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Sample records for humad reza abdolvand

  1. Social and Political Consequences of Reza Shah’s Acquisition

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    Morteza Mirdar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects and social and political consequences of the acquisition of land and property by Reza Khan have been addressed. The importance of the issue was due to the small amount of ownership of property and land, and consequently the change in the social and political relations of previous landowners and the replacement of Reza Khan's trusted individuals. The main issue of this research is the explanation of some social and political events in the field of land and property acquisition. In this regard, the role of taking possession of property in advancing Reza Khan's autocratic thoughts on the diminution of religion in social life, as well as the weakening of the power of the constitutional and opposition leaders of Reza Khan has been explained. The result of this study was the wide-ranging consequences of the acquisition of land and property in the social form of people's lives and the transformation of the social classes on the basis of Reza Khan's ambitious policies. This form of appropriation has changed the course of government and parliament besides it came to the end of a decade that led to the power and influence of the politician in favor of Reza Khan.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN PEMASARAN REZA BAKERY DAN KUALITAS LAYANAN DALAM MENINGKATKAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

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    Hendy Yuliansyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  - Bread is one of the food products are favored by the people. One of the pastry shop, calling themselves by reza bakery. Having high potential of selling in distinctive taste and packaging, bakery of bread reza be the target of the buyers in the city of Bandung, especially in Margahayu. With the potential that exists, then reza bakery bread can develop into a great product. Through a qualitative descriptive study, the development of marketing that can be done by reza bakery packaging including through distinctive, attention to have clean, variety of their product, and also the quality of the taste of reza bakery.   Keyword : Strategic Development, Brand, Packaging, Taste.   Abstrak - Roti merupakan salah satu produk makanan yang digemari oleh masyarakat. Salah satu toko kue, menamakan dirinya dengan reza bakery. Dengan berbekal rasa dan kemasan yang khas, roti reza bakery menjadi incaran para pembeli di wilayah margahayu kota Bandung. Dengan potensi yang ada, maka reza bakery dapat berkembang menjadi produk roti yang besar. Melalui penelitian deskriptif kualitatif, maka pengembangan pemasaran yang dapat dilakukan oleh reza bakery diantaranya melalui kemasan yang khas, dengan memperhatikan kebersihan, kualitas produk rotinya, waktu pelayanan, harga yang tetap terjangkau, ragam produk, serta rasa yang selalu terjaga.    Kata Kunci : Strategi Pengembangan Pemasaran, Merek, Kemasan, Rasa.

  3. The death of an emperor – Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, was toppled in the Islamic Revolution of 1979. A year later he passed away from lymphoma, a disease he had secretly battled for several years, but still it remains unknown exactly when he was diagnosed with cancer, if he was aware of his condition and who close to him knew ...

  4. Investigating Philosophical Foundations of the West in the Intellectual Geography of Reza Davari Ardakani

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    J Emam Jomezadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel to the emergence of Postmodernism and the collapse of modernist and Enlightenment ideals, Persian thinkers also theorized about this matter. One of these thinkers is Reza Davari Ardakani who challenges Modernism by using Heidegger’s ideas and Islamic-Shiites sources. Following phenomenological tradition, he introduces the West as a whole and in this way he criticizes those who distinguish between western science, technology, literature and western imperialism and politics. His line of criticism toward Modernism is Humanism and after such criticism he subverts other pillars of Modernism, that is, rationalism and science. He emphasizes the point that Postmodernism is not a period after Modernism but its final and crucial phase. On the basis of this, he believes that the only way out of Western and Humanist thinking is renouncing western ideologies and subjectivism. This article aims to investigate ideas of Reza Davari about the West with a philosophical view.

  5. Mobilité, espace et temps dans L’Homme du hasard de Yasmina Reza

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchetard, Alice

    2015-01-01

    L’Homme du hasard de Yasmina Reza met en scène deux personnages, un homme et une femme, assis face à face dans un train. L’homme est un auteur, un romancier reconnu, Monsieur Parsky, et Martha, une de ses lectrices assidues. Les deux personnages ne se sont jamais vus. La tension dramatique de la pièce tourne autour d’une question : cette femme va-t-elle faire savoir à cet homme qu’elle sait qui il est ? Le lieu de l’action prend alors tout son sens, il protège les protagonistes (l’extérieur n...

  6. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mohammad Reza Noruzi

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    Mohammad Reza Noruzi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge, competence, and related intangibles have emerged as the key drivers ofcompetitive advantage in developed nations. This is not just because of the importance of knowledgeitself, but because of the rapid expansion of goods and factor markets, leaving intangible assets as themain basis of competitive differentiation in many sectors. There is implicit recognition of this in bothmanagement theory and practice with the growing emphasis being placed on the importance ofintangible assets, reputation, customer loyalty, and technological know-how. By using physicsquantum skills in the era of management managers uses from basic science in the area of managerialissues well and they can look widely for the contemporary issues. This paper aims to review theIntellectual capital notion and learning organizations. Also a new perspective to create LOs byimplementing competitive strategies like Quantum strategies comes as well.

  8. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux during First Year of Life in Infants Admitted in Pediatric Department of Imam Reza Hospital-Mashhad

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    MH Amirian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is the most common of esophageal disorder in all ages.  GER defined as passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, and GER disease (GERD, (symptoms or complications of GER, are common pediatric problems. Clinical manifestations of GERD in infants include regurgitation, irritability, choking, gagging vomiting, poor weight gain and respiratory disorder. The purpose of this study is evaluation prevalence of Gastroesophageal reflux and its symptoms in infants during first year of life.   Materials and Method: This study was performed on 75 infants younger than one year old, who were admitted in pediatric department of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad during 3 months.   Results: In this study in a three- month period, GER was assessed in 75 infants younger than one year who were admitted in pediatric department of Imam Reza Hospital. Their parents reported GER in 66% of these infants. The most common symptom of reflux was regurgitation. Regurgitation was reported at least once a day to seven times a day. The other reported symptoms were respectively: irritability (16%, choking (10%, and failure to thrive (0.3%. Peak reported regurgitation was 60% at 3.5 months.   Conclusion: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common problem in infancy. Complaints of regurgitation are common during the first year of life. So understanding the symptoms of GER and recognition of GERD should be considred.   Keyword: Infant,Gastroesophageal Reflux, Prevalence. 

  9. The Association Between 25-dehydroxy Vitamin D and Lower Respiratory Infection in Children Aged Less than 5 Years in Imam Reza hospital, Bojnurd, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakshour, A.; Zadeh, F. K.; Sheikh, Z.; Kamali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the association between vitamin D deficiency and acute respiratory infection in children below age 5 years. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Imam Reza Hospital in Bojnurd, Iran, in June 2013 and comprised 90 children below 5 years of age suffering from respiratory infections. They was selected on the basis of purposive sampling and were then categorised into two equal groups of 'acute' and 'non-acute' respiratory infection. Data collection was done using a questionnaire and serum level of 25-dehydroxycalcciferol was measured. SPSS 11 was used to analyse and interpret the data. Result: In the group of children with respiratory disorders, 9 (42.9 percent) exhibited vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of demographic characteristics such as age, intrauterine age, weight, birth-weight, head circumference, height, gender, living area and respiratory distress (p>0.05 each). Vitamin D deficiency showed no meaningful statistical relation with acute respiratory infections (p>0.05). Conclusion: More studies with higher sample size and are recommended. (author)

  10. Investigation Patients with Urinary Stones from the Aspect of Epidemiologic Parameters Admitted at Urology Department of Imam Reza Hospital During Years 2005-2008

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    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis is one of the most frequent diseases of urinary system which forms high percentage of patients who come to Urology wards. Therefore, study of epidemiological characteristics of patients of each ward can be helpful for making the best general decision. Methods: First, we devided 5133 cases who had come to Urology department of imam Reza hospital of mashhad during 2005-2008, in 2 groups and then in 6 groups. We investigated and compared 2 groups of lithotripsy and surgery from the aspect of epidemiological characteristics. So, we did for 6 groups: pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy, ureterolithotomy, ureteroscopy and TUL, PNL, ESWL, cystolitholapaxy. Results: From 5133 cases, mean age of 43.41, men to female ratio 2.1, 90.1% had done lithotripsy and 9.2% surgery. Percentage of patients of pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy was 3.5% ureterolithotomy 0.8%, ureteroscopy and TUL39.5%, PNL 4.9%, ESWL 49.5%, cystolitholapaxy 1.9%. Mean stay in hospital for 1.31±0.19 and for surgery 4.84±0.16, in ESWL 0.81±0.25 and in pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy 5.09±0.17 days. During years 2005-2008 percentage of ESWL was : 59.9, 51.4 & 38.4% of all admissions in these years. PNLs percentage was: 3.8, 5.51, 5.53%. Choosing of PNL in urban people was highest (84.5% and for rural people pyelolithotomy and nephrolithotomy is the most technique in use. Conclusion: Despite of other advanced countries high percentage of our patients undergo open surgery especially in rural people, yet. So, we should provide facilities of education and financials for modern and lower costs of urinary tract stone treatments.

  11. The effect of positive thinking training on the level of spiritual well-being among the patients with coronary artery diseases referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsbin, Fariba; Safaei, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Keshvarzi, Sareh

    2015-11-01

    Positive thinking which is derived from an optimistic view toward the universe and plays an important role in the incidence of better and a more targeted behavior among human beings. It can improve spiritual health in the individuals through increased communication with God and thanksgiving and accelerate the healing process. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the effect of positive thinking on the level of spiritual health in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran. In this study randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with confirmed CAD referred to Imam Reza clinic, Shiraz, during April to July 2013. A blocking randomization method was used to randomize the final 90 participants into intervention (n = 45) and control groups (n = 45). After obtaining written informed consent, the participants were asked to complete two questionnaires. Data were collected using Ellison and Paloutzian's spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) and a demographic questionnaire. The patients in the intervention group participated in 7 training sessions on positive thinking in which several topics were discussed. The SWBS questionnaire was completed two more times by the participants; once immediately after, and once 1 month after the intervention. 16 patients were excluded from the study due to different reasons, and finally the analysis was performed on 74 patients. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of spiritual well-being (SWB) increased from 88.71 ± 12.5 to 96.63 ± 12.58 in the intervention group; while, it decreased from 93.19 ± 17.55 to 94.45 ± 16.01 in the control group in the interval of before and 1 month after the intervention. We observed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding both variables of time and group (P < 0.001). SWB is an important factor which should be considered in the treatment process, and nurses could maintain and improve such

  12. The effect of positive thinking training on the level of spiritual well-being among ‎the patients with coronary artery diseases referred to Imam Reza specialty and ‎subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled clinical trial

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    Fariba Ghodsbin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive thinking which is derived from an optimistic view toward the universe and plays an important role in the incidence of better and a more targeted behavior among human beings. It can improve spiritual health in the individuals through increased communication with God and thanksgiving and accelerate the healing process. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the effect of positive thinking on the level of spiritual health in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: In this study randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with confirmed CAD referred to Imam Reza clinic, Shiraz, during April to July 2013. A blocking randomization method was used to randomize the final 90 participants into intervention (n = 45 and control groups (n = 45. After obtaining written informed consent, the participants were asked to complete two questionnaires. Data were collected using Ellison and Paloutzian’s spiritual well-being scale (SWBS and a demographic questionnaire. The patients in the intervention group participated in 7 training sessions on positive thinking in which several topics were discussed. The SWBS questionnaire was completed two more times by the participants; once immediately after, and once 1 month after the intervention. 16 patients were excluded from the study due to different reasons, and finally the analysis was performed on 74 patients. RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation (SD of spiritual well-being (SWB increased from 88.71 ± 12.5 to 96.63 ± 12.58 in the intervention group; while, it decreased from 93.19 ± 17.55 to 94.45 ± 16.01 in the control group in the interval of before and 1 month after the intervention. We observed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding both variables of time and group (P < 0.001. CONCLUSION: SWB is an important factor which should be considered in the

  13. Coagulation activity in liver disease | Reza | Internet Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with advanced hepatic failure may present with the entire spectrum of coagulation factor deficiencies. This study was designed to determine laboratory abnormalities in coagulation in chronic liver disease and the association of these abnormalities with the extent of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Coagulation ...

  14. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his political cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ardavan Khoshnood

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... and the Shah had in that era as an ally of the West standing against Soviet expansion, all the above would be .... standing friend of the Shah, met the royal couple at the air- port, escorting them to the Oberoi Hotel on the Nile. Four .... the information desk. Robert Armao was on the phone, asking to meet him ...

  15. High speed laser cutting machine. Kosoku reza kakoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinno, N. (Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    The carbon dioxide gas laser cutting machine is being used widely for from cutting soft steel and stainless steel, etc. to intermetallic welding and in the field of cutting in particular, concerning sheet cutting, it has been changing the existing monopoly of the turret punch press, and as for medium and thick plate cutting, that of the gas plasma fusing device. This article is the general description of high speed laser cutting machine. Concerning the laser cutting (sheet cutting in particular), as the essential items for securing severe cutting accuracy and, at the same time, improving the cutting speed, the following matters are picked up for respective explanation; improvement of stationary machine accuracy, improvement of dynamic machine accuracy, improvement of quality of laser beam as well as optimization of cutting conditions, and shortening of piercing time. Also explanation is given to the respective items, namely speeding-up of medium and thick plate cutting, and reduction of load onto the operator by improved operation. Finally, feeding and removing of a sheet only, and feeding and removing with a pallet are mentioned as the efforts for automation and energy saving. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi and his political cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ardavan Khoshnood

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... The king's death . .... The Iranian scholar, Abbas Milani, interviewed the former. Iranian ambassador to the .... King Hassan, who himself was under heavy attack from domestic ..... 12-Iran_Shah_Panama.pdf> 18 May 2015. 26.

  17. Patient Satisfaction Analysis in Emergency Department in Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad

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    Hamidreza Reihani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Attempt for reducing waiting time,  providing comfort environment, increasing  the time of visit with emergency physicians and enhance service quality based on patient needs can reduce the patient dissatisfaction.

  18. The semiology of metaphor and imagery in Ahmad Reza Ahmadi's Neshani

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    Fateme Casi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmadreza Ahmadi is an Iranian poet and writer of the 1340’s (Solar Calendar, the 1960’s. He started his activities in children’s literature along with poetry. He wrote his first children’s book in 1348 and he has been writing ever since. His works in children’s literature depict a different atmosphere. Reading Ahmadreza Ahmadi’s works foregrounds some signs in readers’ eyes. This article analyses the semiotics of the story “Address”. Semiotics is the study of anything that refers to something else; these signs can take the form of words, pictures, sounds, situations, and objects. In reading Ahmadi’s stories, specially this one, the markedness of imagination is very conspicuous. The studies done on Ahmadi’s work showed that the imagination in his works is a modern and fantastic one, and also because of the simultaneity of imagination, metaphor, and ambiguity, the reader, in the paradigmatic axis, is faced with metaphor in its modern sense, ambiguity, and openness of the text. This article studies the imagination and metaphor that Romantics and Symbolists refer to, and thereupon tries to decipher these signs based on Lakoff’s theories. To this point, first, a summary of the story “Address” is provided, and then I state the theoretical basis of the article. After a definition of semiotics and its features, I talked about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, and after stating the difference between thought and imagination (imagination refers to complicated and difficult relationships like a living body, not to the mechanical and one-to-one relationships of things. In thought, a simple thing as likeness is created, and there is no trace of metaphor and sign as in Romanticism or Symbolism we concluded that imagination in his works is marked. In the discussion about the markedness of imagination in Ahmadi’s works, we considered imagination is his works to be fantastic. Fantastic imagination is the type of imagination that goes beyond the boundaries of imagination, or deforms real dimensions and forms for its needs and directions in a particular way. Fantastic imagination is an infinite, boundless, and normally non-repetitive imagination. In the next discussion the markedness of metaphor is presented. Metaphor can be taken as an aspect of imaginary language. According to linguists, metaphor includes the process of transferring conceptual perception through likeness, in a way that the words in a language are used for a new meaning (afrashi, 20.1390. This understanding of metaphor is naturally opposed to the classic understanding which believes that metaphor is separable from language, and it can be said that the modern view on metaphor is the continuation of the Romantic view which believes that metaphor is inseparable from language. The last discussion is designated to reflect the metaphor of the structure of phenomena in the story “Address”. Lakoff and his students have done a study on the metaphorical perception of the structure of phenomena. Their findings show that different aspects of the structure of phenomena such as concepts like states, transformations, processes, actions, causes, goals, and ways, from a cognitive point of view, are defined through metaphors based on place, motion, and force. Therefore, most abstract concepts- time, states, transformations, causality, action, goal and way- are conceptualized through metaphor. (The same, 166 The story “Address” can be analyzed through the metaphor of phenomenon. The whole story is a metaphor from a point of departure (house to a point of arrival (pharmacy. It is necessary to say that the motion metaphor is not summarized in the physical motion (going from the house to the pharmacy in order to buy drugs. This motion is also seen in states. The particular obstacle in this story is a vital part of the metaphor of phenomenon. The story does not follow a tragic process, and at the end the pains turn into happiness and hope.

  19. Transient post-exercise hyper-perspiration of forehead area | Reza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males ...

  20. Reflection of Classic Culture and Literature in Mohammad Reza Shafi\\'ee Kadkani’s Poem

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    yusef aziziyan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literary legacy for a nation provides guarantee for its identity and personality literary tradition appears the basis of modernity in any realm especially literary modernity, for if otherwise, the literary modernity would be transitory and unsustainable. Modernity proves the presence of tradition in our contemporaneity. Though literary tradition looks forlorn in history during the deep and penetrating developments in the society, it, indeed, keeps on its presence in the contemporaneity whether directly or indirectly however it seems occasionally absent. Tradition, as an absent existence however omnipresent is what we require firmly although some may neglect it. The presence of literary legacy and tradition of the past in the poems of contemporary poets, especially those who inherit the legacy to greater extent, is not of an identical share. Undoubtedly the more a poet inherits the legacy, the more the legacy varies in his or her poems. However the poet is not always using the legacy consciously, for his gradual and vast familiarity with the literary legacy little by little becomes his mental treasures and thus acts as the constructive elements of his mental structure. It, through the poet's mental activities, moves to his consciousness on the basis of the process of association of ideas when the poet is actively unaware of its origin or even its relation to literary legacy and tradition. Among the contemporary poets, Shafi'ee Kadkani has benefitted from the legacy of classic literature to a great extent and it can be explicitly or implicitly understood in various forms in his poetical works whether in the context of thought and semantic or in thematisation, imagery and language combinations. The essay does not investigate exclusively the obvious part of the presence of tradition specifically in the form of classic thoughts and themes in his poems the part he himself occasionally denotes clearly. But it surveys the implicit combinations, ironies, phrases, images, and themes employed in the context of poems while the poet himself has been unaware of their origin and use altogether during the versification. The count of these varieties mentioned in the essay could rise and they imply Kadkani's conscious or unconscious adaptation from the tradition and refer to the vast and deep influence of the literary legacy in forming his mentality. In the pursuit, it is hold the study inquires the combinations that are borrowed from the classic masterminds of Persian literature by M. Sereshk. It should be said these combinations may be employed consciously or unconsciously in the poems of M. Sereshk whereas their great frequency illustrate M. Sereshk's awareness and achievement in the literature of Persian territory. In fact the use of these various combinations however unconscious maintains the conviction that they are found as sediments in the treasure of his mind through ages of investigation and disclosed now and then when versifying his poems. It is noteworthy saying the reference to the classic poems does not mean M. Sereshk has borrowed a combination from a particular poet it depicts they had been already employed in the content of Persian poetry centuries before M. Sereshk thus their employment portrays his growing interest and perfect skill in our classic literature. For instance, we do not mean he has borrowed the combination of "masti va rasti" – drunkenness and righteousness – from the poet, Amman Samani, but we are supposed to say the combination however once had been applied in the classic texts by a poet named Amman Samani. Of course, another poet may have used the very combination but it seems a tough job to find them all, because on the one hand, it requires a comprehensive knowledge on the poetic and prosaic classic texts and on the other hand it demands a long life. And then he versified the verse: "but the moments of drunkenness drunkenness and righteousness" The abovementioned adaptation has been borrowed from Samani: "till I say without a word less Yeah, yeah, drunkenness and righteousness"

  1. Nosocomial Infections and Antibiotic Administration in Pediatric Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad-Iran

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    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nosocomial Infections (NI are a frequent and relevant problem, in other hands; those are responsible of mortality especially in pediatric ICU( Intensive Care Unit and NICUs (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Healthcare-associated infections are important in wide-ranging concern in the medical field. The most cause of Nosocomial infection include: bloodstream infection, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and wound infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of the three most common NI in the Pediatric department.        Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective study in a single Pediatric department during 12 months. Children were assessed for 3 NI: wound infections, pneumonia and urinary tract infections (UTI, as the same method as Center of Disease Control criteria. All patients were followed up and individuals who had have NI and their treatment was entered in this study.          Results: In this study 811 patients were hospitalized that 60% of them were male and were older than 60 months. The main causes of hospitalization include: toxicity, seizure, respiratory infection and fever. Among them 15 cases had NI (1.87%. The most NI occurred in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU and it was followed in aspect of intubation. The most cultured organism was pseudomonas that they suspected to ceftazidime and isolate from blood and endotracheal tube.           Conclusion:  NI presence was associated with increased mortality and length of stay in hospital. This study highlights the importance of NIs in children admitted to a pediatric department especially PICU in a developing country. Clinical monitoring of NIs and bacterial resistance profiles are required in all pediatric units.

  2. Clark and Reza-Latif-Shabgahi Algorithm for the Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shabgahi bottom-up method in determining the minimal cut-sets of the modified fault tree of pipeline failure in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. It employs the bottom –up technique, producing a table containing the ...

  3. Study of psuedomomas aeroginosa resistance to Ceftizidim and Imipenem in Kermanshah Imam reza hospital during 2006-2011

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    malek kanani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It was observed in this study that the rate of resistance to these two antibiotics has increased during last five years which is in accordance with studies done in the region and neighbor countries, but it shows a significant difference with the studies done in of the industrial countries. This matter indicates the importance of proper use of these antibiotics in developing countries.

  4. Reflection of Classic Culture and Literature in Mohammad Reza Shafi'ee Kadkani’s Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi pournamdariyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literary legacy for a nation provides guarantee for its identity and personality literary tradition appears the basis of modernity in any realm especially literary modernity, for if otherwise, the literary modernity would be transitory and unsustainable. Modernity proves the presence of tradition in our contemporaneity. Though literary tradition looks forlorn in history during the deep and penetrating developments in the society, it, indeed, keeps on its presence in the contemporaneity whether directly or indirectly however it seems occasionally absent. Tradition, as an absent existence however omnipresent is what we require firmly although some may neglect it. The presence of literary legacy and tradition of the past in the poems of contemporary poets, especially those who inherit the legacy to greater extent, is not of an identical share. Undoubtedly the more a poet inherits the legacy, the more the legacy varies in his or her poems. However the poet is not always using the legacy consciously, for his gradual and vast familiarity with the literary legacy little by little becomes his mental treasures and thus acts as the constructive elements of his mental structure. It, through the poet's mental activities, moves to his consciousness on the basis of the process of association of ideas when the poet is actively unaware of its origin or even its relation to literary legacy and tradition. Among the contemporary poets, Shafi'ee Kadkani has benefitted from the legacy of classic literature to a great extent and it can be explicitly or implicitly understood in various forms in his poetical works whether in the context of thought and semantic or in thematisation, imagery and language combinations. The essay does not investigate exclusively the obvious part of the presence of tradition specifically in the form of classic thoughts and themes in his poems the part he himself occasionally denotes clearly. But it surveys the implicit combinations, ironies, phrases, images, and themes employed in the context of poems while the poet himself has been unaware of their origin and use altogether during the versification. The count of these varieties mentioned in the essay could rise and they imply Kadkani's conscious or unconscious adaptation from the tradition and refer to the vast and deep influence of the literary legacy in forming his mentality. In the pursuit, it is hold the study inquires the combinations that are borrowed from the classic masterminds of Persian literature by M. Sereshk. It should be said these combinations may be employed consciously or unconsciously in the poems of M. Sereshk whereas their great frequency illustrate M. Sereshk's awareness and achievement in the literature of Persian territory. In fact the use of these various combinations however unconscious maintains the conviction that they are found as sediments in the treasure of his mind through ages of investigation and disclosed now and then when versifying his poems. It is noteworthy saying the reference to the classic poems does not mean M. Sereshk has borrowed a combination from a particular poet it depicts they had been already employed in the content of Persian poetry centuries before M. Sereshk thus their employment portrays his growing interest and perfect skill in our classic literature. For instance, we do not mean he has borrowed the combination of "masti va rasti" – drunkenness and righteousness – from the poet, Amman Samani, but we are supposed to say the combination however once had been applied in the classic texts by a poet named Amman Samani. Of course, another poet may have used the very combination but it seems a tough job to find them all, because on the one hand, it requires a comprehensive knowledge on the poetic and prosaic classic texts and on the other hand it demands a long life. And then he versified the verse: "but the moments of drunkenness drunkenness and righteousness" The abovementioned adaptation has been borrowed from Samani: "till I say without a word less Yeah, yeah, drunkenness and righteousness"

  5. Performance of 3KW laser in cutting industry. Yodan gyokai ni okeru 3KW reza no koyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, H.; Miyaji, T.

    1993-11-01

    Recently, as the CO2 laser oscillator requires bigger power output, steel plates to be cut with a laser cutting machine have become thick plates with thickness of 12mm or more and the size of the plate which can be cut has become from the standard size of 4 inch by 8 inch or 5 inch by 10 inch to a big size of more than several meters because of introduction of the gantry type. In this article, the CO2 laser cutting machine introduced to Komatsu Shearing Co. and its operating conditions are introduced and the trends of powerful laser cutting machines in the cutting industry in the future are predicted. Laser cutting makes high cutting quality, but its device and running costs becomes high. For adopting a laser cutting machine, such items have been individually examined that no bitter work is involved in cutting, no skill is needed, no strain is formed during the press work in the succeeding process and the yield is high (95%), and a Komatsu laser cutting machine has been introduced. As a result, it has been found that the machine can produce a product of higher quality than shearing. Hereafter, this machine will further be used for manufacturing parts of construction machines, etc. for which high accuracy and high quality are demanded. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Biostratigraphy of Middle-Late Devonian deposits of Bahram Formation in Kuh-e-Reza-Abad section (SW Damghan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Razi-Allipour

    2017-03-01

    This research undertaken at Department of Geology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Isfahan. Financially and logistically supported by the Vice chancellor for Research and Technology office at University of Isfahan which deeply appreciated.

  7. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... relationship with RH International and that BIS believes naming him as a person related to RH International... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland... International, LLC On October 18, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida Tampa Division...

  8. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Prevalence of Autism among Epileptic Children Referring to Imam Reza Clinic and Comparing to Control Group (non Epileptic Children During2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS mohammadijahromi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: According to this study, the prevalence of autism among epileptic children is higher than non epileptic ones. As the age of the onset of seizure is lower the prevalence of autism will be higher. Also, the prevalence of autism among epileptic children will be higher as abnormal findings of imaging and known etiologies of seizureincrease. Loss of significant correlations among prevalence of autism and some variables of seizure can be due to few numbers of autistic cases, which were diagnosed in this study comparing with previous studies.

  10. Detection of strain behavior during phase-transformation in welds by the laser speckle method. Report 3. Application of the laser speckle method to strain masurement in the welding process; Reza supekkuru ho ni yoru yosetsubu no sohentai tojo no hizumi kenshutsu. 3. Reza supekkuru ni yoru hizumi sokuteiho no yosetsu eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Kuroda, S. [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Gross, H-G. [Rostock Univ., Rostock (Germany)

    1996-11-05

    It corresponds to an information relating to defect formation due to residual stress and its accompanying defect formation to find out the period of phase-transformation and expansion volume on the transformation forming at welding. In order to estimate texture of the heat affected zone, there is an SH-CCT diagram, which is important on weld metallurgy. However, this is formed by giving a thermal recycling to a small size specimen under stress-free, which has some problems to estimate the transformation starting period in actual welding. And, the expansion volume containing the transformation cannot be found out directly by this. In this study, as the first step adaptable to this problem with laser speckle method measurable with non-contact and high precision, a linear heating with TIG to a SUS304 stainless steel thin plate without transformation was executed at first, the strain behavior accompanied with it was confirmed. Secondly, using a thin plate of 9% Ni steel showing any transformation at comparatively low temperature, probability of a phase transformation detection was investigated on a way of cooling by executing resemble linear heating. As a result, the laser speckle method was confirmed to be adaptable to this problem. 14 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Improvement of sensitizatiuon in weld metals of austenitic stainless steels by laser surface melting treatment. Report 3. Study on low temperature sensitization in weldments of austenitic stainless steels ans its improvement by laser surface melting treatment; Reza hyomen yoyu shori ni yoru sutenresu ko yosetsu kinzoku no enbinka kaizen. 3. Osutenaito kei sutenresu ko yosetsubu no teion enbinka to reza hyomen yoyu shori ni yoru sono kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimoto, K. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Mori, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Graduate School; Yamamura, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-05

    Laser surface melting treatment used for the improvement of intergranular corrosion resistance of sensitized austenitic stainless steel weld metal was studied. As a result, it was revealed that as compared to untreated material, sensitization was improved widely and intergranular corrosion resistance was improved to a level of base metal when laser surface melting treatment of sensitized weld metal was carried out. Further, sensitization effect at a condition of laser traveling velocity of 0.00167m/s was slightly insufficient compared to that of laser traveling velocity above 0.00833m/s. This phenomena was caused due to the existence of {delta} ferrite that accelerates the precipitation of Cr carbides inside the laser treatment portion and together with this, the Cr carbides are precipitated in {delta}/{gamma} grain boundary due to the effect of laser heat cycle with insufficient cooling velocity and this has caused desensitization. 16 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Short-Communication: Revisiting conclusions of the report titled, "The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines," by Leila Jalali, Mohammad-Reza Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mahmood Gohari, Philip Bigelow, & Stephen McColl, published in environmental research, volume 148, July 2016, 401-410.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William K G

    2017-05-01

    The research report concluded, "It appears that self-reported sleep reported of participants may be associated to the indirect effects of visual and attitudinal cue and concern about property devaluation rather than distance to the nearest WT's or noise as itself." Careful reading of the report shows that the conclusions presented are not supported by the data provided in the report. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. FY 2001 report on the integrated evaluation of the research cooperation project. Research cooperation program on the development of environmental measurement use laser radar/research cooperation project on the mining waste water treatment technology using biology; 2001 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo sogo hyoka hokokusho. Kankyo kesokuyo reza reda no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku - Baio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    By research groups having been sent, the integrated evaluation was made of the projects on the research cooperation with Indonesia in the development of environmental measurement use laser radar and the research cooperation with China in the mining waste water treatment technology using biology. As to the research cooperation with Indonesia, the purpose/target proposed were almost achieved, and all were favorably carried out. Especially, after finishing the project, the design/manufacture of an on-vehicle type Mie-scattering laser radar were made using the acquired laser technology. And, it was reported that an observation study of the state of air pollution in Bandung city was made using the laser radar. It can be said that generally the research cooperation with China was smoothly proceeded with. However, the Wushan mine is small in scale of management, and therefore, there might have been some points to be reviewed in selection of the mine for research. The pilot plant installed at the Wushan mine is not now operated. If the mine has strong management force, the effective use of the pilot plant after finishing the project might have been studied. (NEDO)

  14. Micelle-Mediated Extraction and Cloud Point Pre-concentration for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. A. Reza Zarei F. Gholamian ... metric determination of phenol in water samples after .... Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, Chlorinated Phenols: Criteria for .... 50 V.A.Lemos,J.S.Santos,P.X.Baliza,J. Braz. Chem.

  15. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Tehran Municipality, the 6 districts of Tehran and using simple random sampling of 548 of the users as ...... 3-accuracy, hiring specialists to complete the library staff and their appointment, on the ... Translator Reza Eskandari.

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Reza Fareghi-Alamdari1 Mohsen Golestanzadeh1 Farima Agend1 Negar Zekri1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, 16765-3454, I. R. Iran ...

  17. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Ali Reza Ashrafi1 Geetha Venkataraman1 2. Department of Mathematics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran; Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences Foundation, St. Stephen's College, Delhi 110 007, India ...

  18. Nanocomposite Membrane via Magnetite Nanoparticle Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2012-01-01

    discussions and suggestions. I also want to extend my gratitude to the staff from the KAUST Core Lab for Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization, especially Dr. Ali Reza Behzad, Dr. Rachid Sougrat, and Dr. Long Chen, for their assistance

  19. Baltoscandal kui meeste pidu / Inna Grünfeldt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünfeldt, Inna, 1961-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest muusikalise etendusega "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "SETUP", Amir Reza Koohestani lavastusega "Recent Experiences"

  20. La nascita del programma nucleare iraniano. Washington e Teheran tra alleanza e reciproci sospetti 1956-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Passino, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate and understand the role of the Shah of Iran, and his close relationships with the United States, in the development of the Iranian nuclear program before the Revolution of 1979. The period covered goes from the assignment of Mohammed Reza Pahlavi as Shah of Iran in 1946 to the 1979 when finally Iran and United States found an agreement about mutual nuclear cooperation. The first part of this study examines the situation when Mohammed Reza...

  1. Dangerous But Not Omnipotent: Exploring the Reach and Limitations of Iranian Power in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 4, Autumn 2006, pp. 51–65; Hamid Reza Anvari, “A Look at the Shanghai Cooperation Organization,” Central Asia...in Azarbayjan Province stated that “the enemies of Islamic Iran should know that admirable soldiers like martyr Hoseyn Fahmi - deh [a 13-year-old boy...Monitoring, February 17, 2007. 38 For example, Mohammad Reza Naqdi, the Logistics and Industrial Research deputy in the General Staff of the Armed Forces

  2. STUDI OZONISASI SENYAWA ORGANIK AIR LINDI TEMPAT PEMROSESAN AKHIR SARIMUKTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Rezagama

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing treatment leachate from Sarimukti Landfill doesn’t meet the quality standards of waste water.Preliminary treatment is necessary to break down persistent leachate compounds. Ozone can act directly orindirectly with organic material (Glaze 1986. Column batch reactor system use one liter volume. Ozone ispumped into the leachate in the form of fine bubbles. Variations include Ozone Pumping Flow, Ratio ofhigh/diameter (t/d, and pH. Kinetic Reaction of oxygen dissolution in the average leachate is zero order.Increased pumping air discharge and increased pH makes ozone transfer process better. Best value occurs at pH11, where the value of the reaction rate constant ozone 1.48. The average percentage of organic materialallowance 31% COD and 26% TOC. The decline TOC and COD have a tendency to be influenced by the pHoptimum 8-9. At alkaline pH makes carbonate (CO3 formed the greater, that make ozone compounds killquickly. FTIR results showed the intensity of hydroxyl groups increased after ozone oxidation where thesubstitution of functional groups of organic matter associated with electrophilic addition reaction of oxygenatoms. Existence Fulfic acid also increased the effect compounds and Humic Acid, Humad large has been cut byradicals.

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 9 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular identification of Giardia lamblia isolates from adult human cases in southwest of Iran · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Elham Sadat Roointan, Abdollah Rafiei, Ali Reza Samarbaf-Zadeh, Ali Akbar Shayesteh, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Mahdi ...

  4. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  5. Kes kardab saksa teatrit? / Madli Pesti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pesti, Madli, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    5.-20. maini Berliinis toimunud festivalist "Theatertreffen". Lavastustest: Yasmina Reza "Barbaarsuse jumal" ("Der Gott des Gemetzels"), lavastaja Jürgen Gosch, Schauspielhaus Zürich. Goethe "Noore Wertheri kannatused", lavastaja Jan Bosse, Berliini Gorki teater. Aischylose "Oresteia", lavastaja Michael Thalheimer, kunstnik Olaf Altmann. Moliere'i "Tartuffe", lavastaja Dimiter Gotscheff, Hamburgi Thalia teater

  6. Near East/South Asia Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-11

    by Radwan Fahmi ’Ali: "Head of Executive Council of Autonomous Region Says That President’s Interest in Region Has Hastened Its Development" date and...speech of the session for this seminar yesterday morning, Hojjat ol-Eslam Seyyed Reza Taqavi, the Friday imam of Shahr-e Kord, spoke calling for more

  7. Translations on Near East and North Africa, Number 1647

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-28

    fac- tories and one lumber factory. It was the founder of mo- dern Iran, Reza Shah the Great who sincerely wanted to see the country...research started in the office of ’Abdullah Fahmi , director of the office of the minister of communications, bringing with me a number of questions on

  8. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-08

    likely that the radicals may perpetrate any new act. Brigadier General Muhammad Fahmi ’Azab, a criminal investigations inspector at the Interior Ministry...the participa- tion of Astan-e Qods-e Razavi [the administration in charge of the endowments dedicated to the tomb of Imam Reza in Mashhad]. Today

  9. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... conflict and radicalism ofconstitutionalists increased, he decided ..... God is my job and explaining this expression “if the knowledge is in China, ..... most music effect than other rhymes of Persian language in internal .... Bayat, Reza, at the poetry of Mirza Habib Khorasani, Journal of Leadership Studies,.

  10. A comparative study of the effects of cone-plate and parallel-plate geometries on rheological properties under oscillatory shear flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yong Song, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 Korea-Australia Rheology Journal A comparative study of the effects of cone-plate and parallel- plate geometries on rheological properties under oscillatory shear flow Hyeong Yong Song1, Reza Salehiyan2, Xiaolei Li1, Seung Hak Lee1 and Kyu Hyun1...

  11. Assessment of noise pollution indices in Birjand old districts in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Moasheri

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Since the level of noise pollution is critical especially along Taleghani Street which passes right through the city and along Emam Reza Hospital, as a sensitive area, it is necessary to design and apply suitable measurements, as well as to consider the level of their effectiveness in order to decrease noise pollution.

  12. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of Cinnamomum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Mohammad Reza Farahpour1*, Amir Amniattalab2 and Hadi Hajizadeh3. 1Department of Veterinary Surgery, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Urmia, Iran. 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad ...

  13. Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid tuumarelva leviku takistajad / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Selle aasta Nobeli rahupreemia pälvisid Rahvusvaheline Aatomienergiaagentuur ja selle juht Mohamed ElBaradei. Norra Nobeli komitee selgitusest. Lisa: Fakte Nobeli rahupreemiast. Kommenteerivad: Terumi Tanaka, Shimon Peres, Hamid Reza Asefi, Aida ElBaradei, Hans Blix. Vt. samas: Õigusteadlasest tuumarelvade jahtija eelistab läbirääkimisi

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 5. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole. Reza Tayebee. Volume 118 Issue 5 September 2006 pp 429-433 ...

  15. fluconazole and boric acid for treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-01

    Apr 1, 2013 ... M. K. Khameneie, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Imam Reza hospital, Tehran - Iran,. N. Arianpour ..... candidiasis. Am Fam Physician. 2000;1, 61:3306-12. 12. Donders GG, Bellen G, Mendling W. Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness.

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Voltammetric sensor for D-penicillamine determination based on its electrocatalytic oxidation at the surface of ferrocenes modified carbon paste electrodes · Jahan-Bakhsh Raoof Reza Ojani Fereshteh Chekin · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Electrocatalytic oxidation of D-penicillamine (D-PA) at the surface of ferrocene ...

  17. Thermal characteristics and corrosion behaviour of Mg–xZn alloys ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 6. Thermal characteristics and corrosion behaviour of Mg–Zn alloys for biomedical applications. Amir Fereidouni Lotfabadi Mohd Hasbullah Idris Ali Ourdjini Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir Saeed Farahany Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad. Volume 36 Issue 6 ...

  18. Jubileinoje zakrõtije

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    XXX Moskva rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võitjad. Kuldse Jüri võitis Iraani mängufilm "Lihtsamast lihtsam" (režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi, filmikriitikute FIPRESCI auhinna sai Katja Shagalova "Ükskord provintsis", Stanislavski-nimelise auhinna "Ma usun" võitis prantsuse näitlejanna Isabelle Huppert

  19. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies - Vol 34 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of motivational and cognitive involvement on EFL learners' task performance · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mohammad Reza Hasannejad, Masoud Zoghi, Hanieh Davatgari Asl, 97-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16073614.2016.1194218 ...

  20. Predicting Character Traits Through Reddit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and even employers (Res). Companies like Netflix also use personality classification algorithms in order to provide users with predictions of movies...science behind the netflix algorithms that decide what to watch next, August 2013. Reza Zafarani and Huan Liu. Evaluation without ground truth in social media research. Communications Of The ACM, 58(6):54–60, June 2015. 12

  1. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 5. Effect of nitrogen flow ratio on structure and properties of zirconium nitride films on Si(100) prepared by ion beam sputtering. Shahab Norouzian Majid Mojtahedzadeh Larijani Reza Afzalzadeh. Volume 35 Issue 5 October 2012 pp 885-887 ...

  2. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Faezeh Mohammad-Hashem. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 37 Issue 1 March 2012 pp 85-90 Articles. Differential expression of ZFX gene in gastric cancer · Parvaneh Nikpour Modjtaba Emadi-Baygi Faezeh Mohammad-Hashem Mohamad Reza Maracy ...

