D, a C-type lectin-like activating immunoreceptor. In human, only Vδ1 cells can simultaneously express both types of receptors of MICA while NK cells, αβ T cells and other subsets of γδ T cells likewise express NKG2D. Although the precise mechanisms are still enigmatic, this distinct pattern of Vδ1 cells recognizing MICA predicts unique biological significance of Vδ1 cells in immune defense. Recent years, some progresses have been made in this issue. In this review we summarize the related reports and put forward some novel views based on our group's studies.

  20. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  1. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Xiping; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease...

  2. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke eOztekin; David eBadre

    2011-01-01

    HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Distributed patterns of brain activity that lead to forgetting Ilke Öztekin1* and David Badre2,3 1 Department of Psychology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Department of Cognitive, Linguistic and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA 3 Brown Institute for Brain Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Proactive interference (PI), in which irrelevant information from prior learning disrupts memory performance, is widely...

  4. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  5. Discovering patterns of activity in unstructured incident reports at scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    2015 Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh , PA 15213 Discovering patterns of activity...patterns of activity in incident reports • US-CERT receives incident reports from a diverse constituency. • Each ticket is an observation of...patterns of activity in incident reports Indicators across tickets Indicators occur with diverse patterns across tickets, reporters and time. Time on

  6. Human filarial Wolbachia lipopeptide directly activates human neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarozzi, F; Wright, H L; Johnston, K L; Edwards, S W; Turner, J D; Taylor, M J

    2014-10-01

    The host inflammatory response to the Onchocerca volvulus endosymbiont, Wolbachia, is a major contributing factor in the development of chronic pathology in humans (onchocerciasis/river blindness). Recently, the toll-like pattern recognition receptor motif of the major inflammatory ligands of filarial Wolbachia, membrane-associated diacylated lipoproteins, was functionally defined in murine models of pathology, including mediation of neutrophil recruitment to the cornea. However, the extent to which human neutrophils can be activated in response to this Wolbachia pattern recognition motif is not known. Therefore, the responses of purified peripheral blood human neutrophils to a synthetic N-terminal diacylated lipopeptide (WoLP) of filarial Wolbachia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) were characterized. WoLP exposure led to a dose-dependent activation of healthy, human neutrophils that included gross morphological alterations and modulation of surface expressed integrins involved in tethering, rolling and extravasation. WoLP exposure induced chemotaxis but not chemokinesis of neutrophils, and secretion of the major neutrophil chemokine, interleukin 8. WoLP also induced and primed the respiratory burst, and enhanced neutrophil survival by delay of apoptosis. These results indicate that the major inflammatory motif of filarial Wolbachia lipoproteins directly activates human neutrophils in vitro and promotes a molecular pathway by which human neutrophils are recruited to sites of Onchocerca parasitism.

  7. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  8. Investigation into Seasonal Scavenging Patterns of Raccoons on Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows; Smith, Jake

    2016-03-01

    Although raccoons are known as one of the most common scavengers in the U.S., scavenging by these animals has seldom been studied in terms of forensic significance. In this research, the seasonal pattern of raccoon scavenging and its effect on human decomposition was investigated using 178 human cadavers placed at the Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) between February 2011 and December 2013. The results reveal that (i) the frequency of scavenging increases during summer, (ii) scavenging occurs relatively immediately and lasts shorter in summer months, and (iii) scavenging influences the decomposition process by hollowing limbs and by disturbing insect activities, both of which eventually increases the chance of mummification on the affected body. This information is expected to help forensic investigators identify raccoon scavenging as well as make a more precise interpretation of the effect of raccoon scavenging on bodies at crime scenes. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns.

  10. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  11. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas

    I present a lifetable by gestational age from week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. The lifetable shows the pre-natal, peri-natal and post-natal mortality levels for US fetus/infants conceived in the year 2009. The observed age pattern of the force of mortality...

  12. Human mobility patterns at the smallest scales

    CERN Document Server

    Lind, Pedro G

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on human mobility at small spatial scales. Differently from large scale mobility, recently studied through dollar-bill tracking and mobile phone data sets within one big country or continent, we report Brownian features of human mobility at smaller scales. In particular, the scaling exponents found at the smallest scales is typically close to one-half, differently from the larger values for the exponent characterizing mobility at larger scales. We carefully analyze $12$-month data of the Eduroam database within the Portuguese university of Minho. A full procedure is introduced with the aim of properly characterizing the human mobility within the network of access points composing the wireless system of the university. In particular, measures of flux are introduced for estimating a distance between access points. This distance is typically non-euclidean, since the spatial constraints at such small scales distort the continuum space on which human mobility occurs. Since two different exponent...

  13. Influence of vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation and serum deprivation on gene activation patterns of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratwal, Josefine; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Juhl, Morten; Brorsen, Sonja Kim; Kastrup, Jens; Ekblond, Annette

    2015-04-13

    Stimulation of mesenchymal stromal cells and adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been used in multiple animal studies and clinical trials for regenerative purposes. VEGF stimulation is believed to promote angiogenesis and VEGF stimulation is usually performed under serum deprivation. Potential regenerative molecular mechanisms are numerous and the role of contributing factors is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of in vitro serum deprivation and VEGF stimulation on gene expression patterns of ASCs. Gene expressions of ASCs cultured in complete medium, ASCs cultured in serum-deprived medium and ASCs stimulated with VEGF in serum-deprived medium were compared. ASC characteristics according to criteria set by the International Society of Cellular Therapy were confirmed by flow cytometry. Microarray gene expressions were obtained using the Affymetrix HT HG-U133+ GeneChip®. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology terms. Transcription of selected genes of interest was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Compared to ASCs in complete medium, 190 and 108 genes were significantly altered by serum deprivation and serum deprivation combined with VEGF, respectively. No significant differences in gene expression patterns between serum-deprived ASCs and serum-deprived ASCs combined with VEGF stimulation were found. Genes most prominently and significantly upregulated by both conditions were growth factors (IGF1, BMP6, PDGFD, FGF9), adhesion molecule CLSTN2, extracellular matrix-related proteins such as matricellular proteins SMOC2, SPON1 and ADAMTS12, and inhibitors of proliferation (JAG1). The most significantly downregulated genes included matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP1), and proliferation markers (CDKN3) and GREM2 (a BMP6 antagonist). The decisive factor for the observed change in ASC gene expression proves to

  14. The gestational age pattern of human mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2......) transitional timing: the transition of birth is a stressful event and momentarily increases the force of mortality, 3) mortality selection: The frailest die first, resulting in the mean force of mortality to decline with age. In order to quantify the relative importance of these three processes I fit a three...

  15. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2......) transitional timing: the transition of birth is a stressful event and momentarily increases the force of mortality, 3) mortality selection: The frailest die first, resulting in the mean force of mortality to decline with age. In order to quantify the relative importance of these three processes I fit a three...

  16. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Meng Qin

    Full Text Available Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set (see also [1], [2]. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the contribution of a number of patterns. The main issue that we then address is how predictable individuals are in their mobility. The patterns and entropy are reflected in the predictability of the mobility of the life both individually and on average. We explore the simple approaches to guess the location from the typical behavior, and of exploiting the transition probabilities with time from location or activity A to B. The patterns allow an enhanced predictability, at least up to a few hours into the future from the current location. Such fixed habits are most clearly visible in the working-day length.

  17. Exploring Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Urban Human Mobility Hotspots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding human mobility patterns provides us with knowledge about human mobility in an urban context, which plays a critical role in urban planning, traffic management and the spread of disease. Recently, the availability of large-scale human-sensing datasets enables us to analyze human mobility patterns and the relationships between humans and their living environments on an unprecedented spatial and temporal scale to improve decision-making regarding the quality of life of citizens. This study aims to characterize the urban spatial-temporal dynamic from the perspective of human mobility hotspots by using mobile phone location data. We propose a workflow to identify human convergent and dispersive hotspots that represent the status of human mobility in local areas and group these hotspots into different classes according to clustering their temporal signatures. To illustrate our proposed approach, a case study of Shenzhen, China, has been conducted. Six typical spatial-temporal patterns in the city are identified and discussed by combining the spatial distribution of these identified patterns with urban functional areas. The findings enable us to understand the human dynamics in a different area of the city, which can serve as a reference for urban planning and traffic management.

  18. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: a demographic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (WP as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  19. Circadian patterns of Wikipedia editorial activity: A demographic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Kerétsz, János

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e. editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors.

  20. Human neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, E L; Lehrer, R I; Rest, R F

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) take up opsonized microorganisms into phagosomes that fuse with secretory granules in the PMN cytoplasm to form phagolysosomes. Killing and digestion of microorganisms take place within phagolysosomes. Antimicrobial activities in phagolysosomes are divided into two classes. Oxygen (O2)-dependent mechanisms are expressed when PMNs undergo the "respiratory burst." An NADPH oxidase in the phagolysosome membrane is activated and reduces O2 to superoxide (O2-). O2 reduction is the first step in a series of reactions that produce toxic oxidants. For example, .O2- dismutases to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the azurophil granule enzyme myeloperoxidase catalyzes the oxidation of Cl- by H2O2 to yield hypochlorous acid (HOCl). The reaction of HOCl with ammonia and amines modulates the toxicity of this oxidant. O2-independent antimicrobial mechanisms include the activities of lysosomal proteases, other hydrolytic enzymes, and proteins and peptides that bind to microorganisms and disrupt essential processes or structural components. For example, the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, cathepsin G, and the defensins are released into phagolysosomes from the azurophil granules. Proposed mechanisms of action of neutrophil antimicrobial agents, their range of microbial targets, and their possible interactions within phagolysosomes are discussed.

  1. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  2. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  3. Habitat Selection and Activity Pattern of GPS Collared Sumateran Tigers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Priatna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although translocation has been used in mitigating human-carnivore conflict for decades, few studies have been conducted on the behavioral ecology of released animals. Such information is necessary in the context of sustainable forest management. In this study we determine the type of land cover used as main habitat and examine the activity pattern of translocated tigers. Between 2008 and 2010 we captured six conflict tigers and translocated them 74-1,350 km from their capture sites in Sumatera. All tigers were fitted with global positioning system (GPS collars. The collars were set to fix 24-48 location coordinates per day.  All translocated tigers showed a preference for a certain habitat type within their new home range, and tended to select the majority of natural land cover type within the landscape as their main habitat, but the availability of natural forest habitat within the landscape remains essensial for their survival. The activity of male translocated tigers differed significantly between the six time intervals of 24 hours, and their most active periods were in the afternoon (14:00-18:00 hours and in the evening (18:00-22:00 hours. Despite being preliminary, the findings of this study-which was the first such study conducted in Sumatera-highlight the conservation value of tiger translocation and provide valuable information for improving future management of conflict tigers.Keywords: activity pattern, GPS collars, habitat selection, sumateran tiger, translocation

  4. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, Jessica S; van Assema, Patricia; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early childhood. The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined such behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance of examining energy balance-related behavioral patterns in children, outlines methods to examine these patterns, and provides examples of patterns that have been found (e.g., the universal sedentar...

  5. Retrieving binary answers using whole-brain activity pattern classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Eiji Nawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA has been successfully employed to advance our understanding of where and how information regarding different mental states is represented in the human brain, bringing new insights into how these states come to fruition, and providing a promising complement to the mass-univariate approach. Here, we employed MVPA to classify whole-brain activity patterns occurring in single fMRI scans, in order to retrieve binary answers from experiment participants. Five healthy volunteers performed two types of mental task while in the MRI scanner: counting down numbers and recalling positive autobiographical events. Data from these runs were used to train individual machine learning based classifiers that predicted which mental task was being performed based on the voxel-based brain activity patterns. On a different day, the same volunteers reentered the scanner and listened to six statements (e.g., the month you were born is an odd number, and were told to countdown numbers if the statement was true (yes or recall positive events otherwise (no. The previously trained classifiers were then used to assign labels (yes/no to the scans collected during the 24-second response periods following each one of the statements. Mean classification accuracies at the single scan level were in the range of 73.6% to 80.8%, significantly above chance for all participants. When applying a majority vote on the scans within each response period, i.e., the most frequent label (yes/no in the response period becomes the answer to the previous statement, 5.0 to 5.8 sentences, out of 6, were correctly classified in each one of the runs, on average. These results indicate that binary answers can be retrieved from whole-brain activity patterns, suggesting that MVPA provides an alternative way to establish basic communication with unresponsive patients when other techniques are not successful.

  6. Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human large bowel: association of the functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Ping; Jao, Shu-Wen; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chen, Pei-Chi; Chung, Chia-Chi; Lee, Shou-Lun; Nieh, Shin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Functional polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes occur among racial populations. The goal of this study was to systematically determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADHs and ALDHs in human rectal mucosa, the lesions of adenocarcinoma and hemorrhoid, and the genetic association of allelic variations of ADH and ALDH with large bowel disorders. Twenty-one surgical specimens of rectal adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal mucosa, including 16 paired tissues of rectal tumor, normal mucosae of rectum and sigmoid colon from the same individuals, and 18 surgical mixed hemorrhoid specimens and leukocyte DNA samples from 103 colorectal cancer patients, 67 hemorrhoid patients, and 545 control subjects recruited in previous study, were investigated. The isozyme/allozyme expression patterns of ADH and ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting using the corresponding purified class-specific antibodies; the cellular activity and protein localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry, respectively. Genotypes of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. At 33mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activity of ADH1C*1/1 phenotypes exhibited 87% higher than that of the ADH1C*1/*2 phenotypes in normal rectal mucosa. The activity of ALDH2-active phenotypes of rectal mucosa was 33% greater than ALDH2-inactive phenotypes at 200μM acetaldehyde. The protein contents in normal rectal mucosa were in the following order: ADH1>ALDH2>ADH3≈ALDH1A1, whereas those of ADH2, ADH4, and ALDH3A1 were fairly low. Both activity and content of ADH1 were significantly decreased in rectal tumors, whereas the ALDH activity remained

  7. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  8. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  9. Dynamic Labyrinthine Pattern in an Active Liquid Film

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Jun; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    We report the generation of a dynamic labyrinthine pattern in an active alcohol film. A dynamic labyrinthine pattern is formed along the contact line of air/pentanol/aqueous three phases. The contact line shows a clear time-dependent change with regard to both perimeter and area of a domain. An autocorrelation analysis of time-development of the dynamics of the perimeter and area revealed a strong geometric correlation between neighboring patterns. The pattern showed autoregressive behavior. The behavior of the dynamic pattern is strikingly different from those of stationary labyrinthine patterns. The essential aspects of the observed dynamic pattern are reproduced by a diffusion-controlled geometric model.

  10. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene; 10.1073/pnas.1220433110

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes, e.g., texting, cellphone conversation, and online instant messaging, but they also provide detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study the inter-call durations of the 100,000 most-active cellphone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the inter-call durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3460 individuals (3.46%). The inter-call durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cellphone users with a power-law...

  11. Tests of pattern separation and pattern completion in humans-A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathy Y; Gould, Rebecca L; Coulson, Mark C; Ward, Emma V; Howard, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the characteristics, validity and outcome measures of tasks that have been described in the literature as assessing pattern separation and pattern completion in humans. Electronic databases were searched for articles. Parameters for task validity were obtained from two reviews that described optimal task design factors to evaluate pattern separation and pattern completion processes. These were that pattern separation should be tested during an encoding task using abstract, never-before-seen visual stimuli, and pattern completion during a retrieval task using partial cues; parametric alteration of the degree of interference of stimuli or degradation of cues should be used to generate a corresponding gradient in behavioral output; studies should explicitly identify the specific memory domain under investigation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, spatial, affect, response, or language) and account for the contribution of other potential attributes involved in performance of the task. A systematic, qualitative assessment of validity in relation to these parameters was performed, along with a review of general validity and task outcome measures. Sixty-two studies were included. The majority of studies investigated pattern separation and most tasks were performed on young, healthy adults. Pattern separation and pattern completion were most frequently tested during a retrieval task using familiar or recognizable visual stimuli and cues. Not all studies parametrically altered the degree of stimulus interference or cue degradation, or controlled for potential confounding factors. This review found evidence that some of the parameters for task validity have been followed in some human studies of pattern separation and pattern completion, but no study was judged to have adequately met all the parameters for task validity. The contribution of these parameters and other task design factors towards an optimal behavioral paradigm is discussed and

  12. Amylase activity in human bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L A; Joffe, S N; McIntosh, W; Brodie, M J

    1979-03-01

    The mean amylase level in 42 human bile samples was 154 IU/l and there was no significant difference in the amylase activity of 32 paired serum and bile samples. Estimation of the amylase thermolability of bile showed it to be similar to that of serum. This suggests that the amylase activity in bile may have filtered through the liver from the hepatic circulation rather than refluxed from the pancreatic duct. The presence of amylase in human bile provides further evidence that the liver might have a role in the regulation of serum amylase.

  13. Dynamic landscapes and human dispersal patterns: tectonics, coastlines, and the reconstruction of human habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Geoffrey N.; King, Geoffrey C. P.

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the impact of physical environment on human evolution usually focus on climate as the main external forcing agent of evolutionary and cultural change. In this paper we focus on changes in the physical character of the landscape driven by geophysical processes as an equally potent factor. Most of the landscapes where finds of early human fossils and artefacts are concentrated are ones that have been subjected to high levels of geological instability, either because of especially active tectonic processes associated with faulting and volcanic activity or because of proximity to coastlines subject to dramatic changes of geographical position and physical character by changes of relative sea level. These processes can have both beneficial effects, creating ecologically attractive conditions for human settlement, and deleterious or disruptive ones, creating barriers to movement, disruption of ecological conditions, or hazards to survival. Both positive and negative factors can have powerful selective effects on human behaviour and patterns of settlement and dispersal. We consider both these aspects of the interaction, develop a framework for the reconstruction and comparison of landscapes and landscape change at a variety of scales, and illustrate this with selected examples drawn from Africa and Arabia.

  14. INPO Assistance Activities: Human Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelock, J.T.

    1999-11-14

    The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has a number of ongoing activities designed to provide assistance to our members in the human resources area. These include the Educational Assistance Program and the ongoing facilitation of information exchange through Nuclear Network and INPO publications. INPO will continue to seek ways to assist its member utilities.

  15. Markov chain for estimating human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantika, Sandy; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.

    2015-12-01

    The Markov chain was proposed to estimate the human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern. One DNA sequence was taken randomly from 100 sequences in Genbank. The nucleotide transition matrix and mutation transition matrix were estimated from this sequence. We determined whether the states (mutation/normal) are recurrent or transient. The results showed that both of them are recurrent.

  16. Measuring Human Movement Patterns and Behaviors in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    In order to assess human movement patterns and behaviors in public spaces we present a method using thermal cameras and Computer Vision (CV) technology, combined with the analytical virtues of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to track people in urban streets and plazas. The method enables...

  17. Visualization of Mined Pattern and Its Human Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Ratnesh Kumar; Kasana, Dr R S

    2009-01-01

    Researchers got success in mining the Web usage data effectively and efficiently. But representation of the mined patterns is often not in a form suitable for direct human consumption. Hence mechanisms and tools that can represent mined patterns in easily understandable format are utilized. Different techniques are used for pattern analysis, one of them is visualization. Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. In the data visualization process, technical representations of web pages are replaced by user attractive text interpretations. Experiments with the real world problems showed that the visualization can significantly increase the quality and usefulness of web log mining results. However, how decision makers perceive and interact with a visual representation can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the usefulness of the visual presentation. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should p...

  18. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...

  19. Similar Fracture Patterns in Human Nose and Gothic Cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu Jin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes that the bony anatomy of the human nose and masonry structure of the Gothic cathedral are geometrically similar, and have common fracture patterns. We also aim to correlate the fracture patterns observed in patients' midface structures with those seen in the Gothic cathedral using computational approach. CT scans of 33 patients with facial fractures were examined and compared with computer simulations of both the Gothic cathedral and human nose. Three similar patterns were found: (1) Cracks of the nasal arch with crumpling of the vertical buttresses akin to the damage seen during minor earthquakes; (2) lateral deviation of the central nasal arch and collapse of the vertical buttresses akin to those due to lateral forces from wind and in major earthquakes; and (3) Central arch collapse seen as a result of collapse under excessive dead weight. Interestingly, the finding of occult nasal and septal fractures in the mandible fractures with absence of direct nasal trauma highlights the possibility of transmission of forces from the foundation to the arch leading to structural failure. It was also found that the structural buttresses of the Gothic cathedral delineate the vertical buttresses in the human midface structure. These morphologic similarities between the human nose and Gothic cathedral will serve as a basis to study the biomechanics of nasal fractures. Identification of structural buttresses in a skeletal structure has important implications for reconstruction as reestablishment of structural continuity restores normal anatomy and architectural stability of the human midface structure.

  20. Identifying coevolutionary patterns in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Fares, Mario A

    2010-05-01

    The antigenic peptide, major histocompatibility complex molecule (MHC; also called human leukocyte antigen, HLA), coreceptor CD8, or CD4 and T-cell receptor (TCR) function as a complex to initiate effectors' mechanisms of the immune system. The tight functional and physical interaction among these molecules may have involved strong coevolution links among domains within and between proteins. Despite the importance of unraveling such dependencies to understand the arms race of host-pathogen interaction, no previous studies have aimed at achieving such an objective. Here, we perform an exhaustive coevolution analysis and show that indeed such dependencies are strongly shaping the evolution and probably the function of these molecules. We identify intramolecular coevolution in HLA class I and II at domains important for their immune activity. Most of the amino acid sites identified to be coevolving in HLAI have been also detected to undergo positive Darwinian selection highlighting therefore their adaptive value. We also identify coevolution among antigen-binding pockets (P1-P9) and among these and TCR-binding sites. Conversely to HLAI, coevolution is weaker in HLAII. Our results support that such coevolutionary patterns are due to selective pressures of host-pathogen coevolution and cooperative binding of TCRs, antigenic peptides, and CD8/CD4 to HLAI and HLAII.

  1. Spontaneously Emerging Patterns in Human Visual Cortex Reflect Responses to Naturalistic Sensory Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Meytal; Strappini, Francesca; Golan, Tal; Hahamy, Avital; Harel, Michal; Malach, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of stimulus or task, the cortex spontaneously generates rich and consistent functional connectivity patterns (termed resting state networks) which are evident even within individual cortical areas. We and others have previously hypothesized that habitual cortical network activations during daily life contribute to the shaping of these connectivity patterns. Here we tested this hypothesis by comparing, using blood oxygen level-dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging, the connectivity patterns that spontaneously emerge during rest in retinotopic visual areas to the patterns generated by naturalistic visual stimuli (repeated movie segments). These were then compared with connectivity patterns produced by more standard retinotopic mapping stimuli (polar and eccentricity mapping). Our results reveal that the movie-driven patterns were significantly more similar to the spontaneously emerging patterns, compared with the connectivity patterns of either eccentricity or polar mapping stimuli. Intentional visual imagery of naturalistic stimuli was unlikely to underlie these results, since they were duplicated when participants were engaged in an auditory task. Our results suggest that the connectivity patterns that appear during rest better reflect naturalistic activations rather than controlled, artificially designed stimuli. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that the spontaneous connectivity patterns in human retinotopic areas reflect the statistics of cortical coactivations during natural vision. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Participants include 1994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994-2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity patterns and metabolic syndrome in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Gong, Jian; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether total physical activity or activity patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Methods Participants include 1,994 controls from a case-control study of non-fatal myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (1994–2004). Physical activity was assessed via self-administered questionnaire and patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was assessed via blood samples and anthropometry measurements from in-home study visits. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using log binomial regression. Adjusted least squares means of metabolic syndrome components were calculated by quintile of total activity and pattern scores. Results Four activity patterns were identified: rest/sleep, agricultural, light indoor activity, and manual labor. Total activity was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 20% lower in participants with the highest scores on the agricultural job pattern compared to those with the lowest (PR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68–0.94). Higher total activity was associated with lower triglycerides and lower HDL cholesterol. Higher scores on each pattern were inversely associated with metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Patterns or types of physical activity may be more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and its components than total activity levels. PMID:25445330

  4. Expression and alternative splicing pattern of human telomerase reverse transcriptase in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Kamma, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenwen; Hamasaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Setsuko; Horiguchi, Hisashi; Matsui-Horiguchi, Miwa; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2004-04-01

    Telomerase activity is generally considered to be necessary for cancer cells to avoid senescence. The expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is believed to be a rate-limiting step in telomerase activation. Recently, it has been proposed that the alternative splicing of hTERT is also involved in regulation of telomerase activity. However, the regulatory mechanism of telomerase in cancer cells has not been thoroughly investigated. To clarify it in lung cancer cells, we measured the expression of the hTERT transcript, analyzed its alternative splicing by RT-PCR, and compared it with telomerase activity and telomere length. The expression of the hTERT transcript was positively correlated with telomerase activity in lung cancer cells. Cancer cells with high telomerase activity contained 4 splicing variants of hTERT, and the full-length variant was 31.3-54.2% of the total transcripts. Cells of the TKB-20 cell line, which has extremely low telomerase activity, showed a different splicing pattern of hTERT in addition to low expression. The functional full-length variant was scarcely detected in TKB-20 cells, suggesting that the telomerase activity was repressed by alternative splicing of hTERT. Telomere length was not necessarily correlated with telomerase activity or hTERT expression in lung cancer cells. Cells of the TKB-4 cell line that also showed relatively low telomerase activity (as TKB-20 cells) had long telomeres. In conclusion, hTERT expression is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in lung cancer cells, and the alternative splicing of hTERT is involved in the control of telomerase activity.

  5. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  6. Correlates of US adult physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sydney A; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Evenson, Kelly R

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns may be differentially associated with socio-demographic and health measures. We explored correlates of day-to-day patterns over a week in accelerometer measured physical activity and sedentary behavior to inform intervention development. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adult participants (≥20 years) in 2003-2006 wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Accelerometer data from 7236 participants were used to derive latent classes describing day-to-day patterns over a week of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Correlates of each pattern were identified using multinomial logistic regression from 21 potential variables grouped into four domains: socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history. Older age, female sex, higher body mass index, and history of chronic disease were consistently associated with lower odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. In contrast, being employed, speaking Spanish at home, and having better self-rated health were associated with higher odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were identified from all domains (socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history). Most correlates that were positively associated with physical activity were negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns can inform interventions to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120 observations......An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  8. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  9. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  10. Bo Painting with Human, Dragon and Phoenix Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    During the period between the Warring States and Qin (221-207 B.C.), Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220) dynasties in China, silk was called bo, so paintings on silk were called bohua and words on silk boshu. The bohua with a human, dragon and phoenix pattern excavated in 1949 in Changsha, Hunan Province, dates back to the Warring States. It is the earliest painting

  11. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  12. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  13. Muscle activation patterns in posttraumatic neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes

    2003-01-01

    As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in mus

  14. 3D face database for human pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, LiMei; Lu, Lu

    2008-10-01

    Face recognition is an essential work to ensure human safety. It is also an important task in biomedical engineering. 2D image is not enough for precision face recognition. 3D face data includes more exact information, such as the precision size of eyes, mouth, etc. 3D face database is an important part in human pattern recognition. There is a lot of method to get 3D data, such as 3D laser scan system, 3D phase measurement, shape from shading, shape from motion, etc. This paper will introduce a non-orbit, non-contact, non-laser 3D measurement system. The main idea is from shape from stereo technique. Two cameras are used in different angle. A sequence of light will project on the face. Human face, human head, human tooth, human body can all be measured by the system. The visualization data of each person can form to a large 3D face database, which can be used in human recognition. The 3D data can provide a vivid copy of a face, so the recognition exactness can be reached to 100%. Although the 3D data is larger than 2D image, it can be used in the occasion where only few people include, such as the recognition of a family, a small company, etc.

  15. The physical activity patterns of children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Dale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although motor deficits are gaining attention in autism research much less attention has been paid to the physical activity patterns in this group of children. The participants in this study were a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 72 between the ages of 9-18 years. This cross-sectional study explored the physical activity patterns of seventy-two children with autism spectrum disorder as they aged. Findings Results indicated significant differences between the mean time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and the mean time spent in sedentary activity. Older children with autism spectrum disorder are significantly more physically inactive, compared to younger children. Conclusions Physical activity programs and interventions need to address this deficit, in physical activity. Children with autism have a similar trend in physical activity patterns compared to their peers without autism; associated benefits and future research will be discussed.

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Dietary Patterns among Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; van Assema, P.; Kremers, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance-related behavioral patterns find their origin in early The current paper provides an overview of studies that have examined behavioral patterns, i.e., the clustering of dietary behaviors, physical activity, and/or sedentary behavior. The paper discusses the importance examining energy

  17. Similar patterns of cortical expansion during human development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Inder, Terrie; Neil, Jeffrey; Dierker, Donna; Harwell, John; Van Essen, David

    2010-07-20

    The cerebral cortex of the human infant at term is complexly folded in a similar fashion to adult cortex but has only one third the total surface area. By comparing 12 healthy infants born at term with 12 healthy young adults, we demonstrate that postnatal cortical expansion is strikingly nonuniform: regions of lateral temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex expand nearly twice as much as other regions in the insular and medial occipital cortex. This differential postnatal expansion may reflect regional differences in the maturity of dendritic and synaptic architecture at birth and/or in the complexity of dendritic and synaptic architecture in adults. This expression may also be associated with differential sensitivity of cortical circuits to childhood experience and insults. By comparing human and macaque monkey cerebral cortex, we infer that the pattern of human evolutionary expansion is remarkably similar to the pattern of human postnatal expansion. To account for this correspondence, we hypothesize that it is beneficial for regions of recent evolutionary expansion to remain less mature at birth, perhaps to increase the influence of postnatal experience on the development of these regions or to focus prenatal resources on regions most important for early survival.

