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Sample records for humad reza abdolvand

  1. PENGEMBANGAN PEMASARAN REZA BAKERY DAN KUALITAS LAYANAN DALAM MENINGKATKAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

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    Hendy Yuliansyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - Bread is one of the food products are favored by the people. One of the pastry shop, calling themselves by reza bakery. Having high potential of selling in distinctive taste and packaging, bakery of bread reza be the target of the buyers in the city of Bandung, especially in Margahayu. With the potential that exists, then reza bakery bread can develop into a great product. Through a qualitative descriptive study, the development of marketing that can be done by reza bakery packaging including through distinctive, attention to have clean, variety of their product, and also the quality of the taste of reza bakery.   Keyword : Strategic Development, Brand, Packaging, Taste.   Abstrak - Roti merupakan salah satu produk makanan yang digemari oleh masyarakat. Salah satu toko kue, menamakan dirinya dengan reza bakery. Dengan berbekal rasa dan kemasan yang khas, roti reza bakery menjadi incaran para pembeli di wilayah margahayu kota Bandung. Dengan potensi yang ada, maka reza bakery dapat berkembang menjadi produk roti yang besar. Melalui penelitian deskriptif kualitatif, maka pengembangan pemasaran yang dapat dilakukan oleh reza bakery diantaranya melalui kemasan yang khas, dengan memperhatikan kebersihan, kualitas produk rotinya, waktu pelayanan, harga yang tetap terjangkau, ragam produk, serta rasa yang selalu terjaga.    Kata Kunci : Strategi Pengembangan Pemasaran, Merek, Kemasan, Rasa.

  2. A Critique on Two Novels of Reza Amirkhani

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    B Hejazi

    2011-06-01

    So in seventieth and eightieth decades the attention of authors directed to idealism and creation of abstract sphere based on literary and artistic creations. Reza Amirhkani is a young author who has had salient effort in the arena of fiction writing and there is a structural coherence in his novels. Ermiya and Bevatan show his improvement and mental evolution and his ability to write modernist novels. Which signs are there that show structural coherence between these two novels? And which reasons are there that prove the improvement of his writing in Bevatan as compared to Ermiya? Besides searching these questions, this article tries to find the signs of New Novel and Anti-Novel. Amid describing attractive points of the two novels the defections of Bevatan, caused by signs of Anti-Novel, are pointed out.

  3. Improving productivity of Rex, Satin and Reza rabbits through selection

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    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection based on weaning weight in Rex, Satin rabbits and their crosses was done to improve its productivity. Data from the base population (P0, selected population (G0 and an offspring of selected population (F1 were used to estimate heritability using nested analysis method (nested and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The value of heritability estimated of birth weight, weaning weight, 12 weeks body weight and 16 weeks body weight of Rex were 0.74±0.09, 0.93±0.05, 0.81±0.09 and 0.89±0.06, Satin were 0.96, 0.82±0.22, 0.93±0.40 and 0.97 and Reza were 0.96±0.27, 0.98, 0.86±0.40 dan 0.78, respectively. Increase in weaning weight on selected Rex, Satin rabbits and their corsses were 22.77 g (3.66%, 6.83 g (1.11% and 65.29 g (10.67%.

  4. Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (L.C in Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah (2006-2012

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    Ezatollah Sadeghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a technique of choice for treatment and removal of gallbladder problems. Various studies have been done on its effectiveness & complications. The most common complications are bile duct injuries, bile leakage, wound infection and bile peritonitis. Methods: This study retrospectively analysed the total number of laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases performed in Imam Reza hospital (2006-2012. According to the patient's profile, we tried to determine the actual incidence of complications after L.C. Results: Total of 1380 patients were studied, from whom 1074 cases were female (77.8%. The average age of the participants was 48.11(0/7%. The most common complications were bile duct injuries and bile leakage. The most common location of biliary damage was CBD (61%. Cystic duct injuries and other accessory bile ducts were categorized as following priorities. Incidence of collections after surgery was 15 cases (1.08%. The majority of bile duct injuries were surgically treated (81%, using biliary-enteric anastomosis procedure. Conclusion: The most common and challenging complications of L.C were bile duct injury and bile leakage that occur for patients due to tragic consequences. The most common surgical repair method for bile injuries is biliary-enteric anastomosis and insertion of T.Tube. The alternative method is percutaneous drainage for small leakages.

  5. ANTIBIOTIC USAGE IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS OF TABRIZ IMAM REZA HOSPITAL, 2011

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    Sepehr Taghizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy is one of the most important factors in providing community health. In a proper selection of an antibiotic for curing an infection, the kind of infective agent and its sensitivity to the utilized drugs must be regarded. The patients whom are admitted in ICUs are 5 to 7 folds more vulnerable to infection. The studies has been done in past decades have shown various amounts of inappropriate antibiotic use. The files of 234 patients whom were admitted during 6 months in ICUs (Surgery, Neurosurgery, Neurology and Pulmonary diseases of Imam Reza Hospital of Tabriz County studied for manner of antibiotic therapy, antibiotic changes during therapy, number of prescribed antibiotics 64% of patients were male and 36% were female. Average age of patients was 43.9±23.9 years. The most admission of patients was in Surgery ICU (69.2%. The most prescribed antibiotic was Cephalosporin family and ceftriaxone was the most utilized antibiotic. In 59.7% of patients, the antibiotics were prescribed empirically and in 35% of cases antibiotics changed during treatment. 28.1% of cases treated with monotherapy while others treated with combination therapy. In 61% of cases, the prescribed antibiotics were inappropriate with final diagnosis of patients. The majority of antibiotics were prescribed according to physician’s clinical experiment and combination therapy is used much more than monotherapy.

  6. Relationship among moral authority and emotional empowerment: perspectives of clinical nurses in Imam Reza (AS) Kermanshah, 2015.

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    Cheraghi, R; Mohammadi, M; Mohammadi, E; Esfandnia, F; Bayat, R; Esfandnia, N; Esfandnia, A

    2015-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present research is to establish the connection among the decent masters of the emotional empowerment perspectives of nurses in Imam Reza (AS) Kermanshah Hospital in 2015. Methods. The required information are gathered at the start of the towering utilization of the Internet search and library. Data relevant to the communication are gathered by using questionnaires. Standard information are gathered. The population of the research included all formal hospital-training nurses, meaning the persons responsible with the behaving of patients in Medical Sciences Kermanshah University, respectively 550. Based on the formula of the Cochran, 226 questionnaires were simple random Bayat samples; 219 surveys are delivered, used, and returned from the ultimate population. The accuracy and their confirmation are already under investigation and confirmation. Findings. The findings indicated a psychological association with the ethical leadership and the enabling nurses. There is also a clear (sig = .000). Moreover, there is a direct and clear link [sig = .000] between the moral leader and enabling the psychological views of the nurses. Discussion. Based on the results of the present research, it can be said that the master of morality led to the emotional empowerment of nurses. The moral evil leader of the yen means creating faith, work happiness, increased efficiency and it activates the effective organizational goals.

  7. Mohammad Reza Noruzi

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    Mohammad Reza Noruzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, competence, and related intangibles have emerged as the key drivers ofcompetitive advantage in developed nations. This is not just because of the importance of knowledgeitself, but because of the rapid expansion of goods and factor markets, leaving intangible assets as themain basis of competitive differentiation in many sectors. There is implicit recognition of this in bothmanagement theory and practice with the growing emphasis being placed on the importance ofintangible assets, reputation, customer loyalty, and technological know-how. By using physicsquantum skills in the era of management managers uses from basic science in the area of managerialissues well and they can look widely for the contemporary issues. This paper aims to review theIntellectual capital notion and learning organizations. Also a new perspective to create LOs byimplementing competitive strategies like Quantum strategies comes as well.

  8. Keeping it in the family: incest, repression and the fear of the hybrid in Reza de Wet’s English plays

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    A. Krueger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Reza de Wet has more than once referred in interviews to the syncretic relationship she sees as existing in the “long history” between Afrikaner and black cultures. Due to its close association with black African cultures, she claims that Afrikaner culture has fused a belief in mythologies and “magical thinking” with a “European consciousness” (Solberg, 2003:180. This article investigates ways in which some of De Wet’s English translations – as well as her play “Concealment” (De Wet, 2004 – demonstrate the consequences of a fear of this amalgamation; a dread of hybridity. Concurrent with this anxiety is the danger inherent in a repression of desire. In a number of De Wet’s plays it seems that what is cloistered and protected within the purity of family (possibly a metaphor for the Afrikaner people conceals an incestuous perversion.

  9. Evaluation of PUVA-induced skin side effects in patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad in 2005-2007

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    Masoud Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic oral psoralens plus UVA therapy (PUVA is a therapeutic method used with considerable success in many different skin disorders. PUVA therapy causes some cutaneous and noncutaneous side effects and in the present research we deal with cutaneous side effects. Aims: Evaluation of patients to know the different skin side effects of PUVA and their importance. Materials and Methods: All patients referred to the phototherapy unit of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad entered the research and skin examination was taken place initially and every 3 months thereafter. Whenever any side effect appeared, it was recorded in the information sheet. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight patients were included in the research, 61 were male between 15 and 75 years and 67 were female between 10 and 61 years of age. Age of female patients at the time of cutaneous side effect appearance was less than male patients. The most common early side effect was pruritus (34.3% and the rarest was telangiectasia (0.7%. One case of late side effect in the form of squamous cell carcinoma was observed in a patient who had received other carcinogenic drugs as well. Complications such as skin dryness, pruritus, erythema and burning sensation occurred at low doses of UVA, while dermatitis, severe limb pain and acne at moderate doses and PUVA lentigines, hypertrichosis and lichenoid lesions appeared at high doses of UVA. Conclusion: Considering the significant therapeutic effects and few serious side effects, PUVA therapy is a suitable and safe method for treatment of certain skin diseases.

  10. The effect of positive thinking training on the level of spiritual well-being among the patients with coronary artery diseases referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Ghodsbin, Fariba; Safaei, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Keshvarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Positive thinking which is derived from an optimistic view toward the universe and plays an important role in the incidence of better and a more targeted behavior among human beings. It can improve spiritual health in the individuals through increased communication with God and thanksgiving and accelerate the healing process. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the effect of positive thinking on the level of spiritual health in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS In this study randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with confirmed CAD referred to Imam Reza clinic, Shiraz, during April to July 2013. A blocking randomization method was used to randomize the final 90 participants into intervention (n = 45) and control groups (n = 45). After obtaining written informed consent, the participants were asked to complete two questionnaires. Data were collected using Ellison and Paloutzian’s spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) and a demographic questionnaire. The patients in the intervention group participated in 7 training sessions on positive thinking in which several topics were discussed. The SWBS questionnaire was completed two more times by the participants; once immediately after, and once 1 month after the intervention. 16 patients were excluded from the study due to different reasons, and finally the analysis was performed on 74 patients. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of spiritual well-being (SWB) increased from 88.71 ± 12.5 to 96.63 ± 12.58 in the intervention group; while, it decreased from 93.19 ± 17.55 to 94.45 ± 16.01 in the control group in the interval of before and 1 month after the intervention. We observed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding both variables of time and group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION SWB is an important factor which should be considered in the treatment process, and

  11. محمد رضا النحوي (ت1226هــ حياته وشعره Mohammad Reza ِ alnhway (d. 1226 AH his life and his verse

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    Mahdey Abd Alameer Moftan مهدي عبد الامير مفتن

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available He Is Mohammad Reza bin Sheikh Ahmed bin Hassan bin Ali bin al-Khawaja Alhilly Najafi famous with poet (. Poet of his time and writer defender, surpassed his father in poetry, has been world virtuous diligent, respectable side in Iraq, light foul, a lover of souls head with head of the scientists who Contemporary, and one of the heroes of the famous battle Thursday (. He was ((ambitious self broad imagination, enslaved sober to say and owned eloquent of speech arbitrator and descended from the fields of literature, not twisted on nothing but creativity, meaning the subject no one can think of to access it, and maybe I feel others some images that sponsored but sit him down amenability Limited live up to (, and was grammar man linguistically and standing on the secrets of Arab and aspects (. Born in the mid-second century AH, did not know the exact year of his birth. Grew up in Hilla and continued for a long period of time, and Roy that he was early in his youth, gaining living by Sells cloth (Bzaza (, and then go to Najaf and necessary flags and housing forums and excelled and became famous.

  12. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his political cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ardavan Khoshnood

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... c Department of Human Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Received 18 July 2015; revised 1 November 2015; accepted 5 November 2015. Available online .... On September 9, 1974, however, the Shah again com-.

  13. Reflection of Classic Culture and Literature in Mohammad Reza Shafi\\'ee Kadkani’s Poem

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    yusef aziziyan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literary legacy for a nation provides guarantee for its identity and personality literary tradition appears the basis of modernity in any realm especially literary modernity, for if otherwise, the literary modernity would be transitory and unsustainable. Modernity proves the presence of tradition in our contemporaneity. Though literary tradition looks forlorn in history during the deep and penetrating developments in the society, it, indeed, keeps on its presence in the contemporaneity whether directly or indirectly however it seems occasionally absent. Tradition, as an absent existence however omnipresent is what we require firmly although some may neglect it. The presence of literary legacy and tradition of the past in the poems of contemporary poets, especially those who inherit the legacy to greater extent, is not of an identical share. Undoubtedly the more a poet inherits the legacy, the more the legacy varies in his or her poems. However the poet is not always using the legacy consciously, for his gradual and vast familiarity with the literary legacy little by little becomes his mental treasures and thus acts as the constructive elements of his mental structure. It, through the poet's mental activities, moves to his consciousness on the basis of the process of association of ideas when the poet is actively unaware of its origin or even its relation to literary legacy and tradition. Among the contemporary poets, Shafi'ee Kadkani has benefitted from the legacy of classic literature to a great extent and it can be explicitly or implicitly understood in various forms in his poetical works whether in the context of thought and semantic or in thematisation, imagery and language combinations. The essay does not investigate exclusively the obvious part of the presence of tradition specifically in the form of classic thoughts and themes in his poems the part he himself occasionally denotes clearly. But it surveys the implicit combinations, ironies, phrases, images, and themes employed in the context of poems while the poet himself has been unaware of their origin and use altogether during the versification. The count of these varieties mentioned in the essay could rise and they imply Kadkani's conscious or unconscious adaptation from the tradition and refer to the vast and deep influence of the literary legacy in forming his mentality. In the pursuit, it is hold the study inquires the combinations that are borrowed from the classic masterminds of Persian literature by M. Sereshk. It should be said these combinations may be employed consciously or unconsciously in the poems of M. Sereshk whereas their great frequency illustrate M. Sereshk's awareness and achievement in the literature of Persian territory. In fact the use of these various combinations however unconscious maintains the conviction that they are found as sediments in the treasure of his mind through ages of investigation and disclosed now and then when versifying his poems. It is noteworthy saying the reference to the classic poems does not mean M. Sereshk has borrowed a combination from a particular poet it depicts they had been already employed in the content of Persian poetry centuries before M. Sereshk thus their employment portrays his growing interest and perfect skill in our classic literature. For instance, we do not mean he has borrowed the combination of "masti va rasti" – drunkenness and righteousness – from the poet, Amman Samani, but we are supposed to say the combination however once had been applied in the classic texts by a poet named Amman Samani. Of course, another poet may have used the very combination but it seems a tough job to find them all, because on the one hand, it requires a comprehensive knowledge on the poetic and prosaic classic texts and on the other hand it demands a long life. And then he versified the verse: "but the moments of drunkenness drunkenness and righteousness" The abovementioned adaptation has been borrowed from Samani: "till I say without a word less Yeah, yeah, drunkenness and righteousness"

  14. The semiology of metaphor and imagery in Ahmad Reza Ahmadi's Neshani

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    Fateme Casi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmadreza Ahmadi is an Iranian poet and writer of the 1340’s (Solar Calendar, the 1960’s. He started his activities in children’s literature along with poetry. He wrote his first children’s book in 1348 and he has been writing ever since. His works in children’s literature depict a different atmosphere. Reading Ahmadreza Ahmadi’s works foregrounds some signs in readers’ eyes. This article analyses the semiotics of the story “Address”. Semiotics is the study of anything that refers to something else; these signs can take the form of words, pictures, sounds, situations, and objects. In reading Ahmadi’s stories, specially this one, the markedness of imagination is very conspicuous. The studies done on Ahmadi’s work showed that the imagination in his works is a modern and fantastic one, and also because of the simultaneity of imagination, metaphor, and ambiguity, the reader, in the paradigmatic axis, is faced with metaphor in its modern sense, ambiguity, and openness of the text. This article studies the imagination and metaphor that Romantics and Symbolists refer to, and thereupon tries to decipher these signs based on Lakoff’s theories. To this point, first, a summary of the story “Address” is provided, and then I state the theoretical basis of the article. After a definition of semiotics and its features, I talked about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, and after stating the difference between thought and imagination (imagination refers to complicated and difficult relationships like a living body, not to the mechanical and one-to-one relationships of things. In thought, a simple thing as likeness is created, and there is no trace of metaphor and sign as in Romanticism or Symbolism we concluded that imagination in his works is marked. In the discussion about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, we considered imagination is his works to be fantastic. Fantastic imagination is the type of imagination that goes beyond the boundaries of imagination, or deforms real dimensions and forms for its needs and directions in a particular way. Fantastic imagination is an infinite, boundless, and normally non-repetitive imagination. In the next discussion the markedness of metaphor is presented. Metaphor can be taken as an aspect of imaginary language. According to linguists, metaphor includes the process of transferring conceptual perception through likeness, in a way that the words in a language are used for a new meaning (afrashi, 20.1390. This understanding of metaphor is naturally opposed to the classic understanding which believes that metaphor is separable from language, and it can be said that the modern view on metaphor is the continuation of the Romantic view which believes that metaphor is inseparable from language. The last discussion is designated to reflect the metaphor of the structure of phenomena in the story “Address”. Lakoff and his students have done a study on the metaphorical perception of the structure of phenomena. Their findings show that different aspects of the structure of phenomena such as concepts like states, transformations, processes, actions, causes, goals, and ways, from a cognitive point of view, are defined through metaphors based on place, motion, and force. Therefore, most abstract concepts- time, states, transformations, causality, action, goal and way- are conceptualized through metaphor. (The same, 166 The story “Address” can be analyzed through the metaphor of phenomenon. The whole story is a metaphor from a point of departure (house to a point of arrival (pharmacy. It is necessary to say that the motion metaphor is not summarized in the physical motion (going from the house to the pharmacy in order to buy drugs. This motion is also seen in states. The particular obstacle in this story is a vital part of the metaphor of phenomenon. The story does not follow a tragic process, and at the end the pains turn into happiness and hope.

  15. Enterococcus faecalis as multidrug resistance strains in clinical isolates in Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran.

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    Mohammadi, F; Ghafourian, S; Mohebi, R; Taherikalani, M; Pakzad, I; Valadbeigi, H; Hatami, V; Sadeghifard, N

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus in E. faecalis and E. faecium and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, then dominant genes responsible for vancomycin resistance were determined. For this propose, 180 clinical isolates of Enterococcus were subjected for identification and antibiotic susceptibility assay. Then, the gene responsible vancomycin resistant strains were determined. The results demonstrated the E. faecalis as a dominant Enterococcus. Resistance to erythromycin was dominant and multidrug resistance strains observed in E. faecalis. vanA was responsible for vancomycin resistance. In conclusion, a high rate of resistance to antibiotics in Enterococcus is clearly problematic, and a novel strategy is needed to decrease resistance in Enterococcus.

  16. Os marcos são: o conto, a reza e o evangelho

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    Verônica Ribas Cúrcio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work to we, firstly, intend on making a brief analysis of Guimarães Rosa’s short story, São Marcos and, following, a comparison between this story and the Gospel of Saint.Mark. Both texts discourse on faith and religion, and belief as the only form of salvation. In the first text, the protagonist, superstitious, and at the same time skeptically, passes trough an experience of transformation. What saves him is the faith in words, in the prayer of Saint Mark. In the second text, the Gospel, a part of the story of Jesus’ life is summarized, from the time of his baptism to his resurrection and trough this time various miracles and cures done by him, told as examples of unconditional faith.

  17. Transformation hardening by linear-polarized laser beam. Report 2. Development of novel laser beam shaping optics and its applications to materials processing; Chokusen henko reza wo mochiiru hentai koka. 2. Atarashii reza shaping kogakukei no kaihatsu to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, I.; Maruo, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-08-05

    Shape variable laser beam shaping optics for which linear polarized beam is utilized is applied to the hardening of carbon steel by CO2 laser beam to analyze the absorptivity. In addition, linear polarized beam is irradiated to inclined materials for laser hardening to analyze the depth of hardening and the distribution of temperature. The absorptivity of random polarized beam by the bare specimens is as low as 20%. It is as high as above 40% with the graphite coated specimen, but is nearly constant with no dependence on the angle of incidence. The absorptivity in p-polarization increases with the increase in the angle of incidence. When linear polarized beam is used, the total efficiency of the bare specimen becomes high by about 1.5 times that of the graphite coated specimen subjected to random polarized beam. Hardening of bear material by laser beam is quite possible when p-polarization is employed. An approximation equation is derived with which the temperature distribution and hardened depth can be obtained easily if beam distribution and absorptivity are given, and it is applied to the evaluation of laser hardening of inclined specimens using linear polarized beam. 22 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

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    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  19. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629...; Order Denying Export Privileges A. Denial of Export Privileges of RH International, LLC On October 18, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida Tampa Division, RH International, LLC...

  20. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Integrated Access to Cultural Heritage Information Pieces in Iran over Imam Reza's 4th Zarih (Burial Chamber) as a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhnia, Maliheh; Zarei, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer an example of how ontology, such as CIDOC, can be turned into a format from the perspective of an object. In fact, it illustrates the possible semantic analysis of an object description into a view neutral machine-interpretable form. The aim is to show that a museum object located in a museum can be…

  2. Formation of NiCrAlY laser cladding with preplaced method; Funtai tofu reza kuraddingu ho ni yoru NiCrAlY himaku no keisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, H. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Sumikawa, T. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Nishida, K. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Graduate School; Nishida, M.; Araki, T. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-05

    Cladding technique on the surface of structure materials using high corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials has been used in many fields as compared to conventional one. The heat source for cladding was mainly arc welding, however, these recent years, laser cladding where laser having special characteristics like high control, high output density and so forth is used as a heat source, has been studied. In this report, in order to cope with the change in composition of base material, coating layer formation with preplaced method was studied systematically using NiCrAlY powder formed by mixing mechanically commercial metal powder with raw material powder and low power (1200W) CO2 laser. As a result, good NiCrAlY cladded layer with good composition and with no defect was achieved using basic powder formed by mixing mechanically the metallic powder and commercial organic binder. Cladding of broad area was possible by weaving method even at low power (1200W) CO2 laser. Cladded layer with lower dilution ratio and higher cross sectional area was achieved with smaller powder particle diameter. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Development of an optical dilatometer using a cryogenic refrigerator (3). Measurements for a single crystal silicon; Kogata reitoki wo michiita reza kanshoshii bochoritsu sokutei sochi no kaihatsu (3). Tankesho shirikon no sokutei kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, N.; Okaji, M. [National Research laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    We have developed laser-interferential coefficient of linear expansion measuring device in order to carry out the absolute measurement of coefficient of linear expansion of solid material at low temperature. Since the cooling system by liquid helium has been adopted, in this system, there was a restriction for streamlining of the data acquisition and handling simplification of the equipment. This time, the equipment was newly constructed using the cryostat with the refrigerating machine with the vibration control mechanism. By measuring low temperature thermal expansion rate of the single crystal silicon in the equipment, and comparing with the promotion value by CODATA, the soundness of the equipment was confirmed. (NEDO)

  4. Research on Properties optimization of humidity sensitive material ZnCr2O4-V2O5-Li2O-ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Heng-lei; XU Tian-hua; SUN Bin

    2009-01-01

    Humidity-seining properties of humidity-sensitive material ZnCr2O4-V2O5-Li2O-ZnO made from crystal pbase ZnCr2O4.and glass phase LiZnVO4 of different mole ratios Were tested over a long time,synthetic characteristics of different mole ratios are compared,it shows that the best humidity-sensing properties were obtained when mole rataos are 94:6 and 96:4,the cause that mole ratio affects humadity-sensing properties parameters is analyzed.

  5. Short-Communication: Revisiting conclusions of the report titled, "The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines," by Leila Jalali, Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mahmood Gohari, Philip Bigelow, & Stephen McColl, published in environmental research, volume 148, July 2016, 401-410.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William K G

    2017-05-01

    The research report concluded, "It appears that self-reported sleep reported of participants may be associated to the indirect effects of visual and attitudinal cue and concern about property devaluation rather than distance to the nearest WT's or noise as itself." Careful reading of the report shows that the conclusions presented are not supported by the data provided in the report. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Corrigendum to ;New model for prediction binary mixture of antihistamine decongestant using artificial neural networks and least squares support vector machine by spectrophotometry method; [Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 182 (2017) 105-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofavvaz, Shirin; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In the original publication the affiliations of Dr. Shirin Mofavvaz and Dr. Alireza Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh were presented with a mistake. The correct affiliations are: Shirin Mofavvaza, Mahmoud Reza Sohrabib,*, Alireza Nezamzadeh-Ejhieha.

  7. Ugala komistab lavastajate nappusele / Enn Siimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Siimer, Enn

    2008-01-01

    Heast ja ebaõnnestunud lavastajatööst Endla teatri Tom Stoppardi "Rock'n'roll" (neljaliikmeline lavastusmeeskond), Ugala Maksim Gorki "Põhjas", lavastaja Oleg Titov ja Yasmina Reza "Kunst", lavastaja Robert Annus, näitel

  8. Baltoscandal kui meeste pidu / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest muusikalise etendusega "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "SETUP", Amir Reza Koohestani lavastusega "Recent Experiences"

  9. Baltoscandal kui meeste pidu / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest muusikalise etendusega "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "SETUP", Amir Reza Koohestani lavastusega "Recent Experiences"

  10. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Zamiri, Reza; Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza

    2011-01-01

    Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi41Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for a...

  11. STUDI OZONISASI SENYAWA ORGANIK AIR LINDI TEMPAT PEMROSESAN AKHIR SARIMUKTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Rezagama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing treatment leachate from Sarimukti Landfill doesn’t meet the quality standards of waste water.Preliminary treatment is necessary to break down persistent leachate compounds. Ozone can act directly orindirectly with organic material (Glaze 1986. Column batch reactor system use one liter volume. Ozone ispumped into the leachate in the form of fine bubbles. Variations include Ozone Pumping Flow, Ratio ofhigh/diameter (t/d, and pH. Kinetic Reaction of oxygen dissolution in the average leachate is zero order.Increased pumping air discharge and increased pH makes ozone transfer process better. Best value occurs at pH11, where the value of the reaction rate constant ozone 1.48. The average percentage of organic materialallowance 31% COD and 26% TOC. The decline TOC and COD have a tendency to be influenced by the pHoptimum 8-9. At alkaline pH makes carbonate (CO3 formed the greater, that make ozone compounds killquickly. FTIR results showed the intensity of hydroxyl groups increased after ozone oxidation where thesubstitution of functional groups of organic matter associated with electrophilic addition reaction of oxygenatoms. Existence Fulfic acid also increased the effect compounds and Humic Acid, Humad large has been cut byradicals.

  12. Kes kardab saksa teatrit? / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    5.-20. maini Berliinis toimunud festivalist "Theatertreffen". Lavastustest: Yasmina Reza "Barbaarsuse jumal" ("Der Gott des Gemetzels"), lavastaja Jürgen Gosch, Schauspielhaus Zürich. Goethe "Noore Wertheri kannatused", lavastaja Jan Bosse, Berliini Gorki teater. Aischylose "Oresteia", lavastaja Michael Thalheimer, kunstnik Olaf Altmann. Moliere'i "Tartuffe", lavastaja Dimiter Gotscheff, Hamburgi Thalia teater

  13. Assessment of noise pollution indices in Birjand old districts in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Moasheri

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Since the level of noise pollution is critical especially along Taleghani Street which passes right through the city and along Emam Reza Hospital, as a sensitive area, it is necessary to design and apply suitable measurements, as well as to consider the level of their effectiveness in order to decrease noise pollution.

  14. Usability evaluation of healthcare information systems: comparison of methods and classification of usability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajouei, R.

    2011-01-01

    In ziekenhuizen wordt steeds meer gebruik gemaakt van informatiesystemen, maar de usability laat vaak te wensen over. Reza Khajouei testte twee methodes om de usability te beoordelen. Hij constateert dat beide methoden ongeveer evenveel, maar verschillende problemen aan het licht brengen. Uit een en

  15. This is Who We Are: The Politics of Identity in Twentieth Century Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    soap operas , TV serials, programs on martyrs and their families, documentaries or feature films on the [Iran-Iraq] war, and mythologization of clerics...49 Religiously Educated Monitors: The Assembly of Experts ......................................... 49 A Democratic Legislature: The...mandatory military service. He also initiated widespread changes to the nation’s educational system. Reza Shah’s educational reforms included the

  16. 78 FR 78956 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Gabbro Global, LLC (NVO), 18353 US Highway 20, East Dubuque, IL 61025, Officers: Zheng Bin Ng, Director... License Reza Rostami dba Pan World Trans (NVO & OFF), 5406 Juniper Court, Colleyville, TX 76034, Officer... Management, Inc. dba Pan World Trans Savitransport Inc. (NVO), 148-08 Guy R. Brewer Blvd., Jamaica, NY...

  17. Jubileinoje zakrõtije

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    XXX Moskva rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võitjad. Kuldse Jüri võitis Iraani mängufilm "Lihtsamast lihtsam" (režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi, filmikriitikute FIPRESCI auhinna sai Katja Shagalova "Ükskord provintsis", Stanislavski-nimelise auhinna "Ma usun" võitis prantsuse näitlejanna Isabelle Huppert

  18. The Republic of Kurdistan, 1946

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerwiy, Hawar Khalil Taher

    2012-01-01

    The invasion of Iran by the Great powers (the Soviet Union and the Great Britain) in 1941 not only changed the political setting of the Iranian government but also led to the exile of Reza Shah, the leader of the Iranian autocratic regime. Although the presence of the Great Powers gave more power to

  19. Prantsuse ja inglise näidendid Soome lahe kaldal / Andrus Org

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Org, Andrus

    1999-01-01

    Yasmina Reza "Kunst" Hendrik Toompere jun. lavastuses Eesti Draamateatris ja Arto af Hällströmi lavastuses Soome Rahvusteatris; William Shakespeare'i "Richard III" Mati Undi lavastuses Eesti Draamateatris ja Kalle Holmbergi lavastuses Soome Rahvusteatris. Kokkuvõte inglise keeles lk. 94

  20. Satin and their crossbred rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Brahmantiyo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit productivity in intensive management to be evaluated considering development in the rabbit farming were rapidly increased. Rex, Satin and their crossbred (Reza rabbits have been developed in Research Institute for Animal Production and productivity information of each breed can be used as basis for policy or model of cultivation and breeding in the community. Research conducted by evaluating the productivity of growth, carcass and the carcass proportion of the three strains of rabbit. Rex and satin growth were no different, and Reza was higher at 12-14 weeks of age. Carcass production comes from cutting the rabbit at the age of six months, this trait is strongly influenced by the weight of rabbits, and Reza gives the lowest performance compared to Rex and Satin. Rex, Satin and Reza were medium type rabbits with dual-purpose product (fur and meat. These rabbits showed the child's growth is good enough, to adapt the environment temperature and high food and have adequate carcass production.

  1. Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid tuumarelva leviku takistajad / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Selle aasta Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid Rahvusvaheline Aatomienergiaagentuur ja selle juht Mohamed ElBaradei. Norra Nobeli komitee selgitusest. Lisa: Fakte Nobeli rahupreemiast. Kommenteerivad: Terumi Tanaka, Shimon Peres, Hamid Reza Asefi, Aida ElBaradei, Hans Blix. Vt. samas: Õigusteadlasest tuumarelvade jahtija eelistab läbirääkimisi

  2. Kes kardab saksa teatrit? / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    5.-20. maini Berliinis toimunud festivalist "Theatertreffen". Lavastustest: Yasmina Reza "Barbaarsuse jumal" ("Der Gott des Gemetzels"), lavastaja Jürgen Gosch, Schauspielhaus Zürich. Goethe "Noore Wertheri kannatused", lavastaja Jan Bosse, Berliini Gorki teater. Aischylose "Oresteia", lavastaja Michael Thalheimer, kunstnik Olaf Altmann. Moliere'i "Tartuffe", lavastaja Dimiter Gotscheff, Hamburgi Thalia teater

  3. Baltokas on lobisema hakanud ehk Kuhu näitleja kadus? / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest "elutoamuusikaliga" "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Produkt", Amir Reza Koohestani Mehr Theatrical Group "Recent Experiences". (Ajalehe rubriigipealdis "SIRP eri : Festivaliteater")

  4. Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid tuumarelva leviku takistajad / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Selle aasta Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid Rahvusvaheline Aatomienergiaagentuur ja selle juht Mohamed ElBaradei. Norra Nobeli komitee selgitusest. Lisa: Fakte Nobeli rahupreemiast. Kommenteerivad: Terumi Tanaka, Shimon Peres, Hamid Reza Asefi, Aida ElBaradei, Hans Blix. Vt. samas: Õigusteadlasest tuumarelvade jahtija eelistab läbirääkimisi

  5. Baltokas on lobisema hakanud ehk Kuhu näitleja kadus? / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest "elutoamuusikaliga" "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Produkt", Amir Reza Koohestani Mehr Theatrical Group "Recent Experiences". (Ajalehe rubriigipealdis "SIRP eri : Festivaliteater")

  6. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  7. Mängult ja päriselt : teater postmodernistlikus ja postdramaatilises paradigmas : kokkuvõte 2006. aasta "Baltoscandalist" / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Vaadeldakse lavastusi - "Pablo Plusi supermarketis" (lav. René Pollesch), "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi" (lav. Kristian Smeds), "Otsides kadunud töötajat" (lav. Rabih Mroué), Rui Horta tantsulavastus "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Toode" (esines ka näitlejana), "Hiljutised kogemused" (lav.Amir Reza Koohestan), "Miss Mobiil" (lav. Emil Hrvatin), tantsuline monolavastus "Me oleme lasknud selle reaalsuse silmist" (lav. Hooman Sharif)

  8. Qingping Straight Sword: The Last Remaining Chinese Sword System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Berwick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following examination of classical Chinese straight sword (jian details the very rare Qingping straight sword system. The study meshes Chinese- and English-sourced research with a revealing interview (conducted by America’s senior Qingping disciples, Reza Momenan and Hon Lee with Lu Junhai—the grandmaster of this unique sword system. The author presents Qingping system as perhaps the only known, complete Chinese sword system surviving from China’s pre-Rebulican era (1911-1949.

  9. The effect of clofibrate and phototherapy on physiological jaundice in term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Hosein Hashemian; Sayed amir Masoud Borghaee; Homa Babaee; Ali Asghar Alipour; Mahba Azizi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Clofibrate is an effective anti lipid agent that induces glucuronyltransferase could increase bilirubin conjugation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of clofibrate on neonatal physiologic jaundice.Methods: Randomized clinical trial sampling method used and 60 healthy term neonates which were admitted in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah-Iran because of indirect hyperbilirubinemia enrolled into the study. 30 neonates (case group) were treated with single oral dose of clo...

  10. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  11. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri-Nikpour MR; Nazarbaghi S; Ahmadi-Salmasi B; Mokari. T.; Tahamtan U; Rezaei Y

    2014-01-01

    Mohammad Reza Amiri-Nikpour,1 Surena Nazarbaghi,1 Babak Ahmadi-Salmasi,1 Tayebeh Mokari,2 Urya Tahamtan,2 Yousef Rezaei3 1Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, 2School of Medicine, 3Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the ce...

  12. ANALISIS FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEPUASAN NASABAH PADA PT. BANK MEGA TBK CABANG MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    REZA A.F, M. TAUFIQ

    2012-01-01

    2013 M. Taufik Reza A.F A211 07 610. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kepuasan Nasabah Pada PT Bank Mega Tbk Cabang Makassar. (dibimbing oleh Mahlia Muis dan Fahrina Mustafa). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk Untuk menganalisis sejauh mana pengaruh factor-faktor (Keunggulan produk, layanan, rasa percaya terhadap kepuasan nasabah pada pada PT. Bank Mega Tbk Cabang Makassar, untuk menganalisis faktor yang paling dominan m...

  13. Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation: 1992-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-oganov, Nugzar

    2008-01-01

    Following the disintegration of the U.S.S.R., the Russian Federation, as a successor State, continued cooperation with Iran. From the start, it focused on the nuclear (including military) sphere. Thus, on 17 August, 1992, a bilateral agreement was signed on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, making provisions for the delivery to the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) of two VVER 440 reactors. On 8 January, 1995, Viktor Mikhailov, the Russian atomic energy minister at the time; and Reza Amrollahi...

  14. Modeling Morphogenesis with Reaction-Diffusion Equations Using Galerkin Spectral Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Professor Reza Malek-Madani Associate Professor Sonia Garcia 1. Introduction: Modeling Morphogenesis In the context of embryology , morphogenesis is...appreciate the rich pattern formation capabilities of these models. As a general rule , the variability of the initial and boundary conditions as well as...random like chaotic systems, but are intricately structured. However, the eventual organization of a system will not immediately follow from the rules of

  15. Indications, Results and Mortality of Pulmonary Artery Banding Procedure: a Brief Review and Five- year Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Hoseinikhah; Aliasghar Moeinipour; Ahmadreza Zarifian; Mohammad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi; Yasamin Moeinipour; Mohammad Abbassi Teshnisi; Abbas Bahreini

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary artery banding (PAB) is a technique of palliative surgical therapy used by congenital heart surgeons as a staged approach to operative correction of congenital heart defects. Materials and Methods We report 5- year experiences from January 2011 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital in Mashhad city, North East of Iran) that consist of 50 patients with congenital heart disease with left to right shunt that pulmonary artery banding proced...

  16. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Genetic polymorphism by Polymerase Chain Reaction – Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method used FspBI restriction enzyme. PCR-RFLP data were analyzed by calculating allele and genotype frequencies. Sequencing was performed in rabbit with different genotypes which represents each of the samples. Genotype of AT had two cut points of the FspBI restriction enzyme at the base position of 508 bp and 444 bp. The cut point at the base position of 446 bp was site mutation base T became A. Genotype of TT had one cut point at the base position of 508 bp and no mutation site. Allele T had higher frequency than allele A and just Rex and Reza rabbit breeds had two alleles. The other rabbits (Satin, Flemish Giant and FZ3 only had one allele i.e., allele T. PCR - RFLP analysis of the MSTN|FspBI gene segments was polymorphic in Rex and Reza rabbit breeds. All of rabbit breeds in this study did not have AA genotype.

  17. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Background: Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza...

  18. Rotational Periods in the β Pictoris Moving Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, L. E.; Prato, L.; Song, I.; Walter, F. M.

    2005-12-01

    In this poster, we measure and report observed rotation periods for a sample of eleven stars from the recently identified β Pic Moving Group. We find that our average period of rotation is ˜ 4 days, larger than the predicted average period, given by De La Reza & Pinzon (2004) and based on the distribution of vsini values and model-dependent mass-radii estimates. LEH would like to aknowledge support from the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates program through grant AST - 0453611.

  19. Medved - spetsnazu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji

  20. Mängult ja päriselt : teater postmodernistlikus ja postdramaatilises paradigmas : kokkuvõte 2006. aasta "Baltoscandalist" / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Vaadeldakse lavastusi - "Pablo Plusi supermarketis" (lav. René Pollesch), "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi" (lav. Kristian Smeds), "Otsides kadunud töötajat" (lav. Rabih Mroué), Rui Horta tantsulavastus "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Toode" (esines ka näitlejana), "Hiljutised kogemused" (lav.Amir Reza Koohestan), "Miss Mobiil" (lav. Emil Hrvatin), tantsuline monolavastus "Me oleme lasknud selle reaalsuse silmist" (lav. Hooman Sharif)

  1. Spiritual wellbeing, Attitude toward Spiritual Care and its Relationship with Spiritual Care Competence among Critical Care Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Tagie Azarsa; Arefeh Davoodi; Abdolah Khorami Markani; Akram Gahramanian; Afkham Vargaeei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses’ spiritual wellbeing and their attitude toward spirituality and competence of nurses in providing of spiritual care can affect the quality of care in nursing. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual wellbeing, attitude toward spiritual care and its relationship with the spiritual care competence among nurses. Methods: This was a correlational descriptive study conducted on 109 nurses working in the Intensive Care Units of Imam Reza and Madani hospitals in 2015, Ta...

