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Sample records for hull-less barley flour

  1. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of β-Glucans from Hull-Less Barley Bran, Shorts and Flour

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    Qi Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Six hull-less barley cultivars widely grown in China were roller-milled to produce bran, shorts and flour fractions. The distribution and molecular characteristics of β-glucans from the three roller-milled fractions were investigated. The β-glucan contents in the six hull-less barley cultivars varied from 4.96% to 7.62%. For all the six cultivars, the shorts fraction contained the highest concentration of β-glucan (8.12–13.01%, followed by bran (6.15–7.58% and flour (2.48–2.95%. Crude β-glucans were prepared from the three roller-milled fractions using aqueous sodium carbonate (pH 10. These preparations contained 45.38–71.41% β-glucan, 10.81–17.26% arabinoxylan, 2.6–9.6% protein, 2.7–9.0% starch, and 5.23–9.68% ash. Purification using a-amylase and β-xylanase in combination with pH adjustment and dialysis produced high purity β-glucan preparations (91–95%. The molecular weight (Mw of β-glucan preparations from roller-milled fractions ranged from 117,600 to 852,400 g/mol. β-Glucan from flour had higher Mw than those from shorts and bran within the same cultivar, and β-glucan preparations from bran had the lowest Mw.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Arabinoxylans from Hull-Less Barley Milling Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xueling; Li, Limin; Wang, Xiaoxi

    2011-01-01

    Arabinoxylans were prepared from different hull-less barley milling fractions (bran, shorts and flour). The yields of hull-less bran arabinoxylan (HBB-AX), shorts arabinoxylan (HBS-AX) and flour arabinoxylan (HBF-AX) were 8.42%, 4.08% and 2.13% respectively. Sugar composition analysis showed that arabinose and xylose were the main sugars. HBF-AX had the highest Ara/Xyl ratio, followed by HBS-AX and HBB-AX. Size exclusion chromatography analysis (HPSEC) showed that HBF-AX had the highest molec...

  3. Pysicochemical properties of Tibetan hull-less barley starch.

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    Yangcheng, Hanyu; Gong, Lingxiao; Zhang, Ying; Jane, Jay-lin

    2016-02-10

    Objectives of this study were to (1) determine the starch physicochemical properties of two commercial Tibetan hull-less barley varieties, Beiqing (BQ) and Kangqing (KQ); and (2) understand the relationship between unique properties of the starches, their structures, and impacts of growing conditions. The BQ barleys were grown at a location with lower temperature and less rainfall compared with the KQ barleys. The BQ starches showed significantly lower onset-gelatinization temperature (54.1-54.9 °C), larger gelatinization-temperature range (9.4-10.6 °C), and higher peak-viscosities (138.9-153.9RVU) than the KQ starches (55.1-56.1 °C, 7.4-8.8 °C, and 63.4-64.7RVU, respectively). After a treatment with 2% sodium-dodecyl-sulphate solution, the KQ starches showed substantially greater increases in peak viscosities than the BQ starches. Annealing of starch and enhanced amylose-lipid complex formation, resulting from higher growing temperature during the development of the KQ starches, likely contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties between the BQ and KQ starches.

  4. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

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    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  5. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

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    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  6. Structural and expressional analysis of the B-hordein genes in Tibetan hull-less barley

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    The B-hordein gene family was analyzed from two Tibetan hull-less barley cultivars, Z09 and Z26 (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare). Fourteen B-hordein genes, designated BZ09-2 to BZ09-5 (from Z09) and BZ26-1 to BZ26-10 (from Z26), were sequenced. Seven of them similar to a previously reported BZ09-1...

  7. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  8. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

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    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  9. Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets

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    Lingxiao Gong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat with refined wheat flour (HFS-W or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum fasting insulin (FINS, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD. However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets.

  10. Physicochemical properties of hull-less barley fibre-rich fractions varying in particle size and their potential as functional ingredients in two-layer flat bread.

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    Izydorczyk, M S; Chornick, T L; Paulley, F G; Edwards, N M; Dexter, J E

    2008-05-15

    The performance of barley fibre-rich fractions (FRF), as high dietary fibre ingredients, in two-layer flat bread was investigated. In addition, the effects of particle size reduction by pin milling on functional properties of FRF were studied. FRF enriched in non-starch polysaccharides (β-glucans and arabinoxylans) were obtained by roller milling of hull-less barley. Pin milling (PM) of FRF significantly reduced their particle size, slightly increased the solubility of β-glucans and arabinoxylans, and increased the viscosity of water slurries containing FRF. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour significantly increased dough water absorption and weakened the dough properties, as indicated by farinograph mixing curves, but the FRF-enriched doughs exhibited good handling characteristics at the dividing and sheeting stages. The appearance, diameter, layer separation, crumb, and aroma of the FRF-enriched flat breads were comparable to that of the control. The PM of FRF did not significantly affect the dough handling or the quality characteristics of flat breads. The addition of 20% of barley FRF to wheat flour flat bread provided substantial health benefits by significantly increasing the total and soluble dietary fibre contents and by decreasing starch digestibility.

  11. CONTENT AND TRUE DIGESTIBILITY OF THE AMINOACIDS OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

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    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the content and the true digestibility of the amonoacids of hull-less barley have been established. The following contents of the essential amonoacids of a stocking lot of the forage have been established (g/kg DM: lysine-4.8, methionine-1.1, cystine-1.1, histidine-2.2, threonine-4.4, leucine- 6.8 and phenylalanine- 5.9. The coeffi cients of their true digestibility were 81.89, 84.06, 85.08, 90.62, 87.30, 76.38 and 75.96, respectively.

  12. Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys

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    Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of β-d-glucan from hull-less barley: Assessment of physicochemical and functional properties.

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    Hematian Sourki, Abdollah; Koocheki, Arash; Elahi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method on physicochemical and molecular properties of hull-less barley β-d-glucan. With increasing sonication time, β-d-glucan flow behavior index (n) and its extraction yield significantly increased while its consistency coefficient and lightness decreased. Sonication time had no significant effect on β-d-glucan purity, emulsion and foam stabilizing effect and colour. Increasing pH from 5 to 9 significantly enhanced extraction yield, purity, consistency coefficient (k), emulsion stabilizing effect and yellowness of the final product. At higher pHs, flow behavior index (n) and redness and yellowness decreased. With increasing the amplitude, extracted β-d-glucan flow behavior index (n), redness significantly increased. In contrast, β-d-glucan purity, emulsion stability, consistency coefficient (k) and yellowness decreased as a result of increase in sound amplitude. However, sound amplitude had no significant effect on β-d-glucan lightness. Models presented in this study were highly significant and the correlation coefficient could be used for optimization of β-d-glucan extraction from hull-less barley. Considering the importance and desirability of the response variables, the best results were obtained when the sonication time, amplitude and pH were 4.8min, 50% and 9, respectively. β-d-Glucans extracted by UAE had lower average molecular weight compared to those extracted by water extraction method. There was no difference between the chemical structures of β-d-glucans extracted by UAE and conventional method. This means that short time ultrasonic extraction had no effect on chemical structure of β-d-glucan. These results indicate that UAE method was a very effective tool for extraction of β-d-glucan as a potential hydrocolloid agent for food industries.

  14. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

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    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.

  15. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

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    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  16. Effect of wide variation of the Waxy gene on starch properties in hull-less barley from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China.

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    Li, Qiao; Pan, Zhifen; Deng, Guangbing; Long, Hai; Li, Zhongyi; Deng, Xiaoqing; Liang, JunJun; Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-11-26

    significant differences in some starch properties of the Waxy I DNA group as compared to the Waxy II DNA group. This study indicates the specific variations of the Waxy gene have a great effect on amylose synthesis and starch properties of hull-less barley, which could be very useful to produce new barley with variable starch properties.

  17. Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars.

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    Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-10-13

    The objective of this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (HB) cultivar (CDC McGwire) in terms of ruminant feed value. The study revealed that altered starch HB cultivars possessed several desirable feed characteristics, distinct from conventional normal starch HB, although they were similar in some respects: (1) basic chemical and carbohydrate subfraction profiles varied; (2) starch degradation kinetics showed altered starch HB containing higher soluble starch, rumen undegraded starch, lower degradable starch, and slower degradation rate; (3) all altered starch HB cultivars had similar soluble and degradable starch, different from that of conventional normal starch HB; (4) two waxy HB cultivars were lower, whereas the high-amylose cultivar was similar in effective degradability of the starch as compared to conventional normal starch HB; (5) zero-amylose waxy HB had the greater effective degradability of protein among HB cultivars; and (6) amylopectin in HB had a positive relationship with protein supply (increasing amylopectin was correlated with increased effective degradability of protein). Overall, these results demonstrate that the alteration of starch structure in granule affects not only starch fermentation and utilization but also protein value in hull-less barley. In summary, the HB cultivars with modified starch might be a better feed grain for ruminants than the normal starch HB.

  18. Genetic similarity of Brazilian hull-less and malting barley varieties evaluated by RAPD markers Similaridade genética de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua e cevada cervejeira avaliada por marcadores RAPD

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    Mariela Aparecida Kroth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is widely used for brewing and animal feed. Recently, it has become desirable for human consumption due to its high nutritional significance, specially hull-less or naked barley. There are differences in nutritional and malting characteristics among barley varieties. RAPD procedure is able to separate barley varieties at various similarity levels. The aim of this work was the RAPD analysis of six Brazilian hull-less varieties and seven malting varieties. PCR reactions were performed with eleven random primers. A total of 34 RAPD fragments was obtained with five primers. A dendrogram was constructed based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient. Barley varieties displayed an average similarity coefficient of 0.53. Intravarietal monomorphic fragments allowed differentiation among varieties. The averages of intravarietal similarity coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.85. RAPD markers, detected in this work, were suitable for differentiation among Brazilian barley varieties.A cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. é amplamente empregada na produção de cerveja e na ração animal. Recentemente, este cereal tornou-se desejável na alimentação humana devido ao seu alto valor nutricional, principalmente da cevada nua ou sem casca. Existem diferenças nas características nutricionais e para malteação entre as diversas variedades de cevada. O procedimento RAPD é capaz de separar as variedades de cevada em vários níveis de similaridade. O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar por RAPD seis variedades brasileiras de cevada nua e sete variedades de cevada cervejeira. Reações de PCR foram realizadas com onze iniciadores aleatórios. Um total de 34 fragmentos de amplificação foi obtido com cinco destes iniciadores. Baseado no coeficiente de similaridade de Jaccard, um dendrograma foi construído. As variedades de cevada apresentaram índice médio de similaridade de 0,53. Fragmentos monomórficos intravariedades permitiram a

  19. Influence of jet milling and particle size on the composition, physicochemical and mechanical properties of barley and rye flours.

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    Drakos, Antonios; Kyriakakis, Georgios; Evageliou, Vasiliki; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Ritzoulis, Christos

    2017-01-15

    Finer barley and rye flours were produced by jet milling at two feed rates. The effect of reduced particle size on composition and several physicochemical and mechanical properties of all flours were evaluated. Moisture content decreased as the size of the granules decreased. Differences on ash and protein contents were observed. Jet milling increased the amount of damaged starch in both rye and barley flours. True density increased with decreased particle size whereas porosity and bulk density increased. The solvent retention capacity profile was also affected by jet milling. Barley was richer in phenolics and had greater antioxidant activity than rye. Regarding colour, both rye and barley flours when subjected to jet milling became brighter, whereas their yellowness was not altered significantly. The minimum gelation concentration for all flours was 16%w/v. Barley flour gels were stronger, firmer and more elastic than the rye ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

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    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  1. A major baker's asthma allergen from rye flour is considerably more active than its barley counterpart.

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    García-Casado, G; Armentia, A; Sánchez-Monge, R; Sánchez, L M; Lopez-Otín, C; Salcedo, G

    1995-05-01

    A rye flour protein of about 13.5 kDa, as well as its barley homologue, have been isolated. The rye component was recognized in vitro by IgE of allergic patients and provoked positive responses in 15 out of 21 baker's asthma patients (71%) when skin prick tests were performed. Its barley homologue showed no detectable in vitro reactivity and caused positive responses in only one-third of patients. Although no inhibitory activity against different alpha-amylases or trypsin was found for these two proteins, their N-terminal sequencing revealed considerable similarity to several members of the cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family.

  2. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

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    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10(7) cfu g(-1) of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  3. Phytochemical Pharmacokinetics and Bioactivity of Oat and Barley Flour: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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    Caleigh M. Sawicki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.

  4. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

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    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia

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    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly...

  6. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

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    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  7. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

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    Eitam, David; Kislev, Mordechai; Karty, Adiel; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2015-01-01

    Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites), thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP) were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP), we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  8. Experimental Barley Flour Production in 12,500-Year-Old Rock-Cut Mortars in Southwestern Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eitam

    Full Text Available Experimental archaeology at a Natufian site in the Southern Levant documents for the first time the use of 12,500-year-old rock-cut mortars for producing wild barley flour, some 2,000 to 3,000 years before cereal cultivation. Our reconstruction involved processing wild barley on the prehistoric threshing floor, followed by use of the conical mortars (a common feature in Natufian sites, thereby demonstrating the efficient peeling and milling of hulled grains. This discovery complements nearly 80 years of investigations suggesting that the Natufians regularly harvested almost-ripe wild cereals using sickles hafted with flint blades. Sickles had been replicated in the past and tested in the field for harvesting cereals, thusly obtaining the characteristic sheen along the edge of the hafted flint blades as found in Natufian remnants. Here we report that Natufian wide and narrow conical mortars enabled the processing of wild barley for making the groats and fine flour that provided considerable quantities of nourishment. Dishes in the Early Natufian (15,000-13,500 CalBP were groat meals and porridge and subsequently, in the Late Natufian (13,500-11,700 CalBP, we suggest that unleavened bread made from fine flour was added. These food preparing techniques widened the dietary breadth of the sedentary Natufian hunter-gatherers, paving the way to the emergence of farming communities, the hallmark of the Neolithic Revolution.

  9. In vivo allergenic activities of eleven purified members of a major allergen family from wheat and barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Sanchez-Monge, R; Gomez, L; Barber, D; Salcedo, G

    1993-05-01

    Eleven purified members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family from wheat and barley that showed very different IgE-binding capacities when previously assayed in vitro, were used in double blind in vivo diagnostic tests to further evaluate their allergenic activity. These tests were carried out in 31 patients who showed allergic sensitization to wheat flour as verified by skin test, RAST and challenge test. The three members of the protein family with highest IgE binding in vitro (the glycosylated subunits of tetrameric alpha-amylase inhibitors CM16* from wheat and CMb* from barley, and the barley monomeric inhibitor BMAI-1) were found to be the strongest allergens as indicated by skin sensitivity in prick tests.

  10. Effects of Blends of Low-Protein Winter Wheat Flour and Barley Byproducts on Quality Changes in Noodles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Young

    2016-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of fresh noodles made with blends of low-protein wheat flour and barley byproduct (BBP, 250 μm) were investigated. The crude protein contents (PC) of flour from Goso and Backjoong cultivars were 7.91% and 7.67%, respectively. PC and β-glucan contents from the BBP were 14.10% and 3.11%, respectively, which were higher than those in wheat flour. The water-holding capacity (WHC) of various blends was increased as a function of BBP but not gluten contents. Goso flour had the highest starch content (78.68%), with peak and final viscosities of 3,099 and 3,563 cp, respectively. Peak and final viscosities, trough, breakdown, and setback of the blends were decreased with the addition of BBP. Noodles made with Backjoong had the highest thickness score, while the hardness of noodles made with blends of Goso or Backjoong and 20% BBP were similar to those made from wheat flour only. The WHC of the samples was strongly correlated with PC, crude fiber, and β-glucan. The PC was not correlated with final viscosity, setback, thickness, hardness, gumminess, or chewiness. PMID:28078259

  11. Effects of diets containing alfalfa hay or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage on feeding behavior, productivity, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad

    2009-08-01

    The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.

  12. Enzymic hydrolysis and industrial importance of barley. beta. -glucans and wheat flour pentosans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, B.V.; Gibson, T.S.; Allen, H.; Gams, T.C.

    1986-12-01

    Mixed linkage ..beta..-glucane and pentosanes (mainly arabinoxylanes) are the major endosperm cell-wall polysaccharides of barley and wheat respectively. These polysaccharides, although minor components of the whole grain, significantly affect the industrial utilization of these cereals. The modification of barley corns during malting requires the dissolution of the ..beta..-glucane in the cell-wall of the starch endosperm. High ..beta..-glucane concentration in wort and beer effect the rate of filtration and can also lead to precipitate or gel formation in the final product. In a similar manner, pentosane is thought to cause filtration problems with wheat starch hydrolysates by increasing viscosity and by producing gelatinous precipitate which blocks filters. Ironically, it is this same viscosity building and water binding capacity which is considered to render pentosanes of considerable value in dough development and bread storage (anti-staling functions). In the current paper, some aspects of the beneficial and detrimental effects of pentosanes and ..beta..-glucane in the industrial utilization of wheat and barley are discussed. More specifically, enzymic methods for the preparation, analysis and identification of these polysaccharides and for the removal of their functional properties, are described in detail.

  13. Rheological and Pasting Properties of Naked Barley Flour as Modified by Guar, Xanthan, and Locust Bean Gums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Jin; Lee, Youngseung; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effects of adding different gums (guar, xanthan, and locust bean gums) on naked barley flour (NBF), the rheological and pasting properties of NBF-gum mixtures were measured at different gum concentrations (0, 0.3, and 0.6% w/w). Steady shear rheological properties were determined by rheological parameters for power law and Casson models. All samples showed a clear trend of shear-thinning behavior (n=0.16~0.48) and had a non-Newtonian nature with yield stress. Consistency index, apparent viscosity, and yield stress values increased with an increase in gum concentration. Storage modulus values were more predominant than loss modulus values with all concentrations of gums. There is a more pronounced synergistic effect of elastic properties of NBF in the presence of xanthan gum. Rapid visco analyser pasting properties showed that the addition of gums resulted in a significant increase in the peak, breakdown, setback, and final viscosities, whereas the pasting temperature decreased. PMID:28078260

  14. Farinha do bagaço de cevada em dietas para a engorda de camarões marinhos Barley flour in diets for the fattening of marine shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Gomes de Figueiredo Gadelha

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade do resíduo de cevada na elaboração de dietas práticas em relação à qualidade nutricional, ao crescimento e à sobrevivência do camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. Foram elaboradas cinco dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas com diferentes proporções da farinha de cevada e do farelo de milho (R1, R2, R3, R4 e R5 e uma ração comercial (R6. Estas foram fornecidas a 150 camarões por um período de 60 dias. O percentual de farinha de cevada utilizado nas rações foi de 0,62; 12,5; 18,7 e 25%, substituindo o percentual de farelo de milho inicial de 25%. Camarões com peso inicial de 3g foram distribuídos em 30 aquários (cinco camarões por aquários, com 31L de água. A farinha elaborada foi analisada para a avaliação da sua qualidade nutricional, apresentando rendimento de 22,63%. A sobrevivência variou de 88 a 100%, não apresentando diferença significativa. As dietas R1 e R5 resultaram no maior ganho de peso, enquanto que a R3 resultou no menor ganho de peso. Para a taxa de crescimento, as rações R1 (3,47g/60 dias, R2 (3,22g/60 dias, R4 (3,46g/60 dias e R5 (3,62g/60 dias apresentaram valores significativos, mas não diferiram estatisticamente (P>0,05. A farinha de cevada em substituição à farinha de milho é recomendada por proporcionar um maior crescimento em camarões juvenis da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei.The aim of this study was to evaluate the barley residue in the development of practical diets in relation to nutritional quality, growth and survival of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were prepared with different proportions of barley flour and corn meal (R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 and a commercial ration (R6. They were provided to 150 shrimps for a period of 60 days. The percentage of barley meal used in feed was 0.62, 12.5, 18.7 and 25% replacing the initial meal maize of 25%. Shrimps with initial weight of 3g were distributed into

  15. A barley flour inhibitor of insect alpha-amylase is a major allergen associated with baker's asthma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D; Sánchez-Monge, R; Gómez, L; Carpizo, J; Armentia, A; López-Otín, C; Juan, F; Salcedo, G

    1989-05-08

    A barley salt-soluble protein of 14.5 kDa, which inhibits the alpha-amylase from the insect Tenebrio molitor, has been identified as a major IgE-binding component of sera from baker's asthma patients. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein indicates that it is a member of a previously described family of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors.

  16. CO-FERMENTATION OF KOCHO WITH BARLEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improved protein content in which kocho and barley flour were fermented for 96 hrs with barley flour. ... involving co-fermentation of kocho and barley flour for the production of nutritionally improved ..... chickpeas. J. Food Sci. 44:234-236.

  17. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  18. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  19. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  20. Superoxide DismutasE in Spring Barley Caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálie Březinová Belcredi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was determined in caryopses of spring barley grown in field trials in 2004–2006. A total set under study included five malting varieties with hulled grain, three waxy hull-less and hulled varieties (of US origin, seven lines formed by crossing of the above given varieties and four hull-less lines of Czech origin. SOD activity was determined by a modified method using a Ransod diagnostic kit (RANDOX. The method employs xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radicals which react with 2-(4-iodophenyl-3-(4-nitrophenol-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT to form a red formazan dye. Statistically significantly higher activity was measured in the variety Nordus (131 U.g−1 d.m. and line ME1 (128 U.g−1 d.m. compared to the other varieties/lines (66–111 U.g−1 d.m.. The line ME1 had significantly higher SOD activity in grain versus its parental varieties Kompakt (83 U.g−1 d.m. and Krona (78 U.g−1 d.m.. The results of this study proved the availability of varieties/lines with a higher SOD content, the antioxidant effect of SOD can improve quality of beer and food made from barley.