  18. Objectively measured activity patterns among adults in residential aged care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, Natasha; Eakin, Elizabeth; Henwood, Timothy; Keogh, Justin W L; Senior, Hugh E; Gardiner, Paul A; Winkler, Elisabeth; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    .... Ambulatory, older (≥60 years) residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns...

  19. Human epididymis: structural pattern, total length and inner surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandhan, Kalanghot P; Soni, Ashutosh; Joshi, Anantkumar; Avni, Kalanghot P S; Gupta, Bansi Dhar

    2017-05-24

    The organ epididymis is secured the name considering it functioned as an appendix to the testis; earlier testis was called as didymi. Regarding the length of human epididymis, several values are attributed by different authors. The present study was aimed to find out the pattern, total length and inner surface area of human epididymis. The study was conducted by employing microsurgical procedures on five testes from unclaimed human dead bodies. Caput was formed by few tubes interconnecting at three levels. These tubes led to corpus, which in turn was having more number of tubes interconnecting at different levels. Tubules were many looking like a mesh. United tubes of corpus form the single tube to form cauda. Epididymis length was 30.48 cm. Inner surface area was 818.16 mm2. Reported values of others seem to be a modified version from that of animals. Authors believe that organic revolutionary changes in man led to a reduction in the length of epididymis.

  20. Modelling human mobility patterns using photographic data shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Daniele; Preis, Tobias; Bishop, Steven; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-08-01

    Humans are inherently mobile creatures. The way we move around our environment has consequences for a wide range of problems, including the design of efficient transportation systems and the planning of urban areas. Here, we gather data about the position in space and time of about 16 000 individuals who uploaded geo-tagged images from locations within the UK to the Flickr photo-sharing website. Inspired by the theory of Lévy flights, which has previously been used to describe the statistical properties of human mobility, we design a machine learning algorithm to infer the probability of finding people in geographical locations and the probability of movement between pairs of locations. Our findings are in general agreement with official figures in the UK and on travel flows between pairs of major cities, suggesting that online data sources may be used to quantify and model large-scale human mobility patterns.

  1. Patterning human neuronal networks on photolithographically engineered silicon dioxide substrates functionalized with glial analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark A; Brennan, Paul M; Bunting, Andrew S; Cameron, Katherine; Murray, Alan F; Shipston, Mike J

    2014-05-01

    Interfacing neurons with silicon semiconductors is a challenge being tackled through various bioengineering approaches. Such constructs inform our understanding of neuronal coding and learning and ultimately guide us toward creating intelligent neuroprostheses. A fundamental prerequisite is to dictate the spatial organization of neuronal cells. We sought to pattern neurons using photolithographically defined arrays of polymer parylene-C, activated with fetal calf serum. We used a purified human neuronal cell line [Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES)] to establish whether neurons remain viable when isolated on-chip or whether they require a supporting cell substrate. When cultured in isolation, LUHMES neurons failed to pattern and did not show any morphological signs of differentiation. We therefore sought a cell type with which to prepattern parylene regions, hypothesizing that this cellular template would enable secondary neuronal adhesion and network formation. From a range of cell lines tested, human embryonal kidney (HEK) 293 cells patterned with highest accuracy. LUHMES neurons adhered to pre-established HEK 293 cell clusters and this coculture environment promoted morphological differentiation of neurons. Neurites extended between islands of adherent cell somata, creating an orthogonally arranged neuronal network. HEK 293 cells appear to fulfill a role analogous to glia, dictating cell adhesion, and generating an environment conducive to neuronal survival. We next replaced HEK 293 cells with slower growing glioma-derived precursors. These primary human cells patterned accurately on parylene and provided a similarly effective scaffold for neuronal adhesion. These findings advance the use of this microfabrication-compatible platform for neuronal patterning.

  2. Electrical activity patterns and the functional maturation of the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-11-01

    At the earliest developmental stages, sensory neocortical areas in various species reveal distinct patterns of spontaneous neuronal network activity. These activity patterns either propagate over large neocortical areas or synchronize local neuronal ensembles. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that these spontaneous activity patterns are generated from neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex, in subcortical structures or in the sensory periphery (retina, cochlea, whiskers). At early stages spontaneous periphery-driven and also sensory evoked activity is relayed to the developing cerebral cortex via the thalamus and the neocortical subplate, which amplifies the afferent sensory input. These early local and large-scale neuronal activity patterns influence a variety of developmental processes during corticogenesis, such as neurogenesis, apoptosis, neuronal migration, differentiation and network formation. The experimental data also indicate that disturbances in early neuronal patterns may have an impact on the development of cortical layers, columns and networks. In this article we review our current knowledge on the origin of early electrical activity patterns in neocortical sensory areas and their functional implications on shaping developing cortical networks.

  3. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  4. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our......Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... live in such an environment. Recognizing activities of not only a single user, but also multiple users is essential to the development of practical context-aware applications in pervasive computing. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental problem of recognizing activities for multiple users from...

  5. Expressional patterns of chaperones in ten human tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavc Irene

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chaperones (CH play an important role in tumor biology but no systematic work on expressional patterns has been reported so far. The aim of the study was therefore to present an analytical method for the concomitant determination of several CH in human tumor cell lines, to generate expressional patterns in the individual cell lines and to search for tumor and non-tumor cell line specific CH expression. Human tumor cell lines of neuroblastoma, colorectal and adenocarcinoma of the ovary, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma, lung, cervical and breast cancer, promyelocytic leukaemia were homogenised, proteins were separated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel digestion of proteins and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was carried out for the identification of CH. Results A series of CH was identified including the main CH groups as HSP90/HATPas_C, HSP70, Cpn60_TCP1, DnaJ, Thioredoxin, TPR, Pro_isomerase, HSP20, ERP29_C, KE2, Prefoldin, DUF704, BAG, GrpE and DcpS. Conclusions The ten individual tumor cell lines showed different expression patterns, which are important for the design of CH studies in tumor cell lines. The results can serve as a reference map and form the basis of a concomitant determination of CH by a protein chemical rather than an immunochemical method, independent of antibody availability or specificity.

  6. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  7. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saike He

    Full Text Available Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  8. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain......Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity...... do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms...

  9. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  10. Pattern of human chorionic gonadotropin binding in the polycystic ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brawer, J.; Richard, M.; Farookhi, R. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    The histologic evolution of polycystic ovaries in the estradiol valerate-treated rat coincides with the development of a unique plasma pattern of luteinizing hormone. To assess the role of luteinizing hormone in polycystic ovaries, it is necessary to evaluate the luteinizing hormone sensitivity of the specific tissues in the polycystic ovary. Therefore, we examined the pattern of luteinizing hormone binding sites in polycystic ovaries. Rats at 4 or 8 weeks after estradiol valerate treatment each received an intrajugular injection of iodine 125-labeled human chorionic gonadotropin. Some rats also received a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled human chorionic gonadotropin in the same injection. Ovaries were prepared for autoradiography. Dense accumulations of grains occurred over the theca of normal and atretic secondary follicles in all ovaries and over clusters of secondary interstitial cells. The iodine label was variable over the typically hypertrophied theca of precystic follicles. The theca of definitive cysts showed little or no label. These results indicate that cyst formation coincides with the loss of luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin binding to the affected follicles.

  11. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA...... expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  12. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA...... expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  13. Human Dynamics: The Correspondence Patterns of Darwin and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J G

    2005-01-01

    While living in different historical era, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were both prolific correspondents: Darwin sent (received) at least 7,591 (6,530) letters during his lifetime while Einstein sent (received) over 14,500 (16,200). Before email scientists were part of an extensive university of letters, the main venue for exchanging new ideas and results. But were the communication patterns of the pre-email times any different from the current era of instant access? Here we show that while the means have changed, the communication dynamics has not: Darwin's and Einstein's pattern of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. Their communication belongs, however, to a different universality class from email communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena capturing human dynamics.

  14. The relationship between landscape patterns and human-caused fire occurrence in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castafreda-Aumedes, S.; Garcia-Martin, A.; Vega-Garcia, C.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study: Human settlements and activities have completely modified landscape structure in the Mediterranean region. Vegetation patterns show the interactions between human activities and natural processes on the territory, and allow understanding historical ecological processes and socioeconomic factors. The arrangement of land uses in the rural landscape can be perceived as a proxy for human activities that often lead to the use, and escape, of fire, the most important disturbance in our forest landscapes. In this context, we tried to predict human-caused fire occurrence in a 5-year period by quantifying landscape patterns. Area of study: This study analyses the Spanish territory included in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands (497,166 km{sup 2}). Material and Methods: We evaluated spatial pattern applying a set of commonly used landscape ecology metrics to landscape windows of 10x10 sq km (4751 units in the UTM grid) overlaid on the Forest Map of Spain, MFE200. Main results: The best logistic regression model obtained included Shannon's Diversity Index, Mean Patch Edge and Mean Shape Index as explicative variables and the global percentage of correct predictions was 66.3 %. Research highlights: Our results suggested that the highest probability of fire occurrence at that time was associated with areas with a greater diversity of land uses and with more compact patches with fewer edges. (Author) 58 refs.

  15. Telomerase activity in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, J.

    2000-10-01

    The overall goal of this collaborative project was to investigate the role in malignant cells of both chromosome telomeres, and telomerase, the enzyme that replicates telomeres. Telomeres are highly conserved nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of eucaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length in somatic cells is reduced by 40--50 nucleotide pairs with every cell division due to incomplete replication of terminal DNA sequences and the absence of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein that adds telomere DNA to chromosome ends. Although telomerase is active in cells with extended proliferative capacities, including more than 85% of tumors, work performed under this contract demonstrated that the telomeres of human cancer cells are shorter than those of paired normal cells, and that the length of the telomeres is characteristic of particular types of cancers. The extent of telomere shortening ostensibly is related to the number of cell divisions the tumor has undergone. It is believed that ongoing cell proliferation leads to the accumulation and fixation of new mutations in tumor cell lineages.Therefore, it is not unreasonable to assume that the degree of phenotypic variability is related to the proliferative history of the tumor, and therefore to telomere length, implying a correlation with prognosis. In some human tumors, short telomeres are also correlated with genomic instabilities, including interstitial chromosome translocation, loss of heterozygosity, and aneuoploidy. Moreover, unprotected chromosome ends are highly recombinogenic and telomere shortening in cultured human cells correlates with the formation of dicentric chromosomes, suggesting that critically short telomeres not only identify, but also predispose, cells to genomic instability, again implying a correlation with prognosis. Therefore, telomere length or content could be an important predictor of metastatic potential or responsiveness to various therapeutic modalities.

  16. A periodic pattern of SNPs in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo Eskerod; Villesen, Palle; Wiuf, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    or alignment errors, for example, transposable elements (SINE, LINE, and LTR), tandem repeats, and large duplicated regions. However, we found that the pattern is almost entirely confined to what we define as "periodic DNA." Periodic DNA is a genomic region with a high degree of periodicity in nucleotide usage...... periodic DNA. Our results suggest that not all SNPs in the human genome are created by independent single nucleotide mutations, and that care should be taken in analysis of SNPs from periodic DNA. The latter may have important consequences for SNP and association studies....

  17. Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, William R; Brown, James H; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J; Moses, Melanie; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2012-02-01

    Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach.

  18. Activity Patterns in a Subterranean Social Rodent, Spalacopus cyanus (Octodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Sabine; Daan, S.; Burda, H.; Overkamp, G.J.F.; Tomasi, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Daily patterns of activity were studied under laboratory conditions in 12 coruros, Spalacopus cyanus, subterranean social rodents originally from Chile. When able to burrow, coruros spent 90% of the total time underground, and surface activity occurred during the 1st hours of darkness. When prevente

  19. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  20. Oral Electromyography Activation Patterns for Speech Are Similar in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors determined whether basic patterns of muscle activation for speech were similar in preschool children who stutter and in their fluent peers. Method: Right and left lower lip muscle activity were recorded during conversational speech and sentence repetition in 64 preschool children diagnosed as stuttering (CWS)…

  1. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  2. Multi-level human evolution: ecological patterns in hominin phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Andrea; Pievani, Telmo

    2016-06-20

    Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans. Allopatric speciation due to geographic displacement, turnover-pulses of species, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution of traits in several coeval species, bursts of behavioral innovation, serial dispersals out of Africa, are just some of the macro-evolutionary patterns emerging from the field. The multilevel approach to evolution proposed by paleontologist Niles Eldredge is adopted here as interpretative tool, and has yielded a larger picture of human evolution that integrates different levels of evolutionary change, from local adaptations in limited ecological niches to dispersal phenotypes able to colonize an unprecedented range of ecosystems. Changes in global climate and Earth's surface most greatly affected human evolution. Precisely because it is cognitively hard for us to appreciate the long-term common destiny we share with the whole biosphere, it is particularly valuable to highlight the accumulating evidence that human evolution has been deeply affected by global ecological changes that transformed our African continent of origin.

  3. Detection and identification of speech sounds using cortical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Sloan, A M; Reed, A C; Engineer, C T; Rennaker, R L; Kilgard, M P

    2014-01-31

    We have developed a classifier capable of locating and identifying speech sounds using activity from rat auditory cortex with an accuracy equivalent to behavioral performance and without the need to specify the onset time of the speech sounds. This classifier can identify speech sounds from a large speech set within 40 ms of stimulus presentation. To compare the temporal limits of the classifier to behavior, we developed a novel task that requires rats to identify individual consonant sounds from a stream of distracter consonants. The classifier successfully predicted the ability of rats to accurately identify speech sounds for syllable presentation rates up to 10 syllables per second (up to 17.9 ± 1.5 bits/s), which is comparable to human performance. Our results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal patterns generated in primary auditory cortex can be used to quickly and accurately identify consonant sounds from a continuous speech stream without prior knowledge of the stimulus onset times. Improved understanding of the neural mechanisms that support robust speech processing in difficult listening conditions could improve the identification and treatment of a variety of speech-processing disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are muscle activation patterns altered during shod and barefoot running with a forefoot footfall pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-09-14

    This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.

  5. Global patterns of diversity and selection in human tyrosinase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Hudjashov

    Full Text Available Global variation in skin pigmentation is one of the most striking examples of environmental adaptation in humans. More than two hundred loci have been identified as candidate genes in model organisms and a few tens of these have been found to be significantly associated with human skin pigmentation in genome-wide association studies. However, the evolutionary history of different pigmentation genes is rather complex: some loci have been subjected to strong positive selection, while others evolved under the relaxation of functional constraints in low UV environment. Here we report the results of a global study of the human tyrosinase gene, which is one of the key enzymes in melanin production, to assess the role of its variation in the evolution of skin pigmentation differences among human populations. We observe a higher rate of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the European sample consistent with the relaxation of selective constraints. A similar pattern was previously observed in the MC1R gene and concurs with UV radiation-driven model of skin color evolution by which mutations leading to lower melanin levels and decreased photoprotection are subject to purifying selection at low latitudes while being tolerated or even favored at higher latitudes because they facilitate UV-dependent vitamin D production. Our coalescent date estimates suggest that the non-synonymous variants, which are frequent in Europe and North Africa, are recent and have emerged after the separation of East and West Eurasian populations.

  6. Finding discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Germain; Petitjean, François; Senin, Pavel; Riffaud, Laurent; Henaux, Pierre-Louis; Jannin, Pierre

    2017-09-21

    Surgery is one of the riskiest and most important medical acts that is performed today. Understanding the ways in which surgeries are similar or different from each other is of major interest to understand and analyze surgical behaviors. This article addresses the issue of identifying discriminative patterns of surgical practice from recordings of surgeries. These recordings are sequences of low-level surgical activities representing the actions performed by surgeons during surgeries. To discover patterns that are specific to a group of surgeries, we use the vector space model (VSM) which is originally an algebraic model for representing text documents. We split long sequences of surgical activities into subsequences of consecutive activities. We then compute the relative frequencies of these subsequences using the tf*idf framework and we use the Cosine similarity to classify the sequences. This process makes it possible to discover which patterns discriminate one set of surgeries recordings from another set. Experiments were performed on 40 neurosurgeries of anterior cervical discectomy (ACD). The results demonstrate that our method accurately identifies patterns that can discriminate between (1) locations where the surgery took place, (2) levels of expertise of surgeons (i.e., expert vs. intermediate) and even (3) individual surgeons who performed the intervention. We also show how the tf*idf weight vector can be used to both visualize the most interesting patterns and to highlight the parts of a given surgery that are the most interesting. Identifying patterns that discriminate groups of surgeon is a very important step in improving the understanding of surgical processes. The proposed method finds discriminative and interpretable patterns in sequences of surgical activities. Our approach provides intuitive results, as it identifies automatically the set of patterns explaining the differences between the groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  7. Human leptospirosis distribution pattern analysis in Hulu Langat, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Zuhafiza; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Tarmidi, Zakri M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discussed the distribution pattern of human leptospirosis in the Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia. The data used in this study is leptospirosis cases’ report, and spatial boundaries. Leptospirosis cases, data were collected from Health Office of Hulu Langat and spatial boundaries, including lot and district boundaries was collected from the Department of Mapping and Surveying Malaysia (JUPEM). A total of 599 leptospirosis cases were reported in 2013, and this data was mapped based on the addresses provided in the leptospirosis cases’ report. This study uses three statistical methods to analyze the distribution pattern; Moran's I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation. The analysis was used to determine the spatial distribution and the average distance of leptospirosis cases and located the hotspot locations. Using Moran's I analysis, results indicated the cases were random, with a value of -0.202816 which show negative spatial autocorrelation exist among leptospirosis cases. The ANN analysis result, indicated the cases are in cluster pattern, with value of the average nearest neighbor ratio is -21.80. And results also show the hotspots are has been identified and mapped in the Hulu Langat District.

  8. Conceptual recurrence plots: revealing patterns in human discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet

    2012-06-01

    Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse.

  9. Empirical analysis on temporal statistics of human correspondence patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Tao

    2008-11-01

    Recently, extensive empirical evidence shows that the timing of human behaviors obeys non-Possion statistics with heavy-tailed interevent time distribution. In this paper, we empirically study the correspondence pattern of a great Chinese scientist, named Hsue-Shen Tsien. Both the interevent time distribution and response time distributions deviate from the Poisson statistics, showing an approximate power-law decaying. The two power-law exponents are more or less the same (about 2.1), which strongly support the hypothesis in [A. Vázquez, J.G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127] that the response time distribution of the tasks could in fact drive the interevent time distribution, and both the two distributions should decay with the same exponent. Our result is against the claim in [A. Vázquez, J.G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127], which suggests the human correspondence pattern belongs to a universality class with exponent 1.5.

  10. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of e...

  11. Impacts of people and tigers on leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in a global biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Carter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leopard population declines largely occur in areas where leopards and people frequently interact. Research on how leopards respond to human presence and competitors, like other predators, can provide important insights on leopard ecology and conservation in human-dominated regions; however, such research is lacking. Here we used data from field cameras in 2010 and 2011 to examine how human presence, prey, and tigers influence leopard spatiotemporal activity patterns in and around Nepal’s Chitwan National Park, part of a global biodiversity hotspot. We found that leopards were adjusting their spatiotemporal activity patterns to both tigers and people, but by different mechanisms. Leopards spatially avoided tigers in 2010, but were generally active at the same times of day that tigers were. Despite pervasive human presence, people on foot and vehicles had no significant effect on leopard detection and space use, but leopard temporal activity was displaced from those periods of time with highest human activity. Temporal displacement from humans was especially pronounced outside the park, where there is a much greater prevalence of natural resource collection by local people. Continuing to evaluate the interconnections among leopards, tigers, prey, and people across different land management regimes is needed to develop robust landscape-scale conservation strategies.

  12. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  13. Broad-scale recombination patterns underlying proper disjunction in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Fledel-Alon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although recombination is essential to the successful completion of human meiosis, it remains unclear how tightly the process is regulated and over what scale. To assess the nature and stringency of constraints on human recombination, we examined crossover patterns in transmissions to viable, non-trisomic offspring, using dense genotyping data collected in a large set of pedigrees. Our analysis supports a requirement for one chiasma per chromosome rather than per arm to ensure proper disjunction, with additional chiasmata occurring in proportion to physical length. The requirement is not absolute, however, as chromosome 21 seems to be frequently transmitted properly in the absence of a chiasma in females, a finding that raises the possibility of a back-up mechanism aiding in its correct segregation. We also found a set of double crossovers in surprisingly close proximity, as expected from a second pathway that is not subject to crossover interference. These findings point to multiple mechanisms that shape the distribution of crossovers, influencing proper disjunction in humans.

  14. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

  15. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  16. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  17. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  18. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  19. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  20. Predicting errors from reconfiguration patterns in human brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Matthias; Derrfuss, Jan; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Fiebach, Christian J

    2012-10-09

    Task preparation is a complex cognitive process that implements anticipatory adjustments to facilitate future task performance. Little is known about quantitative network parameters governing this process in humans. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional connectivity measurements, we show that the large-scale topology of the brain network involved in task preparation shows a pattern of dynamic reconfigurations that guides optimal behavior. This network could be decomposed into two distinct topological structures, an error-resilient core acting as a major hub that integrates most of the network's communication and a predominantly sensory periphery showing more flexible network adaptations. During task preparation, core-periphery interactions were dynamically adjusted. Task-relevant visual areas showed a higher topological proximity to the network core and an enhancement in their local centrality and interconnectivity. Failure to reconfigure the network topology was predictive for errors, indicating that anticipatory network reconfigurations are crucial for successful task performance. On the basis of a unique network decoding approach, we also develop a general framework for the identification of characteristic patterns in complex networks, which is applicable to other fields in neuroscience that relate dynamic network properties to behavior.

  1. EXTRACTING HUMAN BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS BY MINING GEO-SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Forghani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one’s travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users’ network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  2. Discovering urban activity patterns in cell phone data

    OpenAIRE

    Widhalm, Peter; Yang, Yingxiang; Ulm, Michael; Athavale, Shounak; Gonzalez, Marta C.

    2015-01-01

    Massive and passive data such as cell phone traces provide samples of the whereabouts and movements of individuals. These are a potential source of information for models of daily activities in a city. The main challenge is that phone traces have low spatial precision and are sparsely sampled in time, which requires a precise set of techniques for mining hidden valuable information they contain. Here we propose a method to reveal activity patterns that emerge from cell phone data by analyzing...

  3. Time activity patterns: a case of south Durban, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available be insufficient to adequately represent the time-activity patterns of the south Durban population. Particular factors include, among others, the amount of time spent in varying microenvironments and the drivers for time spent in these microenvironments. Therefore...

  4. Activity Involvement in Aging Women: Career Pattern and Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole Kovalic

    Some research has found that women's retirement from the labor force produces significant changes in their lives and requires further investigation. The effects of career pattern and retirement on activity involvement and life satisfaction for women who had been in the work force was investigated. Subjects were members of the Terman Study of the…

  5. Psychophysics of human vision and camouflage pattern design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . Camouflage patterns, having some specific properties, have been designed. These patterns were printed on fabric and camouflage uniforms were made, which were evaluated in the field, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The patterns with specific...

  6. Seasonal patterns in human A (H5N1 virus infection: analysis of global cases.

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    Maya B Mathur

    Full Text Available Human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 have high mortality. Despite abundant data on seasonal patterns in influenza epidemics, it is unknown whether similar patterns exist for human HPAI H5N1 cases worldwide. Such knowledge could help decrease avian-to-human transmission through increased prevention and control activities during peak periods.We performed a systematic search of published human HPAI H5N1 cases to date, collecting month, year, country, season, hemisphere, and climate data. We used negative binomial regression to predict changes in case incidence as a function of season. To investigate hemisphere as a potential moderator, we used AIC and the likelihood-ratio test to compare the season-only model to nested models including a main effect or interaction with hemisphere. Finally, we visually assessed replication of seasonal patterns across climate groups based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.We identified 617 human cases (611 with complete seasonal data occurring in 15 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Case occurrence was much higher in winter (n = 285, p = 0.03 than summer (n = 64, and the winter peak occurred across diverse climate groups. There was no significant interaction between hemisphere and season.Across diverse climates, HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans increases significantly in winter. This is consistent with increased poultry outbreaks and HPAI H5N1 virus transmission during cold and dry conditions. Prioritizing prevention and control activities among poultry and focusing public health messaging to reduce poultry exposures during winter months may help to reduce zoonotic transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus in resource-limited settings.

  7. Complement activation in experimental human malaria infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roestenberg, M.; McCall, M.B.B.; Mollnes, T.E.; Deuren, M. van; Sprong, T.; Klasen, I.S.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate complement activation in uncomplicated, early phases of human malaria. Fifteen healthy volunteers were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasitemia and complement activation products were assessed. During blood stage parasitem

  8. Muscle activation patterns in patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512

  9. Classifying Human Body Acceleration Patterns Using a Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Federico; Ascari, Luca; Cagnoni, Stefano

    This paper introduces a novel approach to the detection of human body movements during daily life. With the sole use of one wearable wireless triaxial accelerometer attached to one's chest, this approach aims at classifying raw acceleration data robustly, to detect many common human behaviors without requiring any specific a-priori knowledge about movements. The proposed approach consists of feeding sensory data into a specifically trained Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) to extract invariant spatial-temporal patterns that characterize different body movements. The HTM output is then classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) into different categories. The performance of this new HTM+SVM combination is compared with a single SVM using real-word data corresponding to movements like "standing", "walking", "jumping" and "falling", acquired from a group of different people. Experimental results show that the HTM+SVM approach can detect behaviors with very high accuracy and is more robust, with respect to noise, than a classifier based solely on SVMs.

  10. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

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    Huang Zhuoran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence is useful for finding unusual patterns in biological sequences. Results Using relative entropy, we visualized the periodic patterns in the context of substitutions in human orthologous genes. Neighbouring patterns differed both among substitution categories and within a category that occurred at three codon positions. Transition tended to occur in periodic sequences relative to transversion. Periodic signals were stronger in a set of flanking sequences of substitutions that occurred at the third-codon positions than in those that occurred at the first- or second-codon positions. To determine how the three-base periodicity was affected near the substitution sites, we fitted a sine model to the values of the relative entropy. A sine of period equal to 3 is a good approximation for the three-base periodicity at sites not in close vicinity to some substitutions. These periods were interrupted near the substitution site and then reappeared away from substitutions. A comparative analysis between the native and codon-shuffled datasets suggested that the codon usage frequency was not the sole origin of the three-base periodicity, implying that the native order of codons also played an important role in this periodicity. Synonymous codon shuffling revealed that synonymous codon usage bias was one of the factors responsible for the observed three-base periodicity. Conclusions Our results offer an efficient way to illustrate unusual periodic patterns in the context of substitutions and provide further insight into the origin of three

  11. Identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the human rolandic region

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    Charles Mellerio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo MRI data.Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three-dimensional surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labelled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS] and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono’s atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono’s atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: =0.92 in left hemisphere / =0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: =0.91/ =0.93; PostCS: = 0.84 / 0.79. Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere / 3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere. Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation associated

  12. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-05

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  13. Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Patterson

    Full Text Available The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.We studied 128 HIV-infected adults who were not on treatment and had a CD4(+ T cell count above 250 cells/µl. We assessed T cell activation by CD38 expression using flow cytometry, and diurnal cortisol was assessed with salivary measurements.Lower waking cortisol levels correlated with greater T cell immune activation, measured by CD38 mean fluorescent intensity, on CD4(+ T cells (r = -0.26, p = 0.006. Participants with lower waking cortisol also showed a trend toward greater activation on CD8(+ T cells (r = -0.17, p = 0.08. A greater diurnal decline in cortisol, usually considered a healthy pattern, correlated with less CD4(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.018 and CD8(+ (r = 0.24, p = 0.017 activation.These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV.

  14. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  15. Human rights education (HRE) and transnational activism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.; Schmitz, Hans-Peter

    2007-01-01

    Transnational human rights activism occupies today a significant place in the practice and scholarship of current global affairs. This article reviews the past successes and limits of this activism and suggests Human Rights Education (HRE) as a strategic tool currently underutilized by activists and

  16. Sleep-related electrodermal activity patterns in impotent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J C; Karacan, I; Salis, P J; Thornby, J; Hirshkowitz, M

    1984-01-01

    The etiology of erectile failure is not always clear despite the fact that recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) are used to detect patients with a significant organic component to their complaint. We recorded electrodermal activity in addition to NPT in 60 impotent patients. Normally more electrodermal activity occurs in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Despite a similar total amount of electrodermal activity, organically impotent patients tended to have less electrodermal activity in stage 2 and more in stage REM sleep than those with normal NPT. This difference was due to a subgroup of 15 organically impotent patients with less electrodermal activity in stage 2 than in stage REM sleep. Because of this difference in the pattern of electrodermal activity in relation to sleep stages, the results suggest a central nervous system change is related to impaired erectile capability and abnormal NPT in these cases.

  17. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  18. Communities in Neuronal Complex Networks Revealed by Activation Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the communities in neuronal networks of the integrate-and-fire type can be identified by considering patterns containing the beginning times for each cell to receive the first non-zero activation. The received activity was integrated in order to facilitate the spiking of each neuron and to constrain the activation inside the communities, but no time decay of such activation was considered. The present article shows that, by taking into account exponential decays of the stored activation, it is possible to identify the communities also in terms of the patterns of activation along the initial steps of the transient dynamics. The potential of this method is illustrated with respect to complex neuronal networks involving four communities, each of a different type (Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'eny, Barab\\'asi-Albert, Watts-Strogatz as well as a simple geographical model). Though the consideration of activation decay has been found to enhance the communities separation, too intense decays tend to y...

