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Sample records for hull-less barley cultivars

  1. Method for hull-less barley transformation and manipulation of grain mixed-linkage beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Li; Collins, Helen M; Singh, Rohan R; Kibble, Natalie A J; Yap, Kuok; Taylor, Jillian; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2018-05-01

    Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however, recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited the use of these varieties. To overcome this limitation, we sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fiber component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily present in starchy endosperm cell walls. Over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, driven by an endosperm-specific promoter, produced lines where mixed-linkage glucan content increased on average by 45%, peaking at 70% in some lines, with smaller increases in transgenic HvCslH1 grain. Transgenic HvCslF6 lines displayed alterations where grain had a darker color, were more easily crushed than wild type and were smaller. This was associated with an enlarged cavity in the central endosperm and changes in cell morphology, including aleurone and sub-aleurone cells. This work provides proof-of-concept evidence that mixed-linkage glucan content in hull-less barley grain can be increased by over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, but also indicates that hull-less cultivars may be more sensitive to attempts to modify cell wall composition. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Technical note: In situ ruminal starch disappearance kinetics of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Yang, Y; Teets, C L; Brooks, W S; Griffey, C A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ruminal starch disappearance rates of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains. Five different genotypes were used for each of the 2 barley types. In addition, each of these genotypes was grown in 2 different locations and years, resulting 10 independent barley samples for each of the 2 barley grain types. Five different genotypes of corn grain were obtained from a commercial seed company. After being ground to pass through a 4-mm screen of a cutter mill, 3.6 g of each grain was placed into a porous bag, which was then incubated in the rumen of 2 ruminally cannulated cows for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Corn grains had greater instant ruminal starch disappearances than barley grains (22.4 and 8.2%, respectively). Instant ruminal starch disappearances did not differ between hulled and hull-less barley grains. Ruminal starch fractional disappearance rates were greatest for hulled barley grains, moderate for hull-less barley grains, and lowest for corn grains (15.3, 13.9, and 7.1%/h, respectively). Ruminal starch half-life was shortest for hulled and hull-less barley grains (4.4 h) and longest for corn grains (6.6 h). Ruminal starch half-life did not differ between hulled barley and hull-less barley grains. In conclusion, using a holistic experimental design and statistical analysis, this study showed that starch from hull-less barley grains has a ruminal half-life similar to that of hulled barley grains and shorter than that of corn grains. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and molecular characterization of β-glucans from hull-less barley bran, shorts and flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueling; Li, Limin; Wang, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Six hull-less barley cultivars widely grown in China were roller-milled to produce bran, shorts and flour fractions. The distribution and molecular characteristics of β-glucans from the three roller-milled fractions were investigated. The β-glucan contents in the six hull-less barley cultivars varied from 4.96% to 7.62%. For all the six cultivars, the shorts fraction contained the highest concentration of β-glucan (8.12-13.01%), followed by bran (6.15-7.58%) and flour (2.48-2.95%). Crude β-glucans were prepared from the three roller-milled fractions using aqueous sodium carbonate (pH 10). These preparations contained 45.38-71.41% β-glucan, 10.81-17.26% arabinoxylan, 2.6-9.6% protein, 2.7-9.0% starch, and 5.23-9.68% ash. Purification using α-amylase and β-xylanase in combination with pH adjustment and dialysis produced high purity β-glucan preparations (91-95%). The molecular weight (Mw) of β-glucan preparations from roller-milled fractions ranged from 117,600 to 852,400 g/mol. β-Glucan from flour had higher Mw than those from shorts and bran within the same cultivar, and β-glucan preparations from bran had the lowest Mw.

  4. STUDY ON THE ENERGY NUTRITION VALUES OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

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    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  5. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic variability of hull-less barley accessions based on molecular and quantitative data

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    Ricardo Meneses Sayd

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability of hull-less barley genotypes, for the selection of parents and identification of genotypes adapted to the irrigated production system in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eighteen hull-less barley accessions were evaluated, and three covered barley accessions served as reference. The characterization was based on 157 RAPD molecular markers and ten agronomic traits. Genetic distance matrices were obtained based on molecular markers and quantitative traits. Graphic grouping and dispersion analyses were performed. Genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability was high among genotypes. Ethiopian accessions were genetically more similar, and the Brazilian ones were genetically more distant. For agronomic traits, two more consistent groupings were obtained, one with the most two-rowed materials, and the other with six-rowed materials. The more diverging materials were the two-rowed CI 13453, CN Cerrado 5, CN Cerrado 1, and CN Cerrado 2. The PI 356466, CN Cerrado 1, PI 370799, and CI 13453 genotypes show agronomic traits of interest and, as genetically different genotypes, they are indicated for crossing, in breeding programs.

  7. Utilization of Gamma Irradiation for Improving Salinity Tolerance of Two Exotic Hull-less Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The development of hull-less (naked) barley genotypes with the ability to grow under stressed environmental conditions becomes essential to increase the national production of the crop to supplement wheat production for bread making , which in turn will decrease our imports of wheat grains and flour. Thus, a selection breeding program was conducted to enhancement salt tolerance of the two local hull-less barley varieties Giza 129 and Giza 131. Grains of the both genotypes were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 250 Gy and 350 Gy aiming to create genetic variability and selection within the induced variation. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components for M2 populations indicated the possibility of using number of spikes/plant, biological yield/plant and harvest index as a selection criterion to pick out high yielding variants with improving tolerance to salt stress. On this basis, a considerable number of plants were selected and carried forward to the next generation to raise M3 progenies. The obtained results indicated that means of grain yield/plant for Giza 129 progenies derived from 250 and 350 Gy mutagenic treatments located between 10.37 gram and 13.90 gram for the former treatment and between 9.81 gram to 13.84 gram for the latter one compared to 8.01 gram for the average of the superior control populations. On the other hand, Averages of grain yield for Giza 131 progenies ranged from 11.10 gram to 14.17 gram (250 Gy treatment) and from 11.32 gram to 13.50 gram (350 Gy treatment) vs.8.92 gram for the better untreated control plants. Results also revealed that 250 Gy mutagenic treatment was superior to 350 Gy for improving yield potentiality of the materials at hand under salinity stressed conditions

  8. Whole Tibetan Hull-Less Barley Exhibit Stronger Effect on Promoting Growth of Genus Bifidobacterium than Refined Barley In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Cao, Wenyan; Gao, Jie; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Huijuan; Sun, Baoguo; Yin, Meng

    2018-04-01

    The gut microbiota has recently become a new route for research at the intersection of diet and human health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole Tibetan hull-less barley (WHB) and refined Tibetan hull-less barley (RHB) caused differentiation of the fecal microbiota in vitro. The microbiota-accessible ingredients in the 2 barley samples were studied using an in vitro enzymatic digestion procedure. After in vitro digestion, insoluble dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, proteins, and β-glucans were 93.2%, 103.4%. 18.8%, and 10.2% higher provided by WHB flour as compared with RHB flour based on the same mass amount. However, due to the significantly higher content of insoluble dietary fiber, WHB digesta had lower percentage contents of fast fermentable substrates including dietary fiber and starch as compared with RHB digesta. The results of Next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16SrRNA gene showed that both WHB and RHB fermentation had significantly promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium and inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Dorea, Escherichia, Oscillopira, and Ruminococcus. Moreover, in response to WHB fermentation, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium increased by 78.5% and 92.8% as compared with RHB and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOs). Both WHB and RHB are good sources of fermentable dietary fiber with the ability to yield high concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as compared to FOs. However, the higher fraction of soluble fiber in RHB digesta increase higher amounts of SCFA compared with WHB digesta. Our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. Until now, only few reports have regarded the impact of in vitro digestion in components of whole grain with complex food matrix. Moreover, our findings shed light on the complex interactions of whole cereals with gut microbiota and the possible impact on host health. © 2018

  9. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( hulled and hull-less barley in isocaloric diets fed to young pigs. Pigs fed the diet with LPA M955 consumed 31% less P and excreted 78% less fecal P and 30% less fecal Ca than pigs fed the diet with NB + iP that was equal to diet M955 in aP. Therefore, LPA barley, especially M955 with 95% aP, will reduce the use of iP in swine diets, reduce P pollution from swine manure, and support the goal of achieving global P sustainability.

  10. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of whole-grain highland hull-less barley in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuejuan; Li, Guannan; Song, Jiaxin; Zheng, Jiong; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-05-01

    Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats. The lipid regulation effect of WHLB, which was reconfirmed through hepatocyte morphologic observation, was accompanied by a large excretion of bile acids in the small intestinal contents and the faeces. Real-time PCR analyses, which were further reconfirmed through Western blot analyses, revealed that a high dose of WHLB significantly enhanced the hepatic expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, LDL receptor, liver X receptor, and PPARα and decreased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. It also enhanced the ileal expression of farnesoid X receptor and resulted in the decrease of expression of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. WHLB exhibited hypocholesterolaemic effects mainly by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol accumulation in peripheral tissue, and bile acid reabsorption and by stimulating bile acid synthesis.

  11. Effects of feeding hulled and hull-less barley with low- and high-forage diets on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing hulled or hull-less barley as the grain source when feeding low-forage (LF) or high-forage (HF) diets. Eight primiparous (610 ± 40 kg of body weight and 72 ± 14 d in milk) and 16 multiparous (650 ± 58 kg of body weight and 58 ± 16 d in milk) Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to squares based on parity (1, 2, and ≥3) and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain on a dry matter basis (1) 45% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (2) 65% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (3) 45% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source, and (4) 65% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for the diet with 65% forage and hulled barley than for the rest of the diets (24.4 vs. 26.6 kg/d). Neither the type of barley nor the forage-to-concentrate ratio affected milk yield (41.7 kg/d). Barley type did not affect milk fat or protein concentrations. Feeding LF diets decreased milk fat concentration from 3.91% to 3.50%. This decrease was less than anticipated and resulted in a 7% decrease in milk fat yield relative to cows consuming HF diets (1.60 and 1.49 kg/d for HF and LF diets, respectively). Feeding LF diets increased the concentration of C18:1 trans-10 in milk fat, suggesting that feeding LF diets may have marginally altered rumen function. In conclusion, LF diets containing barley grains can marginally decrease milk fat concentration. Overall, and based on the conditions of this study, there is limited evidence to anticipate a dramatic or acute milk fat depression when feeding hull-less barley as the grain source in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright

  12. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

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    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  13. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinguish varieties of crop plants and establish their purity as a prerequisite for any ... of genetic material in germplasm collection and as a general guide for the choice ... Sixty-nine barley cultivars were grown under field condi- tions in three ...

  15. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  16. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  17. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  18. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of morphological, resistance, and other agronomically relevant traits in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Martinez, F.; Mussiraliev, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    A set of 148 modern spring barley cultivars was explored for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes governing traits and nearby marker alleles. Associations of agronomically relevant traits (days to heading, plant height), resistance traits (leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus

  19. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of yield and yield stability in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Niks, R.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stam, P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Associations between markers and complex quantitative traits were investigated in a collection of 146 modern two-row spring barley cultivars, representing the current commercial germ plasm in Europe. Using 236 AFLP markers, associations between markets were found for markers as far apart as 10 cM.

  20. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was

  1. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 da...

  2. Evaluation of a miniaturized NIR spectrometer for cultivar identification: The case of barley, chickpea and sorghum in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Frédéric; Worku, Tigist

    2018-01-01

    Crop cultivar identification is fundamental for agricultural research, industry and policies. This paper investigates the feasibility of using visible/near infrared hyperspectral data collected with a miniaturized NIR spectrometer to identify cultivars of barley, chickpea and sorghum in the context of Ethiopia. A total of 2650 grains of barley, chickpea and sorghum cultivars were scanned using the SCIO, a recently released miniaturized NIR spectrometer. The effects of data preprocessing techniques and choosing a machine learning algorithm on distinguishing cultivars are further evaluated. Predictive multiclass models of 24 barley cultivars, 19 chickpea cultivars and 10 sorghum cultivars delivered an accuracy of 89%, 96% and 87% on hold-out sample. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) algorithms consistently outperformed other algorithms. Several cultivars, believed to be widely adopted in Ethiopia, were identified with perfect accuracy. These results advance the discussion on cultivar identification survey methods by demonstrating that miniaturized NIR spectrometers represent a low-cost, rapid and viable tool. We further discuss the potential utility of the method for adoption surveys, field-scale agronomic studies, socio-economic impact assessments and value chain quality control. Finally, we provide a free tool for R to easily carry out crop cultivar identification and measure uncertainty based on spectral data.

  3. Influence of PEG induced drought stress on molecular and biochemical constituents and seedling growth of Egyptian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Hellal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of drought stress on germination components of barley cultivars, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized complete design with four replications. The controlled experiment included ten of Egyptian barley cultivars namely; (Giza 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 134, 135 and 2000 as first factor. The second factor included 4 levels of drought stress inducer by applying 0, 5, 10 and 20% of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG which is equivalent to four osmotic potential levels including −0.001, −0.27, −0.54 and −1.09 MPa, respectively. The results showed that, the highest reduction was related to the drought level of 20% PEG among the barley cultivars. The best cultivars in terms of germination traits were Giza 134, Giza 127, and Giza 126 this indicate their tolerance to drought stress and Giza 130, 135, 2000 cultivars was moderately tolerance and remaining is less tolerance. The protein band 27 kDa and 78 kDa showed high intensity after stress in almost all cultivars. Those two protein bands their exciting was very clear in treated barley leaf tissue. It could be related to dehydrine and oxygen evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2 which involved in drought stress tolerance response. Cultivars Giza 127, 130 and 134 showed highest tolerance response under drought stress. The antioxidant enzymes PAGE pattern of Peroxidase (POX, Sodium dismutase (SOD and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX for Barley cultivars under drought stress revealed a high activities for Giza 126, 127, 134, 136 and 2000 under −0.5 MPa osmotic stress by PEG in most of their isoforms. Based on similarity coefficient values the highest values were 1.0 with 100% similarly between tolerant cultivars Giza 130 and Giza 127. Similarly between the susceptible cultivars 125 and Giza 129 was 60%.These data confirmed by the growth parameters which we ranked as tolerant to drought stress. Keywords: Barley, Drought stress, Seed germination

  4. Differential responses of two Egyptian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Hayam I A; Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Elhity, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif M; Abdelaziz, Maha Nagy; Assaha, Dekoum V M; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2018-06-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered a salt tolerant crop species, productivity of barley is affected differently by ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses resulting from a salty rhizosphere. The current study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of salt tolerance in two barley cultivars, Giza128 and Giza126. The two cultivars were exposed to 200 mM NaCl hydroponically for 12 days. Although both cultivars accumulated a large amount of Na + in their leaves with similar concentrations, the growth of Giza128 was much better than that of Giza126, as measured by maintaining a higher dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and plant height. To ascertain the underlying mechanisms of this differential tolerance, first, the relative expression patterns of the genes encoding Na + /H + antiporters (NHX) and the associated proton pumps (V-PPase and V-ATPase) as well as the gene encoding the plasma membrane PM H + -ATPase were analyzed in leaf tissues. Salt stress induced higher HvNHX1 expression in Giza128 (3.3-fold) than in Giza126 (1.9-fold), whereas the expression of the other two genes, HvNHX2 and HvNHX3, showed no induction in either cultivar. The expression of HvHVP1 and HvHVA was higher in Giza128 (3.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively) than in Giza126 (1.6- and 1.1-fold, respectively). The expression of the PM H + -ATPase (ha1) gene was induced more in Giza128 (8.8-fold) than in Giza126 (1.8-fold). Second, the capacity for ROS detoxification was assessed using the oxidative stress biomarkers electrolyte leakage ratio (ELR) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and these parameters sharply increased in Giza126 leaves by 66.5%, 42.8% and 50.0%, respectively, compared with those in Giza128 leaves. The antioxidant enzyme (CAT, APX, sPOD, GR, and SOD) activities were significantly elevated by salt treatment in Giza128 leaves, whereas in Giza126, these activities were not significantly altered. Overall, the

  5. The effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivar of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbalaii, S.G.; Majd, F.; Fahimii, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: An investigation was performed in cytogenetic lab. of Nuclear Agriculture- Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 2004-5.In this research the effect of gamma irradiation on cytological and physiological function of two cultivars of barley were examined. For this aim cytological and physiological sensitivity of two cultivars (30109, 30130) were assessed by different gamma radiation doses (50,150,250,350,450 Gy).By cytological studies in addition to defining the karyotype, the rate of chromosomal aberrations due to the effect of irradiation was studied and it was observed that the chromosomal aberrations increased by increasing the rate of irradiation. In 350 and 450 Gy were observed more different forms of chromosomal damage such as ring and dicentric chromosome, deletion and translocation than the other dose. The results showed that by increasing gamma ray dose, the growth rate, root and shoot length of two cultivars were decreased, and germination percentage had no significant difference.This work suggested that the increasing of chromosomal aberrations, so decrease mean value of growth rate. (author)

  6. Variation in the leaf sodium content of the Hordeum vulgare (barley) cultivar Maythorpe and its derived mutant cv. Golden Promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, B.P.; Pakniyat, H.; Macaulay, M.; Matheson, W.; Phillips, M.S.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Powell, W.

    1994-01-01

    Tests for shoot and root sodium content were carried out on various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare) and experimental lines including wild barley (H. spontaneum) and derivatives. Lines were grown in hydroculture with and without the addition of salt (NaCl), and sodium concentrations in shoots and roots were determined. Variation in shoot sodium content was found between the various lines; in contrast, no significant differences were found between the lines tested for root sodium content. The most significant finding was the variation in shoot sodium content between the two cultivars Golden Promise and Maythorpe. Golden Promise is a direct gamma-ray induced mutant of the cultivar Maythorpe and the reduced shoot sodium content of Golden Promise can be attributed to radiation treatment. (author)

  7. Study the Reaction of Some Barley Cultivars to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, the Causal Agent of Root Rot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yazdani Kohanstani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barley is one of the important agricultural products, mostly as livestock feed, and secondly for its important role in human nutrition as bread, soups, baby food and etc. It has the second-largest rank of cultivation area and yield of the national grain production and the Isfahan province, with production 5% of total barley yield, has been ranked eighth in 2010. Because its consumption exceed over the production, barley is one of the major imports to the country. In addition to, agronomy operations, plant diseases are important factors in yield loss. Rhizoctonia root rot (caused by soil-inhabiting fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the important diseases of cereals include barley over the worldwide cultivation area. Apropriate soil fertility, delaying planting dates, crop rotation with insensitive crops such as legumes, planting resistant varieties and fungicide seed dressing are recommended methods to reduce disease damage. Chemical control of this disease is difficult because of its soil-born the pathogen. Therefore, reducing disease level requires application of other methods especially resistance cultivars. Materials and Methods In this research, the reaction of 8 barley cultivars were examined against root rot disease in greenhouse conditions, in the winter of 2009. Fifteen isolates of the fungus were isolated from infected barley fields in the Isfahan province and their pathogenicity was examined on barley. One isolate with the highest pathogenicity potential was selected and special tests showed that the isolate was Rhizoctonia solani AG-8. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 4 replications. The test plants were harvested at two times of 4 & 8 weeks after planting. Following parameters were measured: 1- dry weight of plant root and aerial part, 2- disease severity as an index of subcrown internodes infection. Results and discussion Statistical analysis of recorded data showed that there were

  8. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  9. Resultados agronômicos e qualitativos da nova cultivar de cevada MN 743 Agronomic and qualitative results of the new barley cultivar MN 743

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 743, criada pela Cia Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev foi lançada para cultivo no ano de 2004. Originou-se de um cruzamento simples entre as linhagens MN 681 e GIMPEL, realizado em 1992, no campo experimental da antiga Cia Brahma, no município de Encruzilhada do Sul. A cultivar MN 743 é do tipo duas fileiras, possui ciclo precoce e ampla adaptação às condições do sul do Brasil. Das cultivares disponíveis a nível de produção é a que apresenta a maior classificação comercial (grãos de primeira qualidade. Nos anos em que fez parte do ensaio de Valor de Cultivo e Uso (VCU, sempre apresentou médias competitivas em termos de rendimento corrigido em relação à testemunha de maior área no Brasil, MN 698. Com relação às características qualitativas, apresenta excelente performance no que diz respeito ao teor de extrato e poder diastásico. A cultivar é recomendada para os estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná. Devido a seu ótimo desempenho no aspecto qualidade, visando a indústria cervejeira, a cultivar representa um importante avanço para o melhoramento deste cereal no Brasil, aliando os interesses do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 743, developed by the Cia. Brasileira de Bebidas (AmBev was released in 2004. It resulted from a simple cross between lines MN 681 x GIMPEL, made in 1992, in the Brahma's Experimental Field - Encruzilhada do Sul/RS. MN 743, a two-rowed type cultivar has early cicle and is broadly adapted to southern Brazil. Among the hight producing cultivars available, it shows higher kernel plumpness (first quality kernel. Over the years it was included in the VCU (cost and use value trial, the cultivar has repeatedly showed competitive means in adjusted yield, as compared to the control occupying the largest cropped area in Brazil, MN 698. Regarding quality characteristics, it has an excellent performance as friability and diastasic power. The cultivar is recomended for all

  10. Caracterização nutricional de grãos integrais e descascados de cultivares de cevada Chemical characterization of covered and hulness barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elveni Teresinha Mayer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição de nutrientes de grãos de diferentes cultivares de cevada, na forma integral e descascada, e classificá-los em grupos com características nutricionais distintas. Foram utilizadas amostras de 17 cultivares, da Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS, da safra de 2005. As determinações químicas foram realizadas de acordo com os métodos de análise oficial da AOAC Internacional. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre grãos integrais de cultivares para proteína bruta, cinzas, extrato etéreo, fibra total e carboidratos não-fibrosos, porém, os teores de fibra insolúvel e fibra solúvel não diferiram. Em grãos descascados, foram observadas diferenças em todos os parâmetros analisados. Com exceção da fração de carboidratos não-fibrosos, o processo de descascamento promoveu redução em todas as frações avaliadas, em especial nos teores de fibra total e fibra insolúvel. Diferenças na composição bromatológica ocorreram devido à variabilidade genética das cultivares e ao descascamento.The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition of different covered and hulness barley cultivars grains and to classify them according to distinctive nutritional groups. Seventeen cultivars from 2005 crop of Embrapa Trigo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil, were utilized. The chemical determinations were based on Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International. Significative differences between integral cultivars in relation to crude protein, ash, ether extract, total fiber and non-fibrous carbohydrate were observed, however, there were no differences for fiber content and soluble fiber. In the hulness grain, differences were observed. The non-fibrous carbohydrate was an exception and, in this case, the hull's process promoted the fraction's reduction, specially in the total fiber and insoluble fiber content. Variation in the bromatological composition occurs because of

  11. Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for complementarity: Root morphology and exudation in relation to nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Brown, Lawrie K; Adu, Michael O; Mezeli, Malika M; Sandral, Graeme A; Simpson, Richard J; Wendler, Renate; Shand, Charles A; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc I; Lumsdon, David G; Zhang, Hao; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency may be improved through increased biodiversity in agroecosystems. Phenotypic variation in plants' response to nutrient deficiency may influence positive complementarity in intercropping systems. A multicomponent screening approach was used to assess the influence of P supply and N source on the phenotypic plasticity of nutrient foraging traits in barley (H. vulgare L.) and legume species. Root morphology and exudation were determined in six plant nutrient treatments. A clear divergence in the response of barley and legumes to the nutrient treatments was observed. Root morphology varied most among legumes, whereas exudate citrate and phytase activity were most variable in barley. Changes in root morphology were minimized in plants provided with ammonium in comparison to nitrate but increased under P deficiency. Exudate phytase activity and pH varied with legume species, whereas citrate efflux, specific root length, and root diameter lengths were more variable among barley cultivars. Three legume species and four barley cultivars were identified as the most responsive to P deficiency and the most contrasting of the cultivars and species tested. Phenotypic response to nutrient availability may be a promising approach for the selection of plant combinations for minimal input cropping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Population structure revealed by different marker types (SSR or DArT) has an impact on the results of genome-wide association mapping in European barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthies, I.E.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Weise, S.; Röder, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity arrays technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to investigate population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium and genetic diversity (kinship) on a genome-wide level in European barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A set of 183 varieties could be

  13. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Evaluation of the tolerance of three cultivars of barley to Zn, Cd or Cr in a growth chamber experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the tolerance of three cultivars of barley for the phytoremediation of soils contaminated by metals, a growth chamber experiment with plants exposed to increasing concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cr was conducted. Growth parameters, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured at 15 and 29 days after treatment application. Metal concentration in the plant was also measured. In all cases, the amount of metal accumulated in the plant increased by increasing the concentration of the applied metal. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence were higher in the first sampling indicating the negative effect on these parameters of the highest metal concentrations. Cr treatments affected significantly plant growth. Height and dry weights plants were significantly lower (p <0.05 than those treated with Zn and Cd. Physiological parameters measured and water content were also lower in plants treated with Cr. Plaisant and Pedrezuela varieties accumulated more Zn and Cd than Reinette, which accumulated greater amount of Cr than the other two cultivars. This fact shows the interest in selecting the most tolerant varieties when using a crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  15. Barley cultivar MN 698, high malting quality for the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caierão Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MN 698 is a new cultivar developed by AmBev that resulted from a cross between the cultivars MN 599 and MN 635. MN 698 shows a grain yield potential higher than 4t ha-1, has early cycle and is moderately resistant to lodging. Its spike is uniform and produces around 20 grains well-distributed. MN 698 shows a medium tillering capacity (two to three per plant, and is characterized by the presence of anthocyanin in the culm basis, arists, and glumes. It is the national cultivar with the highest quality and represents an important advance for this cereal in Brazil, combining interests of both the producer and the industrial sector.