  1. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  2. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Granfeldt, Y E; Björck, I M

    1996-02-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products made from common barley, oats or a barley genotype containing elevated levels of beta-glucans were evaluated in nine healthy subjects. Porridges were made from commercial Swedish whole-meal barley or oat flours, and a mixed whole-meal porridge using the high fiber barley genotype and commercial Swedish common barley (50:50). Also studied were two types of flour-based bread products composed of high fiber barley and common barley in ratios of 50:50 or 80:20, respectively. The common oat and barley porridges produced postprandial glucose and insulin responses similar to the white wheat bread reference, suggesting that the naturally occurring dietary fiber in these whole-meal flours has no impact on the glucose tolerance. In contrast, all high fiber barley products induced significantly lower responses than did the reference product, with the glycemic and insulin indices ranging from 57 to 72 or 42 to 72%, respectively. It is concluded that "lente" products of high sensory quality can be prepared from a barley genotype with an elevated content of soluble dietary fiber. The glycemic index of these products compares favorably with that of products made from common cereals, suggesting their use as a potential component of diets for patients with diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and for individuals predisposed to metabolic disease.

  3. Optimization of additive content and their combination to improve the quality of pure barley bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pojić, Milica; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Rakita, Slađana; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    ...) on breadmaking potential of barley flour by using response surface methodology. Addition of these ingredients had significant effect on specific bread volume, crust and crumb lightness, crumb texture, average cell size and crumb density...

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per;

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...... for variations in storage protein and AA composition. These cultivars were selected based on their higher protein contents (11.8–17.6%). The results obtained indicated that substantial variation not only in the distribution of the hordein polypeptides but also in the relative proportions of the storage proteins...

  5. Chemical characterization of Brazilian hulless barley varieties, flour fractionation, and protein concentration Caracterização química de variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, fracionamento da farinha e concentração de proteína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though hulless barley is widely known due to its nutritional potential, in Brazil it is only grown at a few agricultural experimental stations. There is no published data about the chemical composition of Brazilian hulless barley varieties; however, research laboratories have studied their agronomical characteristics. The objectives of this study were to present the chemical characterization and effect of flour fractionation on protein concentration of six Brazilian hulless barley varieties, namely IAC IBON 214/82, IAC 8612/421, IAC 8501/31, IAC 8501/12, IAPAR 39-Acumaí, and IAC 8501/22. The analyses included: ash, ether extract, total protein, starch, total insoluble and soluble dietary fiber, and beta-glucans. Flour fractionation was carried out by sieving. The flour fractions were evaluated for crude protein, protein, and protein and non-protein nitrogen. Chemical composition varied (P Apesar de a cevada nua ser amplamente conhecida por seu potencial nutricional, no Brasil é apenas cultivada em poucas estações experimentais agronômicas. Em relação as variedades brasileiras de cevada nua, não se têm dados sobre a composição química, entretanto instituições de pesquisa têm estudado suas características agronômicas. Os objetivos deste estudo foram apresentar a caracterização química e o efeito no fracionamento da farinha obtida visando à concentração de proteína de seis variedades brasileiras de cevada nua: IAC IBON 214/82, IAC 8612/421, IAC 8501/31, IAC 8501/12, IAPAR 39-Acumaí, e IAC 8501/22. Foram realizadas análises de: cinzas, extrato etéreo, proteína total, amido, fibra alimentar total, solúvel e insolúvel e beta-glucanas. As frações das farinhas foram obtidas por peneiramento e avaliadas quanto aos teores de proteína bruta, proteína, nitrogênio protéico e não protéico. Houve variação entre as variedades testadas (P < 0,05. As variedades IAC 8501/22, IAC 8501/31 e IAC 8501/12 apresentaram o

  6. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    conditions continue to be key to discovering the roles of individual protein forms and posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation. Activity-based proteomics, particularly in combination with new gene editing technologies, has great potential to elucidate the network of enzymes in barley...

  7. Fungicides Sensitivity of Podosphaera xanthii and Its Resistance Induction on Hull-less Pumpkin%裸仁美洲南瓜白粉病菌对几种杀菌剂敏感性及抗药性诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁巧兰; 魏列新; 徐秉良

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The objective of this paper is to study the sensitivity of Podosphaera xanthii on hull-less pumpkin and its resistance generation to some fungicides. [Methods] Control effects of several fungicides to P. xanthii were tested by indoor pot control effects test method and detached leaves-brushing with conidial suspension and medium with fungicides method. [Results] Six kinds of fungicides difenoconazole 10% WG, mancozeb+myclobutanil 62.5% WP, myclobutanil 5% EC, TF-120 2% AS, thiophanate-methyl 70% WP and hexaconazole 5% ME had good control effects on pumpkin powdery mildew and their sensitivity of pumpkin powdery mildew were affected in different application time. [Conclusions] The control effects of six kinds of fungicides all reached more than 80%. The EC50 values of difenoconazole, mancozeb+myclobutanil, myclobutanil, TF-120, thiophanate-methyl and hexaconazole to P. xanthii treated in different time after inoculation were determined, the results showed that the sensitive time of myclobutanil and thiophanate-methyl, hexaconazole and mancozeb+myclobutanil, TF-120 to P. xanthii on hull-less pumpkin were 48, 96 and 120 h respectively after inoculation; while the sensitive time of difenoconazole and thiophanate-methyl were 24 h before inoculation. Using the same fungicide repeatedly could induce the light resistance of P. xanthii to hexaconazole, the resistance factor was 6.79.%[目的]研究南瓜白粉病菌对几种杀菌剂敏感性及抗药性产生情况.[方法]防效试验采用室内盆栽方法和离体叶片含药培养基法.[结果]筛选出10%苯醚甲环唑WG、62.5%锰锌·腈菌唑WP、5%腈菌唑EC、2%农抗120 AS、70%甲基托布津WP和5%己唑醇ME 6种杀菌剂对南瓜白粉病菌有较好防效.接种后不同施药时间能够影响南瓜白粉病菌对杀菌剂的敏感性.[结论]筛选出的6种杀菌剂防效均在80%以上;几种药剂在不同时间对南瓜白粉病的EC50值测定结果表明:5

  8. Brewing with fractionated barley

    OpenAIRE

    Donkelaar, van, CC René

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw barley, however, contains less endogenous enzymes and more undesired components for the use of beer brewing, compared to malted barley.  The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how ba...

  9. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHsourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads.

  10. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaslo, Per; Langkilde, Ane; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is mostly used in feed and malt production but has the ability to provide humans nutritional benefits. The current wheat based “barley” breads can unfortunately not exceed more than 20% barley flour mixed into the dough due to poor leavening properties. Therefore...... the opportunity to give a forecast of the taste of the bread, as the AA composition is known to control certain aspects of the taste. We uses a MSE approach on a time of flight instrument coupled to a UPLC and in gel digestion to identify and characterize the different D-hordeins responsible for baking quality...

  11. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  12. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental impact. Raw

  13. Bioactive phytochemicals in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Idehen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of whole grain barley reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases. The presence of barley fiber, especially β-glucan in whole grain barley, has been largely credited for these health benefits. However, it is now widely believed that the actions of the fiber component alone do not explain the observed health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain barley. Whole grain barley also contains phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, lignans, tocols, phytosterols, and folate. These phytochemicals exhibit strong antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cholesterol lowering abilities, which are potentially useful in lowering the risk of certain diseases. Therefore, the high concentration of phytochemicals in barley may be largely responsible for its health benefits. This paper reviews available information regarding barley phytochemicals and their potential to combat common nutrition-related diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity.

  14. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  15. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown under low ... Thousand-kernel malting weight loss (TKMWL) was 11 to 13% and is in the ... and refined wheat flour starch as a substrate (1:29) showed a reduction in peak ...

  16. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  17. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  18. Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative immunoassays to detect barley contamination in gluten-free beer with confirmation using LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Laura K; Sealey Voyksner, Jennifer A; Voyksner, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    To meet the need for the detection and quantitation of barley gluten in beer, qualitative screening and quantitative immunoassays based on the monoclonal antigluten antibody 401/21 (Skerritt) were validated in a single laboratory. Sample replicates were tested at each stage of beer production using multiple yeast strains and methods of end-stage protein removal. Quantitation was performed using barley-specific standards based on barley flour extracts. Immunoassay results were confirmed using LC/MS/MS for barley-specific peptides. The LOD for the qualitative screening test was 5 mg/L barley gluten. Recovery for the barley-spiked worts ranged from 81 to 128% in the quantitative ELISA assay; the LOD was methods were found to be fit for the purposes of detection of low levels of barley gluten in beer.

  19. An attenuated total reflectance mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy study of gelatinization in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, D; Roumeliotis, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-08-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of attenuated total reflectance and mid infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy and to understand the gelatinization and retro-gradation of flour barley samples and the relationship with malting quality. Samples were sourced from two commercial barley varieties exhibiting high hot water extract (HWE) namely Navigator (n=8), and Admiral (n=8). Samples were analysed using the Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA) and ATR-MIR analysis. These results showed that ATR-MIR spectroscopy is capable of characterising gel samples derived from barley flour samples having different malting characteristics. Infrared spectra can effectively represent a 'fingerprint' of the sample being analysed and can be used to simplify and reduce analytical times in the routine methods currently used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A semidwarf phenotype of barley uzu results from a nucleotide substitution in the gene encoding a putative brassinosteroid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Honda, Ichiro; Zeniya, Haruko; Yoneyama, Koichi; Saisho, Daisuke; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Takatsuto, Suguru; Hoshino, Tsuguhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2003-11-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles throughout plant growth and development. Despite the importance of clarifying the mechanism of BR-related growth regulation in cereal crops, BR-related cereal mutants have been identified only in rice (Oryza sativa). We previously found that semidwarf barley (Hordeum vulgare) accessions carrying the "uzu" gene, called "uzu" barley in Japan, are non-responding for brassinolide (BL). We then performed chemical and molecular analyses to clarify the mechanisms of uzu dwarfism using isogenic line pairs of uzu gene. The response of the uzu line to BL was significantly lower than that of its corresponding normal line. Measurement of BRs showed that the uzu line accumulates BRs, similar to known BR-insensitive mutants. The marker synteny of rice and barley chromosomes suggests that the uzu gene may be homologous to rice D61, a rice homolog of Arabidopsis BR-insensitive 1 (BRI1), encoding a BR-receptor protein. A barley homolog of BRI1, HvBRI1, was isolated by using degenerate primers. A comparison of HvBRI1 sequences in uzu and normal barley varieties showed that the uzu phenotype is correlated with a single nucleotide substitution. This substitution results in an amino acid change at a highly conserved residue in the kinase domain of the BR-receptor protein. These results may indicate that uzu dwarfism is caused by the missense mutation in HvBRI1. The uzu gene is being introduced into all hull-less barley cultivars in Japan as an effective dwarf gene for practical use, and this is the first report about an agronomically important mutation related to BRs.

  1. Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H; Granfeldt, Y; Björck, I

    1992-08-01

    In the present study, the potential of including intact kernels from different cereals was evaluated as a means of developing bread with 'lente' characteristics. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses to bread products were studied in healthy subjects. In parallel, the in-vitro enzymic starch availability was investigated. Also studied were the contents of in-vitro indigestible starch. Coarse bread (CB) products composed of 80% pre-boiled kernels from wheat, rye, oats or barley and 20% white wheat flour were baked. In the case of barley, two forms for pre-treatments was used, boiling and scalding. A bread with 80% wholemeal barley flour and 20% white wheat flour (WMB) was also included and a white wheat bread (WWB) was used as reference. The glycaemic and insulinaemic indexes (GI and II, respectively) were calculated from the 95 and 120 min incremental blood glucose and insulin areas. The GIs were significantly lower with CB from wheat, rye and barley than with WWB. In contrast, the GIs with CB from oats and WMB from barley were similar to that with WWB. The GIs and IIs were generally closely correlated. However, the II with CB from oats was significantly lower than with WWB despite similar GI. The GIs, and in particular IIs, were closely correlated with the hydrolysis rate index (HI) obtained in vitro, and this procedure can be recommended as a tool for ranking of starchy food. It is concluded that the botanical structure is an important determinant of the enzymic availability and hence of the metabolic responses. The in-vitro indigestible starch content was highest in CB from barley (1.2% dry weight basis) and lowest in CB from oats (0.5%).

  2. Barley peroxidase isozymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

  3. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  4. Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction.

  5. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  6. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte;

    2012-01-01

    of cell walls, starch and proteins. Of these proteins, 35% had not been identified in previous in planta or in vitro studies, 70% were predicted to contain signal peptides and a further 16% may be secreted in a nonclassical manner. Proteins identified in the 72 spots showing differential appearance...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley...... and wheat spikelets harvested at 2−6 days after inoculation. In addition, a clear difference in the accumulation of fungal biomass and the extent of fungal‐induced proteolysis of plant β‐amylase was observed in barley and wheat. The present study considerably expands the current database of F. graminearum...

  7. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pattern (pH 6-11) and identification of water-soluble barley seed and malt proteins by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Roepstorff, P.

    2004-01-01

    A protocol was established for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of barley seed and malt proteins in the pH range of 6-11. Proteins extracted from flour in a low-salt buffer were focused after cup-loading onto IPG strips. Successful separation in the second dimension was achieved using...

  8. HEALTH BENEFITS OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of lifestyle diseases is increasing day by day. Mostly the younger generation do not have much awareness about healthy nutritional supplements. One such important cereal grain not used mostly by youngsters is barley It is a good old grain with so many health benefits like weight reduction, decreasing blood pressure, blood cholesterol, blood glucose in Type 2 diabetes and preventing colon cancer. It is easily available and cheap grain. It contains both soluble and insoluble fiber, protein, vitamins B and E, minerals selenium, magnesium and iron, copper, flavonoids and anthocynins. Barley contains soluble fiber, beta glucan binds to bile acids in the intestines and thereby decreasing plasma cholesterol levels. Absorbed soluble fiber decreases cholesterol synthesis by liver and cleansing blood vessels. Insoluble fiber provides bulkiness in the intestines, thereby satiety. decreased appetite. It promotes intestinal movements relieving constipation, cleansing colonic harmful bacteria and reduced incidence of colonic cancer. It is a good source of niacin ,reducing LDL levels and increasing HDL levels. Selenium and vitamin E providing beneficial antioxidant effects. Magnesium, a cofactor for many carbohydrate metabolism enzymes and high fiber content contributes for its blood glucose reducing effect in Type 2 diabetes. It is having good diuretic activity and is useful in urinary tract infections. Barley contains gluten, contraindicated in celiac disease.

  9. Bulk carbohydrate grain filling of barley ß-glucan mutants studied by 1H HR MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Viereck, Nanna;

    2008-01-01

    ) during grain filling. For the first time, 1H HR MAS NMR spectra of flour from immature barley seeds are analyzed. Spectral assignments are made using two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Both α- and β-glucan biosynthesis were characterized by inspection of the spectra as well as by calibration......Temporal and genotypic differences in bulk carbohydrate accumulation in three barley genotypes differing in the content of mixed linkage β-(1→3),(1→4)-D-glucan (β-glucan) and starch were investigated using proton high-resolution, magic angle spinning, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H HR MAS NMR...

  10. Nutritional assessment of barley, talbina and their germinated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed kamal El-Sayed Youssef

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Talbina is a food product with high potential applications as a functional food. Talbina was prepared from two barley varieties namely: Giza126 and Giza130 by adding whole barley flour to water (1:10 w/v and (1:5 w/v for germinated barley then heating at  80° C for 5 minutes with continuous stirring until reaching a porridge like texture. The present investigation was carried out in an attempt to clearly the nutritional assessment of talbina as a functional food. The study included the determination of gross chemical composition, caloric value, mineral composition, vitamins composition and the amino acids composition. Meanwhile, computation of the chemical scores (CS and A/E ratios were carried out for raw, germinated barley, talbina, germinated talbina and commercial talbina. The data revealed that protein content of the all raw studied and processing treatments ranged from 8.75-18.34g/100g on dry weight basis. Besides, the all treatments recorded rather slight decrease in crude fat content. Likewise, ash and carbohydrates ranged between 2.29-2.86 and 73.40-82.66%, respectively. Whereas crude fiber had an increase after treatments and it ranged from 3.83-4.37%. On the other hand by making talbina iron, manganese, copper and zinc increased especially zinc, which recorded higher value than that recommended daily. Furthermore, germinated talbina130 recorded the highest amounts of vitamins B2, Nicotinic acid, B6 and folic acid. Moreover, the present study indicated that phenylalanine was the highest essential amino acid, followed by leucine.

  11. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  12. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    Genomic prediction uses markers (SNPs) across the whole genome to predict individual breeding values at an early growth stage potentially before large scale phenotyping. One of the applications of genomic prediction in plant breeding is to identify the best individual candidate lines to contribute...... to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina...

  13. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at roo

  14. Viscosity based quantification of endogenous β-glucanase activity in flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Anne; Ballance, Simon; Knutsen, Svein Halvor

    2015-01-22

    High molecular weight (MW) is a key parameter for cereal β-glucans physiological benefits like decreased serum cholesterol and attenuated post prandial blood glucose. However, the activity of endogenous flour enzymes during bread production results in a decrease of β-glucan MW. The depolymerization of a standard β-glucan solution by different flour extracts (wheat, barley and rye) was followed by measuring the viscosity decrease with a Rheometer. The slope of the inverse viscosity (1/η) against degradation time was used to quantify β-glucanase activity by comparison with slopes obtained with known concentrations of the β-glucanase Lichenase. Results correlated well with depolymerization rates estimated by HPSEC. The viscosity based method is rapid (20 min per sample), accurate (≤6% variation), and a powerful screening tool for identifying flour fractions with low β-glucanase activity, treatments that can inactivate β-glucanases in flour, or the development of β-glucanase inhibitors for the use in e.g. bread making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  16. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  17. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....

  18. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry; Determinacao das doses efetivas por ingestao de farinhas de cereais atraves da espectrometria de raios gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-07-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of {sup 228}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 7}Be and {sup 137}Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of {sup 60}Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with {chi}{sup 2} tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of {sup 228}Th and {sup 40}K were 3.5 {+-} 0.4 and 1469 {+-} 17 Bq.kg{sup -1} for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for {sup 137}Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y{sup -1}, for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and {sup 7}Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  19. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  20. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  1. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  2. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  3. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  4. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  5. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  6. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  7. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuhiro; Yamane, Miki; Yamaji, Nami; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Tagiri, Akemi; Schwerdt, Julian G.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Dormancy allows wild barley grains to survive dry summers in the Near East. After domestication, barley was selected for shorter dormancy periods. Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). The seed dormancy gene is expressed specifically in the embryo. The AlaAT isoenzymes encoded by the long and short dormancy alleles differ in a single amino acid residue. The reduced dormancy allele Qsd1 evolved from barleys that were first domesticated in the southern Levant and had the long dormancy qsd1 allele that can be traced back to wild barleys. The reduced dormancy mutation likely contributed to the enhanced performance of barley in industrial applications such as beer and whisky production, which involve controlled germination. In contrast, the long dormancy allele might be used to control pre-harvest sprouting in higher rainfall areas to enhance global adaptation of barley. PMID:27188711

  8. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  9. Comparison of ambient solvent extraction methods for the analysis of fatty acids in non-starch lipids of flour and starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Yonekura, Lina; Linforth, Robert; Carvalho da Silva, Margarida; Hill, Sandra; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Fisk, Ian Denis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipids are minor components of flours, but are major determinants of baking properties and end-product quality. To the best of our knowledge, there is no single solvent system currently known that efficiently extracts all non-starch lipids from all flours without the risk of chemical, mechanical or thermal damage. This paper compares nine ambient solvent systems (monophasic and biphasic) with varying polarities: Bligh and Dyer (BD); modified Bligh and Dyer using HCl (BDHCL); modified BD using NaCl (BDNaCl); methanol–chloroform–hexane (3:2:1, v/v); Hara and Radin (hexane–isopropanol, 3:2, v/v); water-saturated n-butanol; chloroform; methanol and hexane for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids (separated by lipid classes) from wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.). Seven ambient extraction protocols were further compared for their ability to extract total non-starch lipids from three alternative samples: barley flour (Hordeum vulgare L.), maize starch (Zea mays L.) and tapioca starch (Manihot esculenta Crantz). RESULTS For wheat flour the original BD method and those containing HCl or NaCl tended to extract the maximum lipid and a significant correlation between lipid extraction yield (especially the glycolipids and phospholipids) and the polarity of the solvent was observed. For the wider range of samples BD and BD HCl repeatedly offered the maximum extraction yield and using pooled standardized (by sample) data from all flours, total non-starch lipid extraction yield was positively correlated with solvent polarity (r = 0.5682, P lipid yields in the starches when compared to the flour samples, which is due to the differences in lipid profiles between the two sample types (flours and starches). PMID:24132804

  10. Analysis of oligomer proanthocyanidins in different barley genotypes using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry and near-infrared methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardo, Vito; Cevoli, Chiara; Pasini, Federica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Marconi, Emanuele; Fabbri, Angelo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2015-04-29

    Proanthocyanidins are a class of polyphenols present in many foodstuffs (i.e., tea, cocoa, berries, etc.) that may reduce the risk of several chronic diseases. Barley, with sorghum, rice, and wheat, are the only cereals that contain these compounds. Because of that, two barley genotypes, named waxy and non-waxy, were analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry (NP-HPLC-FLD-MS). Total proanthocyanidin content ranged between 293.2 and 652.6 μg/g of flour. Waxy samples reported the highest content (p determination coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.92 to 0.97, in test set validation. Because of that, this study highlights that NIR spectroscopy technology with multivariate calibration analysis could be successfully applied as a rapid method to determine proanthocyanidin content in barley.

  11. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.

  12. Proteolytic modification of selected legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Baraniak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pepsin (EC 3.4.1.1 and trypsin (EC 3.4.4.4 action on the chemical composition of legume flours was the aim of this study. The level of proteins and lipids in hydrolysed flours was changed significantly. In comparison to the raw flours also fatty acid composition in treated flours was altered. In the lentil flours both trypsin and pepsin digestion conditions have decreased the level of unsaturated fatty acid. It is noteworthy that in all investigated, hydrolysed flours ratio linoleic: oleic fatty acid was significantly decreased in comparison to unhydrolysed flours (about 40%-pea; 60%- -lentil. Our investigations were also focused on the potential implementations of IMAC method in the separation and purification of peptides. Generally, peptides separation profiles, performed on immobilized Zn (II, were dependent on the kind of flour and enzyme used in the hydrolysis process. In the lights of our results is clearly visible that investigated peptides had a weak affinity to the chelated metal ions. It is noteworthy, that in some cases the influences of chelating factor on separation profiles were noticeable.