  19. Expression patterns of WNT/β-CATENIN signaling molecules during human tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingmei; Li, Hanliang; Liu, Ying; Lin, Xin; Lin, Yao; Wang, Ye; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yanding

    2014-10-01

    The WNT/β-CATENIN signaling has been demonstrated to play critical roles in mouse tooth development, but little is known about the status of these molecules in human embryonic tooth. In this study, expression patterns of WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components, including WNT ligands (WNT3, WNT5A), receptors (FZD4, FZD6, LRP5), transducers (β-CATENIN), transcription factors (TCF4, LEF1) and antagonists (DKK1, SOSTDC1) were investigated in human tooth germ at the bud, cap and bell stages by in situ hybridization. All these genes exhibited similar but slightly distinct expression patterns in human tooth germ in comparison with mouse. Furthermore the mRNA expression of these genes in incisors and molars at the bell stage was also examined by real-time PCR. Our results reveal the status of active WNT/β-CATENIN signaling in the human tooth germ and suggest these components may also play an essential role in the regulation of human tooth development.

  20. Transforming the Rockies: Human forces, settlement patterns, and ecosystem effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, William R.; Theobald, David M.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    The current ecological condition of the Rocky Mountains can be viewed from two somewhat opposing perspectives. The first is that human occupation has had relatively little effect on the Rockies: large natural, if not pristine, areas remain, and the region's open spaces provide wildlife habitat, majestic scenery, and a sense of wildness. Unlike the situation in, say, the Swiss Alps, where even high-elevation meadows have been mown and grazed intensively for as long as 500 years and many large mammals have been extirpated, most elements of Rocky Mountain landscapes and biota are reasonably unaltered. Even the presumption that Native Americans changed regional landscapes with deliberately set fires has been challenged by Baker and Ehle (2001) and others who think that most fires were lightning-caused or accidental ignitions. The second view is that humans have dramatically transformed the Rockies, at least since Euro-American settlement in the mid- to late 1800s. The slaughter of vast buffalo herds, the clearing of timber for railroad ties, and even the removal of whole hillsides in hydraulic placer mining represented substantial transformation. Ranch, resort, and residential development marks the latest incarnation of this transformation. Numerous, complex layers of land use have left landscape legacies, some of which may be unrecognized or underappreciated in modern assessments (Wohl 2001). Here we consider both perspectives because we are impressed with both the many effects of human use of the Rockies and the region's remaining wild landscapes. Ironically, much of the recent population growth and development in the Rockies is driven by the region's wild landscapes, which make the present widespread transformation seem all the more significant. It is, of course, the rapid clip of current human transformation—high population growth rates, pervasive rural residential development, and landscape fragmentation (Baron, Theobald, and Fagre 2000)—that worries

  1. Persistent dynamic attractors in activity patterns of cultured neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Nadasdy, Zoltan; Potter, Steve M.

    2006-05-01

    Three remarkable features of the nervous system—complex spatiotemporal patterns, oscillations, and persistent activity—are fundamental to such diverse functions as stereotypical motor behavior, working memory, and awareness. Here we report that cultured cortical networks spontaneously generate a hierarchical structure of periodic activity with a strongly stereotyped population-wide spatiotemporal structure demonstrating all three fundamental properties in a recurring pattern. During these “superbursts,” the firing sequence of the culture periodically converges to a dynamic attractor orbit. Precursors of oscillations and persistent activity have previously been reported as intrinsic properties of the neurons. However, complex spatiotemporal patterns that are coordinated in a large population of neurons and persist over several hours—and thus are capable of representing and preserving information—cannot be explained by known oscillatory properties of isolated neurons. Instead, the complexity of the observed spatiotemporal patterns implies large-scale self-organization of neurons interacting in a precise temporal order even in vitro, in cultures usually considered to have random connectivity.

  2. A humanized pattern of aromatase expression is associated with mammary hyperplasia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Brooks, David C; Coon, John S; Chen, Dong; Demura, Masashi; Zhang, Ming; Clevenger, Charles V; Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D; Chatterton, Robert T; DeMayo, Francesco J; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-06-01

    Aromatase is essential for estrogen production and is the target of aromatase inhibitors, the most effective endocrine treatment for postmenopausal breast cancer. Peripheral tissues in women, including the breast, express aromatase via alternative promoters. Female mice lack the promoters that drive aromatase expression in peripheral tissues; thus, we generated a transgenic humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse line containing a single copy of the human aromatase gene to study the link between aromatase expression in mammary adipose tissue and breast pathology. Arom(hum) mice expressed human aromatase, driven by the proximal human promoters II and I.3 and the distal promoter I.4, in breast adipose fibroblasts and myoepithelial cells. Estrogen levels in the breast tissue of Arom(hum) mice were higher than in wild-type mice, whereas circulating levels were similar. Arom(hum) mice exhibited accelerated mammary duct elongation at puberty and an increased incidence of lobuloalveolar breast hyperplasia associated with increased signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 phosphorylation at 24 and 64 wk. Hyperplastic epithelial cells showed remarkably increased proliferative activity. Thus, we demonstrated that the human aromatase gene can be expressed via its native promoters in a wide variety of mouse tissues and in a distribution pattern nearly identical to that of humans. Locally increased tissue levels, but not circulating levels, of estrogen appeared to exert hyperplastic effects on the mammary gland. This novel mouse model will be valuable for developing tissue-specific aromatase inhibition strategies.

  3. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  4. Characteristic pattern of human prostatic growth with age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the characteristic pattern of the age-related growth of the human prostate gland.Methods:The volume (weight) of the prostate in 1,601 males,aged from newborn to 92 years,was determined by Bultrasonography.Results:Prostatic volume determination by B-ultrasonography in 1601 males (1301 normal subjects and 300 BPH patients) pointed out that the age-stratified growth of human prostate could be categorized into 4 life stages:(1) the first slow growing phase(from newborn to 9 years):the prostate grows slowly at a rate of 0.14g per year;(2)the first rapid growing phase (from 10 to 30 years):the prostate grows at a rate of 0.84g per year;(3)the second slow growing phase (from 30 to 50 years),the prostate grows at a rate of 0.21g per year;(4)the second rapid growing phase (from 50 to 90 years):the prostate grows at one of the following rates:in one group the growth rate is of 0.50g per year and in the other 1.20g per year,leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH).Conclusion:The volumes of the prostate are different in different age groups and it grows with age at different rates in four life phases.The prostate growth in phases can be expressed by the following equation:Y=19.36+1.36X'-0.58X'2+0.33X'3,where Y=prostate volume,X=age(up to 70 years),X'=(X-35.5)/10.

  5. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  6. Detecting stable phase structures in EEG signals to classify brain activity amplitude patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusely RUIZ; Guang LI; Walter J. FREEMAN; Eduardo GONZALEZ

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining an electrocorticograms (ECoG) signal requires an invasive procedure in which brain activity is recorded from the cortical surface. In contrast, obtaining electroencephalograms (EEG) recordings requires the non-invasive procedure of recording the brain activity from the scalp surface, which allows EEG recordings to be performed more easily on healthy humans. In this work, a technique previously used to study spatial-temporal patterns of brain activity on animal ECoG was adapted for use on EEG. The main issues are centered on solving the problems introduced by the increment on the interelectrode distance and the procedure to detect stable frames. The results showed that spatial patterns of beta and gamma activity can also be extracted from the EEG signal by using stable frames as time markers for feature extraction. This adapted technique makes it possible to take advantage of the cognitive and phenomenological awareness of a normal healthy subject.

  7. Neural pattern in the human pollical distal phalanx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard K; Shrewsbury, Marvin M

    2005-09-01

    A morphological study of the neural pattern in the human ungual region of the pollical distal phalanx was carried out on eight male cadavers. The dissections showed a palmar neural arrangement consisting of four designated ungual nerves, two proximal and two distal, for each of the ulnar and radial palmar digital nerves at the lateral sides of the thumb. This neural configuration was associated with the compartmentalization of its ungual pulp, the difference between the type of sensory receptors within the ungual pulp, the overlapping of the tactile composition at the thumb tip, seen clinically after laceration of one of the palmar digital nerves, and the sensory supply to the nail bed in the dorsal portion of the thumb. The proximal ungual pulp compartment had a single proximal medial ungual nerve, which did not appear, as far as visually possible, to overlap at the midline of the proximal ungual pulp. In contrast, the distal ungual pulp compartment was supplied by a medial and a lateral ungual nerve, both of which did appear to overlap to their contralateral sides in the thumb tip. A single proximal dorsal sensory nerve branched dorsally from each of ulnar and radial palmar digital nerves at the level of the proximal ungual pulp to supply the nail bed on the dorsum of the thumb.

  8. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Hartonen, Tuomo; Alava, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the c...

  9. Obstetrician practice patterns and recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Pompeii, Lisa A

    2010-09-01

    Many women do not attain minimum American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommendations for physical activity during pregnancy. This study assessed the self-reported practice patterns and recommendations of 384 obstetricians working in Texas through a mailed survey on physical activity during pregnancy. The most common exercise elements routinely collected from pregnant women included types of exercise (81%), history of exercise before pregnancy (79%), and frequency of exercise (76%). Fewer obstetricians collected duration (68%) or intensity (69%) of exercise. The percentage of obstetricians recommending avoidance of nine household activities and exercises (including lifting groceries, starting a new exercise program, or participating in walking, jogging, or bicycling) was significantly higher with each successive trimester. Most obstetricians agreed that pregnant women would gain some benefit from mild exercise (99.5%), but fewer agreed that moderate (74%) or vigorous exercise (6%) would be beneficial. Sixty-two percent of obstetricians reported that women who have never exercised could begin an exercise program during pregnancy. Almost all participants agreed that physical activity might make a woman feel more energetic (98%) and improve her labor and delivery (89%), but fewer agreed that exercise during pregnancy causes lower weight babies (23%) or could trigger labor (18%). Dissemination of current recommendations and discussion about the benefits and risks of physical activity during pregnancy, such as through continuing education, appear warranted. Future research could address the causes of disparities between self-reported practice patterns and current ACOG guidelines.

  10. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed.

  11. Automatic Camera Calibration Using Active Displays of a Virtual Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Wang, Yaonan; Yu, Hongshan; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-03-27

    Camera calibration plays a critical role in 3D computer vision tasks. The most commonly used calibration method utilizes a planar checkerboard and can be done nearly fully automatically. However, it requires the user to move either the camera or the checkerboard during the capture step. This manual operation is time consuming and makes the calibration results unstable. In order to solve the above problems caused by manual operation, this paper presents a full-automatic camera calibration method using a virtual pattern instead of a physical one. The virtual pattern is actively transformed and displayed on a screen so that the control points of the pattern can be uniformly observed in the camera view. The proposed method estimates the camera parameters from point correspondences between 2D image points and the virtual pattern. The camera and the screen are fixed during the whole process; therefore, the proposed method does not require any manual operations. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated through experiments on both synthetic and real data. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve stable results and its accuracy is comparable to the standard method by Zhang.

  12. Pattern Analyses Reveal Separate Experience-Based Fear Memories in the Human Right Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, Senne; De Houwer, Jan; Demanet, Jelle; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Kalisch, Raffael; Brass, Marcel

    2017-08-23

    Learning fear via the experience of contingencies between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) is often assumed to be fundamentally different from learning fear via instructions. An open question is whether fear-related brain areas respond differently to experienced CS-US contingencies than to merely instructed CS-US contingencies. Here, we contrasted two experimental conditions where subjects were instructed to expect the same CS-US contingencies while only one condition was characterized by prior experience with the CS-US contingency. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data, we found CS-related neural activation patterns in the right amygdala (but not in other fear-related regions) that dissociated between whether a CS-US contingency had been instructed and experienced versus merely instructed. A second experiment further corroborated this finding by showing a category-independent neural response to instructed and experienced, but not merely instructed, CS presentations in the human right amygdala. Together, these findings are in line with previous studies showing that verbal fear instructions have a strong impact on both brain and behavior. However, even in the face of fear instructions, the human right amygdala still shows a separable neural pattern response to experience-based fear contingencies.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In our study, we addressed a fundamental problem of the science of human fear learning and memory, namely whether fear learning via experience in humans relies on a neural pathway that can be separated from fear learning via verbal information. Using two new procedures and recent advances in the analysis of brain imaging data, we localized purely experience-based fear processing and memory in the right amygdala, thereby making a direct link between human and animal research. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378116-15$15.00/0.

  13. Phylogenomic Analyses Reveal Convergent Patterns of Adaptive Evolution in Elephant and Human Ancestries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morris Goodman; Kirstin N. Sterner; Munirul Islam; Monica Uddin; Chet C. Sherwood; Patrick R. Hof; Zhuo-Cheng Hou; Leonard Lipovich; Hui Jia; Lawrence I. Grossman; Derek E. Wildman

    2009-01-01

    .... Thus, we investigated whether the phylogenomic patterns of adaptive evolution are more similar between elephant and human than between either elephant and tenrec lineages or human and mouse lineages...

  14. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  15. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  16. Environmental influences on activity patterns in altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Weer, A-S; Da Ros, M; Berré, J; Mélot, C; Goldman, S; Peigneux, P

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in disorders of consciousness (DOC) circadian variations in motor patterns and their possible synchronization with physiologically regulated light variations and/or a social environmental factor, i.e. presence and actions of other persons. Actimetric and ambient light levels recordings were obtained during 4-9 days in two patients with traumatic brain injury (TB1 and TB2) in a minimally conscious state (MCS), one MCS (AI1) and one comatose (AI2) anoxic-ischaemic patients. Environmental changes were automatically recorded using a video system. Minute light variations correlated with motor activity in all patients. However, motor activity was significantly higher during day than nighttime and correlated with social environmental changes, in patients TB1 and TB2 only. Night-day circadian variations in motor activity patterns and influence of social stimulations were observed in traumatic MCS patients only. Nonetheless, rapid light variations may temporarily promote increased arousal, and consequently motor activity, in all DOCs. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  17. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA as well as industry and academia fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the preliminary Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: physiological and performance capabilities; suit design parameters; EVA human health and performance modeling; EVA tasks and concepts of operations; EVA informatics; human-suit sensors; suit

  18. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  19. HER/ErbB receptor interactions and signaling patterns in human mammary epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisler William B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that the cell line dependence is not important. However, different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way, and lack of coherent data collected from closely related cellular systems can be detrimental to the efforts to understand the regulation of biological processes. To address this issue, we created a clone library of human mammary epithelial (HME cells that expresses different levels of HER2 and HER3 receptors in combination with endogenous EGFR/HER1. Using our clone library, we have quantified the receptor activation patterns and systematically tested the validity of the existing hypotheses about the interaction patterns between HER1-3 receptors. Results Our study identified HER2 as the dominant dimerization partner for both EGFR and HER3. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we find that lateral interactions with HER2 do not lead to strong transactivation between EGFR and HER3, i.e., EGFR activation and HER3 activation are only weakly linked in HME cells. We also find that observed weak transactivation is uni-directional where stimulation of EGFR leads to HER3 activation whereas HER3 stimulation does not activate the EGFR. Repeating our experiments at lower cell confluency established that cell confluency is not a major factor in the observed interaction patterns. We have also quantified the dependence of the kinetics of Erk and Akt activation on different HER receptors. We found that HER3 signaling makes the strongest contribution to Akt activation and that, stimulation of either EGFR or HER3 leads to significant Erk activation. Conclusion Our study shows that clone cell libraries can be a powerful resource in systems biology research by making it possible to differentiate between various hypotheses in a consistent cellular background. Using our

  20. Brain activity patterns induced by interrupting the cognitive processes with online advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejer, Izabela; Jankowski, Jarosław

    2017-06-12

    As a result of the increasing role of online advertising and strong competition among advertisers, intrusive techniques are commonly used to attract web users' attention. Moreover, since marketing content is usually delivered to the target audience when they are performing typical online tasks, like searching for information or reading online content, its delivery interrupts the web user's current cognitive process. The question posed by many researchers in the field of online advertising is: how should we measure the influence of interruption of cognitive processes on human behavior and emotional state? Much research has been conducted in this field; however, most of this research has focused on monitoring activity in the simulated environment, or processing declarative responses given by users in prepared questionnaires. In this paper, a more direct real-time approach is taken, and the effect of the interruption on a web user is analyzed directly by studying the activity of his brain. This paper presents the results of an experiment that was conducted to find the brain activity patterns associated with interruptions of the cognitive process by showing internet advertisements during a text-reading task. Three specific aspects were addressed in the experiment: individual patterns, the consistency of these patterns across trials, and the intra-subject correlation of the individual patterns. Two main effects were observed for most subjects: a drop in activity in the frontal and prefrontal cortical areas across all frequency bands, and significant changes in the frontal/prefrontal asymmetry index.

  1. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  2. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  3. Human task-specific somatosensory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, M D; Yoshii, F; Vibulsresth, S; Chang, J Y; Duara, R; Barker, W W; Boothe, T E

    1987-08-01

    We used positron emission tomography to study normal patterns of local cortical metabolic activation induced by somatosensory stimuli. Palpation and sorting of mah-jongg tiles by textured design increased local glucose metabolic rate (lCMRgl), by 18% on average, in contralateral somatosensory cortex. A graphesthesia task gave a similar result. In contrast, vigorous vibrotactile stimulation of fingers, face, or knee did not produce a consistent focus of activation. Our results indicate that lCMRgl activation is best achieved by somatosensory tasks requiring an active perceptual effort.

  4. Species pool, human population, and global versus regional invasion patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Basil V. Iannone III; Gabriela C. Nunez-Mir; Kevin M. Potter; Christopher M. Oswalt; Songlin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Context Biological invasions are among the greatest global and regional threats to biomes in the Anthropocene. Islands, in particular, have been perceived to have higher vulnerability to invasions. Because of the dynamic nature of ongoing invasions, distinguishing regional patterns from global patterns and their underlying determinants remains a challenge. Objectives...

  5. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  6. Atrial natriuretic peptide and feeding activity patterns in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents historical data about atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP from its discovery as an atrial natriuretic factor (ANF to its role as an atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH. As a hormone, ANP can interact with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A and is related to feeding activity patterns in the rat. Food restriction proved to be an interesting model to investigate this relationship. The role of ANP must be understood within a context of peripheral and central interactions involving different peptides and pathways

  7. Human brain activity with functional NIR optical imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingming

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we reviewed the applications of functional near infrared optical imager in human brain activity. Optical imaging results of brain activity, including memory for new association, emotional thinking, mental arithmetic, pattern recognition ' where's Waldo?, occipital cortex in visual stimulation, and motor cortex in finger tapping, are demonstrated. It is shown that the NIR optical method opens up new fields of study of the human population, in adults under conditions of simulated or real stress that may have important effects upon functional performance. It makes practical and affordable for large populations the complex technology of measuring brain function. It is portable and low cost. In cognitive tasks subjects could report orally. The temporal resolution could be millisecond or less in theory. NIR method will have good prospects in exploring human brain secret.

  8. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  9. Toward a taxonomy of autonomic sleep patterns with electrodermal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Akane; Picard, Rosalind W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a first version of a taxonomy of automatic sleep patterns found with the Affectiva Q™ Sensor, a wireless, logging biosensor that measures skin conductance, skin temperature, and motion comfortably from the wrist. Several studies have examined electrodermal activity (EDA) during sleep, but they focused on an analysis of EDA for only a small number of nights. We quantitatively analyzed EDA during sleep in three study situations: (1) Comparing EDA with polysomnography (PSG) from seven subjects in a sleep lab, (2) Characterizing multiple nights of EDA in a sleep lab, in a hospital and at home from 24 subjects, and (3) Gathering long-term EDA (30-60 nights) patterns from three subjects during home sleep. After gathering this rich corpus of data, we characterized inter- and intra-individual differences of EDA features and the relation of EDA peaks to subjective sleep quality. Here we present results from the three studies in an effort to begin to characterize autonomic patterns found in natural sleep.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global NDVI Trends: Correlations with Climate and Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Y.; Li, S.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Changes in vegetation activity are driven by multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, which can be reflected by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from satellite. In this paper, NDVI trends from 1982 to 2012 are first estimated by the Theil-Sen median slope method to explore their spatial and temporal patterns. Then the impact of climate variables and human activity on the observed NDVI trends is analyzed. Our results show on average NDVI increased by 0.46×10-3 per year from 1982 to 2012 globally with decadal variations. For most regions of the world, a greening (increasing) - browning(decreasing) - greening (G-B-G) trend is observed over the periods 1982-2004, 1995-2004, and 2005-2012, respectively. A positive partial correlation of NDVI and temperature is observed in the first period but it decreases and occasionally becomes negative in the following periods, especially in the Humid Temperate and Dry Domain Regions. This suggests a weakened effect of temperature on vegetation growth. Precipitation, on the other hand, is found to have a positive impact on the NDVI trend. This effect becomes stronger in the third period of 1995-2004, especially in the Dry Domain Region. Anthropogenic effects and human activities, derived here from the Human Footprint Dataset and the associated Human Influence Index (HII), have varied impacts on the magnitude (absolute value) of the NDVI trends across continents. Significant positive effects are found in Asia, Africa, and Europe, suggesting that intensive human activity could accelerate the change in NDVI and vegetation. A more accurate attribution of vegetation change to specific climatic and anthropogenic factors is instrumental to understand vegetation dynamics and requires further research.

  11. Understanding Spatiotemporal Patterns of Human Convergence and Divergence Using Mobile Phone Location Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigating human mobility patterns can help researchers and agencies understand the driving forces of human movement, with potential benefits for urban planning and traffic management. Recent advances in location-aware technologies have provided many new data sources (e.g., mobile phone and social media data for studying human space-time behavioral regularity. Although existing studies have utilized these new datasets to characterize human mobility patterns from various aspects, such as predicting human mobility and monitoring urban dynamics, few studies have focused on human convergence and divergence patterns within a city. This study aims to explore human spatial convergence and divergence and their evolutions over time using large-scale mobile phone location data. Using a dataset from Shenzhen, China, we developed a method to identify spatiotemporal patterns of human convergence and divergence. Eight distinct patterns were extracted, and the spatial distributions of these patterns are discussed in the context of urban functional regions. Thus, this study investigates urban human convergence and divergence patterns and their relationships with the urban functional environment, which is helpful for urban policy development, urban planning and traffic management.

  12. Distribution patterns of typical enzyme activities in tundra soils on the Fildes Peninsula of maritime Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei; WANG Qing; ZHU Renbin; MA Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities can be used as indicators of microbial activity and soil fertility. In this paper, the activities of invertase (IA), phosphatase (PA) and urease (UA) were investigated in tundra soils collected from marine animal colonies, areas of human activity and background areas on Fildes Peninsula, maritime Antarctica. Soil enzyme activities were in the range of 1.0–82.7 mg·kg-1·h-1 for IA, 0.2–8.2 mg·kg-1·h-1 for PA and 0.2–39.8 mg·kg-1·h-1 for UA. The spatial distribution patterns for soil enzyme activities corresponded strongly with marine animal activity and human activity. Significantly higher soil IA and PA activities occurred in penguin colony soils, whereas seal colony soils showed higher UA activity. Statistical analysis indicated that soil IA activity was controlled by the levels of soil nutrients (TOC, TN and TP), PA activity was closely related with TP, and UA activity was affected by the soil pH. Overall, the deposition amount of penguin guano or seal excreta could impact the distribution of enzyme activity in Antarctic tundra soils. Multiple stepwise regression models were established between the enzyme activities, soil physicochemical properties and heavy metals Cu and Zn ([IA]=0.7[TP]–0.2[Cu]+22.3[TN]+15.1, [PA]=0.3[TP]+0.03[Mc]+0.2, [UA]=16.7[pH]–0.5[Cu]+ 0.4[Zn]–72.6). These models could be used to predict enzyme activities in the tundra soils, which could be helpful to study the effects of marine animal activity and environmental change on tundra ecosystems in maritime Antarctica.

  13. Analysis of expression patterns of IGF-1, caspase-3 and HSP-70 in developing human tooth germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Darko; Kalibovic Govorko, Danijela; Medvedec Mikic, Ivana; Vukojevic, Katarina; Cigic, Livia; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2015-10-01

    To analyze expression patterns of IGF-1, caspase-3 and HSP-70 in human incisor and canine tooth germs during the late bud, cap and bell stages of odontogenesis. Head areas or parts of jaw containing teeth from 10 human fetuses aged between 9th and 20th developmental weeks were immunohistochemically analyzed using IGF-1, active caspase-3 and HSP-70 markers. Semi-quantitative analysis of each marker's expression pattern was also performed. During the analyzed period, IGF-1 and HSP-70 were mostly expressed in enamel organ. As development progressed, expression of IGF-1 and HSP-70 became more confined to differentiating tissues in the future cusp tip area, as well as in highly proliferating cervical loops. Few apoptotic bodies highly positive to active caspase-3 were observed in enamel organ and dental papilla from the cap stage onward. However, both enamel epithelia moderately expressed active caspase-3 throughout the investigated period. Expression patterns of IGF-1, active caspase-3 and HSP-70 imply importance of these factors for early human tooth development. IGF-1 and HSP-70 have versatile functions in control of proliferation, differentiation and anti-apoptotic protection of epithelial parts of human enamel organ. Active caspase-3 is partially involved in formation and apoptotic removal of primary enamel knot, although present findings might reflect its ability to perform other non-death functions such as differentiation of hard dental tissues secreting cells and guidance of ingrowth of proliferating cervical loops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cortical Activity Patterns in ADHD during Arousal, Activation and Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Macion, James; Hanada, Grant; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study is to test whether there are Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-related differences in brain electrical activity patterns across arousal, activation and vigilance states. Method: The sample consists of 80 adults (38 with ADHD and 42 non-ADHD controls) who were recruited for a family study on…

  15. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  16. Human impact on erosion patterns and sediment transport in the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xilin; Li, Chang'an; Kuiper, K. F.; Zhang, Zengjie; Gao, Jianhua; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    Sediment load in rivers is an indicator of erosional processes in the upstream river catchments. Understanding the origin and composition of the sediment load can help to assess the influence of natural processes and human activities on erosion. Tectonic uplift, precipitation and run-off, hill slopes and vegetation can influence erosion in natural systems. Agriculture and deforestation are expected to increase the sediment yield, but dams and reservoirs can trap much of this sediment before it reaches the ocean. Here, we use major element composition and 40Ar/39Ar ages of detrital muscovites to constrain the sediment contribution of various tributaries to sedimentation in the Yangtze delta. The sediment contribution calculated from muscovite data was compared with that estimated from current sediment load data from gauging stations. Muscovite data show that the main contributor to the Yangtze delta sands is the Min River, while the current sediment load suggests that the Jinsha and Jialing rivers are the most important current contributors to delta sediments. We suggest that this difference reflects an "old" and "young" erosion pattern, respectively as medium grained muscovite could be transported much slower than suspended sediment load in the complex river-lake systems of the Yangtze River basin. These two different erosion patterns likely reflect enhanced human activity (deforestation, cultivation, and mining) that increasingly overwhelmed long-time natural factors controls on erosion since ~ 1900 cal years B.P.

  17. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  18. Strong evidence for pattern separation in human dentate gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berron, David; Schütze, Hartmut; Maass, Anne; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampus is proposed to be critical in distinguishing between similar experiences by performing pattern separation computations that create orthogonalized representations for related episodes. Previous neuroimaging studies have provided indirect evidence that the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 hi

  19. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  20. Recurrent, robust and scalable patterns underlie human approach and avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Woo Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approach and avoidance behavior provide a means for assessing the rewarding or aversive value of stimuli, and can be quantified by a keypress procedure whereby subjects work to increase (approach, decrease (avoid, or do nothing about time of exposure to a rewarding/aversive stimulus. To investigate whether approach/avoidance behavior might be governed by quantitative principles that meet engineering criteria for lawfulness and that encode known features of reward/aversion function, we evaluated whether keypress responses toward pictures with potential motivational value produced any regular patterns, such as a trade-off between approach and avoidance, or recurrent lawful patterns as observed with prospect theory. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three sets of experiments employed this task with beautiful face images, a standardized set of affective photographs, and pictures of food during controlled states of hunger and satiety. An iterative modeling approach to data identified multiple law-like patterns, based on variables grounded in the individual. These patterns were consistent across stimulus types, robust to noise, describable by a simple power law, and scalable between individuals and groups. Patterns included: (i a preference trade-off counterbalancing approach and avoidance, (ii a value function linking preference intensity to uncertainty about preference, and (iii a saturation function linking preference intensity to its standard deviation, thereby setting limits to both. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These law-like patterns were compatible with critical features of prospect theory, the matching law, and alliesthesia. Furthermore, they appeared consistent with both mean-variance and expected utility approaches to the assessment of risk. Ordering of responses across categories of stimuli demonstrated three properties thought to be relevant for preference-based choice, suggesting these patterns might be grouped together as a

  1. Effect of cadence regulation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    Cadence or stride frequency is an important parameter being controlled in gait training of neurologically impaired subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadence variation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted unimpaired gait using dynamic simulations. A twodimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed considering eight major muscle groups along with existing ground contact force (GCF) model. A 2-D model of a robotic orthosis was also developed which provides actuation to the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane to guide subjects limbs on reference trajectories. A custom inverse dynamics algorithm was used along with a quadratic minimization algorithm to obtain a feasible set of muscle activation patterns. Predicted patterns of muscle activations during slow, natural and fast cadence were compared and the mean muscle activations were found to be increasing with an increase in cadence. The proposed dynamic simulation provide important insight into the muscle activation variations with change in cadence during robot assisted gait and provide the basis for investigating the influence of cadence regulation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robot assisted gait.