  2. Iran and the Big Powers, 1900-1953.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-26

    secret negotiations spread to the Russians and British. Russia responded by sending troops from the Caucasus and Qazvin toward Teheran. About thirty...Tabatabai, a moderate nationalist with some pro-British sentiments, and Reza Khan, the commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade stationed at Qazvin , made...plans to carry out a coup. British approval and support for this coup were low-keyed, but nonetheless apparent. On February 18, 1921, the Qazvin Cossacks

  3. Ängistav noorusaeg ja lootust on vähe / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    PÖFFi noortefilme - "Hukas noorus" : režissöör Eva Urthaler : Austria - Saksamaa - Itaalia 2005, "Popmuusika a la Vittula" : režissöör Reza Bagher : Rootsi - Soome 2004, "Status Yol" : režissöör Till Hastreier : Saksamaa - Šveits 2004, "Kilpkonnad võivad lennata" : režissöör Bahman Ghobadi : Iraan - Iraak 2004

  4. Ängistav noorusaeg ja lootust on vähe / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    PÖFFi noortefilme - "Hukas noorus" : režissöör Eva Urthaler : Austria - Saksamaa - Itaalia 2005, "Popmuusika a la Vittula" : režissöör Reza Bagher : Rootsi - Soome 2004, "Status Yol" : režissöör Till Hastreier : Saksamaa - Šveits 2004, "Kilpkonnad võivad lennata" : režissöör Bahman Ghobadi : Iraan - Iraak 2004

  5. The Role of Containment: American Middle East Policy and the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    States for financial help and advice. The United States sent a team led by Arthur C. Millspaugh, a former official from the U.S. State Department Office...Mohammed Reza, like his father, turned to the Americans for advice and support. Another team, once again headed by Arthur Millspaugh, returned to Iran...galvanized and reshaped the newly formed IRGC into a hardened fighting force.44 Fearing Iranian success could start a chain reaction that could lead

  6. Medved - spetsnazu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji

  7. Effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients

    OpenAIRE

    Madarshahian F; Hassanabadi M; Khazaei S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Responding to holistic needs of patients can reduce anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all patients undergoing prostate surgery during 2012 at Emam Reza Hospital, Birjand, Iran. Therefore, 68 patients were assigned randomly to two groups of 34. In the intervention group, prior to...

  8. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  9. Real-time exposure fusion on a mobile computer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Romeny, J. Zimmer- man, and K. Zuiderveld, “Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations,” Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 39, pp. 355–368, 1987. [8] R. Gonzalez and R. Woods, Digital image processing. Addison-Wesley... Publishing Company, 2002. [9] R. Rost, OpenGL(R) Shading Language (2nd Edition). Addison-Wesley Professional, 2006. [10] D. Shreiner, M. Woo, J. Neider, and T. Davis, OpenGL Programming Guide. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007. [11] A. Reza...

  10. 设计师访谈:Three Legged Legs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOE; RUSS

    2007-01-01

    Greg Gunn、Casey Hunt和Reza Rasoli,又称Three Legged Legs。于2006年获得了全球学生动画奖(Global Student Animation Award)。现在他们又带回了一个精彩的新短片《Samurai》。我们自然也不会放过这次机会,看看能不能了解到更多内幕信息。

  11. Berlinale oli ootuspäraselt ootamatu, nagu alati / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  12. 58. "Berlinale" lõppmäng / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  13. V Berline zavershilsja kinofestival / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  14. Harald Wentzlaff-Eggebert, Las vanguardias literarias en España. Bibliografía y antología crítica : Madrid: Iberoamericana, 1999, 665 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Estiú, María Elina

    2003-01-01

    Esta Bibliografía y antología crítica forma parte de una serie de nueve volúmenes sobre las vanguardias literarias en el mundo ibérico, según reza el proyecto avalado por el American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), el Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) y varias prestigiosas universidades alemanas y estadounidenses, con sus bibliotecas y colecciones. La serie ha sido concebida por estudiosos de ambas nacionalidades: Merlin H. Forster, K. David Jackson y Harald Wentzlaff-Eggeber...

  15. In exile

    OpenAIRE

    Hazare, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Born in 1987 in Zahedan, Iran, Reza Hazare hails from a family of Afghan refugees forced to leave their homeland during the civil wars. Hazare studied art in Tehran, worked with artists such as Basem Rassam and Vahik Hartounian before settling in Baku, Azerbaijan to continue his education and life. This book was produced in the context of Art Dubai's Marker, a curated not-for-profit gallery programme that concentrates each year on a particular theme or...

  16. Facile electrochemical synthesis of antimicrobial TiO2 nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Yu Zhao,1 Qi Xing,2 Jagadeesh Janjanam,3 Kun He,1,4 Fei Long,1 Ke-Bin Low,5 Ashutosh Tiwari,3 Feng Zhao,2 Reza Shahbazian-Yassar,1 Craig Friedrich,1,8 Tolou Shokuhfar1,6–81Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 3Department of Chemistry, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 4School of Materials Science...

  17. La protección constitucional del derecho a la vida en Colombia y la gobernabilidad democrática como estrategia política y ciudadana para su fortalecimiento.

    OpenAIRE

    Arbelaez Arango, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN La presente Tesis Doctoral, presentada como requisito para optar al título de Doctor en Derecho Constitucional, tiene por objeto estudiar profundamente y desde un enfoque político-constitucional el Artículo 11 de la Constitución Política de Colombia que reza: El derecho a la vida es inviolable. No habrá pena de muerte. Ello con el propósito de determinar si la masiva violación de este derecho en el País se debe a deficiencias en las garantías jurídicas existentes o si, siendo estas...

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Khani; Seyed Mohammadreza Samsam Shariat; Seyed Hamid Atashpour

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012). Analyses show that in cau...

  19. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    clerics as teachers of religion and related subjects in Iran’s public educational system. A.~ d 22 various seminaries in Qom, Mashad , Tabriz, Shiraz...under wax. One copy of the new document was again handed to Meshkini and the other hand delivered to Mashad to be deposited in the tomb of Imam Reza...urban centers as Qom, Mashad , Yazd, and Ker- man seem to be their primary centers of support. Hoseyn Ali Montazeri was born in 1922 in the township of

  20. Dificultad en el acceso a los servicios de salud en personas con discapacidad visual

    OpenAIRE

    Daza Camacho, Adriana Yubel

    2013-01-01

    Este documento se realizó con el objetivo de determinar si existen dificultades en el acceso a los servicios de salud por parte de las personas con discapacidad visual en Colombia, en el entendido de que nuestro país es un Estado Social de Derecho como lo establece el artículo primero de nuestra Constitución Política que al tenor reza lo siguiente: Artículo 1. “Colombia es un estado social de derecho organizado en forma de Republica unitaria, descentralizada, con autonomía de sus entidades te...

  1. "Berlinale 2008" - küll jahe, aga lahe! / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  2. "Eliitüksus" võitis Kuldkaru Brasiilia võimude kiuste / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji. Ka A. Wajda filmist "Katõn"

  3. Constitucionalización mexicana de los derechos humanos, inclusive los derechos de los pueblos indígenas

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero Salvador, Bartolomé

    2013-01-01

    El 10 de junio de 2011 una reforma constitutional cambió el epígrafe del título primero de la Constitución de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Ahora reza «De los derechos humanos y sus garantías». La Constitución mexicana nunca había utilizado el sintagma derechos humanos y, aún menos, para garantizarlos como derechos constitucionales. En virtud de la reforma, el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos se convierte en derecho constitucional mexicano. La Constitución se refiere a derechos r...

  4. 58. "Berlinale" lõppmäng / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  5. Berlinale oli ootuspäraselt ootamatu, nagu alati / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  6. V Berline zavershilsja kinofestival / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  7. Anesthesia of the geriatric equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty TJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reza Seddighi, Thomas J DohertyDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USAAbstract: Advancements in veterinary medicine have resulted in an increased number of geriatric horses being presented for medical or surgical procedures that require general anesthesia. Due to the physiological changes associated with aging and the likelihood of concurrent disease conditions, the geriatric equine is at an increased risk during anesthesia. The main physiological changes associated with aging, and their impact on anesthesia, are discussed in this review.Keywords: geriatric, equine, anesthesia

  8. Michel Foucault, Microfísica del poder, Ediciones La Piqueta, Madrid, 1993, 200 p.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La Microfísica del poder viene precedida por la voluntad de sus editores acaso también del propio Foucault de contribuir a un pensamiento de la coyuntura; en efecto, ‘se trata de formar herramientas en función de enfrentamientos concretos’ (según reza la contratapa), mejor aún, de ‘tener del presente una percepción espesa’ (Foucault 1975: 109). ¿Pero qué implicancias contiene esa voluntad? Por lo menos dos: que el pensamiento de la coyuntura en tanto discurso significante sobre lo actual se...

  9. The Iranian Revolution: A Case Study in Coercive Power Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    were also executed in Qazvin on May 30 on similar charges to those brought against the Mashhad soldiers.1 9’ 193"Former Commander Sentenced," Tehran...GMT, 30 May 79 (LD301028), May 31, 1979, p. R12. 薔" Qazvin Court Sentences Three To Death," Tehran Domestic Service in Persian, FBIS, 1930 GMT, 30...Located in the North-Western section of the country, they control the grain-producing areas of Qazvin , Kermanshah, Reza’iyeh and Tabriz.3"’ Approximately

  10. Los humedales costeros del sur de Alicante: perspectiva evolutiva

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Molina, Juan Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Las zonas húmedas son, probablemente, el medio que más ha llamado la atención en las estrategias de protección y conservación, digamos, de la naturaleza. Ecótopos en los que, a partir del Convenio de Ramsar, celebrado en 1971, y ratificado cuatro años más tarde por España, se incluyen, según reza el primer artículo de dicho convenio “...pantanos, fangales, turberas de aguas naturales o artificiales, permanentes o temporales donde el agua está estancada o corriente, dulce o salobre, o salada,...

  11. A celebração da morte no imaginário popular mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor, Rafael Lopez; Concone*, Maria Helena Villas Bôas

    2013-01-01

    O texto que apresentamos é um breve ensaio sobre o dia dos mortos no México. Esta data é vivida com muita alegria, muitas flores, comida, e caveiras sorridentes de açúcar; a morte é ridicularizada e celebrada com músicas, bebidas alcoólicas e rezas. Partimos do princípio de que a celebração do dia dos mortos representa, no imaginário popular, a ideia de que os mortos não morreram totalmente, apenas passaram para outro lado da vida. A festa marca o calendário festivo da cultura popular do Méxi...

  12. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012). Analyses show that in cau...

  13. "Eliitüksus" võitis Kuldkaru Brasiilia võimude kiuste / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji. Ka A. Wajda filmist "Katõn"

  14. La gran bestia, el sin-madre y la amatista: Intimidades de la novela de Rojas Herazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel Botero Escobar

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available Con esta novela, "ha sido trasladada a la palabra una zona de nuestra geografía", reza el fallo del jurado, el cual ha restituido ni Premio Esso su prestigio. La aldea marítima de Cedrón, probablemente idéntica al Tolú natal, vive en la obra novelística de Rojas Herazo -en ambas novelas, aunque me limitaré a la segunda del autor por tener ella vida propia-, vive con su clima ardiente, su mortal fastidio, su plaza, árboles, casas, patios, habitantes.

  15. "Berlinale 2008" - küll jahe, aga lahe! / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  16. Pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty compared across three age groups of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Shamsi Ghaffari,1 Mohammed Reza Ghaffari,2 Ali Reza Ghaffari,3 Somaie Sagafy11Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Center, 2Department of Tuberculosis and Lung Research, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of treating pulmonary stenosis with percutaneous valvuloplasty, and to compare them among three childhood age groups. All children under 15 years of age who had undergone pulmonary valve balloon valvuloplasty in Madani Heart Center from 2005–2009 were enrolled in this study. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS software (SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL. Mean (± standard deviation age of patients was 55.5 ± 47.4 months. Two-thirds of the subjects had moderate pulmonary valve stenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty failed in nearly one-fifth of the treated patients. There were 17 failures and two cases of mortality, descriptively less frequent among children >5 years; however, the observed difference was not statistically significant. Mild pulmonary valve insufficiency was a common finding.Keywords: childhood cardiology, pulmonary stenosis, percutaneous valvuloplasty

  17. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil using laser ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zamiri,B Z Azmi. Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri1, B Z Azmi1,2, Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini1, Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar3, A W Zaidan1, M A Mahdi41Department of Physics, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, 3Department of Chemistry, 4Wireless and Photonics Networks Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Laser ablation of a silver plate immersed in virgin coconut oil was carried out for fabrication of silver nanoparticles. A Nd:YAG laser at wavelengths of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The virgin coconut oil allowed formation of nanoparticles with well-dispersed, uniform particle diameters that were stable for a reasonable length of time. The particle sizes and volume fraction of nanoparticles inside the solutions obtained at 15, 30, 45 min ablation times were 4.84, 5.18, 6.33 nm and 1.0 × 10-8, 1.6 × 10-8, 2.4 × 10-8, respectively. The presented method for preparation of silver nanoparticles in virgin coconut oil is environmentally friendly and may be considered a green method.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, laser ablation, virgin coconut oil

  18. A new algorithm to extract hidden rules of gastric cancer data based on ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Abbas; Mirzaie, Kamal; Mahmoudi, Seyed Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Gastric cancers are among the most devastating and incurable forms of cancer and their treatment may be excessively complex and costly. Data mining, a technology that is used to produce analytically useful information, has been employed successfully with medical data. Although the use of traditional data mining techniques such as association rules helps to extract knowledge from large data sets, sometimes the results obtained from a data set are so large that it is a major problem. In fact, one of the disadvantages of this technique is a lot of nonsense and redundant rules due to the lack of attention to the concept and meaning of items or the samples. This paper presents a new method to discover association rules using ontology to solve the expressed problems. This paper reports a data mining based on ontology on a medical database containing clinical data on patients referring to the Imam Reza Hospital at Tabriz. The data set used in this paper is gathered from 490 random visitors to the Imam Reza Hospital at Tabriz, who had been suspicions of having gastric cancer. The proposed data mining algorithm based on ontology makes rules more intuitive, appealing and understandable, eliminates waste and useless rules, and as a minor result, significantly reduces Apriori algorithm running time. The experimental results confirm the efficiency and advantages of this algorithm.

  19. Iranian and Kazakh representatives visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...

  20. Frequency of K-RAS and N-RAS Gene Mutations in Colorectal Cancers in Southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Naseri; Ahmadreza, Sebzari; Fatemeh, Haghighi; Fatemeh, Hajipoor; Fariba, Emadian Razavi

    2016-01-09

    Background: K-RAS and N-RAS gene mutations cause resistance to treatment in patients with colorectal cancer. Based on this, awareness of mutation of these genes is considered a clinically important step towards better diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Materials and Methods: Fifty paraffin-embedded blocks of colorectal cancer were obtained from Imam Reza Hospital of Birjand, Iran. Following DNA extraction, the samples were analyzed for common mutations of exons 2, 3 and 4 of KRAS and NRAS genes using real time PCR and pyrosequencing. Results: According to this study, the prevalence of mutations was respectively 28% (14 out of 50) and 2% (1 out of 50) in KRAS and NRAS genes. All the mutations were observed in patients >50 years old. Conclusions: Mutations were found in both KRAS and NRAS genes in colorectal cancers in Iranian patients. Determining the frequency of these mutations in each geographical region may be necessary to benefit from targeted cancer therapy.

  1. CERN signs draft Memorandum of Understanding with Iran

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Left to right: Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader CMS; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator CMS; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman CMS; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General - signing; Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the CERN Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol, back; Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran - signing; Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations in Geneva, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. Iranian Minister for Science, Research and Technology, Dr Mostafa Moin, and CERN Director-General Luciano Maiani, s...

  2. SESAME on track for commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday 16 May, ambassadors, official representatives and delegates from countries in the Middle East arrived at CERN to participate in an event supporting SESAME, which included the signing of a new agreement between CERN and SESAME. The agreement adds to growing multi-national support for SESAME – vital ingredients for the completion of the project.   SESAME Director Khaled Toukan and CERN Director General Rolf Heuer signing the joint agreement. They are accompanied by (left to right): Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, co-Vice President of the SESAME Council; Chris Llewellyn Smith, former CERN Director General and current SESAME Council President; and Mohamed Tarek Hussein, co-Vice President of the SESAME Council. It reads like a page out of CERN’s own history: a scientific collaboration, founded under the auspices of UNESCO, dedicated to peaceful physics research. But instead of post-war Europe, SESAME is being built in Jordan. The project brings together partners from ...

  3. Avicenna and the Arabic Phonetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avicenna and the Arabic Phonetics       * Mahmood Shakib Ansari   * * AliReza yusofi     Abstract   Avicenna, the Iranian philosopher and sage, mostly famous for his Scientific works such as Law and The Shifa has done some studies in Arabic phonetics as well. Besides pointing to some physical aspects of sounds in the above mentioned books, he has also written a monograph in Arabic, Entitled the Reason Why Letters Came into Being, in which he has Presented some views quite new and innovative regarding his own Time. In this article, first a general introduction is presented regarding Modern phonetics. Then, Avicenna’s views regarding articulator phonetics and acoustic are presented.     Key words : Arabic phonetics Avicenna Pronunciation Articulator phonetics Acoustic phonetics   * Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Shahid Chamran Ahwaz E-mail : m.shakibansary@yahoo.com.   ** Instructor Islamic Azad university Ramhormoz Branch.

  4. This article has been retracted and is available online only: Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarran, John; Scholes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    RETRACTION: The following article from Nursing in Critical Care, 'Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study' by Sina Valiee, Reza Negarandeh and Nahid Dehghan Nayeri, published online on 9 May 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors and the journal Editors. The retraction has been agreed due to errors in the manuscript handling process which meant that an early version of the article was published that did not include all the amendments made as part of the peer review process. John Albarran and Julie Scholes Editors Nursing in Critical Care REFERENCE Valiee, S., Negarandeh, R. and Dehghan Nayeri, N. (2012), Exploration of Iranian intensive care nurses' experience of end-of-life care: a qualitative study. Nursing in Critical Care. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-5153.2012.00505.x.

  5. La identidad social a través del lenguaje: estudio del doblaje de “The Wire” al Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Navarro Andúgar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Como reza el título, en este proyecto se realizará un análisis comparativo entre la versión original de la serie “The Wire” y su versión doblada al español. Así pues, el principal objetivo de este proyecto reside en el estudio de los diálogos doblados de la obra en cuestión con el fin así de constatar si el texto meta es capaz de transmitir el mismo tipo de connotaciones sociales que el texto origen. Además del comentario traductológico del doblaje, se ofrecerán distintas propuestas de traducción que puedan reflejar estas formas lingüísticas originales.

  6. 150 años despues: Constitución de la república de Tunja

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    José Hurtado García

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En Tunja perduran abiertos los corazones y los zaguanes. La Villa noble de Suárez Rendón, embelesada en el canto de la Madre Castillo y de don Juan de Castellanos, amaneció en la República con el sacrificio de sus hijos y con sus ideas proceras. Precisamente en este mes de diciembre de 1961 -el nueve- se cumplen los ciento cincuenta años de la expedición de su Constitución, cuyo título definido reza: " Constitución de la República de Tunja sancionada en plena Asamblea de los Representantes de toda la Provincia, en sesiones continuas desde el 21 de noviembre hasta el 9 de diciembre de 1811. Año Segundo de la Transformación Política del Nuevo Reyno de Granada".

  7. SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH SIMPLE FEBRILE SEIZURE

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    Farhad HEYDARIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the serum zinc level of the patients with simple febrile seizure and compare them with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis prospective case - control study was performed on 60 patients aged 6 months to 6 years from Apr. 2009 to Jan.2010 in Ghaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad. The serum zinc level was assessed and compared between the cases (30 individuals who suffered from simple febrile seizure and the controls (30 individuals who had fever without seizure.ResultsMean serum zinc level was 663.7 µg /l and 758.33  µg /l in the case group and the control group, respectively (PConclusionIt was revealed that the serum level of zinc was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Keywords: Simple febrile seizure, children, zinc, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid

  8. Supply of the Industrial Products in Romania. A Territorial Approach

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    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The industrial products and services supply was analyzed in the present paper through the statistical indicators of the industrial production, applied for Romania (2005, both at macroeconomic and regional level (on development regions. The first part of the paper presents some of the methodological reglamentations used in determining the “industrial production” statistical indicator, according to the European Union statistical practices (Pack, 2000; *** ìMethodology of short-term business statisticsî, 2006; Peneder, 2001. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze the main industrial policy previsions in Romania in order to accelerate the process of resource allocation among and within the various sectors, to improve the competitiveness, to attenuate the discrepancies between the economic development level of Romanian regions and to become part of a common European industrial policy. Regional analysis is a domain largely studied by Kangas, Leskinen, Kangas, 2007; Leskinen, Kangas, 2005; Rondinelli, 1996; Banai-Kashani, Reza, 1989.  

  9. Saikal Amin, The Rise and Fall of the Shah. Iran from autocracy to Religious Rule, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1980, 279 p. Index. Bibliographie. (Nouvelle édition augmentée 2009

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    Fariba Adelkhah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Comme l’auteur revient longuement sur tout le bien qu’il faut penser de son ouvrage,  dans sa préface à la nouvelle édition augmentée, il est inutile d’insister. Ce livre fournit en effet une synthèse utile et nuancée du règne de Mohammad Reza Shah, qui inclut un bref rappel des événements antérieurs. Les pages les plus convaincantes traitent du nationalisme pétrolier du souverain qui est en définitive parvenu au même but que Mossadeq par d’autres moyens. Les chapitres relatant la politique i...

  10. La entrevista metaposicional: modelo de comunicación efectivo y eficaz

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    Luz Carmen Maffiol Arias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "Es imposible no comunicarse" reza el primer axioma de la Teoría de la Comunicación Humana, descrito por Watzlawick, en el que identifica a la comunicación humana -como una experiencia permanente y constante- mediante la cual construimos y redefinimos nuestra realidad. (Paul Watzlawick, 1985 [1]. Este artículo corresponde a una serie de reflexiones de las autoras, acerca de la necesidad de tomar conciencia y asumir la responsabilidad, de cómo nos comunicamos y qué realidades estamos construyendo en el marco de la entrevista psicológica y sus diversas aplicaciones. Observar y analizar las diversas posturas del rol de entrevistador es el objetivo fundamental del modelo metaposicional.

  11. Persian architecture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.

  12. Can we prepare our bodies over the year to cope with Ramadan fasting more easily? Imam Reza’s health and dietary recommendations for different months of the year

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    Masoumeh Roudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather conditions, comprised of multiple parameters (e.g., atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, moisture, and heat vary during different months of the year. These variations influence almost all organisms including humans (1. Proper nutritional diet is one of the factors which can lead to human adjustment with atmospheric changes. Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam, has presented the most effective and thorough dietary suggestions for different months of the year. In this article, we studied his debates in his medical book, known as “Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah fi alTibb” (the golden medical dissertation, using the analytical library method. We reviewed and highlighted these recommendations and tried to determine if they could promote the body stamina to cope with Ramadan fasting.

  13. Introduction pages

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    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    ConcentrationsPDFArezoo ESPANANY,\tSeyfollah FALLAH,\tAli TADAYYON322-329Asymbiotic Germination of Phalaenopsis cv. ‘Dublin’ Seeds in Relation to Pollination Months and Nutrient MediaPDFKhosro BALILASHAKI,\tRoohangiz NADERI,\tSaikat GANTAIT,\tMaryam VAHEDI330-333Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium CarbidePDFKambiz MASHAYEKHI,\tAida SHOMALI,\tSeyyed Javad MOUSAVIZADEH334-337Effect of Super Absorbent Polymer and Irrigation Deficit on Water Use Efficiency, Growth and Yield of CottonPDFHamid-Reza FALLAHI,\tReza TAHERPOUR KALANTARI,\tMahsa AGHHAVANI-SHAJARI, Mohammad-Ghasem SOLTANZADEH338-344Impact of Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water on the Growth and Yield of TomatoPDFKamorudeen Olaniyi YUSUF,\tAyodele Olanrewaju OGUNLELA345-348Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought StressPDFMohammad Reza NAGHAVI,\tMahmoud TOORCHI,\tMohammad MOGHADDAM,\tMohammad Reza SHAKIBA349-354Morphometric Variations in Caryopses and Seedlings of Two Grass Species Growing Under Contrasting HabitatsPDFDhara GANDHI,\tSusy ALBERT355-360Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.PDFFariborz SHEKARI,\tAbdollah JAVANMARD,\tAmin ABBASI361-366Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous SoilPDFGhorbanali RASSAM,\tAlireza DADKHAH,\tAsghar KHOSHNOOD YAZDI,\tMaryam DASHTI367-371Genetic Differentiation of Archachatina marginata Populations from Three Vegetation Zones Using Radom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain ReactionPDFComfort O. AFOLAYAN,\tMichael Olugemi AWODIRAN372-381

  14. Treating the elderly patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: current and emerging options

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    Mozaheb Z

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Zahra Mozaheb Department of Hematology-Oncology, Imam-Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran Abstract: Management of cancer in the elderly is an increasingly common problem. The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL increases significantly after the age of 65 years. One of the most important prognostic factors in the elderly is the burden of comorbidity. Severe and multiple comorbidities significantly decrease survival in patients with CLL. Therefore, not only age but also the incidence and severity of comorbidity should influence the treatment strategy for patients at an individual level. This review attempts to identify the best management strategies for elderly patients with CLL based on individual functional reserve and estimation of individual life expectancy. Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, elderly, management

  15. Dr. Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.:Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader, CMS experiment; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator, CMS experiment; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman, CMS experiment; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General (signing); Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol (back); Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing); Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. _

  16. Complete blood cell count components and coronary slow-flow phenomenon

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    Arjmand N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasim Arjmand, Mohammad Reza Dehghani Department of Cardiology, Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IranDespite the implementation of preventive strategies, ischemic heart disease and stroke remain the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.1,2 Of the cardiovascular diseases, coronary slow-flow phenomenon (CSFP, with a prevalence rate of 1%–7% among patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, has been found to be associated with cardiovascular events, including cardiac arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome.3–5 However, the potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CSFP remain unknown. Microvascular and endothelial dysfunctions, inflammation, diffuse atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregability have been reported to be the main possible etiologies for CSFP.6,7View original paper by Atlas and colleagues.

  17. Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome: Report of a Family with 3 Cases

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    Mahyar Mohammadi Fard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nEllis-van Creveld Syndrome (EVC is a rare inherited genetic disorder characterized by polydactyly (extra fingers and toes, dwarfism, and abnormalities in the heart, teeth, nails, and hair. The incidence of EVC is extremely rare in the general population. It is estimated that EVC affects one in 60,000 live births in the general United States population and are much lower in European countries, with one child born with EVC in every 150,000 live births. "nHerein we present three cases of EVC syndrome in one family (An 8-year-old boy and his sisters, two 11 and 6-year-old girls who were admitted to Birjand Imam Reza hospital complaining of short stature. The clinical findings in the physical examination are explained and the role of plain X-rays, echocardiography and cardiac angiography in the diagnosis and management of the anomalies are discussed in these rare 3 cases.  

  18. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

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    Lorenzo Mammì

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho os aborda de maneira original, desenhando, a partir das palavras sem som da oração e do som sem palavra do jubilus, o perfil de um discurso interior, que não se destina aos homens, mas a Deus.IN HIS De Magistro Saint Augustine places prayer and song on a similar level, alongside the language immediately communicative functions. His considerations on prayer are grounded on the Christian habits of silent reading, prayer and meditation; those on song, on the equally innovating practice called jubilus, which is melody without words designed for the intensest and most joyous liturgical moments. Silent prayer and jubilus are recurring topics in patristic literature, but Augustine deals with them in an original way, drawing from the soundless words of prayer and the wordless sound of jubilus an inner discourse, addressed not to men but to God.

  19. Intravenous acetaminophen is superior to ketamine for postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial

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    Faiz HR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Faiz,1 Poupak Rahimzadeh,1 Ognjen Visnjevac,2 Behzad Behzadi,1 Mohammad Reza Ghodraty,1 Nader D Nader2 1Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2VA Western NY Healthcare System, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Background: In recent years, intravenously (IV administered acetaminophen has become one of the most common perioperative analgesics. Despite its now-routine use, IV acetaminophen's analgesic comparative efficacy has never been compared with that of ketamine, a decades-old analgesic familiar to obstetricians, gynecologists, and anesthesiologists alike. This double-blind clinical trial aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of ketamine and IV acetaminophen on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Eighty women aged 25–70 years old and meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups of 40 to receive either IV acetaminophen or ketamine intraoperatively. Postoperatively, each patient had patient-controlled analgesia. Pain and sedation (Ramsay Sedation Scale were documented based on the visual analog scale in the recovery room and at 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the surgery. Hemodynamic changes, adverse medication effects, and the need for breakthrough meperidine were also recorded for both groups. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower in the IV acetaminophen group at each time point (P<0.05, and this group required significantly fewer doses of breakthrough analgesics compared with the ketamine group (P=0.039. The two groups had no significant differences in terms of adverse effects. Conclusion: Compared with ketamine, IV acetaminophen significantly improved postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Keywords: intravenous acetaminophen, abdominal hysterectomy, ketamine, analgesia, postoperative pain

  20. Application of Haddon’s matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology

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    Deljavan R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reza Deljavan,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarganim,2,3 Nasrin Fouladim,4 Shahnam Arshi,5 Reza Mohammadi61Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 5Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries.Methods: This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase.Results: The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education, pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators. This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans.Conclusion: Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries

  1. Cleft lip and palate and related factors: A 10 years study in university hospitalised patients at Mashhad - Iran

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    Morteza Noorollahian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral-facial clefts including cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck. Environmental factors such as maternal hormonal disorders, use of psychiatric medications, vitamin and folic acid deficiency, hypoxia, cigarette smoking and maternal obesity and overweight can affect the incidence of these disorders. In Iran, one of the associated problems is a lack of accurate statistics regarding the present status of the patients, which can cause a disturbance in the health programmes of Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The aim of this study was to report the status of 398 cases of cleft lip and palate in Sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals of Mashhad over a 10-year period. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was performed using data collection method and included the evaluation of the recorded files and completing the data forms. In this study, the file records of 398 patients referring to Mashhad Sheikh and Imam Reza (P.U.H Hospitals were studied, from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2011; the obtained data from the files were collected and classified. Results: The highest frequency was related to cleft palate alone (40.7%; frequencies were lower regarding the cleft lip and palate and cleft lip alone (34.41% and 24.87%, respectively. Approximately, half of the patients were from rural areas of the city and had articulation disorders. Most of the patients were the first-born children of the family and their parents were consanguineously married; about one-third of the patients had a family history of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, cleft lip is more frequent in males and cleft palate is more prevalent in females; the obtained results are consistent with the global statistics.

  2. Prognosis of HTLV-1 positive renal transplant recipients in Iran

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    Orode Naghibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human T lymphocyte virus-1 (HTLV-1 is the responsible pathogen for diseases such as HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM and adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Mashhad, in northeast Iran, with high instances of this infection, has a noticeable number of infected renal failure patients. Since immunosuppressive drugs might decrease the latency period of HTLV-1 or increase its complications, the question arises whether HTLV-1 positive renal failure patients are suitable candidates for kidney transplants. To answer this, HTLV-1 positive recipients were evaluated in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. First group consisted of patients at the Imam Reza Hospital dialysis center. Second group had 20 kidney transplantation recipients consisting of ten infected and ten uninfected recipients as control from Imam Reza. Medical history of these patients was recorded and evaluated. The follow-up periods were between one and six years. Among them, 3.8% of patients undergoing dialysis were infected. The most important fact resulting from this study is that none of the infected recipients suffered from HAM or ATL during the follow-up period. In addition, it did not show any significant difference in the incidence of post-transplant complications between the infected and non-infected groups. Our study indicates that HTLV-1 positive patients may undergo kidney transplant without fear of increased incidence of side effects than those found in uninfected recipients. Because of short-term follow-up, probable long latency period of the virus, and the limited number of infected recipients, further work on this issue would be prudent.

  3. Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

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    Gholamreza Khademi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The improvement of technology has increased noise levels in hospital Wards to higher than international standard levels (35-45 dB. Higher noise levels than the maximum level result in patient’s instability and dissatisfaction. Moreover, it will have serious negative effects on the staff’s health and the quality of their services. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the level of noise in intensive care units and emergency wards of the Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Mashhad. Procedure: This research was carried out in November 2009 during morning shifts between 7:30 to 12:00. Noise levels were measured 10 times at 30-minute intervals in the nursing stations of 10 wards of the emergency, the intensive care units, and the Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Departments of Imam Reza University Hospital, Mashhad. The noise level in the nursing stations was tested for both the maximum level (Lmax and the equalizing level (Leq. The research was based on the comparison of equalizing levels (Leq because maximum levels were unstable. Results: In our survey the average level (Leq in all wards was much higher than the standard level. The maximum level (Lmax in most wards was 85-86 dB and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 94 dB. The average level of Leq in all wards was 60.2 dB. In emergency units, it was 62.2 dB, but it was not time related. The highest average level (Leq was measured at 11:30 AM and the peak was measured in the Nephrology nursing station. Conclusion:  The average levels of noise in intensive care units and also emergency wards were  more than the standard levels and as it is known these wards have vital roles in treatment procedures, so more attention is needed in this area.

  4. Cleft lip and palate and related factors: A 10 years study in university hospitalised patients at Mashhad — Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorollahian, Morteza; Nematy, Mohsen; Dolatian, Atiyeh; Ghesmati, Hengameh; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Khademi, Gholam Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral-facial clefts including cleft lip and palate are the most common congenital malformations of the head and neck. Environmental factors such as maternal hormonal disorders, use of psychiatric medications, vitamin and folic acid deficiency, hypoxia, cigarette smoking and maternal obesity and overweight can affect the incidence of these disorders. In Iran, one of the associated problems is a lack of accurate statistics regarding the present status of the patients, which can cause a disturbance in the health programmes of Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The aim of this study was to report the status of 398 cases of cleft lip and palate in Sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals of Mashhad over a 10-year period. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was performed using data collection method and included the evaluation of the recorded files and completing the data forms. In this study, the file records of 398 patients referring to Mashhad Sheikh and Imam Reza (P.U.H) Hospitals were studied, from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2011; the obtained data from the files were collected and classified. Results: The highest frequency was related to cleft palate alone (40.7%); frequencies were lower regarding the cleft lip and palate and cleft lip alone (34.41% and 24.87%, respectively). Approximately, half of the patients were from rural areas of the city and had articulation disorders. Most of the patients were the first-born children of the family and their parents were consanguineously married; about one-third of the patients had a family history of the disease. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, cleft lip is more frequent in males and cleft palate is more prevalent in females; the obtained results are consistent with the global statistics. PMID:26712297

  5. Cell engineering: nanometric grafting of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide onto polystyrene film by different doses of gamma radiation

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    Esmaeil Biazar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, Reza Zeinali2, Naser Montazeri1, Khalil Pourshamsian1, Mahmoud Jabarvand Behrouz3, Azadeh Asefnejad2, Ahad Khoshzaban3, Gholamreza Shahhosseini4, Mostafa Soleimannejad Najafabadi5, Reza Abyani2, Hamidreza Jamalzadeh6, Mahdi Fouladi1, Sasan Rahbar F Hagh7, Aylar Shams Khamaneh1, Soudabeh Kabiri1, Saeed Heidari Keshel3, Ana Mansourkiaei61Department of Chemistry, 6Department of Biology, 7Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran; 3Stem Cell Preparation Unit, Farabi Hospital, Tehran University Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 4Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Techniques Research Institute, Karaj, Iran; 5Material Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide was successfully grafted onto a polystyrene cell culture dish and γ-preirradiated in air. In this study, the effect of a γ-pre-irradiation dose of radiation (radiation absorbed dosages of 10, 20, 30, 40 KGy under appropriate temperature and grafting conditions was investigated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the existence of the graft poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm on the substrate. The optimal value of the dose for grafting was 40 KGy at 50°C. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM images clearly showed that increasing the absorbed dose of radiation would increase the amount of grafting. Surface topography and graft thickness in AFM images of the radiated samples showed that the PNIPAAm at the absorbed dose of radiation was properly grafted. The thickness of these grafts was about 50–100 nm. The drop water contact angles of the best grafted sample at 37°C and 10°C were 55.3 ± 1.2° and 61.2 ± 0.9° respectively, which showed the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of

  6. The expression of HoxB5 and SPC in neonatal rat lung at exposure to fluoxetine

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    Taghizadeh R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Razieh Taghizadeh,1 Zahra Taghipour,2 Akbar Karimi,1 Ali Shamsizadeh,3 Mohammad Mohsen Taghavi,2 Mahdi Shariati,2 Ahmad Shabanizadeh,2 Hamid Reza Jafari Naveh,2 Reza Bidaki,4 Fariba Aminzadeh51Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Anatomy, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 3Department of Physiology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; 4Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran; 5Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IranObjective: Approximately 10% of pregnant women suffer from pregnancy-associated depression. Fluoxetine, as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is being employed as a therapy for depressive disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fluoxetine on neonatal lung development.Methods: Thirty pregnant Wistar rats (weighing 200–250 g were treated daily with 7 mg/kg fluoxetine from gestation day 0 to gestation day 21, via gavage. The control group received a similar volume of distilled water only. Following delivery, the newborns and their lungs were immediately weighed in both of the groups. The right lung was fixed for histological assessments while the left lung was used for evaluation of the expression of SPC and HoxB5 by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method.Results: Results have indicated that even though the body weight and the number of neonatal rats in both groups were the same, the lung weight of neonates exposed to fluoxetine was significantly different compared to the control group (P<0.05. Expression of both genes was increased, nonetheless, only elevation of HoxB5 was significant (P<0.05. Histological studies demonstrated that lung tissue in the fluoxetine treatment group morphologically appears to be similar to the pseudoglandular phase, whereas the control group lungs experienced more development.Conclusion: According to the upregulated expression of HoxB5 concerning

  7. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin

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    Ahangari Cohan R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reza Ahangari Cohan1, Armin Madadkar-Sobhani2,3, Hossein Khanahmad1, Farzin Roohvand4, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi4, Mohammad Hossein Hedayati5, Zahra Barghi5, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani4, Davoud Nouri Inanlou1, Dariush Norouzian11Research and Development Department, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Life Sciences, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 5Quality Control Department, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IranBackground: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem.Methods: A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr- cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were

  8. Surveying the effects of exercise program on sleep quality of the male elderly

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    Karimi S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Saba Karimi,1 Ali Soroush,2 Farhad Towhidi,3 Behnam Reza Makhsosi,3 Maryam Karimi,4 Saeid Jamehshorani,3 Afshin Akhgar,3 Mahmoud Fakhri,4 Alireza Abdi5 1Internal and Surgical Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Lifestyle Modification Research Department, 3Exercise Physiology, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 4Paramedical Science, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 5Internal and Surgical Nursing Department, Nursing and Midwifery School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran Background: Old age is a stage of life featured with many physiological and mental changes. The Iranian population is aging, and one of the problems that the elderly are faced with is sleep disorders. The present study is an attempt to examine the effectiveness of an exercise program on the sleep quality of the elderly.Methods: A semi-experimental study was carried out on the elderly males referred to the Shahid Yari Elderly Center, Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised of 46 participants: 23 in the experimental group and 23 in the control group. The study was carried out for a period of 2 months and follow-up was conducted every week. To improve the quality of sleep of the participants, a four-stage exercise program was implemented and the collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.Results: The results of a Mann–Whitney test showed that the quality of sleep of the majority in the experimental group improved compared with that of the control group (P<0.05. In addition, a Wilcoxon test showed improvement of the Petersburg’s sleep quality index based on subelements and the results of a total score of sleep in the experimental group after the intervention.Conclusion: The study showed effectiveness of scheduled exercising on the quality of sleep of the elderly. It is recommended, therefore, to add an exercise program to the daily program of the elderly. Keywords: aged, sleep

  9. Estimation of absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and effective sose in patients underwent abdominopelvic spiral CT scan using impact CT patient dosimetry

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    Ayoub Amirnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the presence of radiosensitive organs in the abdominopelvic region and increasing the number of requests for CT scan examinations, concerns about increasing radiation doses in patients has been greatly elevated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose in patients underwent abdominopelvic CT scan using ImPACT CT patient dosimetry Calculator (version 1.0.4, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital from November to February 2015 February 2015 in the Imam Reza Hospital, in Urmia, Iran. The demographic and dosimetric information of 100 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT scan in a 6-slice CT scanner were obtained through the data collection forms. The demographic data of the patients included age, weight, gender, and BMI. The dosimetric parameters included pitch value, CT dose volume index (CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, collimation size, scan length, and scan time. To determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and also the effective dose in patients, ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator was used. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the mean and standard deviation (SD of patients' effective dose in abdominopelvic CT scan was 4.927±0.164 mSv. The bladder in both genders had the greatest mean organ dose, which was 64.71±17.15 mGy for men and 77.56±18.48 mGy for women (P<0.001. Conclusion: The effective dose values of this examination are in the same range as previous studies, as well as International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommendations. However, the radiation dose from CT scan has the largest contribution to the medical imaging. According to the ALARA principle, it is recommended that the scan parameters, especially mAs, should be

  10. ¿Quién puede ser autor de un artículo científico?

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    Marco González T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (1, autor tiene cinco acepciones, pero la que se acerca a los intereses del presente escrito reza así: “Persona que ha producido alguna obra científica, literaria o artística”. No obstante, en el ámbito científico y académico esta definición puede ser más amplia, compleja y aun alcanzar diferentes connotaciones si se tienen en cuenta algunas reflexiones generales sobre la materia y no menos importante cuando se tiene presente; como debería ser, las razones éticas para firmar como autor o coautor de un artículo. Estas consideraciones son las intrínsecas de la investigación y que se generan dentro de un grupo en particular, que se preocupa, por ejemplo, en ser el primero en publicar artículos sobre un tema específico. Otros, con otra óptica, podrían tener interés en ostentar el mayor número de artículos publicados en una determinada área del conocimiento.