  13. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  14. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry ... coaster or wood flour dish (see figure 1), toys, tool handles, toilet seats, trays, core doors ... They lack natural resin and to use their flour or.

  15. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  16. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  17. Analysis of Genetic diversity and reltionships in local Tunisian barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    Key words: Barley, RAPD markers, SSR markers, genetic diversity. INTRODUCTION. Barley ... surveyed by each kind of marker, their distribution ..... that belong to the Center. ..... tagged-site facilitated PCR for barley genome mapping. Theor.

  18. Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified. PMID:28327674

  19. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    , the defense capability of these compounds requires the activity of a specific β-glucosidase, and this β-glucosidase is not found in barley leaf tissue. Therefore, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley leaves is unclear. In contrast to acting as defense compounds, it has been suggested......) has been reported in the literature. In this thesis, the role of hydroxynitrile glucosides in the interaction between barley and Bgh is investigated. It is shown that the hydroxynitrile glucoside levels increase over time in barley leaves upon Bgh infection. In addition, isolation of fungal hyphae...

  20. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available et al., 1975), and affect the resultant beer by causing off-flavours and colours and, in some instances, gushing (Haikara, 1983; Vaag, 1985). Under cer- tain circumstances some fungal species and/or their products may... samples Dominant spccics Kernels inl?cctcd,? (?j6) Table I Fungi isolated from baa-ley kernels As high levels of infection in barley are detri- mental to good quality malt and beer. it is impor- tant to quantify fungal...

  1. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  2. Microwave Irradiation Treatment of Wood Flour and Its Application in PVC-Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shengfei; CHEN Wen; LIU Weihua; LI Huaxing

    2007-01-01

    The technique of microwave irradiation induced free radical bulk- polyaddition reactions in porous wood flour was used to modify wood flour. The behaviors of the modified wood flour under microwave irradiation, such as thermal stability and moisture sorption properties, were studied. A kind of semiinterpenetrating polymer network wood four (Semi-IPN-WF) can be formed through polymerization of MMA in the porous wood flour by microwave irradiation, and the thermal decomposition temperature of the semi-IPN-WF is considerably increased. PVC/Semi-IPN-WF composites were prepared by melt mixing in double rolls,which exhibit improved rheological properties, lower water sorption properties and outstanding mechanical performances.

  3. Incorporation of carrot pomace powder in wheat flour: effect on flour, dough and cookie characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Adil

    2016-10-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1.39)] than those containing 72 mesh. Water solvent retention capacity and sucrose solvent retention capacity increased while lactic acid solvent retention capacity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity decreased with blending of CPP. Water absorption, dough development time and degree of softening increased whereas, dough stability and mixing tolerance decreased with increasing CPP. The highest decrease in pasting was observed flour containing 72 mesh CPP. Rheology of dough containing 120 mesh CPP closely resembled the control. Color of flour and cookies increased with blending of CPP irrespective of mesh size. Antioxidant activity of cookies was higher than the flour blends. The cookies containing CPP of 72 mesh showed the lowest hardness. However, cookies containing CPP of 120 mesh showed the best sensory properties. Incorporation of 120 mesh CPP produced low gluten cookies with manageable flour and dough characteristics and better antioxidant and sensory properties.

  4. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  5. Molecular characterization of two lipoxygenases from barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mechelen, J.R. van; Schuurink, R.C.; Smits, M.; Graner, A.; Douma, A.C.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Schmitt, N.F.; Valk, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two full-length lipoxygenase cDNA sequences (LoxB and LoxC) from barley (Hordeum distichum cv. L. Triumph) are described. The cDNAs share high homology with the barley LoxA cDNA. Southern blotting experiments indicate single copy numbers of the three lipoxygenase genes. RFLP mapping revealed the pre

  6. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  7. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  8. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  9. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  10. Cisgenic barley for animal feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for Cisgenesis. Recently, Dionisio et al. (2011) have cloned and characterized phytases belonging to the purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) in barley. We have isolated the genomic PAP-clone of the isoform expressed during grain filling including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region...... using a genomic barley lambda library. The clone has been inserted into a Cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. T0-plants show...... increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1350 in wild type to 7500 FTU/kg in T0-plants. We have identified two Cisgenic T1-lines without selection gene and vector backbone but with one additional genomic clone of the phytase gene. Lines homozygous for the additional cisgene show 2-3 fold...

  11. Nutritional Properties of Enriched Local Complementary Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Compaoré

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the nutritional, functional, sensory and microbiological profile of experimental nutritional flours, produced with local products in Burkina Faso. The raw materials included maize (Zea mays, millet (Pennisetum glaucum and rice (Oryza sativa. Local ingredients were pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa and seeds of Cucurbita maxima and Moringa oleifera. Three formula were developed, the first (F1 with maize, the second (F2 with rice and the last (F3 with millet. Each of these cereals was mixed with predetermined portions of seeds and pulps in order to obtain enriched flour. Nutritional, microbiological and functional analysis and the acceptability criteria of these enriched flours were assessed and compared to Misola (F4, the existing local complementary flour. The fat content of experimental flours were respectively in the first (F1, second (F2 and third formula (F3 15.91±0.01%, 11.82±0.02% and 17.02±0.02%. The carbohydrate range was 65.46±0.06%, 70.81±0.01% and 64.51±0.01% for F1, F2 and F3, while the energetic value is higher than recommended (453.07±0.05, 424.56±0.03 and 458.96±0.05 kcal respectively for F1, F2 and F3. Functional characteristics indicated the good viscosity (117, 119 and 121 mm/30 sec for F1, F2 and F3 least gelation (9, 6 and 7% and water absorption capacity (2, 4 and 1 g/g. Trained sensory evaluation panellists gore the enriched flour porridge a score of acceptable. These enriched flours have great potential as a weaning food in resource-poor and technologically under-developed countries.

  12. Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical and functional characteristics were carried out on full fat and ... Defatted flours have higher water and oil absorption capacities compared with full fat ... Emulsion capacity ranged between 78-90% in full fat flours and 56-68% in

  13. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathwa...

  14. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    OpenAIRE

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution...

  15. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  16. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  17. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF PROTEIN-ENRICHED PEA FLOUR AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pretheep-Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term efficacy of the protein-enriched flour of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Bonneville in its toxicity, progeny reduction and organoleptic properties was evaluated by combining it with wheat flour and testing the admixture against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. The toxicity and progeny-reducing effects of the wheat flour treated with protein-enriched pea flour were stable for a period of 5 months when stored at 28°C with 75% r.h. Heat treatment destroyed the biological activity of the protein-enriched pea flour containing the active ingredient due to the denaturation of proteins. The organoleptic properties of stored wheat flour were not affected by the treatment with protein-enriched pea flour.

  18. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  19. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  20. Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle, rice flour beetle)--an occupational allergen in bakers: demonstration of IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Zachgo, W; Rotermund, H; Wiewrodt, R; Merget, R; Wahl, R; Burow, G; zur Strassen, R

    1991-01-01

    Specific IgE to proteins from Tribolium confusum (TC), a flour beetle, was detected in 9/125 sera of subjects exposed to rye and wheat flour. TC RAST was not inhibited by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, rye or wheat flour. Immunoblot experiments showed specific binding to three proteins from adult TC or pupae, not present in rye or wheat flour. These findings suggest that TC might act as an occupational allergen in a proportion of bakers.

  1. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  2. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). PMID:28234993

  3. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  4. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  5. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Macey A. Mahawan; Ma. Francia N. Tenorio; Jaycel A. Gomez; Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was m...

  6. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...

  7. 2015 nationwide survey revealed Barley stripe mosaic virus in Korean barley fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seed-transmitted virus has consistently caused significant economic damage to barley crops in Korea in recent years, and may be increasing because many farmers save seed for replanting. Because some barley seed is imported, there is the potential for introduction of new seed-transmitted viruses, c...

  8. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  9. Effects of soybean flour on the pancreas of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, E E; Morgan, R. G.; Wormsley, K G

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the growth-promoting and carcinogenic effects of feeding raw soya flour to rats. If the raw soya flour-containing diets are fed for more than a year, about 10% of the animals develop pancreatic cancer. In addition, feeding raw soya flour markedly potentiates the action of even subthreshold amounts of pancreatic carcinogens. The raw soya flour therefore acts as a potent promoter, as well as a weak carcinogen. In view of this promotion, the rat fed raw soya flour is a sensitive...

  10. Production of multiple extracellular enzyme activities by novel submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii for ethanol production from raw cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Makita, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Koutaro; Shoji, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Cassava is a starch-containing root crop that is widely used as a raw material in a variety of industrial applications, most recently in the production of fuel ethanol. In the present study, ethanol production from raw (uncooked) cassava flour by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using a preparation consisting of multiple enzyme activities from Aspergillus kawachii FS005 was investigated. The multi-activity preparation was obtained from a novel submerged fermentation broth of A. kawachii FS005 grown on unmilled crude barley as a carbon source. The preparation was found to consist of glucoamylase, acid-stable α-amylase, acid carboxypeptidase, acid protease, cellulase and xylanase activities, and exhibited glucose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) production rates of 37.7 and 118.7 mg/l/h, respectively, during A. kawachii FS005-mediated saccharification of uncooked raw cassava flour. Ethanol production from 18.2% (w/v) dry uncooked solids of raw cassava flour by SSF with the multi-activity enzyme preparation yielded 9.0% (v/v) of ethanol and 92.3% fermentation efficiency. A feasibility study for ethanol production by SSF with a two-step mash using raw cassava flour and the multi-activity enzyme preparation manufactured on-site was verified on a pilot plant scale. The enzyme preparation obtained from the A. kawachii FS005 culture broth exhibited glucose and FAN production rates of 41.1 and 135.5 mg/l/h, respectively. SSF performed in a mash volume of about 1,612 l containing 20.6% (w/v) dry raw cassava solids and 106 l of on-site manufactured A. kawachii FS005 culture broth yielded 10.3% (v/v) ethanol and a fermentation efficiency of 92.7%.

  11. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  12. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution. Samples with supplementation had lower lightness and higher Hunter a and b values. Carob flour addition decreased the viscosity and yield stress of tarhana soup samples. The results showed that carob flour addition affected all the parameters measured to various extents including sensory properties. Overall acceptability scores were most highly correlated with taste. According to the sensory analysis results, carob flour can be used successfully up to the amount of 15%.

  13. Impact of Quince Flour on Gluten-free Muffins Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain gluten free muffins, with increased nutritional and sensorial value by adding quince flour into a composite flour. To optimize the recipe, four experimental variants using rice, soy, quince flours and starch in different proportions have been proposed. Quince is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, polyphenolic compounds and fibres. The quince flour addition led to muffins with increased content in minerals and very good sensorial properties in terms of taste, flavour, texture and general acceptance. It could be concluded that quince flour is a suitable source for obtaining gluten free muffins. Quince flour addition in aglutenic muffin composite flour up to 10% did not affect negatively their phisico-chemical and sensorial  properties.

  14. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  15. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  16. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR) [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour)

    OpenAIRE

    Anni Faridah*; Simon Bambang Widjanarko

    2014-01-01

    Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf) substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour) to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie ...

  17. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  18. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may... calcium or wheat germ is excluded in calculating ash content. (f) All ingredients from which the food is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food...

  19. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  20. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  1. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.;

    1989-01-01

    represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise...

  2. Effects of n-butanol on barley microspore embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Ana Maria; Nielsen, Nanna; Jensen, Anni

    2014-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) production is an efficient tool in barley breeding, but efficiency of DH methods is not consistent. Hence, the aim of this study was to study the effect of n-butanol application on DH barley plant production efficiency. Five elite cultivars of barley and thirteen breeding cro...

  3. MS Based Imaging of Barley Seed Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuela Peukert; Andrea Matros; Hans-Peter Mock

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved analysis of metabolites and proteins is essential to model compartmentalized cellular processes in plants.Within recent years,tremendous progress has been made in MS based imaging (MSI) techniques,mostly MALDI MSI.The technology has been pioneered and is now widely applied in medicinal and pharmacological studies,and in recent years found its way into plant science (Kaspar et al.,2011; Peukert etal.,2012).We are interested in the elucidation of spatially resolved metabolic networks related to barley grain development.An understanding of developmentally and ecologically regulated processes affecting agronomical traits such as final grain weight,seed quality and stress tolerance is of outmost importance,as barley provides one of the staple foods.Barley also serves as a model plant for other cereals such as wheat.The presentation will introduce an untargeted MALDI MSI approach to the analysis of me-tabolite patterns during barley grain development.We analyzed longitudinal and cross sections from developing barley grains (3,7,10 and 14 days after pollination).In the presentation we will address spatial resolution,sensitivity and identification of unknown compounds will also be discussed.A major task is to connect the metabolite patterns to distinct cellular and physiological events.As an example,particular metabolite distributions indicative for nutrient transport into the developing endosperm will be shown.

  4. Evaluation of Barley as Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Köten

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley, as animal feed, raw material for malting and human food, constitute an important part among cereal sources in the world. Majority of barley that produced both in Turkey and other countries of the world, is being used as animal feed. Poor baking quality, taste and appearance of barley restricted its use in human nutrition. However, recently high protein, fiber, especially β-glucan and high starch content appeal to food industry. Many scientific researches established that β-glucan, a soluble fiber, has an effect in healing coronary-hearth diseases, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level, preventing obesity. Being a healthy cereal that can be used in various purposes, and an additive in many food products, barley is considered a very promising cereal, and research to increase possibilities of its use in human nutrition is being increased. In the literature, there has been researches on making noodles, bulgur, kavut (roasted cereal, breakfast cereals. In this study the researches relating to evaluation of barley, importance of which is increased every day, as human food was reviewed.

  5. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  6. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  7. Immigration of the barley mildew pathogen into field plots of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Immigration of the barley powdery mildew pathogen (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) into field plots of the spring barley variety Tyra (carrying the resistance allele Mla1) was investigated. Spores were trapped from the top of the plot canopies, as well as from control plots of wheat with no barley...... nearby. Comparison of the frequencies of virulent and avirulent single-colony isolates showed that the amount of immigration, relative to the amount of inoculum being produced within the plot, reduced very rapidly, until it could not be detected in the middle of the growing season (mid-June)....

  8. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...

  9. Some physicochemical properties of flour from germinated sorghum grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhalifa, Abd Elmoneim O; Bernhardt, Rita

    2013-02-01

    A Sudanese sorghum cultivar (Fetarita) was germinated for 3 days. Stability and clarity of sorghum pastes, freeze-thaw stability, gel consistency, and swelling power were measured every 24 h. There is no substantial difference in stability and clarity between flour samples from germinated and ungerminated sorghum, but a different behavior was observed between samples stored at room temperature and at 4 °C. Cooked paste derived from germinated sorghum flour presented higher syneresis than that derived from ungerminated sorghum flour over the first three cycles but when the cycle number increased, both flours showed zero syneresis value. For the gel consistency the flours derived from germinated sorghum produced thinnest gels. The neutral and acid gel consistency increased when the germination time increased. Germination had not much effect on the swelling power of sorghum flour.

  10. Variability of antinutritive compounds in flaxseed flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Russo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flaxseed flours in the diets of poultry and broilers may be limited by the presence of antinutritive compounds. The content of cyanogenic glycosides, phytic acid, condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors was evaluated in seven varieties of Linum usitatissimum. Phytic acid, condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors showed significant differences among varieties. Only the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides and phytic acid in the flour deserves attention, while the content of condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors are to acceptable levels. Since the flax meal is an important source of omega-3 for poultry and broilers, the cyanogenic glycoside and phytic acid contents in linseed has to be reduced to increase the ration to be included in the diet.

  11. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Maize Flour

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Relatively little work has been reported about flour changes during microwave irradiation. For this reason, maize flours were treated by microwave radiation at 400 W for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 min, and their microstructure and physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry and pasting properties) were analysed. Micrographs showed that maize flour treated by microwave radiation displayed less compacted particl...

  12. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  13. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC), FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na2CO3 (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay. PMID:28335393

  14. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah,; Yusraini, Era

    2016-01-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours ...

  15. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  16. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  17. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  18. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  19. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...

  20. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  1. Adaptation of barley to harsh Mediterranean environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterom, van E.

    1993-01-01

    Research ObjectivesBarley is in Syria the dominant crop in areas receiving less than 300 mm annual precipitation. Grain yield is often below 1 ton ha -1, and is reduced by low temperatures in winter and terminal drought stress in spring. Variation i

  2. Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.

  3. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  4. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  5. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  6. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  7. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  8. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... noodles were examined by adding apricot kernel flour (AKF) to the noodle formulation at the .... Moisture and protein content (N%x5.7) of wheat flour was deter- .... relatively low level of hydrophilic compounds (Manthey et.

  9. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  10. Fractionation of cottonseed flour for improving its adhesive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    As early as the 1950's, cottonseed flour (i. e. meal) was tested for use as wood adhesives. Recently, renewed interest exists in the use of plant proteins as wood adhesives, as these materials are renewable and biodegradable. In this research, we separated cottonseed flour into several fractions wit...

  11. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  12. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  13. Determination of weight gain after weaning with multinutrient blocks and barley silage Llamas (Lama glama, Linnaeus 1758 in the Condoriri Agricultural Experimental Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tola-Paz Ariel Gonzalo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It increased weaning weight BMN, ESC and traditional grazing in flames in the ECAC, and BANCAMEL was evaluated. Fieldwork in weaning flames 27 ± 2 months two weeks, randomized into 3 groups of nutritional supplementation BMN, ESC and witnesses without supplementation, weighing pups were performed every 15 days were used each to 06 hours : 00a 9:00 a.m. for 105 days. Multinutrient blocks were made: barley meal 12.5% ​​alfalfa meal 12.5% ​​flour, chaff quinoa 12.5% ​​flour, chaff bean 12.5%, clay 10%, urea 5% minerals 5% molasses 30%, 65% barley silage, urea 5% 30% molasses. Block witnesses was based on grazing, typical of the area. The BMN consumed 117.33 kg, 464.1 kg and ESC only witnesses were with the traditional grazing without supplement. The average weight increase of 0.41 kg in BMN flame, called ESC 0.25 kg, witnesses a weight loss of -2.6 kg per animal was taken. Registration weighing over 105 days, a decrease in weight was observed in witness’s kg 36.389-34.772 end, this may be due to traditional grazing system without supplementation. In the BM of 38.611-42.333 kg with an average increase of 3.722 kg unlike ESC, it increased from 36.056-33.8389 Kg 2.633 Kg. Supplementation with multinutrient blocks is satisfactorily acceptable unlike the treatment with barley silage, being much better compared to the controls (without supplement no fee.

  14. Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Narducci, Valentina; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2014-06-15

    Food industry is interested in the utilisation of legume flours for the improvement the nutritional quality of cereal based foods. In this context, this research aimed at investigating the beneficial properties of different commercial carob seed flours -Ceratonia siliqua L.-. In particular, we determined chemical parameters (protein, fat, ash, soluble and insoluble fibre) by standard AOAC methods, lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol) by HPLC methods, the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant properties by the FRAP assay. The carob germ flour and the raw carob seed flour reached the highest insoluble fibre, lignan and total polyphenols content and these results were matched by their antioxidant properties. Different carob flours showed a different distribution of the various lignans.

  15. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  16. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  17. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismagul, Ainur; Mazonka, Iryna; Callegari, Corinne; Eliby, Serik

    2014-01-01

    Barley biotechnology requires efficient genetic engineering tools for producing transgenic plants necessary for conducting reverse genetics analyses in breeding and functional genomics research. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is an important technique for producing barley transgenics with simple low-copy number transgenes. This chapter reports a refined protocol for the systematic high-throughput transformation of the advanced Australian spring barley breeding line WI4330.

  19. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  20. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  1. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify soluble beta-glucans in oats and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampitsch, Christof; Ames, Nancy; Storsley, Joanne; Marien, Lindsay

    2003-09-24

    A set of 31 murine monoclonal antibodies was produced against (1-->3,1-->4)beta-d-glucan from oats (Avena sativa L.) chemically cross-linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Monoclonal antibodies were tested for their cross-reactivity to related and unrelated polysaccharides. The antibodies reacted strongly to unmodified beta-glucan from oats and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to lichenan from Icelandic moss, a polysaccharide with a structure similar to that of beta-glucan but which is not encountered in cereals. Cross-reaction to other polysaccharides tested was minimal at physiological levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that could routinely detect and quantify nanogram levels of soluble beta-glucan extracted from the flour of oats or barley was designed with one of these monoclonal antibodies. The beta-glucan extraction procedure from ground oat and barley samples and the ELISA were both optimized for reproducibility, accuracy, and throughput, and results were compared to values obtained from an established, commercially available enzyme-based assay. Correlations between the two assays were consistently high (r (2) > 0.9), indicating that the ELISA presented in this paper is a valuable alternative for assaying beta-glucan levels in cereals and cereal products, both routinely and in preparations in which beta-glucans are present in nanogram amounts. Development of the extraction procedure for ELISA is discussed.

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  3. Changes of Limiting Dextrinase in Germinating Process of Malting Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiu-mei; LI Fen; WANG Hong-zhen; WANG Xing-zhi

    2002-01-01

    Based on five different species of barley, the foot layer analytic method was used to examine the activity and heat-resistance of the limiting dextrinase. The study was conducted on the dynamic changes of several types of the dextrinase in barley germinating process, the effect of temperature on the dextrinase and the divergence of dextrinase in different barley variety. The probability of the dextrinase that as reference index is used for screening and evaluating beer barley was discussed. The importance of dextrinase in brewing and its significant function was also discussed.

  4. FERTILIZING BREWING BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kádár

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four levels of N, P and K nutrition (poor, moderate, satisfactory and high and all their possible combinations with 64 treatments in two replications (128 plots were studied in a long term field trial on barley yield and malting quality. A standard East-European spring barley "Opal" (bred in Czechoslovakia was grown in 1986, 13th year of the agricultural experiment, involving various crops in previous years, on a calcareous loamy chernozem soil. The optimum fertility levels for yield enhancement resulted in the poorest malting quality: low modification and extract but long saccharification time and high protein. To solve this problem the brewing industry will have to apply the well-known technological methods available since growers are not likely to give up their fertilizers. Applying soil and plant analysis data, having knowledge about both soil and plant optimum values, the danger of the excessive use of fertilizers can be realized and decreased.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: barley [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barley Hordeum vulgare Hordeum_vulgare_L.png Hordeum_vulgare_NL.png Hordeum_vulgare_S.png Hordeum_vu...lgare_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=L http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vu...lgare&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hordeum+vulgare&t=NS ...