  16. Structural and regulatory differences in amylase isoenzymes in germinating Brazilian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg-Kraemer J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amylase electrophoretic patterns of 10 Brazilian brewing-barley varieties with different malting grades and diastatic power were analyzed during the 7-day germination which occurs during the malting process. Intra and inter-variety genetic variability was observed at both the structural and regulatory level. In the first few days after germination all varieties showed a few active loci, all of them with low activity. In subsequent days, new loci became active and those already detected since early germination showed increased activity. All varieties showed a continuous increase in amylase synthesis until the 3rd and/or 4th day after germination. Some varieties maintained high amylase activity until the last day of germination, while others showed a decrease in activity on the 5th or 6th day. No specific band increased or decreased its intensity independently of the others. A total of 14 loci were detected, out of which only one locus was polymorphic, indicating very low structural genetic variability, with only 2.8% polymorphic loci, an average of 1.04 alleles per loci, and an average expected heterozygosity of only 0.7%. The mean intra-variety Jaccard similarity coefficient complement (1 - S J was 0.009. The mean intra-variety difference based on regulatory differences was higher (1 - S J = 0.17 than that obtained based on structural differences, suggesting differential gene activation. Inter-variety differentiation also showed low structural variability, with 1 - S J = 0.026 and a Nei genetic distance (D value of 0.0076, and a remarkable increase in divergence caused by differential gene activation (1 - S J = 0.34. These results indicate that regulatory polymorphism is the principal agent responsible for amylase variability in the barley varieties analyzed.

  17. MN 716: nova cultivar de cevada com estabilidade de produção e qualidade cervejeira Production stability and brewing quality of Barley MN 716

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A cevada MN 716, lançada em 2004, é uma das cultivares recomendadas para cultivo com maior estabilidade de produção. Nos anos em que participou do ensaio para determinação de seu valor de cultivo e uso, apresentou excelente produtividade de grãos, com média superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e desempenho equilibrado quanto à qualidade, com destaque para seu teor de beta-glucanas e índice enzimático. A cultivar constitui um avanço do melhoramento desse cereal no Brasil, aliando características de interesse do produtor e da indústria.Barley cultivar MN 716, released in 2004, is one of the most recomended cultivars, for its high stability. In the years that it was included in the agronomic and use value trial, the cultivar MN 716 showed high yield average, exceeding 3,000 kg ha-1, as well as excellent qualitative performance, mainly in relation to beta-glucans and enzyme index. The cultivar is a breeding achievement for this cereal in Brazil, and serves the interests of both producers and industrial sector.

  18. Structural and Temporal Variation in Genetic Diversity of European Spring Two-Row Barley Cultivars and Association Mapping of Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tondelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred sixteen barley ( L. cultivars were selected to represent the diversity and history of European spring two-row barley breeding and to search for alleles controlling agronomic traits by association genetics. The germplasm was genotyped with 7864 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers and corresponding field trial trait data relating to growth and straw strength were obtained at multiple European sites. Analysis of the marker data by statistical population genetics approaches revealed two important trends in the genetic diversity of European two-row spring barley, namely, i directional selection for approximately 14% of total genetic variation of the population in the last approximately 50 yr and ii highly uneven genomic distribution of genetic diversity. Association analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data identified multiple loci affecting the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best” is leading towards fixation of some breeder targets. Nevertheless, modern germplasm also retains many regions of high diversity, suggesting that site-specific genetic approaches for allele identification and crop improvement such as association genetics are likely to be successful.

  19. BRS Deméter: nova cultivar de cevada cervejeira irrigada para o Cerrado do Brasil Central BRS Deméter: new malting barley cultivar for irrigated Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BRS Deméter é uma cultivar de cevada dística (duas fileiras de grãos de ampla adaptação, sob irrigação, ao Cerrado do Brasil Central. Apresenta potencial produtivo de grãos acima de 5.000 kg ha-1, estabilidade de produção e alta qualidade industrial malte-cervejeira. A cultivar atende às demandas do produtor por rendimento competitivo e às da indústria malteira por alta qualidade cervejeira.BRS Deméter is a spring, two-rowed barley, widely adapted to irrigated areas of the savanna, in Central Brazil. It presents production stability and high malting quality, with yield potential above 5,000 kg ha-1. It fulfills both the farmer and malting industry expectations regarding competitive yield and brewing quality.

  20. Relationship of carbohydrates and lignin molecular structure spectral profiles to nutrient profile in newly developed oats cultivars and barley grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Luciana Louzada; Refat, Basim; Lei, Yaogeng; Louzada-Prates, Mariana; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile. Results showed that NDF, ADF and CHO were greater (P 0.05) for oat and barley grains as well as non-structural CHO. However, cellulosic compounds peak area and height were greater (P < 0.05) in oat than barley grains. Multiple regressions were determined to predict nutrient supply by using lignin and CHO molecular profiles. It was concluded that although there were some differences between oat and barley grains, CDC Nasser and CDC Meredith presented similarities related to chemical and molecular profiles, indicating that CDC Meredith barley could be replaced for CDC Nasser as ruminant feed. The FTIR was able to identify functional groups related to CHO molecular spectral in oat and barley grains and FTIR-ATR results could be used to predict nutrient supply in ruminant livestock systems.

  1. TILLING in the two-rowed barley cultivar 'Barke' reveals preferred sites of functional diversity in the gene HvHox1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komatsuda Takao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic importance of cereals such as barley, and the demand for improved yield and quality require a better understanding of the genetic components that modulate biologically and commercially relevant traits. While Arabidopsis thaliana is the premiere model plant system, the spectrum of its traits cannot address all of the fundamental questions of crop plant development. Unlike Arabidopsis, barley is both a crop and a model system for scientific research, and it is increasingly being used for genetic and molecular investigations into the conserved biological processes of cereals. A common challenge in genetic studies in plants with large genomes arises from the very time-consuming work of associating mutant phenotypes with gene sequence information, especially if insertion mutagenesis is not routine, as in barley. Reverse genetics based on chemical mutagenesis represents the best solution to this obstacle. Findings In barley, we generated a new TILLING (Targeting Local Lesions IN Genomes resource comprising 10,279 M2 mutants in the two-rowed malting cultivar 'Barke,' which has been used in the generation of other genomic resources in barley (~150,000 ESTs, DH mapping population. The value of this new resource was tested using selected candidate genes. An average frequency of approximately one mutation per 0.5 Mb was determined by screening ten fragments of six different genes. The ethyl methanesulphonate (EMSmutagenesis efficiency was studied by recording and relating the mutagenesis-dependent effects found in the three mutant generations (M1-M3. A detailed analysis was performed for the homeodomain-leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP gene HvHox1. Thirty-one mutations were identified by screening a 1,270-bp fragment in 7,348 M2 lines. Three of the newly identified mutants exhibited either a six-rowed or an intermedium-spike phenotype, and one mutant displayed a significantly altered spikelet morphology compared to that of the 'Barke

  2. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Blum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some modern agrochemicals with antioxidant potential were tested for their protective effect against ozone injury using clover and tobacco ozone-sensitive cultivars as model plants subjected to ambient ozone at two sites (Kyiv city in Ukraine and Szarów village in Poland. All used agrochemicals showed partial protective effects against ozone injury on clover and tobacco. Conducted studies confirmed the effectiveness of modern fungicides belonging to strobilurin group as protectants of sensitive crops against ozone damage. The effectiveness of new growth regulators “Emistym C” and “Agrostymulin” was showed for the first time. Out of the studied agrochemicals, fungicide “Strobi” and natural growth regulator “Emistym C” demonstrated the best protective effects. These agrochemicals present promise for further studies of their possible utilization for enhancement of ozone tolerance of sensitive crops.

  3. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , and compared that to the data for the model cultivar, Golden Promise. Subsequently, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of the four cultivars using the protocol for Agrobacterium infection of ovules, previously developed for Golden Promise. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0, carrying the binary...

  4. Intra- and interspecific differences of 10 barley and 10 tomato cultivars in response to short-time UV-B radiation: A study analysing thermoluminescence, fluorescence, gas-exchange and biochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Matthias; Poers, Yvonne; Grover, Kirsten; Weingart, Ilka; Skotnica, Jiri; Grimm, Bernhard; Seidlitz, Harald K.; Langebartels, Christian; Wilhelm, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The impact of UV-B radiation on 10 genotypically different barley and tomato cultivars was tested in a predictive study to screen for potentially UV-tolerant accessions and to analyze underlying mechanisms for UV-B sensitivity. Plant response was analyzed by measuring thermoluminescence, fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidant status. Generally, barley cultivars proved to be much more sensitive against UV-B radiation than tomato cultivars. Statistical cluster analysis could resolve two barley groups with distinct differences in reaction patterns. The UV-B sensitive group showed a stronger loss in PSII photochemistry and a lower gas-exchange performance and regulation after UV-B radiation compared to the more tolerant group. The results indicate that photosynthetic light and dark reactions have to play optimally in concert to render plants more tolerant against UV-B radiation. Hence, measuring thermoluminescence/fluorescence and gas exchange in parallel will have much higher potential in identifying tolerant cultivars and will help to understand the underlying mechanisms. - Mechanisms of UV-B tolerance and sensitivity in crop plants.

  5. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...... (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used...

  6. Salinity tolerance in barley (hordeum vulgare l.): effects of varying NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ levels on cultivars differing in tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.

    2011-01-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO/sub 3/ even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K/sup +/ supply in saline medium increased K/sup +/ uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K/sup +/ uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl salinity. Selective K/sup +/ uptake and lower Cl/sup -/ in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). (author)

  7. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed press-cake

    OpenAIRE

    Radočaj Olga F.; Dimić Etelka B.; Vujasinović Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly ...

  8. Optimization of the texture of fat-based spread containing hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed press-cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radočaj Olga F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hull-less pumpkin seed press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, was used to formulate a fat-based spread which resembled commercial peanut butter; both in the appearance and in texture. In this study, response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of a commercial stabilizer and cold-pressed hemp oil added to the pumpkin seed press-cake, on the texture of the formulations using instrumental texture profile analysis. The responses were significantly affected by both variables tested in a central composite, two factorial experimental design on five levels. Strong and firm spreads, without visible oil separation were formed and had an appearance and texture comparable to commercial peanut butter. In terms of the primary food texture attributes such as hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness, determined by the instrumental texture analysis, the optimum combination of variables with 1-1.2% of added stabilizer and 20- 40% of added hemp oil (in the oil phase produced desirable spreads.

  9. Structural and temporal variation in the genetic diversity of a European collection of spring two-row barley cultivars and utility for association mapping of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Moragues, Marc

    2013-01-01

    the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best...

  10. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  11. Effects of Soil Aluminum on Early Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Wheat an Barley Cultivars Growing in an Andisol Efecto del Aluminio del Suelo en la Colonización Temprana por Micorrizas Arbusculares en Cultivares de Trigo y Cebada Creciendo en un Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Seguel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phytotoxicity in acid soils is an important environmental stress that negatively affects crop production, but arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi performance would allow plants to better withstand this environmental condition. This study aimed to analyze the effect of soil Al on early AM colonization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars. Near-isogenic Crac, Invento, and Porfiado wheat cultivars and Sebastián and Aurora barley cultivars were sown in pots in an acid soil at three Al saturation levels (60, 34, and 11%. At 20 d after sowing (DAS 'Crac' presented higher AM colonization (27% than other cultivars. However, 'Invento' had the fastest colonization at 41 DAS, which was inhibited in short term at lower Al-saturation. Moreover, roots of 'Aurora' were colonized 28 and 51% at 20 and 66 DAS, respectively, and also decreased at lower Al-saturation. In soil with 60% Al-saturation a great spore production was observed at 41 DAS, 'Aurora' had the highest spore density at 66 DAS. At 20 DAS a negative relationship (r = -0.37; p La fitotoxicidad por Al en suelos ácidos es un importante estrés que afecta negativamente la producción de cultivos, pero la actividad de hongos micorrícicos arbusculares (MA permitiría que las plantas soporten mejor esta condición ambiental. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el efecto del Al en la colonización MA temprana de cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.. Cultivares de trigo Crac, Invento, y Porfiado, y de cebada Sebastián y Aurora fueron sembrados en macetas en un suelo ácido con tres niveles de saturación de Al (60, 34, y 11%. A los 20 días después de la siembra (DDS 'Crac' presentó la mayor colonización MA (27%; sin embargo, 'Invento' tuvo la más rápida colonización a los 41 DDS, la cual fue inhibida a corto plazo a una menor saturación de Al. Por otra parte, las raíces de 'Aurora' fueron colonizadas 28 y 51% a los

  12. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  13. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  14. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  15. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST based SSR markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Won-Sam; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-08-01

    In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study. A cDNA library of the cultivar Gwanbori was constructed for use in analysis of genetic relationships, and 58 EST-SSR markers were developed and characterized. In total, 47 SSR markers were employed to analyze polymorphisms. A relationship dendrogram based on the polymorphism data was constructed to compare genetic diversity. We found that the polymorphism information content among the examined cultivars was 0.519, which indicates that there is low genetic diversity among Korean barley cultivars. The results obtained in this study may be useful in preventing redundant investment in new cultivars and in resolving disputes over seed patents. Our approach can be used by companies and government groups to develop different cultivars with distinguishable markers. In addition, the developed markers can be used for quantitative trait locus analysis to improve both the quantity and the quality of cultivated barley.

  16. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  17. Tracking the progress of congress mashing with osmolyte concentrations and malt extract values in North American barley cultivars ... osmolyte concentrations, malt extract values and ASBC measures of malt quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) that barley malt osmolyte concentration (OC) would increase more rapidly during mashing than malt extract (ME), (2) OC would better discriminate between differing barley malts during mashing than ME, and (3) that OC after mashing would better co...

  18. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  19. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  20. A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake (Correction in v. 242, 2002, p. 299)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahoonia, T.S.; Nielsen, N.E.; Priyavadan, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed...

  1. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  2. Investigation of the effect of nitrogen on severity of Fusarium Head Blight in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Spliid, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in a susceptible barley cultivar was investigated using gel-based proteomics. Barley grown with either 15 or 100 kg ha(-1)N fertilizer was inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (Fg). The storage protein fraction did not change significantly...

  3. Newly registered small grains cultivars from Zaječar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodig Dejan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents principal properties of 5 new cultivars of small grains created in the Center for Agricultural and Technological Research in Zaječar. They are as follows: Arena (winter bread wheat, Premium (winter malting barley, Tango (winter triticale, Center (spring oat and Balsa (spring naked barley. In 2004 and 2005 these cultivars were registered by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia. The Arena cultivar has good indices of technological quality and high yield genetic potential which is successfully preserved even in dry years. The Premium cultivar, besides high yield capacity, has a very low protein grain content what makes it especially suitable for brewers industry. Triticale Tango is intended, in the first place, for animal feeds and like Arena cultivar. is highly tolerant to draught. Spring oat Center is Zaječar's first made oat cultivar in this group of small grains. Cultivar Balsa is the first spring six-row naked barley in Serbia and Montenegro. Creating of Balsa cultivar is the attempt to meet the future demands on the market. By the act of registering above mentioned cultivars the Center in Zajecar has completed and enlarged its already existing variety of small grains assortment.

  4. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  5. (QTLs) for γ- aminobutyric acid content in grain of barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... protein content, while Schooner is a hull two-rowed cultivar malting barley with low ... being kept at 20°C for 4~8 min, the mixture was heated in a boiling water bath for ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hobokwen, New Jersey. Nie C ...

  6. Two barley yellow dwarf luteovirus serotypes associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) serotypes PAV and RPV were identified from irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples from three provinces of Zambia by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using polyclonal and monoclonal antisera. Nine wheat cultivars were surveyed in 11 wheat ...

  7. Occurrence of barley leaf disease and control strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik; Heick, Thies Marten

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the major crops in Denmark and of special importance for malting and for pig feed. In 2016, the crop was grown covering a total area of 700,000 ha; approximately 25% of arable area in Denmark. To ensure high yield of around 60 dt ha-1, disease-tolerant cultivars...... have proven to be quite effective against all leaf diseases, aside from brown rust and mildew. Denmark has a national record system for pesticide usages. All farmers upload their fungicide use by crop, creating a good basis for assessing the differences in use pattern across different regions...... and fungicide treatments are required. Each year, barley cultivars are assessed for susceptibility towards leaf diseases in national observation plots. The most predominant fungal leaf diseases in Denmark are barley scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia hordei...

  8. Characterization of Resistance to Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Barley Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea C; Talbert, Luther E; Achhami, Buddhi B; Blake, Nancy K; Hofland, Megan L; Sherman, Jamie D; Lamb, Peggy F; Reddy, Gadi V P; Weaver, David K

    2018-04-02

    Most barley cultivars have some degree of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Damage caused by WSS is currently observed in fields of barley grown in the Northern Great Plains, but the impact of WSS damage among cultivars due to genetic differences within the barley germplasm is not known. Specifically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying WSS resistance in barley. We characterized WSS resistance in a subset of the spring barley CAP (Coordinated Agricultural Project) germplasm panel containing 193 current and historically important breeding lines from six North American breeding programs. Panel lines were grown in WSS infested fields for two consecutive years. Lines were characterized for stem solidness, stem cutting, WSS infestation (antixenosis), larval mortality (antibiosis), and parasitism (indirect plant defense). Variation in resistance to WSS in barley was compared to observations made for solid-stemmed resistant and hollow-stemmed susceptible wheat lines. Results indicate that both antibiosis and antixenosis are involved in the resistance of barley to the WSS, but antibiosis seems to be more prevalent. Almost all of the barley lines had greater larval mortality than the hollow-stemmed wheat lines, and only a few barley lines had mortality as low as that observed in the solid-stemmed wheat line. Since barley lines lack solid stems, it is apparent that barley has a different form of antibiosis. Our results provide information for use of barley in rotation to control the WSS and may provide a basis for identification of new approaches for improving WSS resistance in wheat.

  9. (Lilium) cultivar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... 2National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing, China. Accepted 6 August, 2012 ... hybrids lily cultivar 'eyeliner' was selected as the materials. By using the ... of sterilization was not ideal which led to higher.

  10. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, P.C.; Ahmad, A.

    1976-01-01

    Barley seeds of a hull-less variety (IB 65) were γ-irradiated (40 and 45 krad, 100 rad/sec) at 25 0 C, and the seeds were post-hydrated for 12 hours at approximately 3 0 C in oxygenated and oxygen-free water or caffeine solutions (3.8 x 10 -4 to 3.8 x 10 -2 M). Measurements of 8-day seedling growth showed that the different caffeine concentrations applied during oxygenated or oxygen-free hydrations produced no observable effects on the growth of unirradiated seeds. All caffeine concentrations afforded protection for the irradiated seeds under oxygenated conditions, and potentiated the damage under oxygen-free conditions. A maximum radio-protection occurred at a caffeine concentration of 3.8 x 10 -3 M, whereas radiosensitization under oxygen-free conditions was concentration-dependent. Possible mechanisms are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Effect of irradiation on the malting quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtar, S.; Tejinder, S.; Bains, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Two six-row barley cultivars, DL 70 and C164 were subjected to Co 60 gamma irradiation in the range of 0 to 250 Krad and malted with and without gibberellic acid treatment. Barley irradiated with doses up to 75 Krad produced normal malts when compared to the controls. Irradiation doses of 125 and 250 Krad significantly increased the malt yields but considerably decreased the α-amylase activity. Gibberellic acid significantly increased the enzyme activity and degree of modification of the irradiated and the control malts. (author)

  12. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  13. cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 89; Online resources. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and identification of genotype-specific fingerprints using microsatellite markers. S. K. Jaiswal Shree P. Pandey S. Sharma R. Prasad L. C. Prasad R. P. S. Verma Arun K. Joshi. Volume 89 Online ...

  14. Comparison of agrobacterium mediated wheat and barley transformation with nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, U.; Shah, M.M.; Smedley, M.; Harwood, W.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient and reliable transformation system is imperative for improvement of important crop species like barley and wheat. Wheat transformation is complex due to larger genome size and polyploidy while barley has a limitation of genotypic dependency. The objective of current study was to compare the relative transformation efficiency of wheat and barley using specific expression vector pBRACT 214-NDPK2 constructed through gateway cloning carrying Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase 2 (NDPK2) gene. The vector was used to compare the transformation response in both crops using immature embryos through Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Both wheat and barley showed different responses towards callus induction and regeneration. Immature embryos of 1.5 to 2 mm in diameter was found optimum for wheat callus induction while 1 to 1.5 mm for barley. Both embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli were found in wheat with significantly greater tendency for embryogenecity in barley. The overall regeneration response was found different for all transformed wheat and barley cultivars. Wheat cultivars showed good response initially that drastically slowed down in later stages with the exception of Fielder that reached to the green shoots with good roots. The barley transformed lines showed good regeneration response as compared to wheat. PCR analysis of putative transformants using genomic DNA showed a maximum of 27% transformation efficiency in barely. No true transformation response was obtained in all cultivars of wheat used in this study. The protocol developed for wheat and barley transformation will greatly be helpful in crop improvement programme through genetic engineering especially in diploid relatives of cereals. (author)

  15. Genetic mapping of the barley lodging resistance locus Erectoides-k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Skov; Dockter, Christoph; Lundqvist, Udda

    2016-01-01

    ’ is a semi-dwarf barley cultivar known for its culm stability and resistance to lodging. In total, eight allelic ert-k mutants are known that show different phenotypic strength concerning culm length and spike architecture. They represent alternatives to the widely used, but pleiotropic ‘Green Revolution...... provides a solid foundation for the identification of the underlying mutations causing the ert-k lodging-resistant phenotype. In addition, the linked markers could be used to follow the ert-k mutant genotype in marker-assisted selection of new lodging-resistant barley cultivars....

  16. Objectives and results of barley breeding in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparrow, D.H.B.

    1990-01-01

    An important current development in Australian barley improvement is the release of semi-dwarf cultivars. These are derived from Abed Deba, Triumph or Aapo which are believed to have an allelic series of mutant genes. A common problem with these genes is their association with relatively late maturity and small grain, limiting current cultivars to rainfall areas above 450mm per annum. The first release 'Skiff' (S.A., N.S.W. 1988) is to be followed by selections from 'Forrest' x 'Aapo' in Western Australia and 'Grimmett' x 'Triumph' in Queensland, whilst 'Triumph' is already being grown in Tasmania. (author)

  17. Nutrient uptake by barley in six colombian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Madero Morales, Edgar Enrique; Amézquita, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    In Colombia, the increase of barley production is restricted by such factors as irregular rainfall, low temperatures, soil acidity, low fertility and disease, associated with improper soil management and scarse improve germoplasm, A suitable use of fertilizers is an alternative to face part of the problem by means of plant breeding in different terrain, tend to develop of low soil productivity tolerant cultivars. To arrive at appropiate recommendations for farmers, it was consider the quantit...