  11. Assessment of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational, Research and Treatment Center

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    Nasrin Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environments contain different types of microorganisms. Airborne fungi are one of these microbes and the major source of hospital indoor contamination that will be able to cause airborne fungal diseases. In the current study, the total count and diversity of the airborne filamentous and yeasts fungi were investigated in indoor and outdoor air of selective wards of Emam Reza Educational, Research and Treatment Center. This cross-sectional study was performed during the fall season. One hundred and ninety-two environmental samples of indoor and outdoor air from hematology, infectious diseases, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU wards were collected by open plate technique (on Sabouraud dextrose agar media once a week. The cultures were then examined and evaluated according to macroscopic and microscopic examination criteria. In this study, 67 (62.03% of indoor samples and 81 (96.42% of outdoor samples were positive for fungi. The most isolated fungi were yeast species (17.12%, Penicillium spp. (16.34%, Alternaria spp. (14.39%, Aspergillus niger (11.28%, A. flavus (8.95%, respectively. Almost all of the wards showed high rates of contamination by various fungi. However, the analysis of the data showed that indoor air of hematology ward had the highest fungal pollution. In contrast, the outdoor air of ENT had the highest fungal pollution. Thus, these results demonstrated that the cleansing and disinfection procedures in the hospital wards should be improved yet.

  12. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

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    Süleyman Erkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  13. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  14. The effect of clofibrate and phototherapy on physiological jaundice in term newborns

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    Amir Hosein Hashemian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clofibrate is an effective anti lipid agent that induces glucuronyltransferase could increase bilirubin conjugation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of clofibrate on neonatal physiologic jaundice.Methods: Randomized clinical trial sampling method used and 60 healthy term neonates which were admitted in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah-Iran because of indirect hyperbilirubinemia enrolled into the study. 30 neonates (case group were treated with single oral dose of clofibrate (100/mg plus phototherapy and 30 neonates (control group received only phototherapy. Serum total and direct bilirubin levels were measured at admission, 12 hours later, and then every 24 hours until 96 hours. Results: There were no significant difference between two groups regarding to gender, age, weight and total serum bilirubin level at the admission. Mean values for total bilirubin of serum in case group 12, 24 and 48 hours after admission were significantly lower than control group (P<0.001. The mean of needed time for phototherapy in case group was significantly less than the control group (P<0.00l.Conclusion: It seems that clofibrate plus phototherapy is effective for treatment of neonatal physiologic jaundice in healthy term newborns, although further studies are necessary for evaluation of clofibrate safety as a routine treatments.

  15. Pharyngeal Myiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae Larva, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran: A Case Report

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    Teimour Hazratian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is caused by the larvae of flies infesting animal or human tissues and organs. This report aims to present a case of pharyngeal myiasis caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae. A 55-yr old drug addict living in the Shahindeje village of Western Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran was referred to the Emam Reza Hospi­tal in Tabriz, having a medical history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and hospitalized due to respiratory distress, 20 days ago. He was intubated with a mechanical ventilator (MV because of his respiratory distress condition. There was an evidence of the presence of pulmonary nodules in his lungs following diagnosis, and a CT scan revealed a cavity in his lung. During the nasogastric intubation procedure, a larva was seen emerging from the patient’s mouth by one of the staff of the intensive care unit of the hospital. A laboratory diagnosis was per­formed in the Entomology Department of the School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Interest­ingly, larvae of O. ovis were identified and confirmed following the laboratory proceedings.

  16. The effect of adding epinephrine to combination of sufentanil and bupivacaine in spinal analgesia during labor

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    Parisa Golfam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal analgesia is one of the effective and rapid methods for labor. It is not commonly used because of short duration of analgesia and motor block, which limits mother's force in labor progression. We attempted to prolong duration and quality of analgesia by adding Epinephrine.Methods: In this quasi-experimental study 90 pregnant women gravid II and III who referred to Motazedi and Imam Reza Educational & Medical Centers were recruited and divided into two groups of case and control (45 subjects in each group. The case group received spinal analgesia using Sufentanil and Bupivacaine, and Epinephrine while the control group received Sufentanil and Bupivacaine. Data including feeling of pain, motor block, duration of analgesia, fetal heart rate, nausea and vomiting, blood pressure was collected and analyzed using chi-square and t test. Results: duration of analgesia and vomiting were significantly increased in the case group. (p=0.001, p=0.01 respectively. Hemodynamic status in mothers and Apgar score of neonates were not significantly different between two groups.Conclusion: It seems that adding Epinephrine to Sufentanil and Bupivacaine could increase analgesia duration without altering in sensory level although could increase nausea and vomiting its recommended in labor analgesia.

  17. Electrospun PGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds and their potential application in vascular tissue engineering

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    Peirovi H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hadi Hajiali1, Shapour Shahgasempour1, M Reza Naimi-Jamal2, Habibullah Peirovi11Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranBackground and methods: In this study, gelatin was blended with polyglycolic acid (PGA at different ratios (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt% and electrospun. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties were also measured by the tensile test. Furthermore, for biocompatibility assessment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on these scaffolds, and cell attachment and viability were evaluated.Results: PGA with 10 wt% gelatin enhanced the endothelial cells whilst PGA with 30 wt% gelatin increased smooth muscle cell adhesion, penetration, and viability compared with the other scaffold blends. Additionally, with the increase in gelatin content, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved due to interaction between PGA and gelatin, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.Conclusion: Incorporation of gelatin improves the biological and mechanical properties of PGA, making promising scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.Keywords: polyglycolic acid, gelatin, nanofiber, vascular tissue engineering, biocompatible scaffold 

  18. Análisis histórico, político y social en torno a la sentencia de Fichte: "sólo la educación puede salvar a la nación

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    Andrés Felipe Hurtado Blandón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La tesis fundamental de los Discursos a la nación alemana (1807-1808 de Fichte reza del modo siguiente: sola la educación puede salvar a la nación. Este texto se propone indagar sobre las razones históricas, políticas, sociales e ideológicas más importantes que pudieron llevar al reconocido filósofo alemán a formular tan inquietante afirmación. Abarca, grosso modo, desde la época de la Reforma protestante hasta la disolución del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico (llegada de Napoleón. Tal análisis permitirá, además, comprender cuál fue el contexto social general que dio lugar al surgimiento de movimientos tan reconocidos como la Ilustración (Aufklärung, el Clasicismo, el Romanticismo y el Idealismo alemanes, para los cuales -caso de Fichte-, tuvo la educación y la formación de los individuos un papel fundamental que cumplir en y para la sociedad.

  19. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

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    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

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    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  1. Comparison of Two Methods for Measurement of HbA1c in Two University Hospitals of Mashhad

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    Saeid Davari Edalat Panah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the two analytical techniques for determination of Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, consisting immunoturbidimetric and enzymatic methods. Materials and Methods A total of 140 out-patients were included in this study. Measurements of HbA1c were done in blood samples using immunoturbidimetric and enzymatic assay. The two methods were used by clinical laboratories of Ghaem and Emam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, respectively. Results:Our results indicate that there was no significant difference between two methods, though; the average of HbA1c measured by enzymatic method was rather higher than the other method (7.38 and 7.34, respectively. The two methods correlated well with correlation coefficient of 0.967. Conclusion: Both techniques were proved to be sufficiently reliable and the results of the two methods show strong correlation though, the enzymatic method has an additional advantage of simultaneous measuring total Hb which can omit the undesired effect of hemolysis occurring during sampling

  2. ¿Está el mundo preparado para enfrentar una pandemía?

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    Oscar Rivera García

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Hay un sabio refrán que reza: “NO HAY MAL QUE POR BIEN NO VENGA”El “MAL” debe puntualizarse en los brotes de Influenza aviar presentados en Europa, África y Asia, que hasta la fecha, ha afectado a 258 personas de las cuales han muerto 153 infectadas por el virus H5N1 y ocasionado la muerte de mas de 200 millones de aves en estos tres continentes.Es Indonesia, el país más comprometido por el virus H5N1, con un total de 74 humanos infectados y 57 defunciones y se considera que este número de muertes se incrementará en un futuro inmediato; en 30 de sus 33 provincias se ha comprobado la presencia de virus de alta patogenicidad. La razón es muy sencilla: Indonesia, posee mas de 17 mil islas, hábitat ideal para aves acuáticas migratorias y posee una amplia, millonaria e incontrolada explotación de aves de traspatio que están en permanente contacto con aves silvestres y el hombre.

  3. Comparison of Sinonasal Symptoms in Patients with Nasal Septal Deviation and Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

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    Mohammad Naeimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Disorders of the nose and paranasal sinuses are among the most common chronic illnesses. Although considerable progress has been made in the medical and surgical control of these diseases, a large number of questions relating to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of these conditions remain unanswered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the frequency of symptoms and disease severity in patients with nasal septal deviation (NSD compared with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS.  Materials and Methods: A total of 156 patients, divided into NSD and CRS groups, were studied in relation to symptoms and disease severity. Patients were selected from those referred to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT Wards of the Imam Reza and Ghaem Hospitals, who had not responded to a variety of treatments. Depending on the type of disease, patients were candidates for either septoplasty or endoscopic sinus surgery. The Rhinosinusitis Symptom Inventory was administered to measure the severity of symptoms, with scores assigned based on the answers given by patients (Likert scale.  Scores were compared between the CRS and NSD groups.  Results: A total of 156 patients (78 with NDS and 78 with CRS entered the study in overall sinonasal symptoms were more prevalent in CRS group. Nasal congestion, runny nose, earache, toothache, and smelling disorder were significantly more common in the CRS group (P0.05.  Conclusion:  Patients with CRS manifested statistically significantly greater sinonasal symptom scores than patients with NSD.

  4. An assessment of radiographers’ technical and protective performance in hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2012

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    Mahmood Reza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, all the 26 radiolographers working in the radiology wards of Vali-asr and Imam Reza hospitals of Birjand participated. In order to collect data about their performance, a checklist whose reliability and validity had been approved was provided. For the radiography staff 17 technical and 12 protective items during three work shifts were checked and recorded. In order to measure their awareness of technical and protective principles, a 12-item questionnaire was completed by each of them. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS software using X2. Results: Mean Performance score in the technical area in the three work shifts was 15±1.60, and that of the protective area was 10.9±1.1 both of which were at an average level. Around 46.5% of the subjects gave correct answers to protective and 37.2% of them to the technical questions. The comparison of technical and protective performance scores showed no significant difference in terms of work shifts, education, gender, and type of employment (P>0.05. Conclusion: The radiographers’ awareness of technical and protective principles was at a very low level. Therefore, both quality academic training and in-service education seem necessary.

  5. Lunate Dislocation Followed by Non-Traumatic Swimming: A Case Report

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    Amir Masoud HASHEMIAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A few numbers of patients admitted to the emergency department due to the lunate dislocation can cause a direct injury to the wrist ligament, which mainly occurs after wrist trauma, and often diagnosis is far from the mind. A 32 years old man due to severe pain and tenderness of the wrist started the previous day during swimming, referred to Emergency Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, 2012. He did not recall any history of direct trauma to the wrist. However, he was prescribed NSAID and wrist splint, but the pain did not improve. In physical examination, the localized tenderness of the dorsal wrist without erythema and warmness was clearly evident and paresthesia of the skin was observed in the 4th and 5th fingers. Plain X-ray detected no fractures. The combination of these signs and symptoms prompted clinical suspicion of lunate dislocation confirmed by imaging. This patient was admitted to the orthopedic service with lunate dislocation diagnosis for the proper treatment. Keywords: Lunate dislocation, Diagnosis, Median nerve injury

  6. Does Severity of Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder impact Trauma in Children?

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    Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability. It is the most common childhood mental disorder. The key aspects of ADHD may put the affected children at risk for different traumatic experiences. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the severity of trauma and ADHD symptoms in children. Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, the target population included 90 children aged 6-12 years old, visiting Imam Reza, Children, Sina, and Shohada Hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. The severity of trauma was assessed, using placebo transdermal system (PTS, and the ADHD symptoms were evaluated, using Conners' Parent Rating Scale. To rule out other psychiatric disorders, the Child Symptoms Inventory-4 (CSI-4 was employed. Results: Results showed a significant positive correlation between the severity of trauma and ADHD, hyperactivity, oppositional/impulsivity, and attention-deficit scores (P < 0.01. In addition, results from the independent t-test suggested a significance difference between the ADHD and non-ADHD children in terms of the severity of trauma. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the symptoms of ADHD and the severity of trauma in children, in a way that the scores of the aforementioned variables improved with increasing the severity of trauma. Regarding the profound effects of trauma on human and financial resources, required measures should be taken for making house and school settings safe for such children.

  7. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

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    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  8. Development of Islamic Spiritual Health Scale (ISHS).

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    Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Heydari, Abbas; Nabavi, Fatemeh Heshmati; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Esmaili, Habibollah

    2017-03-01

    To develop and psychometrically assess spiritual health scale based on Islamic view in Iran. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Ali and Quem hospitals in Mashhad and Imam Ali and Imam Reza hospitals in Bojnurd, Iran, from 2015 to 2016 In the first stage, an 81-item Likert-type scale was developed using a qualitative approach. The second stage comprised quantitative component. The scale's impact factor, content validity ratio, content validity index, face validity and exploratory factor analysis were calculated. Test-retest and internal consistency was used to examine the reliability of the instrument. Data analysis was done using SPSS 11. Of 81 items in the scale, those with impact factor above 1.5, content validity ratio above 0.62, and content validity index above 0.79 were considered valid and the rest were discarded, resulting in a 61-item scale. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the list of items to 30, which were divided into seven groups with a minimum eigen value of 1 for each factor. But according to scatter plot, attributes of the concept of spiritual health included love to creator, duty-based life, religious rationality, psychological balance, and attention to afterlife. Internal reliability of the scale was calculated by alpha Cronbach coefficient as 0.91. There was solid evidence of the strength factor structure and reliability of the Islamic Spiritual Health Scale which provides a unique way for spiritual health assessment of Muslims.

  9. Effect of saffron on liver metastases in patients suffering from cancers with liver metastases: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Azar Hosseini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer represents the second cause of mortality in the world. Saffron as a medicinal plant is known for its anti-cancer and anti-depressant properties. In this randomized double blind clinical trial, the effects of saffron on response to treatment in patients suffering from liver metastasis were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients suffering from liver metastases who referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran were included in this study and then divided into two different groups. Both groups received chemotherapy regimen. Patients in group one were treated with saffron capsule (50 mg, twice daily during chemotherapy periods whereas patients in group two received placebo. A sum of the longest diameter were calculated and compared for all lesions in IV contrast CT scan before and after the treatment. Results: from 13 patients included in this study, six patients quit and seven continued until the end. In saffron-treated group, two patients showed partial and complete response (50% whereas in placebo group, no response was seen. Also, two deaths in placebo and one in saffron group occurred. Conclusion: This research suggests that saffron might be useful in patients suffering from liver metastasis. However, further investigations with larger sample size are required.

  10. A celebração da morte no imaginário popular mexicano

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    Rafael Lopez Villaseñor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O texto que apresentamos é um breve ensaio sobre o dia dos mortos no México. Esta data é vivida com muita alegria, muitas flores, comida, e caveiras sorridentes de açúcar; a morte é ridicularizada e celebrada com músicas, bebidas alcoólicas e rezas. Partimos do princípio de que a celebração do dia dos mortos representa, no imaginário popular, a ideia de que os mortos não morreram totalmente, apenas passaram para outro lado da vida. A festa marca o calendário festivo da cultura popular do México, celebrada de maneira especial e única. Mistura muito bem o sagrado e o profano, o medo e a ironia, através do sincretismo religioso. Diante da morte que concerne a todos, a cultura mexicana, festeja e se diverte de forma irônica, misturando o sagrado e o profano, criando um sincretismo religioso que mistura tradições religiosas cristãs e indígenas.

  11. Do Xá ao Aiatolá: a revolução iraniana através de Veja (1978-1979 = The Shah to the Ayatollah: the iranian revolution through Veja (1978-1979

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    Zanoni, David Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da década de 1970, o Irã passava por um momento de instabilidade política e social, o qual, no final dessa década, culminou em um levante popular que decretaria o fim de uma monarquia autocrática e ditatorial do xá Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Desta forma, iniciava-se no Irã a República Teocrática Islâmica, liderada pelo aiatolá Ruhlloh Khomeini. O processo de queda da monarquia e promulgação de uma República Teocrática Islâmica, o qual, a historiografia denominou Revolução Iraniana, foi mundialmente explorado pelos meios de comunicação de massa, inclusive no Brasil. A partir disto, procuramos analisar como o periódico brasileiro semanal Veja abordou o processo iraniano, a partir de algumas edições que, inclusive, foram capa do semanário. Sendo assim, nossa proposta contempla o estudo da história através da imprensa. Assim, objetivamos analisar a história por meio da imprensa, problematizando os eventos a luz do conteúdo noticiado pelo semanário Veja

  12. A comparison between doxycycline-rifampin and ciprofloxacin-rifampin regimens in the treatment of acute Brucellosis

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    Majid Reza Erfanian Taghvaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis, a serious zoonosis, is a widespread disease in many countries, especially the developing ones, with an annual report of 500,000 new cases to the World Health Organization (WHO. Although successful results have been achieved by the combination therapies recommended by the WHO, their relapse rates have been high, and therefore, the most effective agents with least side-effects are still undetermined. Materials and Methods: An observational study has been prospectively carried out from 2007 to 2010 in the Infectious Clinics of Hashemi-nejad and Imam Reza Hospitals, Mashhad, Iran. In this study, among the patients of brucellosis, whose diseases were recently diagnosed, 50 patients, receiving one of the two common authentic regimens of doxycycline plus rifampin for eight weeks or ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for six weeks, were selected. The diagnosis was based on the presence of signs and symptoms compatible with brucellosis, including a positive Wright and 2ME tests, with titers equal to or more than 1/160 and 1/40 respectively. Results: The cure rate was the same for the groups (P=0.55. However, the relapse rate was much more for the latter (P= 0.02. Conclusion: Doxycycline plus rifampin was considered better than ciprofloxacin plus rifampin for the treatment of acute brucellosis.

  13. La mirada del otro. Occidente frente a Oriente en El oasis del ocaso de Baha Taher

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    Hayam Farrag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la relación yo /otro, el otro puede ser u otro tiempo (los egipcios de ahora, del tiempo de la novela y los antiguos egipcios, y los chilenos del tiempo de la guerra del pacífico y los chilenos que vienen después, u otro espacio (Irlanda /India frente a Egipto. Y sin ir más lejos el personaje de Mahmoud, en sí, es unión de contrarios; bebe y reza, rechaza la ocupación y no puede declararlo, odia a los ingleses y hace como ellos al tratar con la gente del oasis.Tanto la una (El oasis como la otra (Retrato  no han dado- porque es así- un modelo de como debe ser una relación cuya base es el ser humano. Las personas, somos totalmente distintos, incluso dentro de la misma nación ya que está el tolerante, el fanático, el racista, el dialogante. Aún así, ambas novelas, junto a otras son intentos en el camino del entendimiento, la comunicación, el acercamiento y la interacción entre los pueblos. 

  14. Indications, Results and Mortality of Pulmonary Artery Banding Procedure: a Brief Review and Five- year Experiences

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    Hamid Hoseinikhah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulmonary artery banding (PAB is a technique of palliative surgical therapy used by congenital heart surgeons as a staged approach to operative correction of congenital heart defects. Materials and Methods We report 5- year experiences from January 2011 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital in Mashhad city, North East of Iran that consist of 50 patients with congenital heart disease with left to right shunt that pulmonary artery banding procedure was performed for them were studied. Results Age of patients (n=50 was 1to 9 months (mean=4.6 + 1.3. In this study, the most common disease that need to PAB procedure was Ventricular septal defect (VSD with twenty-eight patients (56%. Mean of extubation time (hour was 10.4 + 0.8 and mean of hospital stay (day was 13.3 + 2.4 respectively. Conclusion Although the number of pulmonary artery banding palliation surgery was decreased, but in selected group of congenital heart disease, this palliation to reduce over circulation of Pulmonary system, can use successfully with acceptable results and low mortality. We suggest pulmonary artery banding palliative surgery in these selected patients.

  15. Educação e diversidade: as experiências exitosas que reconhecem os saberes e fazeres da cultura na escola

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    Neide da Silva Campos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisamos as culturas populares em interface com a educação escolar para compreender as relações de poder instituída nas práticas educativas que impedem uma práxis voltada ao reconhecimento da diversidade étnico-cultural. Delimitamos experiências exitosas em dois municípios cuja constituição populacional resulta de conflitantes processos de colonização em Mato Grosso. Pautados em pesquisas anteriores nas quais identificamos as outras dinâmicas de poder entre gerações que alimentam a vida coletiva com uma educação marcada no corpo que se sabe, que reza, dança, come e brinca nas festas de santo. Concluímos que o professor não consegue transpor as barreiras do sistema escolar diante de uma realidade inacabada, complexa e dialética, sem uma formação pautada na compreensão da realidade social diversificada e do aprender coletivo.

  16. Effect of Magnesium Sulfate on Doppler Parameters of Fetal Umbilical and Middle Cerebral Arteries in Women with Severe Preeclampsia

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    Nazanin Farshchian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of injecting magnesium sulfate on Doppler parameters of fetal umbilical and middle cerebral arteries (MCA in women with severe preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 patients with severe preeclampsia admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah (Iran, were evaluated. Before and after administration of magnesium sulfate, Doppler ultrasound scan was carried out to measure fetal middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery blood flow. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: After injection of magnesium sulfate, the mean resistivity index (RI-umbilical, and pulsatility index (PI-cerebral showed a statistically significant reduction ( P < 0.001. The cerebroumbilical C/U ratio increased after the intervention ( P < 0.001. The PI-umbilical ( P = 0.1 and pre- and post-RI-cerebral ( P = 0.96 did not have statistically significant changes. Conclusions: Infusion of magnesium sulfate significantly decreases the flow in the fetus RI-umbilical and PI-MCA, and it increases C/U ratio indices in color Doppler ultrasound.

  17. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

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    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  18. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

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    Darroudi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among bacteria isolated from intensive care units of the largest teaching hospital at the northwest of Iran

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    Hadi Hamishehkar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among common pathogens in the intensive care units (ICUs of a university hospital in northwestern Iran. A retrospective study was done on laboratory records of patients with nosocomial infection who were admitted to five ICUs of Imam Reza Hospital during a 21-month period from March 2010 to January, 2012. A total number of 556 isolates from 328 patients were evaluated. The most common sites of infections included respiratory (51.7%, urinary (24.8%, and blood (10.4%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were Enterobacter aerogenes (50.6% followed by Escherichia coli (16.7% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.5%. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen among gram-positives (39.7%. The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was 87.5%. Multidrug-resistant (MDR gram-negative bacteria were documented in 25.8% of Acinetobacter, 20% of Klebsiella, and 16.6% of Pseudomonas. The most active antimicrobials were vancomycin (93.5% followed by amikacin (71.5% and gentamicin (46%. The overall antibiotic susceptibility was as follows: 36% ciprofloxacin, 19% imipenem, 20% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 20.5% ceftazidime, and 12% ceftriaxone. Due to the high rate of antimicrobial resistance in the ICU setting, more surveillance and control of the use of antimicrobials is needed to combat infections.

  20. Clínica del hambre en la niñez

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    Silvestre Frenk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El séptimo de los diez capítulos de la famosa monografía Maladie de Famine lleva el título "Clinique de la famine chez les enfants". Su autora fue la doctora A. Braude-Heller, médica en jefe del Hospital Bauman-Berson para niños de Varsovia, Polonia, con la colaboración de dos estudiantes de medicina. Maladie de Famine aparece en la renacida ciudad de Varsovia, en el temprano posbélico año de 1946. Quedando así cumplido el compromiso de sus autores: el de llevar a la luz pública el resultado de las “Investigaciones clínicas sobre el hambre, ejecutadas en el  gueto de Varsovia en 1942”, según reza el subtítulo de la obra.

  1. Inter-rater Reliability of Triages Performed by the Electronic Triage System

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    Faramarz Pourasghar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the inter-rater reliability of triages performed by the Electronic Triage System (ETS which has recently developed and used in hospital emergency department (ED. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted prospectively and studied 408 visitors of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital’s ED. The variables of interest were age, sex, nurse-assigned triage category, physician-assigned triage category, disease type (trauma, non-trauma, and the referred room within the ED. Cohen’s un-weighted kappa, linear weighted kappa, and quadratic weighted kappa were used to describe the reliability. Results: Un-weighted kappa observed to be 0.186 (95% CI: 0.123-0.249. Linear weighted kappa observed as 0.317 (95% CI: 0.251-0.384 and quadratic weighted kappa as 0.462 (95% CI: 0.336-0.589. In general, low agreement was seen between the triage nurses and ED physicians. For trauma patients and for those who were referred to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation room (CPR, all three types of kappa were higher than other visitors of the ED. Conclusion: Inter-rater reliability of the triages performed by the ETS observed as ranging from poor to moderate. Implementing interventions that would create a common language between nurses and physicians about the triage of the ED visitors seems necessary. The more agreement on the triage of trauma and CPR patients might be due to their condition and the more attention to them.

  2. Outcomes of pin and plaster versus locking plate in distal radius intraarticular fractures.

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    Bahari-Kashani, Mahmoud; Taraz-Jamshidy, Mohammad Hosein; Rahimi, Hassan; Ashraf, Hami; Mirkazemy, Masoud; Fatehi, Amirreza; Asadian, Mariam; Rezazade, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are among the most prevalent fractures predictive of probable occurrence of other osteoporotic fractures. They are treated via a variety of methods, but the best treatment has not been defined yet. This study was performed to compare the results of open reduction and internal fixation with locking plates versus the pin and plaster method. In this prospective study, 114 patients aged 40 to 60 years with Fernandez type III fracture referring to Imam-Reza and Mehr hospitals of Mashhad from 2009 to 2011, were selected randomly; after obtaining informed consent, they were treated with pin and plaster fixation (n = 57) or internal fixation with the volar locking plate (n = 57). They were compared at the one year follow up. Demographic features and standard radiographic indices were recorded and MAYO, DASH and SF - 36 tests were performed. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 13, with descriptive indices, Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. SF-36 test demonstrated a better general health (P plaster group. Also, in the LCP group mean MAYO score (P plaster group. Mean DASH score was not different between the groups (P = 0.218). The rate of acceptable results of radiographic indices (P plaster method. In treatment of intra-articular distal radius fractures in middle-aged patients internal fixation with locking plates may be prefered to pin and plaster as the treatment of choice.

  3. FLUCONAZOLE AND BORIC ACID FOR TREATMENT OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS--NEW WORDS ABOUT OLD ISSUE.

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    Khameneie, K M; Arianpour, N; Roozegar, R; Aklamli, M; Amiri, M M

    2013-04-01

    To compare boric acid as an effective treatment for VVC compared to fluconazole. We also studied the efficiency of these drugs in preventing recurrence of VVC. A cross sectional, randomized, double-blind study. Gynaecology clinic of Imam Reza hospital, Tehran - Iran Women with signs and symptoms related to Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis. Seventy five patients out of total 150 patients with signs and symptoms related to Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis were treatedwith boric acidpowder everynight for a week and the remaining 75 patients received Fluconazole. The cure rate in first group was 46.7% but the cure rate in second group was 37.3%. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.3). Difference between the efficacy of the two drugs was not significant either (P=0.47). The recurrence rate among patients in first group was 35% while it was 32% in second group. Their difference was not statistically significant (P=0.54). According to our findings, treatment of vaginal candidiasis with boric acid is as effective as fluconazole. The availability of boric acid and its relatively low cost suggests it as a safe and effective drug for treatment of candidiasis.

  4. Diagnostic value of kidney length and volume in sonography for determining kidney scar among infants with urinary infection

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    Mahmoud Jalili

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of kidney scar could prevent vesico urethral reflax and its complications such as hypertension and renal failure. This study was conducted to determine average kidney length and volume in infants by sonography to accurate diagnosis of scars.Methods: This study was conducted on infants with the history of UTI who referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah Iran, for DMSA scan. They underwent kidney sonography before DMSA scan. Difference in kidney length and volume were calculated and data was recorded and were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: Right kidney length was less than left in 60% of right kidney scars this rate was 77.8% in nonscar patients (P=0.657. Left kidney length was less than right in 50% of left kidney scar and that was 22% in nonscar patients (P=0.241. Kidney volume was smaller than other side in 55.6% of right kidney scar and 62.5% of left kidney scar. Higher length detected in 100% and 47% of right and left kidney inflammation respectively. Higher volume detected in 40% and 76.5% of right and left kidney inflammation.Conclusion: In comparison with other studies suggesting kidney length as a valuble predictor for diagnosis of scar we did not find any relationship between scar and kidney length or volume.

  5. 2015 Distinguished career award: Reflections on a career in science.

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    Stricker, Edward M

    2016-08-01

    I was very pleased to receive the 2015 Distinguished Career Award from SSIB. This brief manuscript contains reminisces that might stir up pleasant memories in the older members of SSIB and also some general thoughts that I hope will be of value to the younger investigators who are closer to the beginning of their scientific careers. Although the organization has chosen to honor me with this special award, my own career was shaped by a great many people who have influenced my scientific career and I want to acknowledge them. They include Neal Miller, my doctoral mentor at Yale; Joe Holmes and Alan Epstein, my postdoctoral mentors; George Wolf and Reed Hainsworth, graduate student colleagues; John Brobeck, Paul Rozin, and Phil Teitelbaum, Michael Zigmond, Joe Verbalis, Jim Smith, and Alan Sved, faculty colleagues; Derek Denton, Paul McHugh, and James Fitzsimons, scientific role models; John Bruno, Steve Fluharty, and Linda Rinaman, post-doctoral trainees at Pitt; and Lori Flanagan, Kath Curtis, Michael Bushey, Mike Bykowski, Reza Manesh, Carrie Smith, Jennifer Vaughan, and Myriam Stricker, student trainees at Pitt. I thank them all and also my colleagues in SSIB not only for the honor of this award but for providing an abundant supply of insights and discoveries that have stimulated me throughout my adult life, in addition to being an attentive community in supporting my own work.

  6. Frequency of Mold Allergens in Allergic Rhinitis Patients

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    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Allergic rhinitis can be stimulated by several allergens. Molds are among these allergens and it is important to assess their frequency in different geographic area. Hence, we aimed at determining the frequency of mold allergens in allergic rhinitis patients referred to specialized clinics of Tabriz Imam Reza hospital, 2011. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the serums of 90 rhinitis patients diagnosed by specialized physician. Using Immunoblotting method, the level of specific IgE against four molds including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Cladosporium were investigated. Results: Of 90 Patients, 40 were men (44.4% and 50 were women (55.6%. The participants were between 6 to 53 years and the most were 28-31years. The allergy was related to Penicillium (3.3%, Aspergillus (5.6%, Alternaria (13.3% and Cladosporium (4.4%. There was a significant statistical relation between age and allergic rhinitis to Alternaria (P=0.011. Conclusion: Molds can grow and proliferate in very humid environments. Because of low humidity climate in Tabriz (in the northwest of Iran, allergy to molds is relatively low in this region. Key words: Rhinitis Allergic; Mold; Allergy

  7. The Variability of Growth Hormone Gene Associated with Ultrasound Imaging of Longissimus dorsi Muscle and Perirenal Fat in Rabbits

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    T. I. Amalianingsih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of genes in rabbits correlated to economic traits were intended to improve and develop their genetic quality. The objective of this research was to analyze the variability of growth hormone gene (GH in three rabbit breeds, i.e. Rex, Satin, and Reza (Rex and Satin crosses then was associated with ultrasound imaging of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. Identification of the variability of growth hormone gene was analyzed using PCR RFLP technique from blood samples of 33 mature male rabbits in Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production (IRIAP. Thickness of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat were imaged and measured by using ultrasound unit at 2nd to 3rd lumbar vertebrae in the left body side. PCR product of GH gene fragment (231 base pair /bp was digested with restriction enzyme Bsh1236I. PCR-RFLP patterns were allele T resulted in an undigested fragment of 231 bp; allele C resulted in fragment of 169 bp and 62 bp. The result showed that Bsh1236I GH gene had three genotypes, i.e. CC, TT, and CT. There were signifficant association of Longissimus dorsi muscle thickness between rabbit breed (P<0.05. There was no significant association between GH Bsh1236I gene polymorphism and imaging ultrasound of Longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat thickness. The association of characteristic genotype of GH|Bsh1236I gene with measurement phenotype was not significant, however it had potency as marker assisted selection (MAS.

  8. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood bicarbonate levels in patients with metabolic acidosis referred to emergency medicine.

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    Taghizadieh, Ali; Pouraghaei, Mahboub; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Ala, Alireza; Rahmani, Farzad; Basiri Sofiani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The routine and gold standard method to diagnose of acid - base disturbance is arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling. Capnography could be used to measure the end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels and ETco2 has a close correlation with the PaCo2. The aim of this study was comparison the ETco2 and arterial blood bicarbonate levels in patients with metabolic acidosis. Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study that performed in Emergency Department of Emam Reza Medical Research and Training Hospital of Tabriz on patients with metabolic acidosis, ETco2 level and blood bicarbonate levels in 262 patients were evaluated. Results: Mean of ETco2 and Hco3 levels in patients with metabolic acidosis were 22.29 ± 4.15 and 12.78 ± 3.83, respectively. In all patients, the significant direct linear relationship was found between ETco2 with Hco3 (r = 0.553, P level of arterial blood in patients with renal failure (P < 0.001 and r = 0.551), sepsis (P < 0.001 and r = 0.431), drug toxicity (P < 0.001 and r = 0.856), and ketoacidosis (DKA) (P < 0.001 and r = 0.559). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, capnography can be used for primary diagnosis of metabolic acidosis in spontaneously breathing patients who referred to the emergency wards, however, the ABG must be considered as the gold standard tool for diagnosis and guiding the treatment.

  9. Use of Corticosteroid in Children with Unresponsiveness to Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Kawasaki Disease

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    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Kawasaki Disease (KD is a vasculitis with multi-organ involvementof unknown etiology; it is the most common cause of pediatric-heart diseases in developed countries. Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG prevents coronary artery lesions; although there are some IVIG-resistant cases, combination therapy with corticosteroids and IVIG is one of the recommendations for treatment of these cases. The aim of this study was to compare these three options for treatment of Kawasaki Disease and to evaluate their ability to deal with coronary artery complication of Kawasaki Disease. Materials and Methods A prospective cross- sectional study of hospitalized cases of Kawasaki Disease, conducted in pediatric department of Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad-Iran, during 2013 to 2015 (18 months. Based on demographic and clinical data of these patients, children with high risk of unresponsiveness to IVIG therapy (based on Harada score, were determined and treated with IVIG and corticosteroids- combination initially. Follow-up patients for heart complications were 6 weeks. Results Twenty five patients (89.2% out of total 28 hospitalized patients in this period of time who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were considered as complete Kawasaki Disease. Coronary Artery Lesions (CALs were shown in 4 patients during the follow-up period, with high risk in patients with incomplete presentation (33.3% versus 12%, P

  10. The Evaluation of Diastolic Hypertention in Sleep Overlap Syndrome

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    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The overlap syndrome, consisting ofobstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS and chronic obstructvie pulmonary disease (COPD is a major problem in COPD patients. OSHAS corresponds to the likelihood of systemic hypertension.The present study was aimed to evaluate the association between apnea-hypopnea index and diastolic blood presssure (DBP in overlap  patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving overnight polysomnography after measurment of resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP in patients with overlap syndrome in Sleep Laboartory of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2011 to December 2012. Participants were divided into four subgroups regarding to their Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI (AHI 30.Descriptive statistics included age, body mass index (BMI, OSA, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, DBP, and neck circumference. Results: Sixty participants ranged between from 46 to 82 years old were entered into this study. There was statistically significant difference in mean DBP among different AHI subgroups (80±0.50, 95±0.60, and 105±0.65, respectively (p

  11. The Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA: a Case Series and Brief Review

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    Aliasghar Moeinipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare congenital cardiovascular defect that occurs in approximately 1/300 000 live births or 0.5% of children with congenital heart disease. There are two types of ALCAPA syndrome: the infant type and the adult type. The most infants experience myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, and approximately 90% die within the first year of life; also, without early surgical intervention they have a dismal prognosis. Materials and Methods We report 3- year experiences from January 2013 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital North East of Iran that consist of all patients with ALCAPA syndrome. Results The Takeuchi procedure, were successfully performed in five children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA. There was no death and significant mitral regurgitation postoperative (n=0 in this short study. All of patients (n=5 had evidence of improving ischemic myocardium status by increasing of ejection fraction and regional wall motion of left ventricular in follow up echocardiography. Conclusion The only cure treatment for ALCAPA syndrome is surgical intervention that needs to be performed immediately after diagnosis to prevent myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. Today, establishing a system with two coronary arteries is the goal in definitive surgical repair. The Takeuchi procedure is a prefer method to establish a two-coronary repair for ALCAPA.

  12. Association between Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Pre-Eclampsia.

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    Rezavand, Negin; Veisi, Firooze; Zangane, Mrayam; Amini, Roghaye; Almasi, Afshin

    2015-12-18

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the most common and important bacterial infections during pregnancy and can result in progressive infections and endanger maternal as well as fetal health. In this study, we assessed the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. In this case-control study, pregnant women who presented to Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah in 2013-14 were studied. The minimum sample size was calculated as 125 pregnant women in each group with a total of 250 subjects. There were 125 women with pre-eclampsia and 125 women without pre-eclampsia (control group). Matching was done for age, gestational age, and parity between case and control groups. Matching was verified by a P value of 0.061 for maternal age and gestational age and 0.77 for parity. The statistical analyses were done by applying the chi-squared test and determining odds ratio (OR) for having bacteriuria in univariate logistic regression as well as multivariate regression with adjusting the effect of maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Pyuria and bacteriuria were significantly more common in pre-eclampsia group than in control group. The results showed that a significant association existed between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia. The rate of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 6.8 times higher in women with pre-eclampsia compared to those without pre-eclampsia. Further studies are required for better clarification of association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pre-eclampsia.

  13. Revisiting corneal topography for the diagnosis of keratoconus: use of Rabinowitz's KISA% index

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    Sedghipour MR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Sedghipour, Afshin Lotfi Sadigh, Behzad Fallahi MotlaghDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Numerous videokeratographic methods are used in the diagnosis of keratoconus.The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the KISA% index with the keratometry (K value, inferior-superior (I-S value, relative skewing of the steepest radial axes (SRAX, and keratometric astigmatism (AST indices in 25 patients presenting with bilateral keratoconus.Methods: Twenty-five patients presenting with bilateral keratoconus were enrolled. Fifty eyes from 25 healthy individuals without corneal abnormalities were used as controls. The clinical diagnosis of keratoconus was made by observation of scissors reflex at retinoscopy and characteristic slit lamp findings. Corneal topographic analysis was performed in each eye to calculate the K value, I-S value, AST, and SRAX indices.Results: The keratoconus percentage index (KISA% was significantly more sensitive and specific than the other indices examined. Furthermore, it was significantly better at predicting positive and negative results than the other indices included in the study.Conclusion: The current research suggests that KISA% could be used to detect/diagnose keratoconus but further studies are required to confirm the specificity and sensitivity of KISA% for the detection of early-stage disease and keratoconus suspects.Keywords: cornea, keratoconus, KISA% index

  14. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

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    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  15. Combination of cold atmospheric plasma and iron nanoparticles in breast cancer: gene expression and apoptosis study

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    Jalili A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azam Jalili,1 Shiva Irani,1 Reza Mirfakhraie2 1Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Background: Current cancer treatments have unexpected side effects of which the death of normal cells is one. In some cancers, iron nanoparticles (NPs can be subjected to diagnosis and passive targeting treatment. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP has a proven induction of selective cell death ability. In this study, we have attempted to analyze the synergy between CAP and iron NPs in human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7.Materials and methods: In vitro cytotoxicity of CAP treatment and NPs in cells measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and cell death was shown by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and annexin V staining. Fluctuations in BAX and BCL-2 gene expression were investigated by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: MTT assay results showed that combination of plasma and iron NPs decreased the viability of cancer cells significantly (P<0.05. Real-time analysis showed that the combination therapy induced shifting the BAX/BCL-2 ratio in favor of apoptosis.Conclusion: Our data indicate that synergy between CAP and iron NPs can be applied in breast cancer treatment selectively. Keywords: breast cancer, cold atmospheric plasma, iron nanoparticles, BAX, BCL-2

  16. An Evaluation of the Quality of Nursing Care Provided for Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients

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    Hamid Reza Chamanzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care for vascular access of patients undergoing hemodialysis is a critical issue. Inflammation and subsequent infection are the major factors which threaten patients' health and diminish effectiveness of hemodialysis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the severity and incidence of inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis in Emam Reza and Montazerie Hospitals in Mashhad, June, 2014. Evaluation of inflammation severity over the course of one month (12 hemodialysis sessions was performed by means of an inflammation tool designed by the Board of Nursing. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16, and performing descriptive and Chi-square tests.  Results:The mean and standard deviation of incidence of inflammation in the first session of hemodialysis was 3.2±1.3 cases. The mean and standard deviation of the intensity of inflammation was 12.5±4.7. Conclusion: Since inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients impairs their safety and health improvement, necessary measures to reduce this complication must be taken.