  6. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  7. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  8. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  9. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... to the cytosol and the nucleus of barley epidermal cells. Furthermore, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 accumulated in the extrahaustorial matrix in Bgh-infected cells. This implies that their virulence targets may localize in the same cellular compartments. Using yeast two-hybrid screens, two barley small heat shock...... misfolding and aggregation. Through their chaperone activity, some sHsps contribute to pathogen defence by stabilizing intracellular proteins, including resistance and defence signalling proteins. In this study, we validated the chaperone activity of the barley Hsp16.9, which prevented the aggregation...

  10. Stability of Barley stripe mosaic virus induced gene silencing in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Rasmussen, Marianne; Madsen, Christian Toft; Jessing, Stine

    2007-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can be used as a powerful tool for functional genomics studies in plants. With this approach, it is possible to target most genes and downregulate the messenger (m)RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is an established VIGS vector...... for barley and wheat; however, silencing using this vector is generally transient, with efficient silencing often being confined to the first two or three systemically infected leaves. To investigate this further, part of the barley Phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene was inserted into BSMV and the resulting...... inoculation, although large parts of the insert had been lost from the virus vector. The instability of the insert, observed consistently throughout our experiments, offers an explanation for the transient nature of silencing when using BSMV as a VIGS vector....

  11. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    1996-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four dif

  12. The NAC transcription factors of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael; Holm, Preben Bach; Gregersen, Per L.

    2011-01-01

    ). From these data we have identified not only putative regulators of leaf senescence (HvNAC005, HvNAC027 and HvNAC029), but also possible regulators of secondary wall synthesis (HvNAC033, HvNAC034 and HvNAC039), lateral root formation (HvNAC022) and seed development (HvNAC017, HvNAC018, HvNAC019 and Hv...... genes characterized so far have regulatory functions in a broad range of plant developmental processes and tolerances to both biotic and abiotic stresses. This makes the NAC family highly interesting target genes for plant researchers and breeders. As part of a larger project on the identification...... of Hordeum vulgare (barley) leaf senescence regulators, we have attempted to characterize for the first time all presently available barley NAC genes (HvNACs). By searching the NCBI barley EST database using the tBLASTn function, with all known NAC genes from Brachypodium and rice as input, in combination...

  13. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P flour. The emulsion stability and cooking yield was greater (P flours. The colour and appearance and flavour scores were lower (P flour than canola oil incorporated CMP. The texture scores were not influenced (P flour.

  14. Use of indigenous technology for the production of High Quality Cassava Flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Chinedum Eleazu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the paper was to compare the food qualities of 2 varieties (SME 1 and 2 of high quality cassava flour (HQCF produced from indigenous technology and that of some commercially sold wheat/HQCF samples. Material and methods. The pH, proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant, functional properties and starch yield of the flours were carried out using standard techniques. Results. The wheat flours had higher bulk densities and lipids than the HQCF samples while the oil absorption capacity of the HQCF (SME 2 was higher than other fl our samples investigated. The antioxidant assays of the flours showed that they contained considerable levels of antioxidants with the HQCF sample from DAT having higher antioxidants than other flour samples studied. The HQCF (SME 1 had signifi cantly higher (P < 0.05 starch content among the flour samples. The bacteria counts of the HQCF samples ranged from 0 to 1.4 × 104 cfu/ml while the fungal count ranged from 0 to 2 × 10-3 with the unbranded wheat fl our having the highest microbial load compared with other flour samples studied. Conclusion. The use of this indigenous technology produces HQCF with lower lipids, microbial contamination but higher flavour retaining ability, flavonoids and starch contents than wheat flour. The signifi cant positive correlation (R2 = 0.872 between reducing power of the samples and their DPPH antioxidant activity indicate that either could be used to assay for the total antioxidant activity of cassava and wheat flour. The study underscores the need to buy flour from branded companies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination.

  15. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  16. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  17. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  18. Iron bioavailability and utilization in rats are lower from lime-treated corn flour than from wheat flour when they are fortified with different sources of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya

    2003-01-01

    Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.

  19. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  20. Pasta added with chickpea flour: chemical composition, In vitro starchdigestibility and predicted glycemic index

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pasta was prepared with of durum wheat flour mixed with chickpea flour at two different levels and its chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index were assessed. Protein, ash, lipid, and dietary fiber content increased while total starch decreased with the chickpea flour level in the composite pasta, all in accordance to the composition of the legume flour. Potentially available starch decreased and resistant starch (RS) increased by adding chickpea flour ...

  1. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, I.; Hrušková, Marie; Jurinová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated am...

  2. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  3. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Simone de Souza Montes; Laís Maciel Rodrigues; Ryzia de Cássia Vieira Cardoso; Geany Peruch Camilloto; Renato Souza Cruz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioc...

  4. 7 CFR 457.118 - Malting barley crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Barley Price and Quality Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement. Refer to section 2 of the Common... all quality criteria contained herein or grades U.S. No. 4 or lower in accordance with the grades and... coverage for malting barley production and quality losses at a price per bushel greater than that offered...

  5. Barley metallothioneins differ in ontogenetic pattern and response to metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Pedas, Pai

    2014-01-01

    The barley genome encodes a family of 10 metallothioneins (MTs) that have not previously been subject to extensive gene expression profiling. We show here that expression of MT1a, MT2b1, MT2b2 and MT3 in barley leaves increased more than 50-fold during the first 10 d after germination. Concurrent...

  6. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate ...

  7. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  8. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a pre

  9. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  10. PENGGUNAN GUM XANTHAN PADA SUBSTITUSI PARSIAL TERIGU DENGAN TEPUNG JAGUNG DALAM PEMBUATAN ROTI [Use of Xanthan Gum in Partial Substitusion of Corn Flour for Wheat Flour in Breadmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posman Sibuea

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine the capabilities of composite flour (i.e. corn flour and wheat flour and xanthan gum in breadmaking. Breads were produced using mixture of wheat and corn flour at varios ratio with addition of xanthan gum at different level (0.0% to 0.75%. The result showed that the composite flour had significant effect on all measured parameters. As the wheat flour descreaseed down to 65% the dought length, texture, reducing sugar content increased, but the sensory values descresed, xanthan gum had significant effect on the texture, reducing sugar content, the sensory values and the dough length. As the xanthan gum increased, the dough length, the reducing sugar content increased, whereas the texture increased at 0.50% the descreased at 0.75%. the bread of good acceptability was produced from the floaur mixture of wheat flour (70% and corn flour (30% using 0.75% of xanthan gum.

  11. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1973-01-01

    BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in m...

  12. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four hom...

  13. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  14. Glycemic Index of (Zummita A Commonly Barley Based Consumed Traditional Libyan Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Libya especially in Benghazi, Zummita is a traditional Libyan food consisting of 85% whole barley flour and is commonly consumed as a breakfast meal, and. Due to an increase in Type 2 diabetes and a lack of information on the effects of Zummita consumption on glycemic response, this study was performed to determine the glycemic index (GI of Zummita. Fasted healthy subjects (6 males and 6 females volunteered to consume either glucose or Zummita. The blood glucose concentrations were analyzed using capillary blood samples immediately before, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose or Zummita consumption. The GI value of Zummita was calculated by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (IAUC value for Zummita as a percentage of each subject’s average IAUC value for the glucose. The GI value of Zummita was found as 46.90 ± 7.56. This result indicates that Zummita should be classified as low GI food. More importantly, our result provides the GI value of a Libyan traditional food which was not determined previously. This valuable information will be significant for management and the prevention of diabetes mellitus in Libya and other countries having similar food tradition.

  15. A novel major gene on chromosome 6H for resistance of barley against the barley yellow dwarf virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Habekuss, A.; Bekele, B.; Ordon, F.

    2004-01-01

    In a mapping population derived from the Ethiopian barley line L94 x Vada, natural infection by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) occurred. While line L94 hardly showed symptoms, Vada was severely affected. The 103 recombinant inbred lines segregated bimodally. The major gene responsible for this res

  16. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kirsten A; Hrmova, Maria; Nielsen, Janni Nyvang; Forslund, Karin; Ebert, Stefan; Olsen, Carl E; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces a leucine-derived cyanogenic beta-D-glucoside, epiheterodendrin that accumulates specifically in leaf epidermis. Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase. Cyanogenesis was reconstituted in barley leaf epidermal cells through single cell expression of a cDNA encoding dhurrinase-2, a cyanogenic beta-D-glucosidase from sorghum. This resulted in a 35-60% reduction in colonization rate by an obligate parasite Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. A database search for barley homologues of dhurrinase-2 identified a (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII that is located in the starchy endosperm of barley grain. The purified barley (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII was found to hydrolyze the cyanogenic beta-D-glucosides, epiheterodendrin and dhurrin. Molecular modelling of its active site based on the crystal structure of linamarase from white clover, demonstrated that the disposition of the catalytic active amino acid residues was structurally conserved. Epiheterodendrin stimulated appressoria and appressorial hook formation of B. graminis in vitro, suggesting that loss of cyanogenesis in barley leaves has enabled the fungus to utilize the presence of epiheterodendrin to facilitate host recognition and to establish infection.

  17. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  18. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-01-01

    .... The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize...

  19. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn.

  20. Metals in wheat flour; comparative study and safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Raquel L; Luis, G; González-Weller, Dailos; Caballero, José M; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements) and to the PTWI (toxic elements) has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. CASSAVA FLOUR AS A DIRECT SUBSTITUTE OF MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Live-weight, feed intake and mortality were recorded and feed conversion ... Increased proportion of cassava flour in the diet resulted in a decrease in weight gain, feed ... imports maize grain to overcome shortages. ..... Unfermented whole root.

  2. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  3. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, J M; Sahi, S S; García-Alvarez, J; Turó, A; Chávez, J A; García, M J; Salazar, J

    2007-06-01

    Within the baking industry, the control of dough properties is required to achieve final product quality and consistency. Traditional methods for dough testing are slow and off-line and do not provide fundamental rheological information. There is therefore a need for the development of fast and on-line instruments capable of providing relevant data for baking. Ultrasonics provide a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. In this work, the water content of dough is investigated using ultrasonic techniques. The capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes is also studied. Doughs from more than 30 flours were characterised rheologically using a Chopin Alveograph and a Brabender Extensograph. Ultrasound measurements on the doughs prepared from these flours were also performed. The measurements were correlated, showing that ultrasound was an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  4. Metals in wheat flour: comparative study and safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Tejera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements and to the PTWI (toxic elements has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals.

  5. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  6. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelina Novelina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 70% of wheat flour with 30% of cassava and red beans flour mixture at various levels. The observations was carried out on raw materials and the instant noodle products, including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content as well as by different organoleptic test of the flavour, aroma, texture and colour. The results showed that the noodles product that was the most qualified and preferred was the product with the treatment D (a mixture of 70% of wheat flour; 20% of cassava flour and 10% of red bean flour, with the test results of 2.24% of moisture content, 1.07% of ash content, 9.36% of protein content, 17.77% of fat content, carbohydrate content by different of 69.95%, and 71.53% of yield.

  7. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  8. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  9. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acid...... DP 2, DP 3 and DP 5 were successfully applied to detect activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic α-amylase, human salivary α-amylase and Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase, respectively in a fast and simple fluorometric assay....

  10. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; van Maaren, M S; Vlieg-Boersta, B J; Dubois, A E J; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2010-10-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine flour. From October 2004 until October 2005, we performed skin prick tests (SPT) with lupine flour, peanut and soy extracts in consecutive patients attending our allergy clinic with a suspected food allergy. In patients sensitized to lupine flour, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) were performed and specific IgE was measured. We tested 372 patients. SPTs with peanut, soy and lupine flour were positive in 135, 58 and 22 patients, respectively. Nine patients with sensitization to lupine flour underwent DBPCFC, which was negative in eight cases. In contrast, one patient experienced significant symptoms. Four of these nine patients suspected lupine by history. Two other patients with a positive history to lupine declined from challenges. In these patients, a 3-day dietary record showed that they could consume lupine without symptoms. Specific IgE in the serum was positive for L. angustifolius, peanut and soy in all nine patients. These results demonstrate that clinical lupine allergy is very uncommon, even in the presence of sensitization to lupine flour. The estimated prevalence of lupine allergy, among patients with a suspected food allergy, referred to a tertiary allergy centre in the Netherlands is 0.27-0.81%. In most, although not all cases, sensitization is not clinically relevant and is most likely caused by cross-sensitization to peanut. In selected cases, eliciting doses are low, making significant reactions possible. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  12. Development of Gluten Free Cookies From Rice And Coconut Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the addition of rice and coconut flour blends on cookies formulation, composition and acceptability. For the cookie formulations the following ratios between coconut flour and rice flour were used: 100:0, 50:50, 30:70. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, total carbohydrates of raw flours and cookies were determined by AACC (2000 methods, while sensorial evaluation was carried out using a 9 points hedonic test. Coconut flour was characterized by a high content of ash (5.09% and proteins (17.2% comparatively to rice flour. Blending coconut and rice flours at different proportions led to cookies with enhanced protein, ash and fat content. Sensory analysis revealed that blends of rice and coconut flour can be successfully incorporated into gluten free cookies, resulting in products with pleasant flavor and taste. Coconut flour possesses good nutritional properties which could be utilized for value addition of baked goods.

  13. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  15. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  16. Taro Tube Flour Modification via Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Sri Budiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Colocasia esculentum (L Schott known as “Talas bogor” in Indonesian language is easily grown in every island in Indonesia. It proved to have high content of carbohydrate as it can be utilize for wheat flour replacement in addition to prior modification using hydrogen peroxide. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of taro flour by assessing the effect of several parameter such as ratio of slurry, oxidation agent concentration, oxidation time and temperature. The result shows that using ratio of slurry 20% with 2% of H2O2 concentration in temperature of oxidation process 30oC and 60 min operation time can produced good quality of modified taro tube flour in terms of swelling power and water solubility with 7.2 g/g and 6.93% respectively. This condition has chosen by taking the technical and economic feasibility as consideration. This result also can be used as proof of evidence that using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent in the process of taro tube flour modification can improve the functional properties of the flour. As the swelling power and water solubility of original taro tube flour were 3.7 g/g and 1.8% respectively.

  17. Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process:Relation of Flour Yield,Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend%Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process: Relation of Flour Yield, Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y S Kim; C W Deyoe; O K Chung; E Haque

    2006-01-01

    The profit margin in the flour milling industry is quite narrow, so high-quality raw materials and efficiency of milling operations are crucial for every company. Many flour mills, especially those which import wheat from other countries and have limited storage space for the different varieties or classes of wheat, can not afford to buy low quality wheat. Consequently, a mathematical model which can test the impact and interactions of raw materials, in technical point of view, would be a useful decision-making tool for the milling industry. A flour miller tests wheat for physical and chemical characteristics, cleanness and soundness. The miller also performs experimental milling, if available, to have some idea how the given wheat will behave during commercial milling. Based on these test results, the miller can only guess the commercial milling results such as flour yields and flour ash and protein contents. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop empirical equations to estimate commercial milling results, using the physical, chemical and experimental milling data of the given wheat blend and also, additionally, flour ash and protein specifications of the end-user. This was done by using the actual commercial milling procedures and their wheat physical, chemical, experimental milling data, and other vital data. Data were collected from a commercial mill located in East Asia that had four production lines and used wheat blend combinations from five different wheat classes, i.e. Hard Red Winter (HRW),Dark Northern Spring (DNS), Soft White (SW), Australian Soft (AS), and Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat to produce over 40 different products. The wheat physical and chemical characteristics included test weight, thousand kernel weight, ash and protein contents. The experimental milling data were straight-grade and patent flour yields, along with patent flour ash and protein contents from a Buhler experimental mill. The commercial milling results included

  18. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  19. The effects of lentil and chickpea flours as the breading materials on some properties of chicken meatballs during frozen storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Hepsağ, Fatma; Kurt, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential values of yellow lentil flour (Y) and chickpea flour (C) as breading materials the effects of yellow lentil and chickpea flours on the quality of fresh and frozen chicken meatballs were studied...

  20. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  2. EFFECT OF CHICKPEA AND PEA FLOUR ADDITION ON THE QUALITATIVE AND SENSORY PARAMETERS OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kuchtová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine chemical composition and functional properties of legume flours (chickpea, pea and fine wheat flour. The effect of chickpea and pea flour incorporation at different levels (10, 20, 30 % w/w on the qualitative parameters and sensory characteristics of bakery product was also investigated. It can be concluded, that incorporation of leguminous flours led to changes of the investigated qualitative and sensory parameters, especially in samples with higher amount of leguminous flour (20 and 30 %. Results showed, that a proper alternative to standard bakery products  are products with 10 % portion of leguminous flour.doi:10.5219/185

  3. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  4. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  5. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. PMID:28231092

  6. Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2005-03-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  8. STUDIES ON SYNBIOTIC BARLEY GRAIN EXTRACT AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated that effect of prebiotic food containing oligosaccharide to enhance the growth and activity of probiotic strains. Barley grains probioticated using different strains of probiotics are Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Candida kefir,and saccharomyces boluradii. To select a suitable prebiotics like inulin for the development of Synbiotic barley and tested for antibacterial activity against diarrhoea causing pathogen such as Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae. Analysis of identified compound from synbiotic barley grain using GC-MS.

  9. Comparison of beer quality attributes between beers brewed with 100% barley malt and 100% barley raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elisabeth; Auer, Andrea; Becker, Thomas; Gastl, Martina

    2012-03-15

    Brewing with 100% barley using the Ondea® Pro exogenous brewing enzyme product was compared to brewing with 100% barley. The use of barley, rather than malt, in the brewing process and the consequences for selected beer quality attributes (foam formation, colloidal stability and filterability, sensory differences, protein content and composition) was considered. The quality attributes of barley, malt, kettle-full-wort, cold wort, unfiltered beer and filtered beer were assessed. A particular focus was given to monitoring changes in the barley protein composition during the brewing process and how the exogenous OndeaPro® enzymes influenced wort protein composition. All analyses were based on standard brewing methods described in ASBC, EBC or MEBAK. To monitor the protein changes two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. It was shown that by brewing beer with 100% barley and an appropriate addition of exogenous Ondea® Pro enzymes it was possible to efficiently brew beer of a satisfactory quality. The production of beers brewed with 100% barley resulted in good process efficiency (lautering and filtration) and to a final product whose sensory quality was described as light, with little body and mouthfeel, very good foam stability and similar organoleptic qualities compared to conventional malt beer. In spite of the sensory evaluation differences could still be seen in protein content and composition. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

    2001-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties.

  11. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  12. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  13. A barley SKP1-like protein controls abundance of the susceptibility factor RACB and influences the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Tina; Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    In an increasing number of plant-microbe interactions, it has become evident that the abundance of immunity-related proteins is controlled by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. In the interaction of barley with the biotrophic barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the RAC/ROP [RAT SARCOMA-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate/RAT SARCOMA HOMOLOGUE (RHO) of plants] guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) HvRACB supports the fungus in a compatible interaction. By contrast, barley HvRBK1, a ROP-binding receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase that interacts with and can be activated by constitutively activated HvRACB, limits fungal infection success. We have identified a barley type II S-phase kinase 1-associated (SKP1)-like protein (HvSKP1-like) as a molecular interactor of HvRBK1. SKP1 proteins are subunits of the SKP1-cullin 1-F-box (SCF)-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that acts in the specific recognition and ubiquitination of protein substrates for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Transient induced gene silencing of either HvSKP1-like or HvRBK1 increased protein abundance of constitutively activated HvRACB in barley epidermal cells, whereas abundance of dominant negative RACB only weakly increased. In addition, silencing of HvSKP1-like enhanced the susceptibility of barley to haustorium establishment by Bgh. In summary, our results suggest that HvSKP1-like, together with HvRBK1, controls the abundance of HvRACB and, at the same time, modulates the outcome of the barley-Bgh interaction. A possible feedback mechanism from RAC/ROP-activated HvRBK1 on the susceptibility factor HvRACB is discussed.

  14. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  15. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  16. Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

    2010-11-24

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid.

  17. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  18. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  19. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  20. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  2. EFFECT OF THE INDUSTRIAL MILLING PROCESS ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ionescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the milling process a large number of milling streams are obtained. These fractions are usually combined into a single composite product, but it is possible to select for blending certain fractions to obtaining different types of flours. In this work the rheological behavior, of the industrial flours obtained in different extraction levels was analyzed using Mixolab and Alveograph devices. Our results showed that the flour extraction rate is an important factor influencing rheological behavior. When by the milling process were obtained two types of flour, the flour with high ash content presented higher values of C3, C4 and C5 torques compared to flour with lower ash content. Therefore, the quality of the white flour obtained from wheat milling at different extraction levels highly depends on the flour fractions that are selected for blending.

  3. Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of rats and ... CR flour was processed using traditional Nigerian method of processing. ... Analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to ...

  4. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-01-28

    Jan 28, 2015 ... Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting. ... especially in environments rich in glucose or disac- charides such as sucrose ..... numbers produce less lactic acid, which in turn is less stringent on ...