  18. Loose smut of barley grown in three types of farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nedelcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the period of 2014-2015, on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture in Karnobat, Bulgaria, was set a field trial with twenty cultivars of barley – 15 two-row: Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Lardeya, Asparuh, Kuber, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Devinya, Sitara, Krami, Vicky, Potok; 3 four-row: Veslets, Aheloy 2, Tamaris; and 2 six-row cultivars – IZ Bori and Bozhin. All the cultivars were grown in three types of farming: conventional, organic and biodynamic. In conventional farming were applied pesticides and nitrogen fertilization. In the organic production were not used pesticides, mineral and organic fertilizers; and in biodynamic farming was applied biodynamic compost prepared from manure and biodynamic preparations (also organic. In conventional farming, the seeds were disinfected before sowing with Kinto plus (Triticonazole 20 g/l + Prochloraz 60 g/l, at a rate of 150 ml/100 kg seeds. In organic and biodynamic farming were used nondisinfected seeds. In the phenophase of full maturity of barley was conducted monitoring survey for plants infected with loose smut in all 2 the trial variants, the number of infected plants per m were counted and the infection rates were calculated. Infected plants of Tamaris grown in the three types of farming underwent microscopic analysis and measurement of 100 teliospores from each variant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate varietal susceptibility of barley to Ustilago nuda, grown in three types of farming, and to establish if the growing method affects the size of the teliospores of the pathogen. With two-row barley were found plants of Lardeya, Kuber, Devinya, Krami and Vicky infected with Ustilago nuda. Krami manifested the lowest resistance in the three types of farming. With four-row barley, Tamaris was found to be highly susceptible and Veslets was poorly resistant. Both cultivars expressed weaker susceptibility in conventional and biodynamic farming and stronger in

  19. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Shin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley kernel discoloration (KD leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations of the lemma and palea. The most frequently detected fungal species was Alternaria spp. which exhibited 69.1% and 72.2% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Epicoccum spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were also detected. Fusarium spp., primary pathogen of barley head blight, were rarely occurred in the 2011 and their occurrence increased to 4.7% in 2012. Twenty cultivars of Korean two-rowed barely were evaluated to KD. The average percentage of KD was 8.0−36.0% in 2011 and 5.2−36.6% in 2012. Two cultivars (‘Sacheon 6’ and ‘Dajinbori’ showed KD of 6.2% to 8.8% and determined resistant, however ‘Samdobori’ and ‘Daeyeongbori’ demonstrating KD of 22.2−36.6% were highly susceptible. ‘Jinyangbori’, ‘Danwonbori’, ‘Sinhobori’ and ‘Kwangmaegbori’ showing KD of less than 15% were moderately resistant cultivar.

  1. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic variation of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhala, T.; Rijn, C.P.E.; Buntjer, J.; Stam, P.; Nevo, E.; Poorter, H.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild relatives of crop plants offer an attractive gene pool for cultivar improvement. We evaluated genetic and phenotypic variation for a set of 72 Israeli accessions of wild barley from 21 populations. These populations were grouped further into four ecotypes. In addition, environmental variables

  2. Identification and isoforms specificity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain proteinaceous inhibitors of commercial feed protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Protease is commonly used as feed additive. Ronozyme® ProAct, a subtilisin-like serine feed protease is different from the already characterized Bacillus subtilisin-like serine protease. When used in wheat and barley based feed, its degree of efficiency differs according to the cultivar in analys...

  3. RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN SPRING BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT: A CROSSTALK BETWEEN SURVIVAL STRATEGY AND CANOPY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FERUS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate effects of different survival strategy and canopy structure on cereal radiation use efficiency (RUE under drought during grain filling, a pot experiment in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. of cultivar Dobla (able for escape, no productive tiller and Kompakt (one productive tiller was conducted. There was no difference in current RUE for leaf dry mass (RUEL between main stems of tested cultivars, observed. However, in productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt it was approximately double. Taking together, RUEL for whole plants was significantly higher in cultivar Kompakt than in cultivar Dobla. Current RUE for spike dry mass (RUES in hydrated plants was markedly higher than RUEL, in main stems of cultivar Kompakt with round double values of cultivar Dobla. Productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt were the most efficient PAR (photosynthetic active radiation utilizator for spike growth. Drought decreased RUES in cultivar Kompakt (in main stems as well as productive tillers to a half but in cultivar Dobla 20 %, only. Evaluating final RUE for spikes, almost fivefold higher values in hydrated plants of cultivar Kompakt fell to double ones under drought. In this context, important role played the productive tiller. Thus, model of more intensively tillering cereal crop seems to be more efficient in radiation use.

  4. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  5. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  6. Genetic analysis of aluminum tolerance in Brazilian barleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minella Euclydes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major factor limiting barley growth in acid soils, and genotypes with adequate level of tolerance are needed for improving barley adaptation in Brazil. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance in Brazilian barleys, cultivars Antarctica 1, BR 1 and FM 404 were crossed to sensitive Kearney and PFC 8026, and intercrossed. Parental, F1, F2 and F6 generations were grown in nutrient solution containing 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07 mM of Al and classified for tolerance by the root tip hematoxylin staining assay. Tolerant by sensitive F2 progenies segregated three tolerant to one sensitive, fitting the 3:1 ratio expected for a single gene. The F6 populations segregated one tolerant to one sensitive also fitting a monogenic ratio. The F2 seedlings from crosses among tolerant genotypes scored the same as the parents. Since the population size used would allow detection of recombination as low as 7%, the complete absence of Al sensitive recombinants suggests that tolerance in these cultivars is most probably, controlled by the same gene. Thus, the potential for improving Al tolerance through recombination of these genotypes is very low and different gene sources should be evaluated.

  7. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  8. Useful mutations in Iraqi black barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important fodder crop in Iraq, with a cultivated area of about 1 392 375 ha and a total production of about 838500 t. The 2-row black barley ''LBB'' is the most desirable one in semi-arid zone in northern part of Iraq, because of its drought tolerance and high protein content. However, this cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew, and lodges. Gamma rays and EMS were used to induce mutations in ''LBB'' and its hybrid with A rivat''. Nine mutants with improved lodging were selected during the first six generations. Five mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-BB-3, INRC-BBR-4A, INRC-HB-552 and INRC-HB-553 were resistant to powdery mildew while 2 mutants INRC-BBH-1 and INRC-HBR-3 were moderately resistant. Two mutants INRC-BB-123 and INRC-HBR-3 were also resistant to drought under 350-400 mm rainfall. Three mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-HBR-3 and INRC-HBR-88 exceeded their original variety in seed weight per spike and TKW. (author)

  9. Switchgrass cultivar EG1101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-27

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1101 is disclosed. Also disclosed are seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1101, plants of switchgrass EG1101, plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1101 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. Methods are also described for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. Switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1101, methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1101 and the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods are described herein. Hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1101 with another switchgrass cultivar are also described.

  10. Switchgrass cultivar EG1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Joseph H; Wood, Donald T

    2012-11-20

    A switchgrass cultivar designated EG1102 is disclosed. The invention relates to the seeds of switchgrass cultivar EG1102, to the plants of switchgrass EG1102, to plant parts of switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to methods for producing a switchgrass plant produced by crossing switchgrass cultivar EG1102 with itself or with another switchgrass variety. The invention also relates to methods for producing a switchgrass plant containing in its genetic material one or more transgenes and to the transgenic switchgrass plants and plant parts produced by those methods. This invention also relates to switchgrass cultivars or breeding cultivars and plant parts derived from switchgrass variety EG1102, to methods for producing other switchgrass cultivars, lines or plant parts derived from switchgrass cultivar EG1102 and to the switchgrass plants, varieties, and their parts derived from use of those methods. The invention further relates to hybrid switchgrass seeds, plants and plant parts produced by crossing the cultivar EG1102 with another switchgrass cultivar.

  11. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  12. The Study of Phenological and Morphophysiological Traits of New and Old Barely Shoot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Moshfeghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare morphophysiological traits between new and old cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. a greenhouse experiment was conducted in greenhouse condition in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in spring and summer 2011.The type of experiment was a completely randomized design with eight treatments (Nosrat , Youssof , Fagr30 , Nick and four old cultivars include (Reihan, Kavir, Zarjo , Valfajr and three replications. All seeds were grown in PVC tubes contained washed sands and disruptive sampling was occurred with destroying plastic bags in the end of the four stages uncluding 6th leaf stage, jointing, heading and ripening. Results indicated that new cultivars showed better performances in all shoot growth parameters than the old cultivars. Modern cultivars for most traits, particularly traits that were positively correlated with yield and its components proved more successful than the old cultivars. They had longer reproductive periods and grain filling duration but their vegetative period were shorter than old cultivars. Among shoots characteristics, new cultivars had higher leaf area, stem dry weight and stem length than old cultivars. Result of this study showed that, among all the characteristics of grain yield and yield components, such as grain weight ,spike length, spike per plant, grain per spike and number tiller , new figures were better than old figures. In general, new cultivar Nick was introduced as the best cultivar and Zarjo was introduced as the weakest cultivar.

  13. Effect of cultivar and formaldehyde treatment of barley grain on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but increased the time (h) to produce 50% of A and reduced the time (h) to produce 95% of A. The reduction in gas production ranged from 33.3 to 51 mL/g OM with 6 h incubation showing the highest decrease in gas production. It is concluded that formaldehyde treatment may provide an opportunity to manipulate the site ...

  14. Dominant Groups of Potentially Active Bacteria Shared by Barley Seeds become Less Abundant in Root Associated Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Luhua; Danzberger, Jasmin; Schöler, Anne; Schröder, Peter; Schloter, Michael; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part o...

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation of barley and malt on malting quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köksel, H.; ÇElik, S.; ÖZkara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two two-rowed barley cultivars, Tokak and Clerine, were irradiated at two different dose ranges (0.05–0.75 kGy and 0.5–5.0 kGy) using a 60Co source. Irradiation of barley at the medium levels before malting had detrimental effects on most of the malt quality criteria. The detrimental effects of irradiation was lower at doses up to 0.25 kGy. Irradiation of malt samples caused either slight or no deterioration of quality characteristics

  16. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  17. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and the nutritive value of the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P

  18. Adaptation of barley to mild winters: A role for PPDH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casao M Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the adaptation of cereals to environmental conditions is one of the key areas in which plant science can contribute to tackling challenges presented by climate change. Temperature and day length are the main environmental regulators of flowering and drivers of adaptation in temperate cereals. The major genes that control flowering time in barley in response to environmental cues are VRNH1, VRNH2, VRNH3, PPDH1, and PPDH2 (candidate gene HvFT3. These genes from the vernalization and photoperiod pathways show complex interactions to promote flowering that are still not understood fully. In particular, PPDH2 function is assumed to be limited to the ability of a short photoperiod to promote flowering. Evidence from the fields of biodiversity, ecogeography, agronomy, and molecular genetics was combined to obtain a more complete overview of the potential role of PPDH2 in environmental adaptation in barley. Results The dominant PPDH2 allele is represented widely in spring barley cultivars but is found only occasionally in modern winter cultivars that have strong vernalization requirements. However, old landraces from the Iberian Peninsula, which also have a vernalization requirement, possess this allele at a much higher frequency than modern winter barley cultivars. Under field conditions in which the vernalization requirement of winter cultivars is not satisfied, the dominant PPDH2 allele promotes flowering, even under increasing photoperiods above 12 h. This hypothesis was supported by expression analysis of vernalization-responsive genotypes. When the dominant allele of PPDH2 was expressed, this was associated with enhanced levels of VRNH1 and VRNH3 expression. Expression of these two genes is needed for the induction of flowering. Therefore, both in the field and under controlled conditions, PPDH2 has an effect of promotion of flowering. Conclusions The dominant, ancestral, allele of PPDH2 is prevalent in southern

  19. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  20. Progress in the evaluation, use in breeding, and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.; Muir, C.E.; Washington State Univ., Pullman

    1984-01-01

    Breeding for reduced height in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to primarily reduce lodging susceptibility is ongoing in the Washington State University barley breeding program. Two semi-dwarf winter and spring cultivars have been released and a number of advanced lines are being considered for release. Several semi-dwarf sources are utilized, including those from induced mutants in 'Jotun', 'Piroline' and 'Valticky'. In addition, over 200 putative mutants have been selected in the past four years from M 2 sodium azide-treated populations of local cultivars and advanced lines. These are evaluated in the pedigree breeding program and some have been incorporated into male sterile facilitated recurrent selection populations developed for reduced height. The inheritance of dwarfism in one mutant in the cultivar 'Advance' was determined to be controlled by a single recessive gene. (author)

  1. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  2. Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: IV. The study of barley Polycomb group (PcG genes during seed development and in response to external ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanca Michele A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic phenomena have been associated with the regulation of active and silent chromatin states achieved by modifications of chromatin structure through DNA methylation, and histone post-translational modifications. The latter is accomplished, in part, through the action of PcG (Polycomb group protein complexes which methylate nucleosomal histone tails at specific sites, ultimately leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Different PcG complex variants operating during different developmental stages have been described in plants. In particular, the so-called FIE/MEA/FIS2 complex governs the expression of genes important in embryo and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. In our effort to understand the epigenetic mechanisms regulating seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, an agronomically important monocot plant cultivated for its endosperm, we set out to characterize the genes encoding barley PcG proteins. Results Four barley PcG gene homologues, named HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were identified and structurally and phylogenetically characterized. The corresponding genes HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were mapped onto barley chromosomes 7H, 4H, 2H and 5H, respectively. Expression analysis of the PcG genes revealed significant differences in gene expression among tissues and seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size. Furthermore, HvFIE and HvE(Z gene expression was responsive to the abiotic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA known to be involved in seed maturation, dormancy and germination. Conclusion This study reports the first characterization of the PcG homologues, HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a and HvSu(z12b in barley. All genes co-localized with known chromosomal regions responsible for malting quality related traits, suggesting that they might be used for developing molecular markers to be applied in marker assisted selection. The Pc

  3. Phenotypic and Physiological Evaluation of Two and Six Rows Barley under Different Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Mahmoud; Badran, Mohamed; Abouzied, Hanaa; Ali, Heba; Elbasyoni, Ibrahim

    2018-05-04

    In recent years, barley has attracted more interest as a food and feed source because of its high soluble dietary fiber and β-glucan content compared with other small grains. Twenty-five barley genotypes (20 imported genotypes and five check cultivars) were grown in three environments for two successive seasons: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The first environment was in El-Nubaria, Alexandria, Egypt during 2015/2016, while the second and third environments were in El-Bostan, Elbhera, Egypt during 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with the three replicates. The primary objectives of the current study were to evaluate the performance of 20 imported barley genotypes under several environmental conditions. The imported materials were superior to the local commercial cultivars for several traits, including grain yield. Therefore, the superior genotypes will be further evaluated and used in barley breeding programs. Our future work will focus on creating several crosses among the selected superior genotypes to improve yield and other important traits, while applying marker-assisted selection.

  4. Danish apple cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Pedersen, Carsten; Ørgaard, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S-alleles was dev......Abstract We made a genetic analysis of about 500 apple cultivars, which either originate from Denmark or have been of greater importance in Denmark. To study the diversity and parentage among the cultivars, 15 SSR markers were used. A new PCR-based protocol for identification of S...

  5. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hannah; Hickey, Lee; Richard, Cecile; Mace, Emma; Kelly, Alison; Borrell, Andrew; Franckowiak, Jerome; Fox, Glen

    2016-03-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL) were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/) was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L.), and sorghum [ (L.) Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  6. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  7. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus; Ordon, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  8. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars. PMID:29370232

  9. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei in barley using nested association mapping (NAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vatter

    Full Text Available The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  10. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, A.; Todorovska, E.; Trifonova, A.; Petrova, M.; Marinova, E.; Gramatikova, M.; Valcheva, D.; Zaprianov, S.; Mersinkov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  11. Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought.

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  14. Transient Overexpression of HvSERK2 Improves Barley Resistance to Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingbo; Li, Qingwei; Guo, Guimei; He, Ting; Gao, Runhong; Faheem, Muhammad; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Ruiju; Liu, Chenghong

    2018-04-18

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs) play an essential role in plant response to pathogen infection. Here we identified three SERK genes ( HvSERK1/2/3 ) from barley, and aimed to determine their implication in defense responses to barley powdery mildew ( Bgh ). Although HvSERK1/2/3 share the characteristic domains of the SERK family, only HvSERK2 was significantly induced in barley leaves during Bgh infection. The expression of HvSERK2 was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment, but not by treatment with salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), or abscisic acid (ABA). Bioinformatics analysis of the cloned HvSERK2 promoter revealed that it contains several elements responsible for defense responses against pathogens. Promoter functional analysis showed that the HvSERK2 promoter was induced by Bgh and H₂O₂. Subcellular localization analysis of HvSERK2 indicated that it is mainly located on the plasma membrane. Transient overexpression of HvSERK2 in epidermal cells of the susceptible barley cultivar Hua 30 reduced the Bgh haustorium index from 58.6% to 43.2%. This study suggests that the HvSERK2 gene plays a positive role in the improvement of barley resistance to powdery mildew, and provides new insight into the function of SERK genes in the biotic stress response of plants.

  15. sativa L.) Cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ten rice cultivars from the International Rice Germplasm Centre originating from Bangladesh were analysedfor the~r genetics of resistance to bacterial blight. The test cultivars were selected on the basis of their high level ofresistance to races IV & VI ofXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The mode ofinheri- tance was ...

  16. Comparative virulence of Pyrenophora teres f. teres from Syria and Tunisia and screening for resistance sources in barley: implications for breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouajila, A; Zoghlami, N; Al Ahmed, M; Baum, M; Ghorbel, A; Nazari, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the pathogenic diversity and virulence groups among Pyrenophora teres f. teres isolates, sampled from Syria and Tunisia, and to identify the most effective source of resistance in barley that could be used in breeding programmes to control net blotch in both countries. One hundred and four isolates of P. teres f. teres were collected from barley in different agroecological zones of Tunisia and Syria. Their virulence was evaluated using 14 barley genotypes as differential hosts. The UPGMA clustering identified high pathogenic variability; the isolates were clustered onto 20 pathotypes that were sheltered under three virulence groups, with high, intermediate and low disease scores. According to susceptibility/resistance frequencies and mean disease ratings, CI05401 cultivar ranked as the best differential when inoculated with the Syrian isolates. However, CI09214 cultivar was classified as the best effective source of resistance in Tunisia. All P. teres f. teres isolates were differentially pathogenic. CI09214 and CI05401 cultivars were released as the most effective sources of resistance in Syria and Tunisia. National and international barley breeding programmes that seek to develop resistance against P. teres f. teres in barley should strongly benefit from this study. This resistance cannot be achieved without the proper knowledge of the pathogen virulence spectrum and the sources of host resistance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Barley yellow mosaic virus VPg is the determinant protein for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance in barley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huangai Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus factor(s responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6 in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10 and rym5-non-breaking (JK05 isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120 and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.

  18. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime......Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and 4....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  19. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in isovitexin-O-glycosylation during the development of young barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Dominic; Porzel, Andrea; Schumann, Erika; Pillen, Klaus; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Phenylpropanoids are a class of plant natural products that have many biological functions, including stress defence. In barley, phenylpropanoids have been described as having protective properties against excess UV-B radiation and have been linked to resistance to pathogens. Although the phenylpropanoid composition of barley has recently been addressed in more detail, the biosynthesis and regulation of this pathway have not been fully established. Barley introgression lines, such as the S42IL-population offer a set of genetically diverse plants that enable the correlation of metabolic data to distinct genetic regions on the barley genome and, subsequently, identification of relevant genes. The phenylpropanoid profiles of the first and third leaf of barley seedlings in Scarlett and four members of the S42IL-population were obtained by LC-MS. Comparison of the leaf profiles revealed a change in the glycosylation pattern of the flavone-6-C-glucoside isovitexin in the elite cultivar Scarlett. The change was characterized by the stepwise decrease in isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) and an increase in isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside content. The lines S42IL-101-, -177 and -178 were completely devoid of isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside. Parallel glucosyltransferase assays were consistent with the observed metabolic patterns. The genetic region responsible for this metabolic effect was located on chromosome 1H between 0.21 and 15.08 cM, encompassing 505 gene candidates in the genome of the sequenced cultivar Morex. Only one of these genes displayed sequence similarity with glucosyltransferases of plant secondary metabolism that possessed the characteristic PSPG motif. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  2. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley.

  3. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley

  4. Modelling shifts in agroclimate and crop cultivar response under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rötter, R. P.; Höhn, J.; Trnka, Miroslav; Fronzek, S.; Carter, T. R.; Kahiluoto, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 12 (2013), s. 4197-4214 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Adaptation * agroclimatic indicator * barley * crop simulation model * cultivar response diversity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.782/pdf

  5. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  6. A 10-days heatwave around flowering superimposed on climate change conditions significantly affects production of 22 barley accessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Lyngkjær, Michael F.; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Extreme climate events as heatwaves, floods and storms cause acute changes in season variability influencing primary production and are very likely to increase in magnitude and/or frequency (IPCC, AR5, WGI). In the present study 22 primarily Nordic barley accessions were grown in four basic clima...... climate change conditions on numerous accessions in order to select appropriate genotypes for breeding future cultivars that can secure the primary production....

  7. Resistance genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their identification with molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Jerzy; Tyrka, Mirosław; Sobkiewicz, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Current information on barley resistance genes available from scientific papers and on-line databases is summarised. The recent literature contains information on 107 major resistance genes (R genes) against fungal pathogens (excluding powdery mildew), pathogenic viruses and aphids identified in Hordeum vulgare accessions. The highest number of resistance genes was identified against Puccinia hordei, Rhynchosporium secalis, and the viruses BaYMV and BaMMV, with 17, 14 and 13 genes respectively. There is still a lot of confusion regarding symbols for R genes against powdery mildew. Among the 23 loci described to date, two regions Mla and Mlo comprise approximately 31 and 25 alleles. Over 50 R genes have already been localised and over 30 mapped on 7 barley chromosomes. Four barley R genes have been cloned recently: Mlo, Rpg1, Mla1 and Mla6, and their structures (sequences) are available. The paper presents a catalogue of barley resistance gene symbols, their chromosomalocation and the list of available DNA markers useful in characterising cultivars and breeding accessions.

  8. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, G.F.; Falk, B.W.; Qualset, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32 P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F 2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F 2 plants of a similar F 2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  9. Studies on induced partially resistant mutants of barley against powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebbelen, G.; Abdel-Hafez, A.G.; Reinhold, M.; Kwon, H.J.; Neuhaus-Steinmetz, J.P.; Heun, M.

    1983-01-01

    After mutagenic seed treatment of three partially resistant cultivars of spring barley with EMS and NaN 3 , 45 mutants in a first and 16 in a second experiment were selected in the M 2 -M 4 generations. The screening was done alternatively under natural infection in the field or controlled infection with a single pathotype in the greenhouse. These mutants exhibited a higher resistance and a higher susceptibility, respectively, than the initial cultivars Asse, Bomi and Vada. Some mutants expressed their altered resistance behaviour particularly during certain stages of development. High-level resistance was conditioned by mutation in the ml-o locus in three cases. For several Bomi mutants pathotype specificity with and without reversed ranking was proven as well as pathotype non-specificity in comparison with the reaction of the original cultivar. In 14 cases studied the inheritance of the involved mutants was monogenic recessive. The laevigatum locus responsible for the intermediate mildew resistance of Bomi was not affected by the mutations. Detection of groups of allelic mutants showed that there are at least two regions in the barley genome in which mutations for mildew resistance can occur rather frequently. In total, the past ten years of this mutation research have given convincing evidence that the strategies of mutant screening applied have yielded promising new material both for breeding and for progress in basic understanding of host-pathogen interactions. (author)

  10. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  11. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  12. A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Imad Eddin Arabi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder’s point of view.

  13. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface......-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown...... on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases...

  14. Heredity, physiology and malt quality analysis of albino-lemma barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ting; Wu Kuanran; Yang Jianming; Jia Qiaojun; Wang Junmei; Hua Wei; Chen He; Qiao Hailong

    2013-01-01

    The barley 0601 is a spontaneous albino-lemma mutant from beer barley cultivar Supi3. Genetic control of albino-lemma trait in the mutant 0601 and, the agronomic traits (thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness), physiological traits (chlorophyll content, proanthocyanidin content) and major malt qualities (diastatic power, malt extract, Kolbach index) were investigated. The results showed that the albino-lemma trait is controlled by one recessive gene, and there were significant differences between the mutant and its wild-type in thousand kernel weight, kernel plumpness, chlorophyll content, diastatic power, and the malt extract, whereas no significant difference in proanthocyanidin content was found. These results provide the basis on mapping and cloning the albino-lemma gene and also provide good material for genetic research. (authors)

  15. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Cereal grains are colonized by a microbial community that actively interacts with the plant via secretion of various enzymes, hormones, and metabolites. Microorganisms decompose plant tissues by a collection of depolymerizing enzymes, including β-1,4-xylanases, that are in turn inhibited by plant...... xylanase inhibitors. To gain insight into the importance of the microbial consortia and their interaction with barley grains, we used a combined gel-based (2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) proteomics approach complemented with enzyme activity assays to profile the surface......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...