  2. The muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing at different backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Han; Aiguo, Song; Haitao, Gao; Songqing, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Stair climbing under backpack load condition is a challenging task. Understanding muscle activation patterns of lower limb during stair climbing with load furthers our understanding of the factors involved in joint pathology and the effects of treatment. At the same time, stair climbing under backpack load requires adjustments of muscle activations and increases joint moment compared to level walking, which with muscle activation patterns are altered as a result of using an assistive technology, such as a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze lower limb muscles during stair climbing under different backpack load. Nine healthy volunteers ascended a four-step staircase at different backpack load (0 kg, 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg). Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from four lower limb muscles (gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, hamstring, rectus femoris). The results showed that muscle activation amplitudes of lower limb increase with increasing load during stair climbing, the maximum RMS of gastrocnemius are greater than tibialis anterior, hamstring and rectus femoris whether stair climbing or level walking under the same load condition. However, the maximum RMS of hamstring are smaller than gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The study of muscle activation under different backpack load during stair climbing can be used to design biomechanism and explore intelligent control based on EMG for a wearable exoskeleton leg for human walking power augmentation.

  3. Genes expressed in specific areas of the human fetal cerebral cortex display distinct patterns of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelle Lambert

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms through which the cerebral cortex increased in size and complexity during primate evolution are essentially unknown. To uncover genetic networks active in the developing cerebral cortex, we combined three-dimensional reconstruction of human fetal brains at midgestation and whole genome expression profiling. This novel approach enabled transcriptional characterization of neurons from accurately defined cortical regions containing presumptive Broca and Wernicke language areas, as well as surrounding associative areas. We identified hundreds of genes displaying differential expression between the two regions, but no significant difference in gene expression between left and right hemispheres. Validation by qRTPCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the robustness of our approach and revealed novel patterns of area- and layer-specific expression throughout the developing cortex. Genes differentially expressed between cortical areas were significantly associated with fast-evolving non-coding sequences harboring human-specific substitutions that could lead to divergence in their repertoires of transcription factor binding sites. Strikingly, while some of these sequences were accelerated in the human lineage only, many others were accelerated in chimpanzee and/or mouse lineages, indicating that genes important for cortical development may be particularly prone to changes in transcriptional regulation across mammals. Genes differentially expressed between cortical regions were also enriched for transcriptional targets of FoxP2, a key gene for the acquisition of language abilities in humans. Our findings point to a subset of genes with a unique combination of cortical areal expression and evolutionary patterns, suggesting that they play important roles in the transcriptional network underlying human-specific neural traits.

  4. Muscle Gene Expression Patterns in Human Rotator Cuff Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Alexander; McCarthy, Meagan; Pichika, Rajeswari; Sato, Eugene J.; Lieber, Richard L.; Schenk, Simon; Lane, John G.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff pathology is a common source of shoulder pain with variable etiology and pathoanatomical characteristics. Pathological processes of fatty infiltration, muscle atrophy, and fibrosis have all been invoked as causes for poor outcomes after rotator cuff tear repair. The aims of this study were to measure the expression of key genes associated with adipogenesis, myogenesis, and fibrosis in human rotator cuff muscle after injury and to compare the expression among groups of patients with varied severities of rotator cuff pathology. Methods: Biopsies of the supraspinatus muscle were obtained arthroscopically from twenty-seven patients in the following operative groups: bursitis (n = 10), tendinopathy (n = 7), full-thickness rotator cuff tear (n = 8), and massive rotator cuff tear (n = 2). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to characterize gene expression pathways involved in myogenesis, adipogenesis, and fibrosis. Results: Patients with a massive tear demonstrated downregulation of the fibrogenic, adipogenic, and myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle was not in a state of active change and may have difficulty responding to stimuli. Patients with a full-thickness tear showed upregulation of fibrotic and adipogenic genes; at the tissue level, these correspond to the pathologies most detrimental to outcomes of surgical repair. Patients with bursitis or tendinopathy still expressed myogenic genes, indicating that the muscle may be attempting to accommodate the mechanical deficiencies induced by the tendon tear. Conclusions: Gene expression in human rotator cuff muscles varied according to tendon injury severity. Patients with bursitis and tendinopathy appeared to be expressing pro-myogenic genes, whereas patients with a full-thickness tear were expressing genes associated with fatty atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, patients with a massive tear appeared to have downregulation of all gene programs except inhibition of

  5. The age pattern of human capital and regional productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Hirte, Georg; Brunow, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    We explore the impact of the age structure of human capital on average regional productivity by applying a spatial econometric analysis based on an augmented Lucas-type production function. We also apply a new definition of regional human capital focusing on its availability. The estimates provide evidence that there are age specific human capital effects in Germany and that a temporary increase in regional productivity could occur during the demographic transition. Furthermore, it becomes cl...

  6. Deep Human Parsing with Active Template Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaodan; Liu, Si; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Liu, Luoqi; Dong, Jian; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the human parsing task, namely decomposing a human image into semantic fashion/body regions, is formulated as an active template regression (ATR) problem, where the normalized mask of each fashion/body item is expressed as the linear combination of the learned mask templates, and then morphed to a more precise mask with the active shape parameters, including position, scale and visibility of each semantic region. The mask template coefficients and the active shape parameters together can generate the human parsing results, and are thus called the structure outputs for human parsing. The deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is utilized to build the end-to-end relation between the input human image and the structure outputs for human parsing. More specifically, the structure outputs are predicted by two separate networks. The first CNN network is with max-pooling, and designed to predict the template coefficients for each label mask, while the second CNN network is without max-pooling to preserve sensitivity to label mask position and accurately predict the active shape parameters. For a new image, the structure outputs of the two networks are fused to generate the probability of each label for each pixel, and super-pixel smoothing is finally used to refine the human parsing result. Comprehensive evaluations on a large dataset well demonstrate the significant superiority of the ATR framework over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F1-score reaches 64.38 percent by our ATR framework, significantly higher than 44.76 percent based on the state-of-the-art algorithm [28].

  7. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, S. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Viall, N. M., E-mail: stephen.bradshaw@rice.edu, E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  8. Activity clocks: spreading dynamics on temporal networks of human contact

    CERN Document Server

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical processes on time-varying complex networks are key to un- derstanding and modeling a broad variety of processes in socio-technical systems. Here we focus on empirical temporal networks of human proxim- ity and we aim at understanding the factors that, in simulation, shape the arrival time distribution of simple spreading processes. Abandoning the notion of wall-clock time in favour of node-specific clocks based on activ- ity exposes robust statistical patterns in the arrival times across different social contexts. Using randomization strategies and generative models constrained by data, we show that these patterns can be understood in terms of heterogeneous inter-event time distributions coupled with hetero- geneous numbers of events per edge. We also show, both empirically and by using a synthetic dataset, that significant deviations from the above behavior can be caused by the presence of edge classes with strong activity correlations.

  9. Global Patterns in Human Consumption of Net Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence William T.

    2004-01-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, flows within food webs and the provision of important primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial ba!mce sheet of net primary production supply and demand for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production "imports" and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  10. Global patterns in human consumption of net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Marc L.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Ricketts, Taylor; Loucks, Colby; Harriss, Robert; Lawrence, William T.

    2004-06-01

    The human population and its consumption profoundly affect the Earth's ecosystems. A particularly compelling measure of humanity's cumulative impact is the fraction of the planet's net primary production that we appropriate for our own use. Net primary production-the net amount of solar energy converted to plant organic matter through photosynthesis-can be measured in units of elemental carbon and represents the primary food energy source for the world's ecosystems. Human appropriation of net primary production, apart from leaving less for other species to use, alters the composition of the atmosphere, levels of biodiversity, energy flows within food webs and the provision of important ecosystem services. Here we present a global map showing the amount of net primary production required by humans and compare it to the total amount generated on the landscape. We then derive a spatial balance sheet of net primary production `supply' and `demand' for the world. We show that human appropriation of net primary production varies spatially from almost zero to many times the local primary production. These analyses reveal the uneven footprint of human consumption and related environmental impacts, indicate the degree to which human populations depend on net primary production `imports' and suggest policy options for slowing future growth of human appropriation of net primary production.

  11. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  12. Human telomerase: biogenesis, trafficking, recruitment, and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jens C; Cech, Thomas R

    2015-06-01

    Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the extension of telomeric DNA in eukaryotes. Recent work has begun to reveal key aspects of the assembly of the human telomerase complex, its intracellular trafficking involving Cajal bodies, and its recruitment to telomeres. Once telomerase has been recruited to the telomere, it appears to undergo a separate activation step, which may include an increase in its repeat addition processivity. This review covers human telomerase biogenesis, trafficking, and activation, comparing key aspects with the analogous events in other species.

  13. Design of a Redundant Manipulator for Playing Table Tennis towards Human-Like Stroke Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangguo Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the design of a 7-DOF humanoid manipulator capable of playing table tennis with human-like stroke patterns. The manipulator system includes a redundant arm, real-time stereo vision system, and a distributed motion control system. First, the size, weight, workspace, and motion capability of the designed arm are similar to those of a human's arm. The forward and inverse kinematics, and the Jacobian matrix of the redundant manipulator are formulated. Next, a distributed motion control system is designed. The ball trajectory prediction method is proposed. Then, a human-inspired optimization method based on Jacobian pseudoinverse and the comfort of the arm posture for stroke pattern trajectory is proposed to achieve human-like stroke patterns and decrease the counterforce exerted on the manipulator. Finally, the validity of the proposed system and methods is demonstrated via human-like stroke pattern experiments.

  14. Application of local binary pattern and human visual Fibonacci texture features for classification different medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Foram; Agaian, Sos

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to (a) test the nuclei based Computer Aided Cancer Detection system using Human Visual based system on the histopathology images and (b) Compare the results of the proposed system with the Local Binary Pattern and modified Fibonacci -p pattern systems. The system performance is evaluated using different parameters such as accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value on 251 prostate histopathology images. The accuracy of 96.69% was observed for cancer detection using the proposed human visual based system compared to 87.42% and 94.70% observed for Local Binary patterns and the modified Fibonacci p patterns.

  15. Cognitive and metacognitive activity in mathematical problem solving: prefrontal and parietal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Betts, Shawn; Ferris, Jennifer L; Fincham, Jon M

    2011-03-01

    Students were taught an algorithm for solving a new class of mathematical problems. Occasionally in the sequence of problems, they encountered exception problems that required that they extend the algorithm. Regular and exception problems were associated with different patterns of brain activation. Some regions showed a Cognitive pattern of being active only until the problem was solved and no difference between regular or exception problems. Other regions showed a Metacognitive pattern of greater activity for exception problems and activity that extended into the post-solution period, particularly when an error was made. The Cognitive regions included some of parietal and prefrontal regions associated with the triple-code theory of (Dehaene, S., Piazza, M., Pinel, P., & Cohen, L. (2003). Three parietal circuits for number processing. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20, 487-506) and associated with algebra equation solving in the ACT-R theory (Anderson, J. R. (2005). Human symbol manipulation within an 911 integrated cognitive architecture. Cognitive science, 29, 313-342. Metacognitive regions included the superior prefrontal gyrus, the angular gyrus of the triple-code theory, and frontopolar regions.

  16. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  17. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  18. Microenvironmental time-activity patterns in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHAO; Shuxiao WANG; Gangcai CHEN; Fei WANG; Kristin AUNAN; Jiming HAO

    2009-01-01

    An investigation using recall questionnaires was conducted in winter and autumn 2006 to evaluate the time-activity patterns in Chongqing, China. The average time spent in seven microenvironments (MEs) including outdoors, transit, living room, bedroom, kitchen, classroom/office, and other indoors were found to be about 3.5,1.1, 2.5, 9.7, 1.4, 4.2, and 1.7 h per day, respectively.According to the results of a nonparametric test, the sampling period and day of week were significant for the variation of the time spent in all MEs except for transit and outdoors. The time budget was analyzed using a general linear model (GLM), which exhibited significant variability by demographic factors such as gender, age,residence, education, and household income.

  19. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Uspal, W E; Dietrich, S; Tasinkevych, M

    2016-01-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governi...

  20. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-25

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20-40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans.

  1. Clouds caused by human activities: the anthropoclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, Jordi; Costa, Marcel; Pino, David; Lorente, Jeroni

    2013-04-01

    The classification of clouds is based on the pioneering classification carried out by Howard (1804). In this classification, and also in the successive editions of the International Classification of Clouds published by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO, 1975, 1987) 10 basic cloud genera are included and described. In all cases, the cause that leads to the formation of clouds remains as a secondary issue. It is assumed that all of them are exclusively produced by natural mechanisms without any human intervention. However, aerosol and water vapour emissions produced by human activity may increase cloud formation having an increasing importance in the atmospheric energy budget and consequently in the earth's climate. Effectively, since the end of the Nineteenth century, human activity has been injecting large amounts of water vapour into the atmosphere, cloud condensation nuclei and hot air mainly generated in the combustion processes that under certain spatial and temporal conditions can enhance cloud formation. These anthropogenic aerosols are linked to the climate and the water cycle (Kaufman et al, 2002). The aim of this communication is to point out the anthropic origin of some clouds in the cloud classification. Several cases of the 7 basic genera cloud caused by human activities will be shown to discuss the importance of differentiating the origin of clouds in weather observations. This differentiation would improve the understanding the contribution of these clouds to climate change. To differentiate the clouds formed by human activity, we propose to use the prefix anthropo- before the scientific name (and a- before the abbreviation) in some of the 10 basic clouds defined by the International Classification of Clouds, those which could have an anthropic origin, and thus begin new data of cloud observations that could help future research to improve the effect of human activity in the troposphere.

  2. Repeating Patterns in Kindergarten: Findings from Children's Enactments of Two Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther S.; Barkai, Ruthi; Tabach, Michal

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes kindergarten children's engagement with two patterning activities. The first activity includes two tasks in which children are asked to choose possible ways for extending two different repeating patterns and the second activity calls for comparing different pairs of repeating patterns. Children's recognition of the unit of…

  3. Perception of the Symmetrical Patterning of Human Gait by Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy E.; Pinto, Jeannine; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments tested infants' sensitivity to properties of point-light displays of a walker and a runner that were equivalent regarding the phasing of limb movements. Found that 3-, but not 5-month-olds, discriminated these displays. When the symmetrical phase-patterning of the runner display was perturbed by advancing two of its limbs by 25…

  4. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  5. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  6. Human BMP sequences can confer normal dorsal-ventral patterning in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, R W; Wozney, J M; Gelbart, W M

    1993-04-01

    The type beta transforming growth factor family is composed of a series of processed, secreted growth factors, several of which have been implicated in important regulatory roles in cell determination, inductive interactions, and tissue differentiation. Among these factors, the sequence of the DPP protein from Drosophila is most similar to two of the vertebrate bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2 and BMP4. Here we report that the human BMP4 ligand sequences can function in lieu of DPP in Drosophila embryos. We introduced the ligand region from human BMP4 into a genomic fragment of the dpp gene in place of the Drosophila ligand sequences and recovered transgenic flies by P-element transformation. We find that this chimeric dpp-BMP4 transgene can completely rescue the embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning defect of null dpp mutant genotypes. We infer that the chimeric DPP-BMP4 protein can be processed properly and, by analogy with the action of other family members, can activate the endogenous DPP receptor to carry out the events necessary for dorsal-ventral patterning. Our evidence suggests that the DPP-BMP4 signal transduction pathway has been functionally conserved for at least 600 million years.

  7. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Key words: Breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu, immunohistochemistry, ... therapy.[6‑8] Of all these prognostic and predictive factors, ... one of the biggest private medical laboratories in Nigeria.

  8. Phenyl valerate esterase activity of human butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, Iris; Vilanova, Eugenio; Estévez, Jorge

    2017-03-15

    Phenyl valerate is used for detecting and measuring neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and has been used for discriminating esterases as potential target in hen model of organophosphorus delayed neuropathy. In previous studies we observed that phenyl valerate esterase (PVase) activity of an enzymatic fraction in chicken brain might be due to a butyrylcholinesterase protein (BuChE), and it was suggested that this enzymatic fraction could be related to the potentiation/promotion phenomenon of the organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN). In this work, PVase activity of purified human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE) is demonstrated and confirms the novel observation that a relationship of BuChE with PVase activities is also relevant for humans, as is, therefore the potential role in toxicity for humans. The KM and catalytic constant (kcat) were estimated as 0.52/0.72 µM and 45,900/49,200 min(-1) respectively. Furthermore, this work studies the inhibition by preincubation of PVase and cholinesterase activities of hBuChE with irreversible inhibitors (mipafox, iso-OMPA or PMSF), showing that these inhibitors interact similarly in both activities with similar second-order inhibition constants. Acethylthiocholine and phenyl valerate partly inhibit PVase and cholinesterase activities, respectively. All these observations suggest that both activities occur in the same active center. The interaction with a reversible inhibitor (ethopropazine) showed that the cholinesterase activity was more sensitive than the PVase activity, showing that the sensitivity for this reversible inhibitor is affected by the nature of the substrate. The present work definitively establishes the capacity of BuChE to hydrolyze the carboxylester phenyl valerate using a purified enzyme (hBuChE). Therefore, BuChE should be considered in the research of organophosphorus targets of toxicity related with PVase proteins.

  9. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues; Mariana Athaniel Silva Rodrigues; Daniel de Araújo Paz; Marcos Devanir Silva da Costa; Ricardo Silva Centeno; Feres Eduardo Chaddad Neto; Sergio Cavalheiro

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulc...

  10. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  11. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  12. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  13. How Situational Context Impacts Empathic Responses and Brain Activation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawei; Chen, Chenyi; Decety, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient's experience and feelings from the patient's perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i.e., in a hospital or at home). Participants with longer hospital terms evaluated pain as less negative in valence and arousal when occurring in a hospital context, but not in a home context. Physical pain perceived in a hospital compared to a home context produced stronger activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). The reverse comparison resulted in an increased activity in the insula and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). Mediation analysis indicated that reduced personal accomplishment, a symptom of burnout, breaks down the mediation effect of the putamen on context-dependent valence ratings. Overall, the study demonstrates how situational contexts significantly influence individuals' empathic processing, and that perceiving reward from patient care protects them from burnout. Highlights -Differences in behavior ratings and brain activations between medical practitioners perceiving others' pain in a hospital and at home.-Situational contexts significantly influence individual's empathic processing.-Perceiving rewards from patient care protects medical practitioners from burnout.-Empathy is a flexible phenomenon.

  14. How Situational Context Impacts Empathic Responses and Brain Activation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinical empathy, which is defined as the ability to understand the patient’s experience and feelings from the patient’s perspective, is acknowledged to be an important aspect of quality healthcare. However, how work experience modulates the empathic responses and brain activation patterns in medical professions remains elusive. This fMRI study recruited one hundred female nurses, who varied the length of work experience, and examined how their neural response, functional connectivity, and subjective evaluations of valence and arousal to perceiving another individual in physical pain are modulated by the situational context in which they occur (i.e., in a hospital or at home. Participants with longer hospital terms evaluated pain as less negative in valence and arousal when occurring in a hospital context, but not in a home context. Physical pain perceived in a hospital compared to a home context produced stronger activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ. The reverse comparison resulted in an increased activity in the insula and anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC. Mediation analysis indicated that reduced personal accomplishment, a symptom of burnout, breaks down the mediation effect of the putamen on context-dependent valence ratings. Overall, the study demonstrates how situational contexts significantly influence individuals’ empathic processing, and that perceiving reward from patient care protects them from burnout.Highlights-Differences in behavior ratings and brain activations between medical practitioners perceiving others’ pain in a hospital and at home.-Situational contexts significantly influence individual’s empathic processing.-Perceiving rewards from patient care protects medical practitioners from burnout.-Empathy is a flexible phenomenon.

  15. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  16. Transcriptional Activity of Human Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Balestrieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs have been implicated in human physiology and in human pathology. A better knowledge of the retroviral transcriptional activity in the general population and during the life span would greatly help the debate on its pathologic potential. The transcriptional activity of four HERV families (H, K, W, and E was assessed, by qualitative and quantitative PCR, in PBMCs from 261 individuals aged from 1 to 80 years. Our results show that HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W, but not HERV-E, are transcriptionally active in the test population already in the early childhood. In addition, the transcriptional levels of HERV-H, HERV-K, and HERV-W change significantly during the life span, albeit with distinct patterns. Our results, reinforce the hypothesis of a physiological correlation between HERVs activity and the different stages of life in humans. Studies aiming at identifying the factors, which are responsible for these changes during the individual’s life, are still needed. Although the observed phenomena are presumably subjected to great variability, the basal transcriptional activity of each individual, also depending on the different ages of life, must be carefully considered in all the studies involving HERVs as causative agents of disease.

  17. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Exotic high activity surface patterns in PtAu nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2013-05-09

    The structure and chemical ordering of PtAu nanoclusters of 79, 135, and 201 atoms are studied via a combination of a basin hopping atom-exchange technique (to locate the lowest energy homotops at fixed composition), a symmetry orbit technique (to find the high symmetry isomers), and density functional theory local reoptimization (for determining the most stable homotop). The interatomic interactions between Pt and Au are derived from the empirical Gupta potential. The lowest energy structures show a marked tendency toward PtcoreAushell chemical ordering by enrichment of the more cohesive Pt in the core region and of Au in the shell region. We observe a preferential segregation of Pt atoms to (111) facets and Au atoms to (100) facets of the truncated octahedron cluster motif. Exotic surface patterns are obtained particularly for Pt-rich compositions, where Pt atoms are being surrounded by Au atoms. These surface arrangements boost the catalytic activity by creating a large number of active sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  20. Distribution Patterns of Human Elephant Conflict in Areas Adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Munuo, Wilbright

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human pressure on terrestrial ecosystems has caused loss and fragmentation of habitats for wildlife species. That has brought humans and wildlife in close proximity intensifying human wildlife conflicts, especially when wild animals with wide home ranges, such as African and Asian elephants, are involved. This study assesses distribution patterns of human elephant conflict (HEC) in areas adjacent to Rungwa Game Reserve (RGR) in Tanzania. Questionnaire survey was used as a tool fo...

  1. Human Temporal Cortical Single Neuron Activity during Language: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Ojemann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Findings from recordings of human temporal cortical single neuron activity during several measures of language, including object naming and word reading are reviewed and related to changes in activity in the same neurons during recent verbal memory and verbal associative learning measures, in studies conducted during awake neurosurgery for the treatment of epilepsy. The proportion of neurons changing activity with language tasks was similar in either hemisphere. Dominant hemisphere activity was characterized by relative inhibition, some of which occurred during overt speech, possibly to block perception of one’s own voice. However, the majority seems to represent a dynamic network becoming active with verbal memory encoding and especially verbal learning, but inhibited during performance of overlearned language tasks. Individual neurons are involved in different networks for different aspects of language, including naming or reading and naming in different languages. The majority of the changes in activity were tonic sustained shifts in firing. Patterned phasic activity for specific language items was very infrequently recorded. Human single neuron recordings provide a unique perspective on the biologic substrate for language, for these findings are in contrast to many of the findings from other techniques for investigating this.

  2. NET amyloidogenic backbone in human activated neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulze, L; Bassani, B; Gini, E; D'Antona, P; Grimaldi, A; Luini, A; Marino, F; Noonan, D M; Tettamanti, G; Valvassori, R; de Eguileor, M

    2016-03-01

    Activated human neutrophils produce a fibrillar DNA network [neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)] for entrapping and killing bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Our results suggest that the neutrophil extracellular traps show a resistant amyloidogenic backbone utilized for addressing reputed proteins and DNA against the non-self. The formation of amyloid fibrils in neutrophils is regulated by the imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cytoplasm. The intensity and source of the ROS signal is determinant for promoting stress-associated responses such as amyloidogenesis and closely related events: autophagy, exosome release, activation of the adrenocorticotrophin hormone/α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (ACTH/α-MSH) loop and synthesis of specific cytokines. These interconnected responses in human activated neutrophils, that have been evaluated from a morphofunctional and quantitative viewpoint, represent primitive, but potent, innate defence mechanisms. In invertebrates, circulating phagocytic immune cells, when activated, show responses similar to those described previously for activated human neutrophils. Invertebrate cells within endoplasmic reticulum cisternae produce a fibrillar material which is then assembled into an amyloidogenic scaffold utilized to convey melanin close to the invader. These findings, in consideration to the critical role played by NET in the development of several pathologies, could explain the structural resistance of these scaffolds and could provide the basis for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in immunomediated diseases in which the innate branch of the immune system has a pivotal role.

  3. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  4. Role of melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan in patterning stem cells in human interfollicular epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, James; Jensen, Uffe B; Broad, Simon; Leigh, Irene; Watt, Fiona M

    2003-12-01

    Human interfollicular epidermis is renewed by stem cells that are clustered in the basal layer in a patterned, non-random distribution. Stem cells can be distinguished from other keratinocytes by high expression of beta1 integrins and lack of expression of terminal differentiation markers; they divide infrequently in vivo but form actively growing colonies in culture. In a search for additional stem cell markers, we observed heterogeneous epidermal expression of melanoma chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (MCSP). MCSP was expressed by those keratinocytes with the highest beta1 integrin levels. In interfollicular epidermis, expression was confined to non-cycling cells and, in culture, to self-renewing clones. However, fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of MCSP and beta1 integrin expression gave no more enrichment for clonogenic keratinocytes than sorting for beta1 integrins alone. To interfere with endogenous MCSP, we retrovirally infected keratinocytes with a chimera of the CD8 extracellular domain and the MCSP cytoplasmic domain. CD8/MCSP did not affect keratinocyte proliferation or differentiation but the cohesiveness of keratinocytes in isolated clones or reconstituted epidermal sheets was greatly reduced. CD8/MCSP caused stem cell progeny to scatter without differentiating. CD8/MCSP did not alter keratinocyte motility but disturbed cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and the cortical actin cytoskeleton, effects that could be mimicked by inhibiting Rho. We conclude that MCSP is a novel marker for epidermal stem cells that contributes to their patterned distribution by promoting stem cell clustering.

  5. Vitamin D3 modulated gene expression patterns in human primary normal and cancer prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzey, Meral; Luo, Jianhua; Getzenberg, Robert H

    2004-10-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the steroid/retinoid receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors and has potential tumor-suppressive functions in prostate and other cancer types. Vitamin D3 (VD3) exerts its biological actions by binding within cells to VDR. The VDR then interacts with specific regions of the DNA in cells, and triggers changes in the activity of genes involved in cell division, cell survival, and cellular function. Using human primary cultures and the prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, ALVA-31, we examined the effects of VD3 under different culture conditions. Complete G0/G1 arrest of ALVA-31 cells and approximately 50% inhibition of tumor stromal cell growth was observed. To determine changes in gene expression patterns related to VD3 activity, microarray analysis was performed. More than approximately 20,000 genes were evaluated for twofold relative increases and decreases in expression levels. A number of the gene targets that were up- and down-regulated are related to potential mechanisms of prostatic growth regulation. These include estrogen receptor (ER), heat shock proteins: 70 and 90, Apaf1, Her-2/neu, and paxillin. Utilizing antibodies generated against these targets, we were able to confirm the changes at the protein level. These newly reported gene expression patterns provide novel information not only potential markers, but also on the genes involved in VD3 induced apoptosis in PCa.

  6. Distribution patterns of postmortem damage in human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of postmortem damage in mitochondrial DNA retrieved from 37 ancient human DNA samples was analyzed by cloning and was compared with a selection of published animal data. A relative rate of damage (rho(v)) was calculated for nucleotide positions within the human hypervariable region......, such as MT5, have lower in vivo mutation rates and lower postmortem-damage rates. The postmortem data also identify a possible functional subregion of the HVR1, termed "low-diversity 1," through the lack of sequence damage. The amount of postmortem damage observed in mitochondrial coding regions...

  7. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network. PMID:22956678

  8. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  9. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  10. Activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in human gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgat, P; Walczuk, U; Szajda, S; Bień, M; Zimnoch, L; Mariak, Z; Zwierz, K

    2006-12-01

    There is a lot of data suggesting that modifications of cell glycoconjugates may be important in progression of cancer. In the present work we studied activities of lysosomal exoglycosidases: beta-hexosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B, beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase, in human gliomas. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically based on the release of p-nitrophenol from p-nitrophenyl-derivative of appropriate sugars. The activities of the exoglycosidases tested were significantly higher in malignant glial tumors than in control tissue (normal brain tissue) and non-glial tumors. The highest activities of exoglycosidases were observed in high-grade gliomas, and a positive correlation of enzyme activities and degree of malignancy was noted. Our results suggest that lysosomal exoglycosidases may participate in the progression and dynamical development of glial tumors.

  11. Human Activity Detection from RGBD Images

    CERN Document Server

    Sung, Jaeyong; Selman, Bart; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Being able to detect and recognize human activities is important for making personal assistant robots useful in performing assistive tasks. The challenge is to develop a system that is low-cost, reliable in unstructured home settings, and also straightforward to use. In this paper, we use a RGBD sensor (Microsoft Kinect) as the input sensor, and present learning algorithms to infer the activities. Our algorithm is based on a hierarchical maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM). It considers a person's activity as composed of a set of sub-activities, and infers the two-layered graph structure using a dynamic programming approach. We test our algorithm on detecting and recognizing twelve different activities performed by four people in different environments, such as a kitchen, a living room, an office, etc., and achieve an average performance of 84.3% when the person was seen before in the training set (and 64.2% when the person was not seen before).

  12. Human prolactin - 24-hour pattern with increased release during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassin, J. F.; Weitzman, E. D.; Kapen, S.; Frantz, A. G.