  5. Evaluation of fermented whole crop wheat and barley feeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    이창희

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... After maize, wheat and barley are produced in large quantities and account ... Through fermentation, beneficial bacteria are increased and harmful .... LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, cortisol, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

  6. Occurrence of four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin, in wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Koji; Taniguchi, Masaru; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Kai, Shigemi; Ogiso, Motoki; Sato, Takashi; Akiyama, Yu; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2014-11-01

    A survey of the contamination of wheat, barley, and Japanese retail food by four Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin (T-2), and HT-2 toxin (HT-2), was performed between 2010 and 2012. A method for the simultaneous determination of the four mycotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated by a small-scale interlaboratory study using two spiked wheat samples (DON was spiked at 20 and 100 μg/kg and ZEN, T-2, and HT-2 at 6 and 20 μg/kg in the respective samples). The recovery of the four mycotoxins ranged from 77.3 to 107.2%. A total of 557 samples of 10 different commodities were analyzed over 3 years by this validated method. Both T-2 and HT-2 were detected in wheat, wheat flour, barley, Job's tears products, beer, corn grits, azuki beans, soybeans, and rice with mixed grains. Only T-2 toxin was detected in sesame seeds. The highest concentrations of T-2 toxin (48.4 μg/kg) and HT-2 toxin (85.0 μg/kg) were present in azuki beans and wheat, respectively. DON was frequently detected in wheat, wheat flour, beer, and corn grits. The contamination level of wheat was below the provisional standard in Japan (1,100 μg/kg). The maximum contamination level of DON was present in a sample of a Job's tears product (1,093 μg/kg). ZEN was frequently detected in Job's tears products, corn grits, azuki beans, rice with mixed grains, and sesame seeds. A sample of a Job's tears product presented the highest ZEN contamination (153 μg/kg). These results indicate that continuous monitoring by multiple laboratories is effective and necessary due to the percentage of positive samples detected.

  7. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  8. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES ON THE CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM DUVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Royal N.

    1924-01-01

    The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) was chosen for this study because it lives in a food which ordinarily contains no living organisms. The death rates are greater in cultures which are handled daily than in those which are not handled but when all are handled alike the results are comparable. The results from experiments with individual beetles in various kinds of flour were plotted with instars (larval stages) on the ordinate and time in days on the abscissa, using the results from control experiments in wheat flour to determine the length of the various instars from an "x = y" formula. The curves of development were found to be straight lines throughout all but the last instar. The curve for the last instar during which the larva transformed deviated from the straight line in certain foods, notably rice flour. When mass cultures were used the death and transformation curves were plotted for each synthetic food. A comparison of the curves from wheat flour and the synthetic foods shows that the first parts of the curves are very much alike in all cases and that a few resemble the control in every respect except that the transformation curve has been moved back for a considerable time. The death curves for the mass cultures are not smooth but show sudden increase in death at approximately the times of molting. These curves may therefore be compared with the records from individual beetles. PMID:19872096

  9. Thermal Diffusivity of Sweet Potato Flour Measured Using Dickerson Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Tastra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.

  10. TEKNOLOGI MODIFIKASI TEPUNG KASAVA Modified Cassava Flour Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Haryadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava productivity is very potential to support food security. Processing of cassava into flour makes the food more durable, less voluminous and easier to handle, and flexible to cook. To extend the use of cassava flour, it is necessary to develop technology to produce quality cassava flour suitable for various food purposes. A certain flour finess is desired to free the starch granules and to allow the granule’s cooking characteristics to express significantly. Modification of cassava flour technology may involve physical, biological, chemical aspects, as well as combination of the aspects. ABSTRAK Potensi produksi kasava sangat besar untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pendukung ketahanan pangan. Pengolahannya men­ jadi tepung memungkinkan lebih awet, lebih ringkas dan lebih mudah diangkut, serta lebih luwes untuk diolah. Untuk memperluas penggunaan tepung kasava, perlu pengembangan teknologi produksi tepung bermutu yang dapat diman­ faatkan dalam berbagai olahan makanan. Tepung dikehendaki pada kelembutan tertentu, sehingga granula-granula pati terlepas dari jaringan awalnya, dan selanjutnya ciri-ciri granula dalam pemasakan menjadi nyata. Modifikasi pembuatan tepung kasava dapat dilakukan secara fisik, biologis maupun kimiawi, ataupun gabungan dari aspek-aspek tersebut.

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  12. Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Asakavičiūtė, Rita; Pašakinskienė, Izolda

    2006-01-01

    The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled haploids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko’s method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda’s method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential according to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in four Lithuanian spring barley cultivars (‘Aura’, ‘Aidas’, ‘Alsa’ and ‘Auksiniai’) ...

  13. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety......, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate...

  14. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  15. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...... for estimating a linkage map; it involves (1) transformation by the Kosambi mapping function of the available recombination percentages to additive map distances, (2) calculations of a set of map distances from the transformed recombination percentages by a maximum likelihood method in which all the available...... data are utilized jointly, and (3) omission of inconsistent data and determination of the most likely order of the loci. This procedure was applied to the 42 recombination percentages available for the 13 “mapped” loci. Due to inconsistencies 14 of the recombination percentages and, therefore, two...

  16. INFLUENCE OF IMPACT MODIFIER AND COUPLING AGENT ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF WOOD FLOUR / RECYCLED PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Saman GHAHRI; Saeed KAZEMI NAJAFI; Mohebby, Behbood

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the improvement of impact strength of wood flour/recycled polypropylene (PP) composites was investigated. The PP (virgin and recycled polypropylene) and wood flour (WF) were compounded at 50% by weight wood flour loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in the presence MAPP and two types of impact modifiers (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM)), to produce wood flour-PP composites specimen. The results showed t...

  17. Evaluation of Textural and Sensory Properties on Typical Spanish Small Cakes Designed Using Alternative Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Moreno, María del Mar; Barreto Palacios, Vivian Janeth; González Carrascosa, Rebeca; Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; Andrés Bello, María Desamparados; Martínez Monzó, Javier; García-Segovia, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheat flour substitution with toasted corn, quinoa, and sorghum flours on the overall perception and texture of typical Spanish small cakes named madeleine. In order to evaluate these characteristics, a texture profile analysis (TPA) and a sensory analysis were carried out. TPA showed that the replacement of wheat flour by sorghum flour did not affect significantly texture parameters of cakes. Hedonic sensory tests were al...

  18. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  19. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eThiel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection(LM-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS pathways in transfer cell development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for ABA and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for

  20. The effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from different qualities of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Zhuang, Shiwen; Hansen, Preben Bøje;

    Barley sorting is an important step for picking up grain of desired quality. Whilst brewing with 100% sorted barley (picked high quality) has become realistic with the addition of exogenous enzymes, the effect of added enzymes on process potentials derived from un-sorted barley (mixed) and sorted...... filterability, the Ondea® Pro treatment resulted in significantly lower turbidity and smaller particle size compared to Cellic® CTec2; however, this effect was observed in sorted and un-sorted barley but not in sorted-out barley. Consequently the un-sorted barley demonstrated great potential in brewing process...

  1. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49......: Reconstituted barley had higher soluble P (2.56 g/kg DM) and lower phytate P (0.93 g/ kg DM) compared with dry barley (0.78 and 1.7 g/kg DM, respectively). Pigs fed the reconstituted barley diet showed increased P absorption (52%) and decreased P excretion in feces (21%) (P

  2. Constructing the barley model for genetic transformation in Triticeae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LÜ Bo; WU Jia-jie; FU Dao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the oldest domesticated crops, showing dramatic adaptation to various climate and environmental conditions. As a major cereal crop, barley ranks the 4th after wheat, maize and rice in terms of planting area and production al over the world. Due to its diploid nature, the cultivated barley is considered as an ideal model to study the polyploid wheat and other Triticeae species. Here, we reviewed the development, optimization, and application of transgenic approaches in barley. The most efifcient and robust genetic transformation has been built on the Agrobacterium-mediated transfer in conjunction with the immature embryo-based regeneration. We then discussed future considerations of using more practical technologies in barley transformation, such as the T-DNA/transposon tagging and the genome editing. As a cereal crop amenable to genetic transformation, barley wil serve as the most valuable carrier for global functional genomics in Triticeae and is becoming the most practical model for generating value-added products.

  3. Glycaemic response to barley porridge varying in dietary fibre content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondre, Pariyarath S; Wang, Ke; Rosenthal, Andrew J; Henry, Christiani J K

    2012-03-01

    The interest in barley as a food is increasing worldwide because of its high dietary fibre (DF) content and low glycaemic index (GI). DF in cereals may prove beneficial in improving blood glucose response in the long term. However, a dose-dependent effect of insoluble fibre on reducing postprandial blood glucose levels is yet to be proven. The objective of the present study was to determine the glycaemic response to two barley porridges prepared from whole barley grains varying in fibre content. In two separate non-blind randomised crossover trials, ten human subjects consumed barley porridge with 16 g/100 g and 10 g/100 g fibre content provided in different serving sizes (equivalent to 25 and 50 g available carbohydrate). The glycaemic response to both barley porridges was significantly lower than the reference glucose (P porridges. We concluded that irrespective of the difference in total fibre content or serving size of barley porridges, their GI values did not differ significantly.

  4. Acceptability and Amino Acid Score of Snack bar of Mixed Whole-Wheat Varieties SO₁₀ Flour with Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Yenrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Engineering and Processing Technology of Agricultural Products, Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry of Agricultural Products and Laboratory of Microbiology and Biotechnology of Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Technology, Andalas University. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of mixing whole-wheat SO₁₀ flour and soy flour towards the acceptability by panelists in organoleptic, amino acid score of the snack bar that produced. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Data were analyzed statistically used ANOVA and continued by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at 5% level. The treatments in this study are mixing wheat flour SO₁₀ and soy flour with treatment A (100% wheat SO₁₀ : 0% soy flour, treatment B (80% wheat SO₁₀ : 20% soy flour, treatment C (60% wheat SO₁₀ : 40% soy flour, treatment D (50% wheat SO₁₀ : 50% soy flour and treatment E (40% wheat SO₁₀ : 60% soy flour. Based on the results of sensory analysis, the best products is treatment D (mixing 50% wheat SO₁₀ : 50% soy flour with the level of acceptance by panelists of color (3.7, aroma (3.1, texture (3.3 and taste ( 3.2. Water content (22.36%, protein content (17.30%, amino acid score (64.28 with the limiting amino acid methionine.

  5. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  6. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  7. The case for water activity as a specification for wheat tempering and flour production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture plays an important role in processing wheat grain into flour, from proper grain tempering to the stability of the flour. Moisture properties of dry grain, tempered grain, and finished flour are currently tracked using moisture content. However, stability factors such as microbial growth and...

  8. NOTE: Measuring oxidative gelation of aqueous flour suspensions using the Rapid Visco Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was investigated as a tool to measure oxidative gelation capacity (OGC) of aqueous wheat-flour suspensions. One, club-wheat patent flour was used to determine optimal hydration time and 33 straight-grade flours (representing 12 hard and 31 soft varieties) were used to ...

  9. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  10. Validação de métodos cromatográficos por clae para análise das vitaminas B1, B2, B6 e niacina naturalmente presentes em farinha de cereais Validation of hplc methods for analysis of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin naturally present in cereal flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Ferreira Presoto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex B vitamins are present in some cereal foods and the ingestion of enriched products contributes to the recommended dietary intake of these micronutrients. To adapt the label of some products, it is necessary to develop and validate the analytical methods. These methods must be reliable and with enough sensitivity to analyze complex B vitamins naturally present in food at low concentration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, with validated methods, the content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and niacin in five cereal flours used in food industry (oat, rice, barley, corn and wheat.

  11. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  12. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  13. Milked flours in Spain (I: 1865-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an historical review of the origin of milked flours, and their introduction in Spain. Commercial products are described and a list of main factories producing and distributing them (until 1965 is included. Product composition shows a high level of variability, mainly due to the quick evolution in the use of different ingredients (increase of soluble carbohydrates and blended flours, fortification with minerals and vitamins, etc.. Ingredients and composition were changing along the years according to the increasing knowledge in nutrition sciences and food technology. Regarding the factories producing milked flours, we can observe a concentration trend during 20’s and 30’s. In contrast, in further decades new producers appeared in the market and some of them are still actives at this moment.

  14. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  15. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  16. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  17. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  18. Competition and Facilitation in Hairy Vetch-Barley Intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Tosti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercrops between legumes and non-legumes are widely used for fodder production and as cover crops, but little quantitative data are available on competition between species in the mixture. The objective of the present study was to assess the interaction between hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown as pure crops or intercrops with different proportions of seed rates at sowing. A 4-year field study was conducted using hairy vetch and barley as pure stands at full sowing density and as intercrops at different proportions of their own full seed rate according to the replacement principle. Interaction between species was evaluated on the basis of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER, Relative Neighbour Effect (RNE and Aggressivity (A calculated on biomass and nitrogen (N accumulation. The N accumulation of the mixed crops increased linearly with the legume proportion in the mixture. The mixtures were more efficient than the pure crops in terms of N use (LER > 1. Partial LER values indicated that the barley component benefited from the presence of the legume, while the hairy vetch partial LER decreased with increasing barley proportion in the mixture. The competitive response in terms of biomass accumulation was high for both species when their density in the mixture was high. Concerning N accumulation, barley benefited from an asymmetric interspecific facilitation while the vetch behaviour was similar to that observed for biomass accumulation. Barley dominance progressively increased reaching a maximum just before the last sampling date. At the last sampling date the competitive ability of hairy vetch showed a considerable increase in all mixtures (A ≈ 0. These findings indicate that the use of mixtures between hairy vetch and barley allows an increase in the use efficiency of N resource with respect to pure crops. Barley is the dominant component of the mixture and the hairy vetch is able to cope with the cereal

  19. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  20. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  1. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  2. Efficient production of tetraploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L. by colchicine treatment of diploid barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Sourour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to induce tetraploidy in three diploid barley varieties (Martin, Rihane and Manel through different colchicines treatments. Colchicine was added for three different concentrations at three different stages of plant development i.e. on seed (0.05% for 48 hours, on pre-germinated seeds (0.1% for 2 hours and on three leaf stage (0.1% for 16 hours. Colchicine application reduced significantly germination percentage and viability of plants. Seed germination was completely inhibited in Martin, while a reduction of 20% and 30% for germination percentage compared to control was recorded in varieties Manel and Rihane, respectively at 0.1% colchicine concentration. Ploidy evaluation showed no tetraploidy in all the three tested varieties by colchicine application of 0.05% for 48 hours on seeds and 0.1% for 2 hours on pre-germinated seeds. However, tetraploid plants were produced only by treatment with 0.1% for 16 hours of seedlings. The percentages of plants were 40%, 44% and 100% for Rihane, Manel and Martin, respectively. Cytological analyses showed the increase of chromosome numbers from 2n=2x=14 to 2n=4x=28. The increase of ploidy levels caused major changes in some morphological traits. In fact, the induced tetraploids in barley was accompanied by significant (P<0.01 decrease in plant height, tiller height, leaf number and leaf length compared to diploid control plants. colchicine treatment induce successfully the production of tetraploid barley plants and could be used in breeding programs.

  3. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  4. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  5. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  6. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  7. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED (ACETYLATED GADUNG (DIOSCOREA HISPIDA DENNST FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRI C. KUMORO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of methods to alter the physicochemical properties of starch. This work aimed to investigate the effect of reaction time, glacial acetic acid/gadung flour (GAA/GF mass ratio and pH on gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst flour acetylation at ambient temperature. The acetylation was carried out by reacting gadung flour slurry with GAA under alkaline condition. The results show that degree of substitution and swelling power of the acetylated flours increased with reaction time, while the solubility was not affected by reaction time after 10 minutes acetylation. The GAA/GF mass ratio inversely affected the solubility of acetylated flour, but did not affect the swelling power and degree of substitution. Acetylation changed the structure, morphology and crystallinity of gadung flour starch granules. The swelling power and solubility of all acetylated flours obtained in this work were higher than the native one.

  8. Growth and metabolism of selected strains of probiotic bacteria, in maize porridge with added malted barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Merete H; Wicklund, Trude; Narvhus, Judith A

    2004-03-15

    A fermented probiotic maize porridge with high energy density and low viscosity was prepared, using maize flour and barley malt. The porridge was fermented with four probiotic strains (grown separately): Lactobacillus reuteri, Lb. acidophilus (LA5 and 1748) and Lb. rhamnosus GG. These strains were inoculated at two levels; to obtain approx. 7 or 6 log cfu g(-1) in the porridge at 0 h. The porridge was fermented for 24 h at 37 degrees C, and analysed for viable cell count, pH, organic acids, volatile aromatic compounds and sugar content. The inoculated cell concentration was shown to be particularly important during the first hours of the fermentation period, showing a delayed production of most metabolites in porridge inoculated with approx. 6 log cfu g(-1). Most strains reached maximum cell count after 12-h fermentation (7.2-8.2 log cfu g(-1)), with a pH below 4.0. Depending on the strain, lactic acid was produced in amounts ranging from 1360 to 4000 mg kg(-1). Lb. reuteri metabolised succinate, while pyruvate and small amounts of diacetyl were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748. High amounts of diacetyl (6 mg kg(-1)) and acetoin (27 mg kg(-1)) were detected in porridge inoculated with Lb. rhamnosus GG. Porridge inoculated with Lb. acidophilus LA5 and Lb. acidophilus 1748, contained acetaldehyde, while both Lb. reuteri and Lb. rhamnosus GG reduced the acetaldehyde to ethanol. Lb. reuteri utilised both maltose and glucose as carbohydrate sources, while Lb. acidophilus LA5, Lb. acidophilus 1748 and Lb. rhamnosus GG utilised only glucose.

  9. Is dimethyldecanal a common aggregation pheromone of Tribolium flour beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Ludovic; Lognay, Georges; Verscheure, Marjolaine; Leenaers, Lionel; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-03-01

    Flour beetles are cosmopolitan and common pests in grain stores and flour mills. Their ability to exploit a wide variety of stored products has contributed to their status as major pests of stored food. Although it was previously reported that the same aggregation pheromone, 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD), is shared by three flour beetles species (Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, and T. freemani), the volatiles released by the other Tribolium species associated with stored products have not yet been examined. In the present study, the volatiles produced by males and females of eight Tribolium species were examined by solid phase microextraction (SPME). SPME samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experiments were conducted to identify volatiles emitted by the adults of different Tribolium species and to determine whether DMD is a common aggregation pheromone. We observed that DMD is not a common pheromone of the eight species tested, but is common to T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. freemani, and T. madens. Two other volatiles were detected, 1-pentadecene, which is shown here to be a common semiochemical of flour beetles, and 1,6-pentadecadiene, which was detected in five species (T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens).

  10. Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Krosniak, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Cracow (Poland); Knap, W. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Wiertniczo-Naftowy; Bichonski, A. [Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, Radzikow (Poland)

    1993-10-01

    For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  11. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  12. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  13. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin ... amino acid and available vitamins with modified functional properties .... Proximate composition of unsprouted and sprouted soybean flours.1. Proximate ..... similar to that of purified soyabean protein in human subjects: a study using ...

  14. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  15. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  16. Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenle, H N

    2003-03-01

    The proximate analysis, evaluation of nutritionally valuable minerals, sugars, chemical properties of the oil and functional properties of the seed flour of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the quinoa flour contained 11.2% moisture, 13.5% crude protein, 6.3% ether extract, 9.5% crude fibre, 1.2% total ash and 58.3% carbohydrate. The quinoa has a high proportion of D-xylose (120.0 mg in 100 g sample) and maltose (101.0 mg in 100 g sample), and a low content of glucose (19.0 mg in 100 g sample) and fructose (19.6 mg in 100 g sample), suggesting that it would be useful in malted drink formulations. The values for the chemical properties of the oil extracted were: acid value, 0.50%; iodine value, 54.0%; peroxide value, 2.44%; and saponification value, 192.0%. Quinoa has a high water absorption capacity (147.0%) and low foaming capacity and stability (9.0%, 2.0%). The flour has a least gelation concentration of 16% w/v. Protein solubility of the flour was also evaluated and found to be pH dependent, with minimum solubility at about pH 6.0.

  17. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  18. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  19. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  20. Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.; Noordman, T.R.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown

  1. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  2. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for...

  3. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  4. The role of root hairs in cadmium acquisition by barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Ruilun; Li Huafen [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Jiang Rongfeng, E-mail: rfjiang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Roemheld, Volker [Institute of Plant Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions of the Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhao Fangjie [Soil Science Department, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    The role of root hairs in Cd acquisition from soil was investigated in three pot experiments using a root hairless mutant (bald root barley, brb) and its wild-type (WT) cultivar of barley (Hordeum vulgare). brb had significantly lower concentrations and lower total amounts of Cd in shoots than WT. The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in brb than in WT. The difference between brb and WT increased with increasing extractable Cd in soil under the experimental conditions used. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. These effects resulted in decreased Cd uptake with increasing P supply. Cd uptake in WT correlated significantly with root length, root hair length and density, and soil extractable Cd. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - Research highlights: The Cd uptake efficiency was significantly lower in brb than in WT. Additions of phosphate to soil decreased Cd extractability and Cd uptake. Both soil and foliar additions of phosphate decreased root length, and root hair formation in WT. Root hairs contribute significantly to Cd uptake by barley. - The Cd uptake efficiency based on total root length was 8-45% lower in a barley root hairless mutant than in its wild-type, indicating an important role of root hairs in Cd acquisition.

  5. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  6. Mutagenesis of barley malting quality QTLs with Ds transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surinder; Tan, Han Qi; Singh, Jaswinder

    2012-03-01

    Various functional genomic tools are being used to identify and characterize genes in plants. The Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon-based approach offers great potential, especially in barley, due to its limited success of genetic transformation and its large genome size. The bias of the Ac/Ds system towards genic regions and its tendency toward localized transpositions can greatly enhance the discovery and tagging of genes linked to Ds. Barley is a key ingredient in malting and brewing industry; therefore, gene discovery in relation to malting has an industrial perspective. Malting quality in barley is a complex and quantitatively inherited trait. Two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting malting quality traits have been located on chromosome 4H. In this study, Ds was reactivated from parent transposants (TNP) lines, TNP-29 and TNP-79, where Ds was mapped in the vicinity of important malting QTLs. Reactivation of Ds was carried out both by conventional breeding and in vitro approaches. A threefold increase in reactivation frequency through the in vitro approach enabled the development of a new genomic resource for the dissection of malting QTL and gene discovery in barley. Identification of unique flanking sequences, using high-efficiency thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR and inverse PCR from these populations, has further emphasized the new location of Ds in the barley genome and provided new transposon mutants especially in β-GAL1, β-amylase-like gene and ABC transporter for functional genomic studies.