  17. Nutritional interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: an Iranian perspective

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    Sharifi N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Sharifi,1 Reza Amani2 1Department of Nutrition, 2Health Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death not only in industrialized and developed countries but also in developing societies. Changes in lifestyle of the population living in developing countries, which is due to the socioeconomic and cultural transition, are important reasons for increase in the rate of CVD. This observation has led to extensive body of researches on CVD prevention. In Iran, as a developing country in the Middle East, the increasing incidence of CVD has prompted the health policy-makers to emphasize on nutritional interventions as a part of the main strategies to alleviate the condition. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the nutritional interventions on preventing CVDs from the perspectives of Iranian lifestyles and dietary patterns using data search sources such as Medline, Google scholar, and Iran doc. Keywords: nutrition, intervention, cardiovascular disease, Iran

  18. Treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma using anti-HER2 immunonanoshells

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    Fekrazad R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Reza Fekrazad2, Neda Hakimiha3, Enice Farokhi3, Mohammad Javad Rasaee4, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani5, Katayoun AM Kalhori2, Farzaneh Sheikholeslami1 1Research & Development Department, Production and Research Division of the Pasteur Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran; 2Dental Department, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Laser Research Center, Dental Faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; 5Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran Background: Worldwide, oral squamous cell carcinoma (potentially mediated by HER2 is recognized as the most commonly occurring malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Anti-HER2 nanobodies conjugated to gold-silica nanoshells and used as photothermal treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma may provide a novel therapeutic alternative to current treatment for this disease. Methods: KB epithelial or HeLaS3 cell cultures (controls were exposed to these immunonanoshells, and plasmon resonance electron initiation specific to gold was employed to burn the tumor cells. Results: Following this treatment, significant cell death occurred in the KB tumor cell cultures while there was no evidence of cellular damage or death in the HeLaS3 cell cultures. Conclusion: These findings suggest that photothermal treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma has considerable advantages. Keywords: anti-HER2 immunonanoshells, gold-silica nanoshells, photothermal treatment, oral squamous cell carcinoma

  19. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA: generating enriched ISA-Tab metadata files from metabolomics XML data.

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    Larralde, Martin; Lawson, Thomas N; Weber, Ralf J M; Moreno, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Viant, Mark R; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M

    2017-08-15

    Submission to the MetaboLights repository for metabolomics data currently places the burden of reporting instrument and acquisition parameters in ISA-Tab format on users, who have to do it manually, a process that is time consuming and prone to user input error. Since the large majority of these parameters are embedded in instrument raw data files, an opportunity exists to capture this metadata more accurately. Here we report a set of Python packages that can automatically generate ISA-Tab metadata file stubs from raw XML metabolomics data files. The parsing packages are separated into mzML2ISA (encompassing mzML and imzML formats) and nmrML2ISA (nmrML format only). Overall, the use of mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA reduces the time needed to capture metadata substantially (capturing 90% of metadata on assay and sample levels), is much less prone to user input errors, improves compliance with minimum information reporting guidelines and facilitates more finely grained data exploration and querying of datasets. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA are available under version 3 of the GNU General Public Licence at https://github.com/ISA-tools. Documentation is available from http://2isa.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. reza.salek@ebi.ac.uk or isatools@googlegroups.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

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    Ahmadi Koorosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients’ outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. Methods: A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly se-lected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hos-pital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed in-terns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre-and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS ver-sion 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Our findings showed that interns’ ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001, P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively. Conclusion: ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns. Key words: Advanced Trauma Life Support Care; Knowledge; Inservice training; Wounds and injuries

  1. Post operation recurrence of inguinal hernia in children and its relation with suture material

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    Omid Amanollahi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using non-absorbable suture in children hernia repair to decrease of recurrence is recommended in the most pediatric surgery centers. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between kind of suture material and rate of hernia recurrence. Methods: In this clinical trial 200 children (age 1-5 years with inguinal hernia who operated in Imam-Reza Hospital (kermanshah –Iran Between April 2007 until April 2008 enrolled into the study. Cases were selected by convenience sampling method and then randomly divided into two groups (100 cases per group and operated with absorbable (silk 3-0 and non-absorbable (vicryli 3-0 suture material. Following period was 12 months after operation and collected data analyzed by statistical software. Emergency operations were excluded from the study.Results: 83% of patients were boy and 17% were girl. %53 showed right side inguinal, 29% left side and %18 were bilateral hernia. After one year follow up only one case of recurrence was observed in each group.Conclusion: Our study confirmed that recurrence of inguinal hernia in children after surgery, is not related to kind of suture material (absorbability and we didn’t find any significant difference. Other factors than suture material may influence recurrence rate of hernia operation in children.

  2. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

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    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF. We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male with a mean age of 41.2±4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25±4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months. Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom’s criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2±1.4 and 22.2±6.2 to 3.5±2.0 and 8.7±5.2 (1–21 at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P=0.032, although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  3. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

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    Rastmanesh R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  4. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koorosh Ahmadi; Mohammad Sedaghat; Mahdi Safdarian; Amir Masoud Hashemian; Zahra Nezamdoust; Mohammad Vaseie; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and timetable methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients' outcome,we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns'performance in simulated trauma patient management.Methods:A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad,Iran.On the first day,we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients.After 2 days of ATLS training,we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day.The two findings,preand post-ATLS periods,were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software.P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results:Our findings showed that interns' ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course.On the fourth day after training,there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures,the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P<0.001,P=0.016 and P=0.01 respectively).Conclusion:ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  5. EFFECT OF HEPARIN ON THE PATENCY OF ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA

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    H Ravari

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nPatients with end stage renal disease need a good vascular access for hemodialysis. Arteriovenous fistula is the method of choice for vascular access in these patients. However, failure of arteriovenous fistula due to thrombosis is a major problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the heparin on the patency of the arteriovenous fistula. This prospective interventional case control study was performed from November 2003 through May 2005 in vascular surgery ward in Imam Reza Hospital. All the patients who underwent a surgery in order to perform an arteriovenous fistula in cubital or snuff box areas for the dialysis means were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups. The case group (n = 96 received intraoperative heparin whereas the controls (n = 102 did not. Early observation of arteriovenous fistula (immediately after surgery showed patency in 89% of heparin group and in 87% of the control group. The patency rate 2 weeks after the surgery was 85% in heparin group versus 74% in the control group, resulting in a statistically significant difference (P value = 0.046. According to higher patency rate of arteriovenous fistula in 2 weeks following surgery in case group, we recommend intraoperative use of heparin in arteriovenous fistula operations.

  6. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

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    Maryam Sadat Katebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admiss­ion or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P

  7. The concordance between thyroid nodules ultrasound, based on thyroid Imaging reporting and data systems, and fine needle aspiration

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    Nazanin Farshchian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid nodules are solid or cystic lumps within the thyroid gland. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concordance between thyroid nodules ultrasound reports, based on Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data (TIRAD System and results of ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 144 patients with thyroid nodules who referred to the radiology department of Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah at the request of endocrinologist were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS-21software using descriptive statistics. Results: The age range of patients was 15 to 78, with mean age 44.86±13.27 years. Of the sample, 141 cases (97.9 % were female and 3 cases (2.1 % were male. Based on the results of pathology, 130 (90.2% were benign and 14 (9.8% were malignant lesions and sonography result 129 cases (89.6% were benign and 15 cases (10.4% were malignant. There was a significant difference between the results of sonography and FNA and Kappa agreement test showed a significant concordance (96% between the sonographic reports of thyroid nodules, based on TIRAD system, and pathological findings. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a high concordance between sonographic reports of thyroid nodules, based on TIRAD category, and FNA findings. Thus, TIRAD-based ultrasound can play a key role in determining thyroid nodules, thereby facilitating patient's management.

  8. Diagnostic Utility of Chest X-rays in Neonatal Respiratory Distress: Determining the Sensitivity and Specificity

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    Hassan Mottaghi Moghadam shahri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chest radiography is one of the most usual diagnostic tools for respiratory distress. Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the specificity, sensitivity and clinical value of chest radiography of neonates with respiratory distress.Patients and Methods: A descriptive- analytical study was conducted on 102 neonates that were in neonatal intensive care unit of Imam Reza and 22 Bahman Hospitals because of respiratory distress. After confirming the neonate's respiratory distress and taking chest radiography, the radiography was described by a radiologist and final diagnosis was confirmed. Results: Most of the neonates (64.7% were born with caesarian section and were premature (78.4%. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS was the most common reason for respiratory distress (38.2%. Chest radiography had the most sensitivity and specificity in pneumothorax and hernia (100%. For pneumosepsis, radiography had 73% sensitivity and 87% specificity, for RDS the sensitivity and specificity were 35% and 82% respectively, for congenital heart disease sensitivity of zero and specificity of 98% and for Transient tachypnea of neonates (TTN sensitivity of zero and specificity of 100%. The conformity of clinical and radiography was also calculated as 79.4% in respiratory distress Discussion and Conclusion: Although chest radiography is used as one of the most usual and accessible diagnostic tools in respiratory distress syndrome, but inaccurate specificity and sensitivity in some disease must be considered, especially in neonates.

  9. Comparison of the Effects of Play Dough and Bubble Making Distraction Techniques on Venepuncture Pain Intensity in Children

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    Shahrokh Maghsoudi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venepuncture is a minimally invasive procedure, which is commonly performed in hospitals; if the pain is inadequately managed, it can cause negative feelings in children. Distraction can reduce pain through affecting the central nervous system and releasing neurotransmitters that inhibit pain. Aim: In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of play-dough and bubble making as distraction techniques on the intensity of venepuncture pain in children. Method: In this randomized, controlled, clinical trial, 90 children aged three to six years old, were randomly allocated to the three groups of  play dough, bubble making, and control (n=30 for each group. This study was performed in Qaem, Imam Reza, and Dr. Sheikh hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2015. The interventions consisted of using play dough and bubble making, which were started five minutes before venepuncture. Following the intervention, pain assessment was performed using Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and One-way ANOVA tests were performed to analyze the data, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean of pain intensity in the play dough, bubble making, and control groups was 5.1±1.8 6.2±1.4, and 8.2±1.5, respectively (out of ten. One-way ANOVA reflected a significant difference between the three groups (P

  10. Educational Needs of Nurses in Intensive Care Unit for Poisoned Patients

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    Dadpour B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poisoned patients are at risk of impaired ventilation in many situations. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the impact of educational workshops on nurses' knowledge, confidence, and attitude in taking care of poisoned patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 60 nursing staff in the intensive care unit (ICU for poisoned patients in Imam Reza (p hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Data was gathered by a researcher-designed questionnaire. Studied scales included perceived importance and novelty of educational meeting, matching with professional and educational needs, illustration of practical and knowledge weaknesses and strength and finally satisfaction in holding regular workshops annually. Two, half day workshops were held and various items were taught with various methods. The knowledge of participants was assessed by pretests and post-tests consisting of 12 items related to workshop topics. The impact of these educational meetings was evaluated and the results were analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: According to the results, workshops improved awareness of nurses about their weakness and strength points, professional knowledge and their interest and attention; likewise all participants had the same opinion about a strong need to hold similar workshops more than once and preferably 2 to 3 times annually. Conclusion: It seems that short educational courses in small groups for reviewing the old data and recent findings in the context of critical care are useful in order to promote the knowledge and skills of ICU staff in taking care of poisoned patients

  11. Study of nasal carriage Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hemodialysis patients in Kermanshah

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA nasal carriers play role in development of nosocomial infections and may increase treatment costs and mortality rate. These isolates, in addition to beta lactamase, is resistant to other drugs. Carrier frequency and spectrum awareness of drug sensitivity in these isolates will be useful in choosing more effective methods of control and treatment.Methods: Nasal anterior parts samples collected from 160 hemodialysis patients in Imam Reza hospital. After diagnosis of Staphylococcus aureus, their sensitivity to 11 different antibiotics was determined using Kirby-bauer method and oxacillin strips. MRSA isolates, MIC was determined by microdilution method.Results: Twenty-eight percent of hemodialysis patients were Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage and 31% of the isolates were MRSA type. Penicillin was the most resistance (96% and vancomycin was the lowest resistance (0% antibiotics. Frequency of resistance to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, cloxacillin, doxycycline, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole was 20-29% and chloramphenicol, clindamycin and rifampin was less than 10%. Most of MRSA isolates were resistance than MSSA isolates. 86% of MRSA isolates were identified as MDR. Oxacillin MIC for all MRSA isolates was more than 64 micg/ml.Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated MRSA and MSSA was intirely different from each other so unlike MRSA, MSSA isolates were sensitive to the most antibiotics. Penicillin was totally ineffective and vancomycin was recognized as the most effective antibiotic in this study.

  12. A composite foraminiferal biostratigraphic sequence for the Lower Miocene deposits in the type area of the Qom Formation, central Iran, developed by constrained optimization (CONOP)

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    Daneshian, Jahanbakhsh; Ramezani Dana, Leila; Sadler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera species commonly outnumber planktic species in the type area of the Lower Miocene Qom Formation, in north central Iran, where it records the Tethyan link between the eastern Mediterranean and Indo- Pacific provinces. Because measured sections preserve very different sequences of first and last occurrences of these species, no single section provides a completely suitable baseline for correlation. To resolve this problem, we combined bioevents from three stratigraphic sections into a single composite sequence by constrained optimization (CONOP). The composite section arranges the first and last appearance events (FAD and LAD) of 242 foraminifera in an optimal order that minimizes the implied diachronism between sections. The composite stratigraphic ranges of the planktic foraminifera support a practical biozonation which reveals substantial local changes of accumulation rate during Aquitanian to Burdigalian times. Traditional biozone boundaries emerge little changed but an order of magnitude more correlations can be interpolated. The top of the section at Dobaradar is younger than previously thought and younger than sections at Dochah and Tigheh Reza-Abad. The latter two sections probably extend older into the Aquitanian than the Dobaradar section, but likely include a hiatus near the base of the Burdigalian. The bounding contacts with the Upper Red and Lower Red Formations are shown to be diachronous.

  13. The effect of acetaminophen nanoparticles on liver toxicity in a rat model

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    Esmaeil Biazar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, S Mahdi Rezayat2, Naser Montazeri1, Khalil Pourshamsian1, Reza Zeinali3, Azadeh Asefnejad3, Mehdi Rahimi3, Mohammadmajid Zadehzare3, Mehran Mahmoudi3, Rohollah Mazinani3, Mehdi Ziaei31Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, IranAbstract: Acetaminophen, a pain-reliever, is one of the most widely used medications in the world. Acetaminophen with normal dosage is considered a nontoxic drug for therapeutic applications, but when taken at overdose levels it produces liver damage in human and various animal species. By a high energy mechanically activated method, we produced acetaminophen in a nanometer crystalline size (24 nm. Forty-eight hours after injection of crystalline particles with normal and reduced size of our drug, the effect of liver toxicity was compared by determination of liver transferase enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. These enzymes were examined by routine colorimetric methods using commercial kits and pathologic investigations. Statistical analysis and pathological figures indicated that ALT delivery and toxicity in reduced size acetaminophen was significantly reduced when compared with normal size acetaminophen. Pathology figures exhibited reduced necrosis effects, especially the confluent necrosis, in the central part of the lobule in the reduced size acetaminophen samples when compared with the normal samples.Keywords: acetaminophen, size reduction, pathological and enzymatic investigations, toxicity

  14. Moyamoya Disease Mimicking Encephalitis

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    Maryam Khalesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare vaso-occlusive illness with an unknown etiology characterized by stenosis of the internal carotid arteries with spontaneous development of a collateral vascular network. A 15-month-old girl was referred to the emergency ward of Imam Reza Hospital due to decreased level of consciousness, focal seizures and fever during the previous 24 hours with an impression of encephalitis. Physical examination revealed left side hemiparesis; however brain CT-Scan did not show any significant lesions. Initial therapy with vancomycin, ceftriaxone and acyclovir was administered. CSF analysis did not show any abnormality and the blood as well as CSF cultures results were negative. Brain MRI showed hyperintensity at right frontal and parietal regions, suggesting vascular lesion. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA showed bilaterally multiple torsions in vessels at the basal ganglia consistent with moyamoya vessels. In all children exhibiting encephalitis, vascular events such as moyamoya disease should be considered. Brain MRI is a critical tool for this purpose. Common causes of encephalitis such as herpes simplex should also be ruled out.

  15. Quality of Care of Nursing from Brain Death Patient in ICU Wards

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    Seyedeh Toktam Masoumian Hoseini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, Intensive Care Unit (ICU nurses play a significant and key role in the care of brain dead patients and their families, therefore their Practice extremely important to the success of organ donation. To assess ICU nurse's practice in relation to nurse's role in the organ donation process from brain dead patients in Iran. Materials and Methods:In a cross-sectional analytical study 90 ICU nurses in Ghaem and Imam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad through stratified random sampling allocation method were selected. Data collection tools included a questionnaire on demographic information, factors influencing nurse's practice during the organ donation process and surveying "nurse's practice in relation to their roles in the organ donation process." Results: 90 nurses participated in this study. (70.0% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation, and (20.0% had organ donation cards. Practice scores were calculated on a scale of 100. The mean score of nurses' practice was (6.04± 3.66. 96.7% of nurses’ weak practice in terms of their roles in the organ donation process. Conclusion: As a result, they do not have adequate practice regard nurse's role in organ donation process and in relation to brain death patient and their families. Therefore it is suggested to include nursing courses in the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the process to improve their practice by different training methods.

  16. Iranian Democratization Part I: A Historical Case Study of the Iranian Green Movement

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    Victor H. Sundquist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.

  17. Teatralização do sagrado islâmico: a palavra, a voz e o gesto

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    Francirosy Campos Barbosa Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta do artigo é apresentar um dos elementos performáticos da religião islâmica: a salat (oração islâmica. O modo como a salat é elaborada fisicamente, moldando o corpo do muçulmano, permite que esse seja visto como um veículo de comunicação entre o fiel e Deus. Nesse sentido, estabeleço uma proximidade entre o ator que repete, ensaia o seu papel várias vezes, e o muçulmano, que reza e se aprimora a cada oração. O argumento central do texto é que o aprimoramento do muçulmano (com o auxílio do comportamento restaurado deve levar em consideração o conhecimento da palavra, o uso da voz (vocalidade e o gesto. É no gesto da oração que percebemos a entrega desse muçulmano.This article presents the salat, an Islamic prayer and, at the same time, an important performatic element of Islamic religion. The salat is a corporeal elaboration that builds the Islamic body and allows us to see this body as a way of communication between God and the faithful. My analysis of the salat considers a close relation between the actor who repeats and rehearses his part in a play many times and the Muslim who prays and improves his performance each time he prays. My main argument is that the Muslim has to consider the knowledge of word, the voice and the gesture to improve his religious performance.

  18. Incidental Findings in Patients Evaluated for Pulmonary Embolism Using Computed Tomography Angiography

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    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common lethal disease that its clinical symptoms may be seen in many other diseases. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA is a valuable diagnostic modality for detection of PE. In addition, it can accurately detect the other diseases with clinical symptoms similar to PE. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of PE and nonembolic disease with similar clinical symptoms including pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal, and cardiovascular diseases that have been detected by CTPA and to describe the importance of reporting these CT findings. Materials and Methods: In this cross‐sectional study, we evaluated the medical records of CTPA in 300 patients of suspected PE between March 2012 and February 2013 in Imam Reza Hospital and Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Demographic information and the results of CTPA of these patients were re‐evaluated. One radiologist reviewed all of the CTPA and the results have been analyzed by SPSS‐16 software. Results: In this study, PE was detected in 18.7% of patients. Multiple incidental imaging findings were diagnosed as follow: pulmonary consolidation (33.2%, pleural effusion (48.7%, pulmonary nodules (10%, pulmonary masses (1.3%, pneumothorax (4.7%, mediastinal mass and lymphadenopathy (9.3%, aortic calcification (42%, coronary arteries calcification (27.3%, mitral valve calcification (2 %, cardiomegaly (30.7%, and the evidences of right ventricular dysfunction (6.7%. Conclusion: A group of disease can cause the clinical symptoms similar to that of PE. Among them, pulmonary consolidation and pleural effusion have much higher frequency than PE. In addition, CTPA can show pathologic findings in the patients that need follow‐up. It is important to detect and report these imaging findings because some of them may change the treatment and prognosis of patient who are suspected to have PE.

  19. Correlation between Stress Hyperglycemia and Short-Term Prognosis in non Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Rafighdoust Amirhossein

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal hyperglycemia is a common finding in early phase of acute myocardial infarction that is named as stress hyperglycemia. In this study we have evaluated primary blood sugar of non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction at the time of admission to compare the early complications between patients with high or normal blood sugar. We aimed to find any relation between primary blood sugar and post MI complication rate. Materials and Methods: One hundred non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction who were referred to heart emergency ward of Imam Reza Hospital (Mashhad, Iran were included in this study. According to primary blood glucose level, 50 patients with blood glucose > 126 mg/dl were compared with 50 patients with normal blood glucose level. All patients were evaluated during hospitalization and daily clinical examinations laboratory tests, and routine non-invasive assessments were done. The results were analyzed by SPSS software and the level of signification difference was described as p<0.05.Results: Sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block, ventricular extrasystole, prolonged PR-interval and heart failure according to Klip classification and also according to echocardiographic index (EF<50 were statistically significant and more common in hyperglycemic patients (P<0.05. Thromboembolic and mechanical complications (papillary muscle dysfunction, pericarditis, phlebitis and angina were also more common in hyperglycemic group although the differences were not significant statistically. Conclusion: It seems that high rate of early complications in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is directly related to primary hyperglycemia (stress hyperglycemia.

  20. Revisiting TW Hydrae in light of new astrometric data

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    Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Galli, P. A. B.; Le Campion, J. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Krone-Martins, A. G. O.; Chauvin, G.; Song, I.

    2014-10-01

    Our efforts in the present work focused mainly on refining and improving the previous description and understanding of the stellar association TW Hydrae (TWA) including a very detailed membership analysis and its dynamical and evolutionary age.To achieve our objectives in a fully reliable way we take advantage of our own astrometric measurements (Ducourant et al. 2013) performed with NTT/EFOSC2 - ESO (La Silla - Chile) spread over three years (2007 - 2010) and of those published in the literature.A very detailed membership analysis based on the convergent point strategy as developed by our team (Galli et al. 2012, 2013) allowed us to define a consistent kinematic group containing 31 stars among the 44 proposed as TWA member in the literature. Assuming that our sample of stars may be contaminated by non-members and to get rid of the particular influence of each star we applied a Jacknife resampling technique generating 2000 random lists of 13 stars taken from our 16 stars and calculated for each the epoch of convergence when the radius is minimum. The mean of the epochs obtained and the dispersion about the mean give a dynamical age of 7.5± 0.7 Myr for the association that is in good agreement with the previous traceback age (De La Reza et al. 2006). We also estimated age for TWA moving group members from pre-main sequence evolutionary models (Siess et al. 2000) and find a mean age of 7.4± 1.2 Myr. These results show that the dynamical age of the association obtained via the traceback technique and the average age derived from theoretical evolutionary models are in good agreement.

  1. Evaluation of Dose Distribution Accuracy in HDR Brachytherapy of Esophagus Cancer Based on MRI Normoxic Polymer Gel Dosimetry

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    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this work was to study the ability of MRI normoxic polymer gel dosimetry for evaluating the dose distribution in HDR brachytherapy of esophagial cancer at Imam Reza brachytherapy center (Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, 2liters of normoxic gel (MAGIC was fabricated and then poured into 12 calibration test tubes and placed in a perspex walled phantom. The gel phantom was irradiated with a brachytherapy remote-afterloader unit using a cobalt-60 brachytherapy source and the test tubes were irradiated with a range of known doses with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. Imaging was performed with a multi-spin-echo protocol and a T2 quantitative technique using a Siemens 1.5 T MRI machine. The MRI images were transferred to a computer and then image processing was performed in the MATLAB environment to extract R2 maps of the irradiated area. Results: In this study and at the reference point, the dose deviation between the gel dosimetry and the calculated data was 4.5%. The distance to agreement (DTA for dose profiles was 2.7 mm. Also, dose sensitivity of the MAGIC gel dosimeter was 0.693 S-1Gy-1 (R2 =0.9376. Conclusion: In this work, the data obtained from TPS calculations were found in very good agreement with the measured results provided by gel dosimetry. It was evaluated using a comparison of isodoses and dose at the reference point, and dose profile verification. It is also concluded that the gel dosimetry systems have proven to be a useful tool for dosimetry in clinical radiotherapy applications.

  2. Anticonvulsant treatments of dysphoric mania: a trial of gabapentin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine in Iran

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    Naghmeh Mokhber

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Mokhber1, Carol J Lane2, Mohamad R Azarpazhooh3, Elham Salari4, Reza Fayazi5, Mohamad T Shakeri6, Allan H Young71Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, 3Assistant Professor of Neurology, 4Mashhad Department of Forensic Psychiatry, 5Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, 6Assistant Professor of Statistics, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada7Abstract: The treatment of dysphoric mania is challenging given the need to treat symptoms of both depression and mania simultaneously without provoking any clinical exacerbation. The newer antiepileptic drugs such as gabapentin, lamotrogine, and carbamazepine are often used as adjuncts to either lithium or valproic acid in the treatment of bipolar disorder. We decided to undertake a monotherapy trial because previous evidence suggested mixed states may be more responsive to anticonvulsants than more traditional antimanic agents. 51 patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of dysphoric mania were randomized to three groups comprising gapbapentin, lamotrogine or carbamazepine and followed for 8 weeks. Psychiatric diagnosis was verified by the structural clinical interview for the DSM-IV (SCID. The MMPI-2 in full was used to assess symptoms at baseline and 8 weeks. All three groups showed significant changes in MMPI-2 scores for depression and mania subscales. Gabapentin showed the greatest change in depression symptom improvement relative to lamotrogine and carbamazepine, respectively. Although manic symptoms improved overall, there were no differences between groups in the degree of manic symptom improvement.Keywords: dysphoric mania, manic-depression, depression, anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer

  3. Performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter for management of pericardial effusions in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery

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    Ghods K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kamran Ghods,1 Mohammad Reza Razavi,2 Mohammad Forozeshfard3 1Clinical Research Development Unit (CRDU, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kowsar Hospital, 2Nursing Care Research Center, 3Cancer Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran Abstract: Different pericardial catheters have been suggested as an effective alternative method for drainage of pericardial effusion. The aim of this study was to determine the performance, pain, and quality of life on use of central venous catheter (CVC for drainage of pericardial effusion in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Fifty-five patients who had developed pericardial effusion after an open heart surgery (2012–2015 were prospectively assessed. Triple-lumen central catheters were inserted under echocardiographic guidance. Clinical, procedural, complication, and outcome details were analyzed. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients were assessed using the numerical rating scale and Short-Form Health Survey. CVC was inserted for 36 males and 19 females, all of whom had a mean age of 58.5±15 years, and the mean duration of the open heart surgery was 8±3.5 hours. The mean central venous pressure catheter life span was 14.6 days. No cases of recurrent effusion and complication were reported. The technical success rate of procedure was 100%. Intensity of pain and quality of life of patients had improved during follow-up. CVC insertion is a safe and effective technique for the management of pericardial effusion in patients after open heart surgery. Keywords: coronary artery bypass graft, pericardial effusion, central venous catheter

  4. Qualitative thallium urinary assays are almost as valuable as quantitative tests: implication for outpatient settings in low and middle income countries.

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    Ghaderi, Amir; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Khodabandehlo, Soroor; Mehrzad, Fateme; Mehrpour, Omid; Afshari, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Thallium (Tl), lead and steroid exposures were reported as a result of street drug consumption such as heroin and cocaine. This study aimed to compare the values of qualitative and quantitative assays for detecting Tl as an adulterant in opioid-like compound drug users. This case-control study was conducted throughout a specified time bracket ranging from May 2015 to November 2015 in Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. In general, urine thallium samples for 100 opioid overdosed subjects with a history of chronic opioid use and 50 non-drug users were studied. Qualitative 24 hours-urinary-thallium-level (QL) and quantitative 24 hours-urinary-thallium-level (QT) were conducted in both groups. Independent-samples t-test and Spearman's Coefficient were applied for analytical purposes. SPSS software 16 was used to conduct statistical analyses with P values less than 0.05 regarded as significant. A total of 150 cases were studied. Raw opium users accounted for 66% of the cases followed by mixed (28%) and heroin users (6%). Mean (SD) QT level for QL was 26.8 (1) μg/L, while it was 2.3 μg/L (0.4 μg/L) for negative QL, which was far below QL positive cases (p=0.002). The qualitative test showed more accuracy at higher quantitative levels. In all cases, qualitative test was fully sensitive (100%), highly specific (89%) with a positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 9.1 and a negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0. These results suggest that qualitative assays could be used with confidence in assessing Tl exposure in drug users. Physicians may easily and confidently use Tl qualitative tests in rehabilitation centers, where toxicology laboratories may not be available.

  5. Correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in Iranian children

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    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional anaemia among children. Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in children of Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was performed on children between 1 year and 10 years, in Imam Reza teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010. Indeed during complete blood count (CBC, we measured iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC by colorimetric methods, ferritin by radioimmune assay and blood lead concentration by atomic absorption method. Results were analysed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS (version 11.5, using statistical tests including independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman′s test and analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson′s or Spearman′s correlation coefficient. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Results: We studied 223 cases including 98 control children and 125 patients. All children had lead intoxication. Mean (±SD blood lead concentration in the control group was 57.1 ± 25.3 (ranged 20-212 μg/dl and in the patient group was 57 ± 20.4 (ranged 10.9-159 μg/dl with no significant difference (P value = 0.713. We also did not find any correlation between blood lead concentration and haemoglobin, ferritin, iron, TIBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, white blood cells (WBC and platelets. Conclusion: Based on these results, no correlation was found between blood lead concentration and iron deficiency in the children. Because all children had lead intoxication, further studies in highly polluted and a comparison with a low polluted area are necessary to make a general conclusion.

  6. ELOGIO DEL DOCTOR ABRAHAM APARICIO* HOMENAJE EN EL CENTENARIO DE SU NACIMIENTO

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    Luis Patiño Camargo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El 28 de noviembre de 2014 se cumplió el centenario de la muerte del académico Abraham Aparicio Cruz, en cuya casa se fundó la Sociedad de Medicina y Ciencias Naturales en 1873, que pasaría a convertirse en 1890 en la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia. El académico Aparicio también fue redactor (diríamos Editor, actualmente de la Revista Médica (ahora MEDICINA, en el siglo XIX. "Señor Presidente y Señores Académicos: A las siete y media de la noche del 3 de enero de 1873, en el santafereño barrio de San Victorino, en la casa del doctor Abraham Aparicio Cruz, nació la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia. Su fe de bautismo reza: El 3 de enero de 1873, reunidos en junta preparatoria los señores doctores Manuel Plata Azuero, Nicolás Osorio, Liborio Zerda, Leoncio Barreto y Evaristo García, convinieron en crear una sociedad que tuviese por objeto el estudio y adelanto de las ciencias médicas y naturales, así como también el dar solidaridad al cuerpo médico y unidad al ejercicio de la profesión. Provisoriamente nombró la junta presidente y secretario a los señores doctores Manuel Plata Azuero y Abraham Aparicio. El señor doctor Zerda fue comisionado para redactar el reglamento. El Secretario, A. Aparicio”....

  7. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

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    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  8. Frequency of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Treated With Normal Saline after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Shima Sheybani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common postoperative complication of cardiac surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the frequency of postoperative AKI in low risk adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Materials & Methods: All consecutive adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II and III, who were transferred to the post-operative cardiac surgery ICU after off-pump CABG and were low risk for AKI from October 2013 to September 2014 at Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at a teaching hospital. The patients were explored for AKI development, based on risk-injury-failure-loss- end stage kidney disease (RIFLE and acute kidney injury network (AKIN criteria, frequency of metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and length of stay in ICU.Results: According to the results of the present study, 479 patients with the mean age of 60.8±10.75 yrs were included. AKI occurred in 22 (4.4% and23 (4.8% patients, based on both the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively with the highest rate of AKI, reported on the third and fourth post-operative days. Additionally, hyperchloremia and hypernatremia were observed in 71 (14.8% and 76 (15.9% patients, respectively. Only one case of mortality occurred during the study. Metabolic acidosis was reported in 112 (23.4% patients with a high anion gap in 60 (12.5% cases.Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that hypernatremia and metabolic acidosis but not AKI are frequently seen in patients receiving normal saline following off pump CABG with low risk for AKI.

  9. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods

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    Hadidi N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Hadidi1, Farzad Kobarfard2, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh3, Reza Aboofazeli11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.Keywords: phospholipid-PEG, D-optimal design, loading efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, carbon nanotubes

  10. GlideScope Video Laryngoscope for Difficult Intubation in Emergency Patients: a Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Koorosh Ahmadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macintosh direct laryngoscope has been the most widely used device for tracheal intubation. GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL has been recently introduced as an alternative device for performing intubation; however, its validity in emergency settings has not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to compare Macintosh direct laryngoscope versus GVL for emergency endotracheal intubation. This quasi-randomized clinical trial was performed on 97 patients referred to Imam Reza Hospital whom all needed emergency intubation in 2011. Patients were divided into two groups of the easy airway and difficult airway; intubation was performed for patients with direct laryngoscopy or GVL. Then, the patients were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, successful intubation rate and intubation time. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 16. There was no significant difference in demographic characteristics of the patients in both easy airway and difficult airway groups who intubated with direct laryngoscopy and GVL methods (P>0.05. In difficult airway group, a significant difference was found in successful intubation at the first attempt (60.9% vs. 87.5%; P=0.036, overall intubation time (32.7 ± 14.58 vs. 22.5±7.88; P<0.001 and first attempt intubation time (28.43 ± 12.51 vs. 21.48±7.8; P=0.001 between direct laryngoscopy and GVL. These variables were not significantly different between two methods in easy airway group. According to the results, GVL can be a useful alternative to direct laryngoscopy in emergency situations and especially in cases with a difficult airway.

  11. Inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from Mashhad, Iran

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    Najmeh seifi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is an important agent in hospital and community-associated infections, causing high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the new antimicrobial classes for this pathogen is usually followed by the emergence of resistant strains through multiple mechanisms. For instance, resistance to clindamycin (CLI, can be constitutive or inducible. Inducible clindamycin resistance which may lead to treatment failure can simply be identified by performing D-test. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by D-test method.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 254 non-duplicated S. aureus isolates in Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad during 2010. Susceptibility to oxacillin, cefoxitin, erythromycin and clindamycin was performed by disk agar diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines and D-shaped clindamycin susceptibility patterns where considered as D-test positive (D+.Results: Of 211 S. aureus isolates 88 (37.82% were methicillin resistant. It was found that of 88 MRSA isolates, 78 (88.63% were erythromycin (ERY resistant and 46 (52.27% were CLI resistant. ERY and CLI resistance in MSSA strains was 21.95% and 11.96% respectively. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected in 18 (20.45% MRSA isolates. 47(53.40% of MRSA isolates and 9 (7.32% of MSSA showed constitutive MLSB phenotype.Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance phenotype in our region. We recommend that whenever clindamycin is intended for S. aureus infections, D-test should be performed to facilitate the optimal treatment of patients.Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, clindamycin, Inducible resistance

  12. Long-term evaluation of eyes with central corneal thickness <400 µm following laser in situ keratomileusis

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    Djodeyre MR

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Djodeyre,1 Jaime Beltran,2 Julio Ortega-Usobiaga,3 Felix Gonzalez-Lopez,4 Ana Isabel Ruiz-Rizaldos,1 Julio Baviera2 1Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Zaragoza, 2Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Valencia, 3Department of Research and Development, Clinica Baviera, Bilbao, 4Department of Refractive Surgery, Clinica Baviera, Madrid, Spain Purpose: To study long-term refractive and visual outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in eyes with a postoperative thin central cornea.  Methods: In this retrospective observational case series, we studied 282 myopic eyes with a normal preoperative topographic pattern and postoperative thin corneas (<400 µm that had at least 3 years of follow-up after LASIK in three private clinics. The main outcome measures were safety, efficacy, predictability, percent tissue altered, and complications.  Results: The mean postoperative central corneal thickness was 392.05 µm (range: 363.00–399.00 µm. After a mean follow-up of 6.89±2.35 years (standard deviation, the safety index was 1.17, the efficacy index was 0.94, and predictability (±1.00 diopter [D] was 73.49. The mean residual stromal bed thickness was 317.34±13.75 µm (range: 275–356 µm, the mean flap thickness was 74.76±13.57 µm (range: 55–124 µm, and the mean percent tissue altered was 37.12%±3.62% (range: 27.25%–49.26%. No major complications were recorded.  Conclusion: LASIK with a resultant central cornea thickness <400 µm seems to be effective, safe, and predictable provided that preoperative topography is normal and the residual stromal bed thickness is >275 µm. Keywords: LASIK, thin, cornea, ectasia, myopia, pachymetry, topography

  13. Chest Pain

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    Samad Shams-Vahdati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute chest pain is an important and frequently occurring symptom in patients. Chest pain is often a sign of ischemic heart disease. Associated findings of electrocardiograph (ECG are rather heterogeneous, and traditional cardiac biomarkers such as Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB suffer from low cardiac specificity and sensitivity. In this study cost effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers single quantitative measurement was examined.Methods: The present descriptive-analytic study conducted on patients who were asked for troponin I and CK-MB. All patients who referred to Emergency unit of Tabriz Imam Reza educational-medical center during January 2012 to July the 2013 were included in study. All patients included in the study were documented in terms of age, sex, working shift of referring, main complaint of patient, symptoms in referring, ECG findings, and results of troponin I and CK-MB tests.Results: In this study, 2900 patients were studied including 1440 (49.7% males and 1460 (50.3% females. Mean age of patients was 62.91 (SD=14.36. Of all patients 1880 (64.8% of patients referred during 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. and 1020 (35.2% patients were referred during 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. The sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers’ test in diagnosing Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS disease was calculated as 44.8% and its specificity was 86.6%. For diagnosing Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI, sensitivity of cardiac biomarkers’ test was 72.2% and its specificity was 86%. None of patients who were finally underwent unstable angina diagnosis showed increase in cardiac enzymes.Conclusion: In conclusion, cardiac biomarkers can be used for screening acute chest pains, also cost effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers, appropriate specificity and sensitivity can guarantee their usefulness in emergency room.

  14. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

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    Negar Taleschian-Tabrizi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs. A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI. The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%. The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended.

  15. Solid waste for health: environmental impact health and feedback in case-disease

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    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza"

  16. Re- reconstructive surgery in failure of genitoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals

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    Kamyar Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various surgical procedures were described for the correction of the external genitalia in male-to-female transsexualism. In all these methods complications such as vaginal stenosis, unpleasant appearance of external genitalia and lack of consent are seen. This paper describes a method of surgery for repair of these complications and success rate of this surgery.Methods: Reconstructive surgery was performed by one surgeon in 16 patients from 2009 to 2011 in Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad. Mean age 25.75 years of age from 21 to 31 years. Due to the condition of each patient appropriate reconstructive surgery was performed. These surgeries include: clitoroplasty, inverted U flap, labioplasty, urethroplasty, removal of excess skin and increasing depth of vagina. After the surgery, the patients admitted for complete bed rest up to 5 days. They received postoperative prophylaxis medication for anti-thromboembolic events.Results: Only 3 complications were seen in all 16 patients. One hematoma of surgery site, one infection of surgery site and a blood transfusion. Eleven patients had history of vaginoplasty using small intestine and 10 patients with penile and perineal skin. From 3 to 24 months follow up after discharge were done, no patient had a major complication in long-term follow up and were generally satisfied with their sexual intercourse.Conclusion: This study has some limitations. Follow-up of the patients was performed for about one year that longer follow-up for these patients is favorable. Also, evaluation of patients' satisfaction from their intercourse was not performed as systematically with using an standard questionnaire and by a person who is blind to the study. Using this method of restoring external genitalia in the hands of expert surgeon, aesthetic and functional result would be expected very well.

  17. Study of Mammographic Findings of Breast Cancer in Women under 35 Years Old

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    D. Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Brest cancer is the second reason of mortality due to cancer in women and according to its high prevalence and psychosociophysical complications, immediate diagnosis is always under consideration. In most cases diagnosis of breast cancer in young women in reproductive ages is difficult. The objective of this study was report mammographic findings of breast cancer in women under 35 years old."nPatients and Methods: In this study the present files in storage room of radiology ward of Imam Reza, Qaem, and Omid Hospitals (1995-2004. In Mashad university of Medical sciences related to women under 35 years with breast cancer were assessed. Specific goals in this study were specification the clinical signs, mammographic findings, the pathology of breast cancer and also family history."nResults: A total of 2570 patients with breast cancer during 10 years period refered to these centers that 231 patients (9% were ≤35 years. Sixty two patients (51.3% had positive family history. The most common cancer according to the history was breast cancer in 30 cases (48.4%. The most common chief complain in these patients was a mass in 74 cases (80.4%.The most common mammographic pattern was mass with microcalcification in 37 cases (33.9%. Identifying a mass alone in mammography was seen in 17 cases (15.6%. The tumors were in the left breast in 114 cases (49%, and the most common site was supralateral quadrant (50.8%. The most common pathology was ductal carcinoma invasive in 200 cases (86.6%."nConclusion: Breast cancer in young women have poor prognosis. It may be difficult to detect breast cancer in mammography and the other modalities are usually helpful. Masses which discovered by patients themselves must be considered strictly and diagnostic procedures must be performed due to that, immediate treatment would be effective.