  16. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  17. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  18. Pessegueiro: cultivar BRS kampai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Bassols Raseira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O programa de Melhoramento Genético de Pessegueiros da Embrapa Clima Temperado tem, entre seus objetivos, a obtenção de cultivares produtoras de frutas para consumo in natura, com características que satisfaçam às exigências dos consumidores. Alguns dos grandes centros consumidores, como é o caso de São Paulo e Curitiba, preferem pêssegos de polpa branca e sabor doce. A cultivar BRS Kampai, obtida de um cruzamento entre 'Chimarrita' e 'Flordaprince', alia a baixa necessidade em frio, o que é uma vantagem em regiões subtropicais, à boa aparência, com sabor superior a qualquer um dos parentais. A colheita dos frutos desta cultivar inicia-se geralmente, em meados de novembro, em Pelotas-RS (em Atibaia, São Paulo, inicia-se na segunda quinzena de outubro, poucos dias antes das cultivares Rubimel (polpa amarela e Premier (polpa branca, sendo ótima substituta para esta última.

  19. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  20. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    the surface-associated proteins (surfome) constitutively present on barley grains of two barley cultivars were established using 2 -DE and mass spectrometry. The majority of the identified proteins was of plant origin and ascribed to play a role in defense and/or oxidative stress mechanisms. A metaproteomics....../influence the plant and/or competitors via secretion of an array of enzymes and compounds/metabolites. The occurrence of these enzyme activities both of plant and fungal origin present a great potential for improvement of grain nutritional components for feed applications. Knowledge is lacking in the variation...

  1. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  2. Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

  3. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  4. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  5. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  6. 454 sequencing of pooled BAC clones on chromosome 3H of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaji Nami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing of barley has been delayed due to its large genome size (ca. 5,000Mbp. Among the fast sequencing systems, 454 liquid phase pyrosequencing provides the longest reads and is the most promising method for BAC clones. Here we report the results of pooled sequencing of BAC clones selected with ESTs genetically mapped to chromosome 3H. Results We sequenced pooled barley BAC clones using a 454 parallel genome sequencer. A PCR screening system based on primer sets derived from genetically mapped ESTs on chromosome 3H was used for clone selection in a BAC library developed from cultivar "Haruna Nijo". The DNA samples of 10 or 20 BAC clones were pooled and used for shotgun library development. The homology between contig sequences generated in each pooled library and mapped EST sequences was studied. The number of contigs assigned on chromosome 3H was 372. Their lengths ranged from 1,230 bp to 58,322 bp with an average 14,891 bp. Of these contigs, 240 showed homology and colinearity with the genome sequence of rice chromosome 1. A contig annotation browser supplemented with query search by unique sequence or genetic map position was developed. The identified contigs can be annotated with barley cDNAs and reference sequences on the browser. Homology analysis of these contigs with rice genes indicated that 1,239 rice genes can be assigned to barley contigs by the simple comparison of sequence lengths in both species. Of these genes, 492 are assigned to rice chromosome 1. Conclusions We demonstrate the efficiency of sequencing gene rich regions from barley chromosome 3H, with special reference to syntenic relationships with rice chromosome 1.

  7. Esterase Isoenzyme Variants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, S.; Nielsen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Gene symbols are proposed for 27 esterase isoenzyme alleles representing 10 loci in barley. Two new esterase loci, Est 9 and Est 10, each with an active and a silent allele, and three new alleles in previously described loci were found. A few chemical and physical characteristics of the different...... esterase isoenzyme systems were studied. The heat inactivation temperature differed for the isoenzymes coded by most of the loci, whereas the substrate and inhibitor specificity of the isoenzymes was less distinct. A possible relationship between some of the systems is discussed....

  8. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Barley accumulates five hydroxynitrile glucosides, including one cyanogenic glucoside, in the epidermal cell layer. Cyanogenic glucosides are classically known as hydrogen cyanide-releasing defense compounds which act against generalist insects and herbivores. However...... is proposed. The results obtained in this Ph.D. study provide a unique insight demonstrating that hydroxynitrile glucosides play a far more complex role in barley defense against and susceptibility to Bgh than previously described. Future studies can build on the platforms established in this study to provide...

  9. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  10. [Effects of phosphorus sources on phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere soil of wild barley genotypes with high phosphorus utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Ting-Xuan; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-11-01

    High P-efficiency (IS-22-30, IS-22-25) and low P-efficiency (IS-07-07) wild barley cultivars were chosen to evaluate characteristics of phosphorus uptake and utilization, and properties of phosphorus fractions in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere in a pot experiment with 0 (CK) and 30 mg P · kg(-1) supplied as only Pi (KH2PO4), only Po (phytate) or Pi + Po (KH2PO4+ phytate). The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus accumulation of wild barley in the different treatments was ranked as Pi > Pi + Po > Po > CK. In addition, dry matter yield and phosphorus uptake of wild barley with high P-efficiency exhibited significantly greater than that with low P-efficiency. The concentration of soil available phosphorus was significantly different after application of different phosphorus sources, which was presented as Pi > Pi + Po > Po. The concentration of soil available phosphorus in high P-efficiency wild barley was significantly higher than that of low P-efficiency in the rhizosphere soil. There was a deficit in rhizosphere available phosphorus of high P-efficiency wild barley, especially in Pi and Pi+Po treatments. The inorganic phosphorus fractions increased with the increasing Pi treatment, and the concentrations of inorganic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: Ca10-P > O-P > Fe-P > Al-P > Ca2-P > Ca8-P. The contents of Ca2-P and Ca8-P for high P-efficiency wild barley showed deficits in rhizosphere soil under each phosphorus source treatment. In addition, enrichment of Al-P and Fe-P was observed in Pi treatment in rhizosphere soil. The concentrations of organic phosphorus fractions in soil were sorted as follows: moderate labile organic phosphorus > moderate resistant, resistant organic phosphorus > labile organic phosphorus. The labile and moderate labile organic phosphorus enriched in rhizosphere soil and the greatest enrichment appeared in Pi treatment. Furthermore, the concentrations of moderate resistant organic phosphorus and resistant

  11. Utilization of Mutagenic Treatments for Improving Barley Disease Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.; Fahim, M.M.; Moustafa, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    This program aims to improve barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordi) using mutation induction technique via physical and chemical mutagens. Grains of two local cultivars were treated with gamma rays (150, 250 GY) at a dose rate of 9.02 Rad/ Sec alone or with the concentrations of chemical mutagens, i.e.,EMS (4 and 8 mM), MH (10 and 20 mM) for two hours. After mass selection for the resistance in M2, the two cultivars were varied in their responses to the fifteen treatments. In M3 generation, the frequencies of plant resistance were increased at 20 mM of MH, 8 mM of EMS or 250 GY with either of them for the cultivar G124. However, the same trend was also found at 10 mM of MH, 250GY alone and with 4 or 8 mM EMS for cultivar G125. Moreover, eight mutants were selected from the progenies of M4 plants and evaluated in M5 generation. These mutants are characterized by highly disease resistance and high yield components, one of them has been characterized by non crytics and awnless .The desirable mutants should go to further evaluation for grain yield and grain quality in subsequent generations. (author)

  12. MICROBIOLIZATION WITH TRICHODERMA SPP., COMBINED OR NOT WITH POLYMER, ON THE HEALTH, GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF BLACK OATS AND BARLEY SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Baseggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioprotectors in the coating of seeds is increasing, and these become an alternative for the use of chemical fungicides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of Trichoderma spp., with or without polymerization, in the control of pathogens associated with black oats (Avena strigosa and barley (Hordeum vulgare seeds of the cultivars 'Comum' (black oats and BRS Cauê (barley, 2014 crop. After asepsis and dried of the seeds, the treatments were applied, using a dose of 5 mL of Trichoderma spp. kg-1 and 10 mL of seed polymer kg-1 of seeds. Sanity tests; germination; germination and emergency rate index; length of seedling (shoot and root; and fresh and dry weight were performed. The coating of oat and barley seeds with Trichoderma spp. was efficient in the control of pathogens, as well as increased the germination and development of the seedlings for both cultures evaluated.

  13. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  14. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  15. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne; Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Berger, Bettina; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Trittermann, Christine; Coventry, Stewart; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Nguyen, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  16. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  17. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  18. Protective effect and economic impact of insecticide application methods on barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Stoetzer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of different forms of insecticide application on the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in barley cultivars, as well as to determine the production costs and the net profit of these managements. The experiments were carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons, using the following managements at main plots: T1, seed treatment with insecticide (ST + insecticide on shoots at 15-day interval; T2, just ST; T3, insecticide applied on shoots, when aphid control level (CL was reached; T4, without insecticide; and T5, ST + insecticide on shoots when CL was reached. Different barley cultivars - BRS Cauê, BRS Brau and MN 6021 - were arranged in the subplots. Insecticides lambda cyhalothrin (pyrethroid and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid were used. There were differences on yellow dwarf disease index in both seasons for the different treatments, while damage to grain yield was influenced by year and aphid population. Production costs and net profit were different among treatments. Seed treatment with insecticide is sufficient to reduce the transmission of yellow dwarf disease in years with low aphid population pressure, while in years with larger populations, the application of insecticide on shoots is also required.

  19. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  20. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    remobilisation from ageing plant parts. Thus, GS is highly involved in determining crop yield and NUE. The major objective of this PhD project was to investigate the NUE properties of transgenic barley designed to constitutively overexpress a GS1 isogene (HvGS1.1). These transgenic lines exhibited an increased...... for N demand. Of the GS isogenes, only the transcript levels of root HvGS1.1 increased when plants were transferred from high to low N. This change coincided with an increase in total GS activity. Pronounced diurnal variation was observed for root nitrate transporter genes and GS isogenes in both root...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...

  1. Barley yellow dwarf virus Infection Leads to Higher Chemical Defense Signals and Lower Electrophysiological Reactions in Susceptible Compared to Tolerant Barley Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Maria K; Kunert, Grit; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Theis, Nina; Ludwig, Anatoli; Meichsner, Doreen; Oelmüller, Ralf; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Habekuss, Antje; Ordon, Frank; Furch, Alexandra C U; Will, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait. Therefore, we compared the anatomy and early defense responses of a virus susceptible to those of a virus-tolerant cultivar. One of the very early defense responses is the transmission of electrophysiological reactions. Electrophysiological reactions to BYDV infection might differ between susceptible and tolerant cultivars, since BYDV causes disintegration of sieve elements in susceptible cultivars. The structure of vascular bundles, xylem vessels and sieve elements was examined using microscopy. All three were significantly decreased in size in infected susceptible plants where the virus causes disintegration of sieve elements. This could be associated with an uncontrolled ion exchange between the sieve-element lumen and apoplast. Further, a reduced electrophysiological isolation would negatively affect the propagation of electrophysiological reactions. To test the influence of BYDV infection on electrophysiological reactions, electropotential waves (EPWs) induced by leaf-tip burning were recorded using aphids as bioelectrodes. EPWs in infected susceptible plants disappeared already after 10 cm in contrast to those in healthy susceptible or infected tolerant or healthy tolerant plants. Another early plant defense reaction is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a fluorescent dye, we found a significant increase in ROS content in infected susceptible plants but not in infected tolerant plants. Similar results were found for the

  2. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  3. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased....... A significantly decreased yield and thousand grain weight was also seen in barley due to elevated O3. The multifactor combination of elevated CO2, O3 and temperature showed a decrease in growth and production in the two species, though not statistically significant for all parameters. This trend suggests...

  4. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  5. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  6. Radiosensitivities of cultured barley of different type (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan

    1990-01-01

    The dormant seeds (with 13% moisture) of 47 barley varieties were irradiated with various doses (0-40 krad) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The radiosensitivities of naked barley was significantly higher than that of hulled barley. The sensitive coefficients of seedling height were 0.04945 and 0.03667 for naked barley and hulled barley, respectively. The radiosensitivity of four-row naked barley was significantly higher than that of two-row hulled barley and six-row hulled barley. 47 varieties studied could be divided into five types with different radiosensitivities, i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive and extreme sensitive. It was also found that the dose-effect curves of cell nucleus volume had a peal at 30 krad

  7. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  8. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  9. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'Yangpi No.2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng

    2005-01-01

    'Yangpi No.2' barley pasted the examination of Jiangsu province in 2002, is the new spring two-rowed malting barley variety selected by which irradiation mutated the early-maturing of barley. The yield capacity of 'Yangpi No.2' barley is about 6750 kg/hm 2 , it had the characters of early-maturing, good agronomic characters, strong anti-adversity, high quality, and adapted well to everywhere in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  10. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  11. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturally present in barley, and produced cell-bound and cell-free α-amylase at alkaline conditions. The two strains may be developed into starter cultures to facilitate the germination of barley and produce malt with a higher fermentable sugar content. Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting ...

  12. Estimating Biomass of Barley Using Crop Surface Models (CSMs Derived from UAV-Based RGB Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bendig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop monitoring is important in precision agriculture. Estimating above-ground biomass helps to monitor crop vitality and to predict yield. In this study, we estimated fresh and dry biomass on a summer barley test site with 18 cultivars and two nitrogen (N-treatments using the plant height (PH from crop surface models (CSMs. The super-high resolution, multi-temporal (1 cm/pixel CSMs were derived from red, green, blue (RGB images captured from a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Comparison with PH reference measurements yielded an R2 of 0.92. The test site with different cultivars and treatments was monitored during “Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie” (BBCH Stages 24–89. A high correlation was found between PH from CSMs and fresh biomass (R2 = 0.81 and dry biomass (R2 = 0.82. Five models for above-ground fresh and dry biomass estimation were tested by cross-validation. Modelling biomass between different N-treatments for fresh biomass produced the best results (R2 = 0.71. The main limitation was the influence of lodging cultivars in the later growth stages, producing irregular plant heights. The method has potential for future application by non-professionals, i.e., farmers.

  13. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  14. BRS Progresso – Rye cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rye cultivar BRS Progresso, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, is the result of a synthetic cross of 18 open-pollinated, self-incompatible lines, resistant to stem rust.

  15. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  16. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  17. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...

  18. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content...... of the diet as close as possible to the pigs’ requirement. By improving the availability of isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine, which are limiting and commercial unavailable, the amount of crude protein in the pig feed can be reduced, resulting in a decreased excretion of nitrogen. The aim...... of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection...

  19. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

  20. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  1. Diversity in boron toxicity tolerance of Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Julie E; Pallotta, Margaret; Garcia, Melissa; Öz, Mehmet Tufan; Rongala, Jay; Sutton, Tim

    2015-09-26

    Boron (B) is an important micronutrient for plant growth, but is toxic when levels are too high. This commonly occurs in environments with alkaline soils and relatively low rainfall, including many of the cereal growing regions of southern Australia. Four major genetic loci controlling tolerance to high soil B have been identified in the landrace barley, Sahara 3771. Genes underlying two of the loci encode the B transporters HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1. We investigated sequence and expression level diversity in HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1 across barley germplasm, and identified five novel coding sequence alleles for HvBot1. Lines were identified containing either single or multiple copies of the Sahara HvBot1 allele. We established that only the tandemly duplicated Sahara allele conferred B tolerance, and this duplicated allele was found only in a set of nine lines accessioned in Australian collections as Sahara 3763-3771. HvNIP2;1 coding sequences were highly conserved across barley germplasm. We identified the likely causative SNP in the 5'UTR of Sahara HvNIP2;1, and propose that the creation of a small upstream open reading frame interferes with HvNIP2;1 translation in Sahara 3771. Similar to HvBot1, the tolerant HvNIP2;1 allele was unique to the Sahara barley accessions. We identified a new source of the 2H B tolerance allele controlling leaf symptom development, in the landrace Ethiopia 756. Ethiopia 756, as well as the cultivar Sloop Vic which carries both the 2H and HvBot1 B tolerance alleles derived from Sahara 3771, may be valuable as alternative parents in breeding programs targeted to high soil B environments. There is significant diversity in B toxicity tolerance among contemporary Australian barley varieties but this is not related to variation at any of the four known B tolerance loci, indicating that novel, as yet undiscovered, sources of tolerance exist.

  2. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Silicon efflux transporters isolated from two pumpkin cultivars contrasting in Si uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Yamaji, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of silicon (Si) differs greatly with plant species and cultivars due to different ability of the roots to take up Si. In Si accumulating plants such as rice, barley and maize, Si uptake is mediated by the influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters. Here we report isolation and functional analysis of two Si efflux transporters (CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2) from two pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) cultivars contrasting in Si uptake. These cultivars are used for rootstocks of bloom and bloomless cucumber, respectively. Different from mutations in the Si influx transporter CmLsi1, there was no difference in the sequence of either CmLsi2 between two cultivars. Both CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2 showed an efflux transport activity for Si and they were expressed in both the roots and shoots. These results confirm our previous finding that mutation in CmLsi1, but not in CmLsi2-1 and CmLsi2-2 are responsible for bloomless phenotype resulting from low Si uptake. PMID:21617377

  4. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  5. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  6. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... sub-humid environment at Beja and a semi-arid one at Kef. Heading date ... State of art showed that barley was a main food crop in. North Africa for ... rably to many other food grains (wheat, rye, and oats) and played a .... rates both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) into ...

  7. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  8. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  10. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  11. Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khawaga, A.A.H.; Farag, I.A.A.; Eliwa, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m 2 , plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm 2 ), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m 2 , plant height, flag leaf area (cm 2 ), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

  12. Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Båga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2011-05-11

    The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased β-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 μm) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield.

  13. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  14. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  15. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2017-10-03

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases and xylanolytic enzymes being the most abundant. A 2-DE-based secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger and the less-studied pathogenic fungus Fusarium poae grown on barley flour and wheat arabinoxylan resulted in identification of 82 A. niger and 31 F. poae proteins many of which were hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases. The microorganisms that inhabit the surface of cereal grains are specialized in production of enzymes such as xylanases, which depolymerize plant cell walls. Integration of gel-based proteomics approach with activity assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of fungal secretomes and xylanolytic activities which can lead to identification of new enzymes with interesting properties, as well as provide insight into plant-fungal interactions, fungal pathogenicity and adaptation. Understanding the fungal response to host niche is of importance to uncover novel targets for potential symbionts, anti-fungal agents and biotechnical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural modeling and molecular simulation analysis of HvAP2/EREBP from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Sharma, Pradeep; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    AP2/ERF transcription factors play a critical role in plant development and stress adaptation. This study reports the three-dimensional ab initio-based model of AP2/EREBP protein of barley and its interaction with DNA. Full-length coding sequence of HvAP2/EREBP gene isolated from two Indian barley cultivars, RD 2503 and RD 31, was used to model the protein. Of five protein models obtained, the one with lowest C-score was chosen for further analysis. The N- and C-terminal regions of HvAP2 protein were found to be highly disordered. The dynamic properties of AP2/EREBP and its interaction with DNA were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of trajectories from simulation yielded the equilibrated conformation between 2-10ns for protein and 7-15ns for protein-DNA complex. We established relationship between DNA having GCC box and DNA-binding domain of HvAP2/EREBP was established by modeling 11-base-pair-long nucleotide sequence and HvAP2/EREBP protein using ab initio method. Analysis of protein-DNA interaction showed that a β-sheet motif constituting amino acid residues THR105, ARG100, ARG93, and ARG83 seems to play important role in stabilizing the complex as they form strong hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA motif. Taken together, this study provides first-hand comprehensive information detailing structural conformation and interactions of HvAP2/EREBP proteins in barley. The study intensifies the role of computational approaches for preliminary examination of unknown proteins in the absence of experimental information. It also provides molecular insight into protein-DNA binding for understanding and enhancing abiotic stress resistance for improving the water use efficiency in crop plants.

  17. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  18. Dominant Groups of Potentially Active Bacteria Shared by Barley Seeds become Less Abundant in Root Associated Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part of their microbiome, as we observed a predominance of a few bacterial OTUs assigned to Phyllobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Trabusiella. Seed endophytes, particularly members of the Enterobacteriacea and Paenibacillaceae, were important members of root endophytes in axenic systems, where there were no external microbes. However, when plants were grown in soil, seed endophytes became less abundant in root associated microbiome. We observed a clear enrichment of Actinobacteriacea and Rhizobiaceae, indicating a strong influence of the soil bacterial communities on the composition of the root microbiome. Two OTUs assigned to Phyllobacteriaceae were found in all seeds and root samples growing in soil, indicating a relationship between seed-borne and root associated microbiome in barley. Even though the role of endophytic bacteria remains to be clarified, it is known that many members of the genera detected in our study produce phytohormones, shape seedling exudate profile and may play an important role in germination and establishment of the seedlings.

  19. Dominant Groups of Potentially Active Bacteria Shared by Barley Seeds become Less Abundant in Root Associated Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luhua; Danzberger, Jasmin; Schöler, Anne; Schröder, Peter; Schloter, Michael; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part of their microbiome, as we observed a predominance of a few bacterial OTUs assigned to Phyllobacterium , Paenibacillus , and Trabusiella . Seed endophytes, particularly members of the Enterobacteriacea and Paenibacillaceae, were important members of root endophytes in axenic systems, where there were no external microbes. However, when plants were grown in soil, seed endophytes became less abundant in root associated microbiome. We observed a clear enrichment of Actinobacteriacea and Rhizobiaceae, indicating a strong influence of the soil bacterial communities on the composition of the root microbiome. Two OTUs assigned to Phyllobacteriaceae were found in all seeds and root samples growing in soil, indicating a relationship between seed-borne and root associated microbiome in barley. Even though the role of endophytic bacteria remains to be clarified, it is known that many members of the genera detected in our study produce phytohormones, shape seedling exudate profile and may play an important role in germination and establishment of the seedlings.

  20. Dominant Groups of Potentially Active Bacteria Shared by Barley Seeds become Less Abundant in Root Associated Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Luhua; Danzberger, Jasmin; Schöler, Anne; Schröder, Peter; Schloter, Michael; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part of their microbiome, as we observed a predominance of a few bacterial OTUs assigned to Phyllobacterium, Paenibacillus, and Trabusiella. Seed endophytes, particularly members of the Enterobacteriacea and Paenibacillaceae, were important members of root endophytes in axenic systems, where there were no external microbes. However, when plants were grown in soil, seed endophytes became less abundant in root associated microbiome. We observed a clear enrichment of Actinobacteriacea and Rhizobiaceae, indicating a strong influence of the soil bacterial communities on the composition of the root microbiome. Two OTUs assigned to Phyllobacteriaceae were found in all seeds and root samples growing in soil, indicating a relationship between seed-borne and root associated microbiome in barley. Even though the role of endophytic bacteria remains to be clarified, it is known that many members of the genera detected in our study produce phytohormones, shape seedling exudate profile and may play an important role in germination and establishment of the seedlings. PMID:28663753

  1. Callus induction and regeneration efficiency of spring barley cultivars registered in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerhantová, V.; Ehrenbergerová, J.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 10 (2004), s. 456-462 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : immature zygotic embryos * auxin * 2,4-D-picloram Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.170, year: 2004

  2. Regeneration capacity of calli derived from immature embryos in spring barley cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halámková, Eva; Vagera, Jiří; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2004), s. 313-316 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/00/P050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : callus induction * dicamba * 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  3. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed.

  4. Hordein gene dose effects in triploid endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two maternal chromosome sets in triploid barley endosperm allows the distinction of maternal and paternal hordein bands in an electrophoregram: the maternal bands are stronger due to the higher gene dose. In the F1 generation there are differences between reciprocal crosses and in the F2 generation all 16 classes that are theoretically possible for a pair of polymorphic loci can be distinguished. This full classification is rarely possible in genetic studies, and allows more accurate estimates of recombination rates. Two hordein gene clusters (Hor1 and Hor2, corresponding to hordein C and hordein B respectively were analyzed in hybrids obtained by crossing two winter barley cultivars Partizan and HWV-247. Hordein separation was performed by acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2 (A-PAGE. A set of most informative bands of B and C hordeins was selected in each cross by two criteria: (1 presence or absence of bands in the parents and (2 signal strength to allow doses scoring. The average genetic distance between Hor1 and Hor2 loci was 11 cM. Distances in male and female maps were not significantly different, suggesting a similar recombination rate in male and female meiosis.