  7. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Souza Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioca and rice flour respectively, with the addition of brown sugar, and analyses its technological, nutritional and sensory properties. The following physical, physicochemical and nutritional properties were analyzed: dough texture profile, cookie weight, diameter and volume, acidity, water activity, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, ash content and moisture. A sensory evaluation was held using an affective test with 90 judges and a structured nine-point hedonic scale ranging from 'like extremely' to 'dislike extremely' for the attributes scent, color, texture, taste and overall impression in addition to purchase intent. The results indicate that cookies made of tapioca and rice flours with the addition of brown sugar have technological, physicochemical and nutritional profiles within legal standards; however, the fiber contents were below recommendations. The sensory evaluation showed good acceptance of the cookies, with average scores above 7.0. This study is part of an attempt to raise further discussions regarding the production of new low-cost bakery products that are nutritionally enriched, viable and easily accessible to all, including to people with celiac disease.

  8. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  9. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

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    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  10. Nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from wheat flour and pitaya (Hylocereus undatus peel flour blends

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    Lee-Hoon Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food waste produced from fruits and vegetables processing plants possesses an important natural and valuable material in producing less expensive functional food due to the presence of several bioactive substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory quality of the control, wheat flour cookies substituted with 5, 10, and 15% pitaya peel flour (PPF. The proximate analyses results demonstrated that PPF-containing cookies had significantly higher ash, fiber, and carbohydrate content but lower moisture and protein than the control. Physical analyses results showed that cookies incorporated with PPF had higher diameter and spread ratio but lower crumb height than the control. Sensory evaluation results indicated that wheat flour partially substituted with PPF up to 15% level did not affect to the overall acceptability ratings of cookies by panelists. Thus it can be concluded that PPF can be partially substituted for wheat flour in cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory acceptability of composite cookies.

  11. Stability of porridge pre-mixture made with Brazil nut flour and green banana flour with and without milk powder

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    Clarissa Reschke Da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of Brazil nut flour and green banana flour can improve the nutritional value of school meals, allowing for the use of regional ingredients derived from family agriculture. This study aimed to assess the stability of porridge pre-mixtures made with Brazil nut flour and green banana flour during six months of storage. Two types of pre-mixture were evaluated: with and without milk powder. These mixtures were packed in polyethylene/metallized polyester film, vacuum-sealed, and stored at room temperature. The products were evaluated for physicochemical composition, and every 30 days for moisture content, water activity, titratable acidity, pH, peroxide value and acidity of the lipid phase, total and thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and molds, and sensory acceptance. There was no difference between the mixtures for the parameters evaluated. Moisture content, water activity, acidity of the lipid phase, and the yeast and mold count increased with storage time. The growth of yeasts and molds was more pronounced after 90 days of storage, when water activity reached the limit of 0.60. Although both products had good sensory acceptance throughout the period of study, it is recommended that the shelf life does not exceed 90 days.

  12. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    ) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one......The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition......, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise...

  13. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different....... The functional characterization of two proteins is undergoing. In Chapter 6, microarray data of F. graminearum during interaction with barley and wheat was analysed. The expression patterns of 11fungal genes in microarray analysis were different from qRT-PCR results in Chapter 4. Overall, our results will give...... some insights into the cellular activities during the interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum for designing new efficient strategies for the control of FHB disease....

  14. Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

    2014-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders.

  15. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.;

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... insight into the substrate binding by describing residues defining 9 subsites, namely -7 through +2. These structures support that the pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor acarbose is hydrolyzed by the active enzymes. Moreover, sugar binding was observed to the starch granule-binding site previously determined...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  16. Origin of worldwide cultivated barley revealed by NAM-1 gene and grain protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eWang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, evolution and distribution of cultivated barley provides powerful insights into the historic origin and early spread of agrarian culture. Here, population-based genetic diversity and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the evolution and origin of barley and how domestication and subsequent introgression have affected the genetic diversity and changes in cultivated barley on a worldwide scale. A set of worldwide cultivated and wild barleys from Asia and Tibet of China were analyzed using the sequences for NAM-1 gene and gene-associated traits-GPC (grain protein content. Our results showed Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Near Eastern barley, and confirmed that Tibet is one of the origin and domestication centers for cultivated barley, and in turn supported a polyphyletic origin of domesticated barley. Comparison of haplotype composition among geographic regions revealed gene flow between Eastern and Western barley populations, suggesting that the Silk Road might have played a crucial role in the spread of genes. The GPC in the 118 cultivated and 93 wild barley accessions ranged from 6.73% to 12.35% with a mean of 9.43%. Overall, wild barley had higher averaged GPC (10.44% than cultivated barley. Two unique haplotypes (Hap2 and Hap7 caused by a base mutations (at position 544 in the coding region of the NAM-1 gene might have a significant impact on the GPC. SNPs and haplotypes of NAM-1 associated with GPC in barley could provide a useful method for screening GPC in barley germplasm. The Tibetan wild accessions with lower GPC could be useful for malt barley breeding

  17. Fundamental study on reactivities of gluten protein types from wheat, rye and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-12-15

    Monitoring the compliance of gluten-free foods to the regulatory threshold of 20mg/kg of gluten is essential for celiac disease patients. The different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for gluten detection each have specific characteristics, but there are only a few systematic comparisons. This fundamental study compared the specificities and sensitivities of the R5, G12 and Skerritt monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to well-defined gluten protein types (GPT) isolated from wheat, rye and barley flours. Quantitation of protein concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography provided independent reference values. The ELISA responses showed high variability depending on the type of cereal, the GPT and the antibody used. Overall, ω1,2-gliadins and γ-75k-secalins were most reactive, whereas ω5-gliadins and γ-, B- and D-hordeins were detected with the lowest sensitivities. These results revealed which GPT each antibody is most sensitive to and provided novel insights that will be helpful for appropriate calibration of ELISAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene Targeting Without DSB Induction Is Inefficient in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mihaly; Steinbiss, Hans-Henning; Reiss, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Double strand-break (DSB) induction allowed efficient gene targeting in barley (Hordeum vulgare), but little is known about efficiencies in its absence. To obtain such data, an assay system based on the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene was established, a target gene which had been used previously in rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of recombinases RAD51 and RAD54 had been shown to improve gene targeting in A. thaliana and positive-negative (P-N) selection allows the routine production of targeted mutants without DSB induction in rice. We implemented these approaches in barley and analysed gene targeting with the ALS gene in wild type and RAD51 and RAD54 transgenic lines. In addition, P-N selection was tested. In contrast to the high gene targeting efficiencies obtained in the absence of DSB induction in A. thaliana or rice, not one single gene targeting event was obtained in barley. These data suggest that gene targeting efficiencies are very low in barley and can substantially differ between different plants, even at the same target locus. They also suggest that the amount of labour and time would become unreasonably high to use these methods as a tool in routine applications. This is particularly true since DSB induction offers efficient alternatives. Barley, unlike rice and A. thaliana has a large, complex genome, suggesting that genome size or complexity could be the reason for the low efficiencies. We discuss to what extent transformation methods, genome size or genome complexity could contribute to the striking differences in the gene targeting efficiencies between barley, rice and A. thaliana.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  20. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  1. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif Bilek, A; Turhan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    Flaxseed flour was used as a functional ingredient in the production of beef patties. Beef patties were produced with five different formulations; the addition of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% flaxseed flour. Control samples were formulated with 10% and 20% fat addition. Raw and cooked beef patties were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, pH, color parameters and fatty acid profiles. Beef patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory properties. Fat and ash content of raw patties increased, while moisture and protein content decreased with increased flaxseed flour. The same trend (except fat content) was also observed after cooking. The addition of flaxseed flour did not affect pH values of raw and cooked beef patties. The addition of flaxseed flour improved the cooking loss but, increased the energy value (as kcal/100g). L and a values of raw beef patties containing flaxseed flour were close to controls with 10% fat. α-linolenic acid content of raw and cooked beef patties increased as the level of flaxseed flour increased. The PUFA/SFA ratio increased from 0.04 in the control with 10% fat to 0.62 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 5.76 in the control with 10% fat to 0.36 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The nutritional status of beef patties was enhanced with minimal composition and sensory changes with 3% or 6% flaxseed flour addition.

  3. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  4. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours, run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours. The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU. Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU, trough (442 RVU, breakdown viscosity (20 RVU, final viscosity (975 RVU, setback (533 RVU, peak time (5.47 min and pasting temperature (89.60 °C. These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  5. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Hardened Tubers Composite Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Josette Essa’a

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w. Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC, and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (P, extensibility (L, stability (P/L, and deformation energy (W. Results showed that trifoliate hardened-yam flours do not have acceptable baking properties as pictured by the low Zeleny sedimentation index and the low Hagberg falling number. Protein quality (Zeleny index, 31 of wheat flour helped to compensate gluten deficit of yam flours, but the amylasic activity determined by the Hagberg falling number could not be adjusted, which resulted in a loss of extensibility (L of the paste at 10% substitution. Multivariate analysis of experimental data regrouped wheat flour and all wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours in one homogeneous cluster. Although wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours had physicochemical and functional properties similar to wheat, the inadequate diastasic activity makes them inappropriate for bread making, marking the strongest influence of that parameter.

  6. Several techniques for the preparation of flour from carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Regina Takeuchi FERNANDES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlour prepared via current assay methodologies from the carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare was analyzed for its chemical composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sensorial profile. Carcasses of the Pantanal alligator, originating from the Coocrijapan scientific zoo, Cáceres MT Brazil, were utilized. The carcasses were cooked for 60 minutes in a pressure cooker with water containing 2% salt and 5% chimichurri. The cooked carcasses were then ground and the mass was used for the manufacture of flour via three techniques: non-smoked, hot-smoked, and liquid-smoked. After each technique, the carcasses were dehydrated at 60ºC for 3h and were ground. Alligator flour was then produced. The moisture of liquid-smoked flour (10.97% was higher than that of non-smoked flour (3.78% and hot-smoked flour (4.43%. The flours provided high protein (57.11% - 58.27% and ash (23.45 – 26.42% rates, and were predominantly calcium (6.77% - 7.69%, phosphorus (3.67% - 4.05%, and iron (73.13 – 273.73 ppm/100 mg. Smoked-flour had a better acceptance rate by tasters when compared to non-smoked flour. Results show that flours produced from alligator carcasses had high protein, ash, and mineral rates and a reasonable acceptability by most tasters.

  7. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  8. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of reproductive age found to be high. These results show that processing methods enhanced nutritional value of biofortified bean flour and that processed biofortified bean flour can be used to prepare nutrient and energy-dense gruel to improve on nutritional status of children under 5 years and women of reproductive age.

  9. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  10. Occurrence of barley leaf disease and control strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik; Heick, Thies Marten

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the major crops in Denmark and of special importance for malting and for pig feed. In 2016, the crop was grown covering a total area of 700,000 ha; approximately 25% of arable area in Denmark. To ensure high yield of around 60 dt ha-1, disease-tolerant cultivars......), mildew of barley (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) and Ramularia (Ramularia collo-cygni). In recent years, brown rust and net blotch have been the most important disease in terms of yield losses. As most cultivars have mlo resistance, powdery mildew is today seen as a minor problem. Significant attack...

  11. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil......Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained...

  12. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...... irregular and showed no distinct melting enthalpy and very weak X-ray scattering. Hyperphosphorylated barley starch was achieved by endosperm specific overexpression of the potato glucan water dikinase1 (StGWD1). The content of phosphate esters in this starch was tenfold higher than the control lines...

  13. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  15. Quality of [omega]-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripudaman Singh; Manish K Chatli; Ashim K Biswas; Jhari Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    ...]-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T^sub 1^), 2% canola flour (T^sub 2^), 3% linseed oil (T^sub 3^), and 4% canola oil (T^sub 4...

  16. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  17. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  18. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  19. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  20. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  1. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  2. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  3. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  4. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  5. A BIODEGRADABLE FILM FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS SEED FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah S. Retnowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus and durian (Durio zibethinus seeds contain high portion of amylose, which makes them potential materials for biodegradable films. The objective of this study is to develop biodegradable films composed of jackfruit and durian seed flours and glycerol as plasticizer. The films were prepared by dispersing flours in water, adding glycerol, heating the mixture, casting the solution on an acrylic plate, and drying the films at 50 ºC for 20 hours. Glycerol contributes to the flexibility of the film, while reduces the strength of the film. The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break increase as the ratio of jackfruit to durian seed flour increases. The films made from jackfruit and durian seed flours in this work are stronger than the film made from rice flour obtained by other researcher. Therefore, jackfruit and durian seed flours are potential raw material for biodegradable films.

  6. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  7. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  8. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  9. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  10. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  11. Rheological properties of the wheat flour supplemented with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA STOENESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.

  12. Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, A K; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Mendoza-Díaz, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2014-10-15

    The effect of cooking followed by dehydration was evaluated on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and technological properties of two varieties (Negro 8025 and Bayo Madero) of common beans. Quercetin, rutin, and phenolic acids were the most abundant phenolics found. Cooking processes resulted in decreased values of some phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. A subsequent dehydration increased TEAC values, resistant starch content and decreased starch digestibility. Oligosaccharides and dietary fibre were preserved in both treatments. Variety had a strong impact on phytochemical profile, being Negro 8025 that exhibited the highest content of most of the compounds assessed. Water absorption index (WAI) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were determined in order to measure technological suitability. Dehydration produced flours with stable WAI and low oil pick up. The results suggest that the flours of Negro 8025 beans have a good potential to be considered as functional ingredient for healthy food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  14. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  15. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  16. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  17. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... region of B1 hordein gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Walfajre and Alger barley by ... plasmid DNA extraction kits were provided from Bioneer ... The E. coli competent cells were used for transformation by 5 µL of.

  18. Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter M.Chandler; Carol A.Harding; Anthony R.Ashton; Mark D.Mulcair; Nicholas E.Dixon; Lewis N.Mander

    2008-01-01

    The sequence of Gidl (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative orthoIogue from barley.This was expressed in E.coil,and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both structural specificity and saturability.Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with reduced GA sensitivity (gsel mutants).Sixteen different gsel mutants each carried a unique nucleotide substitution in this sequence.In all but one case,these changes resulted in single amino acid substitutions,and,for the remaining mutant,a substitution in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA is proposed to interfere with translation initiation.There was perfect linkage in segregating populations between new mutant alleles and the gsel phenotype,leading to the conclusion that the putative GID1 GA receptor sequence in barley corresponds to the Gsel locus.Determination of endogenous GA contents in one of the mutants revealed enhanced accumulation of bioactive GA1,and a deficit of C20 GA precursors.All of the gsel mutants had reduced sensitivity to exogenous GA3,and to AC94377 (a GA analogue) at concentrations that are normally 'saturating',but,at much higher concentrations,there was often a considerable response.The comparison between barley and rice mutants reveals interesting differences between these two cereal species in GA hormonal physiology.

  19. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch

  20. Evaluation of a malting barley quality assessment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuijsen, H.J. van; Douma, A.C.; Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1998-01-01

    New malting barley varieties are annually tested for their malting and brewing potential according to a field trial set-up combined with quality evaluation on pilot scale. To assess the effects of trial year and location on quality evaluation data, a data base consisting of quality data from Dutch m

  1. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  2. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  3. Microgeographic Edaphic Differentiation in Hordein Polymorphisms of Wild Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevo, E.; Beiles, A.; Storch, N.

    1983-01-01

    and topography. Likewise, significant correlations were found between hordein phenotypes and allozyme types detected in a previous study. Our results suggest that at least part of the hordein polymorphisms in wild barley is adaptive and selected by soil and topographic differences over very short distances....

  4. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  5. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  6. Barley coleoptile peroxidases. Purification, molecular cloning, and induction by pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Bloch, H.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård

    1999-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the Prx7 peroxidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) predicted a 341-amino acid protein with a molecular weight of 36,515. N- and C-terminal putative signal peptides were present, suggesting a vacuolar location of the peroxidase. Immunoblotting and reverse-transcriptase poly...

  7. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  8. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  9. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  10. Genetic diversity of some Saudi barley (Hordeum Vulgare L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... These results could be used for barley germplasm management in terms of biodiversity ... animal feed, malt manufactures and human food. Its importance ... indigenous crop genetic resources of KSA are potentially threatened and ... and Hayes, 2002; Turpeinen et al., 2003; Nevo et al.,. 2005; Chaabane et ...

  11. Evaluation of Wheat and Barley Cultivars Tolerance to Metribuzine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi Darbandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of barely and wheat cultivars tolerance to metribuzin, a factorial experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design, with three replications in Greenhouse of Agricultural Research at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included wheat cultivars (Backcross roshan, Cross Arvand, Bahar, Sepahan, Gascosion, Sayonez, Bam garmsiry, Garmsiri, Ghods, Pishtaz, Chamran and Shoori 6, barely cultivars (Macouyi, Karoon and Bahman and metribuzin application rates ( 0, 175, 350, 700, 1050, 1400 and 2100 gr. ai.ha-1. Metribuzine was applied at 3-4 leaf stage and 3 weeks after herbicide spraying, plants survival and their biomass were determined. Results showed that metribuzin application had a significant effect (p≤0.01 on barley and wheat dry weight. Based on results, mertibuzin application did not affect on barley cultivars up to 30 g.a.i.ha-1 but in wheat varieties lead to significant reduction in their biomass and survival. Increasing of metribuzin rates reduced wheat and barley cultivars biomass (p≤0.01. Barely varieties were less sensitive than wheat cultivars to metribuzine. The highest and the lowest ED50 in wheat cultivars were observed in cross arvand (940 and shoori (25 varieties, respectively. In barley cultivars the highest and lowest ED50 were observed in Macouyi (614 and Karoon (396, respectively.

  12. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  13. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-five homozygous barley lines, i.e. coming from chromosome-doubled monoploids derived from female gametes of F1 plants by the bulbosum method, segregated as expected in accordance with a 1:1-ratio for C-bands at two locations on chromosome 3 and at one location on chromosome 6. C-bands at one...

  14. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time...

  15. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptid...

  16. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  17. Enzyme superoxide dismutase in grain of barley and malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálie Belcrediová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was modification of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 activity analysis in barley grain and identical malts with using of the Ransod set. This set from company Randox were used for enzyme determination in blood samples. This method employs xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radicals, which react with tetrazolium chloride to form a red formazan dye. SOD is classified as natural antioxidants and enzyme plays a significant role at detoxication of products of molecular oxygen degradation. The largest rate of SOD occurs in embryo of barley grain. Its presence in barley grain and malt thus inhibits rancidity of grain during storage and undesirable beer flavour. The line Wabet x Washonubet (in grain-104,93 and malt 152,42 U/g dry matter and the variety Annabell (104,65 a 147,21 U/g dry matter had the highest activity of SOD in grain and malt of barley while the lowest activity was measured in the line KM 1910 (73,15 a 88,16 U/g dry matter and variety Tolar (74,34 a 96,44 U/g dry matter.

  18. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  19. Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

  20. Radiation hybrid map of barley chromosome 3H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assembly of the barley genome is complicated by its large size (5.1 Gb) and proportion of repetitive elements (84%). This process is facilitated by high resolution maps for aligning BAC contigs along chromosomes. Available genetic maps; however, do not provide accurate information on the physical po...

  1. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.;

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  2. Involvement of Alternative Splicing in Barley Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qisen; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Songbo; Tan, Cong; Zhou, Gaofeng; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Seed germination activates many new biological processes including DNA, membrane and mitochondrial repairs and requires active protein synthesis and sufficient energy supply. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates many cellular processes including cell differentiation and environmental adaptations. However, limited information is available on the regulation of seed germination at post-transcriptional levels. We have conducted RNA-sequencing experiments to dissect AS events in barley seed germination. We identified between 552 and 669 common AS transcripts in germinating barley embryos from four barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L. Bass, Baudin, Harrington and Stirling). Alternative 3' splicing (34%-45%), intron retention (32%-34%) and alternative 5' splicing (16%-21%) were three major AS events in germinating embryos. The AS transcripts were predominantly mapped onto ribosome, RNA transport machineries, spliceosome, plant hormone signal transduction, glycolysis, sugar and carbon metabolism pathways. Transcripts of these genes were also very abundant in the early stage of seed germination. Correlation analysis of gene expression showed that AS hormone responsive transcripts could also be co-expressed with genes responsible for protein biosynthesis and sugar metabolisms. Our RNA-sequencing data revealed that AS could play important roles in barley seed germination.

  3. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  4. Expression of lipoxygenase isoenzymes in developing barley grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, N.F.; Mechelen, J.R. van

    1997-01-01

    Expression of lipoxygenase was studied in whole developing barley grains from 5 days after flowering (DAF) to full maturity. Lipoxygenase showed two distinct peaks of activity. The first peak of activity occurred in the early stages of grain development from 5 until 20 DAF, whereas the second peak o

  5. Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba-wheat flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M J; Salinas, M V; Carbas, B; Ferrero, C; Brites, C; Puppo, M C

    2017-06-01

    Algarroba flour is used to supplement lysine-limiting systems such as wheat flour due to its amino acidic composition. The effects of adding up to 30% of this flour to wheat flour (W-A30) on dough characteristics and breadmaking performance were studied. Dough rheology was tested by farinograph, oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analyses. Molecular mobility was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and viscoamylograph studies. Besides, different bread quality parameters were evaluated. Incorporation of algarroba flour resulted into increase in water absorption, development time and degree of softening, and decrease in stability of wheat flour, leading to softer, less adhesive and elastic dough, although at intermediate replacement levels cohesiveness improved. At the molecular level, a reduction of water activity and limited proton motion were observed in W-A30 samples, suggesting that protons were highly bound to the dough matrix. Dough samples with algarroba flour showed lower G' and G″ values than the control, although with the formation of a more elastic structure for W-A30. In addition, algarroba flour produced a protective effect on starch granule disruption and interfered with amylose-amylose association during cooling. The specific volume of breads decreased with the increase in algarroba level, W-A30 reaching the highest decrease (15%). Bread crumbs with algarroba flour exhibited higher values of hardness and resilience. The use of algarroba flour resulted in lower quality when compared to the control. However, algarroba flour at 20% level can be added to wheat flour to obtain bakery products of similar technological quality and with improved nutritional components.