  3. Chemical composition, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... Mohammad-Bagher Majnooni1,3, Kamran Mansouri2,3*, Mohammad-Bagher Gholivand4, Ali. Mostafaie3, Hamid-Reza Mohammadi-Motlagh3, Nazanin-Sadat Afnanzade1, Mir-Mehdi ... Carvalho-Freitas and Costa, 2002; Pultrini et al., 2006; ..... Ijaz Hussain A, Anwar F, Sherazi TH, Przybylski R (2008).

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reza Ghorbani Mohammad Abadi, M. Vol 9, No 1S (2017): Special Issue - Articles The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with thalassemia. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  5. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Abbas Goli Jirandeh. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 122 Issue 2 April 2013 pp 349-369. Landslide susceptibility mapping using support vector machine and GIS at the Golestan Province, Iran · Hamid Reza Pourghasemi Abbas Goli Jirandeh ...

  6. Prantsuse ja inglise näidendid Soome lahe kaldal / Andrus Org

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Org, Andrus

    1999-01-01

    Yasmina Reza "Kunst" Hendrik Toompere jun. lavastuses Eesti Draamateatris ja Arto af Hällströmi lavastuses Soome Rahvusteatris; William Shakespeare'i "Richard III" Mati Undi lavastuses Eesti Draamateatris ja Kalle Holmbergi lavastuses Soome Rahvusteatris. Kokkuvõte inglise keeles lk. 94

  7. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  8. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid detection of single nucleotide mutation in p53 gene based on gold nanoparticles decorated on graphene nanosheets · SEYEDEH ZEINAB MOUSAVISANI JAHAN BAKHSH RAOOF REZA OJANI ROUDABEH VALIOLLAHI · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical DNA sensor ...

  9. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Taher Niknam. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 2 April 2010 pp 139-162. A hybrid evolutionary algorithm for distribution feeder reconfiguration · Taher Niknam Reza Khorshidi Bahman Bahmani Firouzi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) is ...

  10. Usability evaluation of healthcare information systems: comparison of methods and classification of usability problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khajouei, R.

    2011-01-01

    In ziekenhuizen wordt steeds meer gebruik gemaakt van informatiesystemen, maar de usability laat vaak te wensen over. Reza Khajouei testte twee methodes om de usability te beoordelen. Hij constateert dat beide methoden ongeveer evenveel, maar verschillende problemen aan het licht brengen. Uit een

  11. Baltokas on lobisema hakanud ehk Kuhu näitleja kadus? / Rait Avestik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Avestik, Rait, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Baltoscandal 2006 huvitavamaid esinejaid : Houkka Bros. Soomest "elutoamuusikaliga" "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi", Rabih Mroue "Otsides kadunud töötajat", Rui Horta "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Produkt", Amir Reza Koohestani Mehr Theatrical Group "Recent Experiences". (Ajalehe rubriigipealdis "SIRP eri : Festivaliteater")

  12. Akbar Eshaghi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Akbar Eshaghi. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 4 August 2010 pp 365-369 Thin Films and Nanomatter. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol–gel derived thin films · Akbar Eshaghi Mahmoud Pakshir Reza Mozaffarinia.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl-N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl-N-pyrrolylketene, one- step procedure for preparing of new β-lactams by [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. MASOUMEH BEHZADI, KAZEM SAIDI. ∗. , MOHAMMAD REZA ISLAMI and. HOJATOLLAH KHABAZZADEH. Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of ...

  14. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 1. Experimental and theoretical investigation of benzyl--pyrrolylketene, one- step procedure for preparing of new -lactams by [2+2] cycloaddition reaction. Masoumeh Behzadi Kazem Saidi Mohammad Reza Islami Hojatollah Khabazzadeh. Regular ...

  15. Pemikiran Ali Syari’ati dalam Sosiologi (Dari Teologi Menuju Revolusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Tobroni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Syari’ati is muslim brilliant philosopher, graduated from doctoral of Sorbonne France. He created social teology perspective, based from his experience in west sociology perspective about Capitalism or Marxism. He succeed seek the Capitalism and Marxism weaknes if this perspective is used in Muslim Society. He mapping structure of society, insist of: Habil and Qobail. Habil is common people in society, Qabil is high class, likes: prince, aristocrats or capital owner. Qabil was repressedHabil trough social, politic, economy and religious system. This tragedy happen in Iran whenSyah Reza rezim. The consequences, Ali Syari’ati propagandist rebellion Habil to Qabil. Because of his activities, he to be prisoner one more time, then he is going abroad, until he pass away in England (with suspicious that he killed by Syah Reza people. The Iran Revolution happen, after 2 years Ali Syaria’ti pass away

  16. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

    OpenAIRE

    Mammì, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho o...

  17. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    see Anisa M H C. 93. Amini Massoud see Saadati Reza. 483. Anisa M H C. On two functionals connected to the Lapla- cian in a class of doubly connected domains in space-forms. 93. Anuradha N. Zeta function of the projective curve. aY2l = bX2l + cZ2l over a class of finite fields, for odd primes l. 1. Basak Gopal K.

  18. Iran, Iraq, and the United States: The New Triangle’s Impact on Sectarianism and the Nuclear Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    cultural developments in the Middle East. She is the author of 12 books and monographs, and more than 51 articles and book chapters. Dr. Zuhur...Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, was overthrown in an Islamic revolution, and country after country faced the activities of home -grown Islamist movements. Today...a of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon are, on the other hand, Arabs. Shi’ism itself was originally both an Arabian peninsular and a Mesopotamian

  19. The Role of Religious Tourism in the Development and Growth of Urban Metropolis: (In The Case of Mashhad, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Foruzan, Iman

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aims to examine three dimensions of development, namely, economic, environment, and social-cultural issues caused by religious tourism in Mashhad. A quantitative method used to investigate 288 residents’ perceptions who are settled around the Imam Reza holly shrine. Mean and standard division of the variable is calculated to understated to what extend respondents are agreed about positive impacts of religious tourism in terms of economic, environment, and social-cultural ...

  20. Ängistav noorusaeg ja lootust on vähe / Margit Adorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adorf, Margit, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    PÖFFi noortefilme - "Hukas noorus" : režissöör Eva Urthaler : Austria - Saksamaa - Itaalia 2005, "Popmuusika a la Vittula" : režissöör Reza Bagher : Rootsi - Soome 2004, "Status Yol" : režissöör Till Hastreier : Saksamaa - Šveits 2004, "Kilpkonnad võivad lennata" : režissöör Bahman Ghobadi : Iraan - Iraak 2004

  1. Area Handbook Series: Jordan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Jordan’s vulnerability increased significantly in February 1979, when Shia radicals overthrew Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran. The Iranian...give formal recognition to the PLO’s role. In an abrupt turn- about in policy, Egyptian foreign minister Ismail Fahmi respond- ed by declaring that Egypt... Fahmi , Ismail, 46 modern, 101-3, 110; government Faisal I (son of Hussein Ali Al Hashimi), spending for, 114; students studying 18, 20-23, as king of

  2. Waktu Luang Anak Jalanan Penjual Koran

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Amirul Bayu; ", Syafrizal

    2017-01-01

    Adrianto, Reza, Kevin, and Ganda are ordinary kids who decided to sell newspapers on the streets after school hours to earn money to enhance their pocket money, purchase credits, or also playing playstation and others. The status and role of school students also is an issue that should be used to redefining the meaning of street children. On the other hand, their activities as newspaper seller and school liability does not preclude the influence of globalization and westernization. The mass m...

  3. Mängult ja päriselt : teater postmodernistlikus ja postdramaatilises paradigmas : kokkuvõte 2006. aasta "Baltoscandalist" / Anneli Saro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saro, Anneli, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Vaadeldakse lavastusi - "Pablo Plusi supermarketis" (lav. René Pollesch), "Lapsi, linde ja lillekesi" (lav. Kristian Smeds), "Otsides kadunud töötajat" (lav. Rabih Mroué), Rui Horta tantsulavastus "Set Up", Mark Ravenhilli "Toode" (esines ka näitlejana), "Hiljutised kogemused" (lav.Amir Reza Koohestan), "Miss Mobiil" (lav. Emil Hrvatin), tantsuline monolavastus "Me oleme lasknud selle reaalsuse silmist" (lav. Hooman Sharif)

  4. Detection Of Malware Collusion With Static Dependence Analysis On Inter-App Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    app permission leakage.” IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 2015 [4]. Bugiel, Sven, Lucas Davi, Alexandra Dmitrienko, Thomas Fischer , Ahmad...Dmitrienko, Thomas Fischer , and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi. “Xmandroid: A new android evolution to mitigate privilege escalation attacks.”, Technical Report...Technical report, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009. [12]. Gordon, Michael I., Deokhwan Kim, Jeff H. Perkins

  5. Gd3+-DTPA-DG: novel nanosized dual anticancer and molecular imaging agent

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Amanlou,; Siadat,Seyed; Ebrahimi,Sadat; Mehravi,; Saffari,; Shanehsaz,; Alavidjeh,Shafiee; Arabzadeh,Jabbari; Ghorbani,; Aghasadeghi,; Alavi,; Abbasi,

    2011-01-01

    Massoud Amanlou1, Seyed Davar Siadat4,5, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat Ebrahimi1, Abass Alavi7, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi2, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani1,4,6*, Saeed Shanehsaz2, Masoud Ghorbani6, Bita Mehravi8, Mohammad Shafiee Alavidjeh3, Ali Jabbari-Arabzadeh1, Mehdi Abbasi41Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy; 2Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Hepatit...

  6. Qingping Straight Sword: The Last Remaining Chinese Sword System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Berwick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following examination of classical Chinese straight sword (jian details the very rare Qingping straight sword system. The study meshes Chinese- and English-sourced research with a revealing interview (conducted by America’s senior Qingping disciples, Reza Momenan and Hon Lee with Lu Junhai—the grandmaster of this unique sword system. The author presents Qingping system as perhaps the only known, complete Chinese sword system surviving from China’s pre-Rebulican era (1911-1949.

  7. Medved - spetsnazu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji

  8. Analisis Tingkat Kepuasan Pelanggan terhadap Pelayanan Jasa Maskapai AirAsia

    OpenAIRE

    Erdiansyah, M. Rheza

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study "To determine the level of customer satisfaction which consists of physical evidence (tangible), reliability (reliability), responsiveness (responsiveness), assurance (assurance) and empathy (empathy) on AirAsia airline services.". The method used in this research is the empirical study method with the approach of associative research. The population in this study is the airline customers who buy airline tickets AirAsia in Reza Travel Medan. The data used are primary...

  9. Tokyo filmifestival näitas Aasia tippe / Pille-Riin Pregel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pregel, Pille-Riin

    2001-01-01

    Tokyo filmifestivalist. Lähemalt Tai mängufilmist "Ohtlik Bangkok" ("Bangkok Dangerous") : režissöörid vennad Oxide ja Danny Pang ning Iraani "Kuupaiste all" ("Under the Moonlight" : režissöör Reza Mir-Karimi. Peaauhinna sai Albaania mängufilm "Loosungid2 ("Slogans"), mille režissöör Gjergj Xhuavani sai ka parima režissööri auhinna. Lisatud võitjate nimekiri

  10. Deux journalistes afghanes effectuent une tournée pancanadienne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2011 ... Fondé par le célèbre photojournaliste Reza Deghati et plusieurs journalistes français, Aïna appuie le processus de démocratisation en favorisant l'essor des médias et de l'expression culturelle. La formation offerte par Aïna aux auteures du film Afghanistan Unveiled a eu lieu de juillet 2002 à août 2003.

  11. Breaking Bad News: Different Approaches in Different Countries of Iran and Germany- an Expert Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this expert panel report which was held in Isfahan, Iran, the participants were Carl Eduard Scheidt, Alexander Wunsch, Hamid Afshar, Farzad Goli, Azadeh Malekian, Mohammad Reza Sharbafchi, Masoud Ferdosi, Farzad Taslimi, and Mitra Molaeinezhad. Professor Scheidt was the facilitator and coordinator of the discussion. Therefore, he started it with a brief introduction. After all is said and done, he ended the discussion with a conclusion.

  12. Military Vision Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Bietti Eye Foundation, IRCCS Rome, Italy . Word count: 2879 Corresponding author: Reza Dana, M.D., M.P.H., M.Sc. Schepens Eye Research...Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 3 Bietti Eye Foundation, IRCCS Rome, Italy . Word count: 2879...with differentiated properties. Exp Eye Res. 62, 155-169. 18. Marneros A.G., Fan J., Yokoyama Y., Gerber H.P., Ferrara N., Crouch R.K., Olsen B.R

  13. Submicron Structures and Various Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Submitted by Professor Jonathan Allen Professor Daniel Kleppner !1! Research Laboratory of Electronics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...Alberto Moel, Joyce E. Palmer, Samuel L. Park, Hui Meng Quek , John H.F. Scott-Thomas, Ghavam Shahidi, Siang-Chun The, Anthony Yen Undergraduate...substrates; and Kathleen Early, Reza A. Ghanbari, Yao-Ching Ku, periodic structures for x-ray optics, spectros- Alberto Moel, Hui Meng Quek , Dr. Mark L

  14. Investigating the Rule of Brigadier Khazaee in Lorestan (1304-1305, 1926-1927 and his Role in the Uprising of the Lorestani Tribes in 1306/1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Qajar era, during the Reza Khan’s Ministry of War, the plan of calming down and settling the Lorestani tribes was put into the attention of the government. Following this, the West Army commanded by Amir Ahmadi, attacked Lorestan by the order of Reza Khan in 1302/1923. Amir Ahmadi conquered Borujerd and Khorramabad and other areas under the influence of the leaders of the rebellious tribes. After that, in order to protect Republicanism, Reza Khan went to Tehran, and handed over the command of the West Army to Colonel Shahbakhti. At the time of Shahbakhti’s command, the leaders of the tribal tribes of Lorestan rebelled and surrounded him in Khorramabad; with the reappearance of Amir Ahmadi, the leaders of the rebellion fled. After Shahbakhti, the commander of the West Army was handed over to Brigadier Khazaee. The question in this research is regarding the influence of Brigadier Khazaee’s type of rule on the uprising of the tribes of Lorestan in 1927. The hypothesis of the research in answering this question is that Brigadier Khazaee applied a more rigorous policy to deal with the tribes than his predecessors, which caused a sharp reaction from the tribes. The research findings showed that he executed about thirteen tribal leaders from Lorestan to play a significant role in overcoming their traditional influence. Khazaee’s performance, like Amir Ahmadi, led to the escape of many Khans to Tarhan and their seeking support from the ruling there, Ali Mohammad Khan Ghazanfari, led to the recent mass rebellion of the tribes of Lorestan under the leadership of Tarhan’s governor. The study of Khazaee's rule in Lorestan and how his actions led to the massive rebellion are important in this article.

  15. "Berlinale 2008" - küll jahe, aga lahe! / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  16. Translations on Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs No. 294

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-13

    surveillance over the activity of the smugglers. The investigations of Col Mahmud Fahmi and Lt Col ’Isam al-Tarsawi showed that the smuggler, Anwar Ibrahim...Mahmud Fahmi , It Col ’Isam al-Tarsawi, Lt Col Tariq Salim and It Col Muhammad Sha’rawi raided "the Jinn’s" house in ’Abidin and seized four large...Yesterday a car dealer and his associate were arraigned in court on charges of transporting 205 kg of hashish. The first accused was Reza

  17. "Eliitüksus" võitis Kuldkaru Brasiilia võimude kiuste / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji. Ka A. Wajda filmist "Katõn"

  18. Cyber Practices: What Can the U.S. Air Force Learn from the Commercial Sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    dam/lockheed/data/isgs/documents/LMCSA%20Ov erview%20Fact%20Sheet_Final%20%282%29. pdf Lunt, Barry, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Sandra Gorka, Gregory Hislop ...Electronics Engineers, 2006, p. 33. 21 Barry Lunt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Sandra Gorka, Gregory Hislop , Reza Kamali, Eydie Lawson, Richard LeBlanc, Jacob Miller...1 (January 1980 ). 106 Daft, 2008, p. 17. 107 Gerald D. Bell, “Determinants of Span of Control,” American Journal of Sociology 73, no. 1 (1967

  19. Los valores sociales en niños y niñas de preescolar: una perspectiva desde la cultura del emprendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Adriana Marcela

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación esta orientada al estudio de los valores sociales y de emprendiendo en niños de preescolar del colegio Moralba Sur Oriental, j.t., sede A, con el propósito de fortalecer el proceso formativo de los mismos entendiendo que en la actualidad tanto la sociedad como la institución contemplan primordial y fundamentalmente el desarrollo de competencias sociales, educativas y empresariales. De tal manera, el P.E.I. del Colegio Moralba S.O. reza ‗Creci...

  20. El programa institucional de tutoría en el colegio de ciencias y humanidades, una estrategia de intervención para reducir el rezago escolar y el abandono del aula

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaga Franco, Silvia Elena

    2016-01-01

    El Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades (CCH), es uno de los bachilleratos de la UNAM. Desde sus inicios ha procurado un tipo de educación “activa” basada en cuatro pilares educativos que son la base de su filosofía: aprender a aprender, a ser, a hacer y a convivir. Desde 1971 el CCH se ha dedicado a formar alumnos cuyo perfil de egreso es que sean autónomos y puedan terminar con éxito una licenciatura. Sin embargo, se han encontrado tres problemas fundamentales en su población estudiantil: reza...

  1. A Study of the Relationship between Personality Traits with Occupational Accidents and Quality of Sleep among Road Drivers in Isfahan City (Year 1390)

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Khani; Seyed Mohammadreza Samsam Shariat; Seyed Hamid Atashpour

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDriving accidents and casualties are the second leading cause of death in Iran after heart disease. Also, after Sierra Leone, Iran has the highest number of road deaths and injuries among 190 countries of the world. Every 19 minutes one individual is killed in Iran due to road accidents. Every year about 800,000 accidents occur in Iran on average, as a result of which 23,000 individuals are killed and 280,000 are injured and/or disabled (RezaZadeh, 2012). Analyses show that in cau...

  2. El teatro de los ciegos con la actuación de un prometeico bromista, un fenómeno engañoso, un prisma, un bolsillo y un pedazo de madera

    OpenAIRE

    Ashmore, Malcom

    2009-01-01

    Uno de los casos más notorios de error científico patente es la forma de radiación "no existente" conocida como rayos-n descubierta en la primavera de 1903 por el físico francés Blondlot. Después de una corta vida, aunque plena e interesante, los rayos-n fueron aniquilados, según reza la historia, en el otoño de 1904 por el físico americano Wood, quien, después de visitar el laboratorio de Blondlot en Nancy, publicó en la revista Nature un informe condenatorio de...

  3. V Berline zavershilsja kinofestival / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  4. Berlinale oli ootuspäraselt ootamatu, nagu alati / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  5. 58. "Berlinale" lõppmäng / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    Berliini 58. filmifestivali auhinnasaajatest : Kuldkaru võitis Brasiilia produtsendi ja režissööri Jose Padilha mängufilm "Eliitrühm", Hõbekaru USA režissööri Errol Morrise dokfilm "Tavaprotseduur". Parima režissööri Hõbekaru läks Paul Thomas Andersonile mängufilmi "Veri hakkab voolama" eest. Parima näitleja auhinna said Sally Hawkins ja Reza Naji, Alfred Baueri auhinna sai Fernando Eimbcke "Tahoe järv"

  6. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  7. Iranian and Kazakh representatives visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...

  8. Ontology of Iranian-French Cultural Relations: With an Emphasis on Contemporary Iranian History Prior to the Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foad Pourarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is one of the most prominent concepts that can also be the source of many changes in the range of action and application, in addition to its theoretical competence. One of the major outcomes of culture in contemporary history is its importance in international relations, insofar as these relations can broaden the level of relations or even create deep political or economic links between countries. In contemporary history, Iran began its experience of cultural relations with the West, especially France; Reza Shah, who put Iran's modernization at the top of his goals, pursued literacy and expanded academic circles, and in this regard, one of the most prominent of his plans was to send students to the West, especially to France, which also contributed to the expansion of the presence of French culture and language in Iran. The second Pahlavi era was accompanied by a change in some of the transboundary equations, including the emergence of the United States as a superpower, a special interest of Mohammad Reza Shah in the United States as well as Washington's agenda for the presence in Iran that slowly diminished French cultural influence in Iran, and the English language and culture were replaced. However, French ideas and thoughts still constituted a significant part of the educated layers of Iran given its strong presence in the Iranian academic circles in the past.

  9. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. This two-group experimental study was conducted on 60 clients (30 clients in test group and 30 in control group) referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. The study tools were demographic and addiction-quitting self-efficacy questionnaires. After gathering demographic data and conducting pretest, the intervention was carried out based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for the test group and post-test was taken 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS using related tests. According to the results, test group was more successful than the control group in addiction quitting. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence; it was less in the test group. A significant difference was also found between self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention in the test group. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory was effective on addiction quitting. So, it is recommended to apply it for clients referring to addiction quitting clinics.

  10. Surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saba Karimi,1 Behnam Reza Makhsosi,2 Seyed Jalil Seyedi-Andi,3 Maryam Behzadi,4 Yasaman Moghofeh,5 Kourosh Mohammadinasrabadi,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Pegah Ahmadi1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Surgical Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 4Taleghani Hospital, 5Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background and objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries, including Iran. One of the treatments available for colorectal cancer is chemotherapy, of which nausea and emesis are the side effects. Owing to problems in controlling the side effects, a combination of medicine and non-medicine interventions is usually used. Self-care is one of the non-medicine interventions in this regard. The present study was aimed at surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy.Methods: A semi-experimental study was carried out in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised 52 patients with colorectal cancer under chemotherapy. Data gathering tools included a demographics questionnaire and Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis. To control intensity of nausea and emesis, a package of self-care measures including muscular progressive relaxation, music, and education on nutrition was used. Afterward, the collected data were analyzed using statistical tests such as Shapiro–Wilk test (to check normal distribution of the data, Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, and chi-square test with the help of SPSS 20.Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in intensity and frequency of nausea and emesis after the intervention. The p-value of Mann–Whitney U test results with regard to intensity of nausea in

  11. CERN signs draft Memorandum of Understanding with Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Left to right: Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader CMS; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator CMS; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman CMS; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General - signing; Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the CERN Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol, back; Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran - signing; Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations in Geneva, Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. Iranian Minister for Science, Research and Technology, Dr Mostafa Moin, and CERN Director-General Luciano Maiani, s...

  12. SESAME on track for commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday 16 May, ambassadors, official representatives and delegates from countries in the Middle East arrived at CERN to participate in an event supporting SESAME, which included the signing of a new agreement between CERN and SESAME. The agreement adds to growing multi-national support for SESAME – vital ingredients for the completion of the project.   SESAME Director Khaled Toukan and CERN Director General Rolf Heuer signing the joint agreement. They are accompanied by (left to right): Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri, co-Vice President of the SESAME Council; Chris Llewellyn Smith, former CERN Director General and current SESAME Council President; and Mohamed Tarek Hussein, co-Vice President of the SESAME Council. It reads like a page out of CERN’s own history: a scientific collaboration, founded under the auspices of UNESCO, dedicated to peaceful physics research. But instead of post-war Europe, SESAME is being built in Jordan. The project brings together partners from ...

  13. Complete blood cell count components and coronary slow-flow phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjmand N

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasim Arjmand, Mohammad Reza Dehghani Department of Cardiology, Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IranDespite the implementation of preventive strategies, ischemic heart disease and stroke remain the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.1,2 Of the cardiovascular diseases, coronary slow-flow phenomenon (CSFP, with a prevalence rate of 1%–7% among patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, has been found to be associated with cardiovascular events, including cardiac arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome.3–5 However, the potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of CSFP remain unknown. Microvascular and endothelial dysfunctions, inflammation, diffuse atherosclerosis, and increased platelet aggregability have been reported to be the main possible etiologies for CSFP.6,7View original paper by Atlas and colleagues.

  14. Supply of the Industrial Products in Romania. A Territorial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The industrial products and services supply was analyzed in the present paper through the statistical indicators of the industrial production, applied for Romania (2005, both at macroeconomic and regional level (on development regions. The first part of the paper presents some of the methodological reglamentations used in determining the “industrial production” statistical indicator, according to the European Union statistical practices (Pack, 2000; *** ìMethodology of short-term business statisticsî, 2006; Peneder, 2001. In the second part of the paper, the authors analyze the main industrial policy previsions in Romania in order to accelerate the process of resource allocation among and within the various sectors, to improve the competitiveness, to attenuate the discrepancies between the economic development level of Romanian regions and to become part of a common European industrial policy. Regional analysis is a domain largely studied by Kangas, Leskinen, Kangas, 2007; Leskinen, Kangas, 2005; Rondinelli, 1996; Banai-Kashani, Reza, 1989.  

  15. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    ConcentrationsPDFArezoo ESPANANY,\tSeyfollah FALLAH,\tAli TADAYYON322-329Asymbiotic Germination of Phalaenopsis cv. ‘Dublin’ Seeds in Relation to Pollination Months and Nutrient MediaPDFKhosro BALILASHAKI,\tRoohangiz NADERI,\tSaikat GANTAIT,\tMaryam VAHEDI330-333Acetylene Resembling Effect of Ethylene on Seed Germination: Evaluating the Effect of Acetylene Released from Calcium CarbidePDFKambiz MASHAYEKHI,\tAida SHOMALI,\tSeyyed Javad MOUSAVIZADEH334-337Effect of Super Absorbent Polymer and Irrigation Deficit on Water Use Efficiency, Growth and Yield of CottonPDFHamid-Reza FALLAHI,\tReza TAHERPOUR KALANTARI,\tMahsa AGHHAVANI-SHAJARI, Mohammad-Ghasem SOLTANZADEH338-344Impact of Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water on the Growth and Yield of TomatoPDFKamorudeen Olaniyi YUSUF,\tAyodele Olanrewaju OGUNLELA345-348Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought StressPDFMohammad Reza NAGHAVI,\tMahmoud TOORCHI,\tMohammad MOGHADDAM,\tMohammad Reza SHAKIBA349-354Morphometric Variations in Caryopses and Seedlings of Two Grass Species Growing Under Contrasting HabitatsPDFDhara GANDHI,\tSusy ALBERT355-360Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.PDFFariborz SHEKARI,\tAbdollah JAVANMARD,\tAmin ABBASI361-366Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous SoilPDFGhorbanali RASSAM,\tAlireza DADKHAH,\tAsghar KHOSHNOOD YAZDI,\tMaryam DASHTI367-371Genetic Differentiation of Archachatina marginata Populations from Three Vegetation Zones Using Radom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain ReactionPDFComfort O. AFOLAYAN,\tMichael Olugemi AWODIRAN372-381

  16. Dr. Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.:Dr Henrik Foeth, Team Leader, CMS experiment; Dr Daniel Denegri, Physics Coordinator, CMS experiment; Prof. Tejinder Virdee, Deputy Spokesman, CMS experiment; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General (signing); Mr Jean-Marie Dufour, Head of the Legal Service, Mr Ghodratollah Habibpour Gharakol (back); Dr Abdolali Sharghi, Advisor to the Minister and Director General, Office of International Scientific Cooperation, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Dr Mostafa Moin, Minister of Science, Research and Technology, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing); Dr Reza Mansouri, Director, International Scientific Meetings Office, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; H. E. Dr Ali Khorram, Extraordinary and plenipotentiary Ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva and Dr Hans F. Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer & for Scientific Computing. _

  17. Can we prepare our bodies over the year to cope with Ramadan fasting more easily? Imam Reza’s health and dietary recommendations for different months of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Roudi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather conditions, comprised of multiple parameters (e.g., atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, moisture, and heat vary during different months of the year. These variations influence almost all organisms including humans (1. Proper nutritional diet is one of the factors which can lead to human adjustment with atmospheric changes. Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam, has presented the most effective and thorough dietary suggestions for different months of the year. In this article, we studied his debates in his medical book, known as “Al-Risalah al-Dhahabiah fi alTibb” (the golden medical dissertation, using the analytical library method. We reviewed and highlighted these recommendations and tried to determine if they could promote the body stamina to cope with Ramadan fasting.

  18. Persian architecture and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.

  19. MEMAHAMI CARA KERJA PRAGMATISME DALAM PENDIDIKAN: REFLEKSI KRITIS ATAS FILM LASKAR PELANGI

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    Moch Najib Yuliantoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to understand the Pragmatism way of thinking in the practice of education. As a case study, Riri Reza's Laskar Pelangi is used to find out how Pragmatism practices in education in Indonesia. By using descriptive-critical method of interpretation and interpretation, it is revealed that the main characters in the film Laskar Pelangi experience a dilemma situation that leads them to choose a way of life based on internal logic and actual experience. As for the criticisms, as well as the implications of, pragmatism thinking refers its potentiality to the individualistic way of thinking, especially in the axiological sphere, namely by believing that there is no universal value in social life.

  20. Misplaced hope: misleading health service practitioner representations and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-09-01

    A series of court and tribunal decisions in the course of 2012 in Australia has highlighted the vulnerability of seriously ill patients to overtures and advertising by charismatic health practitioners offering panaceas of unproven efficacy. Drawing upon the findings of the Victorian Court of Appeal in relation to Noel Campbell, the Deputy State Coroner of Western Australia in relation to Helfried Sartori, and the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal in relation to Reza Ghaffurian, it is argued that there is a strong public interest in the capacity for effective early intervention by government in relation to unscrupulous and unethical conduct by health practitioners, whether they are registered or unregistered. For Australia a constructive reform would be nationally consistent legislation to regulate unregistered health practitioners.

  1. Corrigendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Arenillas JF, Cortijo E, García-Bermejo P, et al. Relative cerebral blood volume is associated with collateral status and infarct growth in stroke patients in SWIFT PRIME. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. Epub ahead of print 1 January 2017. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17740293 . This article was published online with the sixth author, David Liebeskind (Neurovascular Imaging Research Core, Department of Neurology, UCLA, USA), omitted. The full list and order of authors on the article is as follows: Juan F Arenillas, Elisa Cortijo, Pablo García-Bermejo, Elad I Levy, Reza Jahan, David Liebeskind, Mayank Goyal, Jeffrey L Saver and Gregory W Albers Juan F Arenillas's affiliation should have read Neurovascular Research i3 Laboratory, Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

  2. ¿Está el mundo preparado para enfrentar una pandemía?

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Rivera García

    2006-01-01

    Hay un sabio refrán que reza: “NO HAY MAL QUE POR BIEN NO VENGA”El “MAL” debe puntualizarse en los brotes de Influenza aviar presentados en Europa, África y Asia, que hasta la fecha, ha afectado a 258 personas de las cuales han muerto 153 infectadas por el virus H5N1 y ocasionado la muerte de mas de 200 millones de aves en estos tres continentes.Es Indonesia, el país más comprometido por el virus H5N1, con un total de 74 humanos infectados y 57 defunciones y se considera que este número de mu...

  3. Statement by IAEA and Iran Following Technical Talks in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Following technical talks between IAEA and Iranian experts in Tehran today, here is the text of a joint statement read by Tero Varjoranta, IAEA Deputy Director General and Head of the Department of Safeguards, and H.E. Ambassador Reza Najafi of the Islamic Republic of Iran: ''Iran and the IAEA held constructive technical discussions to follow up the Joint Statement that was signed earlier today. ''At this meeting, preliminary arrangements to begin implementation of the six measures listed in the Annex to the Joint Statement were discussed. This will include a technical visit in the near future to the Heavy Water Production Plant at Arak. Future meetings at the working level will finalise the details of implementation. ''Further discussion will be held at the next technical meeting, scheduled for 11 December in Vienna.'' (IAEA)

  4. Formation of silver microbelt structures by laser irradiation of silver nanoparticles in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamiri R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri1, Azmi Zakaria1,2, Mohd Shahril Husin1, Zaidan Abd Wahab1, Forough Kalaei Nazarpour3 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, 2Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 3Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: In the present work, we prepared silver nanoparticles by laser ablation of pure silver plate in ethanol and then irradiated the silver nanoparticles using a 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Transmission electron microscopic images of the sample after irradiation clearly showed formation of big structures, such as microrods and microbelts in ethanol. The obtained microbelts had a width of about 0.166 µm and a length of 1.472 µm. The reason for the formation of such a big structure is the tendency of the nanoparticles to aggregate in ethanol before irradiation, which causes fusion of the nanoparticles. Keywords: nanomaterial, laser ablation, nanoparticles

  5. Intravenous acetaminophen is superior to ketamine for postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial

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    Faiz HR

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Faiz,1 Poupak Rahimzadeh,1 Ognjen Visnjevac,2 Behzad Behzadi,1 Mohammad Reza Ghodraty,1 Nader D Nader2 1Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2VA Western NY Healthcare System, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA Background: In recent years, intravenously (IV administered acetaminophen has become one of the most common perioperative analgesics. Despite its now-routine use, IV acetaminophen's analgesic comparative efficacy has never been compared with that of ketamine, a decades-old analgesic familiar to obstetricians, gynecologists, and anesthesiologists alike. This double-blind clinical trial aimed to evaluate the analgesic effects of ketamine and IV acetaminophen on postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Methods: Eighty women aged 25–70 years old and meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly allocated into two groups of 40 to receive either IV acetaminophen or ketamine intraoperatively. Postoperatively, each patient had patient-controlled analgesia. Pain and sedation (Ramsay Sedation Scale were documented based on the visual analog scale in the recovery room and at 4 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours after the surgery. Hemodynamic changes, adverse medication effects, and the need for breakthrough meperidine were also recorded for both groups. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower in the IV acetaminophen group at each time point (P<0.05, and this group required significantly fewer doses of breakthrough analgesics compared with the ketamine group (P=0.039. The two groups had no significant differences in terms of adverse effects. Conclusion: Compared with ketamine, IV acetaminophen significantly improved postoperative pain after abdominal hysterectomy. Keywords: intravenous acetaminophen, abdominal hysterectomy, ketamine, analgesia, postoperative pain

  6. Die Dependenzgrammatik von Tesnière uno die neue slowenische Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Pogorelec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In der Enzyklopädie der slowenischen Sprache (Toporišič 1992: 159 wird die Dependenzgrammatik unter besonderem Stichwort erklärt, in dem diese Grammatik zuerst als "eine Grammatik, die vor allem die Dependenzrelationen im Satz untersucht", definiert wird. Dann werden laut Lucien Tesnière im Satz Reza poje drei Elemente dargestellt: Reza, poje + die Verbindung dazwischen und dann werden drei Stufen des Graphs mit dem Verb als "dem Element, das die Ganzheit zusammenhält" erklärt; außerdem wird gesagt, daß die Koordination gemäß dieser Theorie durch die entsprechende Konjunktion ausgedrückt wird (aus dem graphischen Schema ist ersichtlich, daß dabei die Satzteilkoordination gemeint ist: pojeta -Tine -in -Tone. Im Kommentar wird hinzugefügt, daß auch "unsere" (= moderne slowenische Satzanalyse so aussieht, d. i. sie fängt mit dem Prädikat an, dann fragt man nach folgenden drei Hauptsatzteilen (Subjekt, Objekt, adverbiellen Prädikatbestimmungen, dann nach Attributen und deren Bestimmungen. Es wird die Methode des Unterstreichens von Satzteilen dargestellt, außerdem wird auf mehrere Arten der Dependenzgrammatik und auf verschiedene graphische Bezeichnungen der sprachlichen Erscheinungen aufgrund dieser Methode hingewiesen. -Im demselben Werk werden unter dem Stichwort translativ (Toporišič 1992: 331 zwei Bedeutungen gezeigt, von denen die erste auf einen entfernten Zusammenhang mit der Theorie von Tesnière hinweist, obwohl diese nicht erwähnt ist, lediglich bei der Definition selbst, nicht aber bei den Beispielen; translativ ist nach dieser Enzyklopädie "was aus einem Zustand in den anderen übertragen wird". Aber aus den Beispielen kann man sehen, das geht es um die Translation und nicht um Translativ als Instrument dieser Translation.

  7. Canticum Novum: música sem palavras e palavras sem som no pensamento de Santo Agostinho

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    Lorenzo Mammì

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available NO De Magistro, Santo Agostinho coloca a reza e o canto numa posição similar, à margem das funções imediatamente comunicativas da linguagem. A reflexão agostiniana sobre a reza se baseia nos hábitos cristãos da leitura, da oração e da meditação silenciosas. Há sobre o canto, na prática igualmente inovadora do jubilus, melodia sem palavra destinada aos momentos mais intensos e gaudiosos da liturgia. A oração silenciosa e o jubilus são temas recorrentes da literatura patrística, mas Agostinho os aborda de maneira original, desenhando, a partir das palavras sem som da oração e do som sem palavra do jubilus, o perfil de um discurso interior, que não se destina aos homens, mas a Deus.IN HIS De Magistro Saint Augustine places prayer and song on a similar level, alongside the language immediately communicative functions. His considerations on prayer are grounded on the Christian habits of silent reading, prayer and meditation; those on song, on the equally innovating practice called jubilus, which is melody without words designed for the intensest and most joyous liturgical moments. Silent prayer and jubilus are recurring topics in patristic literature, but Augustine deals with them in an original way, drawing from the soundless words of prayer and the wordless sound of jubilus an inner discourse, addressed not to men but to God.

  8. Evaluation of outcome in Mesenteric Ischemia

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    Samad Shams Vahdati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is an infrequent but a complicated life threatening condition. It is the leading causes of mortality with the rate of 60-100%. The purpose of our study is to investigate demographic outcomes of the patients referred to the emergency department of Imam Reza hospital with the diagnosis of AMI. Methods and materials: All patients with the diagnosis of AMI from March 2014 to March 2016 who were referred to emergency department of Imam Reza hospital, were studied. Demographic characteristics (age, sex, the period from symptom onset till laparotomy, risk factors and the last outcomes of patients were noted in the check lists for each patient. P value less than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: from 111 patients, 76 cases (68.8% were male, 35 cases (31.5% were female. Chief complaint of all patients was stomachache. Period of arriving to the emergency room in 5 cases (4.5% was 1-6 hours, in 3 cases (2.7% was 6-12 hours, and in 103 cases (92.8% has taken more than 12 hours. In 55 cases (49.5%, there was a significant relationship between clinical signs and physical examination findings, whereas in 56 cases (50.5% there was no relation. In our study 42 cases (37.8% were treated, whereas the morbidity and mortality rate were respectively 7 (6.3% and 62 (55.9%. According to the results of our study the most important finding was pain which was disproportionate to physical examination findings (P value< 0.052. Conclusion: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a severe and progressive disease so early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. One of the main reasons of higher mortality rate in AMI is difficulty in early diagnosis, before necrosis occurrence. Major factor that determines the survival rate is the accurate diagnosis before necrosis and peritonitis happens.