  5. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  6. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  7. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 2 HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological and molecular techniques (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis, and gene expression to investigate stomatal behaviour and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterisation of stomatal behaviour of large numbers of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we have found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture in 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield in salt treatment. Phenotypic characterisation and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to high barley grain yield in the field.

  8. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  9. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup in winter barley seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Petrović Dragana; Vujaković Milka; Taški-Ajduković Ksenija; Nikolić Zorica; Jovičić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike). Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne) and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method ...

  10. Carrot Cultivar Evaluation: Soilless Media vs. Hydroponics

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Nine cultivars of carrots were grown in a growth chamber. Each cultivar was grown both in hydroponic and soil-less media root-zone for sixty days. Three 30L tubs were used for each root-zone treatment. Three cultivars were planted in each tub, initially at 180 plants m-2 then thinned to 90 plants m-2 on day 45.

  11. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  12. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  14. BRS 374 – Wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caierão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 374 is a wheat cultivar developed by Embrapa. It resulted from a cross between the F1 generation of PF 88618/Coker80.33 and Frontana/Karl. BRS 374 belongs to the soft wheat class, has a low plant height, a high potential grain yield, andwhite flour.

  15. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  16. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  17. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  18. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  19. GWAS of Barley Phenotypes Established Under Future Climate Conditions of Elevated Temperature, CO2, O3 and Elevated Temperature and CO2 Combined

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, G.; Lyngkjær, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is likely to decrease crop yields worldwide. Developing climate resilient cultivars is one way to combat this production scarcity, however, little is known of crop response to future climate conditions and in particular the variability within crops.In Scandinavia, barley is widely...... cultivated, but yields have stagnated since the start of this century. In this study we cultivated 138 spring barley accessions in a climate phytotron under four treatments mimicking forecasted levels of temperature, carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) at the end of the 21st century1...... yield, grain protein concentration, grain protein harvested, number of grains, number of ears, aboveground vegetative biomass and harvest index. In addition, stability of the production was calculated over the applied treatments for the assessed parameters.In the climate scenario of elevated temperature...

  20. Characterizing the pathotype structure of barley powdery mildew and effectiveness of resistance genes to this pathogen in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rsaliyev, Aralbek; Pahratdinova, Zhazira; Rsaliyev, Shynbolat

    2017-11-14

    resistance genes, for which no corresponding virulence was found, will allow Kazakhstanean breeders to access many modern barley cultivars that those possessing the resistance effectiveness genes.

  1. Influence of barley grain treated with alkaline compounds or organic extracts on site and extent of digestion of starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naseroleslami

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two ex vivo experiments were conducted to verify the effect of barley grain (Nusrat cultivar treated with alkaline compounds (AC including alum, ammonium, and sodium hydroxide or cation-exchanged organic extracts (OE prepared from alfalfa hay, sugar beet pulp and Ulva Fasciata, on extent and digestion of starch. Methods In the first study, the in vitro first order disappearance kinetic parameters of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch were estimated using a non-linear model (D(t = D(i · e(−kd · time + I, where: D(t = potentially digestible residues at any time, D(i = potentially digestible fraction at any time, kd = fractional rate constant of digestion (/h, I = indigestible fraction at any time. In the second experiment, the ruminal and post-ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, and starch were determined using in situ mobile nylon bag. Results Barley grains treated with alum and alfalfa extract had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.11 and 0.09/h than others. Barley grain treated with OE had a higher constant rate of CP digestion and that of treated with AC had a higher constant rate of starch digestion (0.08 and 0.11/h compared with those of the other treatments. The indigestible fraction of starch treated with alum and sugar beet pulp extract was higher than that of the control group (0.24 and 0.25 vs 0.21. Barley grain treated with AC and OE had significant CP disappearance in the rumen, post-rumen and total tract, and also starch disappearance for post-rumen and total tract compared with the untreated (p<0.001. Conclusion This study demonstrated that AC and OE might have positive effects on the starch degradation of the barley grain. In addition, treating barley grain with alum and sugar beet pulp extract could change the site and extend digestion of protein and starch.

  2. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  3. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  4. Lipoic acid and redox status in barley plants subjected to salinity and elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, U.; Robredo, A.; Mena-Petite, A.; Munoz-Rueda, A. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Bilbao (Spain)); Lacuesta, M. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)); Sgherri, C.; Navari-Izzo, F. (Univ. di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Pisa (Italy))

    2010-02-15

    Future environmental conditions will include elevated concentrations of salt in the soil and an elevated concentration of CO{sub 2}in the atmosphere. Because these environmental changes will likely affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant metabolism in opposite ways, we analyzed changes in cellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolite [lipoic acid (LA), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH)] content induced by salt stress (0, 80, 160 or 240 mM NaCl) under ambient (350 mumol mol-1) or elevated (700 mumol mol-1) CO{sub 2}concentrations in two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) that differ in sensitivity to salinity (cv. Alpha is more sensitive than cv. Iranis). Under non-salinized conditions, elevated CO{sub 2}increased LA content, while ASA and GSH content decreased. Under salinized conditions and ambient CO{sub 2}, ASA increased, while GSH and LA decreased. At 240 mM NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased in Alpha and decreased in Iranis. When salt stress was imposed at elevated CO{sub 2}, less oxidative stress and lower increases in ASA were detected, while LA was constitutively higher. The decrease in oxidative stress could have been because of less ROS formation or to a higher constitutive LA level, which might have improved regulation of ASA and GSH reductions. Iranis had a greater capacity to synthesize ASA de novo and had higher constitutive LA content than did Alpha. Therefore, we conclude that elevated CO{sub 2}protects barley cultivars against oxidative damage. However, the magnitude of the positive effect is cultivar specific. (author)

  5. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-03-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F/sub 1/ hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.).

  6. Production of reciprocal translocation lines and genetical analysis of tetravalent behavior in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Tokuhiko

    1988-01-01

    The seeds of a barley cultivar, Chikurinibaraki No.1 and of an early mutant line, Ea 52, derived from it were exposed to the external irradiation of gamma ray and thermal neutrons, and to the internal irradiation with the alpha ray from the nuclear reaction B-10 (n, alpha) Li-7 generated by the thermal neutron irradiation of B-10 imbibed seeds. The reciprocal translocation induced by these irradiation was detected and bred in the pedigrees of irradiated materials by the selection in terms of the partial sterility of seeds. The examination of seed fertility and chromosome pairing at the MI of meiosis of the F 1 hybrid between the selected lines and the original cultivar was also used. Consequently, 50 homozygous lines of reciprocal translocation were confirmed. The tester lines for translocated chromosomes were established by the cytological examination of the chromosome pairing in the hybrids between each two of the tester lines. The investigation of the inheritance of translocation heterozygotes showed that most of the newly obtained lines differently behaved from the expectation on the genetical basis of reciprocal translocation. (Kako, I.)

  7. Influence of Leaf Tolerance Mechanisms and Rain on Boron Toxicity in Barley and Wheat1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rob; Fitzpatrick, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is common in many areas of the world. Plant tolerance to high B varies widely and has previously been attributed to reduced uptake of B, most commonly as a result of B efflux from roots. In this study, it is shown that the expression of genes encoding B efflux transporters in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) is associated with an ability of leaf tissues to withstand higher concentrations of B. In tolerant cultivars, necrosis in leaves occurred at B concentrations more than 2-fold higher than in sensitive cultivars. It is hypothesized that this leaf tolerance is achieved via redistribution of B by efflux transporters from sensitive symplastic compartments into the leaf apoplast. Measurements of B concentrations in leaf protoplasts, and of B released following infiltration of leaves, support this hypothesis. It was also shown that under B-toxic conditions, leaching of B from leaves by rain had a strong positive effect on growth of both roots and shoots. Measurements of rates of guttation and the concentration of B in guttation droplets indicated that the impact of guttation on the alleviation of B toxicity would be small. PMID:19625636

  8. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  9. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  10. Revisit to Ethiopian traditional barley-based food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Barley producers in Ethiopia have given it the name gebs ye ehil nigus, which means barley is the king of crops, due to its suitability for preparing many of the known Ethiopians traditional dishes. Various barley foods and drinks play an important role in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Ethiopians, but detailed descriptions related to their preparation and their socioeconomic and cultural roles are not well-recorded and documented like most of the Ethiopian cultural foods. Foods such as ingera, kita, dabo, kolo, genfo, beso, chuko, shamet, tihlo, kinch, and shorba are the most commonly known traditional Ethiopian barley-based foods. These products are prepared from either roasted whole grain, raw and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley-based traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the consumers. For example, genfo is served to breast-feeding mothers with the belief that it enhances breast milk production and serves as a good substitute for breast milk. Beso is claimed to be a remedy for gastritis, while genfo and kinche are used to heal broken bones and fractures. Considering the Western consumers' trend on functional foods and health benefits of barley, Ethiopian traditional barley-based foods are worth studying as functional foods, which can be appealing to Western consumers.

  11. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a

  12. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  13. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing ... that the environments were diverse; causing most of the variation in grain yield. ... component axes IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3, which explained 58.06, 27.11 and ..... AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield (t ha-1) of food barley genotypes ...

  14. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for...

  15. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  16. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeier, Gero;Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat w...

  17. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  18. Molecular characterisation of radish cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Michelly Cruz

    Full Text Available The radish has been gaining importance in the Brazilian market due to its use as a green manure and cover crop, and also due to its potential for the production of biodiesel, however there are only two registered cultivars, which are morphologically very similar. Determination of genetic purity is a prerequisite in marketing seeds as it ensures uniformity of the crop and is important in breeding programs. The aim of this work therefore was to evaluate the similarity and genotype patterns which permit differentiation of the commercial radish cultivars IPR 116 and CATI AL-1000. In order to do this, isoenzyme electrophoretic patterns were analysed in dry seeds, soaked seeds, seedling leaves and young leaves; the isoenzymes used being: superoxide dismutase, catalase, esterase, glutamate-oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Thirty-seven RAPD primers and 10 ISSR primers in leaves of the CATI AL-1000 and IPR-116 cultivars were analysed. Among the isoenzymes under study, the most polymorphic were glutamate oxalocetate, malate dehydrogenase, esterase and superoxide dismutase, with the superoxide dismutase system giving the best characterisation for all stages of development. The catalase isoenzyme system did not make it possible to differentiate between cultivars at any stage of development, and isocitrate lyase was not revealed by the protocol used. In analysis of the markers, 27 RAPD primers and eight ISSR primers showed polymorphism. The results indicate that it is possible to determine reliable descriptors based on isoenzymes at different stages of development of the radish and with the use of RAPD and ISSR primers.

  19. Fermented Dough Characteristics of Wheat-barley-hemp Composites. Comparison of Two Dosages of Barley and Hemp Wholemeal/Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour substitution by barley one led to shortening of fermentation and leavening times (about 14–57% and 35–83%, respectively as well as to lessening of dough volumes (about 25–75%, based on lowered protein quality (Zeleny value. Addition of barley flour affected specific bread volume; diminishing for wheat-barley blends 70:30 and 50:50 reached 30% and 43%, respectively. Volume of bread prepared from wheat-barley blend 70:30 enhanced by dehulled hemp wholemeal was the highest within the tested tri-composites set, achieving 130% of wheat-barley control; other hemp products caused the parameter decrease (from 8 to 33%. Within a group of bakery products containing 50% of barley flour, hulled hemp wholemeal partially supressed negative effect of barley flour – specific bread volumes increased about ca 15%. Commercial fine hemp flour samples demonstrated a reversal influence – its addition resulted into lower buns size than wheat-barley control (about 3–34%. Between wheat flour and both groups of flour tri-composites, PCA confirmed differences in dough and bread technological quality. Specific bread volume could be predicted according to maturograph dough elasticity, dough or bread OTG volumes.

  20. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  1. The adsorption of α-amylase on barley proteins affects the in vitro digestion of starch in barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Zou, Wei; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Gidley, Michael J; Fox, Glen P; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-02-15

    The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy. The degradation kinetics of both uncooked barley flour and of purified starches are found to be two-step sequential processes. Barley proteins, especially the water-soluble component, are found to retard the digestion of starch degraded by α-amylase: the enzyme binds with water-insoluble protein and with starch granules, leading to reduced starch hydrolysis. These findings are of potential industrial value in both the brewing and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  3. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  4. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  5. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  6. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  7. Determining the Pollinizer for Pecan Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoon Ajamgard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the best pollinizer for five selected pecan cultivars in southwest of Iran at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center in 2014-2015. The cultivars included: 'GraTex', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw' as pollinated cultivars (♀ and 'GraTex', 'Peruque', 'Comanche 4M', '10J', 'Wichita 6J', 'Mohawk', 'Mahan', 'Stuart 2J', '3J', 'Stuart 4J', 'GraKing', 'Choctaw', 'Apache', '6M', 'Wichita 7J' and 'Comanche 5M.' as pollinizer cultivars (♂. In the first step, a pollination chart of cultivars was determined in two years. The pollination chart of cultivars showed that all the cultivars investigated during this study were dichogamous and also protogynous except for the 'Peruque'. ‘GraKing’ had the longest duration of shedding pollen. Pollination chart showed that 'Peruque', ‘GraKing’, and 'Stuart 2J' had flowering overlap with the selected cultivars. Pollen germination test showed that the germination ability was different among the cultivars. It was 45% for 'GraKing' and 35% for 'Peruque', which were both recommended as pollinizers in this study. '6M', 'GraTex' and 'Stuart 4J' cultivars had the highest pollen germination percentage of 65%, 60% and 60%, respectively. The results of controlled pollinationtest showed that different pollen sources had no significant effect on nuts per cluster but self-pollinated all of the cultivars significantly reduced fruit set in first and second years. Based on the present research, pollination in pecan orchard was necessary for adequate yield. Also, 'Peruque', 'GraKing' and 'Stuart 2J' were the best pollinizers for five selected cultivars in southwest of Iran.

  8. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  9. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  10. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  11. γ-ray radiation decontamination of barley plant powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; Fu Junjie; Wang Zhiping; Zhang Guobin

    2007-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of barley plant powder by 60 Co γ-rays and the effect on its components were studied. Results showed that irradiation was very effective in killing the microorganisms in barley plant powder. The irradiation did not cause obvious changes of the major components of protein, total sugar, free amino acid, crude fiber, but 35% loss of vitamin E was observed after 10kGy irradiation. It is suggested that 7.5-10kGy irradiation is good enough for decontamination of the barley plant powder. (authors)

  12. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  13. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio....

  14. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...

  15. Response of Agronomic Traits of Wheat and Barley to Sources and Different Rates of Selenium in Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A Sajedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses affect growth, metabolism and crops yield. Drought is an important stress and it decreases crop productivity. Drought stress symptoms vary, depending on intensity and duration of drought and growth stage of the plant. The first response of plant to drought stress is producing the active oxygen species (ROS in cell that these cause injury to membranes and proteins. Selenium (Se application could have beneficial effect on growth and stress tolerance of plants by increasing their activity of antioxidants and reduce the reactive oxygen species over production. Selenium is essential for growth and activities of human and animals. Absorption and accumulation of selenium in plant depend on chemical compound and concentration of selenium in soil. Recent studies have demonstrated that Se increases resistance and antioxidant capacity of plants to various stress. It is reported that selenium application in barley plant no changes the amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide under water deficit stress. The current paper studies the response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rain fed condition. Materials and Methods In order to investigate response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rainfed condition, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, during 2014-2015. Experimental factors were included selenium sources at two levels, Sodium selenate and Selenite, Selenium rates at three levels of zero, 18 and 36 g ha-1 and two crop plants of wheat and barley. The wheat rain fed seed Azar 2 cultivar and Barley cultivar Abidar were hand planted at 15 cm spacing in 6 m rows, with one meter borders between the plots. Foliar application of Se was performed at rate of 18 and 36 g ha-1 at appearance

  16. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Zinc fertilization in cowpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Brito Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants, due to its role as a functional, structural, or regulatory cofactor in a large number of enzymes. The element is necessary for the synthesis of tryptophan, which is a precursor of indoleacetic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of two cowpea cultivars fertilized with four doses of Zn (0.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg of Zn ha-1 regarding dry grain yield (PGS, in addition to quantifying leaf and grain Zn content and grain crude protein. The experiment was conducted in the town of Brejo, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. A 4 x 2 factorial scheme was used with four replications. Response functions were adjusted by calculating the Zn doses which provided a maximum technical efficiency for each genotype. The tested cultivars of cowpea showed no great difference regarding Zn demand applied to the soil, ranging from 3.2 to 3.4 kg of Zn ha-1 for BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Guariba, respectively. Concerning Zn use efficiency, BRS Guariba was more responsive than was BRS Tumucumaque, i.e. the same dose of Zn produced 70 kg grain and 2.1 kg crude protein per hectare.

  18. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  19. Developing native Vaccinium crops and cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium species have long been harvested from the wild. Breeding and cultivar development, however, did not begin until about 1911 in New Jersey with efforts to commercially cultivate northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Cultivar development spread to cranberry (V. macrocarpon) and ...

  20. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  1. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare ) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis . The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  2. Improved antifungal activity of barley derived chitinase I gene that overexpress a 32 kDa recombinant chitinase in Escherichia coli host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Toufiq

    Full Text Available Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg.

  3. The fifth leaf and spike organs of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) display different physiological and metabolic responses to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jordan A; Sherrard, Mark E; Manfredi, Kirk P; Abebe, Tilahun

    2016-11-09

    Photosynthetic organs of the cereal spike (ear) provide assimilate for grain filling, but their response to drought is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the drought response of individual organs of the barley spike (awn, lemma, and palea) and compared them with a vegetative organ (fifth leaf). Understanding differences in physiological and metabolic responses between the leaf and spike organs during drought can help us develop high yielding cultivars for environments where terminal drought is prevalent. We exposed barley plants to drought by withholding water for 4 days at the grain filling stage and compared changes in: (1) relative water content (RWC), (2) osmotic potential (Ψ s ), (3) osmotic adjustment (OA), (4) gas exchange, and (5) metabolite content between organs. Drought reduced RWC and Ψ s in all four organs, but the decrease in RWC was greater and there was a smaller change in Ψ s in the fifth leaf than the spike organs. We detected evidence of OA in the awn, lemma, and palea, but not in the fifth leaf. Rates of gas exchange declined more rapidly in the fifth leaf than awn during drought. We identified 18 metabolites but, only ten metabolites accumulated significantly during drought in one or more organs. Among these, proline accumulated in all organs during drought while accumulation of the other metabolites varied between organs. This may suggest that each organ in the same plant uses a different set of osmolytes for drought resistance. Our results suggest that photosynthetic organs of the barley spike maintain higher water content, greater osmotic adjustment, and higher rates of gas exchange than the leaf during drought.

  4. Differences in grain ultrastructure, phytochemical and proteomic profiles between the two contrasting grain Cd-accumulation barley genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low-grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Spring Barley Production in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Dubrovsky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The crop model CERES-Barley was used to assess the impacts of increased concentration of atmospheric CO2 on growth and development of the most important spring cereal in Central and Western Europe, i.e., spring barley, and to examine possible adaptation strategies. Three experimental regions were selected to compare the climate change impacts in various climatic and pedological conditions. The analysis was based on multi-year crop model simulations run with daily weather series obtained by stochastic weather generator and included two yield levels: stressed yields and potential yields. Four climate change scenarios based on global climate models and representing 2 x CO2 climate were applied. Results: (1) The crop model is suitable for use in the given environment, e.g., the coefficient of determination between the simulated and experimental yields equals 0.88. (2) The indirect effect related to changed weather conditions is mostly negative. Its magnitude ranges from -19% to +5% for the four scenarios applied at the three regions. (3) The magnitude of the direct effect of doubled CO2 on the stressed yields for the three test sites is 35-55% in the present climate and 25-65% in the 2 x CO2 climates. (4) The stressed yields would increase in 2 x CO2 conditions by 13-52% when both direct and indirect effects were considered. (5) The impacts of doubled CO2 on potential yields are more uniform throughout the localities in comparison with the stressed yields. The magnitude of the indirect and direct effects ranges from -1 to -9% and from +31 to +33%, respectively. Superposition of both effects results in 19-30% increase of the potential yields. (6) Application of the earlier planting date (up to 60 days) would result in 15-22% increase of the yields in 2 x CO2 conditions. (7) Use of a cultivar with longer vegetation duration would bring 1.5% yield increase per one extra day of the vegetation season. (8) The initial water content in the soil water profile proved to be one

  6. QTL underlying some agronomic traits in barley detected by SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jibin; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Lipan; Wang, Qifei; Du, Binbin; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-07-07

    Increasing the yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a main breeding goal in developing barley cultivars. A high density genetic linkage map containing 1894 SNP and 68 SSR markers covering 1375.8 cM was constructed and used for mapping quantitative traits. A late-generation double haploid population (DH) derived from the Huaai 11 × Huadamai 6 cross was used to identify QTLs and QTL × environment interactions for ten traits affecting grain yield including length of main spike (MSL), spikelet number on main spike (SMS), spikelet number per plant (SLP), grain number per plant (GP), grain weight per plant (GWP), grain number per spike (GS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike density (SPD) and spike number per plant (SP). In single environment analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 221 QTLs underlying the ten traits were detected in five consecutive years (2009-2013). The QTLs detected in each year were 50, 48, 41, 41 and 41 for the year 2009 to 2013. The QTLs associated with these traits were generally clustered on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H. In multi-environment analysis, a total of 111 significant QTLs including 18 for MSL, 16 for SMS, 15 for SPD, 5 for SP, 4 for SLP, 14 for TGW, 5 for GP, 11 for GS, 8 for GWP, and 15 for GWS were detected in the five years. Most QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions (QEI), nine QTLs (qIMSL3-1, qIMSL4-1, qIMSL4-2, qIMSL6-1, qISMS7-1, qISPD2-7, qISPD7-1, qITGW3-1 and qIGWS4-3) were detected with minimal QEI effects and stable in different years. Among 111 QTLs,71 (63.40 %) QTLs were detected in both single and multiple environments. Three main QTL cluster regions associated with the 10 agronomic traits on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H were detected. The QTLs for SMS, SLP, GP and GWP were located in the region near Vrs1 on chromosome 2H. The QTLs underlying SMS, SPD and SLP were clustered on chromosome 4H. On the terminal of chromosome 7H, there was a QTL

  7. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  8. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    in plants under low N and iv) proteomes of uninfected plants were similar under two N levels. Correlation of level of proteolysis induced by the fungus with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels indicated that FHB was more severe in barley with low N. In Chapter 3......, the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  9. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-01-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [de

  10. High temperature combined with drought affect rainfed spring wheat and barley in South-Eastern Russia: I. Phenology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A.; Lozovskaya, Marina Viacheslavovna; Zvolinsky, Vacheslav Petrovich

    2012-01-01

    Heat stress, when combined with drought, is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide, especially in areas that use rainfed agriculture. As the world population continues to grow, and water resources for the crop production decline and temperature increases, so the development of heat- and drought-tolerant cultivars is an issue of global concern. In this context, four barley and two wheat genotypes were evaluated in south-eastern Russia to identify heat- and drought-tolerant genotypes for future breeding programmes by identifying suitable sowing times for specific genotypes. High temperature stress, when combined with drought during late sowing, decreased the days to visible awns, days to heading and days to ripe harvest, finally negatively affecting the growth and development of plants and resulting in a lower plant population m−2, tillers plant−1, plant height and dry matter production m−2. On the other hand, low temperature in combination with early sowing increased the number of days to germination, reduced seedling stand establishment and tillering capacity, finally affecting the growth and development of the crops. Compared to overall performance and optimum sowing date, barley genotypes ‘Zernograd.770’ and ‘Nutans’, and wheat genotype ‘Line4’ performed best in both late (high temperature with drought) and early (low temperature) stress conditions. PMID:23961209

  11. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  12. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  13. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  14. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...... have been carried through to F3. The experiments demonstrated the following sequence of the five genes: cer-f9 — ac2 — ert-d33 — ert-a23 — ert-m40 and the following distances: cer-f9 — ac2 = 2.3 %, ac2 — ert-a23 = 8.5 %, ac2 — ert-d33 = 2.5 % and ac2 — ert-m40 = 12.8 %. The cer-f9 — ac2 distance, which...

  15. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four......PAPhy_a insert for further analysis. Seeds from plants homozygous for the insert showed 2.6- and 2.8-fold increases in phytase activities and the activity levels were stable over the three generations analysed. In one of the selected lines, the flanking sequences from both the left and right T-DNA borders were...