    1972-01-01

    Human prolactin was measured in plasma by radioimmunoassay at 20-minute intervals for a 24-hour period in each of six normal adults, whose sleep-wake cycles were monitored polygraphically. A marked diurnal variation in plasma concentrations was demonstrated, with highest values during sleep. Periods of episodic release occurred throughout the 24 hours.

  13. HETEROGENEITY IN THE GLYCOSYLATION PATTERN OF HUMAN PANCREATIC RIBONUCLEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIBO, M; BEINTEMA, JJ; OSSET, M; BRAVO, J; DELLORENS, R; CUCHILLO, CM

    1994-01-01

    Different molecular forms of ribonuclease were isolated from fresh human pancreas obtained from healthy transplant donors. The purification procedure consists of the preparation of an acetone powder, followed by (NH4)(2)SO4 precipitation and two chromatography steps (cationic exchange and reversed-p

  14. Life between Clocks : Daily Temporal Patterns of Human Chronotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Merrow, Martha

    2003-01-01

    Human behavior shows large interindividual variation in temporal organization. Extreme “larks” wake up when extreme “owls” fall asleep. These chronotypes are attributed to differences in the circadian clock, and in animals, the genetic basis of similar phenotypic differences is well established. To

  15. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/48004

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development of Internet technology enables human explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e. traces), we can get insights about dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, book, and movie rating, are comprehensively investigated by using detrended fluctuation analysis technique and multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three type medias show the similar scaling property with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of interevent time series in three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest the stronger long-rang...

  16. Patterns of human herpesvirus-8 oral shedding among diverse cohorts of human herpesvirus-8 seropositive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Goldman, Jason D; Magaret, Amalia S; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Gantt, Soren; Johnston, Christine; Phipps, Warren T; Schiffer, Joshua T; Zuckerman, Richard A; McClelland, R Scott; Celum, Connie; Corey, Larry; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), establishes lifelong latent infection with periodic lytic replication ("shedding") at mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx. Patterns of HHV-8 shedding are not well understood, and require elucidation to better predict risk of HHV-8 related malignancies in those infected. We sought to characterize patterns of HHV-8 oropharyngeal shedding among diverse cohorts that enrolled HHV-8 seropositive persons. We quantified HHV-8 oral shedding using PCR among HHV-8 seropositive persons who collected at least 14 days of oral swabs in 22 studies on 3 continents. We excluded persons taking antivirals during sampling or any prior use of antiretrovirals in those who were HIV-infected. 248 participants were enrolled from the US, Peru, Cameroon, Uganda, and Kenya; 61 % were men, 58 % were HIV seropositive, and 16 % had KS. Overall, 3,123 of 10,557 samples (29.6 %) had HHV-8 detected. Quantity of virus shed was highly correlated with shedding rate, (ρ = 0.72, p < 0.0001). HHV-8 was detected in ≥1 sample in 55 % of participants with a median of 7 % of days in the US and Kenya, 0 % in Uganda and Peru, and 18 % in Cameroon. Median episode duration was three days, and episodes with high median quantity lasted longer (42 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001). In persons with multiple observations over time, 66 % of shedding rate variance was attributable to differences between individuals. In HHV-8 infected individuals from diverse settings, oral mucosal shedding rate, quantity, and duration were correlated; individual shedding was highly variable. Studies are needed to determine factors accounting for between-person variation and the relationship of HHV-8 shedding to development of associated diseases.

  17. Efficiency of Human Activity on Information Spreading on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential users efficiently cause remarkable collective reactions by each message sent, while the majority of users must employ extremely larger efforts to reach similar effects. Next we propose a model that reproduces the retweet cascades occurring on Twitter to explain the emergent distribution of the user efficiency. The model shows that the dynamical patterns of the conversations are strongly conditioned by the topology of the underlying network. We conclude that the appearance of a small fraction of extremely efficient users resul...

  18. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  19. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Understanding Human Migration Patterns and their Utility in Forensic Human Identification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Holobinko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human migration patterns are of interest to scientists representing many fields. Theories have been posited to explain modern human evolutionary expansion, the diversity of human culture, and the motivational factors underlying an individual or group decision to migrate. Although the research question and subsequent approach may vary between disciplines, one thread is ubiquitous throughout most migration studies: why do humans migrate and what is the result of such an event? While the determination of individual attributes such as age, sex, and ancestry is often integral to migration studies, the positive identification of human remains is usually irrelevant. However, the positive identification of a deceased is paramount to a forensic investigation in which human remains have been recovered and must be identified. What role, if any, might the study of human movement patterns play in the interpretation of evidence associated with unidentified human remains? Due to increasing global mobility in the world's populations, it is not inconceivable that an individual might die far away from his or her home. If positive identification cannot immediately be made, investigators may consider various theories as to how or why a deceased ended up in a particular geographic location. While scientific evidence influences the direction of forensic investigations, qualitative evaluation can be an important component of evidence interpretation. This review explores several modern human migration theories and the methodologies utilized to identify evidence of human migratory movement before addressing the practical application of migration theory to forensic cases requiring the identification of human remains.

  20. Natural human mobility patterns and spatial spread of infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Belik, Vitaly; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a model for spatial epidemics explicitly taking into account bi-directional movements between base and destination locations on individual mobility networks. We provide a systematic analysis of generic dynamical features of the model on regular and complex metapopulation network topologies and show that significant dynamical differences exist to ordinary reaction-diffusion and effective force of infection models. On a lattice we calculate an expression for the velocity of the propagating epidemic front and find that in contrast to the diffusive systems, our model predicts a saturation of the velocity with increasing traveling rate. Furthermore, we show that a fully stochastic system exhibits a novel threshold for attack ratio of an outbreak absent in diffusion and force of infection models. These insights not only capture natural features of human mobility relevant for the geographical epidemic spread, they may serve as a starting point for modeling important dynamical processes in human and an...

  1. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Respecting people’s social spaces is an important prerequisite for acceptable and natural robot navigation in human environments. In this paper, we describe an adaptive system for mobile robot navigation based on estimates of whether a person seeks to interact with the robot or not. The estimates...... in a real world setting. The results demonstrate that the system is able to learn to navigate based on past interaction experiences, and to adapt to different behaviors over time....

  2. Weblog patterns and human dynamics with decreasing interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.-L.; Fan, C.; Guo, Z.-H.

    2011-06-01

    In order to describe the phenomenon that people's interest in doing something always keep high in the beginning while gradually decreases until reaching the balance, a model which describes the attenuation of interest is proposed to reflect the fact that people's interest becomes more stable after a long time. We give a rigorous analysis on this model by non-homogeneous Poisson processes. Our analysis indicates that the interval distribution of arrival-time is a mixed distribution with exponential and power-law feature, which is a power law with an exponential cutoff. After that, we collect blogs in ScienceNet.cn and carry on empirical study on the interarrival time distribution. The empirical results agree well with the theoretical analysis, obeying a special power law with the exponential cutoff, that is, a special kind of Gamma distribution. These empirical results verify the model by providing an evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics. It can be concluded that besides power-law distributions, there are other distributions in human dynamics. These findings demonstrate the variety of human behavior dynamics.

  3. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-05-30

    The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data.

  4. A human activity approach to User Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1989-01-01

    How can we understand why a bank teller has different needs for a user interface than those of casual users of a machine teller, or why a graphic designer needs a different user interface than a secretary? This article presents a framework for the design of user interfaces that originates from...... the work situations in which computer-based artifacts are used: The framework deals with the role of the user interface in purposeful human work. Human activity theory is used in this analysis. The purpose of this article is to make the reader curious and hopefully open his or her eyes to a somewhat...... different way of thinking about the user interface. The article applies examples of real-life interfaces to support this process, but it does not include a systematic presentation of empirical results. I focus on the role of the computer application in use. Thus, it is necessary to consider human...

  5. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed. The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial. PMID:22672654

  6. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2012-06-06

    Variability exists in children's activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese) from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH) or low active (LOW) depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school). Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P children, playground area per student, and temperature, depending on the segment analysed.The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  7. School day segmented physical activity patterns of high and low active children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability exists in children’s activity patterns due to the association with environmental, social, demographic, and inter-individual factors. This study described accelerometer assessed physical activity patterns of high and low active children during segmented school week days whilst controlling for potential correlates. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three children (mean age: 10.7 ± 0.3 yrs, 55.6% girls, 18.9% overweight/obese from 8 north-west England primary schools wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for 7 consecutive days during autumn of 2009. ActiGraph counts were converted to minutes of moderate (MPA, vigorous (VPA and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA physical activity. Children were classified as high active (HIGH or low active (LOW depending on the percentage of week days they accumulated at least 60 minutes of MVPA. Minutes spent in MPA and VPA were calculated for school time and non-school time and for five discrete school day segments (before-school, class time, recess, lunchtime, and after-school. Data were analysed using multi-level modelling. Results The HIGH group spent significantly longer in MPA and/or VPA before-school, during class time, lunchtime, and after-school (P P  The additive effect of the segment differences was that the HIGH group accumulated 12.5 minutes per day more MVPA than the LOW group. Conclusions HIGH active children achieved significantly more MPA and VPA than LOW active during four of the five segments of the school day when analyses were adjusted for potential correlates. Physical activity promotion strategies targeting low active children during discretionary physical activity segments of the day, and particularly via structured afterschool physical activity programs may be beneficial.

  8. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  9. Does human activity widen the tropics?

    CERN Document Server

    Georgieva, Katya

    2008-01-01

    The progress article - Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate - by Seidel et al. (2008) published in the first issue of Nature Geosciences, summarizes the results of several methods to determine the width of the tropical zone. All they show evidence that the tropics have been expanding over the past few decades. We confirm this widening based on one more indicator - the position of the subtropical centers of high pressure. However, we question the implication of the authors that the tropics widen in response to human activity, and suggest as a more probable cause the increasing solar activity. Consequently, we question their conclusion that this widening may continue into the future in association with anthropogenic climate change, and suggest that whether the tropics will continue widening will depend on the future evolution of solar activity rather than on anthropogenic activity.

  10. Study of human walking patterns based on the parameter optimization of a passive dynamic walking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xizhe; Liu, Xinyu; Zhu, Yanhe; Zhao, Jie

    2016-04-29

    The study of human walking patterns mainly focuses on how control affects walking because control schemes are considered to be dominant in human walking. This study proposes that not only fine control schemes but also optimized body segment parameters are responsible for humans' low-energy walking. A passive dynamic walker provides the possibility of analyzing the effect of parameters on walking efficiency because of its ability to walk without any control. Thus, a passive dynamic walking model with a relatively human-like structure was built, and a parameter optimization process based on the gait sensitivity norm was implemented to determine the optimal mechanical parameters by numerical simulation. The results were close to human body parameters, thus indicating that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters. A quasi-passive walking prototype was built on the basis of the optimization results. Experiments showed that a passive robot with optimized parameters could walk on level ground with only a simple hip actuation. This result implies that humans can walk under a passive pattern based on their body segment parameters with only simple control strategy implying that humans can opt to walk instinctively under a passive pattern.

  11. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  12. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  13. Differences in activation patterns in elbow flexor muscles during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, K; Kawakami, Y; Fukunaga, T; Yano, H; Miyashita, M

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the relative activation of the synergistic muscles during three different types of muscle contraction, the electromyograms (EMG) of two elbow flexor muscles, the biceps brachii (BB) and the brachioradialis (BR), have been compared. To accomplish this eight healthy human subjects performed the following elbow flexions against the same load--concentric, eccentric and isometric contractions. The isometric contractions were performed at three elbow angles: 10, 45 and 90 degrees (0 degree equal to full extension). The EMG were recorded by bipolar surface electrodes, and the relative activation between the two muscles was evaluated as the quotient of mean EMG activities (BR/BB). For the isotonic elbow flexions, BR/BB were calculated at three angle divisions: 0-30 degrees, 30-60 degrees and 60-90 degrees. Results indicated that the relative activation of the BR during the concentric contractions was higher than that of the eccentric contraction, particularly at the extended elbow angles, i.e. the BR/BB of the concentric contractions for the elbow joint angles ranging from 0-30 degrees and 30-60 degrees were significantly greater (P contractions. During the isometric and eccentric contractions, the BR/BB at the flexed joint angles tended to be greater than those at the extended angles. In contrast, there were no angle-dependent BR/BB variations during the concentric elbow flexions. Further, changing patterns in the EMG power spectra due to the type of contraction were different between BB and BR. These results indicated that the activation pattern in the two elbow flexor muscles varied with the muscle contraction pattern.

  14. Weblog patterns and modeling human dynamics with decaying interest

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    Web log is the fourth network exchange way following Email, BBS and MSN. Most bloggers began to write blogs with great interest, over time their interest gradually achieves a balance. In order to describe the phenomenon that people's interest in something gradually decays and achieves the balance, we first propose a model and give a rigorous analysis on it. This model describes interested in attenuation, and it reflects that people's interest in something is getting more stable after a long period of time. Our analysis indicates that the arrival-time interval distribution of the model is a mixed distribution with exponential and power-law feature. Secondly, we collect blogs in ScienceNet.cn and present an empirical study of blog arrival-time interval distribution. These empirical results verify the model, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena in human dynamics. The empirical results agree with the analytical result well, obeying an approximately mixed form. In human dynamics there are other distribu...

  15. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  16. Information Flow Model of Human Extravehicular Activity Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; McGuire, Kerry M.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Future human spaceflight missions will face the complex challenge of performing human extravehicular activity (EVA) beyond the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Astronauts will become increasingly isolated from Earth-based mission support and thus will rely heavily on their own decision-making capabilities and onboard tools to accomplish proposed EVA mission objectives. To better address time delay communication issues, EVA characters, e.g. flight controllers, astronauts, etc., and their respective work practices and roles need to be better characterized and understood. This paper presents the results of a study examining the EVA work domain and the personnel that operate within it. The goal is to characterize current and historical roles of ground support, intravehicular (IV) crew and EV crew, their communication patterns and information needs. This work provides a description of EVA operations and identifies issues to be used as a basis for future investigation.

  17. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-03-16

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  18. ANTIBIOTICS SUSCEPTIBILITY AND RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER OBTAINED FROM HUMANS AND CHICKENS IN OSOGBO

    OpenAIRE

    O.C Adekunle

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter species has been established in both humans and chickens Osogbo. This study was done to compare antibiotic susceptibility and resistance patterns in both humans and chickens. Twenty three Campylobacter isolates were obtained from humans and twenty isolates from chickens. The isolates were also subjected to the antimicrobial sensitivity testing. All the isolates exhibited varying degree of sensivity to the antimicrobial agents with ciprofloxac...

  19. Understanding what determines the frequency and pattern of human germline mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Surprising findings about human germline mutation have come from applying new technologies to detect rare mutations in germline DNA, from analysing DNA sequence divergence between humans and closely related species, and from investigating human polymorphic variation. In this Review we discuss how these approaches affect our current understanding of the roles of sex, age, mutation hot spots, germline selection and genomic factors in determining human nucleotide substitution mutation patterns and frequencies. To enhance our understanding of mutation and disease, more extensive molecular data on the human germ line with regard to mutation origin, DNA repair, epigenetic status and the effect of newly arisen mutations on gamete development are needed.

  20. Time pattern locking scheme for secure multimedia contents in human-centric device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jun-Ho; Park, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Young-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Among the various smart multimedia devices, multimedia smartphones have become the most widespread due to their convenient portability and real-time information sharing, as well as various other built-in features. Accordingly, since personal and business activities can be carried out using multimedia smartphones without restrictions based on time and location, people have more leisure time and convenience than ever. However, problems such as loss, theft, and information leakage because of convenient portability have also increased proportionally. As a result, most multimedia smartphones are equipped with various built-in locking features. Pattern lock, personal identification numbers, and passwords are the most used locking features on current smartphones, but these are vulnerable to shoulder surfing and smudge attacks, allowing malicious users to bypass the security feature easily. In particular, the smudge attack technique is a convenient way to unlock multimedia smartphones after they have been stolen. In this paper, we propose the secure locking screen using time pattern (SLSTP) focusing on improved security and convenience for users to support human-centric multimedia device completely. The SLSTP can provide a simple interface to users and reduce the risk factors pertaining to security leakage to malicious third parties.

  1. The emergence of complex patterns in online human communication

    CERN Document Server

    Mathiesen, Joachim; Jensen, Mogens H

    2012-01-01

    Social media have become essential conduits in the worldwide exchange of ideas, opinions and consumer marketing. Complex networks are important tools for analyzing the information flow in many aspects of nature and human society. Here, we introduce a method based on networks and social media to gauge how ideas, opinions and new trends impact society. We show that correlations between different international brands, nouns or US major cities follow a universal scale free distribution. The correlations indicate a self-organizing dynamics in large social organizations where the exchange of information between individuals is highly volatile. Our method provides new fundamental insight on the propagation of opinions and the emergence of trends in online communities.

  2. Synergistic Structure in the Speed Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity in Human Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Tom J W; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Otter, den A. Rob

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a modular organisation has been proposed to simplify control of the large number of muscles involved in human walking. Although previous research indicates that a single set of modular activation patterns can account for muscle activity at different speeds, these studies only provide indir

  3. Synergistic Structure in the Speed Dependent Modulation of Muscle Activity in Human Walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurke, Tom J. W.; Lamoth, Claudine J C; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Otter, den A. Rob

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a modular organisation has been proposed to simplify control of the large number of muscles involved in human walking. Although previous research indicates that a single set of modular activation patterns can account for muscle activity at different speeds, these studies only provide

  4. Revisiting the daily human birth pattern: time of delivery at Casa de Maternidad in Madrid (1887-1892).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Fernández-Cerezo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Among the ancestral characteristics of the primate group to which Homo sapiens belongs we find a pattern of daytime physical activity, but one notable exception is birthing which usually begins with night-time labor. In populations with a moderate or high level of medicalized labor, there is evidence that the medical preferences interfere with the underlying biological mechanism for the circadian pattern of human birth. This study analyses the hourly patterns of 4,599 single live births in the House of Maternity in Madrid between 1887 and 1892, a period of very limited obstetric intervention and without the influence of artificial lighting. In order to determine the influence of natural light on labor, two periods of maximum and minimum light have been established around the summer and winter solstices of the years in question. A clear circadian pattern of births emerges, with very early morning and early morning births dominating, and a sharp drop from midday until nightfall. The hourly distribution on both solstices follows this pattern, but with a clear peak shift: in winter, there is a greater concentration of deliveries in the early morning, whereas in the summer, the highest concentration is between 8 and 12 in the morning. The results confirm that non-intervened human birth has a clear diurnal cycle, with a higher incidence of deliveries in the early morning or morning. The shift in distribution during the winter and summer solstices seems to confirm the effect of light on the labor process. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Piai

    Full Text Available According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat, unrelated (pin, or identical (dog. Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

  6. Morphological patterns of the postcentral sulcus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The morphological structure of the postcentral sulcus and its variability were investigated in 40 structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain registered to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) proportional stereotaxic space. This analysis showed that the postcentral sulcus is not a single sulcus, but rather a complex of sulcal segments separated by gyri, which merge their banks at distinct locations. Most of these gyri are submerged deep within the sulcus and can be observed only by examining the depth of the sulcus, although a small proportion may be observed from the surface of the brain. In the majority of the examined cerebral hemispheres (73.75%), the postcentral sulcus is separated into two or three segments or, less frequently, into four or five segments (12.5%), or it remains continuous (13.75%). Examination of the in-depth relationship between the postcentral sulcus and the intraparietal sulcus revealed that these two sulci may appear to join on the surface of the brain but they are in fact always separated by a gyrus in the cortical depth. In 32.5% of the examined hemispheres, a dorsoventrally oriented sulcus, the transverse postcentral sulcus, is located anterior to the postcentral sulcus on the lower part of the postcentral gyrus. Systematic examination of the morphology of the postcentral sulcus in the proportional stereotaxic space that is used in functional neuroimaging studies is the first step toward the establishment of anatomical-functional correlations in the anterior parietal lobe.

  7. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  8. Acute activation, desensitization and smoldering activation of human acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara G Campling

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of nicotine and other nicotinic agonists are mediated by AChRs in the brain. The relative contribution of acute activation versus chronic desensitization of AChRs is unknown. Sustained "smoldering activation" occurs over a range of agonist concentrations at which activated and desensitized AChRs are present in equilibrium. We used a fluorescent dye sensitive to changes in membrane potential to examine the effects of acute activation and chronic desensitization by nicotinic AChR agonists on cell lines expressing human α4β2, α3β4 and α7 AChRs. We examined the effects of acute and prolonged application of nicotine and the partial agonists varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A on these AChRs. The range of concentrations over which nicotine causes smoldering activation of α4β2 AChRs was centered at 0.13 µM, a level found in smokers. However, nicotine produced smoldering activation of α3β4 and α7 AChRs at concentrations well above levels found in smokers. The α4β2 expressing cell line contains a mixture of two stoichiometries, namely (α4β22β2 and (α4β22α4. The (α4β22β2 stoichiometry is more sensitive to activation by nicotine. Sazetidine-A activates and desensitizes only this stoichiometry. Varenicline, cytisine and sazetidine-A were partial agonists on this mixture of α4β2 AChRs, but full agonists on α3β4 and α7 AChRs. It has been reported that cytisine and varenicline are most efficacious on the (α4β22α4 stoichiometry. In this study, we distinguish the dual effects of activation and desensitization of AChRs by these nicotinic agonists and define the range of concentrations over which smoldering activation can be sustained.

  9. Patterns of Physical Activity Outside of School Time among Japanese Junior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is beneficial for adolescent health. The physical activity patterns of Japanese adolescents are relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current patterns of physical activity and to identify sex and grade differences among them. Methods: The participants comprised 714 Japanese adolescents aged…

  10. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Stoyanova, Irina; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods

  11. High-resolution recombination patterns in a region of human chromosome 21 measured by sperm typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Tiemann-Boege

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, classical crossover studies and linkage disequilibrium (LD analysis of genomic regions suggested that human meiotic crossovers may not be randomly distributed along chromosomes but are focused instead in "hot spots." Recent sperm typing studies provided data at very high resolution and accuracy that defined the physical limits of a number of hot spots. The data were also used to test whether patterns of LD can predict hot spot locations. These sperm typing studies focused on several small regions of the genome already known or suspected of containing a hot spot based on the presence of LD breakdown or previous experimental evidence of hot spot activity. Comparable data on target regions not specifically chosen using these two criteria is lacking but is needed to make an unbiased test of whether LD data alone can accurately predict active hot spots. We used sperm typing to estimate recombination in 17 almost contiguous ~5 kb intervals spanning 103 kb of human Chromosome 21. We found two intervals that contained new hot spots. The comparison of our data with recombination rates predicted by statistical analyses of LD showed that, overall, the two datasets corresponded well, except for one predicted hot spot that showed little crossing over. This study doubles the experimental data on recombination in men at the highest resolution and accuracy and supports the emerging genome-wide picture that recombination is localized in small regions separated by cold areas. Detailed study of one of the new hot spots revealed a sperm donor with a decrease in recombination intensity at the canonical recombination site but an increase in crossover activity nearby. This unique finding suggests that the position and intensity of hot spots may evolve by means of a concerted mechanism that maintains the overall recombination intensity in the region.

  12. Understanding Usability Work as a Human Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie

    of usability work to include a human perspective, is crucial to downstream utility—how usability work impacts the on-going development process. Our work shows that cross-professional collaboration is subject to challenges that arise from stakeholders having conflicting priorities, procedures and personalities......Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding....... Such challenges include evaluation results lacking relevance, poor timing of evaluation results, little respect for other disciplines, and difficulties sharing important information about a design. The studies of practical usability work suggest that user researchers working with computer games and task oriented...

  13. Unsupervised learning human's activities by overexpressed recognized non-speech sounds

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Human activity and environment produces sounds such as, at home, the noise produced by water, cough, or television. These sounds can be used to determine the activity in the environment. The objective is to monitor a person's activity or determine his environment using a single low cost microphone by sound analysis. The purpose is to adapt programs to the activity or environment or detect abnormal situations. Some patterns of over expressed repeatedly in the sequences of recognized sounds int...

  14. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  15. Physical Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Attal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of different classification techniques used to recognize human activities from wearable inertial sensor data. Three inertial sensor units were used in this study and were worn by healthy subjects at key points of upper/lower body limbs (chest, right thigh and left ankle. Three main steps describe the activity recognition process: sensors’ placement, data pre-processing and data classification. Four supervised classification techniques namely, k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM, and Random Forest (RF as well as three unsupervised classification techniques namely, k-Means, Gaussian mixture models (GMM and Hidden Markov Model (HMM, are compared in terms of correct classification rate, F-measure, recall, precision, and specificity. Raw data and extracted features are used separately as inputs of each classifier. The feature selection is performed using a wrapper approach based on the RF algorithm. Based on our experiments, the results obtained show that the k-NN classifier provides the best performance compared to other supervised classification algorithms, whereas the HMM classifier is the one that gives the best results among unsupervised classification algorithms. This comparison highlights which approach gives better performance in both supervised and unsupervised contexts. It should be noted that the obtained results are limited to the context of this study, which concerns the classification of the main daily living human activities using three wearable accelerometers placed at the chest, right shank and left ankle of the subject.

  16. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  17. CFTR targeting during activation of human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hang Pong; Valentine, Vincent G; Wang, Guoshun

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, plays critical roles in phagocytic host defense. However, how activated neutrophils regulate CFTR channel distribution subcellularly is not well defined. To investigate, we tested multiple Abs against different CFTR domains, to examine CFTR expression in human peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. The data confirmed that resting neutrophils had pronounced CFTR expression. Activation of neutrophils with soluble or particulate agonists did not significantly increase CFTR expression level, but induced CFTR redistribution to cell surface. Such CFTR mobilization correlated with cell-surface recruitment of formyl-peptide receptor during secretory vesicle exocytosis. Intriguingly, neutrophils from patients with ΔF508-CF, despite expression of the mutant CFTR, showed little cell-surface mobilization upon stimulation. Although normal neutrophils effectively targeted CFTR to their phagosomes, ΔF508-CF neutrophils had impairment in that process, resulting in deficient hypochlorous acid production. Taken together, activated neutrophils regulate CFTR distribution by targeting this chloride channel to the subcellular sites of activation, and ΔF508-CF neutrophils fail to achieve such targeting, thus undermining their host defense function.

  18. Investigation of Travel and Activity Patterns Using Location-based Social Network Data: A Case Study of Active Mobile Social Media Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relatively high availability and low cost, location-based social network (LBSN (e.g., Foursquare data (a popular type of volunteered geographic information seem to be an alternative or complement to survey data in the study of travel behavior and activity analysis. Illustrating this situation, recently, a number of studies attempted to use LBSN data (e.g., Foursquare check-ins to investigate patterns of human travel and activity. Of particular note is that compared to other individual-level characteristics of users, such as age, profession, education, income and so forth, gender is relatively highly available in the profiles of Foursquare users. Moreover, considering gender differences in travel and activity analysis is a popular research topic and is helpful in better understanding the changes in women’s roles in family, labor force participation, society and so forth. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates how gender influences the travel and activity patterns of active local Foursquare users in New York City. Empirical investigations of gender differences in travel and activity patterns are conducted at both the individual and aggregate level. The empirical results reveal that there are gender differences in the travel and activity patterns of active local users in New York City at both the individual and aggregate level. Finally, the results of the empirical study and the extent to which LBSN data can be exploited to produce travel diary data are discussed.

  19. Temporal Analysis of Activity Patterns of Editors in Collaborative Mapping Project of OpenStreetMap

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Mashhadi, Afra

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years Wikis have become an attractive platform for social studies of the human behaviour. Containing millions records of edits across the globe, collaborative systems such as Wikipedia have allowed researchers to gain a better understanding of editors participation and their activity patterns. However, contributions made to Geo-wikis_wiki-based collaborative mapping projects_ differ from systems such as Wikipedia in a fundamental way due to spatial dimension of the content that limits the contributors to a set of those who posses local knowledge about a specific area and therefore cross-platform studies and comparisons are required to build a comprehensive image of online open collaboration phenomena. In this work, we study the temporal behavioural pattern of OpenStreetMap editors, a successful example of geo-wiki, for two European capital cities. We categorise different type of temporal patterns and report on the historical trend within a period of 7 years of the project age. We also draw a com...

  20. Exploring Human Mobility Patterns Based on Location Information of US Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A range of early studies have been conducted to illustrate human mobility patterns using different tracking data, such as dollar notes, cell phones and taxicabs. Here, we explore human mobility patterns based on massive tracking data of US flights. Both topological and geometric properties are examined in detail. We found that topological properties, such as traffic volume (between airports) and degree of connectivity (of individual airports), including both in- and outdegrees, follow a power law distribution but not a geometric property like travel lengths. The travel lengths exhibit an exponential distribution rather than a power law with an exponential cutoff as previous studies illustrated. We further simulated human mobility on the established topologies of airports with various moving behaviors and found that the mobility patterns are mainly attributed to the underlying binary topology of airports and have little to do with other factors, such as moving behaviors and geometric distances. Apart from the ...

  1. MtDNA mutation pattern in tumors and human evolution are shaped by similar selective constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, Ilia; Livneh, Erez A; Rubin, Eitan; Mishmar, Dan

    2009-04-01

    Multiple human mutational landscapes of normal and cancer conditions are currently available. However, while the unique mutational patterns of tumors have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to similarities between malignant and normal conditions. Here we compared the pattern of mutations in the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of cancer (98 sequences) and natural populations (2400 sequences). De novo mtDNA mutations in cancer preferentially colocalized with ancient variants in human phylogeny. A significant portion of the cancer mutations was organized in recurrent combinations (COMs), reaching a length of seven mutations, which also colocalized with ancient variants. Thus, by analyzing similarities rather than differences in patterns of mtDNA mutations in tumor and human evolution, we discovered evidence for similar selective constraints, suggesting a functional potential for these mutations.