  9. Application of Haddon’s matrix in qualitative research methodology: an experience in burns epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljavan R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reza Deljavan,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazarganim,2,3 Nasrin Fouladim,4 Shahnam Arshi,5 Reza Mohammadi61Injury Epidemiology and Prevention Research Center, 2Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 5Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Public Health Department, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Little has been done to investigate the application of injury specific qualitative research methods in the field of burn injuries. The aim of this study was to use an analytical tool (Haddon’s matrix through qualitative research methods to better understand people’s perceptions about burn injuries.Methods: This study applied Haddon’s matrix as a framework and an analytical tool for a qualitative research methodology in burn research. Both child and adult burn injury victims were enrolled into a qualitative study conducted using focus group discussion. Haddon’s matrix was used to develop an interview guide and also through the analysis phase.Results: The main analysis clusters were pre-event level/human (including risky behaviors, belief and cultural factors, and knowledge and education, pre-event level/object, pre-event phase/environment and event and post-event phase (including fire control, emergency scald and burn wound management, traditional remedies, medical consultation, and severity indicators. This research gave rise to results that are possibly useful both for future injury research and for designing burn injury prevention plans.Conclusion: Haddon’s matrix is applicable in a qualitative research methodology both at data collection and data analysis phases. The study using Haddon’s matrix through a qualitative research methodology yielded substantially rich information regarding burn injuries

  10. Economic Policies of the Second Pahlavi regarding Industry, with an Emphasis on the Relations between Iran and Germany (1961-1978

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vashmeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After ascending to the throne, Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi tried to approximate the face of Iran to that of European countries dramatically. Meanwhile, impressive increase of oil price became the trump card in the hand of the second Pahlavi governments, by which to move toward the predicted goals. As a result, various small scale and large scale industries entered Iran and started to work as the main symbols of modernization. Germany had a special position among the industrial countries exporting industries to Iran, and much attention had been drawn to it. Germany, especially after the Second World War, needed to sell its industrial products and import raw material, thus Iran’s market could be considered one of the important economic recourse suppliers for Germany. With this mutual approach, many small and large German factories were sold to Iran and economical and political commutes of this country’s representatives to Iran increased. In addition to these industries, German technical schools started to work in order to transfer technical knowledge. In the present research, we investigate economic policies of second Pahlavi’s Governments in relation to industry with an emphasis on Iran-Germany relations. We use a descriptive-analytic method, and take advantage of the research period archive documents, books and media. The research aims to evaluate the economic policies in the second Pahlavi period which led to light and heavy industries entering Iran. The present research seeks to answer the question that what qualitative and quantitative changes did the second Pahlavi government’s industry-related policies made, especially using German industry, to modernize Iranian industry? In order to find the answer, we explain briefly Muhammad Reza Shah rising to power in the beginning, and then after entering the research period, we focus on the second Pahlavi economic policies, Iran foreign relations in the field of light and heavy industries

  11. The rs4846049 polymorphism in the 3’UTR region of the MTHFR gene increases the migraine susceptibility in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohaddeseh Salehi,1,* Mona Amin-Beidokhti,2,* Behnam Safarpour Lima,3 Milad Gholami,2 Gholam-Reza Javadi,1 Reza Mirfakhraie2,4 1Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, 2Department of Medical Genetics, 3Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, 4Genomic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Migraine is a painful complex neurovascular disease characterized by recurrent moderate-to-severe headaches. Increased level of homocysteine is related to dilation of cerebral vessels and endothelial injury that could trigger migraine attacks. Functional polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene affect homocysteine metabolism and, therefore, play an important role in the etiology of the disease. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the possible association between MTHFR gene rs4846049, C677T, and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of migraine in Iranian population. Methods: In this genetic association study, 498 individuals were enrolled, including 223 migraine patients and 275 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for rs4846049 and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. Results: The association between rs4846049 and C677T polymorphisms and migraine was observed. For the rs4846049 polymorphism, the association was detected under a dominant model (P=0.007; odds ratio [OR] =0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.87, and for the C677T polymorphism, the TT genotype frequency was significantly different in the studied groups (P=0.009; OR =2.48; 95% CI, 1.25–4.92. No significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies were found for the A1298C polymorphism between the migraineurs and controls. Conclusion: Present data provide evidence for the association of rs4846049 and C677T polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene and migraine. Further studies are

  12. Estimation of absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and effective sose in patients underwent abdominopelvic spiral CT scan using impact CT patient dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Amirnia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the presence of radiosensitive organs in the abdominopelvic region and increasing the number of requests for CT scan examinations, concerns about increasing radiation doses in patients has been greatly elevated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose in patients underwent abdominopelvic CT scan using ImPACT CT patient dosimetry Calculator (version 1.0.4, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital from November to February 2015 February 2015 in the Imam Reza Hospital, in Urmia, Iran. The demographic and dosimetric information of 100 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT scan in a 6-slice CT scanner were obtained through the data collection forms. The demographic data of the patients included age, weight, gender, and BMI. The dosimetric parameters included pitch value, CT dose volume index (CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, collimation size, scan length, and scan time. To determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and also the effective dose in patients, ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator was used. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the mean and standard deviation (SD of patients' effective dose in abdominopelvic CT scan was 4.927±0.164 mSv. The bladder in both genders had the greatest mean organ dose, which was 64.71±17.15 mGy for men and 77.56±18.48 mGy for women (P<0.001. Conclusion: The effective dose values of this examination are in the same range as previous studies, as well as International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommendations. However, the radiation dose from CT scan has the largest contribution to the medical imaging. According to the ALARA principle, it is recommended that the scan parameters, especially mAs, should be

  13. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangari Cohan R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reza Ahangari Cohan1, Armin Madadkar-Sobhani2,3, Hossein Khanahmad1, Farzin Roohvand4, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi4, Mohammad Hossein Hedayati5, Zahra Barghi5, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani4, Davoud Nouri Inanlou1, Dariush Norouzian11Research and Development Department, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Life Sciences, Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain; 4Hepatitis and AIDS Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; 5Quality Control Department, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IranBackground: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem.Methods: A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr- cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were

  14. Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a feasibility and safety study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Hokmabadi E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Elyar Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Mehdi Farhoudi, Aliakbar Taheraghdam, Mazyar Hashemilar, Daryous Savadi-Osguei, Reza Rikhtegar, Kaveh Mehrvar, Ehsan Sharifipour, Parisa Youhanaee, Reshad Mirnour Neurosciences Research Center, Neurology Department, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran Background: In developing countries, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT is available at a limited number of centers. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and safety of IVT at Tabriz Imam Reza Hospital. Methods: In a prospective study, over a 55-month period, any patient at the hospital for whom stroke code had been activated was enrolled in the study. Data on demographic characteristics, stroke risk factors, admission blood pressure, blood tests, findings of brain computed tomography (CT scans, time of symtom onset, time of arrival to the emergency department, time of stroke code activation, time of CT scan examination, and the time of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator administration were recorded. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale assessments were performed before IVT bolus, at 36 hours, at either 7 days or discharge (which ever one was earlier, and at 3-month follow-up. Brain CT scans were done for all patients before and 24 hours after the treatment. Results: Stroke code was activated for 407 patients and IVT was done in 168 patients. The rate of functional independence (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 0–1 at 3 months was 39.2% (62/158. The mortality rate at day 7 was 6% (10/168. Hemorrhagic transformation was noted in 16 patients (9.5%. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 5 (3%, all of which were fatal. One case of severe urinary bleeding and one other fatal case of severe angioedema were observed. Conclusion: During the first 4–5 years of administration of IVT in the hospital, it was found to be feasible and safe, but to increase the efficacy, poststroke care should be more organized and a stroke center

  15. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  16. The Invasion of Iran by the Allies during World War II

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    Süleyman Erkan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Nazi Germany attacked the Soviets at the beginning of World War II, the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union took part on the same side and were called the Allies. In order to convey the military aid to the Soviets through Iran, the USA and the UK invaded Iran with the Soviets and dethroned Ahmad Reza Shah, who felt sympathy for Germany. By signing a treaty in 1942, they pledged to evacuate their troops from Iran six months after the war ended. They published a declaration that they would protect Iran’s territorial integrity as well as they repeated these decisions during the conference they made in Tehran in 1943. However; despite these decisions, a hidden rivalry began between the USSR and the West in Iran. The rivalry became very clear towards the end of the war. The Soviets wouldn’t withdraw from Iran. Additionally, they endeavored to divide Iran. The Iran crisis of 1946 between the West and the Soviets formed the start of the Cold War according to some people. As a country, Iran was highly affected by this process.

  17. Quality of Care of Nursing from Brain Death Patient in ICU Wards

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    Seyedeh Toktam Masoumian Hoseini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, Intensive Care Unit (ICU nurses play a significant and key role in the care of brain dead patients and their families, therefore their Practice extremely important to the success of organ donation. To assess ICU nurse's practice in relation to nurse's role in the organ donation process from brain dead patients in Iran. Materials and Methods:In a cross-sectional analytical study 90 ICU nurses in Ghaem and Imam Reza Hospitals in Mashhad through stratified random sampling allocation method were selected. Data collection tools included a questionnaire on demographic information, factors influencing nurse's practice during the organ donation process and surveying "nurse's practice in relation to their roles in the organ donation process." Results: 90 nurses participated in this study. (70.0% of the research subjects had spoken with their own families about organ donation, and (20.0% had organ donation cards. Practice scores were calculated on a scale of 100. The mean score of nurses' practice was (6.04± 3.66. 96.7% of nurses’ weak practice in terms of their roles in the organ donation process. Conclusion: As a result, they do not have adequate practice regard nurse's role in organ donation process and in relation to brain death patient and their families. Therefore it is suggested to include nursing courses in the organ donation process and organ transplantation as well as educational programs to acquaint nurses with their roles in the process to improve their practice by different training methods.

  18. Do Xá ao Aiatolá: a revolução iraniana através de Veja (1978-1979 = The Shah to the Ayatollah: the iranian revolution through Veja (1978-1979

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    Zanoni, David Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da década de 1970, o Irã passava por um momento de instabilidade política e social, o qual, no final dessa década, culminou em um levante popular que decretaria o fim de uma monarquia autocrática e ditatorial do xá Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Desta forma, iniciava-se no Irã a República Teocrática Islâmica, liderada pelo aiatolá Ruhlloh Khomeini. O processo de queda da monarquia e promulgação de uma República Teocrática Islâmica, o qual, a historiografia denominou Revolução Iraniana, foi mundialmente explorado pelos meios de comunicação de massa, inclusive no Brasil. A partir disto, procuramos analisar como o periódico brasileiro semanal Veja abordou o processo iraniano, a partir de algumas edições que, inclusive, foram capa do semanário. Sendo assim, nossa proposta contempla o estudo da história através da imprensa. Assim, objetivamos analisar a história por meio da imprensa, problematizando os eventos a luz do conteúdo noticiado pelo semanário Veja

  19. Iranian Democratization Part I: A Historical Case Study of the Iranian Green Movement

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    Victor H. Sundquist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.

  20. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA: generating enriched ISA-Tab metadata files from metabolomics XML data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Martin; Lawson, Thomas N; Weber, Ralf J M; Moreno, Pablo; Haug, Kenneth; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Viant, Mark R; Steinbeck, Christoph; Salek, Reza M

    2017-08-15

    Submission to the MetaboLights repository for metabolomics data currently places the burden of reporting instrument and acquisition parameters in ISA-Tab format on users, who have to do it manually, a process that is time consuming and prone to user input error. Since the large majority of these parameters are embedded in instrument raw data files, an opportunity exists to capture this metadata more accurately. Here we report a set of Python packages that can automatically generate ISA-Tab metadata file stubs from raw XML metabolomics data files. The parsing packages are separated into mzML2ISA (encompassing mzML and imzML formats) and nmrML2ISA (nmrML format only). Overall, the use of mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA reduces the time needed to capture metadata substantially (capturing 90% of metadata on assay and sample levels), is much less prone to user input errors, improves compliance with minimum information reporting guidelines and facilitates more finely grained data exploration and querying of datasets. mzML2ISA & nmrML2ISA are available under version 3 of the GNU General Public Licence at https://github.com/ISA-tools. Documentation is available from http://2isa.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. reza.salek@ebi.ac.uk or isatools@googlegroups.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Abdominal penetrating trauma and organ damage and its prognosis

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    Babak Abri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abdominal penetrating trauma is still a serious problem in the world, due to its high prevalence in young people that impose a heavy economic burden on our country, we decided to evaluate the epidemiologic and demographic status and patient’s prognosis. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study; all patients with abdominal penetrating trauma referred to the emergency department of Imam Reza Hospital between March 2012 and March 2014 were enrolled to study. Age, sex, injured organs, mechanism of trauma and the prognosis was documented in the checklist. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15.0, and descriptive analysis was run. Results: In this study, 137 patients were enrolled; 103 patients (75.20% did not have visceral damage. In visceral injury, the spleen was most commonly injured abdominal organs (8.03%. the damage to small intestine seen in 8 patients (5.84%, kidney and liver damage seen in 6 patients (4.38% and 5 patients, respectively, and finally diaphragm and colon injury was seen in 2 patients (1.46%. Conclusion: According to a recent study, abdominal penetrating trauma mostly occurred in men. The most common cause of abdominal penetrating trauma was related to knife damage; spleen was commonly damaged organ caused by knives and other sharp objects.

  2. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy via Griggs Technique.

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    Karimpour, Hasan Ali; Vafaii, Kamran; Chalechale, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saeed; Kaviannezhad, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Tracheostomy is considered the airway management of choice for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation support. Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheotomy (PDT) is a technique that can be performed easily and rapidly at bedside and is particularly useful in the intensive care setting. The Griggs percutaneous tracheotomy is unique in its utilization of a guide wire dilator forceps. We aimed to describe the early perioperative and late postoperative complications of PDT using the Griggs technique in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients who underwent tracheostomy in the ICU of the Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from June 2011 to June 2015. PDT was performed in 184 patients with the Griggs technique. Demographic variables, as well as perioperative and late postoperative complications were recorded. The mean age of patients was 57.3 ± 15.37 years. The most common primary causes of tracheostomy were hypoxic brain damage disorders (43.2%) and pneumonia (14.8%). Perioperative and early complications occurred in 16.7 % of procedures, of which 9.3% were bleedings (minor, significant and major). Furthermore, the incidence of late complications was 8.6%, including: stomal infection, difficult replace tracheostomy tube, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal stenosis, and tracheomalacia. PDT via Griggs technique is a safe, quick, and effective method. The low incidence of complications indicates that bedside percutaneous tracheostomy can be performed safely as a routine procedure for daily care implemented in the ICU.

  3. Seasonal changes in the abundance of bacterial genes related to dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism in seawater from Ofunato Bay revealed by metagenomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toshiaki

    2018-04-26

    Ofunato Bay is located in the northeastern Pacific Ocean area of Japan, and it has the highest biodiversity of marine organisms in the world, primarily due to tidal influences from the cold Oyashio and warm Kuroshio currents. Our previous results from performing shotgun metagenomics indicated that Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique and Planktomarina temperata were the dominant bacteria (Reza et al., 2018a, 2018b). These bacteria are reportedly able to catabolize dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced from phytoplankton into dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methanethiol (MeSH). This study was focused on seasonal changes in the abundances of bacterial genes (dddP, dmdA) related to DMSP catabolism in the seawater of Ofunato Bay by BLAST+ analysis using shotgun metagenomic datasets. We found seasonal changes among the Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique strains, including those of the HTCC1062 type and the Red Sea type. A good correlation was observed between the chlorophyll a concentrations and the abundances of the catabolic genes, suggesting that the bacteria directly interact with phytoplankton in the marine material cycle system and play important roles in producing DMS and MeSH from DMSP as signaling molecules for the possible formation of the scent of the tidewater or as fish attractants.

  4. Feminine Features as Political Tools: the Cases of Femen and Women of Liberia

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    Gabriela Caviedes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un análisis de los distintos modos en que puede entenderse el feminismo, usando como ejemplos los casos de los movimientos feministas Femen y Mujeres de Liberia. Ambos se distinguen por usar características femeninas como herramientas políticas, y ambos han sido objeto de interés para producciones audiovisuales. En efecto, cada uno constituye la temática central de dos documentales: Ukraine is Not a Brothel (“Ucrania no es un burdel”, que trata del movimiento Femen; y Pray the Devil Back to Hell (Reza para que el diablo regrese al infierno, que trata del movimiento Mujeres de Liberia. Usaré este material para presentar para uno. Luego de ello los analizaré a la luz de la definición y división del feminismo que realiza Karen Offen, académica de la Universidad de California. Concluiré luego que Femen es un ejemplo de lo que ella llama “feminismo individualista”, y Mujeres de Liberia, de lo que llama “feminismo relacional”. También concluiré que la posición política que alcanzan se debe también a la rama de feminismo que representan

  5. Serum levels of CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA tumor markers in cancer care and treatment of patients with impaired renal function on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estakhri, Rasoul; Ghahramanzade, Ali; Vahedi, Amir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Since renal failure causes decrease in tumor marker excretion, use of these markers in cancer care and treatment in patients with renal insufficiency or hemodialysis is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of serum levels of tumor markers CA15-3, AFP, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with impaired renal function. A total of 100 patients referred to the Tabriz Immam Reza and Amiralmomenin hospital from June 2010 to November 2011 were selected for study. Subjects were divided to 3 groups of healthy, dialysis and renal failure but non hemodialysis cases, the last category being re-grouped based on creatinine clearance. No significant relationship between different groups in serum levels of CEA (P=0.99) and CA19-9 (P=0.29) tumor markers was found. A significant correlation was observed between serum levels of AFP (PCEA (r=0.05, P=0.625). Creatinine clearance significantly correlated with AFP (Ptumor markers in patients with impaired renal function should be performed with special precautions.

  6. Growth indices in urinary tract infection children with or without vesicoureteral reflux

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    Majid Malaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the growth quality in children, less than 5 years of age, affected with urinary tract infection (UTI and to compare the indices between patients with and without vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR based on their reflux severity and/or laterality, we studied 106 children less than 5 years of age with UTI at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, and divided the study group into four subgroups based on their cystouretrography results as follows: Group 0: without reflux (as control group; Group 1: mild VUR; Group 2: moderate VUR; and Group 3: severe VUR. In all the subgroups, weight height index (WHI was lower than 100% and was 96%, 93%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. We found no correlation between reflux severity and WHI in all the subgroups. In addition, the difference in the mean height standard deviation score (HSDS (0.10, -0.12, -0.19, and -0.22, respectively in the different subgroups was statistically insignificant. The mean WHI in the group with unilateral and bilateral reflux was 94.5% ± 8.9% and 95.0% ± 8.16%, respectively, while the mean HSDS was -0.16 ± 0.35 and -0.18 ± 0.38, respectively, and the difference was statistically insignificant in both the cases. We conclude that in children with UTI and normal glomerular filtration rate, the existence of reflux with all grades of severity and laterality exerts no impact on the growth index.

  7. The effect of acetaminophen nanoparticles on liver toxicity in a rat model

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    Esmaeil Biazar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, S Mahdi Rezayat2, Naser Montazeri1, Khalil Pourshamsian1, Reza Zeinali3, Azadeh Asefnejad3, Mehdi Rahimi3, Mohammadmajid Zadehzare3, Mehran Mahmoudi3, Rohollah Mazinani3, Mehdi Ziaei31Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Biomedical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, IranAbstract: Acetaminophen, a pain-reliever, is one of the most widely used medications in the world. Acetaminophen with normal dosage is considered a nontoxic drug for therapeutic applications, but when taken at overdose levels it produces liver damage in human and various animal species. By a high energy mechanically activated method, we produced acetaminophen in a nanometer crystalline size (24 nm. Forty-eight hours after injection of crystalline particles with normal and reduced size of our drug, the effect of liver toxicity was compared by determination of liver transferase enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. These enzymes were examined by routine colorimetric methods using commercial kits and pathologic investigations. Statistical analysis and pathological figures indicated that ALT delivery and toxicity in reduced size acetaminophen was significantly reduced when compared with normal size acetaminophen. Pathology figures exhibited reduced necrosis effects, especially the confluent necrosis, in the central part of the lobule in the reduced size acetaminophen samples when compared with the normal samples.Keywords: acetaminophen, size reduction, pathological and enzymatic investigations, toxicity

  8. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

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    Maryam Sadat Katebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admiss­ion or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P

  9. Assessment of indoor and outdoor airborne fungi in an Educational, Research and Treatment Center

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    Nasrin Rostami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital environments contain different types of microorganisms. Airborne fungi are one of these microbes and the major source of hospital indoor contamination that will be able to cause airborne fungal diseases. In the current study, the total count and diversity of the airborne filamentous and yeasts fungi were investigated in indoor and outdoor air of selective wards of Emam Reza Educational, Research and Treatment Center. This cross-sectional study was performed during the fall season. One hundred and ninety-two environmental samples of indoor and outdoor air from hematology, infectious diseases, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU wards were collected by open plate technique (on Sabouraud dextrose agar media once a week. The cultures were then examined and evaluated according to macroscopic and microscopic examination criteria. In this study, 67 (62.03% of indoor samples and 81 (96.42% of outdoor samples were positive for fungi. The most isolated fungi were yeast species (17.12%, Penicillium spp. (16.34%, Alternaria spp. (14.39%, Aspergillus niger (11.28%, A. flavus (8.95%, respectively. Almost all of the wards showed high rates of contamination by various fungi. However, the analysis of the data showed that indoor air of hematology ward had the highest fungal pollution. In contrast, the outdoor air of ENT had the highest fungal pollution. Thus, these results demonstrated that the cleansing and disinfection procedures in the hospital wards should be improved yet.

  10. The Relationship of Body Image with Psychological Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

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    F Moradi Manesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Surgery and adjuvant therapies lead to body image problems and psychological distress in young women with breast cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship of body image with psychological distress in women with breast cancer. Methods: This correlation study was carried out on 294 women with breast cancer at Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, in 2011. The selection of the participants was based on purposive sampling. The Body image was assessed by BIS. The Psychological distress was assessed by DASS-21. The collected data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and Independent sample test. Results: Results showed that body image had a significant positive relationship with psychological distress (P < 0.001. Furthermore, younger women had greater trouble about body image and experienced greater psychological distress compared to elder women. Conclusion: This study showed that dissatisfaction about body image accompanied psychological distress. Also, younger women experience greater difficulties about body image and psychological distress. Therefore, suitable psychological interventions are recommended.

  11. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Koorosh; Sedaghat, Mohammad; Safdarian, Mahdi; Hashemian, Amir-Masoud; Nezamdoust, Zahra; Vaseie, Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients'outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre- and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our findings showed that interns'ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P less than 0.001, P equal to 0.016 and P equal to 0.01 respectively). ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  12. Conceito, juízo e silogismo: Introdução à lógica do conceito de Hegel

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    Christian Iber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O que é um conceito no sentido de Hegel é, atualmente, algo praticamente desconhecido. Como exemplo de um conceito, a Filosofia Moderna da Linguagem apresenta aproximadamente o conceito de pílula anticoncepcional. Nenhuma mulher, nem mesmo uma admiradora da dialética, compreenderia, por exemplo, se, no médico passando a receita, o conceito de pílula anticoncepcional começasse a correr e no farmacêutico transmutasse no seu oposto. Ninguém admitiria que com os conceitos fundamentais de nossa vida joga-se de tal maneira (Wilhelm E. Essler. A crítica à doutrina hegeliana do juízo, que se tornou uma repreensão standard, reza que ele confundiria a cópula com a identidade: A parte da dialética de Hegel parece geralmente repousar no equívoco de dois significados da palavra é (Bertrand Russel. E, em relação à doutrina de Hegel do silogismo, o hegeliano Vittorio Hösle chega à seguinte averiguação fulminante: Em medida ainda mais alta do que a lógica do juízo de Hegel, sua lógica do silogismo tem que valer como ultrapassada. Este artigo objetiva iluminar o sentido racional e o conteúdo crítico da teoria de Hegel do conceito, do juízo e do silogismo.

  13. Utopian Fantasy in the Poetry of Sohrab Sepehri and Abbas Beydoun

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    Tooraj Zinivand

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Utopian Fantasy in the Poetry of Sohrab Sepehri and Abbas Beydoun(A Comparative StudyTooraj Zinivand *Jahungir Amiri **Reza Kiany ***AbstractIf we look at the poems of the Iranian poet Sohrab Sepehri and Lebanese poetAbbas Beydoun , we find that the fantasy adopted by poets imagination is linked topsychological factors, and this fantasy often comes in surreal manner in branches ofliterary, symbolic and scientific fiction. This study tries to touch the psychologicalaspect of the imagination of these poets. The question we are trying to answer is: Whatare the most important common features that are found in the Utopian fantasy ofSohrab and Abbas, which urges us to compare these two poets?This study reveals that the common features in the poetry of Sohrab Sepehri andAbbas Beydoun arise from imagination, shared commitment and mysticism. Whatdistinguishes the imagination of poets is the transfer of perceptions by employingoptical and mystical symbols and the use of images of color and time and place as wellas scientific facts.Key words: fiction, Sohrab Sepehri, Abbas BeydounUtopian fantasy, Symbolic imagination, Childhood memory, Science*Assistant

  14. A Study on the Correlation between Pain and Pain Anxiety during Wound Care in Burn Patients

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    Seyed Reza Mazlom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Wound care in burn patients is associated with severe anxiety that is characterized by feeling of fear and prediction of burn dressing pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pain and pain anxiety in burn patients. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 60 eligible patients hospitalized in men’s and women’s burn wards of Mashhad Imam Reza Hospital, were selected using available sampling. Pain anxiety and pain severity were measured using self-report pain anxiety questionnaire and visual analog scale, respectively, before and after burn dressing during three weeks (once a week. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test. Results: In this study, there was a significant linear correlation between pain and pain anxiety in the first week (r=0.512, p<0.001, but there was no significant linear correlation between these variables in the second (r=0.079, p=0.547 and third (r=0.167, p=0.203 weeks. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, assessment and treatment of pain anxiety are essential elements of pain care and management in burn patients.            

  15. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

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    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  16. The relationship between religious orientation and death anxiety in patients with breast cancer

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    farkhonde Salehi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Breast Cancer is the most common malignancy and is the second leading cause of mortality due to cancer in women. One of the important psychological factors in these patients is death anxiety. Given the role of religious orientation to this psychological factor, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between religious orientation and death anxiety in patients with breast cancer in Kermanshah. Methods: In this cross-sectional study on 48 patients with breast cancer referred to the Oncology Department of Imam Reza (PBUH Hospital. Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Allport Religious Orientation Scale were used to gather data and the data analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests in SPSS 22. Results: The highest and lowest scores of religious orientation in these patients were 76 and 48, with mean score 65.31. The highest and lowest death anxiety scores attained by these patients were 14 (8.3% and 2 (10.4%, and 72.9% of the patients had high levels of death anxiety. Religious orientation and death anxiety were significantly correlated (correlation coefficient: 0.508, and age was significantly correlated with death anxiety but not with religious orientation. Conclusion: Given the findings of the present study, it cannot be definitely argued that religious orientation and death anxiety are correlated in cancer patients. Therefore, this issue should be further investigated.

  17. Comparison of the clinical symptoms of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly

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    Behzad Taghipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction is a fatal symbol of cardiovascular diseases, which usually occurs in people over 45 years. However, the incidence of factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and metabolic syndrome has increased the risk of developing early cardiovascular diseases in the middle-aged people. This study was conducted to compare the clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 366 patients less and more than 55 years old with acute myocardial infarction admitted to the CCU of Imam Reza Hospital in Amol. Data were collected using demographic form and a checklist of clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 20 using descriptive statistics, chi-square, odds ratio and the Mantel-Haenszel (α= 0.05 and d=0.3. Results: The results showed that patients over 55 years manifested the symptoms of shortness of breath (1.66, weakness (2.62, vomiting (1.98 and hiccups (2.19 more than the patients under55 years. Also, by controlling the confounding effect of gender, these symptoms had emerged in >55 year-old patients than in <55 year-old ones. Conclusion: According to the results, the elderly patients have more chance of manifesting nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, the healthcare providers, especially nurses should be more careful in this regard during the initial assessment.

  18. "Nuestro lugar en el mundo está fuera del mundo pero cerca de ti". Una aproximación a Bocado, de David Preiss

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    Javier Bello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Resulta clave en Bocado, el más reciente poemario de David Preiss, el verso que reza"la muerte prepara a la muerte" (Preiss 11. Se trata de una aporía que esconde, pese a suapariencia circular, cerrada, un desarrollo en el pensamiento y un desplazamiento que no seve aplazado, paradoja que los textos del libro articulan en múltiples instancias, encarnadaen diversas formas, y que subyace a la totalidad del conjunto. En el imaginario de Preiss,la muerte, el fin de la vida, se reproduce, persiste más allá de toda constatación, ya nosolo en el sentido en que, en el contexto de la Shoá, la memoria y el orden simbólico yreproductivo son experimentados como un abuso, una asfixiante imposición divina para elsujeto testigo -como intenté observar en un trabajo anterior (Bello 2012 sobre Señor delvértigo, el primer libro del autor (Preiss 1992, 1994 -, sino en un sentido anterior, quepuede llegar a resignificar, desde aquí, aunque sea parcialmente, las contradicciones dela subjetividad y la masculinidad enfrentadas al mandato del testimonio. La persistenciade la muerte trata aquí de la condición inseparable de vida y muerte, dos fuerzas queen el inconsciente de la escritura aparecen complementarias, pero que son leídas comoopuestas por la conciencia objetual y referencial.

  19. ¿Quién puede ser autor de un artículo científico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con el diccionario de la Real Academia Española (1, autor tiene cinco acepciones, pero la que se acerca a los intereses del presente escrito reza así: “Persona que ha producido alguna obra científica, literaria o artística”. No obstante, en el ámbito científico y académico esta definición puede ser más amplia, compleja y aun alcanzar diferentes connotaciones si se tienen en cuenta algunas reflexiones generales sobre la materia y no menos importante cuando se tiene presente; como debería ser, las razones éticas para firmar como autor o coautor de un artículo. Estas consideraciones son las intrínsecas de la investigación y que se generan dentro de un grupo en particular, que se preocupa, por ejemplo, en ser el primero en publicar artículos sobre un tema específico. Otros, con otra óptica, podrían tener interés en ostentar el mayor número de artículos publicados en una determinada área del conocimiento.

  20. The effect of need-based spiritual/religious intervention on spiritual well-being and anxiety of elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elham, Hedayati; Hazrati, Maryam; Momennasab, Marzieh; Sareh, Keshavarzi

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and spiritual distress are the most common problems among the patients admitted in intensive care units. The elderly are more vulnerable to this problem due to impairment of their adaptation mechanisms. Hence, helping to reduce anxiety is one of the most effective nursing interventions. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the effect of need-based spiritual/religious interventions on spiritual well-being (SWB) and anxiety of the elderly admitted to coronary care unit (CCU). This quasi-experimental study with pre- and posttest control group design was conducted on 66 patients admitted to CCU of Imam Reza hospital in Lar, southern Iran, in 2014. After obtaining informed consents, the data were collected using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the SWB Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed through interviewing the patients before and after the intervention. The participants of the intervention group underwent 60- to 90-minute sessions of spiritual and religious need-based interventions for 3 consecutive days. The results showed a significant increase in the mean scores of SWB in the intervention group after the intervention (P = .001). Also, a significant decrease was found in mean scores of trait and state anxiety in the intervention group in comparing to control group (P Spiritual/religious interventions could enhance SWB and reduce anxiety in the elderly admitted to CCU.

  1. Hydatidosis as a cause of acute appendicitis: a case report

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    Maryam Hajizadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is considered the most common cause of emergency surgery in children and young adults. The association between parasitic infections and appendicitis has been widely investigated. Hydatidosis, a zoonotic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus, may cause illness in intermediate hosts, generally human and herbivorous animals. This disease is considered hyper endemic in northwest of Iran and is a serious public health problem. Hydatidosis predominantly is located in internal organs especially liver and lung but is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. Our aim was to study hydatid cyst that causes appendicitis. In this retrospective descriptive, 275 appendectomies performed during the years 2007-2012 in Tabriz Emam Reza hospital. Depending on the clinical notes, serological method, laboratory, surgical findings and attention to the histopathologic results, we found a patient with appendiceal hydatidosis. Acute appendicitis of hydatidosis origin is not seen frequently even in the hyper endemic area. Therefore, described an unusual cases of hydatidosis, should be considered in the differential diagnoses of appendicitis also education on how to prevent hydatidosis and eradication of stray dogs should be included in training programs to avoid and decrease the appendectomy operations.

  2. A Historical Study of Immigration Phenomenon in Undeveloped Societies: Study of Economic Reasons of Immigration during Pahlavi I Period in Zahedan

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    Shahram Yousefifar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available During the reign of Reza Shah, policy of magisterial modernization was done on the basis of society modernization by importing products, civilization manifestations, modern management, monopolizing political power and governmentalizing economy. Social structures, under the influence of integration in global system and the effects caused by two world wars, as a semi-periphery region, did not stay away from unpleasant consequences of the situation such as immigration inside the borders of Iran and immigration among the political borders of Iran especially in eastern borders. Because of special geographical situation (border region and economic situation (silk trade route, eastern borders had an important role in Iran’s exterritorial immigration system and were receptive to resident ethnics in neighbor countries (Hazara in Afghanistan, Sikh, etc. and were also the entry gate of immigrants to eastern cities of Iran. In this research, emphasizing on Iran’s situation in global system, immigration and its causes on Zahedan have been studied. The results suggest that the strategic location of Zahedan was a predisposing factor of preliminary foundations such as railway for economy growth of the city and a small group of Hindus’ immigration for employment in this part. Gradually, central government actions in customs section and transportation development, turned Zahedan into a suitable region for trade that resulted immigration and habitation of many citizens of neighboring countries in order to work in economic fields. Because of disability in adaption to new conditions and lack of proficiency, many native inhabitants immigrated to the other regions.

  3. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Fat and Oil Deposits in Mashhad City Sewer Lines and the Solutions Developed

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    Mahdi kamali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of oil, fat, and grease deposits in sewer pipelines is a major concern as they result in sewage overflow and pose health problems. Analysis of two sample deposits collected from the sewer lines of Imam Reza Street in the city of Mashhad suggested that the chemical reactions promoted by edible oils in the sewer lines lead to the formation of insoluble soap and deposits. Being sticky, the deposits accumulate over time to eventually block the lines. The analysis also showed that the moisture content of the samples ranged between 50‒62%, indicating that water does not play a main role in their formation. The samples were also found to contain 61.78% and 84.35% saturated fatty acids, with palmitic acid being the dominant one. Calcium was the main metal in the samples, which is due to both water hardness and corrosion of the sewer lines. Based on the results obtained, the origin of these deposits, and the relevant protocols for the management of oil and fat wastes, solutions were proposed to prevent deposit formation and sewer line clogging that suit the special cultural and environmental conditions of the city. These proposals are under consideration for implementation in the region.

  4. Seasonal changes in the abundance of bacterial genes related to dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism in seawater from Ofunato Bay revealed by metagenomic analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kudo, Toshiaki; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Rashid, Jonaira; Reza, Shaheed; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ikeda, Yuri; Ikeda, Daisuke; Mizusawa, Nanami; Ikeo, Kazuho; Sato, Shigeru; Ogata, Takehiko; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Kaga, Shinnosuke; Watanabe, Shiho; Naiki, Kimiaki; Kaga, Yoshimasa; Segawa, Satoshi; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gojobori, Takashi; Watabe, Shugo

    2018-01-01

    Ofunato Bay is located in the northeastern Pacific Ocean area of Japan, and it has the highest biodiversity of marine organisms in the world, primarily due to tidal influences from the cold Oyashio and warm Kuroshio currents. Our previous results from performing shotgun metagenomics indicated that Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique and Planktomarina temperata were the dominant bacteria (Reza et al., 2018a, 2018b). These bacteria are reportedly able to catabolize dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced from phytoplankton into dimethyl sulfide (DMS) or methanethiol (MeSH). This study was focused on seasonal changes in the abundances of bacterial genes (dddP, dmdA) related to DMSP catabolism in the seawater of Ofunato Bay by BLAST+ analysis using shotgun metagenomic datasets. We found seasonal changes among the Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique strains, including those of the HTCC1062 type and the Red Sea type. A good correlation was observed between the chlorophyll a concentrations and the abundances of the catabolic genes, suggesting that the bacteria directly interact with phytoplankton in the marine material cycle system and play important roles in producing DMS and MeSH from DMSP as signaling molecules for the possible formation of the scent of the tidewater or as fish attractants.

  5. Quality assurance program for prototype stereotactic system developed for neptun 10 Pc linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshbin Khoshnazar, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Hashemiyan, A.R.; Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Salek, R.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype stereotactic radiosurgery set was designed and constructed for a Neptun 10 Pc linac that is currently being used at Imam Reza hospital in Mashad. Materials and Methods: A complete quality assurance program was designed and performed for the constructed system including isocentric accuracy test, localization accuracy test, dose delivery accuracy test and leakage radiation test. Target simulator, control alignment device and plexiglass phantom which were parts of the developed hardware were used to fulfill quality assurance program. Results: The average isocentric shift resulted from the gantry rotation and couch turning were respectively obtained to be 1.4 and 2 mm. The average localization error in the three coordinates was found to be 2.2 mm. The total treatment uncertainty due to all of the probable errors in the system was equal to 4.32 mm. The dose delivery accuracy test was carried out, the result indicated a 3.7% difference between the given and measured dose. Conclusion: The quality assurance tests showed consistent performance of the constructed system within the accepted limits; however, some inconsistency might exist in certain cases. The safety of stereotactic radiosurgery system method is increased when the overall uncertainty is minimized nd the treatment of the lesions adjacent to critical organs is avoided

  6. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis in the Owners of Domestic Cats and Dogs in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran

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    Fariba BERENJI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with Ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named Toxocara canis and T. cati. Because in recent years in Iran many people desire to keep pets (cats and dogs, and lacking of seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis in Mashhad, we decided to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis among people who own cats and dogs in comparison with control group.Methods: A serological study for detection antibodies to Toxocara in two groups (93 cat and dog owners and 93 healthy people as control group was conducted from Feb 2013 to Dec 2013. An ELISA method was employed using determination of IgG antibodies against Toxocara. The serum samples were evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibody, using ELISA technique at Parasitology and Immunology Lab of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad. Using a questionnaire, epidemiological factors associated with infection were examined. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in the pet owners and control group was respectively 20.43% and 1.07%.  47.3% of pet owners were female. Conclusion: Presented data showed the significant difference between seroprevalence of toxocariasis among pet owners and control group. Education of society and in particular pet owners consisting of preventing contamination of the environment with Toxocara eggs is advised. 

  7. Effects of Abdominal Massage and Non-Nutritive Sucking on Physiological Parameters of Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT

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    Alehe Seyyedrasooli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the reduction of infant mortality in the world, complication of preterm birth is a major cause of infant mortality. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of abdominal massage and non-nutritive sucking on physiological parameters of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units in Emam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 42 infants who had the inclusion criteria, were selected and randomly assigned to three groups of abdominal massage and non-nutritive sucking and control (14 infant for each group. Abdominal massage in the first intervention group with the "I Love You: method and non-nutritive sucking in the second intervention through sucking a pacifier were performed twice in day for 15 minutes. The control group also received typical unit care. In order to analyze the data, the SPSS 22.0 software for analytical as well as descriptive statistical methods was used. Results: The results of this study showed that the studied groups, at 9 AM and 9 PM of 5 consecutive days, had a significant difference with each other in terms of physiological parameters of the mean scores of respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation level (p

  8. Clinicopathologic evaluation of mammary Paget′s disease

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    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary and extramammary Paget′s diseases are rare neoplasms of epidermis and mucosal epithelium. Due to their nonspecific and variable clinical view, they have differential diagnosis with eczema, melanoma, Bowen′s disease, etc. To the best of our knowledge, no such study has been performed in Iran regarding the prevalence, clinical aspects, underlying disease and pathological characteristics of these two diseases. In this study, we have evaluated the clinical and histopathological aspects of this disorder. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all Paget′s biopsied samples referred to the Pathology Department of Imam-Reza hospital, Mashhad, since 1984 till 2004 were evaluated. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Results: Among 98925 specimens, there were 29 cases of Paget′s disease. All cases were married women suffering from mammary Paget. The mean age was 53 ± 11 years. Left and right breast involvement was observed in 17 and 12 cases, all unilateral. The most common clinical view was ulcerated (27% and then erythematosus exudative plaques. More than 50% of patients were symptomatic. Most common symptoms were itching, pain and burning. The exclusive underlying pathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma (55%. Discussion: In most cases, the clinical view of mammary Paget′s disease was helpful. Unilateral ulcerated plaque was the most common clinical sign. Majority of the accompanying pathology was ductal carcinoma. We had no cases of extramammary Paget′s disease in our study.

  9. Technical Quality of Delivered Care for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Tabriz Care Centers

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    Mohammad Hosein Somi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD is a chronic disease and requires complex treatment. Due to the various treatment options and gradual understanding of specialists about the risks and benefits of different treatments of IBD, delivering care according to the treatment protocols and guidelines is essential. This study was conducted to assess delivered care from the perspective of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Material and Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted with 94 participants with IBD selected randomly in Emam Reza hospital and Golgasht clinic in Tabriz. Data were collected by an approved researcher-made questionnaire via interviewing patients. Chi-Squared Test was used to evaluate the relationship between demographic variables and accordance of delivered care with standards. SPSS17 was used for data analysis. Results : The results indicated that "visit by specialist" and "providing dietary recommendation by nutritionist" aspects had highest and lowest degree of accordance with standards, respectively. Furthermore, the aspects of “delivered care in exacerbation status of disease” and “delivered care by other specialists” had only 20 percent compliance with standards. Also, there was a significant relationship between age, job, education status, smoking and compliance with related standards in some care aspects (p Conclusion : The study results indicated that there is a deep gap between delivered cares for patients with inflammatory bowel disease and related standards. These deficiencies showed the parts that need improvement and require healthcare managers and policy makers’ attention.

  10. Desenvolvimento de recursos didáticos para o ensino de geociências para a Banca das Ciências e Experimentoteca da EACH/USP

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    Caroline Bertocco Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho abrange a importância da divulgação e popularização da Ciência com o uso de modelos didáticos que expressem os conteúdos de Geociências. A divulgação e popularização da Ciência tem como cenário a Banca da Ciência, um projeto ligado ao Laboratório de Desenvolvimento de Recursos Didáticos em Ciência da Natu­reza, LABDID da Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, EACH-USP. Foram utilizados materiais simples, como papel cartonado de caixa descartáveis, canudos para refrigerante, cola quente, copos de iogurte descartáveis etc. e atividades apresentadas em publicações científicas da área de ensino de Geociências e do site Geoideias, para compor o acervo da Banca da Ciência, assim como para ampliar o tema Geologia no acervo da Experimentoteca do LABDID. A acessibilidade dos materiais para a construção dos modelos foi vista como um meio para a popularização das Geociências, na qual a escolha de materiais reciclados e de baixo custo permitisse a reprodução e adaptação dos modelos.

  11. Acute Datura Stramonium poisoning in East of Iran - a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahnaz; Khosrojerdi, Hamid; Afshari, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Datura Stramonium (DS) is a common weed along roadsides, in cornfields and pastures and in waste areas. It belongs to the family Solanaceae and its toxic components are tropane belladonna alkaloids. It has been used voluntarily by teenagers for its hallucinogenic effect. The plant is named in Iran as Tatoore. Symptoms and signs of acute D. Stramonium poisoning usually are similar to anticholinergic syndrome. This study is done in order to clarify the status of this poisoning in our region. This study is a case series on all patients admitted to Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with acute D. Stramonium poisoning between 2008 and 2011. We observed their symptoms, signs, routine laboratory test results and treatment used to control their symptoms. There were 19 patients included in our study. Children were poisoned more commonly than teenagers and poisoning in adults was rare. All of the children ingested the plant accidentally. The most presenting symptom was irritability and the most common sign was sinus tachycardia. There was not any presentation of seizure or coma. Most of the symptoms were controlled by parenteral benzodiazepines and there were no need to use of cholinergic agents such as physostigmine. Our study showed most of D. Stramonium poisoned population in our region are children. We suggest decreasing accessibility to the plant in order to decrease the incidence of its poisoning.