  16. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  17. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  18. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  19. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fen; Finnie, Christine; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D...

  20. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC

  1. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  2. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  3. Genetic mapping of a new race specific resistance allele effective to Puccinia hordei at the Rph9/Rph12 locus on chromosome 5HL in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Khatkar, Mehar S; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-12-20

    Barley is an important cereal crop cultivated for malt and ruminant feed and in certain regions it is used for human consumption. It is vulnerable to numerous foliar diseases including barley leaf rust caused by the pathogen Puccinia hordei. A temporarily designated resistance locus RphCantala (RphC) identified in the Australian Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar 'Cantala' displayed an intermediate to low infection type (";12 = N") against the P. hordei pathotype 253P- (virulent on Rph1, Rph2, Rph4, Rph6, Rph8 and RphQ). Phenotypic assessment of a 'CI 9214' (susceptible) x 'Stirling' (RphC) (CI 9214/Stirling) doubled haploid (DH) population at the seedling stage using P. hordei pathotype 253P-, confirmed that RphC was monogenically inherited. Marker-trait association analysis of RphC in the CI 9214/Stirling DH population using 4,500 DArT-seq markers identified a highly significant (-log10Pvalue > 17) single peak on the long arm of chromosome 5H (5HL). Further tests of allelism determined that RphC was genetically independent of Rph3, Rph7, Rph11, Rph13 and Rph14, and was an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z), which also maps to 5HL. Multipathotype tests and subsequent pedigree analysis determined that 14 related Australian barley varieties (including 'Stirling' and 'Cantala') carry RphC and that the likely source of this resistance is via a Czechoslovakian landrace LV-Kvasice-NA-Morave transferred through common ancestral cultivars 'Hanna' and 'Abed Binder'. RphC is an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z) and is therefore designated Rph9.am. Bioinformatic analysis using sequence arrays from DArT-seq markers in linkage disequilibrium with Rph9.am identified possible candidates for further gene cloning efforts and marker development at the Rph9/Rph12/Rph9.am locus.

  4. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains......, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...... activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature...

  5. Molecular and immunological characterization of gluten proteins isolated from oat cultivars that differ in toxicity for celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.

  6. Cultivar de soja BRS 66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertagnolli Paulo Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS 66, oriunda do cruzamento BR 83-147 x FT-Abyara, é indicada para cultivo no Rio Grande do Sul. Na média de 21 ambientes no RS, no período de 1993/94 a 1995/96, essa cultivar apresentou rendimento médio de grãos de 2.883 kg/ha. Apresenta resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à podridão-parda-da-haste, à mancha-olho-de-rã, à raça 1 de Phytophthora sojae, à pústula-bacteriana e ao oídio. Tem flor branca, pubescência marrom, tegumento da semente amarelo-fosco, hilo marrom e tipo de crescimento determinado. É de ciclo médio e apresenta estatura da planta de média a alta, com boa resistência ao acamamento.

  7. Molecular basis of structural makeup of hulless barley in relation to rumen degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle: A novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, D; Yu, P

    2011-10-01

    To date, no study has been done of molecular structures in relation to nutrient degradation kinetics and intestinal availability in dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to (1) reveal molecular structures of hulless barley affected by structural alteration using molecular spectroscopy (diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform) as a novel approach, and (2) quantify structure features on a molecular basis in relation to digestive kinetics and nutritive value in the rumen and intestine in cattle. The modeled feeds in this study were 4 types of hulless barley (HB) cultivars modified in starch traits: (a) normal starch cultivar, (b) zero-amylose waxy, (c) waxy, and (d) high-amylose. The molecular structural features were determined using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region (ca. 4,000-800 cm(-1)) of the electromagnetic spectrum. The items assessed included infrared intensity attributed to protein amide I (ca. 1,715-1,575 cm(-1)), amide II (ca. 1,575-1,490 cm(-1)), α-helix (ca. 1,648-1,660 cm(-1)), β-sheet (ca. 1,625-1,640 cm(-1)), and their ratio, β-glucan (ca. 1,445-1,400 cm(-1)), total carbohydrates (CHO; ca. 1,188-820 cm(-1)) and their 3 major peaks, structural carbohydrates (ca. 1,277-1,190 cm(-1)), and ratios of amide I to II and amide I to CHO. The results show that (1) the zero-amylose waxy was the greatest in amide I and II peak areas, as well as in the ratio of protein amide I to CHO among HB; (2) α-helix-to-β-sheet ratio differed among HB: the high-amylose was the greatest, the zero-amylose waxy and waxy were the intermediate, and the normal starch was the lowest; (3) HB were similar in β-glucan and CHO molecular structural makeup; (4) altered starch HB cultivars were similar to each other, but were different from the normal starch cultivar in protein molecular makeup; and (5) the rate and extent of rumen degradation of starch and protein were highly related to the molecular structural

  8. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  9. 14CO2-assimilation, translocation of 14C, and 14C-carbonate uptake in different organs of spring barley plants in relation to adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, B.K.; Ibenthal, W.-D.; Heitefuss, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cultivar Peruvian of spring barley, which is susceptible at all growth stages, and Asse, which exhibits adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew, were compared in 14 CO 2 assimilation, distribution of 14 C, and 14 C-carbonate uptake in different organs of healthy and infected plants. The reduction of 14 CO 2 assimilation in infected plants at the first and fourth leaf stages was greater in Peruvian than in Asse. In Peruvian, the 14 C which was fixed by the infected third leaf of plants with mildew on the lower 3 leaves remained in the third leaves with very little translocation to other parts of the plant. Infection of the lower three leaves at the fourth leaf stage reduced 14 CO 2 assimilation in noninfected fourth leaves of Asse less than that of Peruvian, but the flow of 14 C from the healthy fourth leaves into other plant parts such as leaf sheaths was markedly stimulated in Peruvian compared to Asse. Infection also reduced the uptake of 14 C-carbonate by seedling roots, the reduction being greater in Peruvian than Asse. A greater proportion of the 14 C absorbed by roots of Asse was translocated to the infected leaves than that of Peruvian. It was concluded that powdery mildew disrupted the normal pattern of photosynthesis and translocation of metabolites in a susceptible cultivar more markedly than in an adult-plant-resistant cultivar of spring barley. (author)

  10. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Wendt

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv. Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield.

  11. Adaptation of cotton cultivars | Wondimu | African Crop Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each cultivar a linear regression of yield on the mean yield of all cultivars for each year was computed to measure cultivar adaptation. The cultivars with the highest mean yield exhibited a similar degree of adaptation to different environments with regression coefficient close to 1.0. For example, the breeding lines, Acala ...

  12. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  13. Population Growth and Damage Caused by Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on Different Cultivars and Phenological Stages of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaris, M; Lampert, S; Salvadori, J R; Lau, D; Pereira, P R V S; Smaniotto, M A

    2013-10-01

    Among the aphids associated with wheat and other winter cereals, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is currently the predominant species in the wheat growing region of southern Brazil. The damage caused by this aphid occurs by direct feeding and/or by the transmission of pathogenic viruses, such as the Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus. In order to estimate the direct damage caused by R. padi on wheat, we evaluated the population growth of this aphid during the tillering and elongation stages and its effects on grain yield components. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse with three wheat cultivars (BRS Guabiju, BRS Timbaúva, and Embrapa 16). The effect of a period of 16 days, starting from an infestation of 40 aviruliferous aphids/plant, was evaluated and compared to non-infested plants. In both stages, the population growth of R. padi was lower on the BRS Timbaúva. Although infestation caused a reduction in the grain yield of the three cultivars, this effect was lower for BRS Timbaúva. The cultivar Embrapa 16 supported higher infestations and was more tolerant to damage than the BRS Guabiju.

  14. The Genetics of Winterhardiness in Barley: Perspectives from Genome-Wide Association Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarislav von Zitzewitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Winterhardiness is a complex trait that involves low temperature tolerance (LTT, vernalization sensitivity, and photoperiod sensitivity. Quantitative trait loci (QTL for these traits were first identified using biparental mapping populations; candidate genes for all loci have since been identified and characterized. In this research we used a set of 148 accessions consisting of advanced breeding lines from the Oregon barley ( L. subsp breeding program and selected cultivars that were extensively phenotyped and genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these data for genome-wide association mapping we detected the same QTL and genes that have been systematically characterized using biparental populations over nearly two decades of intensive research. In this sample of germplasm, maximum LTT can be achieved with facultative growth habit, which can be predicted using a three-locus haplotype involving , , and . The and LTT QTL explained 25% of the phenotypic variation, offering the prospect that additional gains from selection can be achieved once favorable alleles are fixed at these loci.

  15. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  16. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  17. Mutation breeding of autotetraploid Achimenes cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broertjes, C.

    1976-01-01

    Colchicine-induced autotetraploids of three Achimenes cultivars were irradiated with X-rays or fast neutrons. The results were compared, in one cultivar, with those of the irradiated diploid form. The mutation frequency after irradiation of the autotetraploid was a 20-40 fold higher as compared to the corresponding diploid. These results may open new possibilities for mutation breeding, though they are hard to explain. Several promising mutants were selected. (author)

  18. Fusarium infection and trichothecenes in barley and its comparison with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Esmee; Liu, C.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Barley is a small-grain cereal that can be infected by Fusarium spp. resulting in reduced quality and safety of harvested barley (products). Barley and other small-grain cereals are commonly studied together for Fusarium infection and related mycotoxin contamination, since the infection and its

  19. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  20. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  1. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49...

  2. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  3. New cultivars of jujube induced by mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, V.T.; Tuynh, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Mutation breeding of jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lin.) received attention by the Food Crops Research Institute since 1978. Mutations can be directly released as new cultivars or indirectly as bud grafting source. N-methyl-N-nitroso urea (MNH) was used at a concentration of 0.02-0.04% for 12 h treatment of pre-germinated seeds of different jujube cultivars. Some useful mutants were selected and directly released as new cultivars to farmers. Of the selected mutants two cultivars, ''Ma hong'' and ''Dao tien'', are the most preferable and popularly grown in the country. ''Ma hong'' is a mutant of ''Gia Loc'', a very popular cultivar. Main useful traits of ''Gia Loc'' such as early maturing, two crops of fruits per year are maintained (harvest in December and August). ''Ma hong'' has round-formed, pink rose coloured, sweeter fruits and stable fruit yield in off-season (Aug.) as compared with oval-formed, yellow-coloured and sour fruit of ''Gia Loc''. ''Dao tien'' is a mutant of the local variety ''Thien Phien'' with quite different traits. The original cultivar is late maturing (harvested in Feb.) with one crop of fruit per year and has small fruits (mean wt. of fruit at harvest 20 g). ''Dao tien'' is one month earlier in maturing allowing two crops of fruit per year (harvested in Jan. and Nov.). Fruits are round-formed, bigger (mean wt. of fruit: 25 g) and more tasteful (peach-flavored and brittle). (author)

  4. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup in winter barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike. Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method 7-013. In tests, nine samples (weighing 120 g each of naturally infected barley seed (about 1000 seeds, depending on the absolute mass of seed were examined, observed and described using a Zeiss microscope with sub stage illumination with magnification range x 40 or higher. Mycelium of the fungus approximately 3 μ thick, golden brown in colour was detected and visible without a stain. The percentage of infected embryos in the examined samples of barley seeds ranged from 0.8% to 5.2%.

  5. Aggressiveness of powdery mildew on 'ml-o'- resistant barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Lars

    1990-01-01

    The ml-o genes in barley are important sources in breeding for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis). The resistance mechanism is a rapid formation of a large callose containing cell wall apposition at the site of the pathogen's infection attempt. This reduces the chances of infection to almost nil in all epidermal cells, except in the small subsidiary cells, in which appositions are rarely formed. Small mildew colonies from infections in subsidiary cells may be seen on the otherwise resistant leaf. This is described by the infection type 0/(4). Mildew isolate HL 3 selected by SCHWARZBACH has increased aggressiveness. No ml-o-virulent isolates are known. However, ml-o-resistant varieties when grown extensively in Europe, will introduce field selection for mildew pathotypes with aggressiveness or virulence to ml-o resistance. Studies on increased aggressiveness require new methods. The material comprises two powdery mildew isolates: GE 3 without ml-o aggressiveness and the aggressive HL 3/5; and two near-isogenic barley lines in Carlsberg II: Riso 5678(R) with the recessive mutant resistance gene ml-o5 and Riso 5678(S) with the wild-type gene for susceptibility. Latent period and disease efficiency show no significant differences between the two isolates on the susceptible barley line (S) but the isolates differ from each other on the resistant barley line

  6. Simultaneous Detection of Barley Virus Diseases in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Choon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV, Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV have been identified as an important causative agents for an economically important disease of winter barley in Korea. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR method was used for the simultaneous detection. Three sets of virus-specific primers targeted to the capsid protein coding genes of BaMMV, BaYMV and BYDV were used to amplify fragments that were 594 bp, 461 bp, and 290 bp, respectively. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by multiplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer concentrations and RT-PCR conditions were determined for the multiplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR assay was found to be a better and rapid virus diagnostic tool of specific barley diseases and potential for investigating the epidemiology of these viral diseases.

  7. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  8. Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

  9. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  10. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  11. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... play important role in substrate binding at subsites at −3 through −5. Although mutation increases the transglycosylation activity of enzymes, in the presence of acceptors the difference between wild type and mutants is not so significant. Oligomer transfer reactions of AMY1 wild type and its mutants...... as donor. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-α-d-maltoside, -maltotrioside, -maltotetraoside and -maltopentaoside have been synthesized. Products were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that AMY1 V47F preserved the stereo- and regioselectivity. The produced MU-α-d-MOSs of degree of polymerization...

  12. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  13. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  14. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  15. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan, the North-Western region (Kef and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%, Cap Bon (14% and Bizerte (35%, in randomly collected samples from these three locations.Among the different BYDVs identified, BYDV-PAV (64% was the most common followed by BYDV-MAV (16% and CYDV-RPV (3%. The coat protein gene sequences of six isolates collected from different regions shared >98% pairwise similarity. In comparisons with other BYDV sequences from around the world, the Tunisian sequences shared greatest homology with isolates 109 and ASL1 from the United States of America and Germany (≈97%, and <90% with all other isolate sequences available in public databases.

  16. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, A.Z.; Miranda, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN 3 , MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  17. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    In vitro cultures of zygotes and small embryos carry a lot of potential for studying plant embryogenesis and are also highly relevant for plant biotechnology. Several years ago we established an in vitro ovule culture technique for barley that allows the regeneration of plants from zygotes (Holm et...... culture ability in immature embryo culture i.e. Femina, Salome and Corniche. Barley spikes were emasculated and hand pollinated 3 days after emasculation. In barley, fertilization takes place one hour after pollination and ovules with fertilized egg cells could therefore be isolated one hour after...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  18. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  19. BIODIVERSITY OF NATIONAL SQUASH CULTIVAR ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Bukharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The squash is one of  the most  ancient plants, bearing numerous qualities. The squash gave high yield and is unpretentious plant, the fruit of which is long-stored and can be used as boiled, stewed, baked, fried product, and be added to bread, mush and pudding, and be prepared as puree, jam, candied fruit and other meals. Owing to useful characteristics the squash is a valuable source or raw  material for  food  canning  industry,  for  health-care and functional foodstuff production. Its best cultivar accessions contain to 30% of dry matter, to 12% of sugars  and  to  36%  of  carotene.  The  species  of  squash includes 4 subspecies and 20 varieties. One accession that came from Spain in 1937 served as an initial breeding accession for many other table cultivars for long time. For 80 years of national breeding program the many cultivars for  table  use have been released. There are the classic cultivars, such as ‘Mramornaya’, ‘Stolovaya Zimnaya’,  Gribovskaya Zimnaya’,  ‘Donskaya  Sladkaya’, ‘Michurinskaya’ that are selected or developed from first Spanish accession. This richness and originality of cultivar squash accessions should be carefully preserved. There are the new generation cultivars, such as ‘Kroshka’, ‘Malishka’,    ‘Rossiyanka’,    ‘Konfetka’,    ‘Moskvichka’, ‘Vnuchka’ and many others, which are short-tendrils and suitable for  modern  mechanized cultivation  technology. Moreover the development of new cultivars, bearing resistance to biotic and abiotic stress is the main goal of nearest breeding program.

  20. Environmental and transgene expression effects on the barley seed proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Steenholdt, T.; Noguera, O.R.

    2004-01-01

    analysis was used to describe the water-soluble protein fraction of Golden Promise seeds in comparison with the modern malting cultivar Barke. Using 2D-gel electrophoresis to visualise several hundred proteins in the pH ranges 4-7 and 6-11, 16 protein spots were found to differ between the two cultivars...

  1. Morphological, mechanical and antioxidant properties of Portuguese almond cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Ivo; Meyer, Anne S.; Afonso, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological (of fruit and kernel), mechanical (namely shell rupture force) and antioxidant properties (including phenolics and flavonoid content) of five Portuguese almond cultivars, comparing them with two commercial cultivars (Glorieta and Ferragnès). Of ...... high kernel weight, low percentages of double kernels or losses during shelling and considerable higher phenolics and flavonoids content may be considered by industry during selection of almond.......). Of the analyzed traits, nut and kernel dimensions varied substantially and were used to describe cultivars. However, some traditional cultivars recorded similar (Pegarinhos), or even higher (Amendoão, Casanova and Refêgo) nut and kernel weight than commercial cultivars. Furthermore, shelling percentage...... of traditional cultivar (Bonita) was higher than commercial cultivars. Rupture force necessary to break fruits of all traditional cultivars was higher than commercial ones, and was correlated to nut weight cultivars. The phenolics, flavonoids content and antioxidants were higher for Casanova. Parameters like...

  2. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  4. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil...... by solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  5. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...

  6. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  7. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Pozo Cardenas, M.; Gomez Pando, L.

    1984-01-01

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  8. Salt Tolerance of Six Switchgrass Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youping Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass cultivars (‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, ‘Kanlow’, ‘NL 94C2-3’, ‘NSL 2009-1’, and ‘NSL 2009-2’ were evaluated for salt tolerance in two separate greenhouse experiments. In experiment (Expt. 1, switchgrass seedlings were irrigated with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution (spiked with salts at an EC of 5.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5 or 10.0 dS·m−1 (EC 10 for four weeks, once a week. Treatment EC 10 reduced the tiller number by 32% to 37% for all switchgrass cultivars except ‘Kanlow’. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a significant reduction of 50% to 63% in dry weight. In Expt. 2, switchgrass was seeded in substrates moistened with either a nutrient solution of EC 1.2 dS·m−1 (control or a saline solution of EC of 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 dS·m−1 (EC 5, EC 10, or EC 20. Treatment EC 5 did not affect the seedling emergence, regardless of cultivar. Compared to the control, EC 10 reduced the seedling emergence of switchgrass ‘Alamo’, ‘Cimarron’, and ‘NL 94C2-3’ by 44%, 33%, and 82%, respectively. All switchgrass cultivars under EC 10 had a 46% to 88% reduction in the seedling emergence index except ‘NSL 2009-2’. No switchgrass seedlings emerged under EC 20. In summary, high salinity negatively affected switchgrass seedling emergence and growth. Dendrogram and cluster of six switchgrass cultivars indicated that ‘Alamo’ was the most tolerant cultivar, while ‘NSL 2009-2’ was the least tolerant cultivar at both seedling emergence and growth stages. A growth-stage dependent response to salinity was observed for the remaining switchgrass cultivars. ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘Cimarron’ and ‘Kanlow’ at the seedling emergence stage; however, ‘Kanlow’ and ‘Cimarron’ were more tolerant to salinity than ‘NSL 2009-1’ and ‘NL 94C2-3’ at the seedling growth

  9. POTENCIAL PRODUTIVO DE CULTIVARES DE MORANGUEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA GONÇALVES GUIMARÃES

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial produtivo de cultivares de morangueiro em região representativa do Alto Jequitinhonha. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Mape Frutas Ltda., localizada no município de Datas-MG, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com oito cultivares de morangueiro em quatro repetições, para verificar a produção de mudas e de frutos. A contagem da produção de estolões e de mudas foi realizada aos 180 dias após o plantio. A avaliação das variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos foi feita duas vezes por semana, no período de maio a outubro de 2012. Das cultivares de dias curtos (Festival, Campinas, Toyonoka, Dover, Oso Grande e Camarosa e dias neutros (Diamante e Aromas, apenas Toyonoka foi a que apresentou menor desempenho para as variáveis. A significativa superioridade das cultivares Camarosa e Festival, para praticamente todas as variáveis avaliadas, permite recomendá-las para regiões com características edafoclimáticas semelhantes às da região onde o experimento foi conduzido. Dentre as cultivares avaliadas, as mais precoces tenderam a apresentar maior desempenho para variáveis relacionadas à produção de frutos.

  10. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four...... homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  11. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  12. Molecular characterization of rye cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želmíra Balážová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 14.00 The results of molecular analysis of 45 rye taxa (Secale cereale L. represented by agricultural varieties originated from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 6 SSR markers was evaluated. Six specific microsatellite primer pairs produced 58 polymorphic alleles with an average of 9.7 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged from 6 (SCM2 to 14 (SCM86. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The diversity index (DI of SSR markers ranged from 0.5478 (SCM2 to 0.887 (SCM86 with an average of 0.778. The lowest value of polymorphic information content was recorded for SCM2 (0.484 and the highest value for SCM86 (0.885 of PIC was detected in SCM86 with an average of 0.760.The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on UPGMA algorithm. The hierarchical cluster analysis divided rye genotypes into 4 main clusters. The first cluster of 14 genotypes was subdivided in two subclusters (1a and 1b where 50% of genotypes were Czechoslovak origin. The second cluster contained four genotypes were three (75% of them had Czech or Czechoslovak origin. In the third subcluster separated three rye genotypes of different origin. The rest (24 of rye genotypes in the fourth cluster were divided into two subclusters (4a and 4b where clearly separated group of Polish (4aa and Czech and Czechoslovak (4ab genotypes. Two genotypes of 4aa subcluster (Wojcieszyckie and Dankowskie Nowe from Poland were genetically the closest. In the dendrogram alle genotypes were differentiated and clustering partially reflects geographic origin of studied rye genotypes. In this experiment, SSRs markers proved to be a high informative and usefull tool in genetic diversity research for the distinguishing and characterization of close related varieties. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  13. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a

  14. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  16. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated...

  17. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time...

  18. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  19. 108-110 Registration of Guta Barley (Hordeium vulgare L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adoption potential by the local farmers. Keywords: Guta; Barley (Hordeium vulgare L); Yield ... evaluated along with Aruso and Shage as the local and standard variety, respectively at altitudinal range of 2400- ... 6. Farmers Evaluation of the Variety. To evaluate the perception and preferences of the local farmers, farmers' ...

  20. Aspects of the barley seed proteome during development and germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Maeda, K.; Østergaard, O.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the water-soluble barley seed proteome has led to the identification of proteins by MS in the major spots on two-dimensional gels covering the pi ranges 4-7 and 6-11. This provides the basis for in-depth studies of proteome changes during seed development and germination, tissue...

  1. The proteomic analysis of barley albumins and globulins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovičková, Markéta; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s709-s711 ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : barley * albumins * globulins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  2. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  3. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  4. Spatial aggregation of pathotypes of barley powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hara, R.B.; Brown, J.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Aggregation in the distribution of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei, the barley powdery mildew pathogen, was investigated in field plots of 'Golden Promise', 'Proctor' and 'Tyra'. 'Golden Promise' and 'Proctor' have no effective mildew resistance alleles, whereas 'Tyra' has Mla1, which...

  5. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  6. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  7. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  8. Transcriptome of barley under three different heavy metal stress reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kintlová, Martina; Blavet, Nicolas; Cegan, R.; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, SEP (2017), s. 15-17 ISSN 2213-5960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plants * Barley * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal * Copper * Zinc * Cadmium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  9. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  11. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...

  12. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  13. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  14. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  15. Competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho

    OpenAIRE

    Balbinot Junior,Alvadi Antonio; Fleck,Nilson Gilberto; Menezes,Valmir Gaedke; Agostinetto,Dirceu

    2003-01-01

    Características morfológicas e fisiológicas de plantas cultivadas podem afetar sua habilidade competitiva com plantas daninhas. Este trabalho objetivou investigar a competitividade de cultivares de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) com cultivar simuladora de arroz-vermelho. Investigou-se na safra 2000/2001 o comportamento de oito genótipos de arroz, cultivados na presença ou ausência da cultivar de arroz EEA 406, que simulou infestação de arroz-vermelho. Aos 45 e aos 60 dias após a semeadura, ...