  2. Morphological patterns of the collateral sulcus in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntgeburth, Sonja C; Petrides, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The collateral sulcal complex is an important landmark on the medial surface of the temporal lobe. Anteriorly, it delineates the limbic regions of the parahippocampal gyrus from the visual-processing areas of the fusiform gyrus. Posteriorly, it continues into the occipital lobe, bearing no relationship to the memory-related limbic regions. Given the considerable extent of the sulcus and functional heterogeneity of the surrounding cortex, an investigation of the morphology of this sulcus was carried out to examine whether it is continuous or a series of sulcal parts, i.e. independent sulci classified together under the name collateral sulcus. We investigated the collateral sulcal complex using magnetic resonance images taking into account the three-dimensional nature of the brain. Our examination demonstrated three separate sulcal segments: (i) an anterior segment, the rhinal sulcus, delineating the uncus from the adjacent temporal neocortex, (ii) a middle segment, the collateral sulcus proper, forming the lateral border of the posterior parahippocampal cortex, and (iii) a caudal segment, the occipital extent of the collateral sulcus, within the occipital lobe. Three relationships exist between the rhinal sulcus and collateral sulcus proper, only one being clearly identifiable from the surface. Posteriorly, the collateral sulcus proper and the occipital collateral sulcus, although appearing continuous on the brain surface, can be separated in the depth of the sulcus in all cases. These results provide quantification of the location and variability within standard stereotaxic space for the three collateral sulcus segments that could be used to aid accurate identification of functional activation peaks derived from neuroimaging studies.

  3. Psychophysics of human vision: The key to improved camouflage pattern design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available determined by the factors mentioned above, but also by the (possible) observer/enemy. The human visual system (which includes the brain) is one of the most powerful observation systems. This paper examined the eye-brain interaction, and how... these properties could aid camouflage pattern development. 2. The Human Visual System The human visual system is very complex, therefore this study was undertaken in order to better understand the human eye-brain interaction. It also assisted in forming a...

  4. Human capital in the German urban system – Patterns of concentration and specialisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Growe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy human capital plays a crucial role in various economic processes and thus also in spatial development. But human capital is an economic resource that is distributed unequally in space. Some regions show a higher density of human capital than others. This paper discusses questions relating to the spatial concentration and specialisation of human capital in the German urban system. Due to an increasing interest in human capital the questions are asked, where is human capital located in the German urban system and how does the distribution change over time. The paper relates to geographical theories of concentration and specialisation. It will be shown that human capital is a heterogeneous category containing different occupational groups showing different spatial patterns. Some display increasing spatial disparities; others are fairly balanced over space.

  5. Deposition pattern of inhaled radon progeny size distribution in human lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors controlling the distribution of radiation dose to the different portions of the human respiratory tract is the deposition pattern of radon progeny containing aerosol. Based on the activity size distribution parameters of radon progeny, which were measured in Minia University, the deposition behavior of radon progeny (attached and unattached has been studied by using a stochastic deposition model. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The bronchial deposition fraction of particles in the size range of attached radon progeny was found to be lower than those of unattached progeny. The effect of radon progeny deposition by adult male has been also studied for various levels of physical exertion. An increase in the breathing rate was found to decrease the fraction with which inhaled progeny were deposited in the bronchi. As the ventilation rate increases from 0.54 to 1.5 m3 h−1, the average deposition fraction of airway generation 1 through 8 are expected to decrease by 22% for 1.4 nm particles and by 38% for 150 nm particles.

  6. Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovato James

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22. Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88 after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

  7. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  8. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  9. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  10. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J Teichman

    Full Text Available Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007 involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007 conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.

  11. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  12. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduce Crew Operations (RCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. This paper applies a methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project.

  13. Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP for Face Recognition in Parallel Computation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundavarapu Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - The availability of multi-core technology resulted totally new computational era. Researchers are keen to explore available potential in state of art-machines for breaking the bearer imposed by serial computation. Face Recognition is one of the challenging applications on so ever computational environment. The main difficulty of traditional Face Recognition algorithms is lack of the scalability. In this paper Weighted Local Active Pixel Pattern (WLAPP, a new scalable Face Recognition Algorithm suitable for parallel environment is proposed.  Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP is found to be simple and computational inexpensive compare to Local Binary Patterns (LBP. WLAPP is developed based on concept of LAPP. The experimentation is performed on FG-Net Aging Database with deliberately introduced 20% distortion and the results are encouraging. Keywords — Active pixels, Face Recognition, Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Active Pixel Pattern (LAPP, Pattern computing, parallel workers, template, weight computation.  

  14. An investigation of patterns of children's sedentary and vigorous physical activity throughout the week

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Rebekah M; van Sluijs, Esther Mf; Sharp, Stephen J; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Ekelund, Ulf; Griffin, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    Participation in higher intensity activity (i.e. vigorous physical activity [VPA]) appears more consistently associated with lower adiposity, unfortunately little is known about the nature and patterns of VPA participation in children...

  15. Population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tedi

    2013-01-07

    Jan 7, 2013 ... wisely manage human helmeted guinea fowl interac- tions. There are six ... meleagris and somaliensis, and Central-South African N. m. reichenowi, mitrata ... expansion of agricultural land and livestock grazing. METHODS.

  16. Developmental distribution pattern of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in prenatal human hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengbo Yang; Yong Liu; Junfeng Zhang; Lingyu Zhao; Qian Jiao; Hui Jin; Xinli Xiao; Haixia Zhang; Ming Hu; Haixia Lu

    2012-01-01

    Objective Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is concentrated in zones of active neurogenesis in the prenatal and postnatal rodent brain and plays an important role in the regulation of neurogenesis.However,little is known about mGluR5 in the prenatal human brain.Here,we aimed to explore the expression pattern and cellular distribution of mGluR5 in human fetal hippocampus.Methods Thirty-four human fetuses were divided into four groups according to gestational age:9-11,14-16,22-24 and 32-36 weeks.The hippocampus was dissected out and prepared.The protein and mRNA expression of mGluR5 were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry or real-time PCR.The cellular distribution of mGluR5 was observed with double-labeling immunofluorescence.Results Both mGluR5 mRNA and protein were detected in the prenatal human hippocampus by real-time PCR and immunoblotting,and the expression levels increased gradually over time.The immunohistochemistry results were consistent with immunoblotting and showed that mGluR5 immunoreactivity was mainly present in the inner marginal zone (IMZ),hippocampal plate (HP) and ventricular zone (VZ).The double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that mGluR5 was present in neural stem cells (nestin-positive),neuroblasts (DCX-positive) and mature neurons (NeuN-positive),but not in typical astrocytes (GFAP-positive).The cells co-expressing mGluR5 and nestin were mainly located in the IMZ,HP and subplate at 11 weeks,all layers at 16 weeks,and CA1 at 24 weeks.As development proceeded,the number of mGluR5/nestin double-positive cells decreased gradually so that there were only a handful of double-labeled cells at 32 weeks.However,mGluR5/DCX double-positive cells were only found in the HP,IZ and IMZ at 11 weeks.Conclusion The pattem of mGluR5 expression by neural stem/progenitor cells,neuroblasts and neurons provides important anatomical evidence for the role of mGluR5 in the regulation of human hippocampal development.

  17. I can see where you would be: Patterns of fMRI activity reveal imagined landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Sulpizio, Valentina; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Guariglia, Cecilia; Galati, Gaspare

    2017-01-01

    Visual mental imagery arises when perceptual information is accessed from memory, originating the experience of "seeing with the mind's eye". Different content-dependent brain areas in the human ventral visual stream are activated during visual mental imagery, similarly to what happens during visual perception. The neural patterns within these regions, but not in the early visual cortex, are similar during imagery and perception, suggesting that, in the absence of perceptual stimulation, content-dependent brain areas are able to re-instantiate specific neural patterns allowing for mental imagery. However, it remains unknown whether these areas contain adequate neural representations that create mental images or need to interact with other regions in the brain, such as the hippocampus (HC), to access the necessary information from memory. To test this hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and both multivoxel pattern classification and psychophysiological interaction analyses. Participants were scanned while viewing or imagining scenes of familiar environments. We found that the identity of familiar places can be decoded from the neural patterns in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), retrosplenial complex/parieto-occipital sulcus (RSC/POS) and HC, during both imagery and perception, and that item-specific information from perceived places was re-instantiated during mental imagery of the same places and vice versa. Furthermore, the right PPA significantly interacted with the right HC and RSC/POS according to the performed task. Specifically, the functional coupling between PPA and HC was higher during mental imagery, whereas the functional coupling between PPA and RSC/POS was higher during perception. Our investigation provides an important contribution to the understanding of how the brain uses previously acquired knowledge to build a mental representation of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NLRP7 and related inflammasome activating pattern recognition receptors and their function in host defense and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radian, Alexander D; de Almeida, Lucia; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Host defense requires the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and the induction of pyroptotic cell death, which depends on the activation of inflammatory Caspases within inflammasomes by innate immune cells. Several cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been implicated in this process in response to infectious and sterile agonists. Here we summarize the current knowledge on inflammasome-organizing PRRs, emphasizing the recently described NLRP7, and their implications in human disease.

  19. Understanding the Impact of Human Mobility Patterns on Taxi Drivers’ Profitability Using Clustering Techniques: A Case Study in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. H. Naji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxi trajectories reflect human mobility over the urban roads’ network. Although taxi drivers cruise the same city streets, there is an observed variation in their daily profit. To reveal the reasons behind this issue, this study introduces a novel approach for investigating and understanding the impact of human mobility patterns (taxi drivers’ behavior on daily drivers’ profit. Firstly, a K-means clustering method is adopted to group taxi drivers into three profitability groups according to their driving duration, driving distance and income. Secondly, the cruising trips and stopping spots for each profitability group are extracted. Thirdly, a comparison among the profitability groups in terms of spatial and temporal patterns on cruising trips and stopping spots is carried out. The comparison applied various methods including the mash map matching method and DBSCAN clustering method. Finally, an overall analysis of the results is discussed in detail. The results show that there is a significant relationship between human mobility patterns and taxi drivers’ profitability. High profitability drivers based on their experience earn more compared to other driver groups, as they know which places are more active to cruise and to stop and at what times. This study provides suggestions and insights for taxi companies and taxi drivers in order to increase their daily income and to enhance the efficiency of the taxi industry.

  20. Repeated assessment of exploration and novelty seeking in the human behavioral pattern monitor in bipolar disorder patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi Minassian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration and novelty seeking are cross-species adaptive behaviors that are dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD and are critical features of the illness. While these behaviors have been extensively quantified in animals, multivariate human paradigms of exploration are lacking. The human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM, a human version of the animal open field, identified a signature pattern of hyper-exploration in manic BD patients, but whether exploratory behavior changes with treatment is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the hBPM to changes in manic symptoms, a necessary step towards elucidating the neurobiology underlying BD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve acutely hospitalized manic BD subjects and 21 healthy volunteers were tested in the hBPM over three sessions; all subjects were retested one week after their first session and two weeks after their second session. Motor activity, spatial and entropic (degree of unpredictability patterns of exploration, and interactions with novel objects were quantified. Manic BD patients demonstrated greater motor activity, extensive and more unpredictable patterns of exploration, and more object interactions than healthy volunteers during all three sessions. Exploration and novelty-seeking slightly decreased in manic BD subjects over the three sessions as their symptoms responded to treatment, but never to the level of healthy volunteers. Among healthy volunteers, exploration did not significantly decrease over time, and hBPM measures were highly correlated between sessions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Manic BD patients showed a modest reduction in symptoms yet still demonstrated hyper-exploration and novelty seeking in the hBPM, suggesting that these illness features may be enduring characteristics of BD. Furthermore, behavior in the hBPM is not subject to marked habituation effects. The hBPM can be reliably used in a repeated-measures design

  1. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2013-12-01

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  2. Predicting decisions in human social interactions using real-time fMRI and pattern classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Hollmann

    Full Text Available Negotiation and trade typically require a mutual interaction while simultaneously resting in uncertainty which decision the partner ultimately will make at the end of the process. Assessing already during the negotiation in which direction one's counterpart tends would provide a tremendous advantage. Recently, neuroimaging techniques combined with multivariate pattern classification of the acquired data have made it possible to discriminate subjective states of mind on the basis of their neuronal activation signature. However, to enable an online-assessment of the participant's mind state both approaches need to be extended to a real-time technique. By combining real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and online pattern classification techniques, we show that it is possible to predict human behavior during social interaction before the interacting partner communicates a specific decision. Average accuracy reached approximately 70% when we predicted online the decisions of volunteers playing the ultimatum game, a well-known paradigm in economic game theory. Our results demonstrate the successful online analysis of complex emotional and cognitive states using real-time fMRI, which will enable a major breakthrough for social fMRI by providing information about mental states of partners already during the mutual interaction. Interestingly, an additional whole brain classification across subjects confirmed the online results: anterior insula, ventral striatum, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, known to act in emotional self-regulation and reward processing for adjustment of behavior, appeared to be strong determinants of later overt behavior in the ultimatum game. Using whole brain classification we were also able to discriminate between brain processes related to subjective emotional and motivational states and brain processes related to the evaluation of objective financial incentives.

  3. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human malignant lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe Høgh; Hastrup, Nina; Sehested, Maxwell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine in human malignant lymphomas the expression patterns of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), the primary, rate-limiting enzymes in the synthesis of NAD+. NAMPT is a potential biomarker for se...

  5. Superior Pattern Processing is the Essence of the Evolved Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eMattson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long pondered the nature of their mind/brain and, particularly why its capacities for reasoning, communication and abstract thought are far superior to other species, including closely related anthropoids. This article considers superior pattern processing (SPP as the fundamental basis of most, if not all, unique features of the human brain including intelligence, language, imagination, invention, and the belief in imaginary entities such as ghosts and gods. SPP involves the electrochemical, neuronal network-based, encoding, integration, and transfer to other individuals of perceived or mentally-fabricated patterns. During human evolution, pattern processing capabilities became increasingly sophisticated as the result of expansion of the cerebral cortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in processing of images. Specific patterns, real or imagined, are reinforced by emotional experiences, indoctrination and even psychedelic drugs. Impaired or dysregulated SPP is fundamental to cognitive and psychiatric disorders. A broader understanding of SPP mechanisms, and their roles in normal and abnormal function of the human brain, may enable the development of interventions that reduce irrational decisions and destructive behaviors.

  6. Testing key predictions of the associative account of mirror neurons in humans using multivariate pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Wiggett, Alison J; Cross, Emily S

    2014-04-01

    Cook et al. overstate the evidence supporting their associative account of mirror neurons in humans: most studies do not address a key property, action-specificity that generalizes across the visual and motor domains. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data can address this concern, and we illustrate how MVPA can be used to test key predictions of their account.

  7. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...

  8. Testing key predictions of the associative account of mirror neurons in humans using multivariate pattern analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, N.N.; Wiggett, AJ.; Cross, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cook et al. overstate the evidence supporting their associative account of mirror neurons in humans: most studies do not address a key property, action-specificity that generalizes across the visual and motor domains. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of neuroimaging data can address this

  9. Human Walking Pattern Recognition Based on KPCA and SVM with Ground Reflex Pressure Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqin Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithms based on the ground reflex pressure (GRF signal obtained from a pair of sensing shoes for human walking pattern recognition were investigated. The dimensionality reduction algorithms based on principal component analysis (PCA and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA for walking pattern data compression were studied in order to obtain higher recognition speed. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM, SVM-PCA, and SVM-KPCA were designed, and the classification performances of these three kinds of algorithms were compared using data collected from a person who was wearing the sensing shoes. Experimental results showed that the algorithm fusing SVM and KPCA had better recognition performance than the other two methods. Experimental outcomes also confirmed that the sensing shoes developed in this paper can be employed for automatically recognizing human walking pattern in unlimited environments which demonstrated the potential application in the control of exoskeleton robots.

  10. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (pmuscles into activation patterns (pmuscles with different patterns react differently to treatment.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Silicon-Based Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna Employing an Active Element Pattern Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a silicon-based radio frequency micro-electromechanical systems (RF MEMS pattern reconfigurable antenna for a Ka-band application was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and measured. The proposed antenna can steer the beam among three radiating patterns (with main lobe directions of −20°, 0°, and +20° approximately at 35 GHz by switching RF MEMS operating modes. The antenna has a low profile with a small size of 3.7 mm × 4.4 mm × 0.4 mm, and consists of one driven patch, four parasitic patches, two assistant patches, and two RF MEMS switches. The active element pattern method integrated with signal flow diagram was employed to analyze the performances of the proposed antenna. Comparing the measured results with analytical and simulated ones, good agreements are obtained.

  12. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  13. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  14. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Perchoux

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were (1 to define physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviors (SB patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2 to identify pattern(s of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii sedentary transportation, (iv sedentary occupation and leisure, (v active transportation, and (vi active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors’ complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  16. Planning as a part of human resource management activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kulić, Živko; Milošević, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Human resource management activities are most often grouped, or classified in that they are reduced to some ten basic activities. These activities are considered to be: work analysis; human resource planning; human resource recruitment; human resource selection; employee socialization and orientation; employee training and education; employee performance evaluation; employee rewarding and motivating; employee health and security; career management, and employee degradation and lying off. The ...

  17. Modelling large scale human activity in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marta

    2010-03-01

    Diverse group of people with a wide variety of schedules, activities and travel needs compose our cities nowadays. This represents a big challenge for modeling travel behaviors in urban environments; those models are of crucial interest for a wide variety of applications such as traffic forecasting, spreading of viruses, or measuring human exposure to air pollutants. The traditional means to obtain knowledge about travel behavior is limited to surveys on travel journeys. The obtained information is based in questionnaires that are usually costly to implement and with intrinsic limitations to cover large number of individuals and some problems of reliability. Using mobile phone data, we explore the basic characteristics of a model of human travel: The distribution of agents is proportional to the population density of a given region, and each agent has a characteristic trajectory size contain information on frequency of visits to different locations. Additionally we use a complementary data set given by smart subway fare cards offering us information about the exact time of each passenger getting in or getting out of the subway station and the coordinates of it. This allows us to uncover the temporal aspects of the mobility. Since we have the actual time and place of individual's origin and destination we can understand the temporal patterns in each visited location with further details. Integrating two described data set we provide a dynamical model of human travels that incorporates different aspects observed empirically.

  18. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  19. Modular organization of muscle activity patterns in the leading and trailing limbs during obstacle clearance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Human locomotor patterns require precise adjustments to successfully navigate complex environments. Studies suggest that the central nervous system may control such adjustments through supraspinal signals modifying a basic locomotor pattern at the spinal level. To explore this proposed control mechanism in the leading and trailing limbs during obstructed walking, healthy young adults stepped over obstacles measuring 0.1 and 0.2 m in height. Unobstructed walking with no obstacle present was also performed as a baseline. Full body three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded and electromyography (EMG) was collected from 14 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. EMG data were analyzed using two techniques: by mapping the EMG data to the approximate location of the motor neuron pools on the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord and by applying a nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm to unilateral and bilateral muscle activations separately. Results showed that obstacle clearance may be achieved not only with the addition of a new activation pattern in the leading limb, but with a temporal shift of a pattern present during unobstructed walking in both the leading and trailing limbs. An investigation of the inter-limb coordination of these patterns suggested a strong bilateral linkage between lower limbs. These results highlight the modular organization of muscle activation in the leading and trailing limbs, as well as provide a mechanism of control when implementing a locomotor adjustment when stepping over an obstacle.

  20. Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

    2014-02-01

    Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon.

  1. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    subjective estimate of their activity level over the past week using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE).3 This instrument dealt with...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November

  2. Object Relevance Weight Pattern Mining for Activity Recognition and Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmes, Paulito Pedregosa; Pung, Hung Keng; Gu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring daily activities of a person has many potential benefits in pervasive computing. These include providing proactive support for the elderly and monitoring anomalous behaviors. A typical approach in existing research on activity detection is to construct sequence-based models of low-leve...

  3. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  4. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  5. Recognition of human activities with wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weihua; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Li, Xinke

    2012-12-01

    A novel approach for recognizing human activities with wearable sensors is investigated in this article. The key techniques of this approach include the generalized discriminant analysis (GDA) and the relevance vector machines (RVM). The feature vectors extracted from the measured signal are processed by GDA, with its dimension remarkably reduced from 350 to 12 while fully maintaining the most discriminative information. The reduced feature vectors are then classified by the RVM technique according to an extended multiclass model, which shows good convergence characteristic. Experimental results on the Wearable Action Recognition Dataset demonstrate that our approach achieves an encouraging recognition rate of 99.2%, true positive rate of 99.18% and false positive rate of 0.07%. Although in most cases, the support vector machines model has more than 70 support vectors, the number of relevance vectors related to different activities is always not more than 4, which implies a great simplicity in the classifier structure. Our approach is expected to have potential in real-time applications or solving problems with large-scale datasets, due to its perfect recognition performance, strong ability in feature reduction, and simple classifier structure.

  6. Disease activity patterns over time in patients with SLE: analysis of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györi, Noémi; Giannakou, Ioanna; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Magder, Laurence; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe SLE disease activity patterns in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. Methods Disease activity was studied in 1886 patients followed-up for 1–28 years. Disease activity patterns were defined using (1) Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and (2) modified SLE Disease Activity Index (M-SLEDAI) as follows: long quiescent (LQ), M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0 at all visits; relapsing-remitting (RR), periods of activity (M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0) interspersed with inactivity (M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0); chronic active (CA), M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0 at all visits. The pattern of first 3 consecutive follow-up years was determined in 916 patients as: persistent LQ (pLQ), persistent RR (pRR) and persistent CA (pCA), LQ, RR and CA pattern in each of the 3 years, respectively; mixed, at least two different pattern types were identified. Results The RR pattern accounted for the greatest proportion of follow-up time both by M-SLEDAI and PGA, representing 53.8% and 49.9% of total patient-years, respectively. The second most frequent pattern was LQ based on M-SLEDAI (30.7%) and CA based on PGA (40.4%). For the first 3-year intervals, the mixed pattern type was the most common (56.6%). The pRR was the second most frequent (M-SLEDAI 33.3%, PGA 26.5%), while pLQ (M-SLEDAI 6.4%, PGA 0.7%) and pCA were less frequent (M-SLEDAI 3.7%, PGA 16.3%). Conclusions The RR pattern was the most prevalent pattern. LQ was achieved in a subset of patients, using the M-SLEDAI. However, the PGA captured mild activity missed on the M-SLEDAI in these patients. Over a 3-year perspective, less than half of patients maintained their original pattern. PMID:28243457

  7. epSICAR: An Emerging Patterns based Approach to Sequential, Interleaved and Concurrent Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping;

    2009-01-01

    upon the training dataset for complex activities, we build our activity models by mining a set of Emerging Patterns from the sequential activity trace only and apply our models in recognizing sequential, interleaved and concurrent activities. We conduct our empirical studies in a real smart home...

  8. Cloning, tissue expression pattern characterization and chromosome localization of human peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation and reduction of some amino acids are one of the molecular mechanisms for regulating the function of proteins. The oxidation of methionine (Met) to methionine sulfoxide (Met(O)) results in decreasing or loss of the biological activity of related proteins. It was found that peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase (msrA) can reduce Met(O) to Met and therefore restored the biological function of the oxidized proteins. To reveal the methionine oxidation-reduction mechanism in human body, in this study, the cDNA sequence of bovine msrA was used as an information-probe to screen the human EST database. Based on a contig assembled from homologous ESTs, a 1 256-bp human MSRA cDNA was cloned from several human cDNA libraries. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 705 bp in length, which encodes 235 amino acid residues. Homology comparison revealed that human MSRA shares 88% and 61% identities with bovine and Escherichia coli msrA protein respectively. Expression pattern analysis revealed a single 1.6-kb transcript of human MSRA in most human tissues and with highest expression in kidney. By radiation hybrid panel mapping, the gene was localized to human chromosome 8p22-23 between markers D8S518 and D8S550. There are 2 human inherited diseases Keratolytic Winter Erythema and Microcephaly related genes in this region, it is inferred that human MSRA might be the candidate of the two diseases.

  9. Automated classification of immunostaining patterns in breast tissue from the human protein Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Niwas Swamidoss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Protein Atlas (HPA is an effort to map the location of all human proteins (http://www.proteinatlas.org/. It contains a large number of histological images of sections from human tissue. Tissue micro arrays (TMA are imaged by a slide scanning microscope, and each image represents a thin slice of a tissue core with a dark brown antibody specific stain and a blue counter stain. When generating antibodies for protein profiling of the human proteome, an important step in the quality control is to compare staining patterns of different antibodies directed towards the same protein. This comparison is an ultimate control that the antibody recognizes the right protein. In this paper, we propose and evaluate different approaches for classifying sub-cellular antibody staining patterns in breast tissue samples. Materials and Methods: The proposed methods include the computation of various features including gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM features, complex wavelet co-occurrence matrix (CWCM features, and weighted neighbor distance using compound hierarchy of algorithms representing morphology (WND-CHARM-inspired features. The extracted features are used into two different multivariate classifiers (support vector machine (SVM and linear discriminant analysis (LDA classifier. Before extracting features, we use color deconvolution to separate different tissue components, such as the brownly stained positive regions and the blue cellular regions, in the immuno-stained TMA images of breast tissue. Results: We present classification results based on combinations of feature measurements. The proposed complex wavelet features and the WND-CHARM features have accuracy similar to that of a human expert. Conclusions: Both human experts and the proposed automated methods have difficulties discriminating between nuclear and cytoplasmic staining patterns. This is to a large extent due to mixed staining of nucleus and cytoplasm. Methods for

  10. Activity patterns in latissimus dorsi and sternocleidomastoid in classical singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alan H D; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and mammographic parenchymal patterns among Greek postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmara, Eleni A; Papacharalambous, Xenofon N; Kouloulias, Vassilios E; Maridaki, D Maria; Baltopoulos, J Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    To examine whether physical activity during the last five years is related to later breast mammographic density in postmenopausal Greek women. We designed a cross-sectional study in 724 women, of ages 45-67 years. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on duration and intensity of recreational physical activity during five years preceding study recruitment. Mammograms were evaluated according to BIRADS classification and BIRADS score was also estimated. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between physical activity index and breast density according to the BIRADS classification methods. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of mammographic breast density measured by the BIRADS classification method and recreational exercise (OR=-0.10; 95% CI -0.018, -0.001; p=0.022). For one unit increase in physical activity as expressed by the MET-h/week score, the odds of lower versus higher breast density categories are 1.105 greater, given that all of the other variables in the model are held constant. A modifying effect by age at recruitment was evident among participants, with a stronger inverse association between recreational activity and mammographic breast density among older women (OR=-0.036; 95% CI -0.063, -0.009; p=0.009). An inverse association between physical activity and BIRADS score was evident, not reaching statistical significance (OR=0.00; 95% CI -0.009, 0.008; p=0.887). Mammographic breast area was lower in postmenopausal women who participated in sports/recreational physical activity compared to inactive controls. Increasing physical activity levels among postmenopausal women might be a reasonable approach to reduce mammographic density. However, until more physical activity and mammographic breast density studies are conducted that confirm our findings, they have to be interpreted with caution, due to the retrospective nature of our data and the possibility of

  12. Human rights and transnational legal activism. Strategies of ngos in Mexico and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Antonio López Pacheco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the transnational legal activism of human rights ngos in Colombia and Mexico. From a comparative methodology argue that successful transnational pressure on human rights has a determining factor in the coordination strategies of collective actors at the national level. We identified two distinct patterns of action: first, a concentration-coordination strategy of demands in the Colombian case, second a segmentation-fragmentation strategy of demands in the Mexican case.

  13. Depression of cortical activity in humans by mild hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesen, Thomas; Leontiev, Oleg; Song, Tao; Dehghani, Nima; Hagler, Donald J; Huang, Mingxiong; Buxton, Richard; Halgren, Eric

    2012-03-01

    The effects of neural activity on cerebral hemodynamics underlie human brain imaging with functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. However, the threshold and characteristics of the converse effects, wherein the cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic milieu influence neural activity, remain unclear. We tested whether mild hypercapnia (5% CO2 ) decreases the magnetoencephalogram response to auditory pattern recognition and visual semantic tasks. Hypercapnia induced statistically significant decreases in event-related fields without affecting behavioral performance. Decreases were observed in early sensory components in both auditory and visual modalities as well as later cognitive components related to memory and language. Effects were distributed across cortical regions. Decreases were comparable in evoked versus spontaneous spectral power. Hypercapnia is commonly used with hemodynamic models to calibrate the blood oxygenation level-dependent response. Modifying model assumptions to incorporate the current findings produce a modest but measurable decrease in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen change with activation. Because under normal conditions, low cerebral pH would arise when bloodflow is unable to keep pace with neuronal activity, the cortical depression observed here may reflect a homeostatic mechanism by which neuronal activity is adjusted to a level that can be sustained by available bloodflow. Animal studies suggest that these effects may be mediated by pH-modulating presynaptic adenosine receptors. Although the data is not clear, comparable changes in cortical pH to those induced here may occur during sleep apnea, sleep, and exercise. If so, these results suggest that such activities may in turn have generalized depressive effects on cortical activity.