  12. Moyamoya Disease Mimicking Encephalitis

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    Maryam Khalesi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare vaso-occlusive illness with an unknown etiology characterized by stenosis of the internal carotid arteries with spontaneous development of a collateral vascular network. A 15-month-old girl was referred to the emergency ward of Imam Reza Hospital due to decreased level of consciousness, focal seizures and fever during the previous 24 hours with an impression of encephalitis. Physical examination revealed left side hemiparesis; however brain CT-Scan did not show any significant lesions. Initial therapy with vancomycin, ceftriaxone and acyclovir was administered. CSF analysis did not show any abnormality and the blood as well as CSF cultures results were negative. Brain MRI showed hyperintensity at right frontal and parietal regions, suggesting vascular lesion. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA showed bilaterally multiple torsions in vessels at the basal ganglia consistent with moyamoya vessels. In all children exhibiting encephalitis, vascular events such as moyamoya disease should be considered. Brain MRI is a critical tool for this purpose. Common causes of encephalitis such as herpes simplex should also be ruled out.

  13. Comparison of bilirubin level in term infants born by vaginal delivery and C/S

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    Ahmad Shah Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the overriding importance of neonatal jaundice and scarcity of studies on the role of route of delivery on its occurrence, this study aimed to investigate the association between neonatal bilirubin level and the route of delivery (i.e., normal vaginal delivery [NVD] and cesarean section [CS]. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, 2012. In all term infants, who met the inclusion criteria, serum bilirubin level was measured by the bili-test device between the second and seventh days after birth. In cases with skin bilirubin level>5 mg/dl, serum bilirubin was also checked. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS, version 16. Results: A total of 182 neonates were enrolled in the study, 56% of whom were male. The mean bilirubin levels in the NVD and CS groups were 9.4±2.9 mg/dl and 9.8±3.4 mg/dl, respectively (P=0.53. Additionally, comparison of the mean bilirubin levels between the two groups based of demographic characteristics demonstrated no significant differences. Conclusion: This study showed no significant correlation between neonatal jaundice in term infants and the route of delivery.

  14. Educational Needs of Nurses in Intensive Care Unit for Poisoned Patients

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    Dadpour B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poisoned patients are at risk of impaired ventilation in many situations. The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the impact of educational workshops on nurses' knowledge, confidence, and attitude in taking care of poisoned patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 60 nursing staff in the intensive care unit (ICU for poisoned patients in Imam Reza (p hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Data was gathered by a researcher-designed questionnaire. Studied scales included perceived importance and novelty of educational meeting, matching with professional and educational needs, illustration of practical and knowledge weaknesses and strength and finally satisfaction in holding regular workshops annually. Two, half day workshops were held and various items were taught with various methods. The knowledge of participants was assessed by pretests and post-tests consisting of 12 items related to workshop topics. The impact of these educational meetings was evaluated and the results were analyzed by the SPSS software. Results: According to the results, workshops improved awareness of nurses about their weakness and strength points, professional knowledge and their interest and attention; likewise all participants had the same opinion about a strong need to hold similar workshops more than once and preferably 2 to 3 times annually. Conclusion: It seems that short educational courses in small groups for reviewing the old data and recent findings in the context of critical care are useful in order to promote the knowledge and skills of ICU staff in taking care of poisoned patients

  15. Comparison between preoperative administration of methylprednisolone with its administration before and during congenital heart surgery on serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi Tashnizi, Mohammad; Soltani, Ghasem; Moeinipour, Ali Asghar; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Tanha, Amir Saber; Jarahi, Lida; Sepehri Shamloo, Alireza; Zirak, Nahid

    2013-02-01

    Steroid administration during cardiopulmonary bypass is considered to improve cardiopulmonary function by modulating inflammations caused by bypass. This study was performed to compare effectiveness of preoperative and intraoperative methylprednisolone (MP) to preoperative methylprednisolone alone in post bypass inflammatory (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) factors. Fifty pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery from August 2011 to 2012 in the cardiac surgery department of Imam Reza Hospital, the major center for CPB, in Mashhad, Iran were randomly assigned to receive preoperative and intraoperative MP (30 mg/kg, 4 hours before bypass and in bypass prime, number 25) or preoperative MP only (30 mg/kg, number 25). Before and after bypass, four and 24 hours after bypass, serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. In both groups, no significant difference with variation of expression for IL-6 (inflammatory factor) and IL-10 (anti-inflammatory factor) in different times after bypass was observed. No significant difference in reducing post bypass inflammation between preoperative steroid treatment and combined preoperative and intraoperative steroid administration reported and they had the same effects.

  16. The Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA: a Case Series and Brief Review

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    Aliasghar Moeinipour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA is a rare congenital cardiovascular defect that occurs in approximately 1/300 000 live births or 0.5% of children with congenital heart disease. There are two types of ALCAPA syndrome: the infant type and the adult type. The most infants experience myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, and approximately 90% die within the first year of life; also, without early surgical intervention they have a dismal prognosis. Materials and Methods We report 3- year experiences from January 2013 to January 2016 of Imam Reza Hospital center (a tertiary referral hospital North East of Iran that consist of all patients with ALCAPA syndrome. Results The Takeuchi procedure, were successfully performed in five children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA. There was no death and significant mitral regurgitation postoperative (n=0 in this short study. All of patients (n=5 had evidence of improving ischemic myocardium status by increasing of ejection fraction and regional wall motion of left ventricular in follow up echocardiography. Conclusion The only cure treatment for ALCAPA syndrome is surgical intervention that needs to be performed immediately after diagnosis to prevent myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure. Today, establishing a system with two coronary arteries is the goal in definitive surgical repair. The Takeuchi procedure is a prefer method to establish a two-coronary repair for ALCAPA.

  17. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

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    Zari Javidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  18. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy

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    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF. We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male with a mean age of 41.2±4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25±4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months. Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom’s criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2±1.4 and 22.2±6.2 to 3.5±2.0 and 8.7±5.2 (1–21 at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P=0.032, although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  19. Impact of Age and Duration of Symptoms on Surgical Outcome of Single-Level Microscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in the Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Ghayem Hasankhani, Ebrahim; Ghandehari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We aim to evaluate the impact of age and duration of symptoms on surgical outcome of the patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) who had been treated by single-level microscopic anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We retrospectively evaluated 68 patients (48 female and 20 male) with a mean age of 41.2 ± 4.3 (ranged from 24 to 72 years old) in our Orthopedic Department, Imam Reza Hospital. They were followed up for 31.25 ± 4.1 months (ranged from 25 to 65 months). Pain and disability were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaires in preoperative and last follow-up visits. Functional outcome was eventually evaluated by Odom's criteria. Surgery could significantly improve pain and disability from preoperative 6.2 ± 1.4 and 22.2 ± 6.2 to 3.5 ± 2.0 and 8.7 ± 5.2 (1-21) at the last follow-up visit, respectively. Satisfactory outcomes were observed in 89.7%. Symptom duration of more and less than six months had no effect on surgical outcome, but the results showed a statistically significant difference in NDI improvement in favor of the patients aged more than 45 years (P = 0.032), although pain improvement was similar in the two groups.

  20. Partial Ectopia Cordis: A Case Report

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    Reza Saeidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: One-third of all major congenital anomalies are Congenital heart disease (CHD and Reported CHD prevalence increased over time and in Asian countries is more than western countries. Ectopia cordis (EC is a rare congenital anomaly with an estimated incidence of 1:100 000 live births in developed countries. EC is characterized by abnormal heart placement outside the thorax, mostly on the thoracoabdominal side. This form is often associated with pentalogy of Cantrell.Case report: We report one cases of the ectopia cordis at the Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. In this report, a rare case with incomplete pentalogy of Cantrell are described. It was a boy with a large omphalocele with evisceration of the heart. He had normal capillary refill and responded to stimuli. This patient was a male fetus with ectopia cordis with intracardiac anomalies; a large omphalocele with evisceration of the heart; a hypoplastic sternum and rib cage.Conclusion: Prognosis seems to be poorer in patients with the complete form of pentalogy of Cantrell, EC, and patients with associated anomalies. Intracardial defects do not seem to be a prognostic factor

  1. The performance of Imperial Inspection Organization during the presidency of the General Hussein Fardoust (1979 – 1972

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    H Zandie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing supervisory and controlling institutions in order to identify various issues of governing territory was considered necessary by rulers. Imperial inspection was one of the intelligence agencies during Pahlavi the second. This agency was established in 1958 under the command of Mohammad Reza Shah and was revived after a short break in the 1960s. In fact, the purpose of the king to revive the agency was to eliminate objections, remove obstacles to the consolidation of the regime, combat with corruption and failure, and ensure the wellbeing of bureaucracy. This was apart from the king`s suspicion to and fear from influential figures and institutions in the country, especially after Mordad 28th coup. The organization had abundant and almost unlimited authority. Therefore, a very important issue related to the name of the organization is its performance, that is, a series of actions done in order to perform the tasks. Actually by examining the performance of administrations and organizations, it is possible to reveal their dynamism and stagnation. From 1972 to 1979 and along with the presidency of Fardoust, the organization performed several activities and was informed of the internal situation of the country. The present article utilizing a historic method aims at investigating the reasons for reviving the organization and the quality of its performance and effect during the second period and presidency of Hussein Fardoust.

  2. The Effect of Body Position on Pain Due to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP in Premature Neonates: A Cross-Over Clinical Trial Study

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    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common cause of admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICU is respiratory distress syndrome. One of the respiratory assistance methods is using nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Regarding the importance of pain control which is one of the major priorities in neonatal nursing care, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of body position on pain due to nasal CPAP in premature neonates. Materials and Methods In this cross-over clinical trial, 50 premature neonates who were receiving nasal CPAP admitted to the NICU of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, were included. The neonates were randomly placed at three body positions (fetal, supine, and prone positions. Pain was measured by Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital Pain Scale Neonates (ALPS-Neo pain assessment scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (Version 22.0. Results Significant difference existed regarding pain of nasal CPAP among body positions (p< 0.001. Mean (SD pain was 5.15 (0.822 in fetal position, 6.260 (0.747 in prone position and 7.326 (0.792 in supine position. Conclusion Body positioning in premature neonates under nasal CPAP in NICU can be effective as a non-pharmacologic method in alleviating pain due to nasal CPAP. Among the studied positions, the lowest pain score was seen in fetal position.

  3. The evaluation of CRIB II scoring system in predicting mortality in preterm newborns

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    Homa Babaei

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The survival rate of premature newborns depends on gestational age, birth weight and condition when they are hospitalized. Different scoring systems to predict mortality in newborns has been designed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate value of CRIB II scoring system in predicting mortality rate of infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams. Material and Methods: In this 8 month cross - sectional study (September 2010 to April 2010 which was conducted in the NICU of Imam Reza hospital in Kermanshah, preterm newborns with birth weight less than 1500 gr and gestational age less than 32 weeks who were admitted within 12 hours after birth in the NICU ,were evaluated based on CRIB II scoring system . Results: 50 neonates out of 1360 (36.8% survived and 86 neonates(63.2% died. Average CRIB II score in newborn survived was 5.8±2.9 and in infants died was 9.8±2.9 (p <0.0001. Based on the AUC, the CRIB II score could predict about 0.85 (CI: 0.77-0.92 of mortality. Also based on the ROC curve cut-off point for scoring CRIB II, was 6.5. Conclusion: Our study showed that CRIB II has a high value( about %85 in predicting mortality in newborns with birth weights less than 1500 grams.

  4. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

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    Darroudi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra

  5. Epidemiology of Snake, Spider and Scorpion Envenomation in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (2004-2011

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    Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Envenomation is common in Asia including Iran that induces morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of cases with snake, spider and scorpion bites. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, epidemiologic data of admitted cases to the Toxicology Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran were analyzed across a 7-yr period, from 2004 to 2011. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: This study reports 686 admissions due to animal envenomation with an incidence rate of 2.9 per 100000. Mean (SD, min-max age of admitted patients was 30 (19, 1-90 yr, and 471 (69% were male. Snakebite (n, percentage, annual incidence (299, 44%, 1.3 per 100000 and spider bite (188, 27%, 0.8 per 100000 and scorpion sting (126, 18.4%, 0.5 per 100000 were most frequent cases. Overall, case fatality rate was 0.09 per 100000 which were due to scorpion and unknown bite. No cases of snakebites died in this period. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 4.6 per 100000 and related to 10-20 yr of age. Conclusion: Animal envenomation is frequent in this area and a matter of health concern. While deaths related to snake bite are no longer reported-presumably due to using effective anti-venom - managing unknown and scorpion bites need to be addressed. Envenomation was not overtly an age-specific event in this province.

  6. A comparative study of Christian doctrine in the interpretation of AL-Minar and AL-Mizan regarding the Atonement teaching

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    Bibi Sadat Razi Bahabadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atonement teaching is one of the most important and fundamental doctrines of the Christians which has a vital connection with the "original sin" (Romans 5, 12-20 and has been admitted by the main three sects of Christianity. This teaching expresses how to save mankind from the original sin, and is of such importance that without belief in the teaching, other Christianity teachings lose their importance. There are several interpretations of this teaching among which the Anselm's theory is the most famous one. According to this theory, all humans became sinful due to the Adam's sin. From the one hand, God's justice demands the punishment of man for the sin, and on the other hand His absolute mercy requires Him to save man with salvation. Hence, Jesus Christ as a man of God, in order to atone for Adam's sin and salvation, came onto the earth and was crucified. Sacrificing basic components are as follows: 1. The original sin of Adam (AS 2-belief in Adam's original sin. 3. Man's original sin 4. The outcome of any sin: eternal death 5. Conflict between God’s mercy and justice outcome of any sin 6. Being human and God at the same (incarnation 7. Sociability of anthropomorphic God with men 8. crucified and accursed God 8. 9-Jesus as an atonement to sins of believers even the whole world. This theory has been met with criticism Muslim and Christian scholars. Rashid Reza and Allameh Tabatabai review on the components of this theory. AL-Mizan draws all components of atonement in to criticism, but the most criticism of AL-menar is about the conflict of mercy and justice of God. This survey has examined the contiguity of AL-Menar and AL-Mizan about atonement theory. Based on the findings of this article, Rashid Reza has confined to rational criticism; while Allameh on the base of verse by verse interpretation of the Quran, with a rational approach, has been challenged “atonement”. Clarifying of AL-Manar and AL-Mizan from atonement

  7. An assessment of radiographers’ technical and protective performance in hospitals affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2012

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    Mahmood Reza Tavakkoli

    2014-08-01

    Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, all the 26 radiolographers working in the radiology wards of Vali-asr and Imam Reza hospitals of Birjand participated. In order to collect data about their performance, a checklist whose reliability and validity had been approved was provided. For the radiography staff 17 technical and 12 protective items during three work shifts were checked and recorded. In order to measure their awareness of technical and protective principles, a 12-item questionnaire was completed by each of them. The obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS software using X2. Results: Mean Performance score in the technical area in the three work shifts was 15±1.60, and that of the protective area was 10.9±1.1 both of which were at an average level. Around 46.5% of the subjects gave correct answers to protective and 37.2% of them to the technical questions. The comparison of technical and protective performance scores showed no significant difference in terms of work shifts, education, gender, and type of employment (P>0.05. Conclusion: The radiographers’ awareness of technical and protective principles was at a very low level. Therefore, both quality academic training and in-service education seem necessary.

  8. Nutritional interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: an Iranian perspective

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    Sharifi N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Sharifi,1 Reza Amani2 1Department of Nutrition, 2Health Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death not only in industrialized and developed countries but also in developing societies. Changes in lifestyle of the population living in developing countries, which is due to the socioeconomic and cultural transition, are important reasons for increase in the rate of CVD. This observation has led to extensive body of researches on CVD prevention. In Iran, as a developing country in the Middle East, the increasing incidence of CVD has prompted the health policy-makers to emphasize on nutritional interventions as a part of the main strategies to alleviate the condition. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the nutritional interventions on preventing CVDs from the perspectives of Iranian lifestyles and dietary patterns using data search sources such as Medline, Google scholar, and Iran doc. Keywords: nutrition, intervention, cardiovascular disease, Iran

  9. Análisis histórico, político y social en torno a la sentencia de Fichte: "sólo la educación puede salvar a la nación

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    Andrés Felipe Hurtado Blandón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La tesis fundamental de los Discursos a la nación alemana (1807-1808 de Fichte reza del modo siguiente: sola la educación puede salvar a la nación. Este texto se propone indagar sobre las razones históricas, políticas, sociales e ideológicas más importantes que pudieron llevar al reconocido filósofo alemán a formular tan inquietante afirmación. Abarca, grosso modo, desde la época de la Reforma protestante hasta la disolución del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico (llegada de Napoleón. Tal análisis permitirá, además, comprender cuál fue el contexto social general que dio lugar al surgimiento de movimientos tan reconocidos como la Ilustración (Aufklärung, el Clasicismo, el Romanticismo y el Idealismo alemanes, para los cuales -caso de Fichte-, tuvo la educación y la formación de los individuos un papel fundamental que cumplir en y para la sociedad.

  10. Use of Corticosteroid in Children with Unresponsiveness to Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Kawasaki Disease

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    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Kawasaki Disease (KD is a vasculitis with multi-organ involvementof unknown etiology; it is the most common cause of pediatric-heart diseases in developed countries. Treatment with Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG prevents coronary artery lesions; although there are some IVIG-resistant cases, combination therapy with corticosteroids and IVIG is one of the recommendations for treatment of these cases. The aim of this study was to compare these three options for treatment of Kawasaki Disease and to evaluate their ability to deal with coronary artery complication of Kawasaki Disease. Materials and Methods A prospective cross- sectional study of hospitalized cases of Kawasaki Disease, conducted in pediatric department of Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad-Iran, during 2013 to 2015 (18 months. Based on demographic and clinical data of these patients, children with high risk of unresponsiveness to IVIG therapy (based on Harada score, were determined and treated with IVIG and corticosteroids- combination initially. Follow-up patients for heart complications were 6 weeks. Results Twenty five patients (89.2% out of total 28 hospitalized patients in this period of time who fulfilled diagnostic criteria were considered as complete Kawasaki Disease. Coronary Artery Lesions (CALs were shown in 4 patients during the follow-up period, with high risk in patients with incomplete presentation (33.3% versus 12%, P

  11. Using Proverb in Toghrai Isfahani\\'s Divan

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    Mohammad Reza Ibnorrasool

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Proverb in Toghrai Isfahani's DivanMohammad Reza Ibnorrasool *Roghayyeh Ahmadi **AbstractUsing proverb is the time that the poet brings a famous saying or song in his poetryaccepted and popular among people. There is no doubt that every poet wants hispoetry to be everlasting. Therefore, he attempts to show his poetry wisely and himselfwise. The proverb gives the poetry universality and causes it to remain in minds andused in proper situations. From among the poets who lived in Abbasid era,Abootammam and Motanabbi are known in using proverbs.Toghrai is one of the greatest masters in Arabic literature and poetry and he madean interpretation of Mootanabbi's divan. His divan was pressed at first in Matbaato,gavaeb in Estanbol. Ode "Lamiyyatu,L_Ajam '' is one of his poetical masterpieces thatis universally celebrated and the literates explained it separately. In his divan, there areother songs with various purposes such as praise (madh and description.In this article, the compilers extracted proverbs or those used as proverb by readinghis divan and attempted to find sources in Koran and Arabic prose and poetry as wellas Persian literature for some of them.Key words: Using proverb, Toghrai, Arabic poetry, Arabic literature in Iran.

  12. Self-care education needs in gestational diabetes tailored to the Iranian culture: A qualitative content analysiss

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    Mitra Kolivand

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes is one of the most common health problems in pregnancy that requires participation through self-care to reduce the maternal and neonatal complications. The present study aimed to determine the needs of women as an essential first step to formulate a self-care guide fitting the Iranian culture. Materials and Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted through interviews with 13 diabetic pregnant women and 10 care providers using semi-structured questionnaires in several cities of Iran in 2016. Further, the data analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. In addition, purposive sampling was performed at the diabetes clinic of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Hospital, and health centers across Kermanshah, Shahroud, and Tehran. Results: In the present qualitative content analysis study, four themes were identified: awareness and ability (knowing diabetes, mothers training and empowerment, continuity and quality, information resources, lifestyle (healthy diet, physical activity, mental health (counseling, interaction, spirituality, and religion, and supportive family (the husband's unique role, the psychological atmosphere at home. Conclusions: The present study highlighted main aspects of self-care educational/supportive needs, specifically in the domains of lifestyle, awareness and capability, mental health, and family. The results of our analysis highlighted the needs that can be useful for developing comprehensive self-care educational programs, with a higher focus on physical activity, mental health, the role of the family, and the use of religious interests.

  13. Self-care Education Needs in Gestational Diabetes Tailored to the Iranian Culture: A Qualitative Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivand, Mitra; Keramat, Afsaneh; Rahimi, MehrAli; Motaghi, Zahra; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, MohammadHassan

    2018-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is one of the most common health problems in pregnancy that requires participation through self-care to reduce the maternal and neonatal complications. The present study aimed to determine the needs of women as an essential first step to formulate a self-care guide fitting the Iranian culture. The present qualitative study was conducted through interviews with 13 diabetic pregnant women and 10 care providers using semi-structured questionnaires in several cities of Iran in 2016. Further, the data analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. In addition, purposive sampling was performed at the diabetes clinic of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Hospital, and health centers across Kermanshah, Shahroud, and Tehran. In the present qualitative content analysis study, four themes were identified: awareness and ability (knowing diabetes, mothers training and empowerment, continuity and quality, information resources), lifestyle (healthy diet, physical activity), mental health (counseling, interaction, spirituality, and religion), and supportive family (the husband's unique role, the psychological atmosphere at home). The present study highlighted main aspects of self-care educational/supportive needs, specifically in the domains of lifestyle, awareness and capability, mental health, and family. The results of our analysis highlighted the needs that can be useful for developing comprehensive self-care educational programs, with a higher focus on physical activity, mental health, the role of the family, and the use of religious interests.

  14. Assessment of Pain Management in Pediatric Emergency Department in Mashhad -Iran

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    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain may be described as a sensation of hurt or strong discomfort and is the body's way of sending message to the brain that an injury has occurred. Pain medicines block these messages or reduce their effect on the brain. Accurate administration of analgesia have a long –lasting effect on children whole experience of medical care and affects parents' and children's future reaction to pediatrics emergency departments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain management on children in our emergency department. Materials and Methods: In this study we evaluated the relief of pain and anxiety on 100 children who referred to our pediatric Emergency Department (ED in Imam Reza Hospital- Mashhad .The patients were assessed based on the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP recommendations about pain.  Results: Patients were gone under IV Line 97%, Intubation 5% and Lumbar Puncture 28%. Training had been provided to 70% participants in the Emergency Department. Nonpharmacologic stress reduction was used in 35% of cases. Family presence was allowed only in 5%. Prehospital pain controlling was began on 20% of patients and continued in ED on 40%. At the time of discharge 40% prescribed analgesics. Sedation and pain prophylaxis was provided for 10% of patients undergoing painful procedures in ED.  Conclusion: According to results, pain management in our Pediatric Emergency Department was inadequate. Physicians and prehospital EMS providers should be justified about the importance of pain relieving and trained how to use all available analgesic and sedative options.

  15. The Effect of Prazosin and Oxybutynin on the Symptoms Due to Using Double J Catheter in Patients Underwent TUL

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    K. Tavakkoli Tabassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Double J catheter has been used for years as an independent practice or a part of other urological practices. Although these catheters have solved many patients’ problems but those can cause symptoms and problems for patients. The aim of this study was the investigation the effect of prazosin and oxybutynin on the degree of symptoms due to using Double J catheter. Methods: In this interventional study, patients who underwent TUL from July 2008 to march 2008 in the lithotripsy ward of Imam Reza hospital were entered to the study and randomly divided in 3 groups randomly. In the first group, placebo, in the second group, oxybutynin, in the third group prazosin were prescribed. Three weeks later standard questionnaire Ureteric Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ was completed. After collecting data, was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: A total of 113 patients (70 men 43 women were included to the study. The mean age was 39 years. There were no significance difference among urinary symptoms score pain of body and physical activity problems in three groups (P>0.05, but there was a significant difference in general health and work problems among them (P<0.05. Conclusion: Oxybutynin caused a low effect on improvement of general health and work problems in patients who were studied. It might Prazosin does not has a sufficient time to affect on urinary symptoms, because of shortness of usage.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

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    Chamanzari Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The optimal treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer is gastrectomy. Typically, nasogastric intubation is used after this type of surgery to feed patients; however, there seems to be no unanimity of opinion on this topic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of nasogastric intubation on gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on gastric cancer patients, admitted to the general ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2015. In total, 68 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into two intervention and control groups of 34 individuals. Nasogastric tube insertion was applied for the intervention group after the surgery. Patients of the study groups were fasted for three days after the surgery, which was followed by the removal of nasogastric tubes and initiation of oral feeding. Gastrointestinal function of all the participants was evaluated six hours after transferring to the ward up to seven days after the surgery on a daily basis using nausea and vomiting assessment tools and researcher-made questionnaire of gastrointestinal function. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: In this study, the severity of nausea and vomiting, the first time of passing gas and severity of flatulence Intensity were less observed in the control group, compared to the intervention group. Moreover, postoperative food tolerance was higher in the patients of the control group, compared to the other study group (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, nasogastric intubation can delay normal gastrointestinal function after gastrectomy. Therefore, it is not recommended to use this method after gastrectomy.

  17. Epidemiology of pemphigus in northeast Iran: A 10-year retrospective study

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    Javidi Zari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with different reported epidemiological aspects from different countries. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of pemphigus in Mashhad city. This is the first report with regard to the characteristics of pemphigus in Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients with pemphigus, who were referred to the Dermatology Department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, were examined over nine years, i.e., from May 1998 to March 2007. The data obtained through questionnaires, including age, sex, profession, mucosal or skin or the involvement of both, lag-time period between the onset of disease and the first presentation, gap between cutaneous and mucosal involvements, season of onset and family history, were analysed by using statistical tests of Chi square and Student′s t -test and the statistical software of SPSS. Results: In 178 patients with pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris was the most common type (86.5%. Female to male ratio was 1.4. In pemphigus vulgaris patients, there was involvement of both the skin and mucosa in 64.3%, mucosal involvement in 14% and skin involvement in 21.7%. There was no mucosal involvement in patients with pemphigus foliaceus. Two patients (1.4% had a positive family history. Summer was the most common season for the onset of the disease (37.5%. Most of the patients were housewives in the premenopausal age group. Conclusion: The results reveal a high incidence of pemphigus in northeast Iran with an incidence of 20 patients per year.

  18. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

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    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  19. Soviet Diplomacy and Its Role in Creation and Activity of the National Bloc in Iran (1922-1924

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    Yuriy A. Demin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of the National bloc in Iran that demonstrates an example of the combination of ideological and pragmatic inclinations in the Soviet foreign policy of the early 1920s. The renunciation of the “export of revolution” strategy and the transition to the support of the Iranian independence demanded the appropriate forms of work with the local political forces. B.Z. Shumyatsky, a creator of the bloc, conceived it as a social basis for the “national” government to come, which would set Iran on the path of development and independence. However, during the first months of its existence, the National bloc confronted with a number of contradictions, which contributed to its final defeat. Shumyatsky’s striving to overthrow Qavam al-Saltaneh led to the extension of the bloc ranks in the Majles with the representatives of the various rival groups and made it an amorphous and unstable coalition. Similarly, the slogan for the struggle against “foreigners” charged against the bloc, when the cabinet of Mostoufi al-Mamalek was discredited by the opponents as the Moscow’s protйgй. At the same time, structural and ideological feebleness of the Iranian parties and the trade unions of those years hampered the bloc’s transformation into the mass and centralized political power. The influence of war minister (later Prime Minister Reza Khan and Moscow’s support of his centralization activity led the National bloc into the alliance with that political figure. As a result, the bloc quickly passed the way from the separate political project to the junior partner of the coalition and finally faced with the changed plans of the military dictator to leave the political stage.

  20. Long-term clinical outcomes of the left ventricular thrombus in patients with ST elevation anterior myocardial infarction

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    Mahmoud Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the size of left ventricular thrombus (LVT, risk of systemic embolization and response to medical treatment during 18 months of follow up in the patients with anterior-ST elevation myocardial infarction (aSTEMI. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on thirty-five patients with anterior myocardial infarction (MI, in Emam Reza Hospital and Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, from August 2008 to January 2011. Warfarin was prescribed for all the patients. Transthoracic echocardiographic study was performed on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th months. Outcomes included rate of death, MI, stroke, systemic embolization, major bleeding and change in thrombus size following treatment. RESULTS: The resolve rate of clot on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 18th months was 64.7, 86.6, 81.4, 81.4 and 100 percent, respectively. In five patients with complete clot resolution, clot reformation occurred after warfarin discontinuation. In these patients, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF improvement was poor. During the study period, five patients died due to severe heart failure. One patient developed hematuria whereas non-experienced thromboembolic events. The mean LVEF at study initiation was 30.8 ± 0.92%, which improved to 42 ± 0.84% (P < 0.05 at the end. CONCLUSION: All LVT was resolved with a combination therapy of antiplatelet and warfarin without any thromboembolic event. In patients with a poor improvement in the LV function, due to the risk of LVT reformation, lifelong warfarin therapy was recommended. 

  1. Survey the role of emotions in information retrieval

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    Hassan Behzadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the users' emotion in various stages of information retrieval based on the information retrieval model in web.From the methodological perspective, the present study is experimental, and the type of study is practical. The society comprised all MA students majoring in different humanistic science branches and studying at Imam Reza international university. The sample society of this research consisted of 30 participants. The sample size was determined through stratified random sampling via G*power software. Data collection was carried out by using: demographic and prior experience of using internet questionnaire, post search questionnaire and recorded videos of users' faces. The findings of the study demonstrated that: 1 during the initial stages of searching, the frequency of emotion of apprehension, and in general during the link tracking stage, the negative emotions with the overall 49/3 percent are more frequent than the other emotions in browsing and differentiation stages, the emotion of happy was more frequent than the other emotions. 2 These variances resulted in significant relations among different emotions of the users throughout the four stages of information retrieval. 3 In simple search, the respondents displayed the emotion of happy most frequently and the emotion of aversion least frequently. On the other hand, in complicated search, apprehension and aversion were the most and the least frequently-cited emotions, respectively. Overall, the negative emotions were reported more frequently in complicated search in comparison with the simple search. This demonstrated that any change in the difficulty level of search undertaking would cause users to exhibit different types of emotions.

  2. Effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients

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    Madarshahian F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Responding to holistic needs of patients can reduce anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all patients undergoing prostate surgery during 2012 at Emam Reza Hospital, Birjand, Iran. Therefore, 68 patients were assigned randomly to two groups of 34. In the intervention group, prior to each preoperative care needs of patients, such as covering the body, were determined through 5 questions and cares were provided accordingly with family participation. The control group received routine cares. Intervention outcomes were the scores of attitude and anxiety of patients. The attitude toward preoperative cares was measured using a 10-item researcher-made questionnaire at admission and before hospital discharge. Anxiety and preoperative information were measured using the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale at the beginning of hospitalization and before surgery. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16 and chi-square, and independent and paired t-tests. Results: Total score of mean attitude toward preoperative cares of the intervention group (42.44 ± 8.07 was higher than the control group (36.82 ± 9.32 (P = 0.01. Furthermore, the total mean preoperative anxiety score of the intervention group (14.08 ± 2.72 was lower than the control group (16.02 ± 1.56 (P < 0.001 and had reduced compared with pre-intervention (15.32 ± 2.60 (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Providing preoperative holistic cares with family participation was effective in creating positive attitude and reducing anxiety in anxious patients. Thus, its use is recommended in providing all medical and nursing cares.

  3. High Dose Oral Calcium Treatment in Patients with Vitamin D-dependent Rickets Type II

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    R Vakili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II (VDDR2 is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in vitamin D receptor (VDR and leads to resistance to biological effects of calcitriol. Based on the type of mutation, this disease is resistant to calcitriol even at high doses of calcitriol and successful treatment of these patients requires hypocalcemic modification through administration of high doses of calcium and bypassing the intestinal defect in VDR signaling. In addition to the need for frequent hospitalization and high costs, intravenous administration of calcium is associated with complications and problems such as arrhythmia and sepsis, venous catheter infection and hypercalciuria. This study aims to report the positive treatment effects of high doses of oral calcium in 4 patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II. CASE REPORT: In this study, 4 patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, diagnosed based on clinical and biochemical symptoms of rickets with alopecia, underwent therapy using high doses of oral calcium (300 mg/kg/day in pediatric endocrinology and metabolism center of Imam Reza hospital. After a short period, increased growth rate in height, strength and elasticity of muscles was observed in addition to biochemical improvements without serious side effects and even one patient started walking independently within the first week of therapy for the first time. Patients were regularly followed up in terms of height and weight, growth rate and biochemical factors including calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase every 3 months for one year. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the type of mutation in vitamin D receptor, it is suggested that a 3-6 months trial of high dose oral calcium be started in each patient with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II, particularly for patients whose disease was diagnosed at lower ages.

  4. Early post operative mortality of Total Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot

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    Ali Azari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since 1954, after the first surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF, several innovations have occurred in cardiac surgery, especially in children. One stage complete repair of TOF is currently possible even in infancy; however, complications such as hypoxemia, arrhythmia, cardiac dysfunction, sudden death, and valvular disorders may happen. In this study, we evaluated the results of complete surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis. Material and Methods: We assessed 74 cases of TOF with pulmonary stenosis that underwent surgery in Cardiac Surgical Ward of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from 2008 to 2010. Results: Mean age was 5.74±3.31 years and more than half of the patients were male. Mean perfusion and cross-clamping times were 55.45±15.06 and 42.63±9.07 min,respectively. The most common coexisting anomaly was atrial septal defect. Further, 83.7% of the patients were symptomatic, and history of spell attacks was positive in 24.3% of the cases. Arrhythmia was reported in 28.4% of the patients. Mortality rate was 12.2% in our study, which was higher in younger patients (P=0.022 or those with lower weight (P=0.008, longer perfusion time during cardiac surgery (P=0.009, or presence of associated cardiac anomalies (P=0.030. Conclusion: Outcomes and mortality rate of one-stage surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis was acceptable in our center, and arrhythmia was the most common postoperative complication

  5. La intimidad en el mundo y la gran malla

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    Dra. Rocío Jiménez Ramón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Europeos y asiáticos se sienten cómodos con la idea de permitir que los gobiernos regulen su intimidad, pero la idea de unas leyes amplias que protejan la intimidad pone nerviosos a los norteamericanos.El concepto de confidencialidad de la información abarca las múltiples formas de obtención, utilización y distribución de datos acerca de personas particulares en el ciberespacio. En la vida real, un paseo informal por las calles de una ciudad o por las galerías de un supermercado constituye generalmente un asunto económico, a diferencia de lo que ocurre cuando se navega por la World Wide Web. Como reza una verdad de perogrullo en línea: cuando se navega por la red, la red le navega a uno. Con los programas adecuados, desde un servidor de Internet a menudo se puede identificar el nombre, la dirección electrónica y la ubicación geográfica de la mayoría de usuarios que recalan en una página, así como información sobre otras páginas visitadas recientemente o el modelo de ordenador utilizado. Mientras tanto, muchos creadores de sitios de la web utilizan también etiquetas informáticas denominadas cookies (galletas, que permiten la compilación detallada de registros sobre los intereses individuales de cada visitante, basándose en el tipo de páginas que visitan o en la clase de productos que adquieren al recorrer una página comercial.

  6. Optimization of single-walled carbon nanotube solubility by noncovalent PEGylation using experimental design methods

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    Hadidi N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naghmeh Hadidi1, Farzad Kobarfard2, Nastaran Nafissi-Varcheh3, Reza Aboofazeli11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: In this study, noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs with phospholipid-polyethylene glycols (Pl-PEGs was performed to improve the solubility of SWCNTs in aqueous solution. Two kinds of PEG derivatives, ie, Pl-PEG 2000 and Pl-PEG 5000, were used for the PEGylation process. An experimental design technique (D-optimal design and second-order polynomial equations was applied to investigate the effect of variables on PEGylation and the solubility of SWCNTs. The type of PEG derivative was selected as a qualitative parameter, and the PEG/SWCNT weight ratio and sonication time were applied as quantitative variables for the experimental design. Optimization was performed for two responses, aqueous solubility and loading efficiency. The grafting of PEG to the carbon nanostructure was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Aqueous solubility and loading efficiency were determined by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and measurement of free amine groups, respectively. Results showed that Pl-PEGs were grafted onto SWCNTs. Aqueous solubility of 0.84 mg/mL and loading efficiency of nearly 98% were achieved for the prepared Pl-PEG 5000-SWCNT conjugates. Evaluation of functionalized SWCNTs showed that our noncovalent functionalization protocol could considerably increase aqueous solubility, which is an essential criterion in the design of a carbon nanotube-based drug delivery system and its biodistribution.Keywords: phospholipid-PEG, D-optimal design, loading efficiency, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, theromogravimetric analysis, carbon nanotubes

  7. Karakterisasi Morfometrik dan Jarak Genetik Rumpun-Rumpun Kelinci di Jawa Barat (MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC DISTANCE OF RABBIT BREEDS IN WEST JAVA

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    Rudi Dedi Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess morphometric characteristics, breeds relationship andvariables that distinguished among breeds of rabbits raised in West Java. This research used 419 rabbitsconsisted of Angora (AG, Dutch (DT, Flemish Giant (FG, Lop (LP, Netherland Dwarf (ND, Composite(PX, Rex (RX, Satin (ST, Reza (XA and New Zealand White (ZW. Head length (PK, head width (LK, earlength (PTL, ear width (LTL, chest width (LD, chest depth (DD, chest circumference (LKD, body length(PB , hips width (LP, length of the scapula bone (PS, humerus length (PH, radius-ulna length (PRU,femur length (PF and tibia length (PT were observed. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance,discriminant and canonical analysis using SAS program ver. 9.1.3 and MEGA5 program to get theconstruction of phenogram tree. FG and ST rabbits were generally larger in size and shape than the otherrabbits breeds, while ND rabbit had the smallest morphological size than other rabbits breeds, except forLK, LD and DD. Results of discriminant analysis showed that LP, RX, ND and XA had a high similarityvalue, otherwise DT, FG, ST, PX, AG and ZW had no the value. The closest genetic distance matrix valueindicated by PX-ZW breeds (1,53 and the farthest genetic distance indicated by FG-ND breeds (6,62.Phenogram tree construction showed that the breeds rabbits divided into five clusters, namely cluster ND,DT; ST clusters; FG cluster; cluster LP, PX, ZW and cluster AG, XA, RX. Phenotypic size that had stronginfluence on the differentiation of rabbit breeds were PTL, LTL, PRU, PH and PF on the canonical 1 alsoPT and PS on canonical 2.

  8. Blood transfusion in burn patients: Triggers of transfusion in a referral burn center in Iran.

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    Tavousi, S H; Ahmadabadi, A; Sedaghat, A; Khadem-Rezaiyan, M; Yaghoubi Moghaddam, Z; Behrouzian, M J; Nemati, S; Saghafi, H

    2018-02-01

    Blood and its derivatives are one of the most lifesaving products in the modern medicine practice. However, it is not an absolutely safe prescription. Many adverse effects such as infection, transfusion-related acute lung injury, immunosuppression, multi-organ dysfunction, acute respiratory syndrome, transfusion errors, transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, HBV, HCV are attributable to blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to describe how and when blood products were transfused in a referral burn center. This cross-sectional study was performed on medical records of all admitted patients in the Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during September 2014 up to August 2015. Transfusion measures such as Hb, Hct and demographic data were extracted from patient records. SPSS version 11.5 was used for data analysis. During the study period, 701 acute burnt patients were admitted with the mean age of 25.5±20.5 years. Sixty-four percent were male and burnt percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) was 30.9±24.3%. About one third (240) of patients received at least one blood product. Mean of the transfused packed red blood cell was 274.1±674.6mL per patient and 8.85mL per 1% of burnt TBSA. Anemia was the most common transfusion trigger. Mortality in burnt patients who received blood products was two folds more than patients who did not receive any blood products. We prescribed less blood products compared with other reviewed burn centers. However, following a written blood transfusion protocol by all clinicians may reduce blood transfusion in unnecessary situations even more significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations

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    Isa Abdi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst. After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A (84.6% but in the distal region (point C, the displacement was less buccal (41.6%. The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal.