  16. Rapid identification of red-flesh loquat cultivars using EST-SSR markers based on manual cultivar identification diagram strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Xu, H X; Chen, J W

    2014-04-29

    Manual cultivar identification diagram is a new strategy for plant cultivar identification based on DNA markers, providing information to efficiently separate cultivars. We tested 25 pairs of apple EST-SSR primers for amplification of PCR products from loquat cultivars. These EST-SSR primers provided clear amplification products from the loquat cultivars, with a relatively high transferability rate of 84% to loquat; 11 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic products. After analysis of 24 red-fleshed loquat accessions, we found that only 7 pairs of primers could clearly separate all of them. A cultivar identification diagram of the 24 cultivars was constructed using polymorphic bands from the DNA fingerprints and EST-SSR primers. Any two of the 24 cultivars could be rapidly separated from each other, according to the polymorphic bands from the cultivars; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct position on the cultivar identification diagram. This red-flesh loquat cultivar identification diagram can separate the 24 red-flesh loquat cultivars, which is of benefit for loquat cultivar identification for germplasm management and breeding programs.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of trichothecene-induced gene expression in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Jayanand; Cho, Seungho; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2007-11-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Trichothecene mycotoxins produced by the fungus during infection increase the aggressiveness of the fungus and promote infection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Loss-of-function mutations in the TRI5 gene in F. graminearum result in the inability to synthesize trichothecenes and in reduced virulence on wheat. We examined the impact of pathogen-derived trichothecenes on virulence and the transcriptional differences in barley spikes infected with a trichothecene-producing wild-type strain and a loss-of-function tri5 trichothecene nonproducing mutant. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and floret necrosis and bleaching were reduced in spikes inoculated with the tri5 mutant strain compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that the inability to synthesize trichothecenes results in reduced virulence in barley. We detected 63 transcripts that were induced during trichothecene accumulation, including genes encoding putative trichothecene detoxification and transport proteins, ubiquitination-related proteins, programmed cell death-related proteins, transcription factors, and cytochrome P450s. We also detected 414 gene transcripts that were designated as basal defense response genes largely independent of trichothecene accumulation. Our results show that barley exhibits a specific response to trichothecene accumulation that can be separated from the basal defense response. We propose that barley responds to trichothecene accumulation by inducing at least two general responses. One response is the induction of genes encoding trichothecene detoxification and transport activities that may reduce the impact of trichothecenes. The other response is to induce genes encoding proteins associated with ubiquitination and cell death which may promote successful establishment of the disease.

  18. Molecular characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. accessions of the Serbian GeneBank by SSR fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurlan-Momirović Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diversity of 145 barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L. accessions from the Serbian GenBank was assessed by single sequence repeats (SSR markers. A set of 15 SSRs, covering all chromosomes of the diploid barley genome with 2-3 SSR markers per chromosome, with a range of 4-18 alleles per locus were used. In total, 15 loci and 119 alleles were detected, with an average of 7.93 alleles per locus. The Polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.220 to 0.782 with a mean value of 0.534. Regarding the growth habit and row type groups, gene diversity was comparatively higher for the spring (0.616 and six-rowed accessions (0.616 than for the winter and two- rowed accessions (0.322 and 0.478, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance showed that all sources of variation were significant (P < 0.01, but the between-group component was predominant (76.85% for growth habit and 89.45% for row type. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis based on the shared allele distance (DSA matrix estimated on the SSR data assigned the genotypes into two clusters - the first smaller consisting of the six 6-rowed spring cultivars and the second comprising six subclusters. Genotype MBR1012 was separated from all other genotypes that constitute UPGMA tree. The associations of genotypes belonging to different growth habit and row type groups were assessed using Principal Coordinate Analysis revealing separation of winter growth habit group from facultative one. The use of the STRUCTURE clustering algorithm allowed the identification of 2 subpopulations of genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31092

  19. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T 2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  1. Seed storage effects on germination for two forage kochia cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivar ‘Snowstorm’ forage kochia was released by the USDA-ARS in 2012. It is a synthetic cultivar selected for stature, forage production, and adaptation to semiarid environments. Similar to the earlier released (1984) ‘Immigrant’ cultivar it can increase rangeland productivity magnitudes when...

  2. Variation between cut chrysanthemum cultivars in response to suboptimal temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der A.; Kularathne, R.J.K.N.; Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2007-01-01

    To breed for more energy-efficient cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars it is important to know the variation of the temperature response existing in modern cultivars. In a greenhouse experiment with 25 chrysanthemum cultivars, a significant variation was observed in

  3. Secondary metabolism responses in two Pisum sativum L. cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cultivars were grown in the absence or presence of Fe with the addition of bicarbonate for twelve days. Higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids were observed in Fe-deficient tissues of both cultivars; however, the increase was greater in the tolerant cultivar than in the susceptible one. The activity of shikimate ...

  4. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this research confirmed AFLP and SSR to be useful tools in genetic relationships among olive cultivars, in creating a molecular database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Keywords: Olea europaea, genetic diversity, amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

  5. Milk production potential of two ryegrass cultivars with different total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare a new Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cultivar (Enhancer), bred to contain a high total non-structural carbohydrate content, with the cultivar, Dargle, in terms of dry matter (DM) production, nutritional value, carrying capacity and milk production. The ryegrass cultivars were sown (25 ...

  6. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars List 46. Rambutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties 46 is a compilation of descriptions of new fruit and nut cultivars from around the world. In this edition, 8 newly released rambutan cultivars are described in terms of their origins, important fruit traits and yield. Of the eight described cultivars, one ...

  7. Stem rust seedling resistance genes in Ethiopian wheat cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty durum wheat (19 commercial cultivars and 11 breeding lines) and 30 bread wheat (20 commercial cultivars and 10 breeding lines) were tested for gene postulation. Stem rust infection types produced on wheat cultivars and breeding lines by ten Pgt races was compared with infection types produced on 40 near ...

  8. Methylobacterium Species Promoting Rice and Barley Growth and Interaction Specificity Revealed with Whole-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tani

    Full Text Available Methylobacterium species frequently inhabit plant surfaces and are able to utilize the methanol emitted from plants as carbon and energy sources. As some of the Methylobacterium species are known to promote plant growth, significant attention has been paid to the mechanism of growth promotion and the specificity of plant-microbe interactions. By screening our Methylobacterium isolate collection for the high growth promotion effect in vitro, we selected some candidates for field and pot growth tests for rice and barley, respectively. We found that inoculation resulted in better ripening of rice seeds, and increased the size of barley grains but not the total yield. In addition, using whole-cell matrix-assister laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, we identified and classified Methylobacterium isolates from Methylobacterium-inoculated rice plants. The inoculated species could not be recovered from the rice plants, and in some cases, the Methylobacterium community structure was affected by the inoculation, but not with predomination of the inoculated species. The isolates from non-inoculated barley of various cultivars grown in the same field fell into just two species. These results suggest that there is a strong selection pressure at the species level of Methylobacterium residing on a given plant species, and that selection of appropriate species that can persist on the plant is important to achieve growth promotion.

  9. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Raboy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yield in lines homozygous for each of six barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lpa mutations that greatly differ in their seed phytic acid levels. Performance comparisons were between sibling wild-type and mutant lines obtained following backcrossing, and across two years in five Idaho (USA locations that greatly differ in crop yield potential. We found that one lpa mutation (Hvlpa1-1 had no detectable effect on yield and a second (Hvlpa4-1 resulted in yield losses of only 3.5%, across all locations. When comparing yields in three relatively non-stressful production environments, at least three lpa mutations (Hvlpa1-1, Hvlpa3-1, and Hvlpa4-1 typically had yields similar to or within 5% of the wild-type sibling isoline. Therefore in the case of barley, lpa mutations can be readily identified that when simply incorporated into a cultivar result in adequately performing lines, even with no additional breeding for performance within the lpa line. In conclusion, while some barley lpa mutations do impact field performance, a substantial fraction appears to have little or no effect on yield.

  10. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  11. Micropropagation of peach rootstocks and cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Ildikó; Mansvelt, Lucienne

    2013-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most popular stone fruits, commercially produced largely in Mediterranean and, to a lesser extent, in continental climatic conditions. Several breeding programs with different aims release annually large numbers of new cultivars. Micropropagation offers a suitable method to provide the growers of sufficient quantities of rootstocks, as well as of pathogen-free planting material of old and new cultivars.An effective four-step micropropagation procedure for cultivar and rootstock production is described here, based on the use of modified MS and WPM media. The health status of the initial shoot tips is very important, also because the growth and proliferation rate of shoot cultures from virus-infected clones are generally very poor. Proliferation and elongation phases depend on the major macro-elements, as well as the content and ratio of plant growth regulators. It is important to grow the cultures at 22°C, as hyperhydricity may develop at higher temperatures. Although sucrose is the most common carbon source used during proliferation and rooting, for some peach cultivars and rootstocks the replacement of sucrose (10 g/L) with glucose (20 g/L) in the rooting medium improves the rooting and survival rates of plants in the acclimatization phase. The rooting rate of the rootstock "Cadaman" is improved with the chelated form of iron FeEDDHA at 150 mg/L. Rooted plants are acclimatized in greenhouse under high humidity conditions.

  12. Growth and development in Achimenes cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlahos, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Achimenes is a herbaceous perennial of the Gesneriaceae family. Its origin is Central and South America. It has been cultivated as a pot plant since the Victorian era. Extensive hybridization has produced many attractive cultivars which have been Introduced in

  13. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  14. Unfolding the potential of wheat cultivar mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, J.; Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Lecarpentier, C.

    2018-01-01

    and they are not encouraged by advisory services. Based on the methodology developed by Kiær et al. (2009), we achieved a meta-analysis of cultivar mixtures in wheat. Among the 120 publications dedicated to wheat, we selected 32 studies to analyze various factors that may condition the success or failure of wheat mixtures...

  15. (EAHB-AAA) cultivars to drought stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Banana (Musa spp.) yields are estimated at 5-30 t ha-1yr-1, lower than the potential 60 t ha-1yr-1, with the cause being drought stress. Much evidence among stakeholders shows little understanding about banana cultivar sensitivity, escape and avoidance mechanisms to drought due to un-attempted measures of retaining ...

  16. susceptibility of some kersting's groundnut landrace cultivars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT: Seeds of five different landrace cultivars of Kersting's groundnut, Macrotyloma geocarpum. (Harms) Marechal and Baudet, obtained from northern Ghana, were evaluated for their suscep- tibility to infestation and damage by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. The com- pletely randomized design ...

  17. Bloemverdroging: Cultivars met vroege bloemaanleg koeler bewaren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van M.F.N.

    2013-01-01

    Uitval in de tulpenbroeierij door bloemverdroging kwam de afgelopen jaren veel meer voor dan daarvoor. Reden voor PPO om na te gaan wat hiervan de oorzaak zou kunnen zijn. In dit artikel legt onderzoeker Martin van Dam uit dat vooral in warme lentes bij vroege cultivars de kans op bloemverdroging

  18. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere. In general, P fertilization has low efficiency, as only a fraction of the applied P is acquired by roots, leaving a substantial amount to be accumulated in soil as not readily available P. Breeding for P-efficient cultivars is a relatively low cost alternative and can be done through two mechanisms: i) improving P use efficiency (PUE), and/or ii) P acquisition efficiency (PAE). PUE is related to the internal allocation/mobilization of P, and is usually represented by the amount of P accumulated per biomass. PAE relies on roots ability to acquire P from the soil, and is commonly expressed as the relative difference of P acquired under low and high P availability conditions. In this review, plant adaptations related to improved PAE are described, with emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is generally accepted to enhance plant P acquisition. A state of the art (1980–2018) of AM growth responses and P uptake in wheat and barley is made to discuss about the commonly accepted growth promoting effect and P increased uptake by AM fungi and the contrasting evidence about the generally accepted lack of positive responses in both plant species. Finally, the mechanisms by which AM symbiosis can affect wheat and barley PAE are discussed, highlighting the importance of considering AM functional diversity on future studies and the necessity to improve PAE definition by considering the carbon trading between

  19. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability for selection. .... cultivar Clipper applied in slots of the first two, the tenth, and the last ... solution (50 ml glacial acetic acid, 200 ml methanol and 250 ml distilled water) ...... Adelaide, South.

  20. Variations in cadmium accumulation among Chinese cabbage cultivars and screening for Cd-safe cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weitao; Zhou Qixing; An Jing; Sun Yuebing; Liu Rui

    2010-01-01

    Variations in cadmium accumulation and translocation among 40 Chinese cabbage cultivars were studied to identify and screen out Cd-safe cultivars (CSCs), i.e. cultivars with low enough accumulation of Cd in their edible parts even when grown in contaminated soils. It was observed in the pot-culture experiment that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in shoot Cd concentrations under three Cd treatments (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg), with corresponding average values 0.88, 4.45 and 7.76 mg/kg, respectively. Shoot Cd concentrations in 16 cabbage cultivars were lower than 0.50 mg/kg. The translocation factors (TFs) and the extraction factors (EFs) in five cabbage cultivars were lower than 1.0 in the pot-culture experiment. The field-culture experiment further validated that New Beijing 3 and Fengyuanxin 3 could be considered as CSCs. In particular, the two cultivars can be cultivated in low to moderate Cd-contaminated soils (Cd concentration <1.25 mg/kg) to minimize the Cd accumulation in the food.

  1. CULTIVAR RELEASE - BRSMG União: common bean cultivar with jalo grain for the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The bean cultivar BRSMG União as a new option of a bean cultivar with jalo grains for the state of Minas Gerais. The cultivar BRSMG União had an average grain yield of 9.8% above the mean of the controls (Jalo EEP 558 and BRS Radiante and was resistant to powdery-mildew.

  2. RADISH CULTIVARS BRED AT VNIISSOK AND THEIR USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the base of comparative assessment and average data estimation from 2010 to 2015, the characteristics of 11 cultivars bred at VNIISSOK were described regarding yield capacity and its components, variation, interdependencies at two sowing terms winter,spring time, direction of selection and cultivar uses at cultivar maintaining breeding program. Cultivar 'Koroleva Margo' is rather used in breeding program for yield capacity and taste qualities. Cultivar 'Sonata' is a source of such features as early maturity, valuable biochemical content and low nitrate accumulation. Cultivar 'Sofit' is known to bear early maturity and simultaneous seed maturation. 'Ariya' is a source of cylindrical root shape and early maturation. Cultivar 'Teplichnyi Gribovskyi' is used in breeding program for early maturation and simultaneous seed maturation. Cultivar 'Feya' bearsresistance to bolting and valuable biochemical substances. Cultivar 'Variant' has such features as root density, ability to grow under low lighting, short-term storability.  Purple-red with white tips is a newmade cultivar 'Mavr' suitable for breeding program for valuable biochemical content, unusual root color, also bearing male sterile forms (MS for heterosis hybrid breeding. Out of all cultivars regarded, 'Mokhovskiy' is only a genetic source to breed radish forms with edible leaves. The positive weak dependence was revealed between cultivar biochemical characteristics, root weight, dry matter  content, and nitrate content; whereas the positive middle dependence is revealed with sugar contents and negative dependence with ascorbic acid content. According to  iochemical characteristics, the best cultivar population as 'Ariya', 'Sonata' (ascorbic acid; Mavr, Sonata, Variant (dry matter, sugars have been chosen. Cultivars 'Koroleva Margo', Pheya, Sonata, Sophit, Mokhovskiy are the initial breeding accessions for selection of new cultivar population, MS and MF lines needed for heterosis.

  3. Analysis of enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae using whole barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Susumu; Kikuchi, Kaori; Matsumoto, Yuko; Sugimoto, Toshikazu; Shoji, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Masayuki

    2009-10-01

    We have reported on high enzyme production by submerged culture of Aspergillus kawachii using barley with the husk (whole barley). To elucidate the mechanism underlying this high enzyme production, we performed a detailed analysis. Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was submerged-cultured using whole barley and milled whole barley. Enzyme production was analyzed in terms of changes in medium components and gene expression levels. When whole barley was used, high production of glucoamylase and alpha-amylase and high gene expression levels of these enzymes were observed. Low ammonium concentrations were maintained with nitrate ion uptake continuing into the late stage using whole barley. These findings suggest that the sustainability of nitrogen metabolism is related to high enzyme production, and that a mechanism other than that associated with the conventional amylase expression system is involved in this relationship.

  4. Population structure and genotype-phenotype associations in a collection of oat landraces and historic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Rosemarie Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L. remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent; with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae resistance, days to anthesis and growth habit (winter/spring. In addition, two novel loci were

  5. Remoción de nutrientes por cebada en seis suelos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá - Colombia Nutrient uptake by barley in six Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amézquita Edgar

    1993-12-01

    soil productivity tolerant cultivars. To arrive at appropiate recommendations for farmers, it was consider the quantity of removal nutrients at physiological maturity. The 124 commercial barley preferred moderately fertil soils but with a lower nutritional efficiency after a commercial cultivar wheat. Its nutritional requirements to reach a 2.5 t/ha yield without irrigation was: Macronutrientes (kg/ha: 30 N, 8 P, 24 K, 8 Ca, 2.5 Mg; Micronutrients (g/ha: 140 Mn, 40 Zn, 24 Cu, 340 Fe. For many new barley cultivars sowed over ondulating terrains, the highest nutritional efficiency was in a Vertic Tropudalf, moderately behavoir in the Paralithic Humitropept and the lowest in an Ustic Dystropept. There were two cultivars with low adaptation, only one grow well in a difficult terrain and three cultivars exhibit good adaptation in all studied terrains.

  6. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B. Soheili; M. Minbashi; D. Hasanpanah; N. Razmi

    2013-01-01

    Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005), 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude,...

  7. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  8. Non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulations in BR-deficient and BR-insensitive barley mutants under control and drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Fodor, Jozsef

    2017-12-07

    Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions. The plant material included the 'Bowman' cultivar and a group of semi-dwarf near-isogenic lines (NILs), representing mutants deficient in BR biosynthesis or signaling. In general, accumulations of 11 compounds representing various types of non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed under both conditions. The analyses of accumulations of reduced and oxidized forms of ascorbate indicated that the BR mutants contain significantly higher contents of dehydroascorbic acid under drought conditions when compared with the 'Bowman' cultivar. The analysis of glutathione accumulation indicated that under the control conditions the BR-insensitive NILs contained significantly lower concentrations of this antioxidant when compared with the rest of genotypes. Therefore, we postulate that BR sensitivity is required for normal accumulation of glutathione. A complete accumulation profile of various tocopherols indicated that functional BR biosynthesis and signaling are required for their normal accumulation under both conditions. Results of this study provided an insight into the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of the non-enzymatic antioxidant homeostasis. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  9. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  10. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  11. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  12. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially...... of chloroplasts is summarised. Rubisco is thought to be released from chloroplasts into vesicles containing stroma material (RCB = Rubisco-containing bodies). These vesicles may then take different routes for their degradation. Transcriptome analyses on barley and wheat senescence have identified genes involved...... in degradative, metabolic and regulatory processes that could be used in future strategies aimed at modifying the senescence process. The breeding of crops for characters related to senescence processes, e.g. higher yields and better nutrient use efficiency, is complex. Such breeding has to cope with the dilemma...

  13. In vitro biochemical characterization of all barley endosperm starch synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuesta-Seijo, Jose A.; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ruzanski, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs). While the overall starch synthase (SS) reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS....... Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results...... define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis...

  14. Methods of scoring induced chromosome structural changes in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoleff, H.; Gecheff, K.

    1976-01-01

    In barley, a material widely used in mutation and chromosomal aberration studies, the method most frequently used for scoring induced chromosomal changes is still anaphase analysis. In this paper, data obtained after treatment of barley with gamma-rays and ethyleneimine (EI) and comparative scoring of aberrations in metaphase and anaphase are reported and discussed. It is evident that the metaphase aberrations induced by gamma-rays and ethyleneimine, due probably to their specific location, showed a differential manifestation during anaphase. Thus, after treatment with ethyleneimine a great portion of the induced aberrations, being located preferentially at the centromere regions, gave no scorable bridges, and an apparent excess of fragments was observed at anaphase. After gamma-irradiation the differences between metaphase and anaphase scoring were mainly due to a large portion of fragments escaping detection

  15. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  16. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H.; Ha, P.T.L.; Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10 5 to ca. 6 x 10 3 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62 Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  17. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  18. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  19. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  20. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  1. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  2. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  3. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.

  4. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  5. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'yangpi NO.3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jianhua; Zhang Rong

    2009-01-01

    'Yangpi No 3' is a spring and two-rowed new malting barley variety. It was selected by the radiation-induced mutations. Its yield was about 6750 kg/hm 2 and the maturity was slightly later. The variety is with good agronomic traits, strong resistance, top quality and planted mainly in Huainan of Jiangsu Province. It had been qualified by Crop Variety Evaluation Committee of Jiangsu Province in Feb, 2009(200901). (authors)

  6. An immunity-triggering effector from the Barley smut fungus Ustilago hordei resides in an Ustilaginaceae-specific cluster bearing signs of transposable element-assisted evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE, interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity

  7. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  8. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2014-07-03

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  9. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Laurie, John D.; Linning, Rob; Cervantes-Chá vez, José Antonio; Gaudet, Denis; Bakkeren, Guus

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  11. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Films based on oxidized starch and cellulose from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Deon, Vinícius Gonçalves; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Villanova, Franciene Almeida; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-11-20

    Starch and cellulose fibers were isolated from grains and the husk from barley, respectively. Biodegradable films of native starch or oxidized starches and glycerol with different concentrations of cellulose fibers (0%, 10% and 20%) were prepared. The films were characterized by morphological, mechanical, barrier, and thermal properties. Cellulose fibers isolated from the barley husk were obtained with 75% purity and high crystallinity. The morphology of the films of the oxidized starches, regardless of the fiber addition, was more homogeneous as compared to the film of the native starch. The addition of cellulose fibers in the films increased the tensile strength and decreased elongation. The water vapor permeability of the film of oxidized starch with 20% of cellulose fibers was lower than the without fibers. However the films with cellulose fibers had the highest decomposition with the initial temperature and thermal stability. The oxidized starch and cellulose fibers from barley have a good potential for use in packaging. The addition of cellulose fibers in starch films can contribute to the development of films more resistant that can be applied in food systems to maintain its integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New NS varieties of six-rowed winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the characteristics of several new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley released in Serbia between 2004 and 2007. These are Somborac, Ozren, Javor, Novosadski 773, Sremac and Leotar. In the official variety trials in the country, all six of these varieties outyielded the check variety, and the margins were as follows: Somborac - 3.4%, Ozren - 5.0%, Javor - 7.3%, Novosadski 773 - 3.4%, Sremac - 7.4%, and Leotar - 7.2%. Yield levels in absolute terms depended on the variety as well as year. All six-rowed NS varieties headed earlier than the check and had better resistance to lodging than the check has. The test weight of the new varieties was 70.2-73.8 kg/hl and the 1000-grain weight 33.4-50.2 g. The cellulose content was 4.4-4.8%, the fat content 1.4%, and the protein content 13.3-14.6%. The high variability of the new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley makes it possible to choose the most suitable genotype for each barley-growing area in the country. .