  14. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Marc; Netzer, Michael; Weinberger, Klaus M; Baumgartner, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars) were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID) for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs) in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2), showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P modeling approach demonstrates high potential for dynamic biomarker identification and the investigation of kinetic mechanisms in disease or pharmacodynamics studies using MS data from longitudinal cohort studies.

  15. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  16. Muscle Patterning in Mouse and Human Abdominal Wall Development and Omphalocele Specimens of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Peter F.; Corliss, Robert F.; Yamada, Shigehito; SHIOTA, KOHEI; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and p...

  17. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  18. Selenium Distribution Pattern, Antineoplastic and Immunostimulatory Activities of a Novel Organoselenium Compound Eb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANJun; DENGSheng-ju; KUANGBin; HEFei; LIUTao; ZENGHui-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim To study the distribution pattern, antineoplastic activity and immtmocompetence of a novel organeselenium compotmd Eb and investigate its in vivo antineoplastic potential. Methods Eb was administered to Kunming mice (dosage, 0.1 g·kg-1·d-1) intragastrically for 7 successive days. The contents of selenium in heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, stomach, brain, muscle, and bone were determined by fluommetric method on the eighth day. MTT assay was used to study tumor growth inhibition of Eb in vitro, and lymphocyte transformation, hemolysin formation and phagocytosis assay were used to study its immunocompetence. Results After 7 days' administration of Eb, the tissue contents of selenium in liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and bone of mice increased, especially those in liver and spleen increased significantly, compared with controls; but no significant changes of such contents were fotmd in muscle, heart, brain, and stomach. Eb demonstrated inhibitory effects on human Bel-7402, BGC-823, and Calu-3 cancer cell lines in vitro. Eb also showed ability to enhance lymphocyte transformation and serum hemolysin formation in v/tro and increase the phagocytosis of macrophages. Conclusion The validated antitumor and immtmostimulatory activities of Eb suggest a hypothesis that Eb may behave as a biological response modifier when used as an antitumor agent. Eb is worthy of further study in developing a new antineoplastic and immunity enhancing agent in the light of its antitumor activity, immtmocompetenee and specific distribution in liver, lungs, kidneys, bone, and spleen.

  19. The encoding of temporally irregular and regular visual patterns in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    Full Text Available In the work reported here, we set out to study the neural systems that detect predictable temporal patterns and departures from them. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to locate activity in the brains of subjects when they viewed temporally regular and irregular patterns produced by letters, numbers, colors and luminance. Activity induced by irregular sequences was located within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, including an area that was responsive to irregular patterns regardless of the type of visual stimuli producing them. Conversely, temporally regular arrangements resulted in activity in the right frontal lobe (medial frontal gyrus, in the left orbito-frontal cortex and in the left pallidum. The results show that there is an abstractive system in the brain for detecting temporal irregularity, regardless of the source producing it.

  20. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  1. Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Nicole L; Nelson, Peter; Abelson, Avigdor; Precoda, Kristin; Rulmal, John; Bernardi, Giacomo; Paddack, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water) and uninhabited (low human impact); cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact); and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon) and inhabited (highest human impact). Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure. Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll (Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia) and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an 'opportunistic' scleractinian coral (Montipora sp.) is associated with more highly impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that small human populations (subsistence fishing) can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends. Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities.

  2. epSICAR: An Emerging Patterns based Approach to Sequential, Interleaved and Concurrent Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Tao, Xianping

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing human activity from sensor readings has recently attracted much research interest in pervasive computing. Human activity recognition is particularly challenging because activities are often performed in not only simple (i.e., sequential), but also complex (i.e., interleaved and concur...

  3. Statistical evaluation of the isoform patterns of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase from human renal cancer tissue separated by isoelectrofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Radziejewska, Iwona; Olszewska, Ewa; Szajda, Sławomir; Knaś, Małgorzata; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-03-01

    Isoenzymes of HEX from human renal carcinoma and neighbouring macroscopically normal renal tissue can show different patterns on isoelectrofocusing gels. The aim of our work was to elaborate the method for statistical evaluation of differences. Isoenzymes of N-acetyl-beta-hexosaminidase were separated from renal (control and cancerous) tissues of 15 patients. Isoenzymes were electrofocused in Multiphor II, with ampholine pH 3.5-9.0 (2%) and then evaluated densitometrically and analysed statistically. A similar pattern in activity of isoforms of isoenzymes A and B in normal and cancerous renal tissue was observed. The proposed method of statistical evaluation of differences in isoforms of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase can also be adapted to estimate the isoforms of other enzymes in different tissues.

  4. Noninvasively decoding the contents of visual working memory in the human prefrontal cortex within high-gamma oscillatory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanía, Rafael; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The temporal maintenance and subsequent retrieval of information that no longer exists in the environment is called working memory. It is believed that this type of memory is controlled by the persistent activity of neuronal populations, including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. For a long time, it has been controversially discussed whether, in working memory, the PFC stores past sensory events or, instead, its activation is an extramnemonic source of top-down control over posterior regions. Recent animal studies suggest that specific information about the contents of working memory can be decoded from population activity in prefrontal areas. However, it has not been shown whether the contents of working memory during the delay periods can be decoded from EEG recordings in the human brain. We show that by analyzing the nonlinear dynamics of EEG oscillatory patterns it is possible to noninvasively decode with high accuracy, during encoding and maintenance periods, the contents of visual working memory information within high-gamma oscillations in the human PFC. These results are thus in favor of an active storage function of the human PFC in working memory; this, without ruling out the role of PFC in top-down processes. The ability to noninvasively decode the contents of working memory is promising in applications such as brain computer interfaces, together with computation of value function during planning and decision making processes.

  5. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  6. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Breit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2, showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001. In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001, classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001. These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling

  7. Replication Banding Patterns in Human Chromosomes Detected Using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine Incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Osamu; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2011-10-26

    A novel technique using the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into replicating DNA is described for the analysis of replicating banding patterns of human metaphase chromosomes. Human lymphocytes were synchronized with excess thymidine and treated with EdU during the late S phase of the cell cycle. The incorporated EdU was then detected in metaphase chromosomes using Alexa Fluor® 488 azides, through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of organic azides with the terminal acetylene group of EdU. Chromosomes with incorporated EdU showed a banding pattern similar to G-banding of normal human chromosomes. Imaging by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid conditions showed that the structure of the chromosomes was well preserved even after EdU treatment. Comparison between fluorescence microscopy and AFM images of the same chromosome 1 indicated the presence of ridges and grooves in the chromatid arm, features that have been previously reported in relation to G-banding. These results suggest an intimate relationship between EdU-induced replication bands and G- or R-bands in human chromosomes. This technique is thus useful for analyzing the structure of chromosomes in relation to their banding patterns following DNA replication in the S phase.

  8. Antigenic Patterns and Evolution of the Human Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mi; Zhao, Xiang; Hua, Sha; Du, Xiangjun; Peng, Yousong; Li, Xiyan; Lan, Yu; Wang, Dayan; Wu, Aiping; Shu, Yuelong; Jiang, Taijiao

    2015-09-28

    The influenza A (H1N1) virus causes seasonal epidemics that result in severe illnesses and deaths almost every year. A deep understanding of the antigenic patterns and evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus is extremely important for its effective surveillance and prevention. Through development of antigenicity inference method for human influenza A (H1N1), named PREDAC-H1, we systematically mapped the antigenic patterns and evolution of the human influenza A (H1N1) virus. Eight dominant antigenic clusters have been inferred for seasonal H1N1 viruses since 1977, which demonstrated sequential replacements over time with a similar pattern in Asia, Europe and North America. Among them, six clusters emerged first in Asia. As for China, three of the eight antigenic clusters were detected in South China earlier than in North China, indicating the leading role of South China in H1N1 transmission. The comprehensive view of the antigenic evolution of human influenza A (H1N1) virus can help formulate better strategy for its prevention and control.

  9. Modelling the emergence of spatial patterns of economic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. A simple model was proposed by Simon, who assumed that firms grow at a rate proportional to their size, and that new divisions of firms with certain probabilities relocate to other firms or to new centres of economic activity. Simon's model produces realistic results in the sense that the sizes of economic centres follow a Zipf distribution, which is also observed in reality. It lacks realism in the sense that mechanisms such as cluster formation, congestion (defined as an overly high density of the same activities) and dependence on the spatial distribution of external parties (clients, labour markets) are ignored. The present paper proposed an extension of the Simon model that includes both centripetal and centrifugal forces. Centripetal forces are included in the sense that firm divisions are more likely to settle in locations that offer a higher accessibility to other fi...

  10. Processing of location and pattern changes of natural sounds in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Bledowski, Christoph; Wibral, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen

    2007-04-15

    Parallel cortical pathways have been proposed for the processing of auditory pattern and spatial information, respectively. We tested this segregation with human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and separate electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in the same subjects who listened passively to four sequences of repetitive spatial animal vocalizations in an event-related paradigm. Transitions between sequences constituted either a change of auditory pattern, location, or both pattern+location. This procedure allowed us to investigate the cortical correlates of natural auditory "what" and "where" changes independent of differences in the individual stimuli. For pattern changes, we observed significantly increased fMRI responses along the bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, the planum polare, lateral Heschl's gyrus and anterior planum temporale. For location changes, significant increases of fMRI responses were observed in bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus and planum temporale. An overlap of these two types of changes occurred in the lateral anterior planum temporale and posterior superior temporal gyrus. The analysis of source event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed faster processing of location than pattern changes. Thus, our data suggest that passive processing of auditory spatial and pattern changes is dissociated both temporally and anatomically in the human brain. The predominant role of more anterior aspects of the superior temporal lobe in sound identity processing supports the role of this area as part of the auditory pattern processing stream, while spatial processing of auditory stimuli appears to be mediated by the more posterior parts of the superior temporal lobe.

  11. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  12. Specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Sandringham. National Inst. for Virology); Kay, G.W.; Van der Walt, L.A. (South African Inst. for Medical Research, Johannesburg. Dept. of Pathology)

    1983-10-01

    The article deals with the determination of the specific activity of radioiodine-labelled human chorionic gonadotropin ligand. The iodiation of human chorionic gonadotropin and the counting efficiency of /sup 125/I are discussed.

  13. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  14. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  15. Concurrence between the gene expression pattern of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in localized aggressive periodontitis and in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph; Craighead, Justin Corey; Cao, Sam Linsen; Handfield, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a facultatively intracellular pathogen and the aetiological agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. Screening of the genome of A. actinomycetemcomitans for in vivo-induced antigen determinants previously demonstrated that the proteome of this organism differs in laboratory culture compared with conditions found during active infection. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the bacterial gene expression pattern inferred with in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) in human infections was consistent with the gene expression pattern occurring upon epithelial cell association. To this end, a real-time PCR method was developed and used to quantify absolute and relative bacterial gene expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown extra- and intracellularly in two human epithelial cell lines (HeLa and IHGK). The amount of template used in the assay was normalized using the total count of viable bacteria (c.f.u.) as a reference point and performed in duplicate in at least two independent experiments. Controls for this experiment included 16S rRNA and gapdh. Transcription of all eight ORFs tested increased significantly (P < 0.05) in HeLa and IHGK cells compared with bacteria grown extracellularly. The concurrence of gene expression patterns found in the two models suggests that these epithelial cells are valid in vitro models of infection for the genes tested. IVIAT is an experimental platform that can be used as a validation tool to assess the reliability of animal and other models of infection and is applicable to most pathogens.

  16. Error-related EEG patterns during tactile human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehne, M.; Ihme, K.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Zander, T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the use of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) has been extended from active control to passive detection of cognitive user states. These passive BCI systems can be especially useful for automatic error detection in human-machine systems by recording EEG potentials related to human error proc

  17. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo

    2014-01-01

    ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e., interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self...

  18. Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, H; Kentel, B; Tümer, S T; Korkusuz, F

    2003-02-01

    A contraction and relaxation strategy with regard to forearm muscles during the release of the bowstring has often been observed during archery, but has not well been described. The purpose of this study was to analyze this strategy in archers with different levels of expertise; elite, beginner and non-archers. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum were recorded at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz, together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap, for twelve shots by each subject. Raw EMG records, 1-s before and after the clicker pulse, were rectified, integrated and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for each group. All subjects including non-archers developed an active contraction of the M. extensor digitorum and a gradual relaxation of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis with the fall of the clicker. In elite archers release started about 100 ms after the fall of the clicker, whereas in beginners and non-archers release started after about 200 and 300 ms, respectively. Non-archers displayed a preparation phase involving extensive extensor activity before the release of the bowstring, which was not observed in elite and beginner archers. In conclusion, archers released the bowstring by active contraction of the forearm extensors, whereas a clear relaxation of the forearm flexors affecting the release movement was not observed.

  19. SEASONAL MORTALITY PATTERNS IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES: IMPLICATIONS FOR VARIATION IN SELECTION PRESSURES ACROSS ENVIRONMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogarten, Jan F.; Brown, Leone M.; Chapman, Colin A.; Cords, Marina; Doran-Sheehy, Diane; Fedigan, Linda M.; Grine, Frederick E.; Perry, Susan; Pusey, Anne E.; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.; Wich, Serge A.; Wright, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Examining seasonal mortality patterns can yield insights into the drivers of mortality and thus potential selection pressures acting on individuals in different environments. We compiled adult and juvenile mortality data from nine wild non-human primate taxa to investigate the role of seasonality in patterns of mortality and address the following questions: Is mortality highly seasonal across species? Does greater environmental seasonality lead to more seasonal mortality patterns? If mortality is seasonal, is it higher during wet seasons or during periods of food scarcity? and Do folivores show less seasonal mortality than frugivores? We found seasonal mortality patterns in five of nine taxa, and mortality was more often tied to wet seasons than food-scarce periods, a relationship that may be driven by disease. Controlling for phylogeny, we found a positive relationship between the degree of environmental seasonality and mortality, with folivores exhibiting more seasonal mortality than frugivores. These results suggest that mortality patterns are influenced both by diet and degree of environmental seasonality. Applied to a wider array of taxa, analyses of seasonal mortality patterns may aid understanding of life-history evolution and selection pressures acting across a broad spectrum of environments and spatial and temporal scales. PMID:23025613

  20. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  1. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, D; Rogosch, F A

    2001-01-01

    Cortisol regulation was investigated in a sample of school-aged maltreated (n = 175) and demographically comparable low-income nonmaltreated (n = 209) children in the context of a day camp research program. Overall group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were not found for average morning or average afternoon cortisol levels. However, significant variations were found that were based on the subtypes of maltreatment that the children had experienced. Maltreated children who had been both physically and sexually abused (as well as neglected or emotionally maltreated) exhibited substantial elevations in morning cortisol levels; children who had high (>1 SD) cortisol levels in both the morning and afternoon were also overrepresented in the multiple abuse group. Developmental timing of maltreatment did not account for these group differences, whereas the severity of sexual abuse was implicated. In contrast to the multiple abuse group, a subgroup of physically abused children showed evidence of a trend toward lower morning cortisol relative to nonmaltreated children with a significantly smaller decrease in cortisol levels from morning to afternoon. The findings are discussed in terms of the diversity of atypical cortisol regulation patterns that are exhibited among maltreated children.

  2. Intraluminal pressure patterns in the human colon assessed by high-resolution manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Yuanjie; Yang, Zixian; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Chen, Wu Lan; Yu, Hui; Kim, Marie Jeong-Min; Huang, Min; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Chen, Jianfeng; Chen, Jiande D Z; Huizinga, Jan D

    2017-02-20

    Assessment of colonic motor dysfunction is rarely done because of inadequate methodology and lack of knowledge about normal motor patterns. Here we report on elucidation of intraluminal pressure patterns using High Resolution Colonic Manometry during a baseline period and in response to a meal, in 15 patients with constipation, chronically dependent on laxatives, 5 healthy volunteers and 9 patients with minor, transient, IBS-like symptoms but no sign of constipation. Simultaneous pressure waves (SPWs) were the most prominent propulsive motor pattern, associated with gas expulsion and anal sphincter relaxation, inferred to be associated with fast propagating contractions. Isolated pressure transients occurred in most sensors, ranging in amplitude from 5-230 mmHg. Rhythmic haustral boundary pressure transients occurred at sensors about 4-5 cm apart. Synchronized haustral pressure waves, covering 3-5 cm of the colon occurred to create a characteristic intrahaustral cyclic motor pattern at 3-6 cycles/min, propagating in mixed direction. This activity abruptly alternated with erratic patterns resembling the segmentation motor pattern of the small intestine. High amplitude propagating pressure waves (HAPWs) were too rare to contribute to function assessment in most subjects. Most patients, dependent on laxatives for defecation, were able to generate normal motor patterns in response to a meal.

  3. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  4. Homelessness, mental illness, and criminal activity: examining patterns over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sean N; Shinn, Marybeth; Shrout, Patrick; Tsemberis, Sam

    2008-12-01

    This study examined whether street homelessness, sheltered homelessness, and the severity of psychological symptoms predicted non-violent and violent crime among 207 mentally ill participants who were homeless at baseline. Participants were interviewed at 9 time points over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine whether changes in homelessness status and symptom severity predicted changes in criminal activity over time. Results indicated that homelessness both on the streets and in shelters and psychological symptom severity predicted increases in non-violent crime. Sheltered homelessness and symptom severity predicted increases in violent crime, although street homelessness did not. A separate mediational analysis with 181 participants showed that the relationship between diagnosis of a psychotic disorder and both non-violent and violent criminal activity was partially mediated through the severity of psychotic symptoms. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  5. Human Mobility Patterns and Cholera Epidemics: a Spatially Explicit Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    Cholera is an acute enteric disease caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Although most infected individuals do not develop severe symptoms, their stool may contain huge quantities of V.~cholerae cells. Therefore, while traveling or commuting, asymptomatic carriers can be responsible for the long-range dissemination of the disease. As a consequence, human mobility is an alternative and efficient driver for the spread of cholera, whose primary propagation pathway is hydrological transport through river networks. We present a multi-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of V.~cholerae due to human movement. In particular, building on top of state-of-the-art spatially explicit models for cholera spread through surface waters, we describe human movement and its effects on the propagation of the disease by means of a gravity-model approach borrowed from transportation theory. Gravity-like contact processes have been widely used in epidemiology, because they can satisfactorily depict human movement when data on actual mobility patterns are not available. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during years 2000--2001. We show that human mobility does actually play an important role in the formation of the spatiotemporal patterns of cholera epidemics. In particular, long-range human movement may determine inter-catchment dissemination of V.~cholerae cells, thus in turn explaining the emergence of epidemic patterns that cannot be produced by hydrological transport alone. We also show that particular attention has to be devoted to study how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect cholera transmission.

  6. Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Corliss, Robert F; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. In both specimens disruptions in the unidirectional orientation of myofibers were observed in the external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis but not in the transversus abdominis. These latter findings support a model of normal abdominal wall development in which positional information instructs the orientation of myoblasts as they organize into individual muscle groups.

  7. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  8. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED. This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, and middle cingulate cortex (MCC. Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP, the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P<0.005. Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex.

  9. Adaptive intesration of local resion information to detect fine-scale brain activity patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN ZongLei; TIAN Jie; ZHANG Hui

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the spatial resolution of fMRI data is continuously growing. This pro-vides us the possibility to detect the fine-scale patterns of brain activities. The es-tablished univariate and multivariate methods to analyze fMRI data mostly focus on detecting the activation blobs without considering the distributed fine-scale pat-terns within the blobs. To improve the sensitivity of the activation detection, in this paper, multivariate statistical method and univariate statistical method are com-bined to discover the fine-grained activity patterns. For one voxel in the brain, a local homogenous region is constructed. Then, time courses from the local ho-mogenous region are integrated with multivariate statistical method. Univariate statistical method is finally used to construct the interests of statistic for that voxel. The approach has explicitly taken into account the structures of both activity pat-terns and existing noise of local brain regions. Therefore, it could highlight the fine-scale activity patterns of the local regions. Experiments with simulated and real fMRI data demonstrate that the proposed method dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection of fine-scale brain activity patterns which contain the subtle information about experimental conditions.

  10. Phylogenomic analyses reveal convergent patterns of adaptive evolution in elephant and human ancestries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Morris; Sterner, Kirstin N; Islam, Munirul; Uddin, Monica; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Lipovich, Leonard; Jia, Hui; Grossman, Lawrence I; Wildman, Derek E

    2009-12-08

    Specific sets of brain-expressed genes, such as aerobic energy metabolism genes, evolved adaptively in the ancestry of humans and may have evolved adaptively in the ancestry of other large-brained mammals. The recent addition of genomes from two afrotherians (elephant and tenrec) to the expanding set of publically available sequenced mammalian genomes provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis. Elephants resemble humans by having large brains and long life spans; tenrecs, in contrast, have small brains and short life spans. Thus, we investigated whether the phylogenomic patterns of adaptive evolution are more similar between elephant and human than between either elephant and tenrec lineages or human and mouse lineages, and whether aerobic energy metabolism genes are especially well represented in the elephant and human patterns. Our analyses encompassed approximately 6,000 genes in each of these lineages with each gene yielding extensive coding sequence matches in interordinal comparisons. Each gene's nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide substitution rates and dN/dS ratios were determined. Then, from gene ontology information on genes with the higher dN/dS ratios, we identified the more prevalent sets of genes that belong to specific functional categories and that evolved adaptively. Elephant and human lineages showed much slower nucleotide substitution rates than tenrec and mouse lineages but more adaptively evolved genes. In correlation with absolute brain size and brain oxygen consumption being largest in elephants and next largest in humans, adaptively evolved aerobic energy metabolism genes were most evident in the elephant lineage and next most evident in the human lineage.

  11. Sex-biased evolutionary forces shape genomic patterns of human diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Hammer

    Full Text Available Comparisons of levels of variability on the autosomes and X chromosome can be used to test hypotheses about factors influencing patterns of genomic variation. While a tremendous amount of nucleotide sequence data from across the genome is now available for multiple human populations, there has been no systematic effort to examine relative levels of neutral polymorphism on the X chromosome versus autosomes. We analyzed approximately 210 kb of DNA sequencing data representing 40 independent noncoding regions on the autosomes and X chromosome from each of 90 humans from six geographically diverse populations. We correct for differences in mutation rates between males and females by considering the ratio of within-human diversity to human-orangutan divergence. We find that relative levels of genetic variation are higher than expected on the X chromosome in all six human populations. We test a number of alternative hypotheses to explain the excess polymorphism on the X chromosome, including models of background selection, changes in population size, and sex-specific migration in a structured population. While each of these processes may have a small effect on the relative ratio of X-linked to autosomal diversity, our results point to a systematic difference between the sexes in the variance in reproductive success; namely, the widespread effects of polygyny in human populations. We conclude that factors leading to a lower male versus female effective population size must be considered as important demographic variables in efforts to construct models of human demographic history and for understanding the forces shaping patterns of human genomic variability.

  12. The influence of genomic context on mutation patterns in the human genome inferred from rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaibley, Valerie M; Zawistowski, Matthew; Wegmann, Daniel; Ehm, Margaret G; Nelson, Matthew R; St Jean, Pamela L; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Novembre, John; Zöllner, Sebastian; Li, Jun Z

    2013-12-01

    Understanding patterns of spontaneous mutations is of fundamental interest in studies of human genome evolution and genetic disease. Here, we used extremely rare variants in humans to model the molecular spectrum of single-nucleotide mutations. Compared to common variants in humans and human-chimpanzee fixed differences (substitutions), rare variants, on average, arose more recently in the human lineage and are less affected by the potentially confounding effects of natural selection, population demographic history, and biased gene conversion. We analyzed variants obtained from a population-based sequencing study of 202 genes in >14,000 individuals. We observed considerable variability in the per-gene mutation rate, which was correlated with local GC content, but not recombination rate. Using >20,000 variants with a derived allele frequency ≤ 10(-4), we examined the effect of local GC content and recombination rate on individual variant subtypes and performed comparisons with common variants and substitutions. The influence of local GC content on rare variants differed from that on common variants or substitutions, and the differences varied by variant subtype. Furthermore, recombination rate and recombination hotspots have little effect on rare variants of any subtype, yet both have a relatively strong impact on multiple variant subtypes in common variants and substitutions. This observation is consistent with the effect of biased gene conversion or selection-dependent processes. Our results highlight the distinct biases inherent in the initial mutation patterns and subsequent evolutionary processes that affect segregating variants.

  13. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    the distribution of human schistosomiasis and biogeographical patterns of freshwater snail and mammal species richness in Uganda. We found that the association between estimated snail richness and human infection was best described by a negative correlation in non-spatial bi- and multivariate logistic mixed effect...... models. However, this association lost significance after the inclusion of a spatial component in a full geostatistical model, highlighting the importance of accounting for spatial correlation to obtain more precise parameter estimates. Furthermore, we found no significant relationships between mammal...

  14. Replication Banding Patterns in Human Chromosomes Detected Using 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine Incorporation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshi, Osamu; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique using the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into replicating DNA is described for the analysis of replicating banding patterns of human metaphase chromosomes. Human lymphocytes were synchronized with excess thymidine and treated with EdU during the late S phase of the cell cycle. The incorporated EdU was then detected in metaphase chromosomes using Alexa Fluor® 488 azides, through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of organic azides with the terminal acety...

  15. Pattern Recognition in Collective Cognitive Systems: Hybrid Human-Machine Learning (HHML) By Heterogeneous Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Dashti, Hesam T; Siahpirani, Alireza F; Tonejc, Jernej; Uilecan, Ioan V; Simas, Tiago; Miranda, Bruno; Ribeiro, Rita; Wang, Liya; Assadi, Amir H

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitous role of the cyber-infrastructures, such as the WWW, provides myriad opportunities for machine learning and its broad spectrum of application domains taking advantage of digital communication. Pattern classification and feature extraction are among the first applications of machine learning that have received extensive attention. The most remarkable achievements have addressed data sets of moderate-to-large size. The 'data deluge' in the last decade or two has posed new challenges for AI researchers to design new, effective and accurate algorithms for similar tasks using ultra-massive data sets and complex (natural or synthetic) dynamical systems. We propose a novel principled approach to feature extraction in hybrid architectures comprised of humans and machines in networked communication, who collaborate to solve a pre-assigned pattern recognition (feature extraction) task. There are two practical considerations addressed below: (1) Human experts, such as plant biologists or astronomers, often...

  16. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, LG; Strijkstra, AM; Hut, RA; Hoffmann, IE; Millesi, E

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Abov

  17. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  18. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  19. Pattern Discovery for the Design of Face-to-Face Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Maria Francisca; Nussbaum, Miguel; Marshall, Guillermo; Lagos, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology of discovering social action patterns in collaborative learning activities for use in improving activity design, and in particular for restructuring existing designs involving face-to-face social actions to enhance their social dynamics and thus better ensure the achievement of a specified aim. An activity in this…

  20. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  1. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  2. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; Putten, A.A.J. van der; Stewart, R.E.; Steenbergen, B.; Wijck, R. van; Schans, C.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity

  3. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCE AVAILABILITY ON ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF CAROLLIA CASTANEA (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE) IN PANAMA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wibke Thies; Elisabeth K. V. Kalko; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    2006-01-01

    ...) and abiotic (i.e., weather and lunar cycle) factors. We studied the influence of ambient light, rain, sex, and resource availability on the activity pattern of the neotropical chestnut short-tailed bat (Carollia castanea; Phyllostomidae...

  4. Notes on the activity patterns of 12 species of southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Otomys irroratus, en loop parallel met die ritme van die genus. Microtus. Dit word .... ('Buses' are wires carrying ..... pressures, may adopt similar patterns of activity beha- viour. .... Palmer in drawing many of the figures in the paper, and.

  5. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  6. Constructing a taxonomy of fine-grained human movement and activity motifs through social media

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Morgan R; Mitchell, Lewis; Bagrow, James P; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Danforth, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    Profiting from the emergence of web-scale social data sets, numerous recent studies have systematically explored human mobility patterns over large populations and large time scales. Relatively little attention, however, has been paid to mobility and activity over smaller time-scales, such as a day. Here, we use Twitter to identify people's frequently visited locations along with their likely activities as a function of time of day and day of week, capitalizing on both the content and geolocation of messages. We subsequently characterize people's transition pattern motifs and demonstrate that spatial information is encoded in word choice.

  7. A self-growing Bayesian network classifier for online learning of human motion patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Yung, NHC; Chen, Z

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new self-growing Bayesian network classifier for online learning of human motion patterns (HMPs) in dynamically changing environments. The proposed classifier is designed to represent HMP classes based on a set of historical trajectories labeled by unsupervised clustering. It then assigns HMP class labels to current trajectories. Parameters of the proposed classifier are recalculated based on the augmented dataset of labeled trajectories and all HMP classes are according...

  8. Desmosomal plaque-associated vimentin filaments in human ovarian granulosa cell tumors of various histologic patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Czernobilsky, B; Moll, R.; Leppien, G.; Schweikhart, G.; Franke, W W

    1987-01-01

    Proteins of intermediate-sized filaments and desmosomal plaques (desmoplakins) of four human ovarian granulosa cell tumors were studied by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of microdissected tissue samples. All tumor cells, irrespective of their specific histologic patterns, contained both vimentin and desmoplakins. Cytokeratin-positive structures were absent or very scant in most tumor regions, but more common in trabecular, insular, ...

  9. Human papillomavirus DNA from warts for typing by endonuclease restriction patterns: purification by alkaline plasmid methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinami, M; Tanikawa, E; Hachisuka, H; Sasai, Y; Shingu, M

    1990-01-01

    The alkaline plasmid DNA extraction method of Birnboim and Doly was applied for the isolation of human papillomavirus (HPV) from warts. Tissue from common and plantar warts was digested with proteinase K, and the extrachromosomal circular covalently-closed form of HPV-DNA was rapidly extracted by alkaline sodium dodecyl sulphate and phenol-chloroform treatment. Recovery of HPV-DNA from the tissue was sufficient for determination of endonuclease restriction patterns by agarose gel electrophoresis.