  18. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  19. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  20. The Effects of Field Massage Technique on Bilirubin Level and the Number of Defecations in Preterm Infants

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    Soheila Karbandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common physiological problem in approximately 80% of preterm infants during the first week after birth. Increase in bowel movements reduces enterohepatic circulation and increases bilirubin excretion. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Field massage technique on bilirubin level and the number of defecations in preterm infants Method: This clinical trial was performed on 80 preterm infants aged 30-36 weeks, who were hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units of Qaem, Imam Reza, and Ommolbanin hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. The enrolled infants were randomized into intervention and control groups. The control group received the routine care, and the intervention group received a 15-minute massage twice a day (morning and evening, for five consecutive days. Field massage technique was applied by the researcher. The number of defecations and cutaneous bilirubin level were recorded on a daily basis until the sixth day after birth. Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to analyze the data, using SPSS version 14. Results: The mean age of the intervention and control groups was 17.2±4.5 and 17.1±4.5 hours, respectively. The mean level of cutaneous bilirubin in the intervention and control groups on the first and sixth days were not significantly different (10.7±1.5, 10.8±1.4, 13.4±2.0, and 13.4±2.6, respectively; the first day: P=0.67, the sixth day: P=0.98. The number of defecations on the fourth (P=0.01, fifth (P

  1. Comparing the Effect of Continuous and Intermittent Irrigation Techniques on Complications of Arterial Catheter and Partial Thromboplastin Time in Patients Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

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    Sedigheh Arta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different approaches are available to irrigate the arterial catheter, such as continuous and intermittent techniques. However, there is a disagreement regarding the most appropriate method. Aim: this study aimed to compare the effect of two continuous and intermittent irrigation methods on complications of arterial catheter and partial thromboplastin time (PTT in patients with coronary artery bypass (CABG surgery. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 participants undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in open-heart surgery ICU at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. In continuous group, the arterial catheter was continuously irrigated with heparin solution at the rate of 2cc/h, and in the intermittent group with a syringe containing 5cc heparin solution every 3 hours. In both groups, catheter was monitored and recorded every 3 hours (until 48 hours and 3 times from enrollment in terms of complications of partial thromboplastin time. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: The findingsof independent t-test showed that the two groups are homogeneous in age (P =0.48. The result of Fisher's exact test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of average incidence of complications during the first 24 hours (P=0.55 and second 24 hours (P=0.55 after catheterization. Also during the 48 hours after surgery, independent t-test results showed no statistically significant difference in partial thromboplastin time (P=0.53 between the two groups. Implications for Practice: According to the results of the research based on the lack of difference between continuous and intermittent irrigation methods up to 48 hours after catheter replacement in terms of arterial catheter complications, further long-term follow-up researches are recommended.

  2. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

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    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  3. Validity of bioconjugated silica nanoparticles in comparison with direct smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens

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    Ekrami A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ekrami1, Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh2, Azar Khosravi1, Behrooz Zargar3, Mohamad Alavi1, Mansor Amin2, Alireza Kiasat3 1Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran Background: Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, and new easy to perform diagnostic methods with high accuracy are necessary for optimal control of the disease. Recently, fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNP has attracted immense interest for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples using bioconjugated FSNP compared with microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, nested PCR, and culture as the gold standard. Methods: In total, 152 sputum specimens were obtained from patients who were suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis. All samples were examined by the four techniques described. Results: The assay showed 97.1% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] 91–99.2 and 91.35% specificity (CI 78.3–97.1. Furthermore, assays using variable bacterial concentrations indicated that 100 colony forming units/mL of M. tuberculosis could be detected. There were no differences between the results obtained from two types of mouse monoclonal antibody against Hsp-65 and 16 KDa antigens. Conclusion: We performed this assay in a large number of clinical samples to confirm the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the test and can recommend its application for diagnosis of M. tuberculosis. We believe that this method is more convenient for routine diagnosis of M. tuberculosis in sputum and will be more easily applicable in the field, and with sufficient sensitivity. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, fluorescent silica nanoparticles

  4. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

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    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  5. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations

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    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal. PMID:27651881

  6. Survey the role of emotions in information retrieval

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    Hassan Behzadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the users' emotion in various stages of information retrieval based on the information retrieval model in web.From the methodological perspective, the present study is experimental, and the type of study is practical. The society comprised all MA students majoring in different humanistic science branches and studying at Imam Reza international university. The sample society of this research consisted of 30 participants. The sample size was determined through stratified random sampling via G*power software. Data collection was carried out by using: demographic and prior experience of using internet questionnaire, post search questionnaire and recorded videos of users' faces. The findings of the study demonstrated that: 1 during the initial stages of searching, the frequency of emotion of apprehension, and in general during the link tracking stage, the negative emotions with the overall 49/3 percent are more frequent than the other emotions in browsing and differentiation stages, the emotion of happy was more frequent than the other emotions. 2 These variances resulted in significant relations among different emotions of the users throughout the four stages of information retrieval. 3 In simple search, the respondents displayed the emotion of happy most frequently and the emotion of aversion least frequently. On the other hand, in complicated search, apprehension and aversion were the most and the least frequently-cited emotions, respectively. Overall, the negative emotions were reported more frequently in complicated search in comparison with the simple search. This demonstrated that any change in the difficulty level of search undertaking would cause users to exhibit different types of emotions.

  7. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  8. Customer Quality of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease In Tabriz, 1391

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    Roya Hasanzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Customer Quality is one of the most important dimensions of quality in health care which refers to service receiver's knowledge, attitude and skills that play effective role in treatment process. This study is aimed at assessing customer quality score in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Tabriz city in 2012. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted with the participation of 94 Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients who referred to Tabriz Imam Reza Hospital and Golgasht clinic. Customer Quality was measured using a questionnaire with 19 items which its validity was confirmed by 10 experts and its reliability was reviewed using Cronbach's alpha index (α =0.78.  Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS17.   Results: The results illustrated that average score of customer quality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease is 70.63 (±9.67. All the participants achieved stage 1 scores of Customer Quality in self-management but only 11.7% reported highest customer quality score and were able to continue their self-care in high pressure circumstances such as stress and financial problems. Also, there was a significant relation between customer quality score and patient’s education (P-value=0.05, so that by having higher education level, the customer quality score was increased as well. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that customer quality status in assessed patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease is partially acceptable, but major problems in some areas are evident and require more attention of health care managers and policy makers. ​

  9. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  10. Assosiation of Epicardial and Pericardial Fat Thickness with Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Fereshteh; Eshraghi, Ali; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Mousavi, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visceral adipose tissue is a known important risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While some studies have suggested relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and CAD, there are no adequate studies for pericardial fat thickness (PFT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of EFT and PFT with CAD. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective coronary artery angiography, referred to Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during Jan 2014–2016. Demographic and laboratory data were collected. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine average EFT and PFT at the standard parasternal long-axis view at end-systole for 3 cardiac cycles. SCA was performed on the same day. The patients were divided into two groups: CAD (n=59) and non-CAD (n=41) based on presence or absence of epicardial coronary artery stenosis of > 50%. Chi-square, independent T-test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used by SPSS Version 16 for data analysis. Results One hundred patients (44 women and 56 men) with an average age of 56.4 ± 9.9 years were studied. The two groups were not significantly different in demographic profile and cronary risk factors. While PFT was not significantly different between the two groups, EFT was significantly higher in CAD group (3.0 ± 3.69 vs. 1.2 ± 3.6, p coronary arteries, EFT increased (p <0.0001). Gensini score had a strong correlation with amount of EFT (r = 0.765, p <0.0001). EFT with a cutoff value of 4.25 mm (sensitivity=79%, specificity=68%) was specified in predicting CAD. Conclusion EFT measured by echocardiography can be used as an independent marker to predict CAD. More studies are needed to determine the predictive role of PFT for CAD.

  11. Incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with urinary tract infection

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    Sobhan Ghafourian

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Resistant bacteria are emerging worldwide as a threat to favorable outcomes from treating common infections in community and hospital settings. The present investigation was carried out to study the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with urinary tract infection in different seasons of the year, in order to determine the prevalence of the genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M, which are responsible for ESBL production among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, in three cities in Iran, and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of K. pneumoniae in different seasons. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study carried out among patients with urinary tract infections in five hospitals in Iran. METHOD: Two hundred and eighty-eight clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected between March 2007 and April 2008 from five hospitals in three cities in Iran. ESBLs were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were evaluated against non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Genes coding for ESBLs (blaSHV, TEM and CTX-M were screened. RESULTS: Among the 288 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 37.7%, 46.7% and 15.6% were obtained from hospitals in Ilam, Tehran and Tabriz, respectively, of which 39.4%, 50.7% and 45.8% were ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Ilam, Milad and Emam Reza hospitals, respectively. CONCLUSION: According to the results from this study, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is higher during the cold months than during the warm months.

  12. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  13. Whatman Paper (FTA Cards for Storing and Transferring Leishmania DNA for PCR Examination

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    A Amin-Mohammadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is often made based on clinical manifesta­tion. Correct diagnosis and identification of the parasite are crucial for choosing the effective treat­ment and for epidemiological studies. On the other hand, determination of Leishmania species is nec­essary for designing appropriate control programs. Diagnosis by PCR is becoming a 'gold standard'. For PCR preparation, storage and shipments of specimens are necessary. In this study, Whatman filter paper (FTA Card was used to store and transfer samples for Leishmania identification using PCR. "nMethods: Among the patients who had CL lesion and referred to Parasitology Laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 44 consented cases with positive results in their direct smear were se­lected. An informed consent form and a questionnaire were completed and three different types of samples (direct smear, NNN culture, and spot on FTA card were collected. DNA extraction and PCR were carried out on three different samples from each patient. "nResults: PCR results using Whatman paper samples revealed a significant difference (P<0.0001 compared to the culture method but no significant difference was seen between PCR results using samples stored on Whatman paper and direct smears. "nConclusion: The use of FTA cards is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and can be readily employed for large-scale population screening, especially for regions where the specimens are to be transported from distant places to the laboratory.

  14. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Fall Injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Saber Ghaffari-Fam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on Hospital Information System (HIS data for patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We recorded the demographic characteristics and epidemiological patterns of patients who were admitted to our center due to fall injuries. To standardize the reports the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, the International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM was used. Equally, the hospitalization period and number, admission ward, and the final status of victims after discharge from the hospital were extracted from the HIS. Results: Overall we included a total number of 3397 patients with mean age of 39.2±22.7 years. There were 2501 (73.6% men among the patients. Long bone fracture (48.1% and intracranial injury (24.2% were the most frequent injuries among fall injury victims. Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (12.0%, Operations on nose (11.6% were the most common operations being performed in these patients. The survival was significantly lower in patients with age more than 60 years when compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. The survival rate was significantly lower in age group of >60 years, compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. Conclusion: Given the high rate of fall injuries and death among the elderly that increases with age, appropriate measures must be taken to control and prevent injuries while prioritizing the elderly.

  15. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

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    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  16. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

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    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  17. Congenital Heart Disease in Children with Down syndrome in Kermanshah, West of Iran during 2002 - 2016

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    Zahra Jalili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal anomaly. Dysmorphic features can occur in several organs in this syndrome. Cardiac anomalies with a prevalence of 50% are the most common anomalies responsible for death during the first two years of life. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiac anomalies among Down syndrome patients admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran from 2002 to 2016. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, the medical records of all patients with Down syndrome admitted to two university hospitals namely Imam Ali and Imam Reza, Kermanshah city located in Western part of Iran in the study period were reviewed. All patients had received Echocardiography two-dimensional (2D. The required data including cardiac anomaly type, consanguinity of parents, maternal age, surgical interventions, and survival were collected into a checklist. Results:  During the study period, 166 patients with Down syndrome had received diagnostic and therapeutic services in the studied hospitals. There were 70 males (42.2% and 96 females (57.8%. Familial consanguinity was documented in 95 patients (57.2%. Mean ± standard deviation (SD maternal age at delivery was 26.33 (±4.7 years (range, 15 to 45 years. Of 166 studied patients, 123 (74.1% had cardiac anomaly. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was the most prevalent single defect seen in 32 (26% patients, followed by atrial septal defect (ASD detected in in 22 (17.8% patients. Seventy patients (42.1% required surgical interventions. A total of 74 patients experienced relative improvement of the symptoms. Also, seven patients (10.2% died including five females and two males. Conclusion: The frequency of cardiac anomalies in the studied population of Down syndrome patients was higher than former reported figures. The pattern of the anomalies is compatible with some former reports, but contradicts other reports.

  18. The Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of the Nanoparticles of Silver on Acinetobacter Baumannii

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    Seyedeh Nasim Karimipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Due to the high drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, in this research, antibacterial properties of nano silver was evaluated for Acinetobacter baumannii. Materials & Methods: The nano silver with approximate diameter of 20 nanometer from Pishtazan Inc. Mashad, Iran and 5 nanometer from the Department of Chemistry in Maragheh University were prepared. Its concentration was determined by spectroscopy method in Tabriz Chemistry University.  Antimicrobial effects were determined by Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bacterial Concentration (MBC by micro-broth-dilution method, disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. Anti-bacterial activity of nano-silver was tested for Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC12516 on 20 clinical strains (collected from Imam Reza Hospital in Tabriz. Results: The results showed the MIC and MBC of 20nm nanoparticles were 1250 ppm and 2500 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the MIC and MBC of 5 nm nanoparticles were 156 ppm and 312 ppm, respectively. According to these findings, the MIC and MBC identified for clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains under study along with the NCTC12516 strain did not show a significant difference. Yet the amount of inhibition for the 20nm nanoparticles in the density of 20000 ppm of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii and NCTC12516 strains was 11 millimeter with the disc diffusion method and 9.5 millimeter for the well diffusion method with the same concentration. The amount of inhibition of 5nm nanoparticles in the 250-ppm concentration with both disc diffusion and well diffusion methods was 9.5 millimeter. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii is susceptible to nano-silver. Also the same MIC and MBC in multiple clinical strains suggests that there is not resistance to silver nanoparticles in Acinetobacter baumannii

  19. Effectiveness of intravenous lidocaine versus intravenous morphine for patients with renal colic in the emergency department

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    Soleimanpour Hassan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that numerous medications have been introduced to treat renal colic, none has been proven to relieve the pain rapidly and thoroughly. In this study, we aimed at comparing the effects of intravenous lidocaine versus intravenous morphine in patients suffering from renal colic. Methods In a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial performed in the emergency department of Imam Reza educational hospital of Tabriz, Iran, we studied 240 patients, 18–65 years old, who were referred due to renal colic. Patients were divided into two groups. In group I (120 people single-dose intravenous lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg was administered and in group II (120 people single-dose intravenous morphine (0.1 mg/kg was administered slowly. Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS was recorded while admission, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes after injection. Statistical data and results were studied using descriptive statistics as percentage and Mean ± SD. To compare the response to treatment, Mann–Whitney U-test was used in two groups. Consequently, the data were analyzed using the SPSS16 software. Results Pain score measured in two groups five minutes after the injection of lidocaine and morphine were 65 % and 53 % respectively (95% CI 0.60 - 0.69, CI 0.48 – 0.57, p = 0.0002.108 (90 % patients (95 % CI 0.84 – 0.95 from group I and 84 (70% patients (95 % CI 0.62 - 0.78 from group II responded appropriately at the end of the complete treatment. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusions Changing the smooth muscle tone and reducing the transmission of afferent sensory pathways, lidocaine causes a significant reduction in pain. Trial registration Clinical Trials IRCT138901042496N3

  20. ICU Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards their Role in the Organ Donation Process from Brain-Dead Patients and Factors Influencing it in Iran

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    Masoumian Hoseini, S. T.; Manzari, Z.; Khaleghi, I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, ICU nurses play a significant role in the care of brain-dead patients and their families. Therefore, their knowledge, attitude and practice towards this issue are extremely important to the success of organ donation. Objective: To assess ICU nurses’ knowledge, attitude and practice towards their role in the organ donation process from brain-dead patients and factors influencing it in Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study, 90 ICU nurses working in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences were selected through a stratified random sampling. Data were collected from the participants by a questionnaire included demographic information, and factors influencing the nurses knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their roles in the organ donation process. Results: 90 nurses participated in this study. 70% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation; 20% had organ donation cards. The mean±SD score of nurses’ knowledge was 49.13±9.6, attitude 21.49±14.32, and practice was 3.66±6.04. 80% of nurses had a mean knowledge about their roles in the organ donation process; 82% agreed with their roles in this process, and 97% showed weak practice in this regard. Conclusion: Nurses did not have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their role in organ donation process. It is suggested to include nursing courses on the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the organ donation process. PMID:26306156

  1. ICU Nurses' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Towards their Role in the Organ Donation Process from Brain-Dead Patients and Factors Influencing it in Iran.

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    Masoumian Hoseini, S T; Manzari, Z; Khaleghi, I

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, ICU nurses play a significant role in the care of brain-dead patients and their families. Therefore, their knowledge, attitude and practice towards this issue are extremely important to the success of organ donation. To assess ICU nurses' knowledge, attitude and practice towards their role in the organ donation process from brain-dead patients and factors influencing it in Iran. In a cross-sectional analytical study, 90 ICU nurses working in Ghaem and Emam Reza Hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences were selected through a stratified random sampling. Data were collected from the participants by a questionnaire included demographic information, and factors influencing the nurses knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their roles in the organ donation process. 90 nurses participated in this study. 70% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation; 20% had organ donation cards. The mean±SD score of nurses' knowledge was 49.13±9.6, attitude 21.49±14.32, and practice was 3.66±6.04. 80% of nurses had a mean knowledge about their roles in the organ donation process; 82% agreed with their roles in this process, and 97% showed weak practice in this regard. Nurses did not have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice towards their role in organ donation process. It is suggested to include nursing courses on the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the organ donation process.

  2. Study Of 50 Cases With Craniofacial Trauma Who Experienced Head Injuries

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    Ali Mesgarzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that cranial injuries associated with facial fractures may cause a great risk of mortality and neurological morbidity, which mainly occurs in young adults. Aims and objectives: Study of the features of facial injuries associated with head injuries, discussing the management options and detecting the outcomes following craniofacial trauma. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at Imam reza and Shohada Hospitals. Radiographs and hospital data of 50 patients with craniofacial trauma between January 2013 and December 2014, managed at the Oral and Maxillofacial surgery department were gathered and analyzed. Results: The greatest number of the patients had 20 to 50 years old (68% and most of them were male. (M/F ratio was 6.09:1. The most prevalent causes of the trauma in this study were the motor vehicle accidents (44% and falling from height (36%, respectively. The most common bone fracture among the patients was the zygomatic bone fx (38.2%. Among the symptoms which the patients presented, Loss of the consciousness (52% and headache (43% showed the highest prevalence. Compound depressed fractures, contusions and intracranial hematoma were the leading causes of the surgical intervention for intracranial lesions. A high number of patients who have died in this study had associated systemic injuries. Displaced facial bone fracture were the indications for operation in facial fractures. Conclusions: The majority of the patients with craniofacial trauma were the adult males and the leading cause of trauma were road traffic accidents. A high number of the patients had mild head injuries and required only a conservational therapy.     Keywords:  head injury; craniofacial trauma; facial fracture

  3. Angiographic Findings of Patients with Blunt or Penetrating Extremity Injuries: Focus on Indications and Contraindications

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    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the etiology, signs and symptoms, angiography indications and angiography findings in patients with limb penetrating injuries suspected to have arterial injury. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in Imam Reza Hospital affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran between September 2011 and March 2013. We included those patients with extremity blunt and penetrating injuries who were referred for angiography according to standard indications including abnormal distal pulses, complex fracture or dislocation, vascular proximity, fixed hematoma, distal nerve deficit, arterial bruit, thrill and massive soft tissue injuries. Results: During the study period, 148 patients (15 women and 133 men with a mean age of 31±14.9 (11-82 years were evaluated. The most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident (127 patients 85%. Angiography indications included abnormal distal pulse examination (124, 83.8%, complex fracture or dislocation (7, 4.7%, near arterial trauma (4, 2.7%, fixed hematoma (3, 2%, nerve damage (1, 0.7%. The angiography was found to be normal in 49 (33.1% patients. In patients with abnormal angiography findings, 60 (60.6% had cutoff with distal runoff, 21 (21.2% had cutoff without runoff, 14 (14.1% had arterial spasm. Other uncommon findings included active bleeding in 2 patients (2%, pseudoaneurysm in 1 (0.7% and arteriovenous fistula in 1 (0.7%. Out of 4 patients (2.7% with vascular proximity, only 1 (0.7% had abnormal angiography. Conclusion: The most important factor in prediction of result of angiography was distal arterial pulses examination. But these data confirm the low incidence of vascular injury in asymptomatic patients with proximity. So the use of angiography when proximity is the sole indication in an asymptomatic patient with a normal vascular examination should be questioned.

  4. Comparison of the rates of fight-related trauma admissions in Ramadan and the non-Ramadan months during 8 years in public hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a time when Muslims are expected to be calm and peaceful in daily life both mentally and physiologically. Some people believe that they should try to don’t have be involved in bad and deviant behaviors in Ramadan. As increasing social safety and reducing crime in society are the most important concerns of the authorities , psychologists, sociologists and governments, they are try to find ways to increase the social safety and decrease the crime rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the statisticaltraumas Due to fights and rate of ’deviant behaviors during Ramadan compared to Non-Ramadan months  of the years 2001 to 2008 in public hospitals in the city of Kermanshah, Iran. Method: Our study was a prospective study. It included patients who were involved in four types of traumas including beating, gunshot, falling from height and car-accident during Ramadan and the Non-Ramadan months of the years 2001 to 2008 admitted to the Emergency Trauma Center Departments (ETCDs of Taleghani and Imam Reza Hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran. Results: The study included 168753 patients. 155705 patients (442.34 mean ± 436.77 SD were admitted in Non-Ramadan months and the remaining 13048 patients (407.75 mean ± 427.16 SD in Ramadan month. Based on the results, the average of trauma instances in Non-Ramadan months was higher, but no statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups. We did not observe significant differences for types of traumatic events in Ramadan compared to Non-Ramadan months, but for Non Ramadan months all types of traumatic except gunshot and beating were significant. Conclusion: Although Ramadan is not a special controlling factor for trauma admissions, but it can has an important effect on the reduction of numbers and types of fight-related trauma admissions in ETCD of hospitals.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

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    Chamanzari Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer is gastrectomy. Typically, nasogastric intubation is used after this type of surgery to feed patients; however, there seems to be no unanimity of opinion on this topic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on gastric cancer patients, admitted to the general ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. In total, 68 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into two intervention and control groups of 34 individuals. Nasogastric tube insertion was applied for the intervention group after the surgery. Patients of the study groups were fasted for three days after the surgery, which was followed by the removal of nasogastric tubes and initiation of oral feeding. Gastrointestinal function of all the participants was evaluated six hours after transferring to the ward up to seven days after the surgery on a daily basis using nausea and vomiting assessment tools and researcher-made questionnaire of gastrointestinal function. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: In this study, the severity of nausea and vomiting, the first time of passing gas and severity of flatulence Intensity were less observed in the control group, compared to the intervention group. Moreover, postoperative food tolerance was higher in the patients of the control group, compared to the other study group (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, nasogastric intubation can delay normal gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this method after gastrectomy.

  6. The Iranian physicians attitude toward the do not resuscitate order

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    Fallahi M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Masood Fallahi,1 Homayion Banaderakhshan,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Fariba Borhani,2 Rasool Kaviannezhad,3 Hassan Ali Karimpour4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Medical Surgical Nursing Department, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 3Department of Anesthesia, Paramedical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 4Critical Care, School of Medicine, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background: Physicians are responsible for making decisions about the do not resuscitate (DNR order of patients; however, most of them are faced with some uncertainty in decision making and ethical aspects. Moreover, there are differences on decision making related to the DNR order among physicians, which may be related to the different attitudes toward this issue. Considering the lack of information, this study was performed to investigate doctors’ attitude about DNR order for patients in their final phases of life. Methods: In a descriptive–analytical study, 152 physicians were enrolled as quota sampling subjects from educational hospitals affiliated to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The tool used was a researcher-developed questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean of attitude toward DNR was 3.22, for which the univariate t-test showed a significant positive attitude toward DNR (P=0.002; the mean of attitude number toward DNR was higher in physicians with higher education level (P=0.002. But this difference was not found in terms of age group, sex, and experiences in participating in DNR decisions. Conclusion: Due to the positive attitude of doctors toward DNR orders and lack of identified guidance, clear guidelines that comply with the Iranian Islamic culture are necessary to be established. Implementing this directive requires

  7. Effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients

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    Madarshahian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Responding to holistic needs of patients can reduce anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all patients undergoing prostate surgery during 2012 at Emam Reza Hospital, Birjand, Iran. Therefore, 68 patients were assigned randomly to two groups of 34. In the intervention group, prior to each preoperative care needs of patients, such as covering the body, were determined through 5 questions and cares were provided accordingly with family participation. The control group received routine cares. Intervention outcomes were the scores of attitude and anxiety of patients. The attitude toward preoperative cares was measured using a 10-item researcher-made questionnaire at admission and before hospital discharge. Anxiety and preoperative information were measured using the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale at the beginning of hospitalization and before surgery. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16 and chi-square, and independent and paired t-tests. Results: Total score of mean attitude toward preoperative cares of the intervention group (42.44 ± 8.07 was higher than the control group (36.82 ± 9.32 (P = 0.01. Furthermore, the total mean preoperative anxiety score of the intervention group (14.08 ± 2.72 was lower than the control group (16.02 ± 1.56 (P < 0.001 and had reduced compared with pre-intervention (15.32 ± 2.60 (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Providing preoperative holistic cares with family participation was effective in creating positive attitude and reducing anxiety in anxious patients. Thus, its use is recommended in providing all medical and nursing cares.

  8. Frequency of Celiac Disease In Children With Chronic Functional Constipation in Shiraz-Iran.

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    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Ehsaei, Zahra; Honar, Naser; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease is an autoimmune mediated small intestine inflammation which occurs due to hypersensitivity reaction to gluten and related proteins in diet in genetically predisposed individuals. Prevalence of celiac among the population is about 0.5 - 1 % in most countries. Frequency of celiac disease in children is the subject of a few research. In this study, we aim to determine the frequency of celiac disease in patients presenting with functional constipation. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on children referring to Imam Reza Clinic, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during one year starting from 2011, March 20. One hundred and one children 2-18 years of age with constipation for more than 2 months according to ROME III criteria. The entire participants underwent serologic studies of Total IgA and IgA TTG. Serum IgG TTG was measured in cases with reported values of Total IgA below the lowest normal limits. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine was also performed for patients with positive serology. RESULTS Of all the 101 studied participants, only four individuals (3.96 %) had positive test results for IgA TTG ( potential celiac disease). one of these patients refused to do endoscopy and endoscopic small intestine biopsy was performed for 3 patients. Two of them had normal pathology and one of them(0.99 %) was confirmed for celiac disease. CONCLUSION The frequency of celiac disease in children with chronic constipation is slightly higher than general population but without significant difference( 0.99% VS 0.6% ; p=0.64). So the screening serologic test for celiac disease is not recommended in children with chronic constipation.

  9. Fibrinogen as a risk factor for premature myocardial infarction in Iranian patients: A case control study

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    Mohammad Shojaie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Shojaie, Morteza Pourahmad, Ahad Eshraghian, Hamid Reza Izadi, Farzan NaghshvarPeymanieh Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Fars, IranBackground: Premature myocardial infarction with life-threatening complications may become epidemic in some Asian and African countries and especially Iran. Fibrinogen is considered as one of the probable risk factors of myocardial infarction. The aim of our study was to assess fibrinogen levels as an etiology of premature myocardial infarction in young Iranian men.Findings: A case-control study was conducted between May 2005 and May 2007 to investigate the association between serum total fibrinogen level and myocardial infarction in men aged younger than 55 years admitted to the cardiac care units of Peymanieh and Motahari Hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The mean age of patients was 45.2 ± 4 years in patients with premature myocardial infarction and 47.06 ± 4.5 years in the control group (p = 0.085. There were no statistically significant relationships between the two groups in history of premature myocardial infarction in their first-degree relatives (p = 0.05, cigarette smoking (p = 0.46, diabetes (p = 0.49, or hypertension (p = 1. The mean plasma fibrinogen in patients (354.9 ± 60 mg/dL was elevated markedly compared with the control group (329 ± 73 mg/dL. Hyperfibrinogenemia (>340 mg/dL was detected in 81.8% of patients and 57.5% of controls (95% confidence interval, odds ratio = 3.3; p = 0.036.Conclusion: This study introduced fibrinogen as a risk factor for premature coronary artery disease in Iranian men.Keywords: myocardial infarction, cigarette, hypertension, diabetes, fibrinogen

  10. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  11. The Fate of Motherhood, Fetuses and Neonates in Drug Addicted Pregnant Women

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    M Jahanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound in Detection of Traumatic Lens Dislocation

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    Seyed Hossein Ojaghi Haghighi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic eye injuries (TEI involved about 3% of cases referred to the emergency departments of developing countries. Lens dislocation is one of the critical cases of ophthalmic emergencies. The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of traumatic lens dislocation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study the findings of ultrasonography and orbital computed tomography (OCT of head and face trauma patients, referred to Imam Reza hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July 2013 to June 2014, have been compared. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy of ultrasonography were calculated. Cohen's kappa coefficient was presented to assess the agreement of ultrasonography with OCT findings. Results: One hundred thirty patients with the mean age of 35.4±18.0 were evaluated (75.4% male. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were 84.6% (95% Cl: 53.7-97.3 and 98.3% (95% Cl: 93.3- 99.7, respectively. Also, positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated 49.5 (95% Cl: 12.3-199.4 and 0.15 (95% Cl: 0.04- 0.56, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.83 (95% Cl: 0.66-1.0; p<0.0001 was representative of excellent agreement of these two tests. Conclusion: The finding of this project was representative of 84.6% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, and 96.9% accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of traumatic lens dislocation. It seems that in cases which OCT is not possible, ultrasonography could be an acceptable option to assess traumatic eye injuries.

  13. M-Guard Stent in Stemi Patients with High Thrombus Burden Lesions: A Prospective, Single Arm Study

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    Mohammad Zade Shabestari M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary PCI is the preferred modality to restore blood perfusion in STEMI patients, but myocardial reperfusion is sometimes lower than optimal. Distal embolization seems to play the leading role. There is rare evidence suggestive of M-Guard stents; a recent innovation which protects against distal embolization may be beneficial in this circumstance. Materials and Methods:This was a prospective single arm study. Patients with acute STEMI admitted at the Cardiac Emergency Unit of Imam Reza Hospital from July 2011 to November  2012 who had a large bulk of thrombus in their angiogram, underwent M-Guard stenting and were followed up for six months for chest pain and secondary revascularization. Results: The 23 patients, aged between 34 and 84; 65.2%, were male and had undergone primary PCI, mechanical thrombus aspiration, and M-Guard stenting. Left Anterior Descending (LAD (63.9% and Right Coronary Artery (RCA (39.1% were most commonly involved. 78.2%, 13.1%, and 8.9% of patients had primary Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI Thrombus grade five, four, and three. Among them, 86.9% achieved TIMI Flow grade three and 13.04% TIMI Flow grade two. The rate of transient "no-reflow" phenomenon was 21%. One patient died after stenting in the setting of cardiogenic shock. There was one case of in-stent restenosis five months after the procedure. Of the other 15 accessible patients, after six months, none experienced a second angioplasty or any ischemic symptoms. Conclusion: Using M-Guard stents in acute STEMI patients having undergone primary PCI with high thrombus burden is probably associated with lower rates of the "no-reflow" phenomenon and improved vessel reperfusion.  

  14. Epidemiology of pemphigus in northeast Iran: A 10-year retrospective study

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    Javidi Zari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with different reported epidemiological aspects from different countries. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of pemphigus in Mashhad city. This is the first report with regard to the characteristics of pemphigus in Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients with pemphigus, who were referred to the Dermatology Department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, were examined over nine years, i.e., from May 1998 to March 2007. The data obtained through questionnaires, including age, sex, profession, mucosal or skin or the involvement of both, lag-time period between the onset of disease and the first presentation, gap between cutaneous and mucosal involvements, season of onset and family history, were analysed by using statistical tests of Chi square and Student′s t -test and the statistical software of SPSS. Results: In 178 patients with pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris was the most common type (86.5%. Female to male ratio was 1.4. In pemphigus vulgaris patients, there was involvement of both the skin and mucosa in 64.3%, mucosal involvement in 14% and skin involvement in 21.7%. There was no mucosal involvement in patients with pemphigus foliaceus. Two patients (1.4% had a positive family history. Summer was the most common season for the onset of the disease (37.5%. Most of the patients were housewives in the premenopausal age group. Conclusion: The results reveal a high incidence of pemphigus in northeast Iran with an incidence of 20 patients per year.

  15. Effect of the mechanical activation on size reduction of crystalline acetaminophen drug particles

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    Esmaeil Biazar1

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, Ali Beitollahi2, S Mehdi Rezayat3, Tahmineh Forati4, Azadeh Asefnejad4, Mehdi Rahimi4, Reza Zeinali4, Mahmoud Ardeshir4, Farhad Hatamjafari1, Ali Sahebalzamani4, Majid Heidari41Chemistry Department, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Material Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Biomedicall Department, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, IranAbstract: The decrease in particle size may offer new properties to drugs. In this study, we investigated the size reduction influence of the acetaminophen (C8H9O2N particles by mechanical activation using a dry ball mill. The activated samples with the average size of 1 µm were then investigated in different time periods with the infrared (IR, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. The results of the IR and XRD images showed no change in the drug structure after the mechanical activation of all samples. With the peak height at full width at half maximum from XRD and the Scherrer equation, the size of the activated crystallite samples illustrated that the AFM images were in sound agreement with the Scherrer equation. According to the peaks of the AFM images, the average size of the particles in 30 hours of activation was 24 nm with a normal particle distribution. The ICP analysis demonstrated the presence of tungsten carbide particle impurities after activation from the powder sample impacting with the ball and jar. The greatest reduction in size was after milling for 30 hours.Keywords: acetaminophen, mechanical activation, structure investigation, nanoparticles, ball mill

  16. Clinical and behavioral factors associated with management outcome in hospitalized patients with diabetic foot ulcer

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    Yekta Z

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zahra Yekta1, Reza Pourali2, Rahim Nezhadrahim3, Leila Ravanyar4, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad5 1Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 2Medical Demonstrator, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 3Department of Infectious Disease, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 4Master of Health Education, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, 5Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran Objectives: Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU has been linked to high mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. In spite of the increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications, this issue has not been adequately studied in Iran. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study we attempt to describe the prevalence of diabetic foot amputation in patients admitted to our training hospitals in Urmia, Iran, and also to determine the associated demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors. Results: Of 94 patients with DFU, 34 (32% had amputation. Those with amputation were significantly older and were also less educated than those without amputation, had longer duration of diabetes (hence were more likely to suffer from complications, and had high-risk wounds plus a poor glycemic control. On logistic regression analysis two variables were associated with amputation: Wagner classification ≥3 and HbA1c. On a receiver operating characteristics curve, the HbA1c cutoff point of 9.7% significantly discriminated to predict increasing risk of amputation. Conclusion: Both glycemic control and promoting the knowledge of patients and health care professionals in order to diagnose DFU in the early stages and to prevent development of the high-grade wounds would be a significant step in reducing the burden of DFU and its effect on quality of life in Iran. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, foot ulcer, amputation

  17. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial blood bicarbonate levels in patients with metabolic acidosis referred to emergency medicine

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    Taghizadieh, Ali; Pouraghaei, Mahboub; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Ala, Alireza; Rahmani, Farzad; Basiri Sofiani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The routine and gold standard method to diagnose of acid – base disturbance is arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling. Capnography could be used to measure the end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels and ETco2 has a close correlation with the PaCo2. The aim of this study was comparison the ETco2 and arterial blood bicarbonate levels in patients with metabolic acidosis. Methods: In a descriptive-analytical study that performed in Emergency Department of Emam Reza Medical Research and Training Hospital of Tabriz on patients with metabolic acidosis, ETco2 level and blood bicarbonate levels in 262 patients were evaluated. Results: Mean of ETco2 and Hco3 levels in patients with metabolic acidosis were 22.29 ± 4.15 and 12.78 ± 3.83, respectively. In all patients, the significant direct linear relationship was found between ETco2 with Hco3 (r = 0.553, P < 0.001). We had 4 groups of patients with metabolic acidosis, also there is a significant direct linear relationship between the ETCo2 and the Hco3 level of arterial blood in patients with renal failure (P < 0.001 and r = 0.551), sepsis (P < 0.001 and r = 0.431), drug toxicity (P < 0.001 and r = 0.856), and ketoacidosis (DKA) (P < 0.001 and r = 0.559). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, capnography can be used for primary diagnosis of metabolic acidosis in spontaneously breathing patients who referred to the emergency wards, however, the ABG must be considered as the gold standard tool for diagnosis and guiding the treatment. PMID:27777693

  18. A comparative study of Christian doctrine in the interpretation of AL-Minar and AL-Mizan regarding the Atonement teaching

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    Bibi Sadat Razi Bahabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atonement teaching is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of the Christians which has a vital connection with the "original sin" (Romans 5, 12-20 and has been admitted by the main three sects of Christianity. This teaching expresses how to save mankind from the original sin, and is of such importance that without belief in the teaching, other Christianity teachings lose their importance. There are several interpretations of this teaching among which the Anselm's theory is the most famous one. According to this theory, all humans became sinful due to the Adam's sin. From the one hand, God's justice demands the punishment of man for the sin, and on the other hand His absolute mercy requires Him to save man with salvation. Hence, Jesus Christ as a man of God, in order to atone for Adam's sin and salvation, came onto the earth and was crucified. Sacrificing basic components are as follows: 1. The original sin of Adam (AS 2-belief in Adam's original sin. 3. Man's original sin 4. The outcome of any sin: eternal death 5. Conflict between God’s mercy and justice outcome of any sin 6. Being human and God at the same (incarnation 7. Sociability of anthropomorphic God with men 8. crucified and accursed God 8. 9-Jesus as an atonement to sins of believers even the whole world. This theory has been met with criticism Muslim and Christian scholars. Rashid Reza and Allameh Tabatabai review on the components of this theory. AL-Mizan draws all components of atonement in to criticism, but the most criticism of AL-menar is about the conflict of mercy and justice of God. This survey has examined the contiguity of AL-Menar and AL-Mizan about atonement theory. Based on the findings of this article, Rashid Reza has confined to rational criticism; while Allameh on the base of verse by verse interpretation of the Quran, with a rational approach, has been challenged “atonement”. Clarifying of AL-Manar and AL-Mizan from atonement

  19. Different Types of Fantastic Etiology in Hafez Poetry

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    Ghodrat Ghasemipour

    2016-05-01

    : Setare. Attar Nishabori, Farid od-Din (2000. Mohammad Reza Shafie Kadkani ( emend ., 5rd ed. Tehran: Sokan. Chalisova, Natalia (2004. Encyclopedia of Iranica. Last Updated: December 15. Farshidvard, Khosrow (1975. Conjugating of simile with another factors in Hafez poetry. Gowhar, No 18, 535-541. Ferdowsi, Abolghasem (2001. Shahname (Moscow Press. Saeed Hamidiyan (emend. 2nd Vol. 5rd ed. Tehran: Ghatreh. Forster, Edward Morgan (1974. Aspects of the Novel. Harmondswort: Penguin. Gharib Hoseini, Zahra and Mohammad Sadegh Basiri (2009. Techniques of usages of fantastic etiology in Anvari' Ghasayed. Kavoshname, 9th year, No 16, 65-97. Hafez, Khajeh Shams od-Din (1984. Hafez Divan. Parviz Natel Khanlari (emend.. 2rd ed. Tehran: Kharazmi. Heravi, Hoseinali (1977. Commentary of Hafez' Gazals. 4rd ed. Tehran: Simorgh. Homaei, Jalalodin (1989. Techniques of Rhetoric and Literary devices. 5rd ed. Tehran: Homa. Hoseini Nishabori, Ataola ibn Mahmoud (2006. Badaye alsanaye. Rahim Mosalmanian Ghobadiyani, Tehran: Institution of Mahmoud Afshar endowment s. Jacobson, Roman (2013. Dominant, in Mohammad Reza Shafi’ee Kadkani (trans. Resurrect of Words. Tehran: Sokan. Khabazha, Reza (2013 The Function of fantastic etiology in the structure of themes digression to eulogy. Monthly Book of Literature. No 73, 43-48. Mikics, David, (2007, A New Handbook of Literary Terms, Yale University Press, New Haven & London. Mohamadi Asiyabadi, Ali (2007. Projection and characterization in Hafez poetry. University of Tarbiyat Moalem, No 52 &53, p 111-134. Motahari, Morteza (1991. Lessons of Shafa Theology. Tehran: Hekmat. Radowyani, Mohammad ibn Omar (2002. Tarjoman e Balaghat. Ahmad Atash ( emend ., Tehran: Society of National Honor & Works. Shamisa, Sirus (2003. A New Glance on Rhetoric. 14rd ed. , Tehran: Ferdows. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Ada ol-Badaye. Hosein Jafari ( emend ., Tabriz: Ahrar. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Spring Clusters in Rhetoric. Morteza

  20. Clinical, psychological and demographic parameters of body pain in multiple sclerosis

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    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body pain in multiple sclerosis (MS is a common phenomenon that can create or exacerbate by different parameters of clinical, psychological and demographic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parameters of clinical (fatigue, clinical course, body mass index and duration, psychological (depression, anxiety and stress and demographic (age, gender, marital status and education characters with multiple sclerosis patient’s body pain. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed in the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Guilan Province and Imam Reza Specialized and Sub-specialized Clinic, Rasht City, Iran during June to February 2010. In this study 162 patients with MS were selected by consecutive sampling. We used the clinical and demographic variables inventory, body pain subscale of the health survey questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and fatigue severity scale along with identical analog-spring balance. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and point bi-serial, one-way analysis of variance, Gabriel test and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The findings showed that patients who scored 3 or higher in relapses experienced significantly more body pain than patients who scored 1-2 times of relapses (P= 0.031. In the meantime, significant differences were not found between the two groups of patients with a score of 3 or higher in relapses and non-relapse and between non-relapse patients and with a score 1-2 times of relapses in terms of body pain. Also, significant differences were not found in different groups of hospitalization in terms of body pain. However, anxiety and fatigue together could explain significantly 25% of the shared variance of body pain (F= 26.29, P≤ 0.0009. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of psychological and clinical factors on body pain exacerbation in MS patients. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to consider

  1. Apparent histological changes of adipocytes after treatment with CL 316,243, a ß-3-adrenergic receptor agonist

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    Ghorbani M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Masoud Ghorbani,1,2,* Shahram Teimourian,3,* Reza Farzad,4 Nabiollah Namvar Asl4 1Research and Development Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Animal Science, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Research and Production Complex, Karaj, Iran*These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objectives: The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of CL 316,243 (CL (a highly selective ß3-adrenergic receptor agonist on cellular changes occurring in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT of lean and obese rats. Methods: Ten-month-old lean and obese Zucker rats were implanted subcutaneously with osmotic mini-pumps, infusing either saline or CL (1 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: There was no effect of CL on food intake. However, the resting metabolic rate in lean and obese rats increased by 55% and 96% per rat, respectively. Total RWAT weight decreased in both lean and obese rats under influence of CL treatment by 65% and 38%, respectively. Total body weight and body fat were lower in CL treated rats. Detection of uncoupling protein 1(UCP1 in RWAT was confirmed qualitatively by both immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using a rabbit anti rat UCP1 antibody which showed the appearance of a marked increase of this protein in the adipose tissue. Stained semi-thin sections (0.5 µm also demonstrated abundant nuclei in multilocular adipocytes, in endothelial cells associated with the vasculature, and in interstitial cells. In CL-treated obese rats, a clustering of several multilocular cells around the periphery of a white adipocyte was seen. Conclusion: These results indicate that treatment of both lean and obese Zucker rats with CL induces extensive remodeling of RWAT that includes shrinkage of white adipose tissue, appearance of

  2. Synthesis and characterization of a novel chemically designed (Globo3–DTPA–KLH antigen

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    Hajmohammadi M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mehdi Hajmohammadi,1 Seyed Davar Siadat,2 Masoud Ghorbani,3,4,* Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,5,* Shahram Teimourian,6 Vahid Asgari,3 Reza Ahangari Cohan,3 Mostafa Hajmohammadi,5 Akram Hajmohammadi,7 Ramezan Behzadi,8 Saied Rajab Nezhad,9 Nabiollah Namvar Asl10 1Department of Research and Biotechnology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran Iran; 4Department of Virology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 5Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Medical Genetics, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 7Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, 8Laboratory Animal Management of North Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 9Department of Research and Development, Alhavi Pharmaceutical, Tehran, 10Pasteur Institute of Iran, Department of Animal Sciences, Karaj, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In recent years, many experiments have been conducted for the production and evaluation of anticancer glycoconjugated vaccines in developed countries and many achievements have been accomplished with Globo H derivatives. In the current experiment, a new chemically designed triplicate version of (Globo H3–diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA–KLH antigen was synthesized and characterized. Immunization with (Globo H3-DTPA-KLH, a hexasaccharide that is a member of a family of antigenic carbohydrates that are highly expressed in various types of cancers conjugated with DTPA and KLH protein, induced a high level of antibody titer along with an elevated level of IL-4 in mice. Treatment of tumors with the collected sera from immunized mice decreased the tumor size in nude mice as well. None of the immunized mice illustrated any sign of tumor growth after injection of MCF-7 cells compared to the control animals. These findings, based on the newly presented

  3. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures.