  6. Soy Flour Adhesive Strength Compared with That of Purified Soy Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Lorenz; Michael Birkeland; Chera Daurio; Charles R. Frihart

    2015-01-01

    Except for the substitution of soy flour in phenolic resins (Frihart et al. 2013) and the use of soy flour at high pHs (Lambuth 2003), the literature on soy protein properties for adhesives has mainly focused on soy protein isolate and specific protein fractions (Sun 2005b). The assumption is that proteins are the main portion of soy flour giving bond strength and the...

  7. Occupational IgE-mediated allergy to Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, K; Tuomi, T; Vanhanen, M; Pajari-Backas, M; Kanerva, L; Havu, K; Saarinen, K; Bruynzeel, D P

    2000-09-01

    We report on IgE-mediated allergy in a worker caused by Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle). These beetles lived in the "old" flour to which he was exposed in his work. A 35-year-old, nonatopic mechanic in a rye crispbread factory developed rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms, as well as urticaria on his wrists, lower arms, hands, neck, and face, during the maintenance and repair of machines contaminated by flour. This flour had been in and on the machines for a long time, and it contained small beetles. The patient did not suffer any symptoms when handling fresh, clean flour. Skin prick tests with standard environmental allergens, storage mites, enzymes, flours, and molds were negative. A prick test with flour from the machines gave a 10-mm reaction. An open application of the same flour caused urticarial whealing on the exposed skin. Prick tests with fresh flour from the factory were negative. A prick test with minced T. confusum from the flour in the machines gave a 7-mm reaction. Histamine hydrochloride 10 mg/ml gave a 7-mm reaction. Specific serum IgE antibodies to T. confusum were elevated at 17.2 kU/l. Prick tests with the flour from the machines were negative in five control patients. The patient had occupational contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms from exposure to flour. His symptoms were caused by immediate allergy to the beetle T. confusum. Immediate allergy to this beetle has rarely been reported in connection with respiratory symptoms, but it may be more common. Contact urticaria from this source has not been reported before.

  8. Changes in Characteristics of Kithul (Caryota urens) Flour Prepared by Different Modification Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Flour has been an ample source of research and most abundant material for a number of food applications. The aim of this study is to introduce modified Kithul flour for certain industrial requirements. Several physical and chemical treatments were employed to modify Kithul (Caryota urens) flour. The effects of pregelatinization (PG-I and II), acid modification (AC), and dextrinization (DX) on their swelling power, solubility, granular morphology, viscosity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern...

  9. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, A. K. S.; Wilson, D I; Sadd, P. I.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877414003112. A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and...

  10. [Chemical composition and biological quality of defatted hazelnut flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Schneeberger, R; Ballester, D; Santibáñez, S

    1989-06-01

    The results of the chemical composition and biological quality of deffated hazel nut flour are shown. The samples analyzed contained significant amounts of proteins (19%) comparable to legume flour, higher than cereals and lower than deffated oleaginous flours. The oil extracted from the seed was analyzed and the average results obtained were the following: Refraction index, 1.47; saponification No. 184.8; iodine No. 85.0. The average composition of the fatty acids obtained by gas liquid chromatography was: Palmitic acid 2.3% Palmitoleic acid 37.0% Stearic acid 0.5% Oleic acid 39.5% Linoleic acid 6.9% Linolenic acid 1.1% Eicosanoic acid 2.3% Eicosaenoic acid 4.6% Docosenoic acid 3.4% Tetraeicosanoic acid 0.3% These results indicate a good-quality oil due to the low content of linolenic acid. The nutritive value of the deffated meal measured in the rats gave a net protein ratio (NPR) of 3.58, lower than the corresponding casein value (4.10). The true protein digestibility measured in the rat gave a value of 7.3%, compared to 95% for casein. The amounts of iron and phosphorous are comparatively lower than those reported for rape-seed meal and sunflower meal.

  11. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15 V and 20 V) for 60 or 120 s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  12. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  13. Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Gallo, Antonio; Cerioli, Carla; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The use of rice/leguminous blend may be nutritionally convenient in gluten free product manufacturing. Gluten free spaghetti was prepared with rice flour and different concentrations of bean flour (included at levels of 0%, 20% and 40%, w/w) derived from a new developed white-seeded low phytic acid and lectin free (ws+lpa+lf) bean cultivar. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased linearly (Presistant starch content, while decreasing quadratically (Pglycemic index. The partial replacement of rice flour with bean flour can favourably be used in gluten free spaghetti formulation.

  14. Effect of harvesting periods on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of delayed harvesting on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour were studied. The tubers were harvested at 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11months after maturity and were processed into flours. Chemical and pasting properties of the flours were determined. White trifoliate yam flour at 11months was significantly different (p0.05) from yellow trifoliate yam flour at 11months. Amylose and starch contents decreased while the sugar contents increased with harvesting periods. Yellow trifoliate yam flour had higher amylose at 10months while the white trifoliate yam flour had higher starch at 9months and sugar contents at 11months. Potassium and sodium were the major minerals found in the yam with higher values in yellow trifoliate yam flours. Peak viscosity and breakdown decreased while the holding strength and final viscosities increased with harvesting periods. Harvesting trifoliate yam tubers at 7-9months produced flour with high quality and prevents post harvest losses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical Characteristics of Coleus tuberosus Flour and Noodle in Various Arenga Starch Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftakhussolikhah; Ariani, D.; Angwar, M.; Kevin, J.

    2017-04-01

    Coleus tuberosus is one of local commodities in Indonesia which contains high carbohydrate. However, its utilization does note maximally. Therefore, C. tuberosus made into flour by grater method, and then used for noodle making with arenga strach as substituting material. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. tuberosus flour substitution in noodle preparation from arenga starch on its textural and sensory properties. In this study, noodle was made in some variations which were 100% arenga starch; 75% arenga starch:25% C. tuberosus flour; 50% arenga starch:50% C. tuberosus flour; 25% arenga starch:75% C. tuberosus flour and 100% C. tuberosus flour. Characterization of noodle were investigated including water content, strength, tensile strength, strain at break and stickiness. Sensory evaluation was conducted to analyse consumers acceptance. Noodle was compared with two commercial products. The result showed that arenga starch substitution in C. tuberosus noodle affect textural properties of noodle. The higher concentration of C. tuberosus flour caused tensile strength and strain at break getting low. The water content and stickiness were increased as the C. tuberosus flour substitution ratio increase. None of the noodle resulted from C. tuberosus flour and arenga starch mixture was exactly as same as maize and rice commercial noodles. However 25% of C.tuberosus noodle has better characteristics than other C.tuberosus noodles.

  16. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G.; Mársico, Eliane T.; Soares, Manoel S.; Magalhães, Amanda O.; Canto, Anna Carolina V. C. S.; Costa-Lima, Bruno R. C.; Alvares, Thiago S.; Conte, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p tilapia flour decreased (p tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C. PMID:27973565

  17. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  19. Effect of drying temperatures on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Astuti, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Different drying temperatures produce different starch structure, while the remains of lactic acid in sorghum grain might continue starch modification during drying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drying temperatures (40, 50, 60° C) on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid. Higher drying temperatures produced sorghum flour, with higher viscosity and swelling power, but lower whiteness and solubility. Modified sorghum flour showed higher value than the unmodified flour at all characteristics. Infrared spectroscopy showed that modification shifted absorption peak from 1,334 cm-1 to 1,373 cm-1, but there was no difference between samples dried at different temperatures.

  20. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  1. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  2. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

  3. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  5. Influence of added bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on some physical and nutritional properties of wheat flour tortillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Alex A; Ross, Kelly A; Lukow, Odean M; Fulcher, R Gary; Arntfield, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    Composite flours containing 15%, 25%, or 35% of small red, black, pinto, or navy bean flours (BF) and wheat were made into tortillas. Dough rheology, firmness, cohesiveness, rollability, and some physical properties of tortillas were negatively affected as BF concentration increased regardless of bean cultivar. Nutritionally, all bean tortillas had significantly higher levels of crude protein, total phenols, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) and antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and trypsin inhibitors (TI) than the wheat control. Tortillas to which 35% of small red, pinto and black BF was added had the highest levels of phenols, which were significantly correlated with both DPPH (r=0.99) and ABTS(+) (r=0.99) AA. Compared to raw flours, PA and TI were reduced from 37.37% to 43.78% and from 50% to 66%, respectively, in the tortillas. Overall analysis indicated that tortillas with acceptable texture and improved nutritional profile were produced at 25% substitution.

  6. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grain...

  7. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and ...

  8. RVA and Farinograph Properties Study on Blends of Resistant Starch and Wheat Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Lei; TIAN Ji-chun; SUN Cai-ling; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is the undigested starch that passes through the small intestine to the large intestine. As a functional low calorie additive, it has special applications in the food industry. Rapid visco analysis (RVA) and the Brabender farinograph were used to study the pasting properties and the viscoelasticity of blends of RS (RS3 and RS2) and three wheat flours. The wheat flours represented strong gluten wheat (SGW), intermediate gluten wheat (IGW), and weak gluten wheat (WGW) flours, at different levels of RS substitution (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). The influence of RS3 on the control wheat flours and RS-wheat flour blends were consistent with those of RS2. The peak, trough, and final viscosities of RS3-wheat flour blends were higher than those of the corresponding RS2-wheat flour blends. The peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities of wheat-RS blends decreased with an increase in resistant starch contents from 0 to 20% in the blends. The 0-20% RS-wheat flour blends were all able to form doughs. The dough development times, dough stabilities, dough breakdown times, and farinograph quality numbers for the RS-wheat flour blends decreased as the RS proportion in the blends increased. The values for RS-SGW flour blends were the highest, followed by RS-IGW and then RS-WGW flour blends. The water absorption values for RS-wheat flour blends and the mixing tolerance index for RS-WGW flour blends were found to increase significantly with an increasing proportion of RS from 0 to 20%, but the mixing tolerance index for RS-SGW and RS-IGW flour blends showed no significant differences amongst the different ratios. Correlation analysis showed that the Farinograph quality number was highly positively correlated with dough breakdown time, dough stability, and dough development time (r= 1.000, 0.958, 0.894), and highly negatively correlated with the mixing tolerance index (r=-0.890). Data from this study can be used for the development of dough

  9. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John; Su, Lan; Moore, Jeffrey; Cheng, Zhihong; Luther, Marla; Rao, Jaladanki N; Wang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2006-05-31

    Seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were examined for their total fat content, fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), radical scavenging capacities against the peroxyl (ORAC) and stable DPPH radicals, chelating capacity against Fe(2+), and antiproliferative activities using the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. Significant levels of fat were detected in the fruit seed flours and their fatty acid profiles may differ from those of the respective seed oils. Cranberry seed flour had the highest level of alpha-linolenic acid (30.9 g/100 g fat) and the lowest ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids (1.2/1). The ORAC value of the chardonnay seed flour was 1076.4 Trolox equivalents mumol/g flour, and its TPC was 186.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g flour. These values were 3-12 times higher than the other tested fruit seed flours. Furthermore, the ORAC value was significantly correlated to the TPC under the experimental conditions (P seed flours also differed in their TAC values and Fe(2+)-chelating capacities. In addition, black raspberry, cranberry, and chardonnay grape seed flour extracts were evaluated for their antiproliferative effects using HT-29 colon cancer cells. All three tested seed flour extracts significant inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation. The data from this study suggest the potential of developing the value-added use of these fruit seed flours as dietary sources of natural antioxidants and antiproliferative agents for optimal human health.

  10. Changes in nutritional composition, functional, and sensory properties of yam flour as a result of presoaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale Olusegun; Babatunde, Bukunola Olaide; Olotu, Ifeoluwa

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of soaking pretreatments on some of the properties of flour obtained from two varieties of yam namely;Dioscorea alata andDioscorea rotundata with a view of providing information that will enhance their end use. The yam varieties were washed, chipped, parboiled at 50°C, soaked for different periods (0, 6, 12, and 18 h), dried at 60°C, and milled into flour. The flour samples were analyzed for their nutritional composition, pH, color, and functional properties. The flour samples were also made into pastes and were sensorially analyzed and 0 h soaked samples were used as control. The protein content of 18 h-soakedD. rotundata andD. alata flour samples was significantly different from the control and soaking had no effect (P > 0.05) on the fat and ash content but the carbohydrate content of the flour samples ranged from 83.08% to 86.13%. The 18 h-soakedD. rotundata flour sample had the lowest peak viscosity, breakdown value, and final viscosity among theD. rotundata variety samples. Pasting temperature ranged from 79.80 to 83.60°C and 6-h soakedD. alata flour sample had the lowest water absorption capacity and the highest bulk density. On the basis of sensory analysis, the panelist preferred the taste, texture, color, and appearance of paste made from the 18-h soakedD. rotundata flour to the paste of other flour samples. The results of this study show that D.rotundata should be soaked for 18 h prior to drying and milling in order to obtain a good-quality flour and paste.

  11. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doo-Jee; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yookyung

    2013-11-01

    For the development of healthful gluten-free soy bread acceptable to consumers, we evaluated the effects of various processing procedures for soy flour on bread quality, in terms of beany flavour and texture. We pretreated soy flour by both non-heating (raw:NS and germinated:GS) and heating (steamed:SS and roasted:RS) methods. In addition, to improve the loaf volume, we added 1% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) to RS flour. Lipoxygenase activity was retained in the non-heat-treated flours (279 U/g for NS and 255 U/g for GS), but was significantly reduced in the heat-treated flours (106U/g for SS and 69 U/g for RS). Moreover, heat-treated flour had higher isoflavone and ferric reducing antioxidant power than had non-heat-treated flour. However, RS flour had the lowest moisture content and lowest L value. The GS bread had the highest specific loaf volume (3.53 cm(3)/g), followed by NS (2.96 cm(3)/g), RS (2.25c m(3)/g), and SS (1.81 cm(3)/g) bread. GS bread had the lowest hardness (1.53N), followed by NS (1.65 N), RS (2.00 N), and SS (3.75 N) bread. The addition of 1% HPMC to RS increased the loaf volume (2.44 cm(3)/g), but decreased the bread's hardness (1.80N). As to the sensory properties, the bread with heat-treated flour was perceived to have a less beany odour and taste than was the bread with non-heat-treated flour. However, the latter had a better appearance than the former. These results indicated that soy flour pretreatment could enhance the loaf volume and reduce the beany flavour of whole soy bread.

  12. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free kibbeh formulated with millet flour (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcherena Amorim Brasil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearl millet flour was utilized in kibbeh formulations instead of whole-wheat flour. Physicochemical properties, oxidation stability and sensorial characteristics of control kibbeh made with whole-wheat flour (CT were compared with kibbehs prepared with millet flour (roasted or wet and stored for 90 days (–18 °C. Kibbeh prepared with millet flour presented good oxidation stability (TBARS concentration. Baked kibbehs (with roasted millet flour presented good acceptability and kibbeh samples did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 from the whole-wheat flour sample, when global appearance, texture and flavor were evaluated. Millet flour could be a suitable ingredient for kibbeh formulations, maintaining their nutritional value and sensorial quality in addition to being a gluten-free product.

  13. Physicochemical and pasting properties of unleavened wheat flat bread (Chapatti as affected by addition of pulse flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Ahmed Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unleavened flat bread (chapatti was prepared from wheat–pulse composite flours wherein wheat flour was replaced from 5–20% by kidney bean and black gram flours. Water absorption for dough making increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 in composite flours. Sensory evaluation of flat breads produced from wheat–pulse composite flours showed significant decrease in color, taste, aroma, breakability, and overall acceptability score at 15% or higher level of replacement. Pasting properties of composite flours and breads produced thereof displayed significant decrease in peak, trough, final, and setback viscosity while increase in pasting temperature was observed. This suggested that starch has gelatinized considerably and flat breads have been baked sufficiently. Significant lower setback viscosity of composite flour than control wheat flour indicates that composite flat breads can maintain freshness for longer time than control bread.

  14. Determination of ergosterol levels in barley and malt varieties in the Czech Republic via HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicková, Lenka; Gadas, David; Havlová, Pavla; Havel, Josef

    2008-06-11

    Ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mold infestation in barley and malt. In this study ergosterol levels in different varieties of barley and malt produced in the Czech Republic were determined. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was statistically processed, validated (Effivalidation program), and applied to 124 samples of barley and malt. Ergosterol was isolated by extraction and saponification, and the quantification was performed using HPLC with diode array detection. The content of ergosterol ranged between the limit of detection (LOD) and 36.3 mg/kg in barley and between the LOD and 131.1 mg/kg in malt. Ergosterol is presumably connected with metabolites generated when barley grain is attacked by pathogens, and such barley often shows a high overfoaming (gushing) value. However, it was found that the content of ergosterol does not correlate with the degree of beer gushing.

  15. Determination of trichothecenes and zearalenones in grain cereal, flour and bread by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Cristina; Ritieni, Alberto; Mañes, Jordi

    2012-10-15

    Although analytical methods have been already reported for legislated mycotoxins as trichothecenes and zearalenone (ZON) separately, we describe the optimization of a simple and rapid multimycotoxin method for the determination of a total of 12 mycotoxins simultaneously, nine trichothecenes (NIV, DON, FUS-X, DAS, 15-AcDON, 3-AcDON, NEO, HT-2, T-2 T2), and zearalenone and its metabolites (ZON, α-ZOL, β-ZOL), of different origin (wheat, oat, barley and spelt) and in three different products where these substance can be present (grain, flour and bread) reach the food chain and cause toxic effect either in humans or animals. The extraction procedure was based on a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84/16, v/v), which provided the highest recoveries and the lowest matrix effect. DON-d1 was used as internal standard (I.S.) which helped to compensate the significant matrix effect observed for some matrices, and to obtain high success in the method validation and to reach the parameters compiled in Commission Decision, 2002/657/EC. Analytes were determinate by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative recoveries obtained were higher than 70% for the studied mycotoxins the four cereal. Good linearity (r(2)>0.992) was obtained and quantification limits (2.5-25 ng/g) were below European regulatory levels. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was always lower than 11%, whereas interday precision was lower than 11% for the developed method.

  16. Effect of Lupine Flour on Baking Characteristics of Gluten Free Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Maghaydah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celiac Disease (CD is an immune-mediated disease in genetically susceptible individuals caused by intolerance to gluten protein in some cereals, resulting in mucosal inflammation, which causes malabsorption. An effective treatment for CD is a gluten-free diet that excludes cereals containing gluten. One of the most desirable wheat products is the cookie, which is considered suitable for all ages due to its low manufacturing cost, convenience, long shelf life and good eating quality. Therefore, the production of local, high quality and affordable gluten-free cookies was the main objective of this study in which lupine flour was used as a main wheat flour alternative. Eight gluten-free cookie flour blends were prepared: 100% Lupine Flour (AF, 50% lupine flour and 50% corn starch (BF, 40% lupine flour and 60% corn starch (CF, 30% lupine flour and 70% corn starch (DF, 30% lupine flour, 40% rice flour and 30% corn starch (EF, 30% lupine flour, 40% corn flour and corn starch 30% (FF, 20% lupine flour, 30% corn flour, 20% rice flour and 30% corn starch (GF and 20% lupine flour, 30% rice flour, 20% corn flour and 30% corn starch (HF, with equal amounts of hydrocolloids (1.5% xanthan and 1.5% carrageenan which were used as a functional gluten alternative, as well as a control sample with Wheat flour (WC. The chemical composition, physical characteristics and sensory evaluation of all treated flour blends and cookies were determined. The results of the chemical analysis indicated that corn and wheat flour were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in moisture content, while lupine flour had significantly (p≤0.05 higher contents of lipid, protein, fiber and ash. Starch significantly (p≤0.05 showed the highest carbohydrate content. The moisture of blend BC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher than all blends and blend AC was significantly (p≤0.05 higher in ash, protein, lipid and fiber content. The carbohydrate content of blend DC was significantly (p≤0

  17. Cultivar and Environmental Variation of β-glucan Content in Chinese Barleys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; Zhang Guo-ping; QIANG Xiao-lin; WANG Jun-mei; DING Shou-ren

    2002-01-01

    β-glucan is a polysaccharide compound closely related to the quality of barley used as malting,feed and food. Low β-glucan content is expected for brewing and feed barley, while high β-glucan content is desirable for food barley. The β-glucan content of barley genotypes collected from various areas of China as well as from Canada and Australia were assayed. Meanwhile a multi-locations trial was conducted to determineβ-glucan content of 10 barley cultivars in 8 locations for two successive planting years. The results showed that barley genotypes from Tibet and Xinjiang had higher β-glucan content and the genotypes with higher than 8%of β-glucan content were detected in Tibet barleys, being valuable for use in the development of healthy food.Barley cultivars being planted now in winter-sowing areas of China had basically the same β-glucan content as those from Canada and Australia. Barley seeds produced in Hangzhou had lower β-glucan content than seeds from the original areas. There was a highly significant difference in β-glucan content among 10 barleys, 8locations and between years. On an average of two years, Xiumei 3 and Kongpei 1 had the highest and lowestβ-glucan content, respectively, and Taian and Hangzhou produced the highest and lowest β-glucan content barley seeds, respectively. Analysis of AMMI model showed that interaction effect between cultivar and environment was highly significant in both experimental years, and was dependent on cuitivar, suggesting that it is important to plant the suitable cultivars in a particular area in order to obtain barley seeds with reasonableβ-glucan content.

  18. Application of Dual Coagulant (Alum + Barley in Removing Colour from Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaylinda Mohd Zin Nur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation/flocculation is one of the treatment method for highly polluted leachate. One of the main affecting factor for this process is the coagulant used. Coagulant is divided into natural and chemical coagulant. In the current study, Alum (chemical coagulant and barley (natural coagulant were used as dual coagulant. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dual coagulant made from alum and barley in removing colour from the effluent of Simpang Renggam landfill leachate aeration lagoon through coagulation/flocculation method. Coagulation/flocculation process with single alum coagulant, single barley coagulant and dual coagulant (alum+barley were examined by evaluating the optimum values of pH and dose. Optimum dose and pH for alum and barley as single coagulant were; 3 g/L & pH 5; 0.8 g/L & pH 6. Higher removal of colour was recorded for alum compared to barley. Application of alum and barley as dual coagulant had higher colour removal than alum and barley as single coagulant. The optimum pH and dose for dual coagulant were at pH 6, 3.0 g/L of alum and 0.8 g/L of barley respectively. However, at pH 6, 2 g/L alum and 1.6 g/L barley, the removal of colour was similar to alum at 3 g/L. It can be concluded that barley as coagulant aid able to reduce 33 % usage of alum at par removals of colour. Thus, the dual coagulant consist of alum and barley has the potential to be applied as a coagulant for leachate treatment.