  10. Immature pattern of brain activity in Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Friberg, L; Lou, H;

    1990-01-01

    69 mL/100 g per minute), and the flows in prefrontal and temporoparietal association regions of the telencephalon were markedly reduced, whereas the primary sensorimotor regions were relatively spared. The flow distribution in Rett syndrome is very similar to the distribution of brain metabolic...... activity in infants of a few months of age. The abnormal regional cerebral blood flow distribution most likely reflects the widespread functional disturbances in the brain of patients with Rett syndrome, whereas computed tomographic and neuropathologic examination only reveal slight changes when compared...

  11. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.

  12. Rhythm Pattern of Sole through Electrification of the Human Body When Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, Kiyoaki; Wada, Takayuki; Tohyama, Shigeki

    The rhythm of automatic cyclic movements such as walking is known to be generated by a rhythm generator called CPG in the spinal cord. The measurement of rhythm characteristics in walking is considered to be important for analyzing human bipedal walking and adaptive walking on irregular terrain. In particular, the soles that contact the terrain surface perform flexible movements similar to the movement of the fins of a lungfish, which is considered to be the predecessor of land animals. The sole movements are believed to be a basic movement acquired during prehistoric times. The detailed rhythm pattern of sole motion is considered to be important. We developed a method for measuring electrification without installing device on a subject's body and footwear for stabilizing the electrification of the human body. We measured the rhythm pattern of 20 subjects including 4 infants when walking by using this system and the corresponding equipment. Therefore, we confirmed the commonality of the correlative rhythm patterns of 20 subjects. Further, with regard to an individual subject, the reproducibility of a rhythm pattern with strong correlation coefficient > 0.93 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) concerning rhythms of trials that are differently conducted on adult subjects could be confirmed.

  13. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  14. Limited transfer of newly acquired movement patterns across walking and running in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ogawa

    Full Text Available The two major modes of locomotion in humans, walking and running, may be regarded as a function of different speed (walking as slower and running as faster. Recent results using motor learning tasks in humans, as well as more direct evidence from animal models, advocate for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying different locomotion tasks. In the current study, we investigated the possible independence of the neural mechanisms underlying human walking and running. Subjects were tested on a split-belt treadmill and adapted to walking or running on an asymmetrically driven treadmill surface. Despite the acquisition of asymmetrical movement patterns in the respective modes, the emergence of asymmetrical movement patterns in the subsequent trials was evident only within the same modes (walking after learning to walk and running after learning to run and only partial in the opposite modes (walking after learning to run and running after learning to walk (thus transferred only limitedly across the modes. Further, the storage of the acquired movement pattern in each mode was maintained independently of the opposite mode. Combined, these results provide indirect evidence for independence in the neural control mechanisms underlying the two locomotive modes.

  15. Patterning human stem cells and endothelial cells with laser printing for cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Ralf; Ma, Nan; Liu, Jun; Guan, Jianjun; Koch, Lothar; Klopsch, Christian; Gruene, Martin; Toelk, Anita; Wang, Weiwei; Mark, Peter; Wang, Feng; Chichkov, Boris; Li, Wenzhong; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2011-12-01

    Recent study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) could inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cells in hypoxic condition, increase their survival, and stimulate the angiogenesis process. In this project we applied Laser-Induced-Forward-Transfer (LIFT) cell printing technique and prepared a cardiac patch seeded with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human MSC (hMSC) in a defined pattern for cardiac regeneration. We seeded HUVEC and hMSC in a defined pattern on a Polyester urethane urea (PEUU) cardiac patch. On control patches an equal amount of cells was randomly seeded without LIFT. Patches were cultivated in vitro or transplanted in vivo to the infarcted zone of rat hearts after LAD-ligation. Cardiac performance was measured by left ventricular catheterization 8 weeks post infarction. Thereafter hearts were perfused with fluorescein tomato lectin for the assessment of functional blood vessels and stored for histology analyses. We demonstrated that LIFT-derived cell seeding pattern definitely modified growth characteristics of co-cultured HUVEC and hMSC leading to increased vessel formation and found significant functional improvement of infarcted hearts following transplantation of a LIFT-tissue engineered cardiac patch. Further, we could show enhanced capillary density and integration of human cells into the functionally connected vessels of murine vascular system. LIFT-based Tissue Engineering of cardiac patches for the treatment of myocardial infarction might improve wound healing and functional preservation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Human sperm pattern of movement during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Soledad Blengini; Maria Eugenia Teves; Diego Rafael Unates; Hector Alejandro Guidobaldi; Laura Virginia Gatica; Laura Cecilia Giojalas

    2011-01-01

    @@ Human spermatozoa may chemotactically find out the egg by following an increasing gradient of attractant molecules.Although human spermatozoa have been observed to show several of the physiological characteristics of chemotaxis,the chemotactic pattern of movement has not been easy to describe.However,it is apparent that chemotactic cells may be identified while returning to the attractant source.This study characterizes the pattern of movement of human spermatozoa during chemotactic re-orientation towards a progesterone source,which is a physiological attractant candidate.By means of videomicroscopy and image analysis,a chemotactic pattern of movement was identified as the spermatozoon returned towards the source of a chemotactic concentration of progesterone (10 pmol l-1).First,as a continuation of its original path,the spermatozoon swims away from the progesterone source with linear movement and then turns back with a transitional movement that can be characterized by an increased velocity and decreased linearity.This sperm behaviour may help the spermatozoon to re-orient itself towards a progesterone source and may be used to identify the few cells that are undergoing chemotaxis at a given time.

  17. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  18. Fractal patterns of neural activity exist within the suprachiasmatic nucleus and require extrinsic network interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Meijer, Johanna H; Shea, Steven A; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Houben, Thijs; van Oosterhout, Floor; Deboer, Tom; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central circadian pacemaker (the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) contains thousands of neurons that are coupled through a complex network of interactions. In addition to the established role of the SCN in generating rhythms of ~24 hours in many physiological functions, the SCN was recently shown to be necessary for normal self-similar/fractal organization of motor activity and heart rate over a wide range of time scales--from minutes to 24 hours. To test whether the neural network within the SCN is sufficient to generate such fractal patterns, we studied multi-unit neural activity of in vivo and in vitro SCNs in rodents. In vivo SCN-neural activity exhibited fractal patterns that are virtually identical in mice and rats and are similar to those in motor activity at time scales from minutes up to 10 hours. In addition, these patterns remained unchanged when the main afferent signal to the SCN, namely light, was removed. However, the fractal patterns of SCN-neural activity are not autonomous within the SCN as these patterns completely broke down in the isolated in vitro SCN despite persistence of circadian rhythmicity. Thus, SCN-neural activity is fractal in the intact organism and these fractal patterns require network interactions between the SCN and extra-SCN nodes. Such a fractal control network could underlie the fractal regulation observed in many physiological functions that involve the SCN, including motor control and heart rate regulation.

  19. A Spatiotemporal Robust Approach for Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zia Uddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition is considered to be one of the fundamental topics in computer vision research areas, including human-robot interaction. In this work, a novel method is proposed utilizing the depth and optical flow motion information of human silhouettes from video for human activity recognition. The recognition method utilizes enhanced independent component analysis (EICA on depth silhouettes, optical flow motion features, and hidden Markov models (HMMs for recognition. The local features are extracted from the collection of the depth silhouettes exhibiting various human activities. Optical flow- based motion features are also extracted from the depth silhouette area and used in an augmented form to form the spatiotemporal features. Next, the augmented features are enhanced by generalized discriminant analysis (GDA for better activity representation. These features are then fed into HMMs to model human activities and recognize them. The experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach over the conventional ones.

  20. Fibrinogen patterns and activity on substrates with tailored hydroxy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, José Carlos; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-08-11

    The influence of the surface fraction of OH groups on fibrinogen (FG) adsorption is investigated in copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethylacrylate. The amount of adsorbed FG, quantified by western-blotting combined with image analysis of the corresponding bands, decreases as the hydrophilicity of the substrate increases. The influence of substrate wettability on FG conformation and distribution is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most hydrophobic substrate promotes FG fibrillogenesis, which leads to a fibrin-like appearance in the absence of any thrombin. The degree of FG interconnection was quantified by calculating the fractal dimension of the adsorbed protein from image analysis of the AFM results. The biological activity of the adsorbed FG is correlated to cell adhesion on FG-coated substrates.

  1. Modelling spatial patterns of economic activity in the Netherlands

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jung-Hun; Frenken, Koen; Van Oort, Frank; Visser, Evert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how spatial configurations of economic activity emerge is important when formulating spatial planning and economic policy. Not only micro-simulation and agent-based model such as UrbanSim, ILUMAS and SIMFIRMS, but also Simon's model of hierarchical concentration have widely applied, for this purpose. These models, however, have limitations with respect to simulating structural changes in spatial economic systems and the impact of proximity. The present paper proposes a model of firm development that is based on behavioural rules such as growth, closure, spin-off and relocation. An important aspect of the model is that locational preferences of firms are based on agglomeration advantages, accessibility of markets and congestion, allowing for a proper description of concentration and deconcentration tendencies. By comparing the outcomes of the proposed model with real world data, we will calibrate the parameters and assess how well the model predicts existing spatial configurations and decide. The...

  2. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  3. Physical activity patterns, aerobic fitness and body composition in Norwegian children and adolescents : The Physical Activity among Norwegian Children Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kolle, Elin

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity is important for children and adolescent’s healthy growth and for their physical, social and mental health. Therefore, comprehensive knowledge is needed on levels and patterns of physical activity, as well as factors influencing physical activity participation. PURPOSE: The overall purpose was to increase the knowledge regarding 9- and 15-year-olds physical activity level, aerobic fitness and their body composition. Further, to gain increased insight w...

  4. Exploiting Human Resource Requirements to Infer Human Movement Patterns for Use in Modelling Disease Transmission Systems: An Example from Eastern Province, Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Alderton

    Full Text Available In this research, an agent-based model (ABM was developed to generate human movement routes between homes and water resources in a rural setting, given commonly available geospatial datasets on population distribution, land cover and landscape resources. ABMs are an object-oriented computational approach to modelling a system, focusing on the interactions of autonomous agents, and aiming to assess the impact of these agents and their interactions on the system as a whole. An A* pathfinding algorithm was implemented to produce walking routes, given data on the terrain in the area. A* is an extension of Dijkstra's algorithm with an enhanced time performance through the use of heuristics. In this example, it was possible to impute daily activity movement patterns to the water resource for all villages in a 75 km long study transect across the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, and the simulated human movements were statistically similar to empirical observations on travel times to the water resource (Chi-squared, 95% confidence interval. This indicates that it is possible to produce realistic data regarding human movements without costly measurement as is commonly achieved, for example, through GPS, or retrospective or real-time diaries. The approach is transferable between different geographical locations, and the product can be useful in providing an insight into human movement patterns, and therefore has use in many human exposure-related applications, specifically epidemiological research in rural areas, where spatial heterogeneity in the disease landscape, and space-time proximity of individuals, can play a crucial role in disease spread.

  5. Conformal Array Pattern Synthesis and Activated Elements Selection Strategy Based on PSOGSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern synthesis and activated element selection for conformal array is investigated based on hybrid particle swarm optimization-gravitational search algorithm (PSOGSA in this paper. With the introduction of PSOGSA algorithm which is a novel hybrid optimization technique, the element excitations are optimized to obtain the desired pattern for conformal array in the case of considering uncoupled and coupled element pattern. Numerical simulation and full-wave electromagnetic calculation verify the advantage and efficiency of our method. Then, a novel strategy of activated element selection based on PSOGSA algorithm is proposed for saving the energy consumption in conformal array.

  6. Systematic variation in gene expression patterns in human cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Douglas T.; Scherf, Uwe; Eisen, Michael B.; Perou, Charles M.; Rees, Christian; Spellman, Paul; Iyer, Vishwanath; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Van de Rijn, Matt; Waltham, Mark; Pergamenschikov, Alexander; Lee, Jeffrey C.F.; Lashkari, Deval; Shalon, Dari; Myers, Timothy G.; Weinstein, John N.; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O.

    2000-01-01

    We used cDNA micro arrays to explore the variation in expression of approximately 8,000 unique genes among the 60 cell lines used in the National Cancer Institute s screen for anti-cancer drugs. Classification of the cell lines based solely on the observed patterns of gene expression revealed a correspondence to the ostensible origins of the tumors from which the cell lines were derived. The consistent relationship between the gene expression patterns and the tissue of origin allowed us to recognize outliers whose previous classification appeared incorrect. Specific features of the gene expression patterns appeared to be related to physiological properties of the cell lines, such as their doubling time in culture, drug metabolism or the interferon response. Comparison of gene expression patterns in the cell lines to those observed in normal breast tissue or in breast tumor specimens revealed features of the expression patterns in the tumors that had recognizable counterparts in specific cell lines, reflecting the tumor, stromal and inflammatory components of the tumor tissue. These results provided a novel molecular characterization of this important group of human cell lines and their relationships to tumors in vivo.

  7. Temporal pattern of stimulation modulates reflex bladder activation by pudendal nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meredith J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-11-01

    Reflex bladder activation and inhibition by electrical stimulation of pudendal nerve (PN) afferents is a promising approach to restore control of bladder function in persons with lower urinary tract dysfunction caused by disease or injury. The objective of this work was to determine whether bladder activation evoked by pudendal afferent stimulation was dependent on the temporal pattern of stimulation, and whether specific temporal patterns of stimulation produced larger bladder contractions than constant frequency stimulation. The mean and maximum contraction pressures evoked by different temporal patterns of stimulation of the dorsal genital branch of the pudendal nerve were measured under isovolumetric conditions in α-chloralose anesthetized cats. A computational model of the spinal neural network mediating the pudendo-vesical reflex was used to understand the mechanisms of different bladder responses to patterned stimulation. The pattern of stimulation significantly affected the magnitude of evoked bladder contractions; several temporal patterns were as effective as regular stimulation, but no pattern evoked larger bladder contractions. Random patterns and patterns with pauses, burst-like activity, or high frequency components evoked significantly smaller bladder contractions, supporting the use of regular frequency stimulation in the development of neural prosthetic approaches for bladder control. These results reveal that the bladder response to pudendal afferent stimulation is dependent on the pattern, as well as the frequency, of stimulation. The computational model revealed that the effects of patterned pudendal afferent stimulation were determined by the dynamic properties of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the lumbosacral spinal cord. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:882-887, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  9. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into

  10. Variation in actigraphy-estimated rest-activity patterns by demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Quante, Mirja; Godbole, Suneeta; James, Peter; Hipp, J Aaron; Marinac, Catherine R; Mariani, Sara; Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Glanz, Karen; Laden, Francine; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Redline, Susan; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2017-06-26

    Rest-activity patterns provide an indication of circadian rhythmicity in the free-living setting. We aimed to describe the distributions of rest-activity patterns in a sample of adults and children across demographic variables. A sample of adults (N = 590) and children (N = 58) wore an actigraph on their nondominant wrist for 7 days and nights. We generated rest-activity patterns from cosinor analysis (MESOR, acrophase and magnitude) and nonparametric circadian rhythm analysis (IS: interdaily stability; IV: intradaily variability; L5: least active 5-hour period; M10: most active 10-hour period; and RA: relative amplitude). Demographic variables included age, sex, race, education, marital status, and income. Linear mixed-effects models were used to test for demographic differences in rest-activity patterns. Adolescents, compared to younger children, had (1) later M10 midpoints (β = 1.12 hours [95% CI: 0.43, 1.18] and lower M10 activity levels; (2) later L5 midpoints (β = 1.6 hours [95% CI: 0.9, 2.3]) and lower L5 activity levels; (3) less regular rest-activity patterns (lower IS and higher IV); and 4) lower magnitudes (β = -0.95 [95% CI: -1.28, -0.63]) and relative amplitudes (β = -0.1 [95% CI: -0.14, -0.06]). Mid-to-older adults, compared to younger adults (aged 18-29 years), had (1) earlier M10 midpoints (β = -1.0 hours [95% CI: -1.6, -0.4]; (2) earlier L5 midpoints (β = -0.7 hours [95% CI: -1.2, -0.2]); and (3) more regular rest-activity patterns (higher IS and lower IV). The magnitudes and relative amplitudes were similar across the adult age categories. Sex, race and education level rest-activity differences were also observed. Rest-activity patterns vary across the lifespan, and differ by race, sex and education. Understanding population variation in these patterns provides a foundation for further elucidating the health implications of rest-activity patterns across the lifespan.

  11. Human Activity Recognition Using Heterogeneous Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.

    Physical activities play an important role in our physical and mental well-being. The lack of such activities can negatively affect our well-being. Though people know the importance of physical activities, still they need regular motivational feedback to remain active in their daily life. In order

  12. Face and eye scanning in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), orangutans (Pongo abelii), and humans (Homo sapiens): unique eye-viewing patterns in humans among hominids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Call, Josep; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2012-11-01

    Because the faces and eyes of primates convey a rich array of social information, the way in which primates view faces and eyes reflects species-specific strategies for facial communication. How are humans and closely related species such as great apes similar and different in their viewing patterns for faces and eyes? Following previous studies comparing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with humans (Homo sapiens), this study used the eye-tracking method to directly compare the patterns of face and eye scanning by humans, gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii). Human and ape participants freely viewed pictures of whole bodies and full faces of conspecifics and allospecifics under the same experimental conditions. All species were strikingly similar in that they viewed predominantly faces and eyes. No particular difference was identified between gorillas and orangutans, and they also did not differ from the chimpanzees tested in previous studies. However, humans were somewhat different from apes, especially with respect to prolonged eye viewing. We also examined how species-specific facial morphologies, such as the male flange of orangutans and the black-white contrast of human eyes, affected viewing patterns. Whereas the male flange of orangutans affected viewing patterns, the color contrast of human eyes did not. Humans showed prolonged eye viewing independently of the eye color of presented faces, indicating that this pattern is internally driven rather than stimulus dependent. Overall, the results show general similarities among the species and also identify unique eye-viewing patterns in humans.

  13. Active sensing via movement shapes spatiotemporal patterns of sensory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Sarah A; Roth, Eatai; Cowan, Noah J; Fortune, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    Previous work has shown that animals alter their locomotor behavior to increase sensing volumes. However, an animal's own movement also determines the spatial and temporal dynamics of sensory feedback. Because each sensory modality has unique spatiotemporal properties, movement has differential and potentially independent effects on each sensory system. Here we show that weakly electric fish dramatically adjust their locomotor behavior in relation to changes of modality-specific information in a task in which increasing sensory volume is irrelevant. We varied sensory information during a refuge-tracking task by changing illumination (vision) and conductivity (electroreception). The gain between refuge movement stimuli and fish tracking responses was functionally identical across all sensory conditions. However, there was a significant increase in the tracking error in the dark (no visual cues). This was a result of spontaneous whole-body oscillations (0.1 to 1 Hz) produced by the fish. These movements were costly: in the dark, fish swam over three times further when tracking and produced more net positive mechanical work. The magnitudes of these oscillations increased as electrosensory salience was degraded via increases in conductivity. In addition, tail bending (1.5 to 2.35 Hz), which has been reported to enhance electrosensory perception, occurred only during trials in the dark. These data show that both categories of movements - whole-body oscillations and tail bends - actively shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of electrosensory feedback.

  14. Systematic analysis of gene expression patterns associated with postmortem interval in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhang; Wang, Likun; Yin, Yuxin; Yang, Ence

    2017-07-14

    Postmortem mRNA degradation is considered to be the major concern in gene expression research utilizing human postmortem tissues. A key factor in this process is the postmortem interval (PMI), which is defined as the interval between death and sample collection. However, global patterns of postmortem mRNA degradation at individual gene levels across diverse human tissues remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of alteration of gene expression associated with PMI in human tissues. From the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, we evaluated gene expression levels of 2,016 high-quality postmortem samples from 316 donors of European descent, with PMI ranging from 1 to 27 hours. We found that PMI-related mRNA degradation is tissue-specific, gene-specific, and even genotype-dependent, thus drawing a more comprehensive picture of PMI-associated gene expression across diverse human tissues. Additionally, we also identified 266 differentially variable (DV) genes, such as DEFB4B and IFNG, whose expression is significantly dispersed between short PMI (S-PMI) and long PMI (L-PMI) groups. In summary, our analyses provide a comprehensive profile of PMI-associated gene expression, which will help interpret gene expression patterns in the evaluation of postmortem tissues.

  15. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  16. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb apical ectodermal ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A; Pierro, Louis J; Upholt, William B; Dealy, Caroline N

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or apical ectodermal ridge (AER), but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  17. Physical activity patterns of inner-city elementary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; McCoy, Tara A; Vander Veur, Stephanie S; Mallya, Giridhar; Duffy, Meghan L; Foster, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to objectively measure the physical activity (PA) characteristics of a racially and ethnically diverse sample of inner-city elementary schoolchildren and to examine the influence of sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, and weight status on PA. A total of 470 students in grades 4-6 from six inner-city schools in Philadelphia wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL) for up to 7 d. The resultant data were uploaded to a customized Visual Basic EXCEL macro to determine the time spent in sedentary (SED), light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). On average, students accumulated 48 min of MVPA daily. Expressed as a percentage of monitoring time, students were sedentary for 63% of the time, in LPA 31% of the time, and in MVPA 6% of the time. Across all race/ethnicity and grade level groups, boys exhibited significantly higher levels of MVPA than girls did; fifth-grade boys exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and sixth-grade boys did, and sixth-grade girls exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than fourth- and fifth-grade girls did. Hispanic children exhibited lower levels of MVPA than children from other racial/ethnic groups did, and overweight and obese children exhibited significantly lower MVPA levels than children in the healthy weight range did. Across the entire sample, only 24.3% met the current public health guidelines for PA. Physical inactivity was significantly greater among females, Hispanics, and overweight and obese students. Fewer than one in four inner-city schoolchildren accumulated the recommended 60 min of MVPA daily. These findings highlight the need for effective and sustainable programs to promote PA in inner-city youth.

  18. Brain activation pattern depends on the strategy chosen by zebra finches to solve an orientation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Uwe; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to find food in one of four feeders on the floor of an aviary. This feeder was always in the same place during training and was additionally marked by a distinct pattern. In the test trial the distinctly patterned feeder was interchanged with one of the other feeders, so that the birds had to decide to use either the pattern or the original location for finding food. Half of the birds used one strategy and half used the other. According to the strategy applied, different brain areas were activated, as demonstrated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The hippocampus was activated when spatial cues were used, while in birds orienting using the pattern of the feeder, part of the collothalamic (tectofugal) visual system showed stronger activation. The visual wulst of the lemnothalamic (thalamofugal) visual system was activated with both strategies, indicating an involvement in both spatial and pattern-directed orientation. Because the experimental situation was the same for all zebra finches, the activation pattern was only dependent on the strategy that was voluntarily chosen by each of the birds.

  19. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Bar-On

    Full Text Available The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01. The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between

  20. A tale of many cities: universal patterns in human urban mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Noulas, Anastasios; Lambiotte, Renaud; Pontil, Massimiliano; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The advent of geographic online social networks such as Foursquare, where users voluntarily signal their current location, opens the door to powerful studies on human movement. In particular the fine granularity of the location data, with GPS accuracy down to 10 meters, and the worldwide scale of Foursquare adoption are unprecedented. In this paper we study urban mobility patterns of people in several metropolitan cities around the globe by analyzing a large set of Foursquare users. Surprisingly, while there are variations in human movement in different cities, our analysis shows that those are predominantly due to different distributions of places across different urban environments. Moreover, a universal law for human mobility is identified, which isolates as a key component the rank-distance, factoring in the number of places between origin and destination, rather than pure physical distance, as considered in some previous works. Building on our findings, we also show how a rank-based movement model accura...

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2011-01-01

    using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body......Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  2. Diurnal patterns of soluble amyloid precursor protein metabolites in the human central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna A Dobrowolska

    Full Text Available The amyloid-β (Aβ protein is diurnally regulated in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood in healthy adults; circadian amplitudes decrease with aging and the presence of cerebral Aβ deposits. The cause of the Aβ diurnal pattern is poorly understood. One hypothesis is that the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP is diurnally regulated, leading to APP product diurnal patterns. APP in the central nervous system is processed either via the β-pathway (amyloidogenic, generating soluble APP-β (sAPPβ and Aβ, or the α-pathway (non-amyloidogenic, releasing soluble APP-α (sAPPα. To elucidate the potential contributions of APP to the Aβ diurnal pattern and the balance of the α- and β- pathways in APP processing, we measured APP proteolytic products over 36 hours in human cerebrospinal fluid from cognitively normal and Alzheimer's disease participants. We found diurnal patterns in sAPPα, sAPPβ, Aβ40, and Aβ42, which diminish with increased age, that support the hypothesis that APP is diurnally regulated in the human central nervous system and thus results in Aβ diurnal patterns. We also found that the four APP metabolites were positively correlated in all participants without cerebral Aβ deposits. This positive correlation suggests that the α- and β- APP pathways are non-competitive under normal physiologic conditions where APP availability may be the limiting factor that determines sAPPα and sAPPβ production. However, in participants with cerebral Aβ deposits, there was no correlation of Aβ to sAPP metabolites, suggesting that normal physiologic regulation of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ is impaired in the presence of amyloidosis. Lastly, we found that the ratio of sAPPβ to sAPPα was significantly higher in participants with cerebral Aβ deposits versus those without deposits. Therefore, the sAPPβ to sAPPα ratio may be a useful biomarker for cerebral amyloidosis.

  3. Patterns of physical activity in Spanish children: A descriptive pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Laín, Susana; Naylor, P. J.; Silva, Pedro; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita; Angulo, T.; Laguna, María; Lara, M. T.; López Chicharro, José

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Spanish adults and children do not engage in enough physical activity to be beneficial for health. There is a need for objective and accurate assessment of the proportion of children meeting the physical activity recommendation for health. Assessing patterns of physical activity both between days (during weekdays and weekend days) and within days is of interest to improve our understanding of the variation in Spanish children's physical activity and to provide efficient interv...

  4. Immunological characterization of plasminogen activator activities in human tissues and body fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Wijngaards, G.; Welbergen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Human plasminogen activators were compared immunologically in both a double-diffusion technique and quenching experiments on the fibrinolytic activities of the activators. Antisera against HMW and LMW urokinase and an antiserum against highly purified tissue plasminogen activator from human uterus

  5. Human movement activity classification approaches that use wearable sensors and mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghyan, Sahak; Sarukhanyan, Hakob; Akopian, David

    2013-03-01

    Cell phones and other mobile devices become part of human culture and change activity and lifestyle patterns. Mobile phone technology continuously evolves and incorporates more and more sensors for enabling advanced applications. Latest generations of smart phones incorporate GPS and WLAN location finding modules, vision cameras, microphones, accelerometers, temperature sensors etc. The availability of these sensors in mass-market communication devices creates exciting new opportunities for data mining applications. Particularly healthcare applications exploiting build-in sensors are very promising. This paper reviews different approaches of human activity recognition.

  6. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  7. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-12-12

    Dec 12, 2000 ... Immunoglobulin in the resistance or susceptibility of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A,B,C ... individual to Salmonella typhi and paratyphi infections. Individuals of ..... human immunodeficiency virus. J. Immuno.

  8. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop processes for effective isolation and purification of recombinant human plasminogen ... three hybridoma strains were superior for producing PR-mAbs (C1, C4, C8). ..... characterization of a polyol- responsive monoclonal.

  9. On studying protein phosphorylation patterns using bottom-up LC-MS/MS: the case of human alpha-casein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Savitski, Mikhail M; Nielsen, Michael L

    2007-01-01

    minerals to the new-born. Human alpha(s1)-casein has been reported to be much less phosphorylated than ruminant caseins, which may indicate a different function of caseins in humans. Revealing the phosphorylation pattern in human casein can thus shed light on its function. The current study found...

  10. Human multimedia display interface based on human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yiting; Lee, Eung-Joo

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we will propose a Human Multimedia Display Interface. The interface uses the tracking of human hand movements to control the IP-TV. This paper presents an improved CAMSHIFT algorithm to control an IP-TV system. The CAMSHIFT algorithm (Continuously Adaptive MeanShift) is a method of using color information[1]. It can do tracking with a specific color of the target. In some typical environmental constraints, it can obtain good tracking performance. However, as the question of noise, large area similar to the color interference and so on, only by CAM-SHIFT algorithm it is not competent. Against these issues we propose an improved CAMSHIFT algorithm[2].

  11. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  12. Stimulus-specific delay activity in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serences, John T; Ester, Edward F; Vogel, Edward K; Awh, Edward

    2009-02-01

    Working memory (WM) involves maintaining information in an on-line state. One emerging view is that information in WM is maintained via sensory recruitment, such that information is stored via sustained activity in the sensory areas that encode the to-be-remembered information. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that key sensory regions such as primary visual cortex (V1) showed little evidence of sustained increases in mean activation during a WM delay period, though such amplitude increases have typically been used to determine whether a region is involved in on-line maintenance. However, a multivoxel pattern analysis of delay-period activity revealed a sustained pattern of activation in V1 that represented only the intentionally stored feature of a multifeature object. Moreover, the pattern of delay activity was qualitatively similar to that observed during the discrimination of sensory stimuli, suggesting that WM representations in V1 are reasonable "copies" of those evoked during pure sensory processing.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Syndromes Affecting Human Natural Killer Cell Cytolytic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Hyoungjun; Billadeau, D