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    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients with minor blunt chest trauma and suspected rib fractures presenting in Imam Reza Hospital located in Mashhad-Iran, between April 2013 and October 2013 were assessed by USG and radiography. The radiography was performed in a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection and oblique rib view centered over the area of trauma. The time duration spent in taking USG and radiography were recorded. The prevalence and location of fractures revealed by USG and radiography were compared. Sixty-one suspected patients were assessed. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1 (43 men and 18 women) with a mean ± SD age of (44.3 ± 19.7) years. There were totally 59 rib fractures in 38 (62.3%) patients based on radiography and USG, while 23 (37.7%) patients had no diagnostic evidence of rib lesions. USG revealed 58 rib fractures in 33 (54.1%) of 61 suspected patients and radiographs revealed 32 rib fractures in 20 (32.8%) of 61 patients. A total of 58 (98.3%) rib fractures were detected by USG, whereas oblique rib view and PA chest radiography showed 27 (45.8%) and 24 (40.7%) rib fractures, respectively. The average duration of USG was (12 ± 3) min (range 7-17 min), whereas the duration of radiography was (27 ± 6) min (range 15-37 min). The kappa coefficient showed a low level of agreement between both USG and PA chest radiography (kappa coefficient = 0.28), and between USG and oblique rib view (kappa coefficient = 0.32). USG discloses more fractures than radiography in

  4. Gender differences in the T-cell profiles of the airways in COPD patients associated with clinical phenotypes

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    Forsslund H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Helena Forsslund,1 Mingxing Yang,1 Mikael Mikko,1 Reza Karimi,1 Sven Nyrén,2 Benita Engvall,1 Johan Grunewald,1 Heta Merikallio,1,3 Riitta Kaarteenaho,3–5 Jan Wahlström,1 Åsa M Wheelock,1 C Magnus Sköld1 1Department of Medicine Solna and Centre for Molecular Medicine, Respiratory Medicine Unit, 2Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Respiratory Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 4Unit of Medicine and Clinical Research, Pulmonary Division, University of Eastern Finland, 5Center for Medicine and Clinical Research, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland Abstract: T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients. T-cell chemokine receptor expression was analyzed with flow cytometry, and soluble BAL cytokines and chemokines were measured using a cytokine multiplex assay. Correlations with gender and clinical characteristics including lung imaging were investigated using multivariate modeling. Th1/Tc1- and Th2/Tc2-associated soluble analytes and T-cell chemokine receptors were analyzed as cumulative Th1/Tc1 and Th2/Tc2 immune responses. A higher expression of chemokine receptor CCR5 on CD8+ T cells in BAL and higher percentage of CXCR3+CD8+ T cells in blood was found in female smokers with COPD compared to those without COPD. CCR5 expression

  5. The Correlation Between the Six Minute Walk Test and Spirometric Parameters in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

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    Zahra Mirfeizi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease affect nearly every organ system. Pulmonary involvement, which is a common manifestation of SLE, can remain undiagnosed if asymptomatic. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of spirometric findings in early detection of silent pulmonary involvement and examine its correlation with the six minute walk test in SLE patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study fifty patients, who met the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE, were recruited from the outpatient rheumatology clinic at the Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad between July 2013 and September 2014. First, a checklist including demographic information and previous medical documents was completed. Then, spirometry and 6MWT was performed to evaluate subclinical pulmonary involvement and assess patients’ exercise capacity. Results: Based on the results of pulmonary function tests, patients were divided into two groups. A total of 40 patients with normal pattern were placed in one group and 10 patients with restrictive pattern in the other. The difference between SLE patients with and without abnormal spirometry were statistically significant in regard to anti-RNP positivity but total distance walked in six minute, was not significantly different between two groups (p=0.356. Additionally, there were no significant correlations between 6MWD and FVC in SLE patients in the either group as determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient testing. (R=0.439,P=0.205 in SLE patients with normal spirometry and R=0.191,P=0.237 in those with abnormal pattern Conclusion: Considering the impact of anti-U1RNP positivity with restrictive pattern on spirometry, it can be deemed as a pulmonary involvement predictor in SLE patients. However, lack of correlation between 6MWT and spirometric parameters is suggestive of restrictive lung involvement, which in turn, demonstrates a multifactorial basis for

  6. Conhecimento e uso da medicina alternativa entre alunos e professores de primeiro grau

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    Santos Marilena Gomes dos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um Projeto de Educação em Saúde, investigou-se o conhecimento e como são utilizadas as práticas populares de cura, de modo a desenvolver e ampliar na escola, as possibilidades já existentes de discussão crítica e construtiva dentro do programa de saúde. Espera-se com isso poder resgatar saberes e valorizar esse conhecimento não sistematizado, presente na prática das populações ainda de forma marginalizada e controvertida. Foram aplicados questionários entre 110 professores e 162 alunos das 1ª à 4ª séries do 1degrees grau de quatro escolas (P.L.S.L., P.H.A., P.A.M.M. e A.M.G. da periferia de Belo Horizonte. Sendo que, as questões apresentadas foram respondidas somente por 105 docentes. Vinte e três (32,4% (entre 71 (67,6% acreditam em dons especiais de cura; dos 105 (95,4% que responderam sobre se acham que certas doenças podem ser tratadas com remédios caseiros, somente 69 (65,7% acreditam que sim; 54 (78,3% dentre esses, associaram a cura da doença com a planta medicinal e 15 (21,7% indicam o remédio sem associação com a doença; 36 (34,3% professores citaram a doença sem relacionar as ervas medicinais. Já, 101 (62,3% alunos acreditam que os remédios caseiros são positivos para algumas doenças. Entre os alunos e professores foram mencionadas doenças diversas, sintomas e órgãos que podem ser curados por plantas medicinais, rezas ou benzedeiras. Um pouco mais de 50% dos dois grupos de alunos (1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª séries vivem entre famílias que procuram benzedeiras como alternativa de cura. Foram indicadas pelos professores e alunos mais de 50 plantas ou composições de partes de plantas. Conclui-se, que a medicina alternativa é conhecida e utilizada pela amostra estudada.

  7. Cardiovascular protection in type 2 diabetes: time to ADVANCE management ACCORDing to the evidence

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    Hajhosseiny R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reza Hajhosseiny,1 Kaivan Khavandi,1 Soudeh Mashayekhi,2 Adam S Greenstein,3 Rayaz A Malik31British Heart Foundation Centre of Cardiovascular Excellence, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK; 2Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; 3Institute of Human Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at very substantial risk of cardiovascular disease, and most will succumb to complications from premature coronary artery events. At the same time, the diabetic myocardium undergoes unique phenotypic alterations as a consequence of multiple structural and cellular injuries, which together form "diabetic cardiomyopathy." Attempts to curb risk through intensive modulation of glycemia and blood pressure have proven disappointing in preventing cardiovascular events, and potentially even dangerous. Conversely, prior to development of disease, there appears to be a linear relationship between risk parameters and events. These observations are likely the consequence of widespread vascular damage, which is present at the point that glycemic thresholds meet diagnostic criteria for diabetes. This is particularly true of the microcirculation. Interventions at the prediabetic stage have been consistent with this, where early intensive risk-factor modulation has been successful in preventing events and even regressing existing risk. Upstream, the force driving these pathologies is being overweight and obesity. High-risk individuals can be identified through simple body mass parameters, with confirmation of prediabetes/metabolic syndrome with further assessment of other metabolic parameters such as glucose and lipids. A number of novel pharmacotherapies may prove beneficial at this stage, and incretin-based therapies appear particularly promising in this respect. Similarly, bariatric procedures have shown remarkable improvements in metabolic and cardiovascular

  8. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

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    Amiri-Nikpour MR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Amiri-Nikpour,1 Surena Nazarbaghi,1 Babak Ahmadi-Salmasi,1 Tayebeh Mokari,2 Urya Tahamtan,2 Yousef Rezaei3 1Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, 2School of Medicine, 3Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23 or normal saline alone (n=23 adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results: The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008 and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001. The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05. One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%. Conclusion: Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. Keywords: ischemic stroke, cerebrolysin, neuroprotection, NIHSS, mean

  9. Interface between problem-based learning and a learner-centered paradigm

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    Karimi R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Reza KarimiPacific University School of Pharmacy, Hillsboro, OR, USABackground: Problem-based learning (PBL has made a major shift in support of student learning for many medical school curricula around the world. Since curricular development of PBL in the early 1970s and its growth in the 1980s and 1990s, there have been growing numbers of publications providing positive and negative data in regard to the curricular effectiveness of PBL. The purpose of this study was to explore supportive data for the four core objectives of PBL and to identify an interface between the objectives of PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Methods: The four core PBL objectives, ie, structuring of knowledge and clinical context, clinical reasoning, self-directed learning, and intrinsic motivation, were used to search MEDLINE, the Education Resources Information Center, the Educator’s Reference Complete, and PsycINFO from January 1969 to January 2011. The literature search was facilitated and narrowed if the published study included the following terms: “problem-based learning”, “medical education”, “traditional curriculum”, and one of the above four PBL objectives.Results: Through a comprehensive search analysis, one can find supportive data for the effectiveness of a PBL curriculum in achieving the four core objectives of PBL. A further analysis of these four objectives suggests that there is an interface between PBL objectives and criteria from a learner-centered paradigm. In addition, this review indicates that promotion of teamwork among students is another interface that exists between PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Conclusion: The desire of medical schools to enhance student learning and a need to provide an environment where students construct knowledge rather than receive knowledge have encouraged many medical schools to move into a learner-centered paradigm. Implementation of a PBL curriculum can be used as a prevailing starting point to

  10. The effect of laser repetition rate on the LASiS synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in aqueous starch solution

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    Zamiri R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri,1 Azmi Zakaria,1,* Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar,2 Majid Darroudi,3 Golnoosh Zamiri,1 Zahid Rizwan,1 Gregor PC Drummen4,* 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bio&Nano-Solutions, Düsseldorf, Germany*These authors contributed to this work equallyAbstract: Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver–starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a

  11. Nanocomposite Membrane via Magnetite Nanoparticle Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2012-07-01

    Membrane technology is one of the most promising technologies for addressing the global water crisis as well as in many other applications. One of the drawbacks of current ultra- and nanofiltration membranes is the relatively broad pore size distribution. Block copolymer membranes with ultrahigh permeability and very regular pore sizes have been recently demonstrated with pores being formed by the supramolecular assembly of core/shell micelles. Our study aimed at developing an innovative and economically efficient alternative method to fabricate isoporous membrane by self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticle with a polystyrene shell, mimicking the behavior of block copolymer micelle. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of ~13 nm diameter were prepared by co-precipitation as cores. The initiator for ATRP was covalently bonded onto the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with two strategies. Then the surface initiated ATRP of styrene was carried out to functionalize nanoparticles with polystyrene through a “grafting from” method. Finally, the nanocomposite membrane was cast from 50 wt % Fe3O4@PS brush polymer solution in DMF via non solvent phase inversion. Microscopies reveal an asymmetric membrane with a dense thin layer on top of a porous sponge-like layer. This novel class of asymmetric membrane, based on the pure assembly of functionalized nanoparticles was prepared for the first time. The nanoparticles are well distributed however with no preferential order yet in the as-cast film.I would like to thank my committee chair and advisor, Prof. Suzana Nunes, and other committee members, Prof. Klaus-Viktor Peinemann and Prof. Gary Amy, for their guidance and support throughout the course of this research. My appreciation also goes to my colleagues in our group for useful discussions and suggestions. I also want to extend my gratitude to the staff from the KAUST Core Lab for Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization, especially Dr. Ali Reza Behzad, Dr. Rachid Sougrat, and

  12. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapies on the Tendency of Women Suicides Suffering Mood Disorders Based on Frustration and Depression Indicators

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    Mehran Rostamzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression disorders occur in all age ranges. However, the prevalence of this disorder is twice in women than men. Most women with a tendency to suicide or suicide attempts (successful or unsuccessful they are suffering from major depression. Given the increasing mood disorders during the past three decades, evidences suggest that the cognitive-behavioral treatments are the most effective. Methods: This was a semi-experimental study, that was examined the effects of cognitive behavior therapies in woman with mood disorder that have a tendency to suicide. The subjects in this study were 30women in Imam Reza (SA hospital in Mashhad with mood disorders who were selected by available sampling method. All of the subjects completed the Kazdian disappointment questionnaire and the (D section of the mental health questionnaire. They were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Next, the experimental group received 10sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy sessions and post-test was performed on all of them. Covariance and independent T test were used in order to analyze the obtained data. Results: The obtained data showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups after the intervention and based on T test value (0.745 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 in terms of H scale. Given the significant differences between the experimental and control groups after the implementation of therapeutic interventions and the control of other variables, ANCOVA was used. The obtained F value (134.242 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 confirmed the hypothesis that cognitive behavioral therapies in women would reduce the frustration level. The mean difference between control and experimental groups after the interventions based on T test value (0.762 at the significance level of Sig=0.001 indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the D scale. By using the covariance

  13. Evaluation of the Anti-inflammatory Effects of Atorvastatin on Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabi, Zhaleh Shariati; Saeidi, Mehran Ghazi; Khodashahi, Mandana; Rezaie, Ali Etemad; Hashemzadeh, Kamila; Khodashahi, Rozita; Heidari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder with unknown etiology. Atorvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that affects the inflammatory processes. Objective This study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of atorvastatin on the Disease Activity Index and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations in RA patients. Methods This clinical trial was performed on 38 RA patients, who were referred to the Imam Reza and Ghaem Medical Centers of Mashhad, Iran between 2013 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: 1) the intervention group, which received 40 mg of atorvastatin, and 2) the control group. Response to treatment and the clinical status of patients were evaluated using the Disease Activity Score (DAS-28) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at weeks zero, four, eight, and twelve, based on the 2010 ACR/EULAR Criteria by two rheumatologists. Disease activity and laboratory parameters, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), DAS-ESR, DAS- hs-CRP, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and liver function test (LFT) were measured in both groups. Results There was a significant difference in the mean number of swollen joints (p<0.011), ESR (p <0.005), DAS-ESR (P<0.043), LDL (0.036), and HDL (0.016) between the two groups. The changes in trend showed no significant difference in the mean number of tender joints (p =0.38), VAS (p =0.715), CRP (p =0.07), DAS-hs-CRP (p=0.431), total cholesterol (p=0.285), or TG (p =0.331) between the two groups. However, the Disease Activity Index decreased by 48.4% in the intervention group, compared to 35.5% in the control group. Conclusion As the results indicated, atorvastatin has a positive effect on the course of RA. In fact, atorvastatin, as an anti-inflammatory agent, could significantly influence inflammation in RA patients. Therefore, adding a lipid-lowering agent to standard medications in RA may be

  14. El doble carácter de la educación indígena: reproducción y resistencia

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    Alberto Padilla Arias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reflexiones contenidas en este trabajo son el resultado de la interpretación de los datos producto de la investigación sobre el tema y se enmarcan dentro de la concepción epistemológica denominada: la cultura como categoría crítica, que ha sido desarrollada por diversos intelectuales latinoamericanos, en particular por Paulo Freire. El método de trabajo ha sido esencialmente de carácter documental. En este punto, a principios del siglo XXI, la investigación ha venido a evidenciar que tanto la educación formal como la no formal, —de los que nosotros llamaremos en adelante pueblos originarios o indígenas— en general, continúa sirviendo a la reproducción de los moldes culturales hegemónicos, tanto en su versión pública como privada. Sin embargo, por otra parte, la educación informal es la que ha permitido, a la mayoría de los pueblos indígenas y sus culturas, ejercer sus mecanismos de resistencia cultural, apoyando su supervivencia, no solamente en México, sino en cualquier punto del planeta dentro del nuevo esquema de regionalización-globalización. Es por ello que se puede afirmar que la educación indígena de hecho tiene un doble carácter como reza el título: reproducción y resistencia. Todo ello teniendo en cuenta múltiples factores que intervienen en los contextos nacionales con su naturaleza multicultural. En el trabajo se analizan las condiciones de diversos pueblos originarios o “indígenas” que han logrado sobrevivir con sus propias culturas, gracias a que han hecho uso de este proceso conservador autónomo, educación informal; así como la propuesta de Paulo Freire.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and genomic diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: A study in western Iran.

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    Parviz Mohajeri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an aerobic non-motile Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that is resistant to most antibiotics. Carbapenems are the most common antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by this pathogen. Mechanisms of antibiotic-resistance in A. baumannii are mainly mediated by efflux pumps-lactamases. The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility, the possibility of existence of OXAs genes and fingerprinting by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter collected from Kermanshah hospitals.One hundred and four isolates were collected from patients attending Imam Reza, Taleghani and Imam Khomeini hospitals of Kermanshah (Iran. Isolates were identified by biochemical tests and API 20NE kit. The susceptibility to different antibiotics was assessed with Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. PCR was performed for detection of bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-51 and bla OXA-58 beta-lactamase genes. Clonal relatedness was estimated by PFGE (with the restriction enzyme Apa I and DNA patterns were analyzed by Gel compare II 6.5 software.All isolates showed high-level of resistance to imipenem, meropenem as well as to other antimicrobial agents, while no resistance to polymyxin B, colistin, tigecylcine and minocycline was observed. The bla OXA-23like and bla OXA-24 like were found among 77.9% and 19.2% of the isolates, respectively. All isolates were positive for bla OXA-51, but none produced any amplicon for bla OXA-58. PFGE genotype analysis suggested the existence of eight clones among the 104 strains [A (n = 35, B (n = 29, C (n = 19, D (n = 10, E (n = 4, F (n = 3, G (n = 3, H (n = 1]. Clone A was the dominant clone in hospital settings particularly infection wards so that the isolates in this group, compared to the other clones, showed higher levels of resistance to antibiotics.The bla OXA-51-like and bla OXA-23like were the predominant mechanisms of resistance to imipenem in A

  16. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients

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    Katayoun Derakhshandeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Katayoun Derakhshandeh1, Marzieh Soheili1, Simin Dadashzadeh2, Reza Saghiri31Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Science, Kermanshah 67145-1673, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Deptartment of Biochemistry, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84, and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs have a better physicochemical characterization

  17. Factors Affecting the Quality and Quantity of Sleep in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Patients

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    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep disturbance is common in patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery and has been recognized for more than 30 years. New literature suggests the importance of sleep and rest for restoration, protection and promotion of function and wellbeing of these patients. Because of the importance of the role of nurses in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders, this study was conducted to determine possible effective factors on sleep quality and sleep quantity of patients after CABG. Methods: This longitudinal, descriptive and correlational study was conducted on 91 patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashad City in 2005-2006. Subjects were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data was collected by interview in three stages: 24 hours before surgery, as well as 6 weeks and 10 weeks after surgery. Subjective sleep quality was measured with PSQI and sleep quantity was measured with sleep log. The first two interviews were done at the hospital clinic and the last via telephone. Data was analyzed in SPSS using student T test, Pearson correlation coefficient and General Linear Model. Results: According to Univariable analysis, variables such as age (p=0.03, aorta clamp time (p=0.003, mechanical ventilation time (p=0.01, staying time in hospital (p=0.04 can affect sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. Previous history of sleep disorder (p=0.005, diabetes (p=0.02, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and ACEI drugs after surgery (p=0.01 can affect sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery. Conclusion: Sleep disorder history (p=0.01, use of diuretic drugs before surgery (p=0.04 and sleep quantity 6 weeks after surgery (p=0.01 have been the most effective factors on sleep quality 10 weeks after surgery, whereas quality of life 10 weeks after surgery (p=0.04 has been the most effective factor on sleep quantity 10 weeks after surgery. There is therefore a necessity for presenting approaches in order to

  18. Use of biotin targeted methotrexate–human serum albumin conjugated nanoparticles to enhance methotrexate antitumor efficacy

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    Taheri A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Azade Taheri1, Rassoul Dinarvand1,2, Faranak Salman Nouri1, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh3, Atefeh Taheri Borougeni4, Pooria Mansoori5, Fatemeh Atyabi1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IranAbstract: Biotin molecules could be used as suitable targeting moieties in targeted drug delivery systems against tumors. To develop a biotin targeted drug delivery system, we employed human serum albumin (HSA as a carrier. Methotrexate (MTX molecules were conjugated to HSA. MTX-HSA nanoparticles (MTX-HSA NPs were prepared from these conjugates by cross-linking the HSA molecules. Biotin molecules were then conjugated on the surface of MTX-HSA NPs. The anticancer efficacy of biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs was evaluated in mice bearing 4T1 breast carcinoma. A single dose of biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs showed stronger in vivo antitumor activity than non-targeted MTX-HSA NPs and free MTX. By 7 days after treatment, average tumor volume in the biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs-treated group decreased to 17.6% of the initial tumor volume when the number of attached biotin molecules on MTX-HSA-NPs was the highest. Average tumor volume in non-targeted MTX-HSA NPs-treated mice grew rapidly and reached 250.7% of the initial tumor volume. Biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs increased the survival of tumor-bearing mice to 47.5 ± 0.71 days and increased their life span up to 216.7%. Mice treated with biotin targeted MTX-HSA NPs showed slight body weight loss (8% 21 days after treatment, whereas non-targeted MTX

  19. Facile electrochemical synthesis of antimicrobial TiO2 nanotube arrays

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    Zhao Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yu Zhao,1 Qi Xing,2 Jagadeesh Janjanam,3 Kun He,1,4 Fei Long,1 Ke-Bin Low,5 Ashutosh Tiwari,3 Feng Zhao,2 Reza Shahbazian-Yassar,1 Craig Friedrich,1,8 Tolou Shokuhfar1,6–81Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 3Department of Chemistry, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA; 4School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 5Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 6Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 7Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 8Multi-Scale Technologies Institute, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USAAbstract: Infection-related complications have been a critical issue for the application of titanium orthopedic implants. The use of Ag nanoparticles offers a potential approach to incorporate antimicrobial properties into the titanium implants. In this work, a novel and simple method was developed for synthesis of Ag (II oxide deposited TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs using electrochemical anodization followed by Ag electroplating processes in the same electrolyte. The quantities of AgO nanoparticles deposited in TiNT were controlled by selecting different electroplating times and voltages. It was shown that AgO nanoparticles were crystalline and distributed throughout the length of the nanotubes. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry tests showed that the quantities of released Ag were less than 7 mg/L after 30 days at 37°C. Antimicrobial assay results show that the AgO-deposited TiNTs can effectively kill the Escherichia coli bacteria. Although the AgO-deposited TiNTs showed some cytotoxicity, it should be controllable by optimization of the

  20. Effects of β-D-mannuronic acid, as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication within immunosuppressive properties, on IL17, RORγt, IL4 and GATA3 gene expressions in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anis Barati,1 Ahmad Reza Jamshidi,2,* Hossein Ahmadi,1 Zahra Aghazadeh,1 Abbas Mirshafiey1,* 1Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, 2Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis characterized by pain, swelling and destruction of joints, with a resultant disability. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and biological drugs can interfere with the disease process. In this study, the effect of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000 as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects together with antioxidant effects was evaluated on IL17, RORγt, IL4 and GATA3 gene expression in 12 RA patients. Previously, M2000 driven from sodium alginate (natural product; patented, DEU: 102016113018.4 has shown a notable efficacy in experimental models of multiple sclerosis, RA and nephrotic syndrome. This study was performed on 12 patients with RA who had an inadequate response to conventional treatments. During this trial, patients were permitted to continue the conventional therapy excluding NSAIDs. M2000 was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected before and after treatment to evaluate the expression levels of IL4, GATA3, IL17 and RORγt. The gene expression results showed that M2000 has a potent efficacy, so that it could not only significantly decrease IL17 and RORγt levels but also increase IL4 and GATA3 levels after 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the gene expression results were in accordance with the clinical and preclinical assessments. In conclusion, M2000 as a natural novel agent has therapeutic and immunosuppressive properties on RA patients (identifier

  1. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS NASAL CARRIAGE AMONG INJECTING AND NON-INJECTING DRUG USERS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus Aureus (SA is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in human beings. Approximately 20% of healthy persons are persistent carriers and 60% are intermittent carriers of SA. Nasal cavity is one of the most important sites of its colonization. Intravenous (IV drug abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for colonization of SA in the nasal mucosa. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of SA carriers in nasal cavity among IV and non-IV drug abusers (addicts, as well as to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the positive cases. In a cross-sectional analysis of 300 drug addicts (Group I: 100 non-injecting addicts, Group II: 100 IV injecting drug addicts in rehab, Group III: 100 IV injecting drug addicts not in rehab in the infectious diseases clinics of Tabriz’s Imam Reza and Sina teaching hospitals and the rehabilitation center of Razi hospital, were investigated. Hospitalized addicts, insulin-dependent diabetic cases, HIV positive patients and those on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. The nasal mucosal sample was prepared from each case for SA isolation and its antimicrobial susceptibility was investigated by antibiogram. Eighty-four cases (28% were culture positive for SA, including 26 cases in group one, 32 cases in group two and 26 cases in group three (p = 0.55. There was only one MRSA isolate present in all the cases studied (1.2%. No resistance to linozolid, rifampin and vancomycin was observed. The resistance to erythromycin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, co-trimoxazol and gentamicin were 3.6, 4.8, 2.4, 3.6, 1.2 and 2.4% respectively. No statistically significant differences existed between the three groups in antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Sensitivity to oxacillin using the E-test results and disc diffusion were completely consistent. The percentage of carries of SA in the anterior nasal mucosa among IV and non-IV drug addicts is not considerably higher than the

  2. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Davood Attaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Davood Attaran1, Shahrzad M Lari1, Mohammad Towhidi1, Hassan Ghobadi Marallu2, Hossein Ayatollahi1, Mohammad Khajehdaluee1, Mostafa Ghanei3, Reza Basiri11Lung Disease and Tuberculosis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, 2Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 3Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six-minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.Results: Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04 and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.36, P = 0.016.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.Keywords: sulfur mustard, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  3. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM questionnaire, Shiraz, Iran

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    Parvizi MM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi,1,2 Mitra Amini,2 Mohammad Reza Dehghani,2 Peyman Jafari,3 Zahra Parvizi,1 1Health Policy Research Center, 2Quality Improvement in Clinical Education Research Center, 3Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran Purpose: Evaluation is the main component in design and implementation of educational activities and rapid growth of educational institution programs. Outpatient medical education and clinical training environment is one of the most important parts of training of medical residents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM questionnaire, as an instrument for assessment of educational environments in residency medical clinics. Materials and methods: This study was performed on 180 residents in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2014–2015. The questionnaire designers’ electronic permission (by email and the residents’ verbal consent were obtained before distributing the questionnaires. The study data were gathered using ACLEEM questionnaire developed by Arnoldo Riquelme in 2013. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, version 14, and MedCalc® software. Then, the construct validity, including convergent and discriminant validities, of the Persian version of ACLEEM questionnaire was assessed. Its internal consistency was also checked by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results: Five team members who were experts in medical education were consulted to test the cultural adaptation, linguistic equivalency, and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire. Content validity indexes were >0.9 in all items. In factor analysis of the instrument, the ­Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin index was 0.928 and Barlett’s sphericity test yielded the following results: X 2=6,717.551, df =1,225, and P ≤0.001. Besides, Cronbach

  4. Estructura de las Reglas de Origen del TLCAN: un Análisis Metodológico del Valor de Contenido Regional

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    Odette Virginia Delfín Ortega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La dinámica actual dentro del comercio internacional pone en manifiesto la importancia del origen de las mercancías para poder llevar a cabo los principales instrumentos de política comercial. La aplicación de los regímenes de origen no es una tarea sencilla; ya que se requiere información de diversos actores que intervienen dentro de la operación de comercio exterior. Las normas de origen generan impactos muy representativos en los flujos de mercancías, servicios e inversiones. Se puede decir entonces que las normas de origen son junto con la valoración en aduana, la clasificación arancelaria, requisitos previos para la aplicación de los principales instrumentos de la política comercial (aranceles, restricciones al comercio, medidas de defensa comercial, la gestión de las estadísticas comerciales, protección al consumidor, entre otros (GATT, 1993. Sin embargo, el origen de la mercancía paralelo a los instrumentos de la política comercial, puede activar o afectar el flujo comercial de una nación. Según los objetivos de política comercial que vienen estipulados en el régimen del origen, se encuentran dos grandes tipos de normas, las preferenciales y las comunes o no preferenciales. La principal diferencia entre un tipo de norma y otro guarda relación con el instrumento comercial al cual obedece. Las preferenciales, como su nombre indica, sirven para ejecutar un esquema comercial preferencial (acuerdos comerciales regionales y sistemas preferencias generalizadas, y las comunes resultan aplicables a todos los demás supuestos (aranceles NMF, cuotas, salvaguardias, estadísticas, etcétera. El régimen jurídico del origen se basa en dos principios básicos: el de producto enteramente obtenido y el de transformación sustancial (Rodriguez & Rodrik, 1999. Las reglas de origen han empezado a ser analizadas recientemente, autores como: Krueger, López-de-Silanes, Rosellón, Wonnacott (Reza & Kowalsky,2010 han hecho diversos

  5. Comparison of process parameter optimization using different designs in nanoemulsion-based formulation for transdermal delivery of fullerene

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    Ngan CL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheng Loong Ngan,1 Mahiran Basri,1,2 Fui Fang Lye,1 Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi,1 Minaketan Tripathy,3,4 Roghayeh Abedi Karjiban,1 Emilia Abdul-Malek1 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Laboratory of Fundamentals of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Puncak Alam Campus, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Brain and Neuroscience Communities of Research, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: This research aims to formulate and to optimize a nanoemulsion-based formulation containing fullerene, an antioxidant, stabilized by a low amount of mixed surfactants using high shear and the ultrasonic emulsification method for transdermal delivery. Process parameters optimization of fullerene nanoemulsions was done by employing response surface methodology, which involved statistical multivariate analysis. Optimization of independent variables was investigated using experimental design based on Box–Behnken design and central composite rotatable design. An investigation on the effect of the homogenization rate (4,000–5,000 rpm, sonication amplitude (20%–60%, and sonication time (30–150 seconds on the particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the colloidal systems was conducted. Under the optimum conditions, the central composite rotatable design model suggested the response variables for particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of the fullerene nanoemulsion were 152.5 nm, –52.6 mV, and 44.6 pascal seconds, respectively. In contrast, the Box–Behnken design model proposed that preparation under the optimum condition would produce nanoemulsion with particle size, ζ-potential, and viscosity of 148.5 nm, –55.2 mV, and 39.9 pascal seconds, respectively. The suggested process parameters to obtain optimum formulation by both models yielded actual response values similar to the predicted values with residual standard

  6. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

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    Shiri M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mahdi Shiri,1,2,* Mona Navaei-Nigjeh,1,3,* Maryam Baeeri,1 Mahban Rahimifard,1 Hossein Mahboudi,4 Ahmad Reza Shahverdi,5 Abbas Kebriaeezadeh,1 Mohammad Abdollahi1,6,7 1Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, Artesh University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Research Center, 6Toxicology Interest Group, USERN, 7Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Diazinon (DZ is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double

  7. Playground injuries in children

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    Naeini H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Sadeghi Naeini1, Kent Lindqvist2, Hamid Reza Jafari3, Amir Hossein Mirlohi4, Koustuv Dalal2,51Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 2Division of Social Medicine and Public Health, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 3Environmental Planning Department, Graduate Environment Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 4Apadana Research Center, Isfahan, Iran; 5Division of Public Health Science, School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, SwedenBackground: Rapid urbanization and unplanned population development can be detrimental to the safety of citizens, with children being a particularly vulnerable social group. In this review, we assess childhood playground injuries and suggest safety mechanisms which could be incorporated into playground planning.Methods: Inclusion criteria were “children” as the focus group, “playground” as the main field of study, and “unintentional injury” and “safety” as the concepts of study. The keywords used for the PubMed search were “playground”, “children”, and “injury”. Initially we accessed 182 articles. After screening according to inclusion criteria, 86 articles were found, and after reading the abstracts and then the full text, 14 articles were finally included for analysis. The papers reviewed included four case-control studies, three case studies, three descriptive studies, two interventional studies, one retrospective study, one cross-sectional study, and one systematic review.Results: Playground-related fractures were the most common accidents among children, underscoring the importance of safety promotion and injury prevention in playgrounds, low-risk equipment and playing hours (week days associated with higher risk, implementation of standards, preventing falls and fall-related fractures, and addressing concerns of parents about unsafe neighborhoods. With the exception of one study, all of the

  8. Renal artery stenosis in kidney transplants: assessment of the risk factors

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    Ghabili K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jalal Etemadi1, Khosro Rahbar2, Ali Nobakht Haghighi2, Nazila Bagheri2, Kianoosh Falaknazi2, Mohammad Reza Ardalan1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 2Department of Nephrology, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS is an important cause of hypertension and renal allograft dysfunction occurring in kidney transplant recipients. However, conflicting predisposing risk factors for TRAS have been reported in the literature.Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the potential correlation between possible risk factors and TRAS in a group of living donor renal transplant recipients 1 year after the renal transplantation.Methods: We evaluated the presence of renal artery stenosis in 16 recipients who presented with refractory hypertension and/or allograft dysfunction 1 year after renal transplantation. Screening for TRAS was made by magnetic resonance angiography and diagnosis was confirmed by conventional renal angiography. Age, gender, history of acute rejection, plasma lipid profile, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum uric acid, calcium phosphate (CaPO4 product, alkaline phosphatase, fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, and albumin were compared between the TRAS and non-TRAS groups.Results: Of 16 kidney transplant recipients, TRAS was diagnosed in three patients (two men and one woman. High levels of calcium, phosphorous, CaPO4 product, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol were significantly correlated with the risk of TRAS 1 year after renal transplantation (P < 0.05. Serum level of uric acid tended to have a significant correlation (P = 0.051.Conclusion: Correlation between high CaPO4 product, LDL cholesterol, and perhaps uric acid and TRAS in living

  9. Spiritual care may impact mental health and medication adherence in HIV+ populations

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    Oji VU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie U Oji,1–3 Leslie C Hung,3 Reza Abbasgholizadeh,1,4 Flora Terrell Hamilton,5 E James Essien,6 Evaristus Nwulia7 1Lifefountain Center Ministries Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 2Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA; 4University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5Administration, Family & Medical Counseling Service, Inc. (FMCS, Washington, DC, USA; 6University of Houston Institute for Community Health, Houston, TX, USA; 7Psychiatry, Howard University Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA Objective: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS, major depressive disorder (MDD incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor. A convenience sample was interviewed to qualitatively assess potential medication therapy management needs and medication-related problems. Another sample was examined utilizing the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Results: The literature reports positive influence on health behaviors, coping and outcomes; and poor medication adherence and treatment decisions due to patient passivity or resistance. Spiritual advisor contact (not limited to a specific religion was significantly associated with MDD absence (1.7% vs. 15.3%, P<0.005 and inversely related to SAMISS, depression, and poor health behaviors. Patient interviews reflected significance of faith in terms of insight and acceptance of

  10. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

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    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  11. The effects of poly L-lactic acid nanofiber scaffold on mouse spermatogonial stem cell culture

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    Eslahi N

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neda Eslahi,1,2,* Mahmoud Reza Hadjighassem,1,3 Mohammad Taghi Joghataei,1,2 Tooba Mirzapour,4 Mehrdad Bakhtiyari,1,2 Malak Shakeri,5 Vahid Pirhajati,1,2 Peymaneh Shirinbayan,6,* Morteza Koruji1,21Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran; 5Department of Animal Science, Agricultural Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 6Pediatric Neuro-Rehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran*These authors contributed equally to this articleIntroduction: A 3D-nanofiber scaffold acts in a similar way to the extracellular matrix (ECM/basement membrane that enhances the proliferation and self-renewal of stem cells. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of a poly L-lactic acid (PLLA nanofiber scaffold on frozen-thawed neonate mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs and testis tissues.Methods: The isolated spermatogonial cells were divided into six culture groups: (1 fresh spermatogonial cells, (2 fresh spermatogonial cells seeded onto PLLA, (3 frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells, (4 frozen-thawed spermatogonial cells seeded onto PLLA, (5 spermatogonial cells obtained from frozen-thawed testis tissue, and (6 spermatogonial cells obtained from frozen-thawed testis tissue seeded onto PLLA. Spermatogonial cells and testis fragments were cryopreserved and cultured for 3 weeks. Cluster assay was performed during the culture. The presence of spermatogonial cells in the culture was determined by a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for spermatogonial markers (Oct4, GFRα-1, PLZF, Mvh(VASA, Itgα6, and Itgβ1

  12. Hybrid metal-organic conductive network with plasmonic nanoparticles and fluorene (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Laura; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Matassa, Roberto; Familiari, Giuseppe; Venditti, Iole; Batocchio, Chiara; Magnano, Elena; Nappini, Silvia; Leahu, Grigore; Belardini, Alessandro; Li Voti, Roberto; Sibilia, Concita

    2017-05-01

    , and Richard L. McCreery, Chem. Mater. 17, 4939 (2005). [4] J. Wu, K. Mobley, and R. L. Mc Creery, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 024704 (2007). [5] Cristina Hermosa, Jose Vicente Álvarez, Mohammad-Reza Azani, Carlos J. Gómez-García, Michelle Fritz, Jose M. Soler, Julio Gómez-Herrero, Cristina Gómez-Navarro and Félix Zamora, Nature Commun. 4, 1709 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2696. [6] Nunzio Tuccitto, Violetta Ferri, Marco Cavazzini, Silvio Quici, Genady Zhavnerko, Antonino Licciardello and Maria Anita Rampi, Nature Mater. 8, 41 (2009). [7] Quintiliani, M., Bassetti, M., Pasquini, C., et al. J. Mater. Chem. C, 2014, (2), pp. 2517-2527. [8] R. Matassa, G. Familiari, E. Battaglione, Concita Sibilia et al., Nanoscale, 2016,8, 18161-18169.