  10. Comparison of the rates of fight-related trauma admissions in Ramadan and the non-Ramadan months during 8 years in public hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Gholamreza Mohseni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a time when Muslims are expected to be calm and peaceful in daily life both mentally and physiologically. Some people believe that they should try to don’t have be involved in bad and deviant behaviors in Ramadan. As increasing social safety and reducing crime in society are the most important concerns of the authorities , psychologists, sociologists and governments, they are try to find ways to increase the social safety and decrease the crime rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the statisticaltraumas Due to fights and rate of ’deviant behaviors during Ramadan compared to Non-Ramadan months  of the years 2001 to 2008 in public hospitals in the city of Kermanshah, Iran. Method: Our study was a prospective study. It included patients who were involved in four types of traumas including beating, gunshot, falling from height and car-accident during Ramadan and the Non-Ramadan months of the years 2001 to 2008 admitted to the Emergency Trauma Center Departments (ETCDs of Taleghani and Imam Reza Hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran. Results: The study included 168753 patients. 155705 patients (442.34 mean ± 436.77 SD were admitted in Non-Ramadan months and the remaining 13048 patients (407.75 mean ± 427.16 SD in Ramadan month. Based on the results, the average of trauma instances in Non-Ramadan months was higher, but no statistically significant difference was noted between the two groups. We did not observe significant differences for types of traumatic events in Ramadan compared to Non-Ramadan months, but for Non Ramadan months all types of traumatic except gunshot and beating were significant. Conclusion: Although Ramadan is not a special controlling factor for trauma admissions, but it can has an important effect on the reduction of numbers and types of fight-related trauma admissions in ETCD of hospitals.

  11. The Customer Quality of Delivered Care to Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Tabriz City, Iran, 2012

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    Jafar Sadegh Tabrizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Customer quality (CQ refers to knowledge, attitude, and skills of service-user in treatment process and this study aims to assess it in delivered care to patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in Tabriz city, Iran, 2012. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional investigation in which the target population includes 94 patients with IBD, who had medical care files in Imam Reza Hospital and Tabriz Golgasht Specialized Clinic. A 19-question inventory is the tool for data collection that its validity was approve by 10 experts and its reliability was examined and verified by conducting a pilot study and with calculation of internal consistency (α = 0.78. SPSS software was employed to analyze data. Results: The mean score of the variable of CQ was derived (70.63 ± 9.67 in patients with IBD disease. All participants had acquired the scores of self-management at the first phase. However, at last 11.7% of them had reported the highest scores in variable of CQ and they could continue their own medical care trend under variable conditions like stress and financial problems. Similarly, there was a significant relationship among CQ with an educational degree in the participants (P = 0.050 so that as the educational level was higher, the score of CQ was also increased. Conclusion: The acquired results signify that CQ is relatively acceptable in the studied population but major problems are visible in some areas, and this may imply the necessity for consideration by healthcare directors.

  12. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

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    Negar Taleschian-Tabrizi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs. A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI. The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%. The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended.

  13. Correlation between Stress Hyperglycemia and Short-Term Prognosis in non Diabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Rafighdoust Amirhossein

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal hyperglycemia is a common finding in early phase of acute myocardial infarction that is named as stress hyperglycemia. In this study we have evaluated primary blood sugar of non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction at the time of admission to compare the early complications between patients with high or normal blood sugar. We aimed to find any relation between primary blood sugar and post MI complication rate. Materials and Methods: One hundred non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction who were referred to heart emergency ward of Imam Reza Hospital (Mashhad, Iran were included in this study. According to primary blood glucose level, 50 patients with blood glucose > 126 mg/dl were compared with 50 patients with normal blood glucose level. All patients were evaluated during hospitalization and daily clinical examinations laboratory tests, and routine non-invasive assessments were done. The results were analyzed by SPSS software and the level of signification difference was described as p<0.05.Results: Sinus tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, bundle branch block, ventricular extrasystole, prolonged PR-interval and heart failure according to Klip classification and also according to echocardiographic index (EF<50 were statistically significant and more common in hyperglycemic patients (P<0.05. Thromboembolic and mechanical complications (papillary muscle dysfunction, pericarditis, phlebitis and angina were also more common in hyperglycemic group although the differences were not significant statistically. Conclusion: It seems that high rate of early complications in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is directly related to primary hyperglycemia (stress hyperglycemia.

  14. SOLID WASTE FOR HEALTH: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT HEALTH AND FEEDBACK IN CASE-DISEASE

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    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact Resíduos sólidos de saúde: impacto ambiental... and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza".

  15. The Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of the Nanoparticles of Silver on Acinetobacter Baumannii

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    Seyedeh Nasim Karimipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Due to the high drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, in this research, antibacterial properties of nano silver was evaluated for Acinetobacter baumannii. Materials & Methods: The nano silver with approximate diameter of 20 nanometer from Pishtazan Inc. Mashad, Iran and 5 nanometer from the Department of Chemistry in Maragheh University were prepared. Its concentration was determined by spectroscopy method in Tabriz Chemistry University.  Antimicrobial effects were determined by Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bacterial Concentration (MBC by micro-broth-dilution method, disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. Anti-bacterial activity of nano-silver was tested for Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC12516 on 20 clinical strains (collected from Imam Reza Hospital in Tabriz. Results: The results showed the MIC and MBC of 20nm nanoparticles were 1250 ppm and 2500 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the MIC and MBC of 5 nm nanoparticles were 156 ppm and 312 ppm, respectively. According to these findings, the MIC and MBC identified for clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains under study along with the NCTC12516 strain did not show a significant difference. Yet the amount of inhibition for the 20nm nanoparticles in the density of 20000 ppm of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii and NCTC12516 strains was 11 millimeter with the disc diffusion method and 9.5 millimeter for the well diffusion method with the same concentration. The amount of inhibition of 5nm nanoparticles in the 250-ppm concentration with both disc diffusion and well diffusion methods was 9.5 millimeter. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii is susceptible to nano-silver. Also the same MIC and MBC in multiple clinical strains suggests that there is not resistance to silver nanoparticles in Acinetobacter baumannii

  16. De Um Ponto De Vista Filosófico, Poderá O Budismo Ser Uma Ciência Anti-Sacrificial?

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    Francisco Felizol Marques

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanto na tradição budista como no pensamento de Girard a ignorância e o desejo estão na base do sofrimento e da violência. A tradição budista coloca a ignorância, de que nada existe em si e por si, avydia, como causa de todos os sofrimentos ao gerar uma cadeia de desejo / aversão que nos leva a uma prisão desejante de objecto em objecto. A perspectiva girardiana coloca na origem da violência a ignorância do nosso desejo mimético. O sujeito ignora que, longe de ser livre, autónomo e diferenciado como lhe reza a “mentira romântica”, só deseja e quer por imitação de um modelo. Nem o sujeito existe livre por si, nem o objecto que julga livremente desejar. Enquanto este modelo vigorar, reagirá mais e mais violentamente às pretensões do sujeito; e mesmo que o sujeito ultrapasse seu modelo, buscará sofregamente outro e outro modelo, sempre condenada a uma insatisfação. Se a isto juntarmos a proximidade anti-sacrificial das duas perspectivas, patente na proximidade descritiva da roda do samsara e do tempo circular e sacrificial duma sociedade pagã, encontramos entre Girard e a tradição budista suficientes pontos comuns para um entendimento.

  17. Innovations in the Poetry Form by Sheikh Sa'd od-Din Ahmad Ansari

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    Najaf Jowkar

    2016-05-01

    Lahuri. Parvin Ghaemi (ed., Tehran: Peyman.12.  Maqsudi, Noor od-Din (N.D..  Continuous Quatrain. Ferdowsi Journal. No 4.13.  Mo’tamen, Zeinol’abedin (1352.  Persian poetry evolution. Tehran: Ketabkhane Tahori.14.  Molavi, Jalal od-Din Mohammad bin Mohammad (1346. Shams Tabrizi’s Divan. Badee'ozaman Foruzanfar (ed., Tehran: Enteshrat Daneshgah.15.  ------------------------------------------------------------ (1385. Masnavi Ma'navi. R. Nicholson (ed., Tehran: Arvand.16.  ------------------------------------------------------------ (1387. Ghazaliat Shams-e Tabrizi. Mohamad Reza Shafiee Kadkani (ed., Tehran: Sokhan.17.  Natel Khanlari, Parviz (1377. Seventy speeches (poetry and art. Tehran: Toos.18.  Nima Yushij, Ali Esfandiari (1389.  Collection of Nima Yushij’s Poems. Tehran: Zarin. 19.  Omranpour, Mohammad Reza (1383.  Music of rhyme in M. Sereshk (Mohammad Reza Shafi’ee Kadkani. Literary Research Quarterly, no 6.20.  Rami, Sharaf od-Din Hasan bin Mohammad. (1385. Haqayeq ol-Hadaeq. Mohammad Kazem Imam (ed., Tehran: University of Tehran.21.  Rastegar Fasai, Mansur (1380.  Persian poetry Genres. Shiraz: Navid.22.  Salman Savoji, Salman bin Mohammad (1389. Salman Savoji’s Divan. Tehran: Sokhan.23.  Setayesh, Nasrin (1387. Innovation in rhyme in Mewlana’s Ghasals. Keyhan Farhangi. No. 269.24.  Shafi’ee Kadkani, Mohammad Reza (1376. Second Millennium of Musk-deer. Tehran: Sokhan.-------------------------------------------- (1389. Music of Poetry. Tehran: Sokhan.

  18. The Fate of Motherhood, Fetuses and Neonates in Drug Addicted Pregnant Women

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    M Jahanian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drug addiction causes many complications for mother and fetus. Preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, prenatal mortality, placental abruption, preeclampsia, PROM, cesarean delivery and congenital anomalies among the newborns of addicted mothers are increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the final of maternal, fetal and neonatal of drugs addicted pregnant women. Methods: The study is a Cross-Sectional study was done on 236 pregnant women 19-40 years old addicted to drugs and 236 pregnant women non-addicted that referred for delivery to maternity hospitals of Imam Reza(as and Imam Sajjad(as during 2008-2010. Measuring instruments were: observing and checklist includes various sections were related on the aims. Data Analysis was done using SPSS. After ensuring that these values followed the normal distribution, chi-square test and Fisher exact test to compare qualitative variables of two groups and for quantitative variables T test was used. Confidence coefficient of 95% was considered. Results: The results showed complication such as placental abruption, preterm labor, preeclampsia, hypertension, PROM, cesarean, hepatitis B, meconium in the amniotic fluid, intrauterine fetal growth retardation, anomalies in infant, low Apgar score in the first and fifth minutes, fetal death, hypoglycemia, neonatal convulsions, breathing problems, RDS, need to neonatal resuscitation, admission in NICU, neonatal death in the first three days of birth, weight loss, low circumference head size among infants were born of mothers addicted compared with the control group had shown significant increase. Conclusion: Opium addiction causes serious complications for mother, fetus and newborn.

  19. Comparison of Patient-Controlled Analgesia Using Morphine With and Without Paracetamol in Postoperative Pain Control

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    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postoperative pain control plays a pivotal role in reducing postoperative complications, hospitality time, and increasing satisfaction. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of paracetamol on the pain and complications caused by gastrectomy. Materials and Methods: This randomized prospective study was conducted on 60 patients (two same group who were candidate for gastrectomy in Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran during August-September 2015. The first group received Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA with morphine only, and in the second group, paracetamol (1 gram infused with morphine every six hours. Level of pain, morphine intake, and side effects were evaluated in both groups. Results:No significant difference was observed in the four-scale score of pain in the patients (morphine group: 0.64±0.1, morphine-paracetamol group: 0.6±0.1 (P=0.72. During the first 24 hours after the surgery, the morphine group had lower consciousness level (2.3±0.2 compared to the morphine-paracetamol group (1.7±0.3 (P=0.001. Moreover, infusion of paracetamol with morphine to control the pain after gastrectomy reduced the need for morphine analgesia. Morphine intake was 21.4±7.7 in morphine group, while it was 14.3±5.8 in the morphine-paracetamol group within the first 24 hours after the surgery (P=0.001. However, this level had no significant effect on postoperative complications such as itching, nausea, and arterial oxygen saturation. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, intravenous paracetamol (one gram administered every six hours with PCA using morphine could decrease morphine intake leading to better consciousness level during the first 24 hours after gastrectomy without further complications.

  20. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  1. Effect of tamsulosin versus prazosin on clinical and urodynamic parameters in women with voiding difficulty: a randomized clinical trial

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    Sakineh Hajebrahimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sakineh Hajebrahimi1, Yadollah Ahmadi Asrbadr1, Arash Azaripour1, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,31Urology Department, Imam Reza University Hospital, Tabriz, Iran; 2Neuroscience Research Center and RDCC, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: To compare the effects of tamsulosin and prazosin on clinical and urodynamic parameters in women with voiding dysfunction.Methods: Forty women aged 20–65 years with a clinical diagnosis of voiding dysfunction were blindly randomized to two equal groups for treatment with tamsulosin 0.4 mg or 1–2 mg of prazosin daily. Symptom assessment with the American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS and urodynamic evaluation was performed initially and after three months of treatment. Patient satisfaction was evaluated and severe adverse drug effects recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Student’s t-test and Mann–Whitney U test.Results: Although AUASS improved in both groups, the rate of improvement was larger in the tamsulosin group. Urodynamic parameters improved but did not normalize in both groups. Adverse side effects from medication in the prazosin group were more common than in the tamsulosin group. Most of the patients in the tamsulosin group (80% were satisfied with their treatment compared with those in the prazosin group (45%.Conclusion: Tamsulosin and prazosin are both effective in palliating symptoms of women with voiding dysfunction and improving their urodynamic parameters. Tamsulosin may be the preferred drug to prescribe because of its more amenable side effect profile and greater patient satisfaction.Keywords: tamsulosin, prazosin, voiding dysfunction 

  2. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Masoud Pezeshki Rad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56% patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44% were female. Twenty-three (56% patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  3. Diagnostic value of color doppler ultrasonography in detecting stenosis and occlusion of central veins in patients with chronic kidney disease.

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    Rad, Masoud Pezeshki; Kazemzadeh, Gholam Hosain; Ziaee, Masood; Azarkar, Ghodsieh

    2015-03-01

    Venography is an invasive diagnostic test that uses contrast material that provides a picture of the condition of the veins. But, complications, including adverse effects on the kidney, do occur. On the other hand, with the current technological development, application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of obstructive diseases of the veins is gaining popularity, being non-invasive, easy to perform and cost-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Doppler sonography in the diagnosis of central vein stenosis. In this descriptive-analytical study, 41 hemodialysis patients who had been referred for 50 upper limb venographies to the radiology department of Imam Reza (AS) were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease with a history of catheterization of the vein, jugular or subclavian, and who had established fistulas or synthetic vascular grafts were targeted. Central venous ultrasound was performed on both sides to evaluate stenosis or occlusion. Venography was performed by the radiologist the next day or the day before hemodialysis. Data on demographic characteristics, findings of clinical examination and findings of ultrasound as well as venography were recorded by using the SPSS software, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation, and Kappa agreement was calculated for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Twenty-three (56%) patients were male subjects and 18 patients (44%) were female. Twenty-three (56%) patients of the study population were aged 60 years. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Doppler sonography in the proximal veins in hemodialysis patients compared with venography were, respectively, 80.9%, 79.3%, 73.9% and 85.1%. Color Doppler sonography, as a non-invasive method, could be a good alternative for venography in the assessment of the upper limb with central vein stenosis and occlusion.

  4. The relationship between mitotic rate and depth of invasion in biopsies of malignant melanoma

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    Ghasemi Basir HR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Ghasemi Basir,1,2 Pedram Alirezaei,2 Sara Ahovan,3 Abbas Moradi3 1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psoriasis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 3School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Malignant melanoma of the skin is a potentially lethal neoplasm that generally originates from atypical melanocytes in the dermal–epidermal junction. When the neoplasm penetrates into the dermis, several variables can affect the extent of its spread, among which depth of invasion has the most important prognostic value. Mitotic rate is another prognostic factor that reflects the biological behavior of the neoplasm.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the probable relationship between the depth of invasion of malignant melanoma and its mitotic rate.Materials and methods: This study was performed on 50 excisional biopsy specimens that had received the diagnosis of malignant melanoma histopathologically. Tumor characteristics including Breslow thickness, Clark level, T-stage, and tumor mitotic rate were recorded.Results: We observed that at higher Clark levels and higher T-stages, and the mean mitotic rate was significantly increased. Moreover, there was a positive and significant correlation between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate. We demonstrated that one unit increase in mitotic rate was correlated with 0.8 mm increase in Breslow thickness of the tumor.Conclusion: In malignant melanoma, mitotic activity may probably indicate the depth of tumor invasion. Therefore, in incisional biopsies where depth of invasion cannot be accurately determined, the mitotic activity may be used to estimate Breslow thickness, which is necessary for planning surgical management. Keywords: melanoma, mitosis, Breslow, invasion, thickness, proliferation

  5. The Effect of Mastectomy on Mood and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

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    H Esmaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer with 22.6% is the most common cancer in Iranian women and mastectomy is the treatment of choice in 81% of cases posted for surgery. Mastectomy can evoke feelings of mutilation, altered body image and decreased sexual attractiveness and function leading to mood disorders. In the last decades, final purpose of treatment strategies in breast cancer is creation of a life with good quality. In this regards, concern is rising about the impact of surgical treatments, especially mastectomy on patient`s quality of life. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of mastectomy with mood and quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was done in 2005.Case group included mastectomy patients referring to the oncology clinics (n=50.The comparison group consisted of mammography candidates referring to women clinics in Imam Reza and Ghaeem Hospitals. Data collected was based on non-probability and purposeful sampling. The information collected included: demographic and medical information, social support questionnaire, POMS survey for measurement of mood. Quality of life was assessed with FPQOLI. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant converse statistical relation between mood and quality of life score in mastectomy women (P<0.001. Independence T test showed that mood and quality of life in mastectomy group were lower than mammography candidate women (P=0.001, P<0.049. The general linear model test showed that group variable had the most effect on women`s mood (P<0.001. Also , mood was the most important factor that predicted level of quality of life in these women (P<0.001. Conclusion: Lack of attention to psychological and spiritual status of the patients after mastectomy may provide conditions for unstable mood and can finally disrupt their quality of life. But, nurses can identify patients with psychological tensions and introduce them to consultancy

  6. Applicability of supervised discriminant analysis models to analyze astigmatism clinical trial data

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    Sedghipour MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Sedghipour,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,31Nikoukari Ophthalmology University Hospital, Tabriz, Iran; 2Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: In astigmatism clinical trials where more complex measurements are common, especially in nonrandomized small sized clinical trials, there is a demand for the development and application of newer statistical methods.Methods: The source data belonged to a project on astigmatism treatment. Data were used regarding a total of 296 eyes undergoing different astigmatism treatment modalities: wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, cross-cylinder photorefractive keratectomy, and monotoric (single photorefractive keratectomy. Astigmatism analysis was primarily done using the Alpins method. Prior to fitting partial least squares regression discriminant analysis, a preliminary principal component analysis was done for data overview. Through fitting the partial least squares regression discriminant analysis statistical method, various model validity and predictability measures were assessed.Results: The model found the patients treated by the wavefront method to be different from the two other treatments both in baseline and outcome measures. Also, the model found that patients treated with the cross-cylinder method versus the single method didn't appear to be different from each other. This analysis provided an opportunity to compare the three methods while including a substantial number of baseline and outcome variables.Conclusion: Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis had applicability for the statistical analysis of astigmatism clinical trials and it may be used as an adjunct or alternative analysis method in small sized clinical trials.Keywords: astigmatism, regression, partial least squares regression

  7. Is macromastia a risk factor for breast cancer? A study on 198 patients.

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    Talghini, Shahla

    2013-11-01

    Macromastia, or breast hypertrophy, is a very common finding and a frequent cause of reduction mammaplasty all over the world. This study aims to examine the breast tissue specimens obtained by reduction mammaplasty in patients with macromastia in terms of the frequency of histopathological abnormalities (malignant and non-malignant lesions). In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, paraffin-embedded specimens of breast tissue after reduction mammaplasty were histopathologically reviewed in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Hospital in three years (2010-2013). All the specimens were sectioned, stained and examined by an adroit pathologist. One hundred ninety eight out of 271 primary specimens were eligible for this study. The mean age of the patients was 37.09 +/- 8.98 (range: 20-59) years, with mean body mass index of 27.44 +/- 3.85 (range: 21-35) kg m(-2). Based on the findings of microscopic examination, normal tissue was present in 98 cases (49.5%), all with increased content of fat. Fibrocystic change was the prominent benign entity, which was reported in 47.5% of the cases. Intraductal papilloma was detected 2 cases (1%). There were 4 cases with malignant lesions (2%), including 2 cases (1%) with invasive ductal carcinoma (age: 22 and 31 years old) and 2 cases (1%) with lobular carcinoma in situ (age: 21 and 35 years old). Considering the intraductal papilloma as a premalignant condition, the total rate of non-benign lesions reached to 3%. Based on the results of the present study, macromastia may be considered as a risk factor of breast malignancy. Thorough histopathological examination of the breast specimens after reduction mammaplasty, as well as strict screening of the women with nonsurgical macromastia is highly recommended.

  8. Diagnostic Value of Leukocyte Esterase Test Strip Reagents for Rapid Clinical Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients Admitted to Hospital Emergency Departments in Iran.

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    Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Zamani Moghaddam, Hamid; Zakeri, Hosein; Davoodi Navakh, Seyed Akbar; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Bahrami, Abdollah

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common and important clinical problem and is life-threatening in decompensated liver disease. Ascites fluid test by leukocyte esterase test strip has been recently proposed as an effective and rapid method to diagnose SBP in patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase test strip in the diagnosis of SBP. The population of this research was all patients with cirrhosis and ascites admitted to the emergency room at Imam Reza (AS) hospital, Mashhad. A written consent was taken for inclusion in the study. 50 mL ascites sample was taken from all patients for use in a urine test strip (LER) (Urine Test Strips Convergys®Urine Matrix 11). The patient's ascites samples were evaluated for cell counting. Positive dipstick test for LER in this study considered as grade 3 +. The values of WBC > 500 cell/mm(3) or PMN > 250 cell/mm(3) considered as positive result of the gold standard method for the diagnosis of SBP. In this study, 100 patients with ascites due to cirrhosis, with an average age of 38.9 ± 6.54 years were evaluated. Twenty cases had positive results, of whom 17 cases were also detected based on the standard diagnostic criteria and other three cases were healthy individuals. Thus, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the method were 95%, 96.3%, 85%, 97.5% and 95%, respectively. The use of leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test can be a quick and easy method in early diagnosis of SBP to start the treatment until preparation of SBP-cell count results.

  9. Evaluating Diagnostic Value of Electrophysiological Testing (EMG-NCV Compared to the Activity Level of Acetylcholinesterase in Serum and Red Blood Cells of Patients with Moderate to Severe Organophosphate Poisoning

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    Fares Najari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Organophosphate compounds cause poisoning and death more than any other insecticide. These toxins can cause peripheral neuropathy which is delayed for about 3 - 6 weeks and no method has been known for predicting the incidence. It has been claimed that electrophysiological tests (EMG - NCV can help in predicting the disorder. Objectives The main purpose of this research was to study EMG - NCV tests in patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted on patients with moderate to severe organophosphate poisoning from 2014 to 2016 in Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad. The minimum sample size was calculated as 68 patients and then all data was collected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria using data collection form designed by the researcher, and finally data were analyzed using SPSS V.21 software, descriptive tests (including mean, median, mode and analytical tests (K square, ANOVA. Results Of all 78 patients with the mean age of 27.50 ± 10.0, 45 were female and the rest were male. Totally 29.5% of the patients had abnormal EMG - NCV. Although no significant differences were observed between electro diagnostic tests (EMG - NCV and age, gender, clinical symptoms and levels of acetylcholinesterase serum activity, the relationship between EMG - NCV and RBC levels of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant. Conclusions Electrophysiological tests are not associated with clinical symptoms (muscle weakness and they cannot be considered as a determining factor to discharge the patients; therefore, careful examination of the patients or evaluating the level of AChE activity in red blood cells is needed.

  10. Solid waste for health: environmental impact health and feedback in case-disease

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    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza"

  11. Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes

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    Samadikhah HR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Samadikhah1,*, Asia Majidi2,*, Maryam Nikkhah2, Saman Hosseinkhani11Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cationic liposomes (CLs are composed of phospholipid bilayers. One of the most important applications of these particles is in drug and gene delivery. However, using CLs to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids and drugs to target organs has some problems, including low transfection efficiency in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop novel CLs containing magnetite to overcome the deficiencies. Patients and methods: CLs and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs were prepared using the freeze-dried empty liposome method. Luciferase-harboring vectors (pGL3 were transferred into liposomes and the transfection efficiencies were determined by luciferase assay. Firefly luciferase is one of most popular reporter genes often used to measure the efficiency of gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Different formulations of liposomes have been used for delivery of different kinds of gene reporters. Lipoplex (liposome–plasmid DNA complexes formation was monitored by gel retardation assay. Size and charge of lipoplexes were determined using particle size analysis. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by lipoplexes (liposome-pGL3; transfection efficiency and gene expression level was evaluated by luciferase assay. Results: High transfection efficiency of plasmid by CLs and novel nanomagnetic CLs was achieved. Moreover, lipoplexes showed less cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™. Conclusion: Novel liposome compositions (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC]/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide [DOAB] and DPPC/cholesterol/DOAB with high transfection efficiency can be useful in gene delivery in vitro. MCLs can also be used for targeted gene delivery, due to

  12. Genotypic frequency of Caveolin-1 (CAV1 T29107A polymorphism in the Iranian patients with breast cancer

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    Ahmad Hamta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is a scaffolding protein found in special structures of plasma membrane, known as Caveolae. Cav-1 can regulate many intracellular processes, including signal transmission and cholesterol metabolism. This protein plays an important role in the growth and differentiation of breast tissue and acts as a tumor suppressor gene as well. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic frequency of Cav-1 T29107A (rs7804372 polymorphism and its association with susceptibility to breast cancer among the female population in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: A total of 120 patients with breast cancer and an equal number of non-cancer individuals (control group, matched for age and gender with the patients, were selected in this study. The paraffin tissues of the patients from 2006 to 2013 were collected from Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah, and 2.5 cc blood sample was taken from non-cancer individuals. The genomic DNA was extracted from paraffin tissues and blood by salting out method. The genotype of samples was determined by RFLP-PCR method, and Sau3A1 enzyme was used for RFLP analysis. Results: The distribution of Cav-1 T29107A genotype was found to be significantly different between breast cancer patients and control group (p=0.004. Among the patients, 84 (70% samples had genotype TT, 29 (24.78% genotype AT and 7 (5.83% genotype AA. As for the control group, however, 59 (49.17% samples had genotype TT, 49 (40.83% genotype AT and 12 (10% genotype AA. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that genotype TT is associated with an increased risk of susceptibility to breast cancer.

  13. Predictors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Victims of Serious Motor Vehicle Accidents

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    Naema Khodadadi-Hassankiadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compelling evidence has shown that motor vehicle accidents have an enormous impact on mental health. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is one of the most common psychological consequences in adult survivors of accidents, so it is important to understand the prevalence and predictors of this issue since delay causes damage to crucial daily functioning. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence and predictors of PTSD after motor vehicle accident. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 528 injured patients six weeks to six months after motor vehicle accident in Imam Reza Clinic of Poursina hospital, Rasht in 2015. Data collection tools were three questionnaires including post-traumatic stress-self report (PSS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain. The data were analyzed in SPSS (Version 19 using Chi-square, Fischer’s exact test and multivariate logistic regression. Significance level was considered P≤0.05. Results: The prevalence of PTSD and depression was 30.49% and 19.89% in participants, respectively. Chi-square test indicated a significant relationship among age (P=0.02, sex (P<0.001, education level (P<0.001, work status (P<0.001 and PTSD. Participants who reported pain (P<0.001 and depression (P<0.001 were more likely to have high score of PTSD than the others. Multivariate logistic regression showed this significance in sex, depression, age, educational status and pain, as constant risk factors in developing PTSD after accident. Conclusion: This study suggests that primary care setting should be readily prompted for diagnosis of these disorders in non-treatment seeking individuals in the community.

  14. Comparing the Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking and Abdominal Massage on Feeding Tolerance in Preterm Newborns

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    Saideh Marzieh Fazli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Enteral feeding intolerance is a major problem in the preterm neonates. Non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage are among the most important nutritional interventions in this regard. Aim: This study aimed to compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and abdominal massage on feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns. Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 52 preterm neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, namely abdominal massage (17 newborns, non-nutritive sucking (18 newborns, and control groups (17 newborns. In the abdominal massage group, the intervention was fulfilled for 15 min twice a day, and in the non-nutritive sucking group, the intervention was performed for 10 min three times a day within 7 days. The control group only received tube feeding every two h without any intervention. Feeding tolerance was examined in terms of gastric residuals, vomiting, and abdominal distention. The data were collected through the recording daily information form. The data were analyzed through SPSS version 23, using ANOVA test and marginal models. Results: The mean gestational age of the abdominal massage group was 32.8±1.0 weeks. This value was 32.5±1.3 weeks in both sucking and control groups. Generalized estimating equation revealed that non-nutritive sucking was effective in the absence of distention (P=0.01 and vomiting (P=0.01. However, abdominal massage was effective only in the absence of vomiting (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: The use of non-nutritive sucking can increase the feeding tolerance in the preterm newborns.

  15. Evaluating success of curettage in the surgical treatment of endometrial polyps.

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    Hafizi, Leili; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Zirak, Nahid; Khadem, Nayereh; Davarpanah, Sousan; Akhondi, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    To determine treatment efficacy of curettage on endometrial polyp. The quasi-experimental pre-and-post study was conducted in 2011-12 at the gynaecology department of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, and comprised patients who underwent hysteroscopy for endometrial polyp. Location, size, number and base condition of the polyps were recorded before the patient underwent curettage. Hysteroscopy was then performed and the condition of the remaining polyps was compared with initial findings. Also, the remaining polyps were resected. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. There were 51 patients in the study with a mean age of 33.14 ± 8.19 years (range: 23-59 years)Besides, there were 82 polyps; 38(46.3%) having a narrow base, and 44(53.7%) having a wide base. The mean polyp size was 2.39 ± 2.63cm.After performing curettage, 23 (28.0%) polyps were removed completely, 39(47.6%) had size reduction, and 20(24.4%) had no change in size. Curettage could not significantly remove polyps (p < 0.001). Polyps smaller than 2cm were more likely to have been removed compared to the bigger ones (p = 0.003).Polyps with wide base were more significantly removed than those with narrow base (p < 0.001).Further, those with wide base and also smaller than 2 cm were removed more significantly than others (p < 0.001).The location of polyps had no effect on removal probability by curettage (p = 0.114). Curettage was not found to be a reliable method for endometrial polyp removal. If hysteroscopy is not accessible, the size of the polyp should be determined by vaginal sonograghy to estimate the probability of its removal by curettage.

  16. Frequency of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Treated With Normal Saline after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

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    Shima Sheybani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common postoperative complication of cardiac surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the frequency of postoperative AKI in low risk adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Materials & Methods: All consecutive adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II and III, who were transferred to the post-operative cardiac surgery ICU after off-pump CABG and were low risk for AKI from October 2013 to September 2014 at Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at a teaching hospital. The patients were explored for AKI development, based on risk-injury-failure-loss- end stage kidney disease (RIFLE and acute kidney injury network (AKIN criteria, frequency of metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and length of stay in ICU.Results: According to the results of the present study, 479 patients with the mean age of 60.8±10.75 yrs were included. AKI occurred in 22 (4.4% and23 (4.8% patients, based on both the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively with the highest rate of AKI, reported on the third and fourth post-operative days. Additionally, hyperchloremia and hypernatremia were observed in 71 (14.8% and 76 (15.9% patients, respectively. Only one case of mortality occurred during the study. Metabolic acidosis was reported in 112 (23.4% patients with a high anion gap in 60 (12.5% cases.Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that hypernatremia and metabolic acidosis but not AKI are frequently seen in patients receiving normal saline following off pump CABG with low risk for AKI.

  17. Comparing the Effect of Continuous and Intermittent Irrigation Techniques on Complications of Arterial Catheter and Partial Thromboplastin Time in Patients Following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

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    Sedigheh Arta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different approaches are available to irrigate the arterial catheter, such as continuous and intermittent techniques. However, there is a disagreement regarding the most appropriate method. Aim: this study aimed to compare the effect of two continuous and intermittent irrigation methods on complications of arterial catheter and partial thromboplastin time (PTT in patients with coronary artery bypass (CABG surgery. Method: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 participants undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in open-heart surgery ICU at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. In continuous group, the arterial catheter was continuously irrigated with heparin solution at the rate of 2cc/h, and in the intermittent group with a syringe containing 5cc heparin solution every 3 hours. In both groups, catheter was monitored and recorded every 3 hours (until 48 hours and 3 times from enrollment in terms of complications of partial thromboplastin time. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: The findingsof independent t-test showed that the two groups are homogeneous in age (P =0.48. The result of Fisher's exact test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in terms of average incidence of complications during the first 24 hours (P=0.55 and second 24 hours (P=0.55 after catheterization. Also during the 48 hours after surgery, independent t-test results showed no statistically significant difference in partial thromboplastin time (P=0.53 between the two groups. Implications for Practice: According to the results of the research based on the lack of difference between continuous and intermittent irrigation methods up to 48 hours after catheter replacement in terms of arterial catheter complications, further long-term follow-up researches are recommended.

  18. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  19. Evaluation of cholesteatoma frequency in patients with chronic otitis media

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    Amad Meimaneh Jahromi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: Chronic otitis media (COM is regarded as one of the disabling diseases which have a great influence on the quality of life. Because of the surgical approach of cholesteatoma, timely diagnosis is very important in management of patients with COM. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of cholesteatoma in patients with COM, demographic factors and disease related factors. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of 100 patients with COM who had surgery since 2005 to 2009 in Imam Reza Hospital were selected. Patients’ age, gender, duration of COM, clinical manifestations, location of perforation of tympanic membrane and presence or absence of cholesteatoma were analyzed by SPSS statistical software and some tables and graphs were planned. Results: patients   included 70 males and 30 females with an average age of 23.08 ± 11.35. Mean of COM duration was 8.04 ± 7.14 years. The most common manifestations of the disease were otorrhea (92% and hearing loss (80%. The most frequent type of tympanic perforation was total perforation. Frequency of cholesteatoma was 42% and it was more common in males than females (42.9% and 40%. Presence of choleasteatoma was related to gender, age, location of tympanic perforation, presence of otorrhea and hearing loss. Conclusion: Prevalence of cholesteatoma in patients  with COM  in  Mashhad  is more than  other  cites of Iran and  also other  countries, but it is less than prevalence of non cholesteatomatos COM. It is very important to pay more attention to patients with COM who are evaluated about presence of cholesteatoma, specially those with otorrhea, hearing loss, total perforation of tympanic membrane or male gender.

  20. Thallium exists in opioid poisoned patients.

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    Ghaderi, Amir; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Naser; Oghabian, Zohreh; Moradi, Valiallah; Afshari, Reza; Mehrpour, Omid

    2015-08-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal that exists in nature. Tl poisoning (thallotoxicosis) may occur in opioid addicts. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and level of urinary Tl in opioid abusers. In addition, clinical findings were evaluated. A total of 150 subjects were examined. Cases with a history of at least 3 years of abuse were admitted in the Imam Reza Hospital as the case group; 50 non-opioid abusers from the target population were included as the control group. Twenty-four hour urinary qualitative and quantitative Tl analyses were performed on both groups. Out of the 150 subjects, 128 (85 %) were negative for qualitative urinary Tl, followed by 5 % (trace), 7 % (1+), 2 % (2+), and 1 % (3+). Mean (standard error (SE), Min-Max) quantitative urinary Tl level was 14 μg/L (3.5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L). Mean urinary Tl level in the case group was 21 μg/L (5 μg/L, 0-346 μg/L) and that in the controls was 1 μg/L (0.14 μg/L, 0-26 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.001). The most frequent clinical findings were ataxia (86 %), sweating (81 %), and constipation (54 %). In all cases (n = 150), the mean (SE) value for cases with positive qualitative urinary Tl was 26.8 μg/L (0.9 μg/L) and that in the negative cases was 2.3 μg/L (0.2 μg/L), which were significantly different (P = 0.002). This study showed that long-term opioid abuse may lead to Tl exposure. In opioid abusers with the clinical manifestation of thallotoxicosis, urinary Tl should be determined.

  1. Revisiting TW Hydrae in light of new astrometric data

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    Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.; Galli, P. A. B.; Le Campion, J. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Krone-Martins, A. G. O.; Chauvin, G.; Song, I.

    2014-10-01

    Our efforts in the present work focused mainly on refining and improving the previous description and understanding of the stellar association TW Hydrae (TWA) including a very detailed membership analysis and its dynamical and evolutionary age.To achieve our objectives in a fully reliable way we take advantage of our own astrometric measurements (Ducourant et al. 2013) performed with NTT/EFOSC2 - ESO (La Silla - Chile) spread over three years (2007 - 2010) and of those published in the literature.A very detailed membership analysis based on the convergent point strategy as developed by our team (Galli et al. 2012, 2013) allowed us to define a consistent kinematic group containing 31 stars among the 44 proposed as TWA member in the literature. Assuming that our sample of stars may be contaminated by non-members and to get rid of the particular influence of each star we applied a Jacknife resampling technique generating 2000 random lists of 13 stars taken from our 16 stars and calculated for each the epoch of convergence when the radius is minimum. The mean of the epochs obtained and the dispersion about the mean give a dynamical age of 7.5± 0.7 Myr for the association that is in good agreement with the previous traceback age (De La Reza et al. 2006). We also estimated age for TWA moving group members from pre-main sequence evolutionary models (Siess et al. 2000) and find a mean age of 7.4± 1.2 Myr. These results show that the dynamical age of the association obtained via the traceback technique and the average age derived from theoretical evolutionary models are in good agreement.

  2. The survey of bacterial etiology and their resistance to antibiotics of urinary tract infections in children of Birjand city

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    Azita Fesharakinia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections in childhood, which due to an inapproto determine the common bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility in children with urinary tract infection.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical and prospective study was done in 2009-2010 on urine samples of all children under 13 years who had been referred to Emmam-Reza hospital laboratory in Birjand and had positive urine culture. Sex and age of children, the kind of isolated bacteria in urine culture, susceptibility and resistance of these bacteria to current antibiotics were studied.The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS using Fisher exact- test.   Results: 100 children (84 girls and 16 boys with positive urine culture were studied. The most common age of urinary tract infection was under two years. In all ages the rate of urinary tract infection in females was more than males. E.coli was the most common cause in both sexes. There was a significant relationship between kind of microorganism and age of infection. The most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection in all ages was E.coli (75% ,infection by Proteus was 11%, and other microorganism caused 14% of the cases. E.coli had the most susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime and the most resistance to cephalexin and co-trimoxazol. Not taking the type of microorganism into consideration, the most sensitive antibiotics were ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefexim and nalidixic acid and the most resistance was against co-trimoxasol and cefalexin.   Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended to use cefexime and nalidixic acid for outpatient treatment of urinary infection , and ceftazidime and ceftriaxon for inpatient treatment.Selecting of antibiotics for urinary infection therapy should be based on the local prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on a universal guideline.

  3. Epidemiological pattern of motorcycle injuries with focus on riding purpose: Experience from a middle-income country

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    leili Abedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death worldwide which usually occurs among people aged between15-29 years. In most LAMICs, half of fatal road traffic injuries occur among motorcyclists, which little is known about purpose of riding among motorcycle riders. Objectives: To map out epidemiological aspects of motorcycle traffic injuries with a focus on purpose of riding among victims admitted to referral centers, Tabriz, Iran. Materials/Patients and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 200 motorcycle traumatic patients admitted to Shohada and Imam Reza trauma centers in Tabriz((because these two hospitals are referral for trauma in East Azarbyjan Province, Iran from April till November 2013. A questionnaire was filled out through face to face interview for all subjects. Statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11. Results: All subjects were male with mean age of 29 years old. Among injured riders, 70% and 22% of them used helmet and had a riding license, respectively. About 23% of motorcycle riders stated that their main purpose of motorcycle riding was only for fun. Among motorcycle riders who used the motorcycle for fun purposes, the rate of helmet wearing was 43.5% versus 78% among those riding for other purposes (P 0.05; Odd ratio=1. 56, 95% CI: 0. 67-3.4. Crashes have happened more in the summer and during the afternoon times. Conclusion: Motorcyclists who rode motorcycles for fun and amusement, not having rider licenses and helmets wearing were less than other motorcycle riders. Since motorcyclists are mainly young, the rate of risky behavior in this group is higher. Therefore, it is suggested that young motorcycle riders who ride for fun, needs the priority for safety promotion intervention.