  19. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  20. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  1. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capanoğlu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (ζ) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(∗)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G″ value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes.

  2. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  3. Mixing behaviour of a zero-developed dough compared to a flour-water mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peighambardoust, S.H.; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Z-blade mixing behaviour of zero-developed (ZD) doughs from the flours of two wheat cultivars of different gluten strength was compared to that of conventionally mixed dough made from the same flours. In farinograph experiments, use of ZD dough led to shorter development time (with less energy

  4. Moisture Performance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted and delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using extracted and delignified wood flour on water sorption properties of wood–plastic composites. Wood flour (WF) extraction was performed with three solvent systems: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW); delignification was conducted using sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. A 24 full-factorial...

  5. Molecular techniques for detection of confused flour beetle infestations in stored products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle) is a stored-product pest which contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although a number of methods for detection of stored-produc...

  6. Effect of Barely flour on jaundice in full-term neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2005-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study indicated that phototherapy in conjuction with barely flour therapy is more effective than phototherapy alone. But, people must be informed that affected neonates have to be underwent medical therapy, and barely flour therapy alone is not a reliable treatment.

  7. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  8. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  9. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  10. Changes in Characteristics of Kithul (Caryota urens Flour Prepared by Different Modification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. A. C. Wijesinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flour has been an ample source of research and most abundant material for a number of food applications. The aim of this study is to introduce modified Kithul flour for certain industrial requirements. Several physical and chemical treatments were employed to modify Kithul (Caryota urens flour. The effects of pregelatinization (PG-I and II, acid modification (AC, and dextrinization (DX on their swelling power, solubility, granular morphology, viscosity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns were studied. At 75°C, pregelatinized treated (PG-II flour had a high solubility (5.31, while at 70°C pregelatinized treated (PG-I flour had a low solubility (4.47 as compared to the solubility of native flour sample (RW = 4.88. Same pattern has been followed by the swelling power while viscosity showed the highest value for PG-II (7296.51 Cp and lowest value for DX treatment (873.40 Cp as peak viscosities. There were no significant changes in granular size of all treatments compared with the native Kithul flour (45.52 μm. X-ray diffraction (XRD also followed the same pattern by presenting Bragg’s angle (2θ positions near 15 (Peak 1, 17 (Peak 2, 18 (Peak 3, and 23 (Peak 4 providing evidence for the presence of crystallites which belong to type A in all modified and native Kithul flour treatments.

  11. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  12. Effect of konjac flour incorporated with soy protein isolate on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... flour on physical, chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ... konjac flour and SPI tended to be darker, juicy, sweet and flavour, but less hard than the control; ..... The Maillard reaction involves the reaction between ...

  13. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  14. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans occurs during Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. Fo...

  15. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  16. Effect of ball milling energy on rheological and thermal properties of amaranth flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Diego F; Baeza, Rosa I; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-12-01

    Pearled amaranth grains obtained by abrasive milling were processed by planetary ball milling to produce amaranth flours. The influence of milling energy on rheological and thermal behavior of amaranth flour dispersions and stability during 24 h storage at 4 °C were investigated based on a factorial design. The rheological behavior of flour dispersions (4 % and 8 % w/v) was determined using a rotational viscometer, while gelatinization degree was determined by differential scanning calorimetry as a measure of structural changes.The power law model was found to be suitable in expressing the relationship between shear stress and shear rate. Flour dispersions showed a pseudoplastic behavior. However this character decreased with the storage being dependent on flour concentration and milling energy. A decrease of the consistency index and an increase of the flow behavior index were observed as a result of the increasing milling energy. Gelatinization enthalpy decrease showed the loss of crystalline structure due to ball milling. Amaranth flour dispersions presented increasing stability during storage. It was observed, that the stability changed with the concentration of amaranth flours.Thus, more stable dispersions were obtained as the flour concentration increased. The highly milled sample was the most stable sample during the storage.

  17. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  18. Studies on the rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition, rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour were investigated. Compared with wheat flour, waxy wheat flour has lower protein (9.52%), amylase (1.02%) and higher crude starch (73.19%) contents. Because of its different chemical composition, waxy wheat flour exhibited some better processing characteristics (water-holding capacity, dough development time, extensibility, swelling power and setback) than normal wheat flour. It also exhibited some defects in rheological characteristics, including a higher degree of softening, a lower Farinograph quality number and smaller resistance to extensibility ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that waxy wheat flour gelatinized at higher onset (To=60.9 °C), peak (Tp=64.9 °C), conclusion (Tc=73.6 °C) temperatures and required more energy (ΔH=7.6J/g) to melt gelatinized starch gels. The results of this investigation indicated that blending waxy wheat flour with normal flour is a promising way to improve product quality in baked foods and to prolong the shelf-life of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; CHENG Shun-he; MA Chuan-xi

    2007-01-01

    Steamed bread is very popular in the East and Southeast Asian regions, and its quality is affected by some physicochemical properties. Chinese steamed bread was made by adding waxy flour into normal wheat flour in the present study. The results showed that specific volume was not affected by the proportions of waxy flour, whereas, adding waxy flour decreased the appearance, color, texture, elasticity, stickiness, and the total score of Chinese steamed bread. However, there were no significant differences in all values when the proportions of waxy flour were below 10%. All evaluations but specific volume of Chinese steamed bread were positively influenced by the peak viscosity, resistance, and maximum resistance. When the waxy flour proportions were below 25%, the firmness of Chinese steamed bread stored at -18℃ for 3 days gradually decreased with the increase of waxy flour. It was revealed that the qualities of Chinese steamed bread cannot, be improved by waxy flour but it can be widely used in frozen storing food in the future.

  20. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  1. Technological characteristics of yeast-containing cakes production using waxy wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Iorgachova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the feasibility of using waxy wheat flour, the starch of which doesn`t contain amylose, in order to stabilize the quality of yeast-containing cakes. The influence of the waxy wheat flour mass fraction and the stage of its adding on the physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the products are studied. According to the technological properties of a new type of wheat flour, two methods of its adding are proposed ‒ adding the maximum amount of waxy wheat flour at dough kneading stage or using the mixture of waxy and bakery wheat flours for kneading sourdough and dough. It is shown that the replacement of 60 % bakery wheat flour with waxy wheat flour in the recipe of yeast-containing cakes at the dough kneading stage contributes to the production of products with higher quality and organoleptic characteristics compared to both the control and cakes based on a mixture of different types of wheat flour. These samples are characterized by increased by 1.7 – 11.3 % specific volume, porosity – 2.6 – 5.5 % and the total deformation of the crumb – 6.5 – 41.4 %.

  2. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  3. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  4. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...

  5. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  6. Characteristics and oil absorption in deep-fat fried batter prepared from ball-milled wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatuksorn, Pariya; Kajiwara, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Toru

    2010-01-15

    The porous structure generated during frying influences oil absorption and textural qualities. The alteration in physical properties of wheat flour is suspected to affect the structure formation. The present study investigated the effect of physicochemical changes in wheat flour by the ball-milling process on structure formation and consequently oil absorption of a fried wheat flour batter model. Batter models containing 600 g kg(-1) moisture were made of 0-10 h ball-milled wheat flour and then fried in frying oil at 150 degrees C for 1-7 min. The samples made of milled flour possess larger pores and exhibit lower oil absorption than sample made of 0 h milled flour. The fracture force of a fried sample prepared from 5 and 10 h milled flour is lower than that of a sample prepared from 0 h milled flour. The decrease in glass transition temperature (T(g)) and melting temperature (T(m)) of milled flour affect the microstructure formation in the fried wheat flour batter. The microstructure is responsible for oil absorption and fracturability in fried food. The samples made of flour of longer ball-milling time have lower oil absorption and higher crispness. Ball-milling may be a tool to produce mechanically modified wheat flour which can reduce oil absorption for fried batter. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  8. Susceptibility of different life stages of Tribolium confusum to pyrethrin aerosol: effects of a flour food source on insecticidal efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accumulated grain dust and flour residues in flour mills can potentially decrease the efficacy of contact insecticides used for control of adult and immature stages of stored product insects. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flour residues on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aero...

  9. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and

  10. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  11. Effect of Processing on the Chemical, Pasting and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Bambara Nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Abiodun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of processing on the chemical, pasting and anti-nutritional composition of bambara nut flour. Bambara nut seeds were divided into two portions. Portion A was milled into raw flour while portion B was boiled for 10 min. The coats were removed and the dehulled nuts were dried in the oven at 50oC for 18 h. They were milled and sealed in polythene bags. Proximate, mineral and antinutritional compositions of the samples were carried out on the flour samples. Raw flour had the highest ash content (3.26% while the least value was in the coat. Protein content ranged from 3.49-19.94%. Dehulled bambara nut had higher protein content than the raw sample. The coat was high in fibre content when compared to the raw and dehulled flour samples. The mineral composition of raw bambara nut flour were higher than the dehulled flour. Tannin contents ranged from 0.16 mg/100 g in dehulled flour to 0.32 mg/100 g in raw flour. Raw bambara nut flour had higher phytate content while the dehulled flour had lower value. The value of oxalate ranged from 0.10-1.34 mg/100 g. Boiling and dehulling drastically reduced the mineral and the antinutritional composition of the flour.

  12. Sensory response and physical characteristics of gluten-free and gum-free bread with chia flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katira da Mota HUERTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical quality and sensory acceptance of gluten-free breads with different percentages of chia flour (Salvia Hispanica L .. The chia flour was used to substitute rice flour and soy flour in order to replace the gum required in this type of bread. Four formulations were developed; a standard made with gum, and three formulations with 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% of chia flour. Analyses of specific volume, cooking losses and the rise in dough of the breads were performed. Sensory analysis included tests for affective acceptability and purchase intent. The results showed that the bread with 2.5% chia flour had specific volume and cooking losses similar to the standard. In terms of the rise in dough, the standard showed the highest values, followed by the bread made with 5.0% chia flour. The substitution of soy and rice flour with 2.5% of chia flour produced bread with sensory characteristics similar to the standard in all of the analyzed attributes; it also received higher purchase intent. Using chia flour at a concentration of 2.5%, compared to rice flour and soy flour, proved that it was possible to replace gum in the bread formulation.

  13. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  14. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  15. Assessment of the Seedling Reactions of Some Hulless Barley Genotypes to Drechslera teres f. maculata

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlegiz, Emine Tuba; KARAKAYA, Aziz; Celik Oguz, Arzu; MERT, Zafer; Sayim, İsmail; Ergun, Namuk; Aydogan, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    The seedling reactions of three barley cultivars, one hulless barley cultivar, two candidate hulless barley lines and nine hulless barley genotypes were determined under greenhouse conditions to ten isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of net blotch. Isolates were obtained from Ankara, Çankırı, Eskişehir, Kayseri, Konya and Şanlıurfa provinces. The reactions of the cultivars and hulless cultivar ranged between suscepible-resistant. The reactions of the hulle...

  16. The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

    2014-04-01

    The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

  17. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  18. Multiplex liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of wheat, oat, barley and rye prolamins towards the assessment of gluten-free product safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfredi, Anita [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Mattarozzi, Monica, E-mail: monica.mattarozzi@unipr.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Giannetto, Marco; Careri, Maria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17/A, 43124, Parma (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale SITEIA.PR, Università degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Celiac patients should feel confident in the safety of foods labelled or expected to be gluten-free. In this context, a targeted proteomic approach based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was proposed to assess the presence of celiotoxic cereals, namely wheat, oats, barley and rye, in raw and processed food products. To this aim, unique marker peptides were properly selected in order to distinguish between the different cereal types. A revised cocktail solution based on reducing and denaturing agents was exploited for prolamin extraction from raw and processed food; in addition, defatting with hexane was carried out for sample clean-up, allowing to largely reduce problems related to matrix effect. Method validation on fortified rice flour showed good analytical performance in terms of sensitivity (limits of detection in the 2–18 mg kg{sup −1} range). However, poor trueness was calculated for self-made incurred bread (between 3 and 30% depending on the peptide), probably due to baking processes, which reduce gluten extractability. Thus, it is evident that in the case of processed foods further insights into sample treatment efficiency and reference materials for protein calibration are required to obtain accurate gluten determination. Finally, the developed method was applied for the analysis of market food products, offering the possibility to discriminate among cereals, with good agreement with labelled ingredients for gluten-containing foodstuffs. - Highlights: • Multiplex LC-MS/MS detection of wheat, oats, barley and rye in food. • Discrimination among celiotoxic cereals by selection of unique marker peptides. • Defatting step for matrix complexity reduction and improved sensitivity. • Investigation of gluten presence in different kinds of food product samples.

  19. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  20. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Infascelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fermentation characteristics of whole-crop barley silages from ten different cultivars were evaluated by the in vitro gas production technique. The organic matter degradability of barley silage (62.9% in average was comparable to those reported in our previous trials for oat (59.7% and sorghum silages (65.5%; while the maximum gas production rate (5.38 ml/h in average was slightly lower respect to oat (6.71 ml/h and sorghum silage (6.74 ml/h. The mean nutritive value (4.00 MJ/kg DM calculated on the basis of both chemical composition and in vitro fermentation data was comparable to that (4.16 MJ/kg DM obtained in our previous research performed on corn silage, from crop sowed in the same area.

  1. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight...... into these aspects four experiments were set up; (1) a mapping experiment aiming at identifying QTL’s controlling disease levels under field conditions was conducted in two winterbarley populations. (2) a toxin assay testing the parental lines used in the mapping populations for response to Rubellin D was developed....... (3) microarray analysis of transcriptional response in barley to inoculation with R. collo-cygni was carried out, and finally the (4) population genetic structure of R. collo-cygni was assessed by AFLP and gene sequencing. Based on these experiments interaction was compared to the interactions of C...

  2. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio...... in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition...

  3. Barley grain enrichement with essential elements by agronomic biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević Vesna D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grain is rich in mineral nutrients, but their bioavailability to humans depends on antinutrients that restrain bioavailability and promoters that promote bioavailability. The aim of this study was to examine composition of barley grain, including phytate and phenolics as antinutrients, carotenoids and glutathione as promoters and mineral elements, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Si, Zn and Mn influenced by various non-standard foliar fertilizers (Zircon, Chitosan, Siliplant, Propikonazole, including some hormonal growth-stimulators (Epin Extra, Benzyladenine, as potential biofortification measure. Chitosan increased glutathione concentration in grain. Unfavorable meteorological conditions were partly mitigated by application of Benzyladenine and Siliplant, reflected through increased potential bioavailability of P, Mg, Ca and Fe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31037

  4. Pollen grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. - pattern of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen development in barley follows the general pattern established for other species of Poaceae: 1 microspore division occurs at the vacuolate microspore stage with polarly located nucleus; 2 microspore mitosis is immediately followed by phragmoplast and cell plate formation; 3 in consequence or unequal microspore division, the generative cell, at first attached to the pollen wall, is separated from the vegetative cell by a callosic wall; 4 during the postmitotic two-cell stage of development, the vegetative nucleus migrates to the aperture pole and is followed by the generative cell that is detached and free of callose wall. In this position the generative cell divides into two sperm cells. These data do not confirm the interpretation of pollen grain development in barley given by Cass and Karas in Can. J. Bot. 53: 1051-1062, 1975.

  5. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.;

    2004-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise is no longer widely used for malting, but is amenable to transformation and is therefore a valuable experimental cultivar. Its characteristics include high salt tolerance, however it is also susceptible to several fungal pathogens. Proteome....... Eleven of these were identified by mass spectrometric peptide mass mapping, including an abundant chitinase implicated in defence against fungal pathogens and a small heat-shock protein. To enable a comparison with transgenic seed protein patterns, differences in spot patterns between field...... with extra nitrogen. Finally, the fate of transgene products in barley seeds was followed. Spots containing two green fluorescent protein constructs and the herbicide resistance marker phosphinothricin acetyltransferase were observed in 2D-gel patterns of transgenic seeds and identified by mass spectrometry...

  6. Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

    2013-09-01

    Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment.

  7. Effect of spelt wheat flour and kernel on bread composition and nutritional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrabanja, V; Kovac, B; Golob, T; Liljeberg Elmståhl, H G; Björck, I M; Kreft, I

    2001-01-01

    Spelt wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta cv. Ostro) were used to obtain white spelt flour (64.5% yield), wholemeal spelt flour (100% yield), and scalded spelt wheat kernels. From these materials, white spelt wheat bread (WSB), wholemeal spelt wheat bread (WMSB), and spelt wheat bread with scalded spelt wheat kernels (SSKB) were made and were compared to the reference white wheat bread (WWB). The spelt wheat flours and breads contained more proteins in comparison to wheat flour and bread. Among the samples the highest rate of starch hydrolysis was noticed in WSB. During the first 30 min of incubation this particular bread was shown to have significantly more (P bread. On the other hand, the most refined spelt wheat flour resulted in a bread product (WSB) that was statistically withdrawn (P < 0.05) as one with the highest HI (112.6).

  8. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  9. Cultivar difference in physicochemical properties of starches and flours from temperate rice of Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don

    2014-08-15

    Starch and flour of seven temperate rice cultivars grown in Himalayan region were evaluated for composition, granule structure, crystallinity, Raman spectrometry, turbidity, swelling power, solubility, pasting properties and textural properties. The rice cultivars showed medium to high amylose content for starch (24.69-32.76%) and flour (17.78-24.86%). SKAU-382 showed the highest amount of amylose (32.76%). Rice starch showed polyhedral granule shapes and differences in their mean granule size (2.3-6.5 μm) were noted among the samples. The starch and flour samples showed type A-pattern with strong reflection at 15, 18, and 23. Pasting profile and textural analysis of rice starch and flour showed that all the cultivars differences, probably due to variation in amylose content. The present study can be used for identifying differences between rice genotypes for starch and flour quality and could provide guidance to possible industries for their end use.

  10. PREDICTION OF WHITE FLOUR QUALITY OBTAINED BY INDUSTRIAL MILLING OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA APRODU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the relations between quality of the wheat and white flour obtained through industrial milling, several parameters related to functional properties of the proteins and starch were analyzed. The parameters defining the proteins functionality are wet gluten, Gluten index, deformation energy of dough and minimum torque C2 and allowed establishing significant correlations between wheat and flour. Concerning the starch baking performance, the parameters that allowed establishing significant correlations between wheat and flour are falling number value, amylase activity, starch gelatinization and cooking stability range. Analyzing the trend of variation of the quality parameters given by Mixolab and Alveograph tests for wheat and flour, one can see that it is possible to predict the flour quality based on wheat quality.

  11. Consumer acceptability of stiff porridge based on various composite flour proportions of sorghum, maize and cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangu, N T; Mtebe, K; Nzallawahe, T S

    1994-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine consumer acceptable proportions of flours in sorghum (var. serena) and maize or sorghum, maize and cassava composite flours. Breeder's serena flour extracted at 75 percent was mixed at various proportions with maize or with maize and cassava to constitute composite flours. The various composite flours were made into stiff porridge and presented to a group of panellists for sensory evaluation. The evaluation was conducted by scoring on a hedonic scale of 0-5 for poor to excellent, respectively, for the parameters colour, texture, flavour, taste and overall acceptability. The responses were analysed statistically. Alternatively the panellists were allowed to eat ad-lib any of the presented samples which appealed to them. The results demonstrated that slight incorporation (porridge overrides other factors in contributing to its acceptability.

  12. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  13. Cold-atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour for improved wood plastics composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekobou, William; Pedrow, Patrick; Englund, Karl; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2009-10-01

    Plastic composites have become a large class of construction material for exterior applications. One of the main disadvantages of wood plastic composites resides in the weak adhesion between the polar and hydrophilic surface of wood and the non-polar and hydrophobic polyolefin matrix, hindering the dispersion of the flour in the polymer matrix. To improve interfacial compatibility wood flour can be pretreated with environmentally friendly methods such as cold-atmospheric pressure plasma. The objective of this work is therefore to evaluate the potential of plasma polymerization of acetylene on wood flour to improve the compatibility with polyolefins. This presentation will describe the reactor design used to modify wood flour using acetylene plasma polymerization. The optimum conditions for plasma polymerization on wood particles will also be presented. Finally preliminary results on the wood flour surface properties and use in wood plastic composites will be discussed.

  14. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis.

  15. Maize flour contaminated with toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriuki, Gacheri K.; Siboe, George M.

    1995-02-01

    The majority of the Kenyan human population may be exposed to regular doses of a wide spectrum of highly toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, and hepatotoxic mycotoxins through the consumption of maizemeal. Maizemeal is consumed in Kenya at the rate of about 0.4kg/person/day, therefore, even the lowest amount of toxins consumed can cause significant effects as some are cumulative. Maize is also a major component in livestock and poultry feed, and the therefore regular indirect human exposure through the consumption of animal products that contain mycotoxin residues could be common. Due to these suspected risks, it is imperative to establish whether consumers in Kenya are actually exposed to dangerous mycotoxins in maize products hence this survey. Forty samples of flour packed in 90kg bags, 58 samples of "Ugali" brand (milled and packed by the Milling Corporation of Kenya Ltd), and 74 samples of "Jogoo" brand ( Unga Maize Millers) were collected from the Nairobi area. The samples were analysed for resident mycoflora, and some mycotoxins associated with key fungal species. Important fungal species isolated from the flour included Aspergillus flavus, A. sulphureus, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium stoloniferum, and P. cyclopium. All the three brands of flour were contaminated with Aflatoxins B1 and B2 (0.4-20 ug/kg), Ochratoxin A(50-1,500 ug/kg), and Zearalenone (2,500 - 5,000 ug/kg). Ochratoxin A was the most prevalent mycotoxin. These data provide a warning that the mycotoxin contamination problem in maizemeal is critical and consumers' health is at risk. Therefore, rigorous countrywide monitoring of mycotoxins in this staple food should be pursued. If possible, maize products should be subjected to stiff microbial quality control from the farm gate to the market shelf.

  16. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P 

  17. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  18. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation.

  19. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species.

  20. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.