  13. Diretrizes curriculares para o curso de pedagogia no Brasil: a gestão da educação como gérmen da formação Curriculum guidelines for pedagogy course in Brazil: the administration of the education as source of training

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    Naura Syria Carapeto Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as Diretrizes Curriculares para o Curso de Pedagogia exaradas pelo Conselho Nacional de Educação. Discute algumas questões de princípio e de concepção sobre as políticas de formação de profissionais da educação nas diretrizes e a gestão da educação que se constitui o gérmen de sua formação. Toma-se como referência a tese de que a relevante e inquestionável importância da formação do profissional da educação se situa na responsabilidade e no compromisso da formação para a cidadania, como reza a Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil e a Carta Magna da Educação Brasileira. É este o compromisso da gestão da educação exercida pelo professor se fazendo em ação na sala de aula, por conter "em gérmen" o espírito e o conteúdo do projeto político e pedagógico que expressa os compromissos e o norte da escola por meio da gestão do ensino, da gestão da classe, da gestão das relações, da gestão do processo de aquisição do conhecimento, enfim, da gestão da formação para a cidadania. Tal concepção perpassa, de forma implícita e explícita, todo o texto das diretrizes.This article analyzes the Curriculum Guidelines for the Pedagogy Course, which were developed by the National Council of Education. It discusses some conception and principle issues on the strategies of the training of education professionals according to these Guidelines and the administration of education that is the source of such training. Its reference is the theory according to which the relevant and unquestionable importance of the training of education professionals is placed under the responsibility and commitment of citizenship training, as stated in the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and in the Charter of Brazilian Education. This is the commitment of the education administration exercised by the teacher acting in classrooms. It contains the spirit and the contents of the pedagogic

  14. Evaluation of Clinical Results and Complications of Structural Allograft Reconstruction after Bone Tumor Surgery

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    Mohammad Gharedaghi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massive bone allograft is an option in cases of limb preservation and reconstruction after massive benign and malignant bone tumor resection. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of these procedures at Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this study, 113 cases have been presented. Eleven cases were excluded (patients has a traumatic defect or they passed away before the completion of the study’s two-year follow up period. Each patient completed a questionnaire, went through a physical examination and, if indicated, X-ray information was collected. The patients were divided into three groups: chemotherapy, chemotherapy plus radiation therapy, and no-adjuvant-therapy. Results: Fifty-four cases were male and the mean age was 24.5±5.39. The number of cases and indications for surgery were: 33 cases of aggressive benign tumors or low grade malignant bone tumors (large bone defects including 16 germ cell tumors, eight aneurysmal bone cysts, five low grade osteosarcomas, and four chondrosarcomas. Another 69 cases were high-grade malignant bone tumors including 42 osteosarcomas, 21 Ewing’s sarcoma, and six other high grade osteosarcomas. Patients were divided into three groups: the first group received no adjuvant therapy, the second group received chemotherapy, and the third group received chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. The location of tumors were as follows: eight cases in the pelvic bone, 12 in the proximal femur, 18 in the femoral shaft, 36 in the distal femur, 12 in the proximal tibia, and 16 in the humeral bone. The 12 cases of proximal femoral defects were reconstructed by allograft composite prosthesis, 18 diaphyseal defects with intercalary allograft, and 36 distal femoral defects were reconstructed using osteoarticular allograft. The rate of deep infection was 7:8% (eight patients and in this regard, we found a significant difference among the three groups, such that most

  15. Changes in blood biochemical markers before, during, and after a 2-day ultramarathon

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    Arakawa K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuyuki Arakawa,1,2 Akihiro Hosono,2 Kiyoshi Shibata,3 Reza Ghadimi,4 Mizuho Fuku,5 Chiho Goto,6 Nahomi Imaeda,7 Yuko Tokudome,8 Hideki Hoshino,9 Mitsuhiro Marumoto,1,2 Masaaki Kobayashi,10 Sadao Suzuki,2 Shinkan Tokudome1,2,11 1Department of Health and Nutrition Policy, 2Department of Public Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Aichi Gakusen University, Okazaki, Japan; 4Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yokohama Stroke and Brain Center, Yokohama, Japan; 6Department of Health and Nutrition, Nagoya Bunri University, Inazawa, Japan; 7Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nagoya Women’s University, Nagoya, Japan; 8Department of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 9Department of Early Childhood Studies, Aichi Bunkyo Women’s College, Inazawa, Japan; 10Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 11National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin and an iron reservoir index (ferritin, muscle

  16. Novel chlorambucil-conjugated anionic linear-globular PEG-based second-generation dendrimer: in vitro/in vivo improved anticancer activity

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    Assadi A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Artin Assadi,1 Vahideh Sharifi Najafabadi,1 Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz,2 Azadah Shayeq Boroujeni,1 Sepehr Ashrafi,1 Ali Zaman Vaziri,1 Seyedeh Masoumeh Ghoreishi,1 Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi,3 Seyed Esmaeil Sadat Ebrahimi,4 Morteza Pirali-Hamedani,4 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani1 1Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2Young Researchers and Elite Club, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, 3Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, 4Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Abstract: Evaluating the efficacy of anticancer drugs is an evolving and research-oriented issue. The objective of this study was to reduce the insolubility of chlorambucil (CBL in water and improve the anticancer activity of CBL in vitro and in vivo through the conjugation of CBL with anionic linear-globular dendrimer (second generation, G2. In the current study, the anticancer activity among three groups that include CBL, CBL–G2 dendrimer, and control was measured in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that G2 anionic linear-globular polyethylene-glycol-based dendrimer, which conjugated to the CBL exterior through an ester linkage, was able to significantly improve the treatment efficacy over clinical CBL alone with respect to proliferation assay, 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide; half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 was calculated to be 141 µg/mL for CBL alone and 27.7 µg/mL for CBL–G2 dendrimer; P<0.05. In addition, CBL–G2 dendrimer conjugate forestalled the growth of MCF-7 cancerous cells in addition to enhancing the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells as demonstrated by an annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assay. CBL–G2 dendrimer conjugate was able to checkmate antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in a large scale compared with the control group and

  17. Prevention of clinically important deteriorations in COPD with umeclidinium/vilanterol

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    Singh D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 M Reza Maleki-Yazdi,2 Lee Tombs,3 Ahmar Iqbal,4 William A Fahy,5 Ian Naya5 1Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Women’s College Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Precise Approach LTD, London UK; 4Respiratory Medical Franchise, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Medicines Development Centre, GSK, Stockley Park, Middlesex, UK Background: Minimizing the risk of disease progression and exacerbations is the key goal of COPD management, as these are well-established indicators of poor COPD prognosis. We developed a novel composite end point assessing three important aspects (lung function, health status, and exacerbations of worsening in COPD. The objective was to determine whether dual bronchodilation with umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI reduces clinically important deteriorations (CIDs in COPD versus placebo or bronchodilator monotherapy.  Methods: This study is a post hoc analysis of two 24-week trials comparing UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg with UMEC 62.5 µg, VI 25 µg, or placebo (Study A; NCT01313650, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg with tiotropium (TIO 18 µg (Study B; NCT01777334 in patients with symptomatic COPD, without a history of frequent exacerbations. Deterioration was assessed as the time to a first CID, a composite measure defined as a decrease of ≥100 mL in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second or ≥4-unit increase in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score or an on-treatment moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation.  Results: In Study A, fewer patients experienced a first CID with UMEC/VI (44% versus UMEC (50%, VI (56%, and placebo (75%. The risk of a first CID was reduced with UMEC/VI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.37 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.30, 0.45], UMEC (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.38, 0.56], and VI (HR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.66]; all P<0.001 versus placebo

  18. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

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    Ali Reza Khoshdel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali Reza Khoshdel1,2, Shane Carney2, Alastair Gillies21Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2John Hunter Hospital, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NS W, AustraliaAbstract: Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years. Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK], in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05, the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1. Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mm

  19. The Role of the Clerics and the Religious Forces in the Iranian Movement of Nationalization of Oil Industry

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    Zohreh Salehi Siavoshani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available De 1941 a 1953, a la luz del nuevo clima que se respiraba en el país, el gobierno, la asamblea nacional, las embajadas extranjeras y los militares, el clero y las fuerzas religiosas formaron los nuevos círculos de influencia que podrían jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo socio-político del país.El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar las acciones, las actitudes y el desarrollo interno de los principales grupos religiosos e islámicos de este período, así como su interacción y su impacto en el movimiento de nacionalización de la industria del petróleo. ¿En qué medida las perspectivas y los métodos de estos grupos estaban en consonancia con las demás son alguna de las cuestiones que el autor trata de responder sin tomar parte en cualquiera de ellos, y contra todos las limitaciones impuestas en este trabajo. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de recursos referidos a este tema representa una imagen tridimensional de las actividades de los grupos religiosos y de los clérigos. Sin duda, todos los grupos mencionados anteriormente no fueron de la misma índole, y debido a los puntos de vista heterogéneos y a las tácticas y pactos que entre ellos acordaron hicieron que su perduraran poco tiempo.Palabras clave: Religión, Irán, petróleo, industria, reglas. ______________________________Abstract:From  1941 to 1953, in the light of new atmosphere in post-Reza Shah rule, further to the court, government, the national assembly, foreign embassies and the military men, the clergy and the religious forces were one of the new but influential circles of power playing important role  in the socio political developments and events of the country. The present article seeks to review the actions, attitudes and the inner development of the main religious and Islamic groups of this period, their interaction and their impact on the movement of nationalization of oil industry. To what  extent the outlook and methods of these groups were

  20. Contabilidade ambiental: um estudo sobre sua aplicabilidade em empresas Brasileiras

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    Adalto de Oliveira Santos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia e a conscientização da sociedade estão forçando, atualmente, as empresas a adotarem uma postura responsável perante o meio ambiente, isto é, produzir sem agressão à natu-reza.Para isto elas estão implantando um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental de acordo com as normas da série ISO 14000. Fazer este gerenciamento exige a aplicação de um considerável montante de recursos financeiros, devendo-se ter constante preocupação em controlá-los. En-tende-se que a contabilidade é uma das ferramentas mais eficientes e eficazes para este processo. Observa-se, no entanto, que poucas empresas, no Brasil, utilizam a contabilidade na sua gestão ambiental. Portanto, o principal objetivo da realização deste estudo é verificar qual o grau de desenvolvimento da Contabilidade Ambiental nas empresas brasileiras. Após uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, foi elaborada uma pesquisa de campo que consistiu no envio de um questionário aos departamentos de contabilidade de indústrias potencialmente poluidoras. O universo compreendeu as empresas listadas no guia "As 500 maiores empresas do Brasil", edição 2000, da revista Exame; e a amostra foi de 50 empresas cujo faturamento, em 2000, ultrapassou US$ 50 bilhões.The globalization of the economy and the awareness of the society are forcing, currently, the companies to adopt a responsible position before the environment, that is, to produce without aggression the nature. For this they are implanting a System of Environmental Management in accordance with the norms of series ISO 14000. To make this management demands the application of a considerable sum of financial features, having itself to have constant preoccupation in controlling them. One understands that the accounting is one of the efficient tools most for this process. It is observed, however, that few companies, in Brazil, use the accounting in its environmental management. Therefore, the main objective of the

  1. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

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    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  2. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number and severity of nausea and

  3. Uso de agregados monetarios como indicadores de la evolución futura de los precios al consumidor: crecimiento monetario y meta de inflación

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    Manuel Ramos-Francia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Recientemente, los agregados monetarios han desempeñado un papel menor en las deliberaciones de política monetaria en la mayoría de los bancos cen- trales. Esto es debido a que los modelos utilizados se concentran en las desviaciones de la inflación respecto a un nivel de estado estacionario dado exógenamente. La cantidad de dinero en la economía determina el nivel de precios en el largo plazo, pero no necesariamente influye en las desviaciones respecto a dicho nivel. Por lo tanto, los agregados monetarios han perdido relevancia en el análisis de corto plazo. Métodos: Se realiza un extenso análisis econométrico de la demanda de dinero a largo plazo para México utilizando el agregado monetario M1. Se estima la de- manda del agregado monetario M1 mediante un modelo autorregresivo de reza- gos distribuidos, con datos trimestrales para México para el periodo 2001-2014. El modelo se somete a una variedad de pruebas de especificación y diagnóstico, además se realiza un profundo análisis de la estabilidad de los parámetros. Con base en dicha demanda se calculan dos indicadores de presiones inflacionarias: la brecha del dinero y el indicador m * . Resultados: Este artículo muestra cómo se puede utilizar a los agregados moneta- rios como indicadores de presiones inflacionarias. Esto es posible ya que existe una relación a largo plazo entre dichos agregados y los precios. Específicamente, se obtienen dos indicadores. Por un lado, la brecha del dinero, la cual mide la desviación de M1 real de su relación con sus determinantes a largo plazo. Por otro lado, el indicador m * se basa en la estimación del índice de precios que es congruente con la cantidad de M1 en la economía, una vez que ésta se ajusta por la tendencia de largo plazo de sus determinantes tomando en cuenta sus coefi- cientes de largo plazo. Así, respecto a la tendencia a largo plazo de la inflación, el indicador m * sugiere que el crecimiento del

  4. Greetings from the Editor

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    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is my great honor announcing the promotion of the Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery (ABJS to the level of being available on the PubMed Central site. Being precise, one year ago in September 2013, we published the first issue of the ABJS. Diligently thereafter, we published four subsequent issues with the fifth being in front of you. We set this as our first goal to reach visibility on PubMed striving to raise the quality. We greatly hope that the orthopedics science may be exalted by this voluntary contribution. Hereby, I would like to specially thank to Sarah Post Calhoun and Wayne Jack Logue, from NLM/PMC, for their continuous support, giving direction, and cooperation. I am grateful to my colleagues, Dr Amir Reza Kachooei; the Managing Editor, Dr Ali Moradi; the Editorial Manager and Saeideh Erfani; the Administrative Staff  for their endeavor and being compassionate in this path. I also would like to thank Dr Farshid Bagheri, Dr Ali Birjandinejad, Dr Farzad Omidi-Kashani and Dr Mohsen Mardani-Kivi;  the Deputy Editors  whose continuous efforts from early 2013 has brought the journal to appreciation of scientific excellence.  My sincere thanks to all Editorial Board members and reviewers, who have contributed towards the excellence of the journal by putting efforts and expending their valuable time to evaluate the submitted manuscripts. I send my special thanks to Iranian Knee Surgery Arthroscopy & Sports Traumatology (ISKAST, Iranian Orthopedic Association (IOA, Iranian Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Deputy of Research at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for their supports. I would like to thank the prime industry sponsers, Osveh Asia Medical Instrument Co. and Tehran Sutures Co. (Zimmer Distributer in Iran, for their financial support. Again I would like to appreciate all contributing authors particularly my outstanding colleagues who wrote an Editorial for us, Prof. Jupiter from Harvard University, Boston, MA

  5. The comparative effectiveness of demineralized bone matrix, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and bovine-derived anorganic bone matrix on inflammation and bone formation using a paired calvarial defect model in rats

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    Khoshzaban A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahad Khoshzaban1,2,3, Shahram Mehrzad1, Vida Tavakoli2, Saeed Heidari Keshel2, Gholam Reza Behrouzi2, Maryam Bashtar2 1Iranian Tissue Bank Research and Preparation Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, 2Stem Cells Preparation Unit, Eye Research Center, Farabi Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Science, 3Dental Bio Material Department, Tehran University of Medical Science, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran, Iran Background: In this study, the effectiveness of Iranian Tissue Bank–produced demineralized bone matrix (ITB-DBM, beta-tricalcium phosphate (ßTCP, and Bio-Oss® (Geistlich Pharma AG, Wolhusen, Switzerland were evaluated and compared with double controls. The main goal was to measure the amount of new bone formation in the center of defects created in rat calvaria. Another goal was to compare the controls and evaluate the effects of each treatment material on their adjacent untreated (control defects. Methods: In this study, 40 male Wistar rats were selected and divided into four groups, In each group, there were ten rats with two defects in their calvarias; one of them is considered as control and the other one was treated with ITB-DBM (group 1, BIO-OSS (group2, and ßTCP (group 3, respectively. But in group 4, both defects were considered as control. The amount of inflammation and new bone formation were evaluated at 4 and 10 weeks. In the first group, one defect was filled with ITB-DBM; in the second group, one defect was filled with Bio-Oss; in the third group, one defect was filled with ßTCP; and in the fourth group, both defects were left unfilled. Zeiss microscope (Carl Zeiss AG, Oberkochen, Germany and Image Tool® (version 3.0; University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX software were used for evaluation. SPSS Statistics (IBM Corp, Somers, NY was used for statistical analysis. Results: Maximum bone formation at 4 and 10 weeks were observed in the ITB-DBM group (46.960% ± 4.366%, 94.970% ± 0

  6. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  7. PREFACE: Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, R.; Khajehpour, M. R. H.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Rouhani, S.

    2005-04-01

    meeting, covered some of the various areas in statistical physics currently active in Iran. About half of the participants came from countries other than Iran, with a relatively broad geographic distribution. The meeting benefited greatly from the excellent administrative assistance of the conference secretary Ms Ashraf Moosavi and the IASBS staff. We are grateful to Professor Yousef Sobouti, the Director of IASBS, and Professor Reza Mansouri, the Head of the Physical Society of Iran, for their support. We also thank the organizers of STATPHYS22, Professor Rahul Pandit and his colleagues, for their suggestions and support. The conference was supported by donations from the Center for International Research and Collaboration (ISMO) and the Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education (IRPHE) of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, the Islamic Development Bank, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the Tehran Cluster Office of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Research and Development Directorate of the National Iranian Oil Company, the Physical Society of Iran, the Iranian Meteorological Organization, and the Zanjan City Water and Waste Water Company. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to Institute of Physics Publishing, and in particular to Professor Alexei Kornyshev and Dr Richard Palmer for suggesting publishing the proceedings of the meeting and carrying through the editorial processes with the utmost efficiency. Participants

  8. 2015 Brainhack Proceedings

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    R. Cameron Craddock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents I1 Introduction to the 2015 Brainhack Proceedings R. Cameron Craddock, Pierre Bellec, Daniel S. Margules, B. Nolan Nichols, Jörg P. Pfannmöller A1 Distributed collaboration: the case for the enhancement of Brainspell’s interface AmanPreet Badhwar, David Kennedy, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Roberto Toro A2 Advancing open science through NiData Ben Cipollini, Ariel Rokem A3 Integrating the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS standard into C-PAC Daniel Clark, Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski, R. Cameron Craddock A4 Optimized implementations of voxel-wise degree centrality and local functional connectivity density mapping in AFNI R. Cameron Craddock, Daniel J. Clark A5 LORIS: DICOM anonymizer Samir Das, Cécile Madjar, Ayan Sengupta, Zia Mohades A6 Automatic extraction of academic collaborations in neuroimaging Sebastien Dery A7 NiftyView: a zero-footprint web application for viewing DICOM and NIfTI files Weiran Deng A8 Human Connectome Project Minimal Preprocessing Pipelines to Nipype Eric Earl, Damion V. Demeter, Kate Mills, Glad Mihai, Luka Ruzic, Nick Ketz, Andrew Reineberg, Marianne C. Reddan, Anne-Lise Goddings, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski A9 Generating music with resting-state fMRI data Caroline Froehlich, Gil Dekel, Daniel S. Margulies, R. Cameron Craddock A10 Highly comparable time-series analysis in Nitime Ben D. Fulcher A11 Nipype interfaces in CBRAIN Tristan Glatard, Samir Das, Reza Adalat, Natacha Beck, Rémi Bernard, Najmeh Khalili-Mahani, Pierre Rioux, Marc-Étienne Rousseau, Alan C. Evans A12 DueCredit: automated collection of citations for software, methods, and data Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello A13 Open source low-cost device to register dog’s heart rate and tail movement Raúl Hernández-Pérez, Edgar A. Morales, Laura V. Cuaya A14 Calculating the Laterality Index Using FSL for Stroke Neuroimaging Data Kaori L. Ito, Sook-Lei Liew A15 Wrapping FreeSurfer 6 for use in

  9. Investigating the role of Social Wealth in the Renovation and refurbishment of old contextures (Case Study: Sardasht City

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    MN. Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    social wealth, reliance on actual aspects of social wealth in improving physical interference pattern and planning according to people's requirements and participation, assigning a legal role for local consultative for instauration and structure making and supporting public formations are made.Key words: Social Wealth, Renovation and improvement, old contexture, Sardasht City, West AzerbaijanResourcesAdviser engineering logistician development balanced (2007, arrangement, improved and modernization Foreworn Texture sardasht city, sardasht municipation.Akbari, Nematalah and Mehdi Zahedi, Keyvan (2008. Ratings and decision-making procedures used multi- indicators, the municipalities and Dehyaryha, Tehran.Arefi, Mahyar (2001. Approach to the assets - the basis for the development community, the new translation Tavallaie, Fine Arts, No. 10, p. 22 Tas 33.Asgharpour, Mohammad Javad (2008. Multi-criteria decision making, publishing Tehran University, Tehran. Bagherian, Mohammad Saber (2005. "Modernization ¬ recognition capabilities of tissue-based, middle-aged - and the social space ¬" Geographic Research, Geography Department, Tehran University.Behzad, Davod (2002. Hospitalized for mental health, Social Wealth, Journal of Social Welfare, Year II, No. 6.Durgesh,C.R (2004."Review Rehabilitation and Renovation of Urban Worn-out Tissue", WASHINGTON, d.C.Fukuyama, F (2001. Social capital, civil society and development, Third World Quartely, pp 7-20.Fukuyama, F (2005. Social capital, civil society, transition Afshin Khakbaz and hasan poyan, publishing sheraze. Fukuyama, Francis (1995. Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. New York, Free Press.Habibi, Mohsen and Maghsodi Maliha (2002. Urban Restoration, Printing, Tehran, Tehran University.Hafeznya, Mohammad Reza (2001. Research in the Humanities, Fifth Edition, publisher samt.Halpern .E (2005. Social Capital Assessment Tool , Social Capital Initiate Working Paper No , 22 The World Bank , Washington D

  10. Assessing the potential number of ATMs in banks, financial and credit institutions using Analytic Network Process (ANP and Gray Clustering Analysis (GCA Case study: between Enghelab Sq and Ferdowsi Sq- Enghelab Street of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Faraji Sabokbar

    2012-01-01

    Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA And Analytical Network Process (ANP, Human Sciences Modarres Management Researches in Iran, Vol.14, No.4, 107-136. (In PersianDorriNokarani Behrouz, BagherzadehAzar Mohammad, (2099, Decision-Making Model for Evaluting and Selecting the best Strategic Provider in Supply Chain with Analytical Network Process(ANP Approach, management Study, No.60, 22-38. (In PersianEslamiBidgholi Gholamreza, AhmadiAval Morteza, (2008, A Survey of Factors Affecting the Entrepreneurial Plans in the Venture Capital Companies(Using Analytic Network Process, Entrepreneurship Development, Vol.2, No.8, 107-129. (In PersianFarajiSabokbar HasanAli, Badir SeyyedAli, MotteiLangroudi SeyyedHasan, Sharifi Hojatollah, (2010, Measuring the Sustainability of Rural Areas Using Analytical Network Process (ANP(Case-Study: Rural Areas of fase county, Human Geography Research Quartery, No.72, 136-156. (In PersianFarajiSabokbar HasanAli, Salmani Mohammad, Fereidoni Fatemeh, Karimzadeh Hussein, Rahimi Hasan, (2010, Using Analytic Network Process Approach Case Study: The Villages of Quchan County, Human Sciences MODARES Spatial Planninp, Vol.14, No.1, 127-149. (In PersianFarsijani Hasan, Malmir Reza, Hamzehi Ehsan, (2011, Evaluting And Analysis of Implementing Just-In-Time System Using ANP Technique (Case Study: Printing Industry, Human Sciences MODARES Management Researches in Iran, Vol.14, No.4, 165-183. (In PersianFarsijani Hasan, Zandi Omid, (2010, Explanation and Measuring Service Quality Strategic Model, Journal of Strategic Management Studies, Vol.1, No.1, 69-94. (In PersianFoukerdi Rahym, (2005, Designing Model for Selecting Site Service Facilities in City Regions(A Case Study of Keshavarzi Bank’s ATMs in Tehran’s Civil District NO.10, Supervisor: Olfat Laya, Allameh University, Faculty of Accounting and Management. (In PersianGoli Ali, Olfat Laya, Fookordi Rahym, (2010, Location of Banking Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process Method (AHP

  11. The Relation Between Mental Well-Being and Marital Satisfaciton

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    Mohammad Taghi Iman

    2013-02-01

    couples in enduring marriages". The American Journal of family therapy., No.37:299-317.   Diener, Estephan (2000. "Subjective well-being: the science of happiness and a proposal for a national index", American psychologist., No.55:34-43.   Diener, E., Emmons, A., LORSON,j., Griffin, S. (1985." The satisfaction with life scale" Journal of personality assessment, No. 49:71-75.   Darvizeh, Zahra, and Kohaki, Fatemeh (2009. “The relationship between marital adjustment and psychological well-being”, Women Studies Journal, Sixth year, No.1, p: 91-104.   Eydi khatibi, Roghayeh (2005. Comparative validity of Different Attachment Styles, Master thesis in psychology, Uinversity of Tabriz.   Ezazi, Shahla (1998. Sociology of family: emphasize on the role, structure and function of family in contemporary. Tehran: Enlightenment and Women's Studies Publications.   Edalati, Ali and Redzuan, Ma ’ rof (2010. "A review: dominance, marital satisfaction and female aggression", Journal of Social Sciences, No. 6: 162-166.   Fakhraie, Sirus (2010. Sociological explanation of spouses in Shiraz city, PH.D thesis in sociology, Shiraz University.   Goldenberg and Goldenberg, Herbert (2010. Family therapy, translator: Hamid-Reza Hoseynshahi Baravati, Siamak Naghshbandi, and Elham Arjmand, Tehran: Ravan publication.   Hefazi Torghabe, Mitra, Firuzabadi, Ali, and Haghshenas, Hasan (2007. “The relationship between the elements of love and marital satisfaction”, the Journal of Mazandaran medical University, Volume XVI, No.54, p: 99-109.   Javadi Yeganeh, Mohammad-Reza(2004. “ Sociological approach to rational choice”, Rahborde farhang Journal, the first year, No.3.   Kiwi, Raymond and Kampnhvd, Luc Van (2004. Research Methods in Social Sciences, translator: Abdol-hosein Nikgohar, Tehran: Tutia publication.   Kaplan, Mand J.E. Maddux (2002. "Goals and marital satisfaction: Perceived support for personal goals and collective efficacy for collective goals" Psychology Journal, No

  12. NOTA EDITORIAL

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    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Vigencia de la tradición.

    A propósito del cambio en la presentación de la portada de MEDICINA hacemos un comentario de tipo periodístico, ya que afrontamos varios aspectos que tanto por las Directivas de la Academia como por el Consejo Editorial fueron cuidadosamente analizados antes de tomar esta determinación. Sea el primero de ellos el de buscar para la Revista una identidad fiel y estable, trasunto representativo de su función académica de informar sobre la actividad que se mueve en su seno y que comprende las inquietudes de sus Directivas y miembros, traducidas en iniciativas y trabajos científicos propios u ocasionalmente también solicitados o aceptados a colaboradores notables, con la finalidad de estimular la calidad, altura y variedad para nuestra publicación.

    Otro aspecto de esa identidad no atañe el patrimonio científico y cultural, sino a la presentación, puesto que se consideró en las deliberaciones que la revista de la Academia Nacional de Medicina debe mostrar definidamente algo de la majestad inherente a su categoría auténticamente nacional que exige culto a la tradición ecuménica representada en este caso por el emblema de Esculapio y a la vez a la historia vernácula representada simbólicamente aquí. En primer lugar, por MEDICINA que es la continuidad de la original REVISTA MEDICA existente en el siglo pasado, a la sazón publicación periódica de la sociedad de MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS NATURALES cuando fue promulgada la Ley 71 de 1890 que la convirtió, por acuerdo y voluntad del Gobierno Nacional de esa época y de los siguientes, en ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA Y cuyo artículo 70. reza así..."LA REVISTA MEDICA será el periódico oficial de la Academia"; y en segundo lugar por la diagramación interior ilustrada ahora con diseños de nuestro arte precolombino, cultura Tumaco para esta edición.

    Más aspectos comentables son los referibles a la en algo o en

  13. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Elegy in word is derived from Rasa-Yarso means weeping on dead people. It is also defined as enumerating deceased benefits and composing the poem about. Elegy is categorized into different parts as follows: 1. Courtier 2. Personal 3. Religious 4. Philosophical 5. Social 6. Fictional.   Not only did Khaghani prove himself at composing praise and commendation, lampoon and imprisoned poems, but also he proved himself at composing elegy. Commentators of khaghani’s poems know him as an exclusive poet regarding elegy- making. Also Khaghani composed some odes in loyalty mourning and the world transience as well as personal, courtier and religious elegies which are sub- categories of philosophical elegies. Khaghani’s “Ivane Madayen” ode is considered as a social elegy. In this article, one just analyzes the elegies that Khaghani composed about people. This type of elegies in Khaghani’s Divan are categorized in three parts: a Personal and family elegies which are about Khaghani’s son, wives, girl, son-in-law, uncle and his cousin, b Courtier or ceremonial elegies which are about Nosrat od-Din Espahbud Leyalvashir, Fakhr od-Din Manuchehr Shervanshah, Shervanshah’s children (Azed od-Din Fariborz and aljijak and other courtier men, c Religious elegies composed about Imam Mohammad Yahya, Sheikh ol-Islam Abu Mansoor Hafade, Azed od-Din bu Emran and other religious characters.   There have not been any comprehensive research projects conducted about Khaghani’s elegies. Nasrollah Imami had presented summarized explanations in “Composing elegy” book at Persian courtesy, in the part about Khaghani that were valuable, and he used them as the reference in this article. Two valuable articles were written about comparative literature: comparison of Khaghani’s and Hogo’s elegies about sorrow of their sons by Reza Irandust Tabrizi and “Elegy composing in Persian and Arabic courtesy with the help of comparing Khaghani Shervani and

  14. Conhecimento e uso da medicina alternativa entre alunos e professores de primeiro grau Knowledge and use of alternative medicine by elementary school children and teachers

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    Marilena Gomes dos Santos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de um Projeto de Educação em Saúde, investigou-se o conhecimento e como são utilizadas as práticas populares de cura, de modo a desenvolver e ampliar na escola, as possibilidades já existentes de discussão crítica e construtiva dentro do programa de saúde. Espera-se com isso poder resgatar saberes e valorizar esse conhecimento não sistematizado, presente na prática das populações ainda de forma marginalizada e controvertida. Foram aplicados questionários entre 110 professores e 162 alunos das 1ª à 4ª séries do 1° grau de quatro escolas (P.L.S.L., P.H.A., P.A.M.M. e A.M.G. da periferia de Belo Horizonte. Sendo que, as questões apresentadas foram respondidas somente por 105 docentes. Vinte e três (32,4% (entre 71 (67,6% acreditam em dons especiais de cura; dos 105 (95,4% que responderam sobre se acham que certas doenças podem ser tratadas com remédios caseiros, somente 69 (65,7% acreditam que sim; 54 (78,3% dentre esses, associaram a cura da doença com a planta medicinal e 15 (21,7% indicam o remédio sem associação com a doença; 36 (34,3% professores citaram a doença sem relacionar as ervas medicinais. Já, 101 (62,3% alunos acreditam que os remédios caseiros são positivos para algumas doenças. Entre os alunos e professores foram mencionadas doenças diversas, sintomas e órgãos que podem ser curados por plantas medicinais, rezas ou benzedeiras. Um pouco mais de 50% dos dois grupos de alunos (1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª séries vivem entre famílias que procuram benzedeiras como alternativa de cura. Foram indicadas pelos professores e alunos mais de 50 plantas ou composições de partes de plantas. Conclui-se, que a medicina alternativa é conhecida e utilizada pela amostra estudada.The knowledge and use of popular cures was investigated as part of health education project in such a way as to develop and expand the existing possibilities for critical and constructive discussion in the school within the health

  15. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-08-01

    attention to form and couldn't study dual relation of historical situation and language function as well, the name of Historical stylistics in a traditional way vs. modern historical stylistics is chosen for them.  Other surveys on Persian poems can be categorized in formalist stylistics branch Mohammad Reza Shafi'ee Kadkani introduced formalist stylistics to Persian researchers in practice by presenting formalists' definition of style and studying Bidel style in mentioned way. One can criticize formalist stylistics because it stops on text surface and does not pay attention to situational context.  Historical subjectivity dominance, absence of theoretical support, loss of linguistics knowledge in stylistic surveys, lack of coherence between text and its situational context, disregarding stylistics features' role in deeper and better understanding of text and dispersion and fragmentation of researches are some weak points of Persian stylistics. To exit such situation, it is necessary to recall functionality of stylistics knowledge to researchers. Stylistics knowledge does not only pay attention to lingual description but in this knowledge analysis of formalistic features and lingual structure is a tool for understanding text meaning, identifying poets and authors' individuality and finally recognizing stylistic features of genres and periods.  It is necessary to study styles' genres using different approaches as functional, critical, cognitive, historical and feminist. Our first priority is studying styles' genres because it results not only to recognizing stylistics features of genres but also to know individual styles and finally to provide needed information for studying styles of periods.  Using the results of genre stylistics and paying attention to historical approach, one can recognize periods’ style in practice. Considering stylish intergeneric features, one can determine dominant genre of each period and finally can understand connection of stylish features

  16. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    our conference. The social program is an important aspect of any conference and the PowerMEMS 2013 banquet will be held in the Science Museum. This provides a fantastic opportunity to network whilst viewing some of the fundamental engineering innovations that have ultimately bought us all here today. There is a long list of individuals we would like to thank for their support in organising PowerMEMS 2013. Once again the TPC, chaired by Eric Yeatman and Douglas Paul, have given us their valuable time and effort in reviewing abstracts. The PowerMEMS School chairs Einar Halvorsen and Shad Roundy and the expert speakers made the School possible. The local organising committee, led by Alwyn Elliott, have provided us with invaluable assistance in making PowerMEMS 2013 happen. The financial support from Imperial College London, the University of Southampton and conference sponsors has also been gratefully appreciated. Finally, we would like to thank you all for attending and helping in making PowerMEMS 2013 a success. We wish you a productive and enjoyable conference and a wonderful stay in London. Paul Mitcheson and Steve Beeby CONFERENCE OFFICIALS Conference Co-Chairs Stephen Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Paul Mitcheson, Imperial College London, UK Technical Program Committee Co-Chairs Douglas Paul, University of Glasgow, UK Eric Yeatman, Imperial College London, UK PowerMEMS School Co Chairs Einar Halvorsen, Vestfold University College, Norway Shad Roundy, University of Utah, USA Local Organising Committee Chair Alwyn Elliott, Imperial College London, UK International Steering Committee Mark Allen, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA Steve Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Young-Ho Cho, KAIST, South Korea Alan Epstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Masayoshi Esashi, Tohoku University, Japan Luc Fréchette, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada Reza Ghodssi, University of Maryland, USA Hiroki Kuwano, Tohoku University, Japan Jeff Lang, Massachusetts

  17. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2009-05-01

    I Kalfas and Reza S Abhari Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Department of Mechanical and Proc

  18. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Alberto García-Rigo (1), David Roma-Dollase (2), Manuel Hernández-Pajares (1), Zishen Li (3), Michael Terkildsen (4), German Olivares (4), Reza Ghoddousi-Fard (5), Denise Dettmering (6), Eren Erdogan (6), Haris Haralambous (7), Yannick Béniguel (8), Jens Berdermann (9), Martin Kriegel (9), Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk (10), Tamara Gulyaeva (11), Attila Komjathy (12), Panagiotis Vergados (12), Joachim Feltens (13,19), René Zandbergen (13), Tim Fuller-Rowell (14), David Altadill (15), Nicolas Bergeot (16), Andrzej Krankowski (17), Loukis Agrotis (18), Ivan Galkin (20), Raul Orus-Perez (21) 1. UPC-IonSAT research group, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain 2. Department of Engineering: Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Spain 3. Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 4. Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services, Australia 5. Canadian Geodetic Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) / Government of Canada, Canada 6. Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Germany 7. Frederick University Cyprus, Cyprus 8. IEEA, France 9. Institute of Communications and Navigation, DLR, Germany 10. Institute of Geodesy, UWM, Poland 11. Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia 12. NASA - Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, USA 13. Navigation Support Office, ESA-ESOC, Germany 14. NOAA affiliate, USA 15. Observatori de l'Ebre (OE), CSIC - Universitat Ramon Llull, 43520 Roquetes, Spain 16. Planetology and Reference Systems, Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), Belgium 17. Space Radio-Diagnostics Research Centre, UWM (SRRC/UWM), Poland 18. SYMBAN Limited, ESA-ESOC, Germany 19. Telespazio VEGA Deutschland GmbH c/o ESA-ESOC, Germany 20. University of Massachusetts Lowell, Space Science Lab, USA 21. Wave Interaction and Propagation Section (TEC-EEP), ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands IAG's Real Time

  19. OCTAVIO PAZ, TRADUCTOR DE POETAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celene García Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Mucho se ha escrito acerca de Octavio Paz. Como sabemos, su calidad excepcional como poeta y ensayista lo hicieron merecedor al Nobel de literatura. También es conocida su faceta como editor y divulgador de otras literaturas. Sus versiones al español de William Carlos Williams, Breton, Donne o Pessoa son ejemplo de la exuberante pluralidad de sus lecturas y de su singular manera de conciliar la praxis de la traducción con una original concepción teórica. Su abordaje va mucho más allá del simple traslado entre lenguas. La tarea que se propone lleva la traducción hasta el horizonte mismo de la creación estética. De este modo, salvando las distancias que separan literaturas tan diversas como la inglesa o la china, Paz ofrece un acercamiento a la traducción de poesía desde la premisa que reza: El buen traductor se mueve en una dirección contraria: su punto de llegada es un poema análogo, ya que no idéntico, al poema original. En estas líneas, hemos esbozado a grandes rasgos el eje que articula un proyecto de investigación realizado en la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, en torno a Octavio Paz, en su enorme labor como traductor, creador y divulgador de la cultura. Palabras clave: Octavio Paz, metáfora, traducción literaria. OCTAVIO PAZ: TRANSLATOR OF POETS Abstract: Much has been said about Nobel Laureate Octavio Paz. There is no shortage of studies on him as a publisher and a promoter of other literatures. His Spanish translations of William Carlos Williams, Breton, Donne or Pessoa are a clear example of both the scope of his readings and his unique way to match the praxis of translation with his own vision as a theorist. His approach far exceeds the mere transfer from one language into another, thus making of his craft as a translator an exploration of esthetic creation. By bridging the gap that separates the literatures of lands as far apart as England or India, Paz bases his translation strategy on his

  20. Ensayo sucinto para un Ordenamiento Cronológico. Sobre un Libro de la Historia de la Medicina en Nariño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Corella Hurtado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Historia de la Medicina en Nariño

    Pasto, mi ciudad, tiene su encanto propio. Es diferente a las demás ciudades; por la idiosincrasia de su gente y su forma de hablar y de pensar y por esa demarcación geográfica que nos aísla irremediablemente como un veredicto bíblico; hacia el norte por los eriales inconmensurables que llegan hasta Rosas y por el sur por los propios linderos patrios.