  4. Effect of the mechanical activation on size reduction of crystalline acetaminophen drug particles

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    Esmaeil Biazar1

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esmaeil Biazar1, Ali Beitollahi2, S Mehdi Rezayat3, Tahmineh Forati4, Azadeh Asefnejad4, Mehdi Rahimi4, Reza Zeinali4, Mahmoud Ardeshir4, Farhad Hatamjafari1, Ali Sahebalzamani4, Majid Heidari41Chemistry Department, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran, Iran; 2Material Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Biomedicall Department, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, IranAbstract: The decrease in particle size may offer new properties to drugs. In this study, we investigated the size reduction influence of the acetaminophen (C8H9O2N particles by mechanical activation using a dry ball mill. The activated samples with the average size of 1 µm were then investigated in different time periods with the infrared (IR, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. The results of the IR and XRD images showed no change in the drug structure after the mechanical activation of all samples. With the peak height at full width at half maximum from XRD and the Scherrer equation, the size of the activated crystallite samples illustrated that the AFM images were in sound agreement with the Scherrer equation. According to the peaks of the AFM images, the average size of the particles in 30 hours of activation was 24 nm with a normal particle distribution. The ICP analysis demonstrated the presence of tungsten carbide particle impurities after activation from the powder sample impacting with the ball and jar. The greatest reduction in size was after milling for 30 hours.Keywords: acetaminophen, mechanical activation, structure investigation, nanoparticles, ball mill

  5. Whatman Paper (FTA Cards for Storing and Transferring Leishmania DNA for PCR Examination

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    A Amin-Mohammadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is often made based on clinical manifesta­tion. Correct diagnosis and identification of the parasite are crucial for choosing the effective treat­ment and for epidemiological studies. On the other hand, determination of Leishmania species is nec­essary for designing appropriate control programs. Diagnosis by PCR is becoming a 'gold standard'. For PCR preparation, storage and shipments of specimens are necessary. In this study, Whatman filter paper (FTA Card was used to store and transfer samples for Leishmania identification using PCR. "nMethods: Among the patients who had CL lesion and referred to Parasitology Laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, 44 consented cases with positive results in their direct smear were se­lected. An informed consent form and a questionnaire were completed and three different types of samples (direct smear, NNN culture, and spot on FTA card were collected. DNA extraction and PCR were carried out on three different samples from each patient. "nResults: PCR results using Whatman paper samples revealed a significant difference (P<0.0001 compared to the culture method but no significant difference was seen between PCR results using samples stored on Whatman paper and direct smears. "nConclusion: The use of FTA cards is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and can be readily employed for large-scale population screening, especially for regions where the specimens are to be transported from distant places to the laboratory.

  6. Corrigendum

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    Carlos Vargas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos excusas a nuestros lectores y al antropólogo Javier Andrés Sandoval Andrade puesto que en el Vol 15 No 2 del 2011 de la revista Earth Science research Journal (ESRJ se publicó el articulotitulado "Quaternary dating by electron spin resonance (ESR applied to human tooth enamel" en el cual no se hace un correcto pie de página de la figura 1, ya que no es tomada de (Groot, 1992como reza la misma, sino que es tomada de la tesis de pregrado titulada DATACIÓN DE RESTOS HUMANOS PREHISPÁNICOS A TRAVÉS DE ESMALTE DENTAL USANDO RESONANCIAPARAMAGNÉTICA ELECTRÓNICA (EPR (2010. Asimismo, no corresponde al sitio arqueológico Aguazuque, sino que corresponde al sitio arqueológico Checua. Corrigendum We apologize to our readers and the antropology Javier andres Sandoval Andrade because in the Vol 15 Issue 2 year 2011 in the Earth Science Research Journal (ESRJ published the article entitled "Quaternary dating by electron spin resonance (ESR applied to human tooth enamel" which there is an incorrect footnote in the Figure 1 as it is not quoted from (Groot, 1992, but it is taken from the undergraduate thesis entitled DATACION DE RESTOS HUMANOS PREHISPANICOS A TRAVES DE ESMALTE DENTAL USANDO RESONANCIA PARAMAGNETICA ELECTRONICA (EPR (2010. Also, this figure do not correspond with the Aguazuque arqueological site, but it is from the Checua arquelogical site. Carlos Vargas Editor-in-Chief Earth Science Research Journal

  7. Nurses’ Knowledge About Fecal Intestinal Ostomies’s Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Maryam Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Investigation of various aspects of care in ostomy patients is of clinical importance, as the level of knowledge and skills of nurses directly influences the quality of patient education and satisfaction with received care. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine knowledge of nurses in general surgery wards regarding fecal intestinal ostomies. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed during year 2015 at teaching hospitals (Ghaem, Imam Reza and Omid hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. We used census for sampling, and the study population included all nurses, who were working in intestinal ostomy surgery wards. Inclusion criteria were having an undergraduate degree in nursing and at least one-year work experience at the surgical ward. Data collection tools were a demographic information questionnaire and a researcher-made survey of “assessment of knowledge of nurses in ostomy care”. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. Results Overall, 83.9% of participants were female and mean work experience at the surgical ward was 4.23 (SD = 3.73. More than half of the nurses gave incorrect answers to questions related to the use of powders and sprays associated with skin itching and sensitivity (64.3%, and how to care for ostomy with a rod (66.1%. Nurses also showed low and very low levels of knowledge on symptoms and control of obstruction (57.1%, change duration in the size of ostomy (66%, sexual intercourse (57.1%, colostomy complications (51.8% and ileostomy (57.1% and authorized or unauthorized activities (50% as well as how to perform bowel irrigation (75%. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the knowledge of nurses was not enough to provide primary care for ostomy; thus due to the importance of adequate knowledge and because of needs assessments, it is recommended for nursing managers to conduct retraining courses and other educational approaches for

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Reflexology on Pain Control and Analgesic Consumption After Appendectomy.

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    Khorsand, Ali; Tadayonfar, Moosa Al-Reza; Badiee, Shapour; Aghaee, Monavar Afzal; Azizi, Hoda; Baghani, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Appendicitis is the most common cause of severe abdominal pain in the world, and the associated postsurgical pain, as occurs with other surgical procedures, is one of the most common problems. Today, there is a growing tendency toward nondrug methods and alternative medicine to reduce the adverse effects of drugs. Reflexology involves applying pressure on certain areas of the palms, feet, and ears in order to reduce stress and pain in certain areas of the body. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of reflexology massage on pain relief after appendectomy. This clinical trial was conducted at the surgical emergency unit of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Pain intensity and analgesic consumption were compared between 105 patients before and immediately, 1 hour, 6 hours, and 24 hours after the intervention in three groups of intervention, control, and placebo. Patients in all three groups received analgesics, as required. The experimental group received pressure on a defined area of the right foot for about 10 minutes and the Shen Men point of the ear for 1 minute. This pressure in the placebo group was applied on the left foot and the left earlobe. Patients in the control group received routine care only. The results were evaluated at a 95% confidence level, and data were analyzed using SPSS software version 12 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). At the beginning of the study, the mean pain intensity in different groups according to analysis of variance was not significantly different (p = 0.439); however, there was a notable difference in pain intensity between the intervention and other groups after reflexology therapy. In addition, methadone consumption was significantly lower in the reflexology group than in the other two groups (p ≤ 0.001). Reflexology is effective for reducing pain after appendectomy surgery.

  9. Customer Quality of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease In Tabriz, 1391

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    Roya Hasanzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Customer Quality is one of the most important dimensions of quality in health care which refers to service receiver's knowledge, attitude and skills that play effective role in treatment process. This study is aimed at assessing customer quality score in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Tabriz city in 2012. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted with the participation of 94 Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients who referred to Tabriz Imam Reza Hospital and Golgasht clinic. Customer Quality was measured using a questionnaire with 19 items which its validity was confirmed by 10 experts and its reliability was reviewed using Cronbach's alpha index (α =0.78.  Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS17.   Results: The results illustrated that average score of customer quality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease is 70.63 (±9.67. All the participants achieved stage 1 scores of Customer Quality in self-management but only 11.7% reported highest customer quality score and were able to continue their self-care in high pressure circumstances such as stress and financial problems. Also, there was a significant relation between customer quality score and patient’s education (P-value=0.05, so that by having higher education level, the customer quality score was increased as well. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that customer quality status in assessed patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease is partially acceptable, but major problems in some areas are evident and require more attention of health care managers and policy makers. ​

  10. Congenital Heart Disease in Children with Down syndrome in Kermanshah, West of Iran during 2002 - 2016

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    Zahra Jalili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal anomaly. Dysmorphic features can occur in several organs in this syndrome. Cardiac anomalies with a prevalence of 50% are the most common anomalies responsible for death during the first two years of life. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiac anomalies among Down syndrome patients admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Kermanshah, Iran from 2002 to 2016. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, the medical records of all patients with Down syndrome admitted to two university hospitals namely Imam Ali and Imam Reza, Kermanshah city located in Western part of Iran in the study period were reviewed. All patients had received Echocardiography two-dimensional (2D. The required data including cardiac anomaly type, consanguinity of parents, maternal age, surgical interventions, and survival were collected into a checklist. Results:  During the study period, 166 patients with Down syndrome had received diagnostic and therapeutic services in the studied hospitals. There were 70 males (42.2% and 96 females (57.8%. Familial consanguinity was documented in 95 patients (57.2%. Mean ± standard deviation (SD maternal age at delivery was 26.33 (±4.7 years (range, 15 to 45 years. Of 166 studied patients, 123 (74.1% had cardiac anomaly. Ventricular septal defect (VSD was the most prevalent single defect seen in 32 (26% patients, followed by atrial septal defect (ASD detected in in 22 (17.8% patients. Seventy patients (42.1% required surgical interventions. A total of 74 patients experienced relative improvement of the symptoms. Also, seven patients (10.2% died including five females and two males. Conclusion: The frequency of cardiac anomalies in the studied population of Down syndrome patients was higher than former reported figures. The pattern of the anomalies is compatible with some former reports, but contradicts other reports.

  11. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

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    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  12. Predictive model for survival in patients with gastric cancer.

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    Goshayeshi, Ladan; Hoseini, Benyamin; Yousefli, Zahra; Khooie, Alireza; Etminani, Kobra; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Golabpour, Amin

    2017-12-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Characterized by poor prognosis, it is a frequent cause of cancer in Iran. The aim of the study was to design a predictive model of survival time for patients suffering from gastric cancer. This was a historical cohort conducted between 2011 and 2016. Study population were 277 patients suffering from gastric cancer. Data were gathered from the Iranian Cancer Registry and the laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Patients or their relatives underwent interviews where it was needed. Missing values were imputed by data mining techniques. Fifteen factors were analyzed. Survival was addressed as a dependent variable. Then, the predictive model was designed by combining both genetic algorithm and logistic regression. Matlab 2014 software was used to combine them. Of the 277 patients, only survival of 80 patients was available whose data were used for designing the predictive model. Mean ?SD of missing values for each patient was 4.43?.41 combined predictive model achieved 72.57% accuracy. Sex, birth year, age at diagnosis time, age at diagnosis time of patients' family, family history of gastric cancer, and family history of other gastrointestinal cancers were six parameters associated with patient survival. The study revealed that imputing missing values by data mining techniques have a good accuracy. And it also revealed six parameters extracted by genetic algorithm effect on the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Our combined predictive model, with a good accuracy, is appropriate to forecast the survival of patients suffering from Gastric cancer. So, we suggest policy makers and specialists to apply it for prediction of patients' survival.

  13. Drug utilization evaluation of albumin in a teaching hospital of Mashhad, Iran: an interventional pre-post design study.

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    Zolfagharian, Farzaneh; Ghazanfari, Saba; Elyasi, Sepideh; Iraji, Paria; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2017-08-01

    Background Albumin is a protein colloidal solution with limited availability and high cost. It should be used in such approved indications as paracentesis, extensive burn, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and nephrotic syndrome. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the appropriateness of albumin usage before and after an evidence-based guideline. Setting Four wards of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Method An interventional pre-post design study was performed on 2 groups of patients; in gGroup 1 as a preparation phase group in 6 months from February 2015 to July 2015 and Group 2 as an interventional group from September 2015 to February 2016. A guideline for proper indications of albumin, designed and finalized based on the physicians' comments, was implemented in Group 2. Main outcome measure The pattern of albumin consumption. Results Fifty patients were evaluated in each group. The implementation of the guideline resulted in reduction of improper albumin use from 62 to 57.5%, which was not statistically significant; however., it reduced inappropriate dose and duration of albumin therapy (55.5-16.7%), the number of consumed albumin vial, and the average cost for each patient (317.78 ± 3.15-149.81 ± 1.91 USD) significantly, as well. Conclusion This study illustrated that in this hospital in most cases, albumin was used inappropriately and at an alarming rate. This improved after the introduction of an evidence-based guideline. Moreover, guideline implementation resulted in significant cost reduction.

  14. Enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia using mixture experimental design

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    Fard Masoumi HR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Fard Masoumi, Mahiran Basri, Wan Sarah Samiun, Zahra Izadiyan, Chaw Jiang Lim Nanodelivery Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Aripiprazole is considered as a third-generation antipsychotic drug with excellent therapeutic efficacy in controlling schizophrenia symptoms and was the first atypical anti­psychotic agent to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Formulation of nanoemulsion-containing aripiprazole was carried out using high shear and high pressure homo­genizers. Mixture experimental design was selected to optimize the composition of nanoemulsion. A very small droplet size of emulsion can provide an effective encapsulation for delivery system in the body. The effects of palm kernel oil ester (3–6 wt%, lecithin (2–3 wt%, Tween 80 (0.5–1 wt%, glycerol (1.5–3 wt%, and water (87–93 wt% on the droplet size of aripiprazole nanoemulsions were investigated. The mathematical model showed that the optimum formulation for preparation of aripiprazole nanoemulsion having the desirable criteria was 3.00% of palm kernel oil ester, 2.00% of lecithin, 1.00% of Tween 80, 2.25% of glycerol, and 91.75% of water. Under optimum formulation, the corresponding predicted response value for droplet size was 64.24 nm, which showed an excellent agreement with the actual value (62.23 nm with residual standard error <3.2%. Keywords: schizoaffective disorder, antipsychotic drug, bipolar I disorder, D-optimal mixture design, optimization formulation

  15. A novel nanoemulsion-based method to produce ultrasmall, water-dispersible nanoparticles from chitosan, surface modified with cell-penetrating peptide for oral delivery of proteins and peptides

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    Barbari GR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ghullam Reza Barbari,1 Farid Abedin Dorkoosh,1 Mohsen Amini,2 Mohammad Sharifzadeh,3 Fateme Atyabi,1 Saeed Balalaie,4 Niyousha Rafiee Tehrani,5 Morteza Rafiee Tehrani1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 4Department of Chemistry, Khaje Nasiroddin University, 5Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Abstract: A simple and reproducible water-in-oil (W/O nanoemulsion technique for making ultrasmall (<15 nm, monodispersed and water-dispersible nanoparticles (NPs from chitosan (CS is reported. The nano-sized (50 nm water pools of the W/O nanoemulsion serve as “nano-containers and nano-reactors”. The entrapped polymer chains of CS inside these “nano-reactors” are covalently cross-linked with the chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG, leading to rigidification and formation of NPs. These NPs possess excessive swelling properties in aqueous medium and preserve integrity in all pH ranges due to chemical cross-linking with PEG. A potent and newly developed cell-penetrating peptide (CPP is further chemically conjugated to the surface of the NPs, leading to development of a novel peptide-conjugated derivative of CS with profound tight-junction opening properties. The CPP-conjugated NPs can easily be loaded with almost all kinds of proteins, peptides and nucleotides for oral delivery applications. Feasibility of this nanoparticulate system for oral delivery of a model peptide (insulin is investigated in Caco-2 cell line. The cell culture results for translocation of insulin across the cell monolayer are very promising (15%–19% increase, and animal studies are actively under progress and will be published separately. Keywords: ultrasmall, cell-penetrating peptide, chitosan, oral insulin, nanoemulsion, Caco-2 cell

  16. Evaluation of pulsing magnetic field effects on paresthesia in multiple sclerosis patients, a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial.

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    Afshari, Daryoush; Moradian, Nasrin; Khalili, Majid; Razazian, Nazanin; Bostani, Arash; Hoseini, Jamal; Moradian, Mohamad; Ghiasian, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that magnet therapy could alleviate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was performed to test the effects of the pulsing magnetic fields on the paresthesia in MS patients. This study has been conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial during the April 2012 to October 2013. The subjects were selected among patients referred to MS clinic of Imam Reza Hospital; affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Sixty three patients with MS were included in the study and randomly were divided into two groups, 35 patients were exposed to a magnetic pulsing field of 4mT intensity and 15-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions and 28 patients was exposed to a magnetically inactive field (placebo) for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions. The severity of paresthesia was measured by the numerical rating scale (NRS) at 30, 60days. The study primary end point was NRS change between baseline and 60days. The secondary outcome was NRS change between baseline and 30days. Patients exposing to magnetic field showed significant paresthesia improvement compared with the group of patients exposing to placebo. According to our results pulsed magnetic therapy could alleviate paresthesia in MS patients .But trials with more patients and longer duration are mandatory to describe long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the association between epstein-barr virus and mycosis fungoides

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    Yalda Nahidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Despite extensive studies, etiopathogenesis of MF is unknown. Environmental, infectious and genetic factors have been proposed as potential risk factors of MF. Herpes virus family members, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, have been among the viral factors of interest in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association of EBV infection with MF. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on skin biopsy samples of 57 MF patients referred to Pathology Department of Mashhad Emam Reza Hospital from 2000 to 2011 and also on 57 melanocytic nevus samples matched with patients for age and sex. The presence of EBV in samples was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 11.5 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. Results: In this study, out of 57 MF samples, there were 34 male and 23 female patients, with male:female ratio of 1.04. Mean patient age was 51.4 years. There were 22 and 4 positive cases of EBV in the case and control groups, respectively. Chi-square statistical test showed that EBV was significantly higher in case group than control (P = 0.000. There was no correlation between the presence of EBV in samples with lesion type, age and gender of the patients. Conclusion: According to our study results, EBV is a likely etiologic agent or potential promoter in the pathogenesis of MF.

  18. Editorial

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    AHM Zahirul Alam

    2018-06-01

    .............................................................307 Abdul Aziz Ahmad, Ibrahim Ali Noorbatcha, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh   CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DIMINISHING SEISMIC EFFECT ON BUILDINGS USING BEARING ISOLATION....................................................... 59 A. B. M. Saiful Islam ELECTRICAL, COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATIONS ENGINEERING A DISTRIBUTED ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR DATA AGGREGATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS.................................................................................. 72 Seyed Mohammad Bagher Musavi Shirazi, Maryam Sabet, Mohammad Reza Pajoohan POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT WITH CASCADED MULTILEVEL CONVERTER BASED STATCOM................. 91 Mahdi Heidari, Abdonnabi Kovsarian, S. Ghodratollah Seifossadat THE EFFECTS OF CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ON MAXIMUM OVERVOLTAGE IN COMBINED OVERHEAD/CABLE LINES PROTECTED BY SURGE ARRESTERS.............................................................................. 104 Reza Alizadeh, Mohammad Mirzaie SMART PORTABLE CRYOTHERAPY SYSTEM REPHRASED I.E. WITH CONTROLLED THERMOELECTRIC COOLING MODULES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS................................................................................................ 117 Abbas Rahmani, Reza Hassanzadeh Pack Rezaee, Naser Kordani STATIC PIPELINE NETWORK PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION USING DUAL INTERLEAVE ROUTING ALGORITHM     129 Siva Kumar Subramaniam1, Shariq Mahmood Khan, Anhar Titik, Rajagopal Nilavalan A MODIFIED MODEL BASED ON FLOWER POLLINATION ALGORITHM AND K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR FOR DIAGNOSING DISEASES........................................................................ 144 Mehdi Zekriyapanah Gashti A SINGLE LC TANK BASED ACTIVE VOLTAGE BALANCING CIRCUIT FOR BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM .158 A K M Ahasan Habib, S. M. A. Motakabber, Muhammad Ibn. Ibrahimy, A. H. M. Zahirul Alam ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS AND APPLIED SCIENCE ON THE CONTROL OF HEAT CONDUCTION.......................................... 168 Fayziev Yusuf Ergashevich MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING GREEN

  19. Different Types of Fantastic Etiology in Hafez Poetry

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    Ghodrat Ghasemipour

    2016-05-01

    : Setare. Attar Nishabori, Farid od-Din (2000. Mohammad Reza Shafie Kadkani ( emend ., 5rd ed. Tehran: Sokan. Chalisova, Natalia (2004. Encyclopedia of Iranica. Last Updated: December 15. Farshidvard, Khosrow (1975. Conjugating of simile with another factors in Hafez poetry. Gowhar, No 18, 535-541. Ferdowsi, Abolghasem (2001. Shahname (Moscow Press. Saeed Hamidiyan (emend. 2nd Vol. 5rd ed. Tehran: Ghatreh. Forster, Edward Morgan (1974. Aspects of the Novel. Harmondswort: Penguin. Gharib Hoseini, Zahra and Mohammad Sadegh Basiri (2009. Techniques of usages of fantastic etiology in Anvari' Ghasayed. Kavoshname, 9th year, No 16, 65-97. Hafez, Khajeh Shams od-Din (1984. Hafez Divan. Parviz Natel Khanlari (emend.. 2rd ed. Tehran: Kharazmi. Heravi, Hoseinali (1977. Commentary of Hafez' Gazals. 4rd ed. Tehran: Simorgh. Homaei, Jalalodin (1989. Techniques of Rhetoric and Literary devices. 5rd ed. Tehran: Homa. Hoseini Nishabori, Ataola ibn Mahmoud (2006. Badaye alsanaye. Rahim Mosalmanian Ghobadiyani, Tehran: Institution of Mahmoud Afshar endowment s. Jacobson, Roman (2013. Dominant, in Mohammad Reza Shafi’ee Kadkani (trans. Resurrect of Words. Tehran: Sokan. Khabazha, Reza (2013 The Function of fantastic etiology in the structure of themes digression to eulogy. Monthly Book of Literature. No 73, 43-48. Mikics, David, (2007, A New Handbook of Literary Terms, Yale University Press, New Haven & London. Mohamadi Asiyabadi, Ali (2007. Projection and characterization in Hafez poetry. University of Tarbiyat Moalem, No 52 &53, p 111-134. Motahari, Morteza (1991. Lessons of Shafa Theology. Tehran: Hekmat. Radowyani, Mohammad ibn Omar (2002. Tarjoman e Balaghat. Ahmad Atash ( emend ., Tehran: Society of National Honor & Works. Shamisa, Sirus (2003. A New Glance on Rhetoric. 14rd ed. , Tehran: Ferdows. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Ada ol-Badaye. Hosein Jafari ( emend ., Tabriz: Ahrar. Shams Ololama Gorgani, Mohammad Hosein (1999. Spring Clusters in Rhetoric. Morteza

  20. Gender differences in the T-cell profiles of the airways in COPD patients associated with clinical phenotypes

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    Forsslund H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Helena Forsslund,1 Mingxing Yang,1 Mikael Mikko,1 Reza Karimi,1 Sven Nyrén,2 Benita Engvall,1 Johan Grunewald,1 Heta Merikallio,1,3 Riitta Kaarteenaho,3–5 Jan Wahlström,1 Åsa M Wheelock,1 C Magnus Sköld1 1Department of Medicine Solna and Centre for Molecular Medicine, Respiratory Medicine Unit, 2Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Respiratory Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; 4Unit of Medicine and Clinical Research, Pulmonary Division, University of Eastern Finland, 5Center for Medicine and Clinical Research, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland Abstract: T lymphocytes are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. How T cells are recruited to the lungs and contribute to the inflammatory process is largely unknown. COPD is a heterogeneous disease, and discriminating disease phenotypes based on distinct molecular and cellular pathways may provide new approaches for individualized diagnosis and therapies. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were obtained from 40 never-smokers, 40 smokers with normal lung function, and 38 COPD patients. T-cell chemokine receptor expression was analyzed with flow cytometry, and soluble BAL cytokines and chemokines were measured using a cytokine multiplex assay. Correlations with gender and clinical characteristics including lung imaging were investigated using multivariate modeling. Th1/Tc1- and Th2/Tc2-associated soluble analytes and T-cell chemokine receptors were analyzed as cumulative Th1/Tc1 and Th2/Tc2 immune responses. A higher expression of chemokine receptor CCR5 on CD8+ T cells in BAL and higher percentage of CXCR3+CD8+ T cells in blood was found in female smokers with COPD compared to those without COPD. CCR5 expression

  1. Estructura de las Reglas de Origen del TLCAN: un Análisis Metodológico del Valor de Contenido Regional

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    Odette Virginia Delfín Ortega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La dinámica actual dentro del comercio internacional pone en manifiesto la importancia del origen de las mercancías para poder llevar a cabo los principales instrumentos de política comercial. La aplicación de los regímenes de origen no es una tarea sencilla; ya que se requiere información de diversos actores que intervienen dentro de la operación de comercio exterior. Las normas de origen generan impactos muy representativos en los flujos de mercancías, servicios e inversiones. Se puede decir entonces que las normas de origen son junto con la valoración en aduana, la clasificación arancelaria, requisitos previos para la aplicación de los principales instrumentos de la política comercial (aranceles, restricciones al comercio, medidas de defensa comercial, la gestión de las estadísticas comerciales, protección al consumidor, entre otros (GATT, 1993. Sin embargo, el origen de la mercancía paralelo a los instrumentos de la política comercial, puede activar o afectar el flujo comercial de una nación. Según los objetivos de política comercial que vienen estipulados en el régimen del origen, se encuentran dos grandes tipos de normas, las preferenciales y las comunes o no preferenciales. La principal diferencia entre un tipo de norma y otro guarda relación con el instrumento comercial al cual obedece. Las preferenciales, como su nombre indica, sirven para ejecutar un esquema comercial preferencial (acuerdos comerciales regionales y sistemas preferencias generalizadas, y las comunes resultan aplicables a todos los demás supuestos (aranceles NMF, cuotas, salvaguardias, estadísticas, etcétera. El régimen jurídico del origen se basa en dos principios básicos: el de producto enteramente obtenido y el de transformación sustancial (Rodriguez & Rodrik, 1999. Las reglas de origen han empezado a ser analizadas recientemente, autores como: Krueger, López-de-Silanes, Rosellón, Wonnacott (Reza & Kowalsky,2010 han hecho diversos

  2. Clinical, psychological and demographic parameters of body pain in multiple sclerosis

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    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body pain in multiple sclerosis (MS is a common phenomenon that can create or exacerbate by different parameters of clinical, psychological and demographic. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parameters of clinical (fatigue, clinical course, body mass index and duration, psychological (depression, anxiety and stress and demographic (age, gender, marital status and education characters with multiple sclerosis patient’s body pain. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been performed in the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Guilan Province and Imam Reza Specialized and Sub-specialized Clinic, Rasht City, Iran during June to February 2010. In this study 162 patients with MS were selected by consecutive sampling. We used the clinical and demographic variables inventory, body pain subscale of the health survey questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and fatigue severity scale along with identical analog-spring balance. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and point bi-serial, one-way analysis of variance, Gabriel test and stepwise multiple regression. Results: The findings showed that patients who scored 3 or higher in relapses experienced significantly more body pain than patients who scored 1-2 times of relapses (P= 0.031. In the meantime, significant differences were not found between the two groups of patients with a score of 3 or higher in relapses and non-relapse and between non-relapse patients and with a score 1-2 times of relapses in terms of body pain. Also, significant differences were not found in different groups of hospitalization in terms of body pain. However, anxiety and fatigue together could explain significantly 25% of the shared variance of body pain (F= 26.29, P≤ 0.0009. Conclusion: This study showed the effect of psychological and clinical factors on body pain exacerbation in MS patients. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to consider

  3. Interface between problem-based learning and a learner-centered paradigm

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    Karimi R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Reza KarimiPacific University School of Pharmacy, Hillsboro, OR, USABackground: Problem-based learning (PBL has made a major shift in support of student learning for many medical school curricula around the world. Since curricular development of PBL in the early 1970s and its growth in the 1980s and 1990s, there have been growing numbers of publications providing positive and negative data in regard to the curricular effectiveness of PBL. The purpose of this study was to explore supportive data for the four core objectives of PBL and to identify an interface between the objectives of PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Methods: The four core PBL objectives, ie, structuring of knowledge and clinical context, clinical reasoning, self-directed learning, and intrinsic motivation, were used to search MEDLINE, the Education Resources Information Center, the Educator’s Reference Complete, and PsycINFO from January 1969 to January 2011. The literature search was facilitated and narrowed if the published study included the following terms: “problem-based learning”, “medical education”, “traditional curriculum”, and one of the above four PBL objectives.Results: Through a comprehensive search analysis, one can find supportive data for the effectiveness of a PBL curriculum in achieving the four core objectives of PBL. A further analysis of these four objectives suggests that there is an interface between PBL objectives and criteria from a learner-centered paradigm. In addition, this review indicates that promotion of teamwork among students is another interface that exists between PBL and a learner-centered paradigm.Conclusion: The desire of medical schools to enhance student learning and a need to provide an environment where students construct knowledge rather than receive knowledge have encouraged many medical schools to move into a learner-centered paradigm. Implementation of a PBL curriculum can be used as a prevailing starting point to

  4. List of contents and message from the Responsible Director

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    GholamReza Havaei

    2016-09-01

    “Structural and Construction Engineering” and I invite you to contribute to the success of this journal by submitting your articles.           GholamReza Havaei                                            Responsible director and Chancellor of Iranian Society of Structural Engineering

  5. Effects of β-D-mannuronic acid, as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication within immunosuppressive properties, on IL17, RORγt, IL4 and GATA3 gene expressions in rheumatoid arthritis patients

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    Barati A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anis Barati,1 Ahmad Reza Jamshidi,2,* Hossein Ahmadi,1 Zahra Aghazadeh,1 Abbas Mirshafiey1,* 1Department of Immunology, School of Public Health, 2Iranian Institute for Health Sciences Research, Rheumatology Research Center, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis characterized by pain, swelling and destruction of joints, with a resultant disability. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and biological drugs can interfere with the disease process. In this study, the effect of β-D-mannuronic acid (M2000 as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects together with antioxidant effects was evaluated on IL17, RORγt, IL4 and GATA3 gene expression in 12 RA patients. Previously, M2000 driven from sodium alginate (natural product; patented, DEU: 102016113018.4 has shown a notable efficacy in experimental models of multiple sclerosis, RA and nephrotic syndrome. This study was performed on 12 patients with RA who had an inadequate response to conventional treatments. During this trial, patients were permitted to continue the conventional therapy excluding NSAIDs. M2000 was administered orally at a dose of 500 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected before and after treatment to evaluate the expression levels of IL4, GATA3, IL17 and RORγt. The gene expression results showed that M2000 has a potent efficacy, so that it could not only significantly decrease IL17 and RORγt levels but also increase IL4 and GATA3 levels after 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the gene expression results were in accordance with the clinical and preclinical assessments. In conclusion, M2000 as a natural novel agent has therapeutic and immunosuppressive properties on RA patients (identifier

  6. Comparison of ultrasonography and radiography in diagnosis of rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishbin, Elham; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Foogardi, Molood; Salehi, Maryam; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2017-08-01

    Rib fractures are the most common skeletal thoracic injuries resulting from blunt chest trauma. Half of the rib fractures are not detected upon a precise physical evaluation and radiographs. Recently ultrasonography (USG) has been investigated to detect rib fractures. But based on literature the usefulness of USG varies widely. This study was conducted to investigate the role of USG in the detection of possible rib fractures in comparison with radiography. In this cross-sectional study, consecutive patients with minor blunt chest trauma and suspected rib fractures presenting in Imam Reza Hospital located in Mashhad-Iran, between April 2013 and October 2013 were assessed by USG and radiography. The radiography was performed in a posteroanterior (PA) chest projection and oblique rib view centered over the area of trauma. The time duration spent in taking USG and radiography were recorded. The prevalence and location of fractures revealed by USG and radiography were compared. Sixty-one suspected patients were assessed. The male to female ratio was 2.4:1 (43 men and 18 women) with a mean ± SD age of (44.3 ± 19.7) years. There were totally 59 rib fractures in 38 (62.3%) patients based on radiography and USG, while 23 (37.7%) patients had no diagnostic evidence of rib lesions. USG revealed 58 rib fractures in 33 (54.1%) of 61 suspected patients and radiographs revealed 32 rib fractures in 20 (32.8%) of 61 patients. A total of 58 (98.3%) rib fractures were detected by USG, whereas oblique rib view and PA chest radiography showed 27 (45.8%) and 24 (40.7%) rib fractures, respectively. The average duration of USG was (12 ± 3) min (range 7-17 min), whereas the duration of radiography was (27 ± 6) min (range 15-37 min). The kappa coefficient showed a low level of agreement between both USG and PA chest radiography (kappa coefficient = 0.28), and between USG and oblique rib view (kappa coefficient = 0.32). USG discloses more fractures than radiography in

  7. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

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    Shiri M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mahdi Shiri,1,2,* Mona Navaei-Nigjeh,1,3,* Maryam Baeeri,1 Mahban Rahimifard,1 Hossein Mahboudi,4 Ahmad Reza Shahverdi,5 Abbas Kebriaeezadeh,1 Mohammad Abdollahi1,6,7 1Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2School of Medicine, Artesh University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology Research Center, 6Toxicology Interest Group, USERN, 7Endocrinology & Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Diazinon (DZ is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double

  8. Preparation and in vitro characterization of 9-nitrocamptothecin-loaded long circulating nanoparticles for delivery in cancer patients

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    Katayoun Derakhshandeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Katayoun Derakhshandeh1, Marzieh Soheili1, Simin Dadashzadeh2, Reza Saghiri31Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medical Science, Kermanshah 67145-1673, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 3Deptartment of Biochemistry, Pasteur Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: The purpose in this study was to investigate poly(ethylene glycol-modified poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs loading 9-nitrocamptothecin (9-NC as a potent anticancer drug. 9-NC is an analog of the natural plant alkaloid camptothecin that has shown high antitumor activity and is currently in the end stage of clinical trial. Unfortunately, at physiological pH, these potent agents undergo a rapid and reversible hydrolysis with the loss of antitumor activity. Previous researchers have shown that the encapsulation of this drug in PLGA nanoparticles could increase its stability and release profile. In this research we investigated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles and their effect on in vitro characteristics of this labile drug. 9-NC-PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with particle size within the range of 148.5 ± 30 nm were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method. The influence of four different independent variables (amount of polymer, percent of emulsifier, internal phase volume, and external phase volume on nanoparticle drug-loading was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry were also evaluated for physical characterizing. The results of optimized formulation showed a narrow size distribution, suitable zeta potential (+1.84, and a drug loading of more than 45%. The in vitro drug release from PLGA-PEG NPs showed a sustained release pattern of up to 120 hours and comparing with PLGA-NPs had a significant decrease in initial burst effect. These experimental results indicate that PLGA-PEG-NPs (versus PLGA-NPs have a better physicochemical characterization

  9. El doble carácter de la educación indígena: reproducción y resistencia

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    Alberto Padilla Arias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reflexiones contenidas en este trabajo son el resultado de la interpretación de los datos producto de la investigación sobre el tema y se enmarcan dentro de la concepción epistemológica denominada: la cultura como categoría crítica, que ha sido desarrollada por diversos intelectuales latinoamericanos, en particular por Paulo Freire. El método de trabajo ha sido esencialmente de carácter documental. En este punto, a principios del siglo XXI, la investigación ha venido a evidenciar que tanto la educación formal como la no formal, —de los que nosotros llamaremos en adelante pueblos originarios o indígenas— en general, continúa sirviendo a la reproducción de los moldes culturales hegemónicos, tanto en su versión pública como privada. Sin embargo, por otra parte, la educación informal es la que ha permitido, a la mayoría de los pueblos indígenas y sus culturas, ejercer sus mecanismos de resistencia cultural, apoyando su supervivencia, no solamente en México, sino en cualquier punto del planeta dentro del nuevo esquema de regionalización-globalización. Es por ello que se puede afirmar que la educación indígena de hecho tiene un doble carácter como reza el título: reproducción y resistencia. Todo ello teniendo en cuenta múltiples factores que intervienen en los contextos nacionales con su naturaleza multicultural. En el trabajo se analizan las condiciones de diversos pueblos originarios o “indígenas” que han logrado sobrevivir con sus propias culturas, gracias a que han hecho uso de este proceso conservador autónomo, educación informal; así como la propuesta de Paulo Freire.

  10. Nanocomposite Membrane via Magnetite Nanoparticle Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2012-07-01

    Membrane technology is one of the most promising technologies for addressing the global water crisis as well as in many other applications. One of the drawbacks of current ultra- and nanofiltration membranes is the relatively broad pore size distribution. Block copolymer membranes with ultrahigh permeability and very regular pore sizes have been recently demonstrated with pores being formed by the supramolecular assembly of core/shell micelles. Our study aimed at developing an innovative and economically efficient alternative method to fabricate isoporous membrane by self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticle with a polystyrene shell, mimicking the behavior of block copolymer micelle. Fe3O4 nanoparticles of ~13 nm diameter were prepared by co-precipitation as cores. The initiator for ATRP was covalently bonded onto the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with two strategies. Then the surface initiated ATRP of styrene was carried out to functionalize nanoparticles with polystyrene through a “grafting from” method. Finally, the nanocomposite membrane was cast from 50 wt % Fe3O4@PS brush polymer solution in DMF via non solvent phase inversion. Microscopies reveal an asymmetric membrane with a dense thin layer on top of a porous sponge-like layer. This novel class of asymmetric membrane, based on the pure assembly of functionalized nanoparticles was prepared for the first time. The nanoparticles are well distributed however with no preferential order yet in the as-cast film.I would like to thank my committee chair and advisor, Prof. Suzana Nunes, and other committee members, Prof. Klaus-Viktor Peinemann and Prof. Gary Amy, for their guidance and support throughout the course of this research. My appreciation also goes to my colleagues in our group for useful discussions and suggestions. I also want to extend my gratitude to the staff from the KAUST Core Lab for Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization, especially Dr. Ali Reza Behzad, Dr. Rachid Sougrat, and

  11. Spiritual care may impact mental health and medication adherence in HIV+ populations

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    Oji VU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Valerie U Oji,1–3 Leslie C Hung,3 Reza Abbasgholizadeh,1,4 Flora Terrell Hamilton,5 E James Essien,6 Evaristus Nwulia7 1Lifefountain Center Ministries Inc, Houston, TX, USA; 2Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, USA; 4University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 5Administration, Family & Medical Counseling Service, Inc. (FMCS, Washington, DC, USA; 6University of Houston Institute for Community Health, Houston, TX, USA; 7Psychiatry, Howard University Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA Objective: To explore a potential role for spirituality in medication-related needs assessment for integrated care in chronically ill populations. Method: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the impact of faith beliefs on health and/or medication adherence in individuals with depression and/or HIV+/AIDS. Retrospective electronic medical record review of adult HIV+ patients of an urban primary care clinic with integrated mental health services was conducted, with Substance Abuse and Mental Illness Symptoms Screener (SAMISS, major depressive disorder (MDD incidence over the preceding year, and history of contact with a spiritual advisor. A convenience sample was interviewed to qualitatively assess potential medication therapy management needs and medication-related problems. Another sample was examined utilizing the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Results: The literature reports positive influence on health behaviors, coping and outcomes; and poor medication adherence and treatment decisions due to patient passivity or resistance. Spiritual advisor contact (not limited to a specific religion was significantly associated with MDD absence (1.7% vs. 15.3%, P<0.005 and inversely related to SAMISS, depression, and poor health behaviors. Patient interviews reflected significance of faith in terms of insight and acceptance of

  12. The Effect of Core Stabilization Exercise on the Kinematics and Joint Coordination of the Lumbar Spine and Hip During Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (COSCIOUS): Study Protocol for a Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Mohsenifar, Holakoo; Bagheri, Rasool; Taghipour, Morteza

    2017-06-01

    patients with CNLBP. In addition, the effects of CNLBP on STS and its reverse will be investigated in COSCIOUS. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT2016080812953N2; http://en.search.irct.ir/view/32003?format=xml (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6qjTWd4Az). ©Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Holakoo Mohsenifar, Rasool Bagheri, Morteza Taghipour. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 01.06.2017.

  13. The effect of laser repetition rate on the LASiS synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in aqueous starch solution

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    Zamiri R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri,1 Azmi Zakaria,1,* Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar,2 Majid Darroudi,3 Golnoosh Zamiri,1 Zahid Rizwan,1 Gregor PC Drummen4,* 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bio&Nano-Solutions, Düsseldorf, Germany*These authors contributed to this work equallyAbstract: Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver–starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a

  14. Gender Disparity in Kidney Transplantation

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    Naghibi Orode

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination in benefiting from medical treatment is a worldwide pro-blem. Kidney transplantation, as the ideal treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, is not an exception. Considering the unique kidney donation patterns and different family styles in the Middle East, studying this problem in Iran seemed justifiable and necessary. In addition to comparing the numbers of female and male recipients, which has been done in other similar studies, considering the critical effect of waiting time on the outcome, we assessed and compared the waiting times also. The data of age, gender, nationality, donor type and waiting time before transplantation of 1426 (61.85% male, 38.14% female recipients who underwent transplantation in Imam Reza Hospital in the northeast of Iran from 1990 to 2003, was analyzed. Recipients were categorised into three groups based on donation patterns: those receiving kidney from live unrelated, live related and cadaver donors. The number of patients in each group was 1057 (61.96% male, 38.03% female, 232 (67.24% male, 32.75% female and 137 (51.82% male, 48.17% female respectively. The mean overall waiting time was 708 days. Comparing waiting time of male and female recipients in each of these groups did not show significant difference. In all categories of donors, females were less likely than males to be recipients. Furthermore, waiting time for females was longer than males when receiving kidney from sisters and children. For spousal donations, males were recipients more frequently than females although female recipients in this group waited less than their male counterparts to receive the kidney. Generally, our results are in accordance with results of similar researches. In all three mentioned groups, males com-prised the majority while the waiting time does not show significant difference between genders. We suggest some reasons for this phenomenon, of which the two main ones are: fewer females

  15. Comparing Short Dental Implants to Standard Dental Implants: Protocol for a Systematic Review.

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    Rokn, Amir Reza; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Monzavi, Abbas; Hashemi, Kazem; Bitaraf, Tahereh

    2018-01-18

    ratio at 95% confidence interval (P<.05). The present protocol illustrates an appropriate method to perform the systematic review and ensures transparency for the completed review. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and social networks. In addition, an ethics approval is not considered necessary. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42016048363; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016048363 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wZ7Fntry). ©Amir Reza Rokn, Abbasali Keshtkar, Abbas Monzavi, Kazem Hashemi, Tahereh Bitaraf. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 18.01.2018.