    La ciudad también tiene una historia de hospitales, de clínicas, de farmacias, de enfermeras y de galenos ilustres que ocupan un sitial grande en el escenario del esplendor. Por eso el acopio de datos, en libros y recuentos, siempre son bien recibidos porque ellos evitan que las anécdotas no vayan al baúl ominoso del olvido “El libro” Historia de la medicina en Nariño, siglo XX”de los doctores Leonardo Matta y Ricardo Zarama Burbano dice que el primer hospital que existió en la ciudad estaba localizado en lo que es hoy, la carrera 25 con calle 16 y que se llamaba centro de atención de pacientes La Madre de Dios, cuyo director era el doctor Pedro de Ahumada (Hermano de Santa Teresa de Jesús. Se fundó en el año de 1556. (1

    Un boletín editado por la Alcaldía de Pasto, en el mes de agosto de 1999, señala que “Un Hospital se inauguró en Pasto el 20 de diciembre de 1572 y corresponde a una carta entregada al padre Fray Miguel de Medina, vicario provincial en la Gobernación de Popayán, quien por aquel entonces se presentó en esta ciudad ante el Muy Magnífico Señor (así reza el acta Capitán Diego de Esquivel, Alcalde ordinario por su Majestad y le pidió se someta y dio posesión de las casas y los terrenos para la construcción de un Hospital en esta ciudad. A ese primitivo hospital y después de transcurrir 267 años se le dio el nombre de Hospital de la Asunción de Pasto. Segœn el historiador Sergio Elías Ortiz en su libro “Crónicas de la Ciudad de Pasto”, los hospitales

  1. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-07-01

    functionality they have only paid attention to form and couldn't study dual relation of historical situation and language function as well, the name of Historical stylistics in a traditional way vs. modern historical stylistics is chosen for them.  Other surveys on Persian poems can be categorized in formalist stylistics branch Mohammad Reza Shafi'ee Kadkani introduced formalist stylistics to Persian researchers in practice by presenting formalists' definition of style and studying Bidel style in mentioned way. One can criticize formalist stylistics because it stops on text surface and does not pay attention to situational context.  Historical subjectivity dominance, absence of theoretical support, loss of linguistics knowledge in stylistic surveys, lack of coherence between text and its situational context, disregarding stylistics features' role in deeper and better understanding of text and dispersion and fragmentation of researches are some weak points of Persian stylistics. To exit such situation, it is necessary to recall functionality of stylistics knowledge to researchers. Stylistics knowledge does not only pay attention to lingual description but in this knowledge analysis of formalistic features and lingual structure is a tool for understanding text meaning, identifying poets and authors' individuality and finally recognizing stylistic features of genres and periods.  It is necessary to study styles' genres using different approaches as functional, critical, cognitive, historical and feminist. Our first priority is studying styles' genres because it results not only to recognizing stylistics features of genres but also to know individual styles and finally to provide needed information for studying styles of periods.  Using the results of genre stylistics and paying attention to historical approach, one can recognize periods’ style in practice. Considering stylish intergeneric features, one can determine dominant genre of each

  2. Reflections on the Evolution of the Debate: From Drakht-i Asurig to Nima Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Mohammadi badr

    2016-06-01

    up. In this type of debate each side tries to show his merits to another. At the end of the debate none of the parties are able to defeat each other, so both sides go to the judge and referee ruled that both of them have benefits and peace is better for them.  Most of royal poets and writers have taken advantage of this way to entertain the King and Prince. That's why in many of these debates, the king or minister is the judge of debate which is written for him. Also In contemporary literature many examples of debates are detectable as a means to promote education and moral ideas. Among them, Bahar and Parvin can be noted as able poets in this field. Bahar's Specific initiatives in finding the examples of the debate, demonstrates his power, talent and ability in this way. Parvin's attention is directed to methods of Bahar- like other forms of her poetry. His beautiful and informative debates from language of objects, birds and elements of nature, are so strong that most parts of them are used in her Masnavis. Following the old pattern of debate continued by poets in modern poetry. Mohammad Reza Shafiee Kadkani is one of those poets who has pictured inside and outside of the society of Iranian by debate genre.    As a founder of the new era in modern Persian poetry, Nima has paid attention to this method in poems such as the Morgh-e -Amen and Rang-parideh. Debate has also considered in prose. A large part of our prose debates has been made with regard to social conditions. Obviously the social conditions of dialogue are directly linked with the political system. Saadi's conflict with the pretender represents the pinnacle of the intellectual system. Among Persian debates which are written in prose, parts of the book Hamidi's Maghamat or debate of "SHatranj va Nard[2]" by Sarrafe Khwarizmi, which are written in musical prose can be pointed. The debate in "Anasur[3]" from Khand mir that was written in simple prose and easy is another example. Debates in either poetry

  3. Identification and Analysis of Foreign Tourists Motivations for Travelling to Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ranjbarian

    2013-01-01

    References Ajhdari, Alireza, (2011, Management Role in the Development of Tourism Industry, available at www.tourism siecnce.comAmirtahmasb, Saharans, (2008, the typology of inbounded tourists visiting Iran, Master’s thesis, Lulea University of technology, SuddenBadaruddin, Mohamed, (2006, The Psychographic Analysis Of Malaysian Domestic Travelers, kvantitatiivinen tutkimus School of Housing, Building & Planning, University Sains, MalaysiaCha, S., McCleary, M., & Uysal, M. (1995. Travel motivations of Japanese overseas travelers: a factor-cluster segmentation approach. Journal of Travel Research, 33(2, pp 33–39.Crompton, J. (1979, "Motivations of pleasure vacations", Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 6 No.4, pp.408-424.Formica, S., & Uysal, M. (1998. Market segmentation of an international culturalhistoric event in Italy. Journal of Travel Research, 36(4, 16–24.Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. R. (2003. Tourism: principles, practices, philosophies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Habib por Getabi, Karam, Safari Shali, Reza, (2009, Applying SPSS in Survey Research (quantitive data analysis, Ghazal Publishing, Firth Edidtion, Tehran, p 308Iso-Ahola, S E (1989, Motivation for Leisure’ in Understanding Leisure and Recreation: Mapping the Past, Charting the Future, Ed by E L Jackson and T L Burton, Ventura Publishing Inc, State College, p10Jalilvand, Mohamad Reza, (2009, Studying Impact of Word Of mouth Communication On Attracting Foreign Tourism, Bahram Ranjbarian, University of Isfahan, management groupKim, S., Crompton, J. L., & Botha, C. (2000. Responding to competition: a strategy for Sun/Lost City, South Africa. Tourism Management, 21, 33–41.Kotler, Philip, Gary, Armstrong, (2007, Principles of Marketing, translated to Persian by Bahman Forozande, Isfahan: Amokhte publishers, eighth edition, pp 579-580 Kukka, Maaria, Erika, Kuusela, (2010, Travel Behavior Of Different Ages, University Of Applied Science, Malaysi, p35Loker-Murphy, L. (1996. Backpackers in Australia: a

  4. Community Development Strategic Planning with a Focus on Social Variables, Case study: Tollab Community of Mashhad

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    E. Mafi

    2012-01-01

    mashhad. Mashhad, IranBarghamdi, Hadi. (2008. Effect of clearance of Ghorbat Neighborhood on social capital. Social welfare quarterly, V28: 26-283Clark, david. (1996. Urban World/ Global City. London and New York: routledge pubclose, david. W. (2007. A model for strategic social planning in a fishng economy. vascos, pp:373-398. Dalir, Karim Hosseinzade. & Others. (2009. Analysis and Qualitative Assessment of Urban Sustainability Measures in the Tabriz City Journal of Urban - Regional Studies and Research, V 2: 1-18Danca, Anthony. C. (2010. What is SWOT Analysis, Downloaded from SWOT Analysis: http://www. stfrancis. edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/swot. htmFellahat, Mohammad sadegh. (2006. Sence of place and Its indexes. HonarHaye Ziba. vol26: 57-66Foroozande dehkodi, Lotfollah. (2008. Strategic planning model. Management sience, vol 45: 97-111Friedman, john. (1993. Toward anon euclidion mode of planning. JAPA journal, Autumn, pp: 43-44. Fukuyama, Francis. (2000. The order end, review of social capital and maintaining it. translated by Gholam Abbas Tavassoli. Tehran: Jahan emruz pubGiddens, Anthony. (1999. The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. translated by Manoochehr Saboori. TehranHaji poor, Khalil. (2006. Neighborhood Based planning. HonaHaye Ziba, vol6: 37-46.Hemati, Reza. (2007. Social capital, methodological challenges and measurment tools. Social capital and economic development conferranceIbrahim Poor, Eisa. (2009. The Analysis of Effective Factors in the Expansion of Coastal Region of Chabahar Tourism through SWOT Model. Journal of Urban - Regional Studies and Research, V 1:107-128Imani Jajarmi, Hossein. (2006. Neighborhood life and cultural development. Tehran. Tehran municipality.Imani Jajarmi, Hossein. (2008. Historic-cultural characteristic of community management of neighborhood in Iran. Iranian Journal of anthropology, V8.Khakpor, Baratali. & others. (2009. The role of capital in the regional stable development case study: Sajjad area

  5. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

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    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    alterations of hydrous and non-hydrous calc-silicates with low temperature and high fO2 fluids and forming chlorite, calcite, clay minerals and hematite. Acknowledgements We gratefully thank Mr. Reza Sheikhi from Saba Noor Co. who kindly helped us during the research. We also thank Professor David Lentz from University of New Brunswick for advising and supporting the research. References Sheikhi, R., 1995. Economic geology study of Shahrak Fe deposit, east of Takab. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 161 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Beaudoin, G., Dupuis, C., Gosselin, P. and Jebrak, M., 2007. Mineral chemistry of iron oxides: application to mineral exploration. In: C.J. Andrew (Editor, Ninth Biennial SGA meeting, SGA, Dublin, pp. 497−500.

  6. Jordi Canal (dir., Sophie Baby, Jean-Philippe Luis, Stéphane Michonneau et Mercedes Yusta, Histoire de l’Espagne contemporaine de 1808 à nos jours. Politique et société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Maurice

    2011-02-01

    , no logró institucionalizar un régimen corporativista. Es cierto que, en el terreno político, la Segunda República constituyó una ruptura con el reconocimiento del derecho de voto para las mujeres y la separación del Estado y de la Iglesia, la cual provocó la enemistad del catolicismo que encabezó la reconfiguración de la derecha. Pero lentitud e insuficiencias de una reforma tan anhelada como era la de la propiedad de la tierra se debió menos al desinterés del personal político que a la determinación que mostró la burguesía agraria en la defensa de sus intereses.La guerra civil por antonomasia se internacionalizó pronto por necesitar armas los beligerantes, lo que consiguió fácilmente Franco de los estados fascistas, dándole temprana superioridad militar. Se subraya el carácter contrarrevolucionario de la sublevacíon, el uso sistemático que hizo del terror contra los republicanos. Se echan de menos análisis concretos del proceso colectivizador en la España republicana así como de los luctuosos sucesos de mayo de 1937. También se pudo recordar la movilización internacional de escritores y artistas en apoyo de la República.De la dictadura a la democracia, reza la tercera parte que plantea la problemática de la modernización de la sociedad española.El Caudillo tardó mucho en institucionalizar un Estado a su medida, adaptándose hábilmente al entorno internacional y estableciendo temprano una relación bilateral con los EE.UU de América que ha perdurado hasta la actualidad. Base de su régimen fue una represión multiforme en el marco de una autarquía económica dura para el pueblo. Multiforme fue también la resistencia, siendo una de las formas más originales la político-sindical de CC.OO.El desarrollismo llevado a cabo por miembros del Opus Dei –organización de seglares dependiente del Vaticano– tuvo resultados desiguales y el crecimiento de clases medias urbanas no significa que fue « total » la transformación de la

  7. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

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    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract  Elegy in word is derived from Rasa-Yarso means weeping on dead people. It is also defined as enumerating deceased benefits and composing the poem about. Elegy is categorized into different parts as follows: 1. Courtier 2. Personal 3. Religious 4. Philosophical 5. Social 6. Fictional.   Not only did Khaghani prove himself at composing praise and commendation, lampoon and imprisoned poems, but also he proved himself at composing elegy. Commentators of khaghani’s poems know him as an exclusive poet regarding elegy- making. Also Khaghani composed some odes in loyalty mourning and the world transience as well as personal, courtier and religious elegies which are sub- categories of philosophical elegies. Khaghani’s “Ivane Madayen” ode is considered as a social elegy. In this article, one just analyzes the elegies that Khaghani composed about people. This type of elegies in Khaghani’s Divan are categorized in three parts: a Personal and family elegies which are about Khaghani’s son, wives, girl, son-in-law, uncle and his cousin, b Courtier or ceremonial elegies which are about Nosrat od-Din Espahbud Leyalvashir, Fakhr od-Din Manuchehr Shervanshah, Shervanshah’s children (Azed od-Din Fariborz and aljijak and other courtier men, c Religious elegies composed about Imam Mohammad Yahya, Sheikh ol-Islam Abu Mansoor Hafade, Azed od-Din bu Emran and other religious characters.   There have not been any comprehensive research projects conducted about Khaghani’s elegies. Nasrollah Imami had presented summarized explanations in “Composing elegy” book at Persian courtesy, in the part about Khaghani that were valuable, and he used them as the reference in this article. Two valuable articles were written about comparative literature: comparison of Khaghani’s and Hogo’s elegies about sorrow of their sons by Reza Irandust Tabrizi and “Elegy composing in Persian and Arabic courtesy

  8. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2015-01-01

    , Hindawy A, El-Gammal MA. Clinical, Electroencephalographic (EEG, Neuroradiological and Molecular Correlations in Late-Detected Phenylketonuria (PKU Patients.Egypt J. Neurol. Psychiat. Neurosurg., 2005, 42(2:391-406.Karimzadeh P, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Shariatmadari F, Nemati H, Ahadi A, KarimiDardashti S, Mirzarahimi M, Dastborhan Z, ZareNoghabi J. Study on MRI Changes in Phenylketonuria in Patients Referred to Mofid Hospital/ Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 spring 8(2:53-56.Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Ahmad Abadi F, Jabbedari S, Taghdiri MM, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonekaboni SH, NejadBiglari H. Propionic Acidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:58-61.Ozand PT, Rashed M, Gascon GG, Youssef NG, Harfi H, Rahbeeni Z, et al. Unusual presentations of propionic acidemia. Brain Dev 1994;16(Suppl:46-57 .Karimzadeh P, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Taghdiri MM, Nemati H, Saket S, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Tonakebni SH. Methylmalonicacidemia: Diagnosis and Neuroimaging Findings of This Neurometabolic Disorder (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 63-66.Radmanesh A, Zaman T, Ghanaati H, Molaei S, Robertson RL, ZamaniAA. Methylmalonicacidemia: brain-imaging findings in 52 children and a review of the literature. PediatrRadiol 2008 Oct;38(10:1054-6.Karimzadeh P, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Alaee MR, Ghofrani M, Taghdiri MM, Tonekaboni SH. Biotinidase Deficiency: A Reversible Neurometabolic Disorder (An Iranian Pediatric Case Series. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:47- 52.Karimzadeh P, Pirzadeh Z, Ahmadabadi F, Jafari N, Jabbehdari S, Nemati H, Ghofrani M, Taghdiri MM, Tonekaboni SH, Mohammad-Reza Sharbatdaralaei. Glutaricaciduria type 1: diagnosis and neuroimaging findings of this neurometabolic disorder in an Iranian pediatric case series. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities 05/2014; DOI: 10.1179/2047387714Y.0000000039.Bernier FP, Boneh A, Dennett X, Chow

  9. Analysis of cultural development of Isfahan city Using Factor analysis method

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    J.Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    services are very important.Keyword: Spatial analysis, Cultural Development, Factor analysis method, Isfahan city.ReferencesAzemi, Hossein (2004, Circuits of underdevelopment Iran's economy,nay press, Fifth Edition.Azemi, Nasser (2002, exploring the fundamentals of urbanization and urban systems, Nekapress, Tehran.Consulting Engineers, Translated by Abutalebfanai and others (1992, Guidelines for planning rural centers, Rural and Development press, No.10.Fanni, Zohre (2004, small cities another phenomenon in regional development, First edition, ministry of interior.Ghanbari Haft cheshme, Abolfazl&KarimHosseinzadedalir (2005, specification of thedegree of development in townships of Eastern Azarbaijan Province 1375, Geography and areal development journal Mashhad Ferdosi University No.5, 113-123.Hekmatnia, Hassan, Mousavi, Mirnajaf(2006, model application in Geography emphasizing rural and planning, ElmeNovin press, first edition.Kalantari, Khalil (2001, Planning and regional development, theories and techniques, khoshbin press, First Edition, Tehran.Kalantari, khalil (2003, data process and analysis in socioeconomic researches, Tehran, sharif press.MasoumiAshkevri, Hassan (1993, principles and methods of regional planning.Mohammadi, Jamal (2002, an analysis of quantitative concepts and their role in urban and regional planning, Geographic space journal, Ahar Open University, 2, 87-102.MokhtariMalekabadi, Reza (2007, Impact of information technology on urban land use planning (Case Study: _ recreational and cultural uses in the city Isfahan, Ph.D. dissertation, Isfahan University.Mousavi, Mirnajaf ,Hekmatnia , Hassan, (2005,Analysis and synthesis of the factors causing the development of areas Iran, Geography and Development journal, Fall and Winter.Mohammad Mouliyae (2007, Comparing the degree of development of the service sector and social welfare of the province during 1373 and 1383, Quarterly of Welfare, Sixth year, No.24.PapolyYazdi, Mohammad Hossein and Rajabi

  10. Theory of Transcendent unity of Religion

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    Hossein Ali Torkamany

    2015-09-01

    Shinakht, Vol.2. No.2, 213-245 • Akbariyan, Reza, Jalali, Alireza,2008, A ciritical consideration on ancient view of the Unity of reliegions, The new religious thought journal, No:12 • Bahrami, Mohammad, 2002,A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic research journal, No:32, 124-151 • Bahrami, Mohammad, 2003,A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic research journal, No:33, 149-169 • Bahrani, seyed Hashem, 1995, Al-borhan, Trhran, Besat institute • Fakhr-e-Razi, mohammad ibn omar, 1999, Mafatih ol-gheyb, Beirut, Dar ehya al-toras al-arabi • Fazlollah, seyed mohammad Hosein,1998, men wahye Al-qoran, Beirut, Dar ol-melak • Feyz Kashani, Mohsen,1994, Al-safi, Tehran, Al-Sadr • Ghadrdan Gharamaleki, MohammadHasan, (n.d, Quran And Pluraism, Tehran, Youth thought center • Ghadrdan Gharamaleki, MohammadHasan,2003, A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic researchs journal, No:33, 138-157 • Gharaati, Mohsen,1994, Tafsir-e-Noor, Tehran, Cultural Center of the lessons from the Quran • Glyn, Richards, 2001, Towards atheology of religions, translated by Gandomi NasrAbadi, Reza, Meftah, AhmadReza, Qom, Religious Studies and researchs Center, • Hick, john, 1993, Philosophy of Reliegion, Tehran, Al-hoda • Ibn babeweih, Mohammad ibn Ali, 1997,Al-amali, Tehran, Ketabchi • Ibn-r-e-manzur, mohammad ibn mokarram, 1993, Lesan ol-Arab, Beirut, Dar e sadr • Peterson ,Michael, Hasker ,William , Reichenbach, Bruce & Basinger ,David , 2010, Reason and religious belief, Tehran, Tarhe now • Javadi Amoli, Abd-o-allah, 2010, Religious studies, Qom. Esra • Javadi Amoli, Abd-o-allah, 2011, Tasnim, Qom. Esra • Karami, Tayebe, Kadivar, Mohsen, 2004, Relationship human diversity with a multiplicity of religions And the idea of transcendent unity of religions in the eyes of traditionalists Journal of Religious Thought , No:12 • Majlesi, Mohammadbagher, 1982 , Behar ol-Anwar(Seas of Lights , Beirut, Dar ehya al-toras al-arabi • Makarem, Shirazi

  11. Evaluating the Relationship between Distance from the Border and Amount of Income and Employment from Smuggling (Case study: Villages of Khav and Myrabad district, Marivan County

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    H. Kohnepooshi

    2013-01-01

    for the relationship between the amount of income by smuggling and the distance from border. This means that, with increasing distance from border, the smuggling and the amount of smuggling income decreases and vice versa. Therefore impact of distance from border on the amount of income earned by residents of the "Khav and Myrabad" villages from smuggling activity is confirmed. 5– SuggestionsSome suggested guidelines for the optimal use of available resources in order to reduce unemployment, creating jobs and decreasing the impact of smuggling activities in rural households economies can be mentioned below:Reducing the state intervention in production activity in the studied area.Investing in rural small industries that have high employment potential.Developing agriculture in the studied area with wells and exploitation of underground water resources.Activating cross-border market in this district for the development of trade between Iran and Iraq.Key words: smuggling, employment, generating income, border villages, rural economy.References Aghazadeh, A.R (2004. Analytical and practical review of Iran criminal policy toward smuggling in accordance with the latest legal reform, publishing Arian.Alamolhoda, Syed Sajjad, 2005; check smuggling of goods and currency, (http://www.epe.ir/.Andalib, A.R (2001. Basic theory and principles of the border areas of Iran, Tehran, Islamic Revolution Sepah Pasdaran, Command and Staff College, High-war period.Asghari. AliReza, (2009, the consumption of domestic goods and trafficking, bank and finance magazine, No. 98.Bisokhan, O; (2008. Impact of border market in economic restructuring and physical urban (Piranshahr sample, M.S Thesis, Zanjan University.Bradbury, S, L. (2010. An assessment of the free and secure trade (FAST program along the Canada-US border. Journal of Transport Policy 17. 367-380.Dasche, K., Haupt, A. (2010. the political economy of regional integration projects at borders where poor and rich meet: The role of

  12. Measuring the degree of life quality satisfaction of old neighborhoods of Aran and Bidgol County

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    M. Shaterian

    2012-01-01

    planning, translated by Mohammad Soleimani and Ahmad Reza Kiani, Training Tehran University: Jahad Publication.Institute of Development Aran and bidgol city (2007, strategic plan for the historic texture of the city Aran and Bidgol.Jeanne, R. (2003, Customer Satisfaction Measurement in a Business to Business Context: a Conceptual Framework, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 18, pp.179 – 195.Macgregor, S. L. T. (1998, The Impact of Economic Reform on Gahanian Families. Canadian Home Economics Journal.Vol. 18, No. 1Majed, M. and Lahsayzadh, A. (2007, Relationship between background variables, social capital and quality of life satisfaction: A case study villages in Fars Province, A Quarterly Journal of Rural Development Studies, No. 47malek, H. (2005, Sociology classes and social inequalities, Payam Noor University Press.Massoud, M. (2008, study Evolution of urban planning in developing countries, monthly view of knowledge, Construction Engineers Organization of Isfahan province, age 16, Vol 3, No. 146.nikandish, N. (2010, Geography Aran and Bidgol city, Morsel Publication.oshnooi, A. (2010, organizing and empowering the urban texture of old, case study Aran & Bidgol, Master degree thesis Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Science, Yazd University.Pacione, M. (2003, Urban Environmental Quality and Human Wellbeing - a Social Geographical Perspective. Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol.65, (1-2, pp.19-30.Pal, A. K. Kumar, U. C. (2005, Quality of life Concept for the Evaluation of Societal Development of rural Community in West Bangal, India. Rural Development, Vol.15, No2.Qalibaf, M. (2010, Assessment of quality of life of rural residents' satisfaction and its impact on border security: A case study of Nosod Kermanshah Province, A Quarterly Journal of Rural Development Studies, No. 47.Rafieian, M. (2009, Assessing the Value of Environmental Attributes Affecting Households, Housing Choice Using a Choice Experiment Method in NAVAB Neighbourhood

  13. The Assessment of Literal Ornaments in Persian Badi’ Books from the linguistic, Phonetic and Phonologic Viewpoint

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    Morteza Heidari

    2016-05-01

    Language (Badi`, 4th ed. Tehran: Markaz Press.16. Malmkjær, Kirsten. (ed. (2002. Linguistic Encyclopedia, NewYork: Routledge.17. Martinet, André (2001, Economy of Phonetic Changes, Hormoz Milanian (Trans., 1st ed. Tehran: Hermes Press. 18. Mirsadeqi, Meymanat (2009. The Dictionary of Poetry, 4th ed. Tehran: Mahnaz Book.19. Modarresi Qavami, Golnaz (2011. Phonetics: the Scientific Survey of Speech, 1st ed, Tehran: Samt Press. 20. Najafgholi Mirza (1983. Dorre-ye Najafi, Hossein Ahi (Emand., 1st ed. Tehran: Forughi Press.21. Najafi, abol-Hasan (2011. The Bases of Linguistics and its Usage in Persian Language, 11th ed. Tehran: Nilufar Press.22. Natel Khanlari, Parviz (2007. Metre of Persian Poetry, 7th ed. Tehran: Tus Press.23. Oxford Talking Dictionary. (1998. Learning Company Properties Inc. CD.24. Qavimi, Mahvash (2004. Sound and Association: an Approach to Mehdi Akhavan Sales Poems. 1st ed. Tehran: Hermes Press.25. Razi, Shams-e Qeys (1935. Al-Mo`jam fi M`ayir-e Ash`ar el-Ajam, 1st ed. Mohammad Qazvini (Emend., Tehran: Tehran University Press. 26. Safavi, Kurosh (2011. From Linguistics to Literature, 1st vol. 3rd ed. Tehran: Sure Mehr Press. 27. Samare, Yad ol-Lah (2009. The Phonetics of Persian Language; Phonemes and Phonetic Structure of Syllables, 8th ed. Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e Daneshgahi Press. 28. Samayi, Mahdi (2009. History of Phonetics and Iranian’s Role, 1st ed, Tehran: Msrkaz Press. 29. Shafi`i Kadkani, Mohammad Reza (2010. The Music of Poetry, 12th ed, Agah Press.30. Shah Ne`mat ol-lah Vali (1974.   Kolliyat, Javad Noorbakhsh (Ed., 3rd ed. no Place: Ne`mat ol-lahi Monastery Press.31. Shamisa, Sirus (1993. A New Outline to Badi`, 5th ed. Tehran: Ferdous Press.32. Shebli No`mani, Mohammad (1974. She`r ol-Ajam. 4th vol. Fakhr Da`i Gilani (Trans., Tehran: Donya-ye Ketab Press.33. Strazny, Philipp. (ed. (2005. Encyclopedia of linguistics, vol. 1, New York & Oxon: Fitzroy Dearborn.34. Taftazani, Sa`d od-Din Mas`ud (2004. Al

  14. Geographical analysis of parking land use in Genaveh applying AHP Model

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    Gh. Hosseini Lagha

    2012-01-01

    (2006, application of GIS in the class to locate a public parking OWA, City and Town Planning Conference, Tehran. Mokhtari Malekabadi, Reza., (2009, analytical member of the planning of parking in the city using the application programming model for regional, urban and regional studies and research, the first year, the third number, Winter. Essay, (2007, Guide to the marginal Urban Park Management, Office of Transportation and Development Deputy Secretary of Coordination Council of the city traffic.Caroline J. Rodier a, Susan A. Shaheen, 2010, Transit-based smart parking: An evaluation of the San Francisco Bay area field test, Transportation Research Part C 18 (2010 225–233.Felix Caicedo, 2010, Real-time parking information management to reduce search time, vehicle displacement and emissions, Transportation Research Part D 15 (2010 228–234.Garber, N. J. and Hoel, L. A. (2008 "Traffic and highway engineering", PWS Publishing Company, Washington.Kligman R, McDevitt, R, Withee,T, (2002, "Traffic engineering in Newton", http:\\www.wpi.edu/~mrmcd , ( accessed : 02/06/2003Salter, R. J. (2001 "Traffic engineering-worked examples", Mac Millan, London.Weant , R, (1978, "Parking garage planning and operation", ENO Foundations or Transportation INC.Zhang, Xiaoning, Hai-Jun, Huang and Zhang, H. M. "Integrated daily commuting patterns and optimal road tolls and parking fees in a linear city", Transportation Research, Part B: Methodological, Vol. 42, issue 1, 2008.

  15. “Antonio Vargas Reyes y la Medicina del Siglo XIX”. Del Académico Roberto de Zubiría

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    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La Segunda Edición de un Libro Admirable (Comentario a la 2ª Edición del libro “Antonio Vargas Reyes-La Medicina del Siglo XIX en Colombia” por el Académico Roberto de Zubiría C.-Febrero 2003

     

    Circunstancias ajenas a la voluntad de los protagonistas hicieron que la presentación de este libro ante la Academia Nacional de Medicina tuviera que ser postergada hasta la fecha actual. De todas maneras, persiste mi vivo agradecimiento ante las directivas de la Academia y ante el mismo autor por haberme distinguido con el honor de ser yo quien presente ante ustedes esta obra, en el momento ya con varios meses de haber sido publicada por Editorial Kimpres, en un elegante volumen de 212 páginas y que marca un hito entre los libros de historia médica publicados en el país en el año 2002.

    Efectivamente, en sus 20 capítulos, seguidos de un apéndice y del testamento del personaje aquí biografiado, además de una extensa bibliografía curiosamente referida con números romanos, Roberto de Zubiría nos entrega una visión panorámica de lo que fue, como reza el subtítulo, la medicina del siglo XIX en Colombia. Medicina que estuvo rubricada y marcada por los sucesos de la independencia, en su segunda década, a la que se siguió el cambio intelectual necesario y obligatorio que nos trocaba de un pensamiento de colonos y súbditos al de seres independientes, que debían crear o transformar las nuevas instituciones de la patria. Como lo ha dicho el historiador médico español García-Valdés a propósito de Europa, podría decirse que el siglo XIX sólo llega a la medicina colombiana a partir de 1820. Por eso el primer capítulo hace un inventario de lo que era el ambiente y las escuelas iniciales de la primera mitad de ese siglo, con los primeros intentos de establecer una cátedra por José Celestino Mutis y Miguel de Isla, a quienes el autor señala justamente como los verdaderos precursores

  16. A Study of Hope in the Future among Students and its Affecting Factors

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    Mohammad Bagher Alizadeh Aghdam

    2013-02-01

    emphasis on the Tehran province , Journal of Applied Sociology , 20th year , No: 1, spring , pp. 146-119 .   Hezarjaribi, Jafar & Safari, Shaali, Reza (2009 life satisfaction and sense of security in place : study of Tehran Citizens, Social Discipline Quarterly , No: 3 , fall, pp. 7-28 .   Keshavarz, Amir & Vafaiian, Mahboube (2007 studying factors affecting the level of happiness, Journal ( Applied Psychology , No. 2 (5 , Fall, pp. 51-62 .   Mesbah, Nasrin & Abedin, Ahmad (2006 Relationship between stress and despair among students living in dormitory, Thought Behavior , 12th year, No: 2 , pp. 154-159 .   Naadi, Mohammad Ali & Abedian, Ilnaz (2011 Analysis of the relationship between spiritual meaning and spiritual well-being , mental happiness , life satisfaction, psychological prosperity , hope and purpose in the lives of future students, Journal of School Health , Yazd , 10 th year , No:3&4 , autumn and winter.   Nasiri, Habiballah & Joukar, Bahram (2008 Meaning of life , life satisfaction and mental health in women ( the cultural group of women , Women's Studies , Vol 6 , No:2, summer , pp. 157-176 .   Parcham, Azam& Mohagegian, Zahra (2011 Comparative analysis of solutions and gaining hope from the perspective of positive psychology perspective and the Quran , Journal of Knowledge , 20th Year , No: 164, Summer, pp: 99-113 .   Zatomeka, Pither (2005 sociological theory of trust , translated by:Fatheme Gholabi , Soutode press.   Chang, L. C., Li, I. C. (2002. The Correlation between Perceptions of Control and Hope Status in Home- Based Cancer Patients. J. Nurse R. S. Mar, 10(1: 73-82.   Clarke, D. H., Kissane, D. W. (2002. Demoralization: It's Phenomenology and Importance. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36: 733-742.   Danner, D., Showdown, D. Friesen, W. (2001. Positive Emotions in Early Life and Longevity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80: 804-813.   Frederickson, B. L. (2009 Positivity: Ground Breaking Research Reveals

  17. Determinations of Urban Political Ecology: The Distribution Pattern Canopy Cover of Tree and Spatial inequality in Tehran

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    T. Karami

    2012-01-01

    , Iran.Kamali A. (2006, An Introduction to Sociology of Social Inequalities, Samat publication, Tehran, Iran.Lee J and David W. S. Wong. (2002, Statistical Analysis with ArcView GIS Translated by Mohamdreza Hosinnejad and Fereydoun ghadimi aroosmahaleh, publication of Iran University of Science & Technology.matakan A.A and etc. (2009, Measuring The quality of life places by using Multicriteria Metod in GIS (Case study: Tehran city, first year, No.4, winter: 1-20 Mousakazemi S.M and Akbari S. (2010, Aanalaysis of socio-environmental sustainability in Ilam city with emphasis on green spaces land uses, Journal of Iranian Geographical Association: eighth year, No.26: 135-149.Parivar P, Yavari A.R., Sotoude. (2008, A Landscape-based analysis of spatial distribution and dynamics of Tehran urban green spaces, Journal of environmental studies may 2008; 34(45:73-84.Piran Parviz. (2008, analysis of Sociological of Urban Housing in Iran in Proceedings of Social problems in Iran edited by Iranian Sociological Association, Agah publication, Tehran, Iran.Soltani, M. (2007, The urban Parks contemporary , with a focus on Tehran experience in transition of garden to park, Journal of Baqe Nazar, forth year, No8: 48-58Soltanzadeh H. (2003, From gardens to park, Iranian Journal of anthropology leter, Winter 2003; 1(4:91-113.Stevenson, D. (2009, Cities and urban Cultures, Rajab Panahi, Ahmad Pourahmad, publication by Architecture and Urban Development Research Center, Tehran.The Ministry of of Housing and Urban Development and Institution Urban Development plans of Tehran. (2007, The basic document of Strategic – structural plan of Tehran development, Tehran, Iran.United Nations Center Settlements. (2009, Cities in globalizing: global report on the human settlements, translated by Reza pourkharad and etc, publication by Research Planning center of Tehran. Zangiabadi A, Rakhshaninasab H.R. (2009, The statistical- spatial analysis of urban green spaces development indices (case study: Isfhan

  18. Respect for life and nature

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    Querubina Bringel Olinda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida é o bem mais importante dentre todos os outros. Essa é a lei biológicaque nos rege. Ela reza que os seres vivos nascem, crescem, reproduzem-se emorrem. Todos os demais bens produzidos pelos homens têm ou não possibilidadesde serem adquiridos, com conseqüências diferenciadas. Vive-se com a subtração dealgum deles, porém a vida tem finitude inalterada.Para preservar a vida todas as condições necessárias e imprescindíveis securvam. Há a família que cuida da criança e a torna um cidadão de bem; há aestrutura escolar do Estado que forma e instrui o indivíduo; há a produção dealimentos que garante o abastecimento dos produtos à população; há o trabalhoe a renda que possibilitam uma alimentação saudável; há políticas públicas dehabitação para garantir o teto e o saneamento básico para reduzir as doenças e asmortes infantis; e há o setor saúde para atuar em todos os níveis de promoção dasaúde, prevenção da doença, não negligenciando os níveis de atenção secundárioe terciário com atendimento universal. Para preservar a vida e elevar a expectativade vida todos os setores se fundem: o social e o econômico; o desenvolvimentocientífico e o tecnológico. Todas as ações convergem para mais vida e qualidadeno viver.A expectativa de vida no Brasil, em 2008, atingiu 73,0 anos de vida ao nascerpara ambos os sexos, apresentando diferenças entre as macro regiões brasileirascom limites entre 70,1 no Nordeste e de 75,0 anos no Sul. Há, ainda, um diferencialsignificativo entre a expectativa de vida das mulheres em relação aos homens noPaís, as primeiras vivem, em média, 76,8 anos enquanto os segundos vivem, emmédia, 69,3 anos(1. Em 2007, no Brasil, a taxa de mortalidade infantil ficou de20,0 óbitos para menores de 1 ano por mil nascidos vivos(1. O resultado de todasessas estatísticas é que se procura reduzir os óbitos em idades prematuras, luta-separa prolongar a vida, busca-se reduzir o

  19. From The Editor

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    Ugur Demiray

    2013-01-01

    Planning, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI, Mohammad Reza SARMADI, Department of Education, Payam Noor University, Tehran and Abbas EBADI Tehran, IRAN. The present study, to concept clarification of the ECE, five-step method of Norris was used. Also, a summative content analysis approach is used to interpret meaning from the content of text data. Findings from the content analysis of ECE plotted as a conceptual model. The results of the content analysis led to the extraction of meaning units, sub-codes and the main themes. According to data explication 6 themes extracted. According to extracted operational definition and the Hexa-based model of the ECE, the diversity of the target population and educational content, it seems the most appropriate teaching methods, are the distance education methods. The 14th article is from Turkey, Turkish Military Academy, Ankara, TURKEY and entiled as “Towards The Use of A Novel Method: The First Experiences on Measuring The Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills”, written by Murat Paşa UYSAL. This paper paper looks by using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method; we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. The 15th article titled as “Value-Addition For Empowerment And Employability Through Intervention of ODL Mode Of IGNOU” and written by S. KISHORE, Deputy Director, from Indira Gandhi National Open University Regional Centre, Tamilnadu, INDIA. This article analyses the benefits of self-learning though ODL mode of IGNOU. Thus, the short-term programmes of IGNOU extend value-addition to the graduates in the form of transferable skills and the value-added outputs are expected to be employable or self-employable, thus contributing to the growth of the nation. The 16th article once more from India on “Ethical Perspectives In Open And Distance Eduation System

  20. From Editor vol 11, No.3

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    Ugur Demiray

    2010-07-01

    students from the Department of City and Regional Development, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, participated as subjects. The Second article is on “A Conceptual Model for Effective Distance Learning In Higher Education”, written by Mehran FARAJOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza SARMADI Department of Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran and Nahid ZARIFSANAEE, Center of Excellence for Elearning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, IRAN. The aim is that presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment.The third articles are from Anadolu University, Turkey. The third one is on “A Blended Learning Model For Teaching Practice Course”, conducted by Mustafa CANER. In his paper discussed to introduce a blended learning environment and a model for pre-service teaching practice course in English Language Teacher Training Program at Anadolu University. It is supposed that providing a blended learning environment for teaching practice course would improve the practice and contribute to the professional growth of pre-service teachers. Since it will increase the contact hours among students and university supervisors and facilitate peer feedback among pre-service teachers, which in turn, create a productive learning environment for them. Also paper is

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390

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    Fatemeh Khani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012. Analyses show that in causing these accidents human factors account for the highest portion (Niat Sadeghi et al .2005 in the sense that it is responsible for 60 to 70 % of these accidents (Aminian, 2005. According to research from American Transportation Safety Administration, about 80% of accidents are due to human errors (Lgr, 1994. By official statistics, 400000 ‬ professional drivers are involved in Iran’s transportation system (Niat Sadeghi et al .2005. According to the findings of Evans’s (1991 research, there is a strong link between personality characteristics and probability of getting involved in an accident. Amado, et al (2004 showed that personality traits affect driving style and accident rates. Research findings of Naby and colleagues (2005 show that certain personality types are more at risk in driving, because they are reluctant to follow traffic rules. Allport defines personality as “a dynamic organization of physical- psychic systems within the individual which determines his specific thoughts and behaviors" (Allport, 1967, p 28. Likewise, Allport and Odbert define trait as” specific and comprehensive capabilities, entailing a durable condition of adaptation with environment" (Allport and Odbert, 1936, p 26. According to MacCra and Casta (1987 the big 5 personality trains include: 1. Conscientiousness (being reliable, responsible, industrious, and meticulous, which leads to better role performance and control of impulses or disorders in one’s activities

  2. The Ranking of Financing Methods in Urban Old Texture (Case Study of Isfahan City

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    R. Moayedfar

    2013-01-01

    Economics, 68(4, 693-725.Ghodsipour, H. (2000. Analytical hierarchy process. Tehran: Amirkabir University of Technology Press. 236.Hanachy, P. (2008. Restoration of historic city (Doctoral Dissertation. School of Architecture, Tehran University.Heybati, F. (1999.Measure the performance of holding companies by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP. Financial Research Journal, 13, 14(4, 32-49.Hodge, G.A. (2004. The risky business of public-private partnerships. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 63(4, 37-49.Hoffman, S. L. (2007. The law and business of international project finance. (3rd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Jafarzadeh, M. and Jannati, M. (2009. Successful methods of financing from domestic sources in rehabilitation and reconstruction plan of old texture. Second International Conference on Financial System Development in Iran. 525-543 Judy, A. (1999. How to write a research paper. Jurisprudence Journal, 16, 9-23.Kargar, A. (2004. Finance resources of municipalities: Challenges and strategies. First Conference of Municipalities and Urban Economics, Tehran: Municipalities Organization Press. Khan, M. F. K. and Parra, R. J. (2003. Financing large projects: Using project finance techniques and practices. Singapore: Printice Hall. Klijn, E. H. and Teisman, G. R. (2002. Institutional and strategic barriers to public-private partnership: An analysis of Dutch cases. British Academy of Management Conference 2002. London: Middlesex University.Maskansamen Report. (2010. Acquaintance with perimeter texture of Imam Reza shrine and its reconstruction and rehabilitation plans. 29.Merna, T. and Smith, N. (1996. Projects procured by privately financed concession contracts. Hong Kong: Asia Law& Practice.Moezzi Moghadam, H. (2004. Finance methods of municipality revenue resources. First Conference of Municipalities and Urban Economics, Tehran: Municipalities Organization Press.Myers, S.C. (1977. Determinates of corporate borrowing. Journal of Financial

  3. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    believes to improve ODL experience, decrease dropout rates and maintain success stories for ODL, tutors and all-important stakeholders in ODL must improve the provision of interaction and interactivity. It is evident from the literature that there is a still research gap on interaction issues in ODL which must be pursued and address to improve the learners’ educational experience-for they are the primary clientele of ODL.The 11th article is from Turkey. It is titled as “Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Views On Distance Education And Their Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge”, written by Dilek CAGIRGAN GULTEN, Istanbul University, TURKEY.Her research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers’ views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction.10The 12h article is experienced as a case study from Australia. Written by David CARROLL from, Melbourne, Eric Ng (Corresponding author from University of Southern Qeensland, Toowoomba and Dawn BIRCH, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, AUSTRALIA. About “Strategies To Improve Retention of Postgraduate Business Students In Distance Education Courses: An Australian Case”. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the factors affecting the retention of postgraduate business students at a major Australian distance education university. The findings of this study suggest that a range of situational, dispositional and attitudinal factors impact upon student retention on this context, both as enablers of and obstacles to ongoing participation.Next and 13th article is about “A Novel Conceptual Model of Environmental Communal Education: Content Analysis Based On Distance Education Approach” and written by Soheila HAFEZI (Corresponding author, Candidate of Distance Education Planning, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI, Mohammad Reza

  4. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2013-07-01

    -based course delivery system. The 15th article titled as “USING MOBILE PHONES TO PROMOTE LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION AMONG OPEN SCHOOLING STUDENTS: Promises, Possibilities, and Potential Strategies”, and written by Pradeep Kumar MISRA, Associate Professor (Educational Technology, Faculty of Education and Allied Sciences, M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, India. Across the globe, life skills education has been usually developed as part of a school initiative designed to support the healthy psychosocial development of children and adolescents. In other side, formal education system not always provides young people with good opportunities to become confident and realize their potentials. In this back drop, the biggest challenge is to identify the best strategies for providing effective life skills education to those many children who never attend secondary school or reach an age of high vulnerability and risk taking behaviour in the years immediately before reaching secondary school. Considering the situation that in different parts of the world, majority of the youths is having a mobile or will have a mobile soon, the researcher is of the view that mobile phones can be a viable option to offer life skills education to open schooling students coming from different cultural and social settings and backgrounds. Following this approach, present paper mainly discusses about: promises offered by mobile phones for life skills education; possibilities for using mobile phones as an effective, efficient and economical option for offering life skills education; and potential strategies to offer mobile phones supported life skills education to open schooling students. Next article from again Iran written on SURVEY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION ROLE IN UTILIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION by Seyedeh Zahra SHAMSI PAPKIADE, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI and Mohammad Reza SARMADIfrom Peyam-Noor University, Tehran, IRAN. The aim of their research is survey of distance education role in