  16. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in BALB/c mice

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    Salimi M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marzieh Salimi,1,2 Saeed Sarkar,1,2 Samaneh Fathi,3 Ali Mohammad Alizadeh,4 Reza Saber,2,3 Fatemeh Moradi,5 Hamid Delavari6 1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Research Center of Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 4Cancer Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Medical Physiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran Background: The possibility of using a specific nanoparticle in nanomedicine highly depends on its biodistribution profile and biocompatibility. Due to growing demand for iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs and dendrimers in biomedical applications, this study was performed to assess the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (G4@IONPs. Materials and methods: IONPs were synthesized via co-precipitation and coated with the fourth generation (G4 of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer. To determine the biodistribution, 5 mg/mL G4@IONPs suspension was intraperitoneally injected into tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, and iron levels in blood and various organs, including the lung, liver, brain, heart, tumor, and kidney, were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after injection. Also, to investigate the toxicity of G4@IONPs, different concentrations of G4@IONPs were injected into BALB/c mice, and blood, renal, and hepatic factors were measured. Furthermore, histopathological staining was performed to investigate the effect of G4@IONPs on the liver and kidney tissues. Results: The results showed that the iron content was higher in the kidney, liver, and lung tissues 24 h after

  17. Effects of dexmedetomidine on heart arrhythmia prevention in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: A randomized clinical trial.

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    Soltani, Ghasem; Jahanbakhsh, Saeed; Tashnizi, Mohammad Abbasi; Fathi, Mehdi; Amini, Shahram; Zirak, Nahid; Sheybani, Shima

    2017-10-01

    Arrhythmia occurring during and after surgery is one of the major complications in open-heart surgery. Dexmedetomidine is an intravenous alpha-2 agonist and very specific short-acting drug to protect the various organs against ischemic injuries and blood reflow. However, the effect of dexmedetomidine for preventing intraoperative heart arrhythmias has not been recognized. This study aimed to determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on the incidence rate of heart arrhythmias and anesthetic required in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for off-pump coronary artery bypass referring to Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran, from July 2016 through January 2017. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of intervention (infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h dexmedetomidine together with induction followed by infusion of 0.5 mcg/kg/h by the end of the surgery) or control (saline infusion). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before induction, during surgery operation and ICU admission. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 18 using Chi Square and independent-samples t-test. A total of 76 patients with a mean age of 59.8 ± 8.2 years (in two groups of 38) were studied. The two groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of background variables. The MAP and HR values before induction, during surgery and ICU admission were significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention group (p=0.001). Out of the studied arrhythmias, the values of PAC (55.2% vs. 15.7%), PVC (81.5% vs. 21.0%), AF (26.3% vs. 7.8%), VTAC (21.0% vs. 2.6%) were significantly lower in dexmedetomidine group (p=0.001). It seems that dexmedetomidine administration during induction and surgery can cause significant reduction in most of the common arrhythmias in off-pump coronary bypass surgery. The use of dexmedetomidine maintains MAP and HR at significantly lower values, and changes

  18. Efficacy of desmopressin in treatment of nocturia in elderly men

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    Bijan Rezakhaniha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nocturia may be due to urological and non-urological diseases and some of the possible underlying non-urological diseases may be life-threatening. We investigated the efficacy and safety of lowest dose of oral desmopressin in treatment of nocturia in elderly men. Methods: 60 old men referring to urology clinic of Imam Reza hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2008-2009 for treatment of nocturia were included in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 study groups (30 patients in each group. Care was taken to match the patients of the 2 groups by age and clinical criteria. They complained of about 2 voids per night. We divided the patients into 2 study groups. Patients belonging to group A (n = 30 received placebo and patients of group B (n = 30 received 0.1 mg desmopressin at bed time for 8 weeks. Patients were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. The means were compared using paired sample t-test and chi-square test for time of nocturia before and after treatments and also between the two groups. ANOVA test was used for assessement of statistical differences between outcomes of the two groups. Results: Mean number of nocturia before and after receiving desmopressin were 2.6 and 1.6 respectively which differed significantly (p < 0.001. Mean number of nocturia before and after receiving placebo were 2.5 and 2.3 respectively with no significant difference (p = 0.344. After 4 weeks of treatment with desmopressin, 17 patients (56.7% had less than 2 voids, 5 patients (16.7% had 2 voids and 8 (26.7% had more than 2 voids per night (p < 0.05. After 8 weeks, patients were evaluated and it was noticed that in group B, 4 patients (13.3% had 2 voids, 24 (80% had less than 2 voids and 2 patients (6.7% had more than 2 voids per night (p = 0.004. Conclusions: Oral administration of desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for nocturia in elderly men.

  19. The Relationship between Place of Residence and Hospitalization Rate in the Biggest Referral Hospital of the Northwest according to Hospitalization Wards

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    Amin Talebpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and objectives: In accordance with the global pattern, the urban population in Iran is higher than the rural population. But, are the statistics of using hospitalization services in public hospitals in these two categories similar to this pattern? This study seeks to determine the effect of place of residence on hospitalization rate by examining annual hospitalization statistics of the country’s biggest referral hospital in the northwest. Material and Methods: The method used in this study is cross-sectional and all cases of hospitalization in Imam Reza Hospital as the northwest’s biggest referral hospital were picked by available sampling method. The cases of 30260 hospitalized patients were examined through direct observation and items extracted from their files were recorded in the checklist. In order to determine the relations between the variables, K2 test was applied and the P-value was considered less than 0.05 The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS.16 software. Results: Results indicated that the frequency distribution of patients in terms of their urban or rural residence did not yield any significant difference (P>0/05. Results also showed that the highest hospitalization rate for urban patients was 16.1% (3305 individuals in surgery ward while it was 14.2% (1384 individuals for rural patients in orthopedic ward. The least significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in renal ward with 72.9% (1162 individual urban patients and 27.1% (432 individuals rural patients of total patients hospitalized in this ward. The most significant statistical difference between urban and rural hospitalization rates was observed in ICU with 44.9% (297 individuals urban patients and 55.1% (365 individuals rural patients of the total patients hospitalized in this ward. Conclusion: A relative comparison among illnesses in urban and rural populations, aside from illnesses caused by trauma

  20. Sex differences in stroke: a socioeconomic perspective

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    Delbari A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Delbari,1 Farzane Keyghobadi,2 Yadollah Abolfathi Momtaz,1,3 Fariba Keyghobadi,2 Reza Akbari,2 Houman Kamranian,2 Mohammad Shouride Yazdi,2 Sayed Shahaboddin Tabatabaei,1 Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad4 1Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Research Center on Healthy Aging, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Khorasan, Iran; 3Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing (MyAgeing™, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Neurobiology, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Care Sciences and Society (NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: A number of studies have explored the issue of sex differences in stroke from biomedical perspective; however, there are still large gaps in the existing knowledge. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differences in socioeconomic status and living conditions between men and women may explain the part of the sex differences in incidence and outcomes of stroke. Methods: All stroke participants aged ≥60 years admitted in Vaseie Hospital in Sabzevar, Iran, from March 21, 2013, until March 20, 2014, were included in this study. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to confirm stroke. A series of χ2 tests were performed and Statistical Program for Social Sciences, Version 21.0, was used to investigate the potential differences between older men and women in stroke incidence and outcomes. Results: A total of 159 incident stroke cases were documented during 1 year. The annual rate of stroke was statistically significantly higher in elderly women than in elderly men (401 vs 357 per 100,000; P<0.001. Female elderly participants had significantly lower socioeconomic status, poorer living conditions, and higher lifetime history of depression, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus than their male counterparts. Conclusion: The findings from this study

  1. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM questionnaire, Shiraz, Iran

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    Parvizi MM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Mahdi Parvizi,1,2 Mitra Amini,2 Mohammad Reza Dehghani,2 Peyman Jafari,3 Zahra Parvizi,1 1Health Policy Research Center, 2Quality Improvement in Clinical Education Research Center, 3Department of Biostatistics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Fars, Iran Purpose: Evaluation is the main component in design and implementation of educational activities and rapid growth of educational institution programs. Outpatient medical education and clinical training environment is one of the most important parts of training of medical residents. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Ambulatory Care Learning Educational Environment Measure (ACLEEM questionnaire, as an instrument for assessment of educational environments in residency medical clinics. Materials and methods: This study was performed on 180 residents in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2014–2015. The questionnaire designers’ electronic permission (by email and the residents’ verbal consent were obtained before distributing the questionnaires. The study data were gathered using ACLEEM questionnaire developed by Arnoldo Riquelme in 2013. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, version 14, and MedCalc® software. Then, the construct validity, including convergent and discriminant validities, of the Persian version of ACLEEM questionnaire was assessed. Its internal consistency was also checked by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results: Five team members who were experts in medical education were consulted to test the cultural adaptation, linguistic equivalency, and content validity of the Persian version of the questionnaire. Content validity indexes were >0.9 in all items. In factor analysis of the instrument, the ­Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin index was 0.928 and Barlett’s sphericity test yielded the following results: X 2=6,717.551, df =1,225, and P ≤0.001. Besides, Cronbach

  2. Factors Associated with Newly Diagnosed Children with Diabetic Ketoacidosis

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    Raheleh Mirsadraee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus type 1 is one of the most prevalent endocrine diseases in pediatrics. Diabetic ketoacidosis is considered as one of the most threatening clinical pictures of DM1, especially if occurred as the first presentation of DM1 in children. Objectives The current study aimed to identify factors which may play a role in DKA onset in children. Methods This case-control study included all patients under 18 years old who referred to department of pediatrics endocrinology at Mashhad University Hospital (Imam Reza from January 2013 to December 2015 as newly diagnosed patients with DM1. Patients who fulfilled DKA criteria at diagnosis were considered as DKA group and those who referred with other presentations were considered as control group (non-DKA group. Data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 16. Results During the study period, 97 (39.2% male newly diagnosed patients were included as DKA group. Accordingly 97 gender- and age-matched patients were added as non-DKA group. The most prevalent symptoms in both groups were polyuria (91.88% and polydipsia (88.66%. Fever and cold symptoms were significantly higher in the DKA group (P < 0.001 and P =0.005, respectively. Hemoglobin A1c level was significantly higher in the DKA group (P = 0.001, while body mass index was significantly lower in the DKA group (P = 0.045. Fever and father’s education level were the most important risk and protective factors in the DKA onset in newly diagnosed patients with DM1 (adjusted OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.9-35.3; P < 0.001 and adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3 - 0.9 and P = 0.019, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, a recent febrile illness was found as the strongest risk factor and father’s education level as the main protective factor in the DKA to diagnose children with DM1. The study findings suggested that DKA is a severe form of DM1 instead of a neglected or misdiagnosed disease.

  3. Interleukin-6 and airflow limitation in chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Davood Attaran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Davood Attaran1, Shahrzad M Lari1, Mohammad Towhidi1, Hassan Ghobadi Marallu2, Hossein Ayatollahi1, Mohammad Khajehdaluee1, Mostafa Ghanei3, Reza Basiri11Lung Disease and Tuberculosis Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Science, 2Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 3Research Center of Chemical Injuries, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranObjectives: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the main late complications of sulfur mustard poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL-6 in war veterans with pulmonary complications of sulfur mustard poisoning and their correlation with severity of airways disease.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and stable COPD, and of mean age 46.3 ± 9.18 years were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy men were selected as controls and matched to cases by age and body mass index. Spirometry, arterial blood gas, six-minute walk test, BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire about quality of life were evaluated. Serum IL-6 was measured in both patient and control groups.Results: Fifty-four percent of patients had moderate COPD. Mean serum IL-6 levels were 15.01 ± standard deviation (SD 0.61 pg/dL and 4.59 ± 3.40 pg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively (P = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage (r = 0.25, P = 0.04 and between IL-6 and BODE index (r = 0.38, P = 0.01. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, r = -0.36, P = 0.016.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serum IL-6 is increased in patients with sulfur mustard poisoning and COPD, and may have a direct association with airflow limitation.Keywords: sulfur mustard, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  4. The effectiveness of clinical teaching of mental health courses in nursing using clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model.

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    Maddineshat, Maryam; Hashemi, Mitra; Besharati, Reza; Gholami, Sepideh; Ghavidel, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Clinical experience associated with the fear and anxiety of nursing students in the psychiatric unit. Mental health nursing instructors find it challenging to teach nursing students to deal with patients with mental disorders in an environment where they need to provide patient teaching and clinical decision-making based on evidence and new technology. To measure the effectiveness of clinical teaching of mental health courses in nursing using clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation in the psychiatry unit of Imam Reza Hospital, Bojnurd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2016 on 76 nursing students from a university as part of a clinical mental health course in two semesters. The students were selected by a non-probable convenient sampling method. After completing their clinical education, each student responded to checklist questions based on the four-level Kirkpatrick's model evaluation and open questions relating to clinical supervision. Finally, all data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The students have evaluated clinical supervision as a useful approach, and appreciated the instructor's supportive behavior during teaching and imparting clinical skills. This has made them feel relaxed at the end of the clinical teaching course. In addition, in the evaluation through Kirkpatrick's model, more than 70% of the students have been satisfied with the method of conducting the teaching and average score of nursing students' attitude toward mental health students: Their mean self-confidence score was 18.33±1.69, and the mean score of their performance in the study was evaluated to be 93.74±5.3 from 100 points. The results of clinical mental health teaching through clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation show that the satisfaction, self-esteem, attitude, and skill of nursing students are excellent, thereby portraying the effectiveness of clinical teaching. But this program still needs to be reformed. To

  5. Prediction of the ischemic origin of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with systolic heart failure through posterior mitral leaflet angle

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    Fereshteh Ghaderi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differentiating ischemic from non-ischemic functional mitral regurgitation‎ (FMR in patients with cardiomyopathy is important in terms of the therapeutic decision-making and prognosis, but might be clinically challenging. In this study, the deformation of mitral valve (MV indices in the prediction of the etiology of FMR was assessed using 2D transthoracic and tissue Doppler echocardiography.METHODS: This case-control study was conducted from April 2015 to January 2016 in Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The participants consisted of 40 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM and 22 with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM who referred to the heart failure clinic. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed using the conventional 2D and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI. MV tenting area (TA, coaptation distance (CD, anterior and posterior mitral leaflet angles (AMLA and PMLA, and regional systolic myocardial velocity (Sm were measured.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in echocardiographic indices between the two groups, besides Sm and PMLA which were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in ICM subjects in comparison with DCM patients (P = 0.002. PMLA ≥ 40 degrees and Sm ≤ 4 cm/second have a relatively high value for discriminating the ischemic from non-ischemic origin of functional MR in subjects with systolic heart failure (sensitivity: 80.0% and 70.0%, specificity: 73.0% and 77.3%; P = 0.001 and P < 0.001; respectively. Multivariable logistic regression identified PMLA and anterior Sm as major determinants for ischemic MR {Odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 0.89 (0.82-0.96, P = 0.003, OR (95% CI = 0.29 (0.14-0.60, P = 0.001, respectively}.CONCLUSION: The present study showed that PMLA and Sm had an independent significant association with the mechanism of FMR. These findings are suggestive of the predictive role of mitral deformation echocardiographic indices in the determination of the

  6. II. Pehlevi Dönemi İran Dış Siyaseti Üzerine Bir Deneme Essay on the Foreign Policy of Iran in the era of the Pahlavi II

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    M. Serkan TAFLIOĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, Iran has been regarded as an vital key player in the Middle East, Iran had conducted to accumulate significant strategic value during the Cold War. Iran under Pahlavi Dynasty, due to the struggle among rival foreign forces, was transformed into a significant regional power in the twentieth century by his pro-westernpolicy in particular USA. In the 1950s superpower rivalry, restrictingthe ability of the great powers to use military force in the region, clearedfield for Nasser’s attempt to use Pan-Arab ideology to gather the Arabstates, though against Western intrusion. During this period, Shah hasendeavor to consolidate strenght of monarchy by exerting the powerstruggle in the Middle East between the West and East Blocks in hisfavor. The vital necessity for the West to Iran, in particular Americanadministration, caused to prepare ground a more authoritariangovernment in Iran. In this article, I do try to evaluate Iran’s foreignpolicy in a certain time period the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Ourgravity point will be politics of Iran between Great Powers in that period.In this context, Whilst analyzing this policy, I do try to merge; core offoreign policy and political history. Essay is assorted due to thechronology. Research period is accedence of Shah Mohammed RezaPahlavi to the throne till to the flee from Iran. 1970’li yılların başından itibaren İran, Soğuk Savaş döneminde stratejik bir değer kazanarak, Ortadoğu’da hayati bir oyuncu kabul edilmiştir. Yirminci yüzyılda Pehlevi hanedanı yönetimindeki İran, dış güçlerin arasındaki mücadele sayesinde Batı ve özellikle Amerikan yanlısı siyasetiyle, etkili bir bölgesel güce dönüşmüştür. 1950’li yılların başlarında Büyük Güçler arasındaki mücadele Ortadoğu’ya müdahale kabiliyetini sınırlandırmaktaydı, bu durum Nasır’ın Pan- Arap siyasetini kullanarak, Batı müdahalesine karşı, Arap devletlerini bir araya

  7. Prevention of clinically important deteriorations in COPD with umeclidinium/vilanterol

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    Singh D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dave Singh,1 M Reza Maleki-Yazdi,2 Lee Tombs,3 Ahmar Iqbal,4 William A Fahy,5 Ian Naya5 1Medicines Evaluation Unit, University of Manchester, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Women’s College Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Precise Approach LTD, London UK; 4Respiratory Medical Franchise, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 5Respiratory Medicines Development Centre, GSK, Stockley Park, Middlesex, UK Background: Minimizing the risk of disease progression and exacerbations is the key goal of COPD management, as these are well-established indicators of poor COPD prognosis. We developed a novel composite end point assessing three important aspects (lung function, health status, and exacerbations of worsening in COPD. The objective was to determine whether dual bronchodilation with umeclidinium/vilanterol (UMEC/VI reduces clinically important deteriorations (CIDs in COPD versus placebo or bronchodilator monotherapy.  Methods: This study is a post hoc analysis of two 24-week trials comparing UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg with UMEC 62.5 µg, VI 25 µg, or placebo (Study A; NCT01313650, or UMEC/VI 62.5/25 µg with tiotropium (TIO 18 µg (Study B; NCT01777334 in patients with symptomatic COPD, without a history of frequent exacerbations. Deterioration was assessed as the time to a first CID, a composite measure defined as a decrease of ≥100 mL in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second or ≥4-unit increase in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score or an on-treatment moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbation.  Results: In Study A, fewer patients experienced a first CID with UMEC/VI (44% versus UMEC (50%, VI (56%, and placebo (75%. The risk of a first CID was reduced with UMEC/VI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.37 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.30, 0.45], UMEC (HR: 0.46 [95% CI: 0.38, 0.56], and VI (HR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.66]; all P<0.001 versus placebo

  8. PREFACE: Statistical Physics of Complex Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, R.; Khajehpour, M. R. H.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Rouhani, S.

    2005-04-01

    meeting, covered some of the various areas in statistical physics currently active in Iran. About half of the participants came from countries other than Iran, with a relatively broad geographic distribution. The meeting benefited greatly from the excellent administrative assistance of the conference secretary Ms Ashraf Moosavi and the IASBS staff. We are grateful to Professor Yousef Sobouti, the Director of IASBS, and Professor Reza Mansouri, the Head of the Physical Society of Iran, for their support. We also thank the organizers of STATPHYS22, Professor Rahul Pandit and his colleagues, for their suggestions and support. The conference was supported by donations from the Center for International Research and Collaboration (ISMO) and the Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education (IRPHE) of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, the Islamic Development Bank, the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the Tehran Cluster Office of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Research and Development Directorate of the National Iranian Oil Company, the Physical Society of Iran, the Iranian Meteorological Organization, and the Zanjan City Water and Waste Water Company. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to Institute of Physics Publishing, and in particular to Professor Alexei Kornyshev and Dr Richard Palmer for suggesting publishing the proceedings of the meeting and carrying through the editorial processes with the utmost efficiency. Participants

  9. Cost-utility analysis of immune tolerance induction therapy versus on-demand treatment with recombinant factor VII for hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors in Iran

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    Rasekh HR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Rasekh1, Ali Imani1, Mehran Karimi2, Mina Golestani11Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Management and Pharmacoeconomics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran, 2University of Shiraz Medical Sciences, Hematology Research Center, Shiraz, IranBackground: In developing countries, the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors is presently the most challenging and serious issue in hemophilia management, direct costs of clotting factor concentrates accounting for >98% of the highest economic burden absorbed for the health care of patients in this setting. In the setting of chronic diseases, cost-utility analysis, which takes into account the beneficial effects of a given treatment/health care intervention in terms of health-related quality of life, is likely to be the most appropriate approach.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of immune tolerance induction (ITI therapy with plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates versus on-demand treatment with recombinant-activated FVIIa (rFVIIa in hemophilia A with high titer inhibitors from an Iranian Ministry of Health perspective.Methods: This study was based on the study of Knight et al, which evaluated the cost-effectiveness ratios of different treatments for hemophilia A with high-responding inhibitors. To adapt Knight et al's results to the Iranian context, a few clinical parameters were varied, and cost data were replaced with the corresponding Iranian estimates of resource use. The time horizon of the analysis was 10 years. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed, varying the cost of the clotting factor, the drug dose, and the administration frequency, to test the robustness of the analysis.Results: Comparison of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between the three ITI protocols and the on-demand regimen with rFVIIa shows that all three ITI protocols dominate the on-demand regimen with r

  10. Contabilidade ambiental: um estudo sobre sua aplicabilidade em empresas Brasileiras

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    Adalto de Oliveira Santos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A globalização da economia e a conscientização da sociedade estão forçando, atualmente, as empresas a adotarem uma postura responsável perante o meio ambiente, isto é, produzir sem agressão à natu-reza.Para isto elas estão implantando um Sistema de Gestão Ambiental de acordo com as normas da série ISO 14000. Fazer este gerenciamento exige a aplicação de um considerável montante de recursos financeiros, devendo-se ter constante preocupação em controlá-los. En-tende-se que a contabilidade é uma das ferramentas mais eficientes e eficazes para este processo. Observa-se, no entanto, que poucas empresas, no Brasil, utilizam a contabilidade na sua gestão ambiental. Portanto, o principal objetivo da realização deste estudo é verificar qual o grau de desenvolvimento da Contabilidade Ambiental nas empresas brasileiras. Após uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, foi elaborada uma pesquisa de campo que consistiu no envio de um questionário aos departamentos de contabilidade de indústrias potencialmente poluidoras. O universo compreendeu as empresas listadas no guia "As 500 maiores empresas do Brasil", edição 2000, da revista Exame; e a amostra foi de 50 empresas cujo faturamento, em 2000, ultrapassou US$ 50 bilhões.The globalization of the economy and the awareness of the society are forcing, currently, the companies to adopt a responsible position before the environment, that is, to produce without aggression the nature. For this they are implanting a System of Environmental Management in accordance with the norms of series ISO 14000. To make this management demands the application of a considerable sum of financial features, having itself to have constant preoccupation in controlling them. One understands that the accounting is one of the efficient tools most for this process. It is observed, however, that few companies, in Brazil, use the accounting in its environmental management. Therefore, the main objective of the

  11. Infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae is not related to asthma control, asthma severity, and location of airway obstruction

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    Khalil Ansarin,Siavoush Abedi,Reza Ghotaslou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Khalil Ansarin1, Siavoush Abedi1, Reza Ghotaslou1, Mohammad Hossein Soroush1, Kamyar Ghabili1, Kenneth R Chapman21Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Asthma and Airway Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that reportedly has a strong relationship to asthma. However, asthma severity and location of airway obstruction have not been compared between asthmatic patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection.Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the relationship between previous M. pneumoniae infections in asthmatic patients and presence of any predilection for the involvement of central or peripheral airways, the severity of the disease, and asthma control.Methods: Sixty-two patients with asthma were assessed by a validated asthma control test (ACT. All patients underwent spirometry and lung volume studies by body plethysmography. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, total lung capacity (TLC, residual volume (RV, and functional residual capacity (FRC were measured. An oropharyngeal swab was obtained for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect the mycoplasma antigen. Moreover, blood samples were obtained to measure the titration of antimycoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM and IgG antibodies. The asthmatic patients with a positive IgG for mycoplasma and negative PCR and negative IgM antibody were considered to have remote history of mycoplasma infection. The relationship between the asthma control using ACT score and pulmonary function variables were compared in patients with and without evidence for remote mycoplasma infection.Results: The incidence of postnasal drip was higher among the patients with asthma who had no evidence for remote mycoplasma infection (61.3% vs 32%, P = 0.035. The median ACT score was 16.5 (11–22 and

  12. LA MEDICINA EN LA LITERATURA ESPAÑOLA DEL SIGLO DE ORO

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    Agustín Albarracín

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    (Conferencia en un prólogo, tres actos y un epílogo.

    PROLOGO

    El título de la conferencia que se me ha asignado, reza así: La medicina en la literatura española del Siglo de Oro. Ambicioso y desmesurado proyecto, que desde este instante debo limitar, justificando ante vosotros mi decisión de restringirlo intencionadamente a la figura y obra teatral de Lope de Vega. Y lo hago así, por múltiples razones. En primer término, porque la copia de autores y géneros literarios que el Seiscientos abarca, precisaría para su consideración un tiempo y un espacio que exceden con mucho mis posibilidades. De otra, y sobre todo, porque pienso que Lope de Vega constituye el sumo paradigma de lo que aquella literatura representa: la expresión verbal y escrita del alma popular , el venero donde calmar la sed intensa de acción propia de aquel pueblo y la gubia y el escoplo capaces de plasmar en fábula dramática sus sentimientos e ideas, su visión del mundo y de la vida, dándoles sentido nacional al identificarse con ellas. Ha escrito muy finamente Ruiz Ramón que lo decisivo del triunfo de Lope como dramaturgo, "estriba en su concepto del teatro, al que va indisolublemente adscrita su visión - ¡,Pura intuición? - de la finalidad del teatro como arte para el pueblo. Lope tuvo que darse cuenta de que el público era el pueblo o, invirtiendo el orden de las palabras, de que el pueblo era el único público auténtico.

    Nobles y villanos, hombres y mujeres, cultos e incultos coincidían en sentir y en pensar la vida como española. Ese modo o estilo de vivir y desvivir la existencia empieza Lope por captarlo en sí mismo, en su propia sensibilidad. Lope de Vega, en el centro mismo del vivir de su tiempo, testigo de excepción de los afanes -voliciones y 'noliciones' - de su época, y, actos, también de excepción, de unos ideales y unas creencias, se convierte en intérprete de la colectividad por el simple

  13. Changes in blood biochemical markers before, during, and after a 2-day ultramarathon

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    Arakawa K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kazuyuki Arakawa,1,2 Akihiro Hosono,2 Kiyoshi Shibata,3 Reza Ghadimi,4 Mizuho Fuku,5 Chiho Goto,6 Nahomi Imaeda,7 Yuko Tokudome,8 Hideki Hoshino,9 Mitsuhiro Marumoto,1,2 Masaaki Kobayashi,10 Sadao Suzuki,2 Shinkan Tokudome1,2,11 1Department of Health and Nutrition Policy, 2Department of Public Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Aichi Gakusen University, Okazaki, Japan; 4Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yokohama Stroke and Brain Center, Yokohama, Japan; 6Department of Health and Nutrition, Nagoya Bunri University, Inazawa, Japan; 7Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nagoya Women’s University, Nagoya, Japan; 8Department of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, Nisshin, Japan; 9Department of Early Childhood Studies, Aichi Bunkyo Women’s College, Inazawa, Japan; 10Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 11National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: We studied changes in blood markers of 18 nonprofessional, middle-aged runners of a 2-day, 130 km ultramarathon. Blood was sampled at baseline, after the goals on the first and second day, and at three time points (1, 3, and 5/6 days after the race. Blood indices showed three patterns. First pattern indices showed essentially no changes after the two goals and after the race, including red blood cell indices, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Second pattern markers, including the majority of indices, were elevated during the race (and also after the race for some parameters and then returned to baseline afterward, including hemolysis/red blood cell destruction markers (indirect bilirubin and an iron reservoir index (ferritin, muscle

  14. Greetings from the Editor

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    Mohammad Hosein Ebrahimzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is my great honor announcing the promotion of the Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery (ABJS to the level of being available on the PubMed Central site. Being precise, one year ago in September 2013, we published the first issue of the ABJS. Diligently thereafter, we published four subsequent issues with the fifth being in front of you. We set this as our first goal to reach visibility on PubMed striving to raise the quality. We greatly hope that the orthopedics science may be exalted by this voluntary contribution. Hereby, I would like to specially thank to Sarah Post Calhoun and Wayne Jack Logue, from NLM/PMC, for their continuous support, giving direction, and cooperation. I am grateful to my colleagues, Dr Amir Reza Kachooei; the Managing Editor, Dr Ali Moradi; the Editorial Manager and Saeideh Erfani; the Administrative Staff  for their endeavor and being compassionate in this path. I also would like to thank Dr Farshid Bagheri, Dr Ali Birjandinejad, Dr Farzad Omidi-Kashani and Dr Mohsen Mardani-Kivi;  the Deputy Editors  whose continuous efforts from early 2013 has brought the journal to appreciation of scientific excellence.  My sincere thanks to all Editorial Board members and reviewers, who have contributed towards the excellence of the journal by putting efforts and expending their valuable time to evaluate the submitted manuscripts. I send my special thanks to Iranian Knee Surgery Arthroscopy & Sports Traumatology (ISKAST, Iranian Orthopedic Association (IOA, Iranian Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and Deputy of Research at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for their supports. I would like to thank the prime industry sponsers, Osveh Asia Medical Instrument Co. and Tehran Sutures Co. (Zimmer Distributer in Iran, for their financial support. Again I would like to appreciate all contributing authors particularly my outstanding colleagues who wrote an Editorial for us, Prof. Jupiter from Harvard University, Boston, MA

  15. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: a case-control study

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    Sadeghi-Bazargani H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,1,2 Leili Abedi,3 Minoo Mahini,4 Shahrokh Amiri,5 Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh6 1Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Safe Community Promotion, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Counseling, Aras International Campus, University of Tehran, Jolfa, 5Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 6Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: The aim of this study was to assess the association of motorcycle traffic injuries with motorcycle riding behavior and subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD while controlling for individual correlates of motorcycle traffic injuries.Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 298 patients with motorcycle trauma along with 151 control patients admitted to the Shohada and Imam Reza university hospitals as the two referral specialty centers in the East Azarbyjan Province of Iran in 2013. The Persian version of the Motorcycle Riding Behavior Questionnaire and the Persian version of Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales (the self-report short version were used to assess riding behavior and screen for adult ADHD, respectively. The scale has four subscales, comprising subscale A (inattention, subscale B (hyperactivity, impulsivity, subscale C (A + C, and subscale D (ADHD index. The statistical analysis was done using Stata version 11.Results: All subjects were male and aged 13–79 years. Approximately 54% of the participants were married and 13% had academic education. Approximately 18% of the motorcycle riders stated that their motorcycle riding was only for fun purposes. More than two thirds of the participants did not

  16. Effect of Persian Medicine Remedy on Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Breast Cancer: A Double Blind, Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Mohammad; Taghizadeh, Ali; Bazzaz, Mojtaba Mousavi; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Shokri, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a side effect, and has negative effect on quality of life and continuation of chemotherapy. Despite new regimen and drugs, the problems still remain and standard guidelines, effective treatment and supportive care for refractory CINV are still not yet established. Persian medicine, the old Iranian medical school, offer Persumac (prepared from Rhus Coriaria and Bunium Persicum Boiss). Objective The specific objectives were to assess the effect of Persumac on the number and severity of nausea and vomiting in refractory CINV in acute and delayed phase. Methods This randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial study was carried out on 93 patients with breast cancer and refractory CINV, who received outpatient high emetogenic chemotherapy in Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran from October 2015 to May 2016. The study has three stages: in stage I patients received a questionaire and completed it after chemotherapy. In stage II they were randomly divided into intervention group with Persumac and control group with placebo (lactose were used). In stage III, wash out and crossover was conducted. Both groups in all stages received standard antiemetic therapy for CINV. The following were set as the inclusion criteria of the study: female, Age ≥18 years, clinical diagnosis of breast cancer, history of refractory CINV, normal blood tests and at least three courses of chemotherapy remaining. Exclusion criteria of this study were: Total or upper abdominal radiation therapy along with chemotherapy, drugs/therapy for nausea and vomiting not prescribed in this study, hypersensitivity to Sumac or Bunium Persicum, use of sumac and Bunium Persicum in seven days prior to the intervention, clinical diagnosis of digestion disorders, non-chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, milk allergy, loss of two consecutive or three intermittent doses of Persumac or placebo. Outcomes were gathered by Persian questionnaire. Number

  17. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoshdel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali Reza Khoshdel1,2, Shane Carney2, Alastair Gillies21Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2John Hunter Hospital, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NS W, AustraliaAbstract: Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years. Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK], in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05, the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1. Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mm

  18. 2015 Brainhack Proceedings

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    R. Cameron Craddock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents I1 Introduction to the 2015 Brainhack Proceedings R. Cameron Craddock, Pierre Bellec, Daniel S. Margules, B. Nolan Nichols, Jörg P. Pfannmöller A1 Distributed collaboration: the case for the enhancement of Brainspell’s interface AmanPreet Badhwar, David Kennedy, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Roberto Toro A2 Advancing open science through NiData Ben Cipollini, Ariel Rokem A3 Integrating the Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS standard into C-PAC Daniel Clark, Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski, R. Cameron Craddock A4 Optimized implementations of voxel-wise degree centrality and local functional connectivity density mapping in AFNI R. Cameron Craddock, Daniel J. Clark A5 LORIS: DICOM anonymizer Samir Das, Cécile Madjar, Ayan Sengupta, Zia Mohades A6 Automatic extraction of academic collaborations in neuroimaging Sebastien Dery A7 NiftyView: a zero-footprint web application for viewing DICOM and NIfTI files Weiran Deng A8 Human Connectome Project Minimal Preprocessing Pipelines to Nipype Eric Earl, Damion V. Demeter, Kate Mills, Glad Mihai, Luka Ruzic, Nick Ketz, Andrew Reineberg, Marianne C. Reddan, Anne-Lise Goddings, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Krzysztof J. Gorgolewski A9 Generating music with resting-state fMRI data Caroline Froehlich, Gil Dekel, Daniel S. Margulies, R. Cameron Craddock A10 Highly comparable time-series analysis in Nitime Ben D. Fulcher A11 Nipype interfaces in CBRAIN Tristan Glatard, Samir Das, Reza Adalat, Natacha Beck, Rémi Bernard, Najmeh Khalili-Mahani, Pierre Rioux, Marc-Étienne Rousseau, Alan C. Evans A12 DueCredit: automated collection of citations for software, methods, and data Yaroslav O. Halchenko, Matteo Visconti di Oleggio Castello A13 Open source low-cost device to register dog’s heart rate and tail movement Raúl Hernández-Pérez, Edgar A. Morales, Laura V. Cuaya A14 Calculating the Laterality Index Using FSL for Stroke Neuroimaging Data Kaori L. Ito, Sook-Lei Liew A15 Wrapping FreeSurfer 6 for use in

  19. Prevalence of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection in Patients with COPD Exacerbation; a Letter to the Editor

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    Ali Reza Amiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor;Currently, control and prevention of respiratory illnesses is considered a health priority in most developed countries and managing the risk factors is necessary for improving the population’s health. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the 5th cause of death around the world and estimations have indicated that due to an increase in environmental pollution, this disease will become the 3rd cause of death in the future.In previous studies, pulmonary infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae has been introduced as one of the causes for COPD exacerbation. Mycoplasma pneumoniae affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and its clinical manifestation is trachea-bronchitis accompanied by restlessness and dry coughs. The pathogenesis spectrum of this bacterium ranges from mild pharyngitis and trachea-bronchitis to acute pneumonia. Epidemiologic studies have shown that this bacterium is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonias.In a cross-sectional study by the authors of the present letter, 66 patients over the age of 18 years who had presented to the emergency department of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with diagnosis of COPD exacerbation were evaluated. Sputum sample of the patients was obtained and sent to the laboratory for performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Mean age of the patients participating in this study was 67.28 ± 13.68 years (60.6% male. The result of PCR was positive in 6 patients out of the total of 66 patients (9.1%. The results of the present study showed that there was no correlation between age (p=0.18, sex (p=0.25, duration of being affected with COPD (p=0.20, consumption of antibiotics (p=0.35, smoking (p=0.62, opioid abuse (p=0.44, corticosteroid use (p=0.57, underlying illness (p=0.94 and health care—associated pneumonia (HCAP (p=0.46 with mycoplasma infection. However, prevalence of leukocytosis (p=0.01 and myalgia (p=0.02 was significantly higher in the mycoplasma

  20. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

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    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  1. The Role of the Clerics and the Religious Forces in the Iranian Movement of Nationalization of Oil Industry

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    Zohreh Salehi Siavoshani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available De 1941 a 1953, a la luz del nuevo clima que se respiraba en el país, el gobierno, la asamblea nacional, las embajadas extranjeras y los militares, el clero y las fuerzas religiosas formaron los nuevos círculos de influencia que podrían jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo socio-político del país.El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar las acciones, las actitudes y el desarrollo interno de los principales grupos religiosos e islámicos de este período, así como su interacción y su impacto en el movimiento de nacionalización de la industria del petróleo. ¿En qué medida las perspectivas y los métodos de estos grupos estaban en consonancia con las demás son alguna de las cuestiones que el autor trata de responder sin tomar parte en cualquiera de ellos, y contra todos las limitaciones impuestas en este trabajo. Desafortunadamente, la mayoría de recursos referidos a este tema representa una imagen tridimensional de las actividades de los grupos religiosos y de los clérigos. Sin duda, todos los grupos mencionados anteriormente no fueron de la misma índole, y debido a los puntos de vista heterogéneos y a las tácticas y pactos que entre ellos acordaron hicieron que su perduraran poco tiempo.Palabras clave: Religión, Irán, petróleo, industria, reglas. ______________________________Abstract:From  1941 to 1953, in the light of new atmosphere in post-Reza Shah rule, further to the court, government, the national assembly, foreign embassies and the military men, the clergy and the religious forces were one of the new but influential circles of power playing important role  in the socio political developments and events of the country. The present article seeks to review the actions, attitudes and the inner development of the main religious and Islamic groups of this period, their interaction and their impact on the movement of nationalization of oil industry. To what  extent the outlook and methods of these groups were

  2. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

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    F. Khajeh pour

    Full Text Available Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:aDirect characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.bIndirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations, stream of consciousness, deeds

  3. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

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    Fariedeh Khajehpour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of characterization is also appeared in different conversations

  4. Character and Characterization in “Palms and Men” novel

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    Zoalfagar Alami

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Nowadays one of the most significant elements in story writing is character and characterization. Character in a narrative or a play, is a person that his mental and moral qualities reflect in his deeds and what he says and does. Creating such characters in a story or a novel that seem to be like real people to the reader is called characterization (Mir Sadeghi, 1382: p 85. In this article character and characterization in one of the novels about the eight year war between Iran and Iraq, calling “Palms and Men”, is investigated. Character types, methods of characterization, character appearance, prototype, the relation of character with other elements, and characterization defects are some of the subjects studied in this article.  Character types: these characters are generally categorized in two groups of stereotype and type. Samir, Touraj, Reza, Hamid etc. all belong to Sepah forces category which are type characters. Some women characters such as Zeinab, Samir’s mother, Kolsoum, Hanieh’s mother etc. are stereotype characters.   Methods of characterization in “Palms and Men” novel:   The description of characters is done in two methods by Mr. Nematollah Soleimani:   a Direct characterization: If not all the characters, most of them are certainly characterized in this way. For example in expressing Hamid’s characteristic who is the commander of the mission, he writes, “Hamid didn’t bat an eyelid in any incidents. Hamid was lion-hearted”. (Soleimani, 1380: 128. In describing uncle Heidar, he writes, “wisdom and insight, and the effects of years of suffering, difficulty, and experiencing could be clearly seen in his limpid eyes. The rural man was indeed a wise and experienced man” (the same: 264_265.   b Indirect Characterization: Although in novels and long stories, direct characterization method is often used, in “Palms and Men” this kind of

  5. 16th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    , JAPAN Reza Ghodssi - University of Maryland Einar Halvorsen - Grenoble Alpes Université, FRANCE Hiroki Kuwano-Tohoku University, JAPAN Jeff Lang - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Carol Livermore - Northeastern University, USA Ryutaro Maeda - National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, JAPAN Kazusuke Maenaka - University of Hyogo, JAPAN Paul Mitcheson - Imperial College London, UK Yuji Suzuki - University of Tokyo, JAPAN Shuji Tanaka -Tohoku University, JAPAN Luis Velásquez-García - Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Peter Woias - University Freiburg-IMTEK, GERMANY Eric Yeatman - Imperial College London, UK Technical Program Committee Mahmoud Almasri, University of Missouri, USA David Arnold, University of Florida, USA Mustafa Beyaz, Antalya International University, TURKEY Danick Briand, EPFL, SWITZERLAND Stephen Burrow, Univesrity of Bristol, UK Francesco Cottone, University of Perugia, ITALY Alper Erturk, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA Luis Fonseca, IMB-CNM (CSIC)Micro-Nanosytems, SPAIN Takayuki Fujita, University of Hyogo, JAPAN Dimitri Galayko, UPMC-Sorbonne, FRANCE Tzeno Galchev, Analog Devices Inc., USA Gideon Gouws, Victoria University of Wellington, NEW ZEALAND Andrew Holmes, Imperial College London, UK Yoshihiro Kawahara, The University of Tokyo, JAPAN Sang-Woo Kim, Sungkyunkwan University, SOUTH KOREA Jeffrey Lang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Janet Ledesma-García, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, MEXICO Carol Livermore, Northeastern University, USA Yiannos Manoli, University of Freiburg, GERMANY Jianmin Miao, Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE Paul Mitcheson, Imperial College London, UK Koji Miyazaki, Kyushu Institute of Technology, JAPAN Jaeyeong Park, Kwangwoon University, KOREA Michael Renaud, Holst Centre-lmec NL, NETHERLANDS Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, USA Shad Roundy, University of Utah, USA Tomonori Seki, OMRON Corporation, JAPAN Yuji Suzuki, The

  6. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Alberto García-Rigo (1), David Roma-Dollase (2), Manuel Hernández-Pajares (1), Zishen Li (3), Michael Terkildsen (4), German Olivares (4), Reza Ghoddousi-Fard (5), Denise Dettmering (6), Eren Erdogan (6), Haris Haralambous (7), Yannick Béniguel (8), Jens Berdermann (9), Martin Kriegel (9), Anna Krypiak-Gregorczyk (10), Tamara Gulyaeva (11), Attila Komjathy (12), Panagiotis Vergados (12), Joachim Feltens (13,19), René Zandbergen (13), Tim Fuller-Rowell (14), David Altadill (15), Nicolas Bergeot (16), Andrzej Krankowski (17), Loukis Agrotis (18), Ivan Galkin (20), Raul Orus-Perez (21) 1. UPC-IonSAT research group, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain 2. Department of Engineering: Electronics, University of Barcelona (UB), Spain 3. Academy of Opto-Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 4. Bureau of Meteorology, Space Weather Services, Australia 5. Canadian Geodetic Survey, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) / Government of Canada, Canada 6. Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstitut der Technischen Universität München (DGFI-TUM), Germany 7. Frederick University Cyprus, Cyprus 8. IEEA, France 9. Institute of Communications and Navigation, DLR, Germany 10. Institute of Geodesy, UWM, Poland 11. Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia 12. NASA - Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, USA 13. Navigation Support Office, ESA-ESOC, Germany 14. NOAA affiliate, USA 15. Observatori de l'Ebre (OE), CSIC - Universitat Ramon Llull, 43520 Roquetes, Spain 16. Planetology and Reference Systems, Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB), Belgium 17. Space Radio-Diagnostics Research Centre, UWM (SRRC/UWM), Poland 18. SYMBAN Limited, ESA-ESOC, Germany 19. Telespazio VEGA Deutschland GmbH c/o ESA-ESOC, Germany 20. University of Massachusetts Lowell, Space Science Lab, USA 21. Wave Interaction and Propagation Section (TEC-EEP), ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands IAG's Real Time

  7. Tuberculose em indígenas da Amazônia brasileira: estudo epidemiológico na região do Alto Rio Negro Tuberculosis in indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon: an epidemiological study in the Upper Rio Negro region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patrícia Giraldo Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e clínico-epidemiológicas dos casos de tuberculose notificados na população indígena do Município de São Gabriel de Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e identificar fatores associados ao óbito durante o tratamento; e estimar a prevalência de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB e fatores associados e obter informações sobre o itinerário terapêutico e a percepção acerca do adoecimento dos indígenas do Distrito de Iauaretê. MÉTODOS: Primeiramente, realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo (1997 a 2007 com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Posteriormente, realizou-se um estudo transversal (2010 em sintomáticos respiratórios e contatos no Distrito Indígena de Iauaretê. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 723 casos novos, com incidência de 273,4/100 000 e mortalidade de 13,2/100 000. Houve predomínio em homens (57%, idade > 45 anos (37,6%, pessoas sem escolaridade (42,7% e na área rural (76,9%. Doentes de 0 a 20 anos apresentaram menor chance de óbito quando comparados à idade > 45 anos (OR = 0,3; IC95%: 0,1 a 0,9. Em Iauaretê, que concentrou 15,3% das notificações, foram entrevistados 184 indígenas. Revelou-se prevalência de ILTB de 76,1%. Prova tuberculínica > 5 mm associou-se com idade > 15 anos, história de tuberculose ativa e alterações radiológicas. Tuberculose anterior foi citada por 54 indígenas (29,3%. A principal explicação para o adoecimento foi sopro/envenenamento (24,1%. O itinerário terapêutico incluiu medicamentos industrializados (42,6%, plantas medicinais/raízes, pajelança/xamanismo e reza (42,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção tuberculosa e doença ativa nessa população foi elevada. As estratégias de controle tiveram resultados positivos, com redução na incidência em tempos recentes. Entretanto, para controlar a tuberculose é necessário intensificar a vigilância dos

  8. Reflections on the Evolution of the Debate: From Drakht-i Asurig to Nima Poems

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    Narges Mohammadi badr

    2016-06-01

    up. In this type of debate each side tries to show his merits to another. At the end of the debate none of the parties are able to defeat each other, so both sides go to the judge and referee ruled that both of them have benefits and peace is better for them.  Most of royal poets and writers have taken advantage of this way to entertain the King and Prince. That's why in many of these debates, the king or minister is the judge of debate which is written for him. Also In contemporary literature many examples of debates are detectable as a means to promote education and moral ideas. Among them, Bahar and Parvin can be noted as able poets in this field. Bahar's Specific initiatives in finding the examples of the debate, demonstrates his power, talent and ability in this way. Parvin's attention is directed to methods of Bahar- like other forms of her poetry. His beautiful and informative debates from language of objects, birds and elements of nature, are so strong that most parts of them are used in her Masnavis. Following the old pattern of debate continued by poets in modern poetry. Mohammad Reza Shafiee Kadkani is one of those poets who has pictured inside and outside of the society of Iranian by debate genre.    As a founder of the new era in modern Persian poetry, Nima has paid attention to this method in poems such as the Morgh-e -Amen and Rang-parideh. Debate has also considered in prose. A large part of our prose debates has been made with regard to social conditions. Obviously the social conditions of dialogue are directly linked with the political system. Saadi's conflict with the pretender represents the pinnacle of the intellectual system. Among Persian debates which are written in prose, parts of the book Hamidi's Maghamat or debate of "SHatranj va Nard[2]" by Sarrafe Khwarizmi, which are written in musical prose can be pointed. The debate in "Anasur[3]" from Khand mir that was written in simple prose and easy is another example. Debates in either poetry

  9. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

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    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-08-01

    attention to form and couldn't study dual relation of historical situation and language function as well, the name of Historical stylistics in a traditional way vs. modern historical stylistics is chosen for them.  Other surveys on Persian poems can be categorized in formalist stylistics branch Mohammad Reza Shafi'ee Kadkani introduced formalist stylistics to Persian researchers in practice by presenting formalists' definition of style and studying Bidel style in mentioned way. One can criticize formalist stylistics because it stops on text surface and does not pay attention to situational context.  Historical subjectivity dominance, absence of theoretical support, loss of linguistics knowledge in stylistic surveys, lack of coherence between text and its situational context, disregarding stylistics features' role in deeper and better understanding of text and dispersion and fragmentation of researches are some weak points of Persian stylistics. To exit such situation, it is necessary to recall functionality of stylistics knowledge to researchers. Stylistics knowledge does not only pay attention to lingual description but in this knowledge analysis of formalistic features and lingual structure is a tool for understanding text meaning, identifying poets and authors' individuality and finally recognizing stylistic features of genres and periods.  It is necessary to study styles' genres using different approaches as functional, critical, cognitive, historical and feminist. Our first priority is studying styles' genres because it results not only to recognizing stylistics features of genres but also to know individual styles and finally to provide needed information for studying styles of periods.  Using the results of genre stylistics and paying attention to historical approach, one can recognize periods’ style in practice. Considering stylish intergeneric features, one can determine dominant genre of each period and finally can understand connection of stylish features

  10. Categorization and Pathology of Persian Stylistic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dorpar

    2014-07-01

    functionality they have only paid attention to form and couldn't study dual relation of historical situation and language function as well, the name of Historical stylistics in a traditional way vs. modern historical stylistics is chosen for them.  Other surveys on Persian poems can be categorized in formalist stylistics branch Mohammad Reza Shafi'ee Kadkani introduced formalist stylistics to Persian researchers in practice by presenting formalists' definition of style and studying Bidel style in mentioned way. One can criticize formalist stylistics because it stops on text surface and does not pay attention to situational context.  Historical subjectivity dominance, absence of theoretical support, loss of linguistics knowledge in stylistic surveys, lack of coherence between text and its situational context, disregarding stylistics features' role in deeper and better understanding of text and dispersion and fragmentation of researches are some weak points of Persian stylistics. To exit such situation, it is necessary to recall functionality of stylistics knowledge to researchers. Stylistics knowledge does not only pay attention to lingual description but in this knowledge analysis of formalistic features and lingual structure is a tool for understanding text meaning, identifying poets and authors' individuality and finally recognizing stylistic features of genres and periods.  It is necessary to study styles' genres using different approaches as functional, critical, cognitive, historical and feminist. Our first priority is studying styles' genres because it results not only to recognizing stylistics features of genres but also to know individual styles and finally to provide needed information for studying styles of periods.  Using the results of genre stylistics and paying attention to historical approach, one can recognize periods’ style in practice. Considering stylish intergeneric features, one can determine dominant genre of each

  11. The 13th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve

    2013-12-01

    our conference. The social program is an important aspect of any conference and the PowerMEMS 2013 banquet will be held in the Science Museum. This provides a fantastic opportunity to network whilst viewing some of the fundamental engineering innovations that have ultimately bought us all here today. There is a long list of individuals we would like to thank for their support in organising PowerMEMS 2013. Once again the TPC, chaired by Eric Yeatman and Douglas Paul, have given us their valuable time and effort in reviewing abstracts. The PowerMEMS School chairs Einar Halvorsen and Shad Roundy and the expert speakers made the School possible. The local organising committee, led by Alwyn Elliott, have provided us with invaluable assistance in making PowerMEMS 2013 happen. The financial support from Imperial College London, the University of Southampton and conference sponsors has also been gratefully appreciated. Finally, we would like to thank you all for attending and helping in making PowerMEMS 2013 a success. We wish you a productive and enjoyable conference and a wonderful stay in London. Paul Mitcheson and Steve Beeby CONFERENCE OFFICIALS Conference Co-Chairs Stephen Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Paul Mitcheson, Imperial College London, UK Technical Program Committee Co-Chairs Douglas Paul, University of Glasgow, UK Eric Yeatman, Imperial College London, UK PowerMEMS School Co Chairs Einar Halvorsen, Vestfold University College, Norway Shad Roundy, University of Utah, USA Local Organising Committee Chair Alwyn Elliott, Imperial College London, UK International Steering Committee Mark Allen, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA Steve Beeby, University of Southampton, UK Young-Ho Cho, KAIST, South Korea Alan Epstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Masayoshi Esashi, Tohoku University, Japan Luc Fréchette, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada Reza Ghodssi, University of Maryland, USA Hiroki Kuwano, Tohoku University, Japan Jeff Lang, Massachusetts

  12. Study of Genetic Diversity of Some Persian walnut Genotypes in Mashhad Commercial Orchards by using ISSR Marker

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    Shadi Attar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L., belonging to the Juglandaceae family, has its natural origin in the mountainous regions of central Asia and especially northern forests of Iran. Most walnut genotypes are seedling and sexually reproduced. Conducting studies on the genetic structure of these genotypes to identify, select and maintain their genetic resources is important. Identifying and collecting local varieties of fruit trees is considered as the first step on the path of breeding programs and lack of information regarding plants genetic characteristics causes the breeding work to be done slowly. Various methods have been used for studying genetic diversity and determining the genetic relationship between European and Asian varieties of walnut and identifying commercial walnut varieties, among which we can mention: Morphologic indices, Alozyme, Isozym, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and ISSR markers. ISSR molecular marker was used in order to investigate genetic diversity of some genotypes of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. in Mashhad orchards. . Materials and methods: To begin with, about 56 walnut trees from 4 orchards in Mashhad (Esteghlal (1, Golestan (2, Alandasht (3 and Emam Reza (4 were selected and tagged from 2014 to 2016. In the spring of 2014 with the beginning of trees growth and opening of leaves, a number of leaves from each genotype were collected. After DNA extraction, the quality of samples by agarose gel (1 percentage and electrophoresis method and quantity of them via spectrophotometer device at 260 and 280 nm wavelengths were determined. First, 24 primers of ISSR marker were prepared and after initial evaluation on 5 random genotypes, 9 primers with high polymorphism and repeatability were selected for further investigation. For PCR reaction, Amplicon kit (code 180 301, made in Denmark was used. Gel electrophoresis images of primers that produced polymorphic bands with suitable resolution were analyzed manually. After

  13. Ensayo sucinto para un Ordenamiento Cronológico. Sobre un Libro de la Historia de la Medicina en Nariño

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    José María Corella Hurtado

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Historia de la Medicina en Nariño

    Pasto, mi ciudad, tiene su encanto propio. Es diferente a las demás ciudades; por la idiosincrasia de su gente y su forma de hablar y de pensar y por esa demarcación geográfica que nos aísla irremediablemente como un veredicto bíblico; hacia el norte por los eriales inconmensurables que llegan hasta Rosas y por el sur por los propios linderos patrios.

    La ciudad también tiene una historia de hospitales, de clínicas, de farmacias, de enfermeras y de galenos ilustres que ocupan un sitial grande en el escenario del esplendor. Por eso el acopio de datos, en libros y recuentos, siempre son bien recibidos porque ellos evitan que las anécdotas no vayan al baúl ominoso del olvido “El libro” Historia de la medicina en Nariño, siglo XX”de los doctores Leonardo Matta y Ricardo Zarama Burbano dice que el primer hospital que existió en la ciudad estaba localizado en lo que es hoy, la carrera 25 con calle 16 y que se llamaba centro de atención de pacientes La Madre de Dios, cuyo director era el doctor Pedro de Ahumada (Hermano de Santa Teresa de Jesús. Se fundó en el año de 1556. (1

    Un boletín editado por la Alcaldía de Pasto, en el mes de agosto de 1999, señala que “Un Hospital se inauguró en Pasto el 20 de diciembre de 1572 y corresponde a una carta entregada al padre Fray Miguel de Medina, vicario provincial en la Gobernación de Popayán, quien por aquel entonces se presentó en esta ciudad ante el Muy Magnífico Señor (así reza el acta Capitán Diego de Esquivel, Alcalde ordinario por su Majestad y le pidió se someta y dio posesión de las casas y los terrenos para la construcción de un Hospital en esta ciudad. A ese primitivo hospital y después de transcurrir 267 años se le dio el nombre de Hospital de la Asunción de Pasto. Segœn el historiador Sergio Elías Ortiz en su libro “Crónicas de la Ciudad de Pasto”, los hospitales

  14. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Elegy in word is derived from Rasa-Yarso means weeping on dead people. It is also defined as enumerating deceased benefits and composing the poem about. Elegy is categorized into different parts as follows: 1. Courtier 2. Personal 3. Religious 4. Philosophical 5. Social 6. Fictional.   Not only did Khaghani prove himself at composing praise and commendation, lampoon and imprisoned poems, but also he proved himself at composing elegy. Commentators of khaghani’s poems know him as an exclusive poet regarding elegy- making. Also Khaghani composed some odes in loyalty mourning and the world transience as well as personal, courtier and religious elegies which are sub- categories of philosophical elegies. Khaghani’s “Ivane Madayen” ode is considered as a social elegy. In this article, one just analyzes the elegies that Khaghani composed about people. This type of elegies in Khaghani’s Divan are categorized in three parts: a Personal and family elegies which are about Khaghani’s son, wives, girl, son-in-law, uncle and his cousin, b Courtier or ceremonial elegies which are about Nosrat od-Din Espahbud Leyalvashir, Fakhr od-Din Manuchehr Shervanshah, Shervanshah’s children (Azed od-Din Fariborz and aljijak and other courtier men, c Religious elegies composed about Imam Mohammad Yahya, Sheikh ol-Islam Abu Mansoor Hafade, Azed od-Din bu Emran and other religious characters.   There have not been any comprehensive research projects conducted about Khaghani’s elegies. Nasrollah Imami had presented summarized explanations in “Composing elegy” book at Persian courtesy, in the part about Khaghani that were valuable, and he used them as the reference in this article. Two valuable articles were written about comparative literature: comparison of Khaghani’s and Hogo’s elegies about sorrow of their sons by Reza Irandust Tabrizi and “Elegy composing in Persian and Arabic courtesy with the help of comparing Khaghani Shervani and

  15. NOTA EDITORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Vigencia de la tradición.

    A propósito del cambio en la presentación de la portada de MEDICINA hacemos un comentario de tipo periodístico, ya que afrontamos varios aspectos que tanto por las Directivas de la Academia como por el Consejo Editorial fueron cuidadosamente analizados antes de tomar esta determinación. Sea el primero de ellos el de buscar para la Revista una identidad fiel y estable, trasunto representativo de su función académica de informar sobre la actividad que se mueve en su seno y que comprende las inquietudes de sus Directivas y miembros, traducidas en iniciativas y trabajos científicos propios u ocasionalmente también solicitados o aceptados a colaboradores notables, con la finalidad de estimular la calidad, altura y variedad para nuestra publicación.

    Otro aspecto de esa identidad no atañe el patrimonio científico y cultural, sino a la presentación, puesto que se consideró en las deliberaciones que la revista de la Academia Nacional de Medicina debe mostrar definidamente algo de la majestad inherente a su categoría auténticamente nacional que exige culto a la tradición ecuménica representada en este caso por el emblema de Esculapio y a la vez a la historia vernácula representada simbólicamente aquí. En primer lugar, por MEDICINA que es la continuidad de la original REVISTA MEDICA existente en el siglo pasado, a la sazón publicación periódica de la sociedad de MEDICINA Y CIENCIAS NATURALES cuando fue promulgada la Ley 71 de 1890 que la convirtió, por acuerdo y voluntad del Gobierno Nacional de esa época y de los siguientes, en ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA DE COLOMBIA Y cuyo artículo 70. reza así..."LA REVISTA MEDICA será el periódico oficial de la Academia"; y en segundo lugar por la diagramación interior ilustrada ahora con diseños de nuestro arte precolombino, cultura Tumaco para esta edición.

    Más aspectos comentables son los referibles a la en algo o en

  16. Jordi Canal (dir., Sophie Baby, Jean-Philippe Luis, Stéphane Michonneau et Mercedes Yusta, Histoire de l’Espagne contemporaine de 1808 à nos jours. Politique et société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Maurice

    2011-02-01

    , no logró institucionalizar un régimen corporativista. Es cierto que, en el terreno político, la Segunda República constituyó una ruptura con el reconocimiento del derecho de voto para las mujeres y la separación del Estado y de la Iglesia, la cual provocó la enemistad del catolicismo que encabezó la reconfiguración de la derecha. Pero lentitud e insuficiencias de una reforma tan anhelada como era la de la propiedad de la tierra se debió menos al desinterés del personal político que a la determinación que mostró la burguesía agraria en la defensa de sus intereses.La guerra civil por antonomasia se internacionalizó pronto por necesitar armas los beligerantes, lo que consiguió fácilmente Franco de los estados fascistas, dándole temprana superioridad militar. Se subraya el carácter contrarrevolucionario de la sublevacíon, el uso sistemático que hizo del terror contra los republicanos. Se echan de menos análisis concretos del proceso colectivizador en la España republicana así como de los luctuosos sucesos de mayo de 1937. También se pudo recordar la movilización internacional de escritores y artistas en apoyo de la República.De la dictadura a la democracia, reza la tercera parte que plantea la problemática de la modernización de la sociedad española.El Caudillo tardó mucho en institucionalizar un Estado a su medida, adaptándose hábilmente al entorno internacional y estableciendo temprano una relación bilateral con los EE.UU de América que ha perdurado hasta la actualidad. Base de su régimen fue una represión multiforme en el marco de una autarquía económica dura para el pueblo. Multiforme fue también la resistencia, siendo una de las formas más originales la político-sindical de CC.OO.El desarrollismo llevado a cabo por miembros del Opus Dei –organización de seglares dependiente del Vaticano– tuvo resultados desiguales y el crecimiento de clases medias urbanas no significa que fue « total » la transformación de la

  17. Mineralogy, chemistry of magnetite and genesis of Korkora-1 iron deposit, east of Takab, NW Iran

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    Mohammad Maanijou

    2014-10-01

    alterations of hydrous and non-hydrous calc-silicates with low temperature and high fO2 fluids and forming chlorite, calcite, clay minerals and hematite. Acknowledgements We gratefully thank Mr. Reza Sheikhi from Saba Noor Co. who kindly helped us during the research. We also thank Professor David Lentz from University of New Brunswick for advising and supporting the research. References Sheikhi, R., 1995. Economic geology study of Shahrak Fe deposit, east of Takab. M.Sc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, 161 pp. (in Persian with English abstract Beaudoin, G., Dupuis, C., Gosselin, P. and Jebrak, M., 2007. Mineral chemistry of iron oxides: application to mineral exploration. In: C.J. Andrew (Editor, Ninth Biennial SGA meeting, SGA, Dublin, pp. 497−500.

  18. Theory of Transcendent unity of Religion

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    Hossein Ali Torkamany

    2015-09-01

    Shinakht, Vol.2. No.2, 213-245 • Akbariyan, Reza, Jalali, Alireza,2008, A ciritical consideration on ancient view of the Unity of reliegions, The new religious thought journal, No:12 • Bahrami, Mohammad, 2002,A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic research journal, No:32, 124-151 • Bahrami, Mohammad, 2003,A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic research journal, No:33, 149-169 • Bahrani, seyed Hashem, 1995, Al-borhan, Trhran, Besat institute • Fakhr-e-Razi, mohammad ibn omar, 1999, Mafatih ol-gheyb, Beirut, Dar ehya al-toras al-arabi • Fazlollah, seyed mohammad Hosein,1998, men wahye Al-qoran, Beirut, Dar ol-melak • Feyz Kashani, Mohsen,1994, Al-safi, Tehran, Al-Sadr • Ghadrdan Gharamaleki, MohammadHasan, (n.d, Quran And Pluraism, Tehran, Youth thought center • Ghadrdan Gharamaleki, MohammadHasan,2003, A Critique on “Quran and pluralism”, Quranic researchs journal, No:33, 138-157 • Gharaati, Mohsen,1994, Tafsir-e-Noor, Tehran, Cultural Center of the lessons from the Quran • Glyn, Richards, 2001, Towards atheology of religions, translated by Gandomi NasrAbadi, Reza, Meftah, AhmadReza, Qom, Religious Studies and researchs Center, • Hick, john, 1993, Philosophy of Reliegion, Tehran, Al-hoda • Ibn babeweih, Mohammad ibn Ali, 1997,Al-amali, Tehran, Ketabchi • Ibn-r-e-manzur, mohammad ibn mokarram, 1993, Lesan ol-Arab, Beirut, Dar e sadr • Peterson ,Michael, Hasker ,William , Reichenbach, Bruce & Basinger ,David , 2010, Reason and religious belief, Tehran, Tarhe now • Javadi Amoli, Abd-o-allah, 2010, Religious studies, Qom. Esra • Javadi Amoli, Abd-o-allah, 2011, Tasnim, Qom. Esra • Karami, Tayebe, Kadivar, Mohsen, 2004, Relationship human diversity with a multiplicity of religions And the idea of transcendent unity of religions in the eyes of traditionalists Journal of Religious Thought , No:12 • Majlesi, Mohammadbagher, 1982 , Behar ol-Anwar(Seas of Lights , Beirut, Dar ehya al-toras al-arabi • Makarem, Shirazi

  19. Genre of khaghani’s elegies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shanazari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract  Elegy in word is derived from Rasa-Yarso means weeping on dead people. It is also defined as enumerating deceased benefits and composing the poem about. Elegy is categorized into different parts as follows: 1. Courtier 2. Personal 3. Religious 4. Philosophical 5. Social 6. Fictional.   Not only did Khaghani prove himself at composing praise and commendation, lampoon and imprisoned poems, but also he proved himself at composing elegy. Commentators of khaghani’s poems know him as an exclusive poet regarding elegy- making. Also Khaghani composed some odes in loyalty mourning and the world transience as well as personal, courtier and religious elegies which are sub- categories of philosophical elegies. Khaghani’s “Ivane Madayen” ode is considered as a social elegy. In this article, one just analyzes the elegies that Khaghani composed about people. This type of elegies in Khaghani’s Divan are categorized in three parts: a Personal and family elegies which are about Khaghani’s son, wives, girl, son-in-law, uncle and his cousin, b Courtier or ceremonial elegies which are about Nosrat od-Din Espahbud Leyalvashir, Fakhr od-Din Manuchehr Shervanshah, Shervanshah’s children (Azed od-Din Fariborz and aljijak and other courtier men, c Religious elegies composed about Imam Mohammad Yahya, Sheikh ol-Islam Abu Mansoor Hafade, Azed od-Din bu Emran and other religious characters.   There have not been any comprehensive research projects conducted about Khaghani’s elegies. Nasrollah Imami had presented summarized explanations in “Composing elegy” book at Persian courtesy, in the part about Khaghani that were valuable, and he used them as the reference in this article. Two valuable articles were written about comparative literature: comparison of Khaghani’s and Hogo’s elegies about sorrow of their sons by Reza Irandust Tabrizi and “Elegy composing in Persian and Arabic courtesy

  20. The Assessment of Literal Ornaments in Persian Badi’ Books from the linguistic, Phonetic and Phonologic Viewpoint

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    Morteza Heidari

    2016-05-01

    Language (Badi`, 4th ed. Tehran: Markaz Press.16. Malmkjær, Kirsten. (ed. (2002. Linguistic Encyclopedia, NewYork: Routledge.17. Martinet, André (2001, Economy of Phonetic Changes, Hormoz Milanian (Trans., 1st ed. Tehran: Hermes Press. 18. Mirsadeqi, Meymanat (2009. The Dictionary of Poetry, 4th ed. Tehran: Mahnaz Book.19. Modarresi Qavami, Golnaz (2011. Phonetics: the Scientific Survey of Speech, 1st ed, Tehran: Samt Press. 20. Najafgholi Mirza (1983. Dorre-ye Najafi, Hossein Ahi (Emand., 1st ed. Tehran: Forughi Press.21. Najafi, abol-Hasan (2011. The Bases of Linguistics and its Usage in Persian Language, 11th ed. Tehran: Nilufar Press.22. Natel Khanlari, Parviz (2007. Metre of Persian Poetry, 7th ed. Tehran: Tus Press.23. Oxford Talking Dictionary. (1998. Learning Company Properties Inc. CD.24. Qavimi, Mahvash (2004. Sound and Association: an Approach to Mehdi Akhavan Sales Poems. 1st ed. Tehran: Hermes Press.25. Razi, Shams-e Qeys (1935. Al-Mo`jam fi M`ayir-e Ash`ar el-Ajam, 1st ed. Mohammad Qazvini (Emend., Tehran: Tehran University Press. 26. Safavi, Kurosh (2011. From Linguistics to Literature, 1st vol. 3rd ed. Tehran: Sure Mehr Press. 27. Samare, Yad ol-Lah (2009. The Phonetics of Persian Language; Phonemes and Phonetic Structure of Syllables, 8th ed. Tehran: Markaz-e Nashr-e Daneshgahi Press. 28. Samayi, Mahdi (2009. History of Phonetics and Iranian’s Role, 1st ed, Tehran: Msrkaz Press. 29. Shafi`i Kadkani, Mohammad Reza (2010. The Music of Poetry, 12th ed, Agah Press.30. Shah Ne`mat ol-lah Vali (1974.   Kolliyat, Javad Noorbakhsh (Ed., 3rd ed. no Place: Ne`mat ol-lahi Monastery Press.31. Shamisa, Sirus (1993. A New Outline to Badi`, 5th ed. Tehran: Ferdous Press.32. Shebli No`mani, Mohammad (1974. She`r ol-Ajam. 4th vol. Fakhr Da`i Gilani (Trans., Tehran: Donya-ye Ketab Press.33. Strazny, Philipp. (ed. (2005. Encyclopedia of linguistics, vol. 1, New York & Oxon: Fitzroy Dearborn.34. Taftazani, Sa`d od-Din Mas`ud (2004. Al

  1. EDITORIAL: Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards Announcing the 2008 Measurement Science and Technology Outstanding Paper Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, John; Dewhurst, Richard; Fujii, Kenichi; Regtien, Paul

    2009-05-01

    I Kalfas and Reza S Abhari Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece The paper [2] describes the development of a probe for measuring time-resolved entropy fluctuations. The technique was developed for use in turbomachinery applications where knowledge of the unsteady entropy in the wake of a rotating blade row can provide significant insight into the loss (dissipation) generation mechanisms. There is no direct method to measure entropy; hence the authors use an approach where the stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature are measured on the same probe. The stagnation, or 'total', pressure has been the subject of several of the authors' papers in the last few years. The more significant challenge was the time-resolved measurement of total temperature. The high Mach numbers present in the flows of interest lead to significant temperature gradients in the probe itself which contaminate this type of measurement. The paper describes a novel probe design along with a detailed heat transfer calculation and uncertainty analysis. The fluid mechanics members of the MST Editorial and Advisory Boards—T Fansler, J Foss, M Koochesfahani, I Marusic, S Morris, K Okamoto, F Scarano, E Tomita and M Wernet—considered all papers in the Fluid Mechanics section and the others that related to fluid mechanics. In the final analysis, the strengths of this paper strongly recommended it for the Award. 2008 Award Winners—Precision Measurement Self-calibration of divided circles on the basis of a prime factor algorithm R Probst Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig, Germany This paper [3] describes a new method for the self-calibration of divided circles, which may be widely used for angle calibration of circular scales, precision polygons, indexing tables and angle encoders. In

  2. “Antonio Vargas Reyes y la Medicina del Siglo XIX”. Del Académico Roberto de Zubiría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Otero Ruiz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    La Segunda Edición de un Libro Admirable (Comentario a la 2ª Edición del libro “Antonio Vargas Reyes-La Medicina del Siglo XIX en Colombia” por el Académico Roberto de Zubiría C.-Febrero 2003

     

    Circunstancias ajenas a la voluntad de los protagonistas hicieron que la presentación de este libro ante la Academia Nacional de Medicina tuviera que ser postergada hasta la fecha actual. De todas maneras, persiste mi vivo agradecimiento ante las directivas de la Academia y ante el mismo autor por haberme distinguido con el honor de ser yo quien presente ante ustedes esta obra, en el momento ya con varios meses de haber sido publicada por Editorial Kimpres, en un elegante volumen de 212 páginas y que marca un hito entre los libros de historia médica publicados en el país en el año 2002.

    Efectivamente, en sus 20 capítulos, seguidos de un apéndice y del testamento del personaje aquí biografiado, además de una extensa bibliografía curiosamente referida con números romanos, Roberto de Zubiría nos entrega una visión panorámica de lo que fue, como reza el subtítulo, la medicina del siglo XIX en Colombia. Medicina que estuvo rubricada y marcada por los sucesos de la independencia, en su segunda década, a la que se siguió el cambio intelectual necesario y obligatorio que nos trocaba de un pensamiento de colonos y súbditos al de seres independientes, que debían crear o transformar las nuevas instituciones de la patria. Como lo ha dicho el historiador médico español García-Valdés a propósito de Europa, podría decirse que el siglo XIX sólo llega a la medicina colombiana a partir de 1820. Por eso el primer capítulo hace un inventario de lo que era el ambiente y las escuelas iniciales de la primera mitad de ese siglo, con los primeros intentos de establecer una cátedra por José Celestino Mutis y Miguel de Isla, a quienes el autor señala justamente como los verdaderos precursores

  3. Respect for life and nature

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    Querubina Bringel Olinda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A vida é o bem mais importante dentre todos os outros. Essa é a lei biológicaque nos rege. Ela reza que os seres vivos nascem, crescem, reproduzem-se emorrem. Todos os demais bens produzidos pelos homens têm ou não possibilidadesde serem adquiridos, com conseqüências diferenciadas. Vive-se com a subtração dealgum deles, porém a vida tem finitude inalterada.Para preservar a vida todas as condições necessárias e imprescindíveis securvam. Há a família que cuida da criança e a torna um cidadão de bem; há aestrutura escolar do Estado que forma e instrui o indivíduo; há a produção dealimentos que garante o abastecimento dos produtos à população; há o trabalhoe a renda que possibilitam uma alimentação saudável; há políticas públicas dehabitação para garantir o teto e o saneamento básico para reduzir as doenças e asmortes infantis; e há o setor saúde para atuar em todos os níveis de promoção dasaúde, prevenção da doença, não negligenciando os níveis de atenção secundárioe terciário com atendimento universal. Para preservar a vida e elevar a expectativade vida todos os setores se fundem: o social e o econômico; o desenvolvimentocientífico e o tecnológico. Todas as ações convergem para mais vida e qualidadeno viver.A expectativa de vida no Brasil, em 2008, atingiu 73,0 anos de vida ao nascerpara ambos os sexos, apresentando diferenças entre as macro regiões brasileirascom limites entre 70,1 no Nordeste e de 75,0 anos no Sul. Há, ainda, um diferencialsignificativo entre a expectativa de vida das mulheres em relação aos homens noPaís, as primeiras vivem, em média, 76,8 anos enquanto os segundos vivem, emmédia, 69,3 anos(1. Em 2007, no Brasil, a taxa de mortalidade infantil ficou de20,0 óbitos para menores de 1 ano por mil nascidos vivos(1. O resultado de todasessas estatísticas é que se procura reduzir os óbitos em idades prematuras, luta-separa prolongar a vida, busca-se reduzir o

  4. From Editor vol 11, No.3

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    Ugur Demiray

    2010-07-01

    students from the Department of City and Regional Development, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, participated as subjects. The Second article is on “A Conceptual Model for Effective Distance Learning In Higher Education”, written by Mehran FARAJOLLAHI, Mohammad Reza SARMADI Department of Education, Payame Noor University, Tehran and Nahid ZARIFSANAEE, Center of Excellence for Elearning, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, IRAN. The aim is that presenting a conceptual model for effective distance learning in higher education. Findings of this research shows that an understanding of the technological capabilities and learning theories especially constructive theory and independent learning theory and communicative and interaction theory in Distance learning is an efficient factor in the planning of effective Distance learning in higher education. Considering the theoretical foundations of the present research, in the effective distance learning model, the learner is situated at the center of learning environment. For this purpose, the learner needs to be ready for successful learning and the teacher has to be ready to design the teaching- learning activities when they initially enter the environment.The third articles are from Anadolu University, Turkey. The third one is on “A Blended Learning Model For Teaching Practice Course”, conducted by Mustafa CANER. In his paper discussed to introduce a blended learning environment and a model for pre-service teaching practice course in English Language Teacher Training Program at Anadolu University. It is supposed that providing a blended learning environment for teaching practice course would improve the practice and contribute to the professional growth of pre-service teachers. Since it will increase the contact hours among students and university supervisors and facilitate peer feedback among pre-service teachers, which in turn, create a productive learning environment for them. Also paper is

  5. From The Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2013-01-01

    Planning, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI, Mohammad Reza SARMADI, Department of Education, Payam Noor University, Tehran and Abbas EBADI Tehran, IRAN. The present study, to concept clarification of the ECE, five-step method of Norris was used. Also, a summative content analysis approach is used to interpret meaning from the content of text data. Findings from the content analysis of ECE plotted as a conceptual model. The results of the content analysis led to the extraction of meaning units, sub-codes and the main themes. According to data explication 6 themes extracted. According to extracted operational definition and the Hexa-based model of the ECE, the diversity of the target population and educational content, it seems the most appropriate teaching methods, are the distance education methods. The 14th article is from Turkey, Turkish Military Academy, Ankara, TURKEY and entiled as “Towards The Use of A Novel Method: The First Experiences on Measuring The Cognitive Load of Learned Programming Skills”, written by Murat Paşa UYSAL. This paper paper looks by using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS method; we measured the cognitive load of participants when executing OOP tasks. The average oxygenation changes in prefrontal cortex of the brain represented their total cognitive response to a set of OOP tasks. The 15th article titled as “Value-Addition For Empowerment And Employability Through Intervention of ODL Mode Of IGNOU” and written by S. KISHORE, Deputy Director, from Indira Gandhi National Open University Regional Centre, Tamilnadu, INDIA. This article analyses the benefits of self-learning though ODL mode of IGNOU. Thus, the short-term programmes of IGNOU extend value-addition to the graduates in the form of transferable skills and the value-added outputs are expected to be employable or self-employable, thus contributing to the growth of the nation. The 16th article once more from India on “Ethical Perspectives In Open And Distance Eduation System

  6. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    believes to improve ODL experience, decrease dropout rates and maintain success stories for ODL, tutors and all-important stakeholders in ODL must improve the provision of interaction and interactivity. It is evident from the literature that there is a still research gap on interaction issues in ODL which must be pursued and address to improve the learners’ educational experience-for they are the primary clientele of ODL.The 11th article is from Turkey. It is titled as “Preservice Mathematics Teachers’ Views On Distance Education And Their Web Pedagogical Content Knowledge”, written by Dilek CAGIRGAN GULTEN, Istanbul University, TURKEY.Her research aims to investigate primary preservice mathematics teachers’ views on distance education and web pedagogical content knowledge in terms of the subscales of general web, communicative web, pedagogical web, web pedagogical content and attitude towards web based instruction.10The 12h article is experienced as a case study from Australia. Written by David CARROLL from, Melbourne, Eric Ng (Corresponding author from University of Southern Qeensland, Toowoomba and Dawn BIRCH, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, AUSTRALIA. About “Strategies To Improve Retention of Postgraduate Business Students In Distance Education Courses: An Australian Case”. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study into the factors affecting the retention of postgraduate business students at a major Australian distance education university. The findings of this study suggest that a range of situational, dispositional and attitudinal factors impact upon student retention on this context, both as enablers of and obstacles to ongoing participation.Next and 13th article is about “A Novel Conceptual Model of Environmental Communal Education: Content Analysis Based On Distance Education Approach” and written by Soheila HAFEZI (Corresponding author, Candidate of Distance Education Planning, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI, Mohammad Reza

  7. From Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Demiray

    2013-07-01

    -based course delivery system. The 15th article titled as “USING MOBILE PHONES TO PROMOTE LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION AMONG OPEN SCHOOLING STUDENTS: Promises, Possibilities, and Potential Strategies”, and written by Pradeep Kumar MISRA, Associate Professor (Educational Technology, Faculty of Education and Allied Sciences, M. J. P. Rohilkhand University, India. Across the globe, life skills education has been usually developed as part of a school initiative designed to support the healthy psychosocial development of children and adolescents. In other side, formal education system not always provides young people with good opportunities to become confident and realize their potentials. In this back drop, the biggest challenge is to identify the best strategies for providing effective life skills education to those many children who never attend secondary school or reach an age of high vulnerability and risk taking behaviour in the years immediately before reaching secondary school. Considering the situation that in different parts of the world, majority of the youths is having a mobile or will have a mobile soon, the researcher is of the view that mobile phones can be a viable option to offer life skills education to open schooling students coming from different cultural and social settings and backgrounds. Following this approach, present paper mainly discusses about: promises offered by mobile phones for life skills education; possibilities for using mobile phones as an effective, efficient and economical option for offering life skills education; and potential strategies to offer mobile phones supported life skills education to open schooling students. Next article from again Iran written on SURVEY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION ROLE IN UTILIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT COMPONENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION by Seyedeh Zahra SHAMSI PAPKIADE, Seyed Mohammad SHOBEIRI and Mohammad Reza SARMADIfrom Peyam-Noor University, Tehran, IRAN. The aim of their research is survey of distance education role in