  14. Yield improvement in barley by using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, Ibrahim Mohammed

    1990-01-01

    Breeding work for barley improvement in Libya is very rare. All varieties grown here are foreign varieties. Yield per hectare is low compared with other countries having similar climatic conditions. Productivity, lodging, disease resistance, drought and salt tolerance are the main characteristics that need to be improved. A mutation breeding programme for barley improvement was initiated at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in 1983-1984. The objectives of this programme are the development of new lines that could be used directly or indirectly in the development of new varieties. The locally adapted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety ''California Mariout'' was used as a parent material. Grains with 14% moisture were exposed to 200 Gy gamma-ray from 60 Co source at the Centre. Three experiments were conducted during 1986-1989. From the first experiment (1986-1987), 62 mutant lines were evaluated. From the second and third experiments (1987-1989), only seven mutant lines were evaluated. In the 1988-1989 experiment, the crop was irrigated and fertilised with 0, 100 and 200 kgN/ha. Lodging score was low in 0 kgN/ha and increased significantly by the increase in N level. None of the mutant lines more lodging resistant than the parent or the control. However, yield differences were significant and the application of 100 kgN/ha increased the grain yield

  15. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  16. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K. Kirschner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare. Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  17. Proteomic analysis of barley response during early spot blotch infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Daoude, A.; Jawhar, M.; Shoaib, A.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2015-01-01

    Spot blotch (SB), caused by the fungus Cochliobolus sativus, is a common foliar disease of barley worldwide, but little is known about the host response to infection at the protein level. In this study, a systematic shotgun proteomics approach was chosen to document the early barley response to C. sativus infection. Overall, 28 protein spots were consistently observed as differential in the proteome profiles of the challenged and unchallenged plants. After tryptic digestion, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and MASCOT database searching identified proteins associated with the defense response including resistance proteins, putative hydrolase, proteinase, kinase and general metabolism and transport proteins. These afford important functions in host resistance and pathogen's inhibition in plants. One of the identified products is a putative NBS-LRR protein which is considered one of the major plant disease resistance proteins identified to date. This work indicates that, in combination with functional genomics, response of barley to challenge by C. sativus involved the recruitment of proteins from various defense pathways.(author)

  18. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, S.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.; Stokes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  19. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  20. Genetic fingerprinting of mutant rose cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Prasad, K V; Singh, K P; Singh, A.P. [Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: kvprasad66@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Six rose mutants evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi from four parent cultivars were characterized based on RAPD markers. Contrary to the earlier findings our effort has conclusively proven that the RAPD markers are indeed robust tools to discern the mutants from their parents. Among 40 primers screened, 7 primers produced inconsistent banding pattern. The number of polymorphic bands varied between 4 (OPA 14) and 10 (OPA1) with an average of 6.5 bands per primer. The percentage polymorphism ranged from 62.5 (OPM 9) to 100 percent (OPA 1). Most of the primers produced monomorphic bands between parent and mutant rose cultivars. When primer OPA 2 was used a specific band of 2.5 kb was noticed in mutant cv. Pusa Urmil and cv. Pusa Abhishek but was absent in parent cv. Jantar Mantar. A polymorphic band of 750 bp was noticed in the parent Kiss of Fire and helped in differentiating the parent from its mutant when amplified with OPK 3. Primer OPS 16 produced discriminatory band of 800 bp in mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma while it was absent in its parent cv. Montezuma. Another specific band of 650 bp was present in parent cv. Montezuma and absent in its mutant cv. Pink Sport of Montezuma signifying the uniqueness of the mutant. Primer OPM 5 brought out distinct polymorphism among the parent Jantar Mantar and its three mutants with absence of a specific band of 1.5 kb in the parent. The four parents and 6 mutants were divided into four distinct groups in the Dendogram constructed by UPGMA method. The most genetically similar cultivar among the 10 cultivars analyzed are Montezuma and its pink sport of Montezuma whereas Abhisarika a mutant of cv. Kiss of Fire was distinctly different and formed a separate cluster. (author)

  1. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  2. Apple cultivars resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke. Aderh. Part II. Winterhardiness of apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Borecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The severe winter which occurred in Poland in 1986-1987 damaged the most part of scab resistant apple cultivars and selected apple hybrids. Cold hardiness studied in 1987 and 1988 showed significant differences in degree of frost injury on stem, branches, twigs and buds of apple trees. Two scab-resistance cultivars, namely Florina and Sir Prize, as well as two check culuvars, Idared and Golden Delicious, were killed by frost. Strong damages were noted in cultivars: Prima, Primula, and Priam. Lower susceptibility showed: Jonafree, Gavin, Liberty Sister and three hybrids selected from crosses of Bankroft with scab-resistant Primula. Relatively frost resistant was Novamac and three hybrids of U-breeding line: U-1101 and U-50, originated from crosses of polish culrivar Fantazja (McIntosh x Linda with Primula, Highest resistance to frost showed cultivars: Freedom. Liberty. new polish cultivar Witos (Fantazja x Primula and three hybrids: U-337, U-237 and U-1098. During the 1987 and 1988 seasons severe infection of apple trees by numerous fungi was noted. Twelve species of isolated fungi were identified as pathogens of apple trees bark and wood.

  3. Epistatic association mapping in homozygous crop cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Lü

    Full Text Available The genetic dissection of complex traits plays a crucial role in crop breeding. However, genetic analysis and crop breeding have heretofore been performed separately. In this study, we designed a new approach that integrates epistatic association analysis in crop cultivars with breeding by design. First, we proposed an epistatic association mapping (EAM approach in homozygous crop cultivars. The phenotypic values of complex traits, along with molecular marker information, were used to perform EAM. In our EAM, all the main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs, environmental effects, QTL-by-environment interactions and QTL-by-QTL interactions were included in a full model and estimated by empirical Bayes approach. A series of Monte Carlo simulations was performed to confirm the reliability of the new method. Next, the information from all detected QTLs was used to mine novel alleles for each locus and to design elite cross combination. Finally, the new approach was adopted to dissect the genetic basis of seed length in 215 soybean cultivars obtained, by stratified random sampling, from 6 geographic ecotypes in China. As a result, 19 main-effect QTLs and 3 epistatic QTLs were identified, more than 10 novel alleles were mined and 3 elite parental combinations, such as Daqingdou and Zhengzhou790034, were predicted.

  4. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  5. Transcriptome reprogramming due to the introduction of a barley telosome into bread wheat affects more barley genes than wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Elodie; Abrouk, Michael; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Balzergue, Sandrine; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Brunaud, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Endo, Takashi R; Bartoš, Jan; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2018-03-06

    Despite a long history, the production of useful alien introgression lines in wheat remains difficult mainly due to linkage drag and incomplete genetic compensation. In addition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of foreign chromatin on plant phenotype. Here, a comparison of the transcriptomes of barley, wheat and a wheat-barley 7HL addition line allowed the transcriptional impact both on 7HL genes of a non-native genetic background and on the wheat gene complement as a result of the presence of 7HL to be assessed. Some 42% (389/923) of the 7HL genes assayed were differentially transcribed, which was the case for only 3% (960/35 301) of the wheat gene complement. The absence of any transcript in the addition line of a suite of chromosome 7A genes implied the presence of a 36 Mbp deletion at the distal end of the 7AL arm; this deletion was found to be in common across the full set of Chinese Spring/Betzes barley addition lines. The remaining differentially transcribed wheat genes were distributed across the whole genome. The up-regulated barley genes were mostly located in the proximal part of the 7HL arm, while the down-regulated ones were concentrated in the distal part; as a result, genes encoding basal cellular functions tended to be transcribed, while those encoding specific functions were suppressed. An insight has been gained into gene transcription in an alien introgression line, thereby providing a basis for understanding the interactions between wheat and exotic genes in introgression materials. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  7. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution.

  8. Cell-Based Phenotyping Reveals QTL for Membrane Potential Maintenance Associated with Hypoxia and Salinity Stress Tolerance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Gill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell’s ability to maintain membrane potential (MP is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring this trait. In this study, the microelectrode MIFE technique was used to measure the plasma membrane potential of epidermal root cells of 150 double haploid (DH lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. from a cross between a Chinese landrace TX9425 and Japanese malting cultivar Naso Nijo under hypoxic conditions. A major QTL for the MP in the epidermal root cells in hypoxia-exposed plants was identified. This QTL was located on 2H, at a similar position to the QTL for waterlogging and salinity tolerance reported in previous studies. Further analysis confirmed that MP showed a significant contribution to both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. The fact that the QTL for MP was controlled by a single major QTL illustrates the power of the single-cell phenotyping approach and opens prospects for fine mapping this QTL and thus being more effective in marker assisted selection.

  9. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Post-head-emergence frost in wheat and barley: defining the problem, assessing the damage, and identifying resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiks, T M; Christopher, J T; Sutherland, M W; Borrell, A K

    2015-06-01

    Radiant frost is a significant production constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), particularly in regions where spring-habit cereals are grown through winter, maturing in spring. However, damage to winter-habit cereals in reproductive stages is also reported. Crops are particularly susceptible to frost once awns or spikes emerge from the protection of the flag leaf sheath. Post-head-emergence frost (PHEF) is a problem distinct from other cold-mediated production constraints. To date, useful increased PHEF resistance in cereals has not been identified. Given the renewed interest in reproductive frost damage in cereals, it is timely to review the problem. Here we update the extent and impacts of PHEF and document current management options to combat this challenge. We clarify terminology useful for discussing PHEF in relation to chilling and other freezing stresses. We discuss problems characterizing radiant frost, the environmental conditions leading to PHEF damage, and the effects of frost at different growth stages. PHEF resistant cultivars would be highly desirable, to both reduce the incidence of direct frost damage and to allow the timing of crop maturity to be managed to maximize yield potential. A framework of potential adaptation mechanisms is outlined. Clarification of these critical issues will sharpen research focus, improving opportunities to identify genetic sources for improved PHEF resistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars and screening for pollution-safe cultivars of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Junli; Fang, Wei; Yuan, Jiangang; Yang, Zhongyi

    2006-11-01

    Large areas of contaminated land are being used for agricultural production in some countries due to the high demand for food. To minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain through consumption of agricultural products, we propose the concept of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs), i.e. cultivars whose edible parts accumulate a specific pollutant at a level low enough for safe consumption, even when grown in contaminated soil. We tested the feasibility of the PSC concept by growing 43 cultivars of paddy rice (Oryza sativa L., including 20 normal and 23 hybrid cultivars) under a high (75.69-77.55 mg kg(-1)) and a low (1.75-1.85 mg kg(-1)) cadmium (Cd) exposure. These pot experiments took place in the spring and summer of 2004. At the low level of Cd exposure, 30 out of the 43 tested cultivars were found to be Cd-PSCs. Grain Cd concentrations were highly correlated (price grain is genotype-dependent and that the selection of PSCs is possible, at least at a certain level of soil contamination. No Cd-PSCs were found under the high level of Cd exposure. Yield was enhanced in some cultivars and depressed in others in response to elevated soil Cd, indicating that farmers cannot rely on yield depression as an indicator of toxicity of the grains. It is therefore important and feasible to screen for PSCs and to establish PSC breeding programs to effectively and efficiently reduce the risk of human exposure to soil pollutants, such as Cd, through crop consumption.

  12. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... barley marketing and define U.S. barley quality in the domestic and global marketplace. The standards define commonly used industry terms; contain basic principles governing the application of standards... standards using approved methodologies and can be applied at any point in the marketing chain. Furthermore...

  13. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  14. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  16. Ingestible roasted barley for contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging in animal and human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Depeng; Lee, Dong Hyeun; Huang, Haoyuan; Vu, Tri; Lim, Rachel Su Ann; Nyayapathi, Nikhila; Chitgupi, Upendra; Liu, Maggie; Geng, Jumin; Xia, Jun; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2018-08-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging imaging modality. While many contrast agents have been developed for PACT, these typically cannot immediately be used in humans due to the lengthy regulatory process. We screened two hundred types of ingestible foodstuff samples for photoacoustic contrast with 1064 nm pulse laser excitation, and identified roasted barley as a promising candidate. Twenty brands of roasted barley were further screened to identify the one with the strongest contrast, presumably based on complex chemical modifications incurred during the roasting process. Individual roasted barley particles could be detected through 3.5 cm of chicken-breast tissue and through the whole hand of healthy human volunteers. With PACT, but not ultrasound imaging, a single grain of roasted barley was detected in a field of hundreds of non-roasted particles. Upon oral administration, roasted barley enabled imaging of the gut and peristalsis in mice. Prepared roasted barley tea could be detected through 2.5 cm chicken breast tissue. When barley tea was administered to humans, photoacoustic imaging visualized swallowing dynamics in healthy volunteers. Thus, roasted barley represents an edible foodstuff that should be considered for photoacoustic contrast imaging of swallowing and gut processes, with immediate potential for clinical translation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    . In conclusion, a comprehensive database on chemical composition and SID of CP and AA in eight current barley genotypes has been made available. However, as present SID values are lower compared to feed tables, adjustments are required to minimize the risk of overestimating the actual protein value of barley...

  18. Effect of pulsed electric field on the germination of barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dymek, Katarzyna; Dejmek, Petr; Panarese, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores metabolic responses of germinating barley seeds upon the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Malting barley seeds were steeped in aerated water for 24 h and PEF-treated at varying voltages (0 (control), 110, 160, 240, 320, 400 and 480 V). The seeds were then allowed...

  19. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  20. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  1. Transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transfo...

  2. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  3. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble

  4. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    -MAR from petunia revealed that only the P1-MAR had specific binding affinity for barley nuclear matrices. The barley transformation frequency with the uidA reporter gene was increased 2-fold when the gene was flanked with either the P1-MAR or TBS-MAR, while the gene copy number was strongly reduced...

  5. High-resolution mapping of the barley Ryd3 locus controlling tolerance to BYDV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüpken, T.; Stein, N.; Perovic, D.; Habekuss, A.; Serfling, A.; Krämer, I.; Hähnel, U.; Steuernagel, B.; Scholz, U.; Ariyadasa, R.; Martis, M.; Mayer, K.; Niks, R.E.; Collins, N.C.; Friedt, W.; Ordon, F.

    2014-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf disease (BYD) is transmitted by aphids and is caused by different strains of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). Economically it is one of the most important diseases of cereals worldwide. Besides chemical control of the vector, growing of

  6. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  7. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    (2003) reported that about 65% of grain yield variability in barley was attributed to ... of those of the respective non-stressed environments (Cantero-Martínez et ... production stability of barley (Fekadu and Skjelvåg, 2002) and nitrogen and phosphorus are .... of SAS version 9.1 for analysis of variance of non-orthogonal data.

  8. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  9. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soheili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005, 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude, latitude and altitude were recorded by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS. Results showed that Galium tricurnatum, Fumaria vaillantiand Raphanus raphanistrum were dominante broadleaf species in irrigated barley fields of Ardabil province. The dominant grassy weed species in these fields were Avena fatua and Secale cereal. Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense were the most important troublesome plants prior to harvesting in irrigated barley fields of this province.

  10. Targeted modification of storage protein content resulting in improved amino acid composition of barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikdar, Md. Shafiqul Islam; Bowra, S; Schmidt, Daiana

    2016-01-01

    family members. Analysis of the AA composition of the transgenic lines showed that the level of essential amino acids increased with a concomitant reduction in proline and glutamine. Both the barley C-hordein and wheat ω-gliadin genes proved successful for RNAi-gene mediated suppression of barley C......C-hordein in barley and ω-gliadins in wheat are members of the prolamins protein families. Prolamins are the major component of cereal storage proteins and composed of non-essential amino acids (AA) such as proline and glutamine therefore have low nutritional value. Using double stranded RNAi...... silencing technology directed towards C-hordein we obtained transgenic barley lines with up to 94.7 % reduction in the levels of C-hordein protein relative to the parental line. The composition of the prolamin fraction of the barley parental line cv. Golden Promise was resolved using SDS...

  11. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  12. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of process parameters on the properties of barley containing snacks enriched with brewer's spent grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjoranta, Satu; Tenkanen, Maija; Jouppila, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG), a by-product of malting of barley in the production of malt extract, was used as an ingredient in extruded barley-based snacks in order to improve the nutritional value of the snacks and widen the applications of this by-product in food sector. The effects of the extrusion parameters on the selected properties of the snacks were studied. Snacks with different ingredients including whole grain barley flour, BSG, whey protein isolate (WPI), barley starch and waxy corn starch were produced in 5 separate trials using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Extrusion parameters were water content of the mass (17-23 %), screw speed (200-500 rpm) and temperature of the last section and die (110-150 °C). Expansion, hardness and water content of the snacks were determined. Snacks containing barley flour and BSG (10 % of solids) had small expansion and high hardness. Addition of WPI (20 % of solids) increased expansion only slightly. Snacks with high expansion and small hardness were obtained when part of the barley flour was replaced with starch (barley or waxy corn). Yet, the highest expansion and the smallest hardness were achieved when barley flour was used with barley starch and WPI without BSG. Furthermore, expansion increased by increasing screw speed and decreasing water content of the mass in most of the trials. This study showed that BSG is a suitable material for extruded snacks rich in dietary fiber. Physical properties of the snacks could be improved by using barley or waxy corn starch and WPI.

  14. Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars give better androgenic response than hollow-stemmed cultivars in anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Weigt, Dorota; Kiel, Angelika; Nawraca?a, Jerzy; Pluta, Mateusz; ?acka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Solid-stemmed spring wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) are resistant to the stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Nort.) and lodging. Anthers of 24 spring wheat cultivars with varying content of pith in the stem were used in the experiment. All were classified into three groups: solid, medium?solid and hollow stems. There was considerable influence of the cultivar on callus formation and green plant regeneration. The highest efficiency of green plant regeneration (24%) was observed for the solid-s...

  15. CULTIVAR RELEASE-BRS 217 Flora: Early-maturing soybean cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Itamar de Mello de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cultivar BRS 217 Flora was developed by Embrapa and released forproduction in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Bahia, Mato Grosso and the Distrito Federal, Brazil. It is resistant to stemcanker, frog-eye leaf spot, bacterial pustule, and partially resistant to powdery mildew.

  16. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  17. UEL 7: nova cultivar de Dendrobium UEL 7: a new Dendrobium cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available UEL 7 é uma cultivar de Dendrobium nobile desenvolvida no Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina resultante do cruzamento das plantas matrizes D3 x D8 e selecionada pela coloração das flores amarelas e com largura e comprimento semelhantes (7,0 cm, formando praticamente um círculo. As plantas foram polinizadas artificialmente, e as sementes semeadas em meio de cultura in vitro. A cultivar apresenta flores de coloração amarela, labelo com o centro marrom escuro e o pseudobulbo apresenta em mé dia 11 flores. As flores têm durabilidade de aproximadamente 30 dias.UEL 7 is a Dendrobium nobile's cultivar developed at The Department of Agronomy of Universidade Estadual de Londrina and is the result of the crossing between D3 x D8 and selected for its yellow flowers and format with similar width and length (7.0 cm, almost forming a circle. The plants were pollinated artificially, and the seeds sowed in growth media in vitro. The cultivar presents flowers of yellow coloration, labelo with the center dark brown color and the pseudobulb presents 11 flowers on average. The flowers durability is about 30 days.

  18. CULTIVAR RELEASE - FAEM Carlasul: new white oat cultivar with high grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Costa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.

  19. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  20. Yield and quality of strawberry cultivars Produtividade e qualidade de cultivares de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo C Antunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry cultivation is an important economic activity in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, however the number of offered cultivars to the growers is reduced. The yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cultivars Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre and Sabrosa was evaluated under the climatic conditions of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State. We determined the number, mass, total soluble solids (TSS ºBrix, total titratable acidity (TTA, antocianin level and fresh fruits produced in an experimental unit. We also determined the production of fruits per hectare and per plant. The statistical design used in the experiment was of completely randomized blocks with 6 treatments (cultivars and 4 replicates where the experimental unit was composed of 8 plants. The harvest began in the first half of August, extending to the second half of December, totalling 20 weeks. Plarionfre, Earlibrite and Festival cultivars showed higher production from the first half of October until the end of the first half of November. Camarosa reached higher productivity, mass of plants and fruit weight. There were no differences between the evaluated cultivars in the levels of TSS, antocianin, ATT and pH during the period of evaluation.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul o cultivo do morangueiro é uma atividade econômica importante, entretanto o número de cultivares disponíveis no mercado é bastante reduzido. Assim buscou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos de cultivares de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., Camarosa, Galexia, Earlibrite, Festival, Plarionfre e Sabrosa, cultivados nas condições climáticas e de solo do município de Pelotas, RS. Determinaram-se, o número, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST (expresso em ºBrix, acidez total titulável (ATT (expresso em % de ácido cítrico e teor de antocianinas, dos frutos produzidos por unidade experimental. Determinou

  1. Is barley malt safe as a food ingredient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Olesen, P. A.

    hydrocarbons (PAH) are such process contaminants previously identified in e.g. smoked fish [3]. Germinated barley is smoke treated and for many whisky malt dried over peat-fuelled furnace for flavour addition probably with increased health risks for spent grain consumers as a result. To evaluate our concern we...... for animal feed and recently the high nutritive value has made it feasible as bread flour supplement [1] and therefore human food. Process contamination such as the genotoxic acrylamide formed due to Maillard reactions between reducing sugars and amino acids at raised temperature could appear during drying...

  2. Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Dong, Jing

    2007-01-01

     Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed...... of detached spike showed increase Cd accumulation for 5 days, followed by sharp decrease till day 10 and increase again after 12.5 days. Awn-removal and stem-girdling markedly decreased Cd concentration in grains, and sucrose or zinc (Zn) addition to the medium and higher relative humidity (RH) also induced...

  3. Genetic diversity and structure analysis in wild and landraces of barley from Jordan by using ISJ markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. W.; Balogh, M. J.; Baloch, M.; Baloch, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and structure analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained Results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms. (author)

  4. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongguk Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium-infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium-infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.

  5. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  6. Processing properties of grains from some maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the dry milling, whole or pealed grains were simply processed in a hammer mill and the flour fractions separated as with wet milling. Results indicated some variation in the proximate composition with nine cultivars exhibiting protein contents above 8%. High protein cultivars were in order hybrids 88094X87036, ...

  7. Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular ...

  8. Genetic variation within the olive ( Olea europaea L. ) cultivar Oblica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive ...

  9. Effect of environment and cultivar on the expression of banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were evaluated for BSV expression so as to determine the tolerant cultivars under field and greenhouse conditions and stages of disease expression. A number of factors including plant age, cultivar, season and growth site were investigated in the greenhouse and field to assess their effect on BSD symptom expression.

  10. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  11. Powdery mildew reaction of hop cultivars and USDA germplasm, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to identify possible sources of resistance to the disease powdery mildew in publicly-available hop germplasm and cultivars. Germplasm with the highest levels of downy mildew resistance in the USDA collection and various cultivars of interest were screened for their reac...

  12. Farmers\\' Perception Of Improved And Local Cassava Cultivars In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantity of the byproduct of cassava, taste of byproduct, maturity time and disease resistance significantly contributed to farmers' perception of the cassava cultivars. Apart from good agronomic characteristics of disease resistance and early maturity, farmers' perception of cultivars is also tied to food value issues, field ...

  13. Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on ...

  14. Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced antioxidative responses of a salt-resistant wheat cultivar facilitate its adaptation to salt stress. L Chen, H Yin, J Xu, X Liu. Abstract. Wheat cultivars capable of accumulating minerals under salt stress are of considerable interest for their potential to improve crop productivity and crop quality. This study addressed the ...

  15. Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Meulenbroek, Bert J.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Gilissen, Luud J. W. J.; Puehringer, Helene; Laimer, Margit; Martinelli, Alessio; Zaccharini, Marzio; Vazquez-Cortes, Sonia; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Mills, E. N. Clare; Zuidmeer, Laurian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Fruits are a major cause of food allergy in adults. Lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are implicated in severe allergic reactions to fruits, but little is known about LTP content in different cultivars. Objective: Determination of the levels of LTP in a wide range of apple cultivars.

  16. IPR CATUARA TM – new cultivar of high gluten wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar IPR Catuara TM, obtained from a cross between the line LD 975 and the cultivar IPR 85, exhibits high gluten strength, which will allow the milling industry to supplement flours from wheats with weaker gluten strength, resulting in better quality products for the final consumer.

  17. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  18. Molecular characterization of olive cultivars grown in Iraq using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    husam

    database for Iraqi olive cultivars, in breeding strategies and in correct cultivar identification. Key words: Olea europaea, genetic diversity ... cultivated fruit tree species in the Mediterranean basin. It is a predominant allogamous species .... carried out using an automatic DNA analyzer (Model 3100 Prism;. Applied Biosystems).

  19. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  20. Barley fibre and wet distillers' solubles in the diet of growing cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ROOT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight bulls were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design to study the effects of two by-products from the integrated starch-ethanol process, barley fibre and distillers' solubles, as supplements for grass silage. The animals were divided into five blocks and slaughtered when the average live weight (LW of each block reached 500 kg. The three energy supplements were barley (B, a mixture (1:1 on a dry matter (DM basis of barley and barley fibre (BF, and barley fibre (F, fed without (DS- or with (DS+ wet distillers' solubles (200 g kg-1 concentrate on DM basis. Concentrates were given at the rate of 95 g DM kg-1 LW0.6. Including barley fibre in the diet did not affect feed intake, but distillers' solubles tended to increase both silage and total DM intakes as well as amino acids absorbed in the intestine and energy intake. The protein balance in the rumen increased with the inclusion of barley fibre (P

  1. Physiological basis of barley yield under near optimal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Average barley yield fall below its potential due to incidence of stresses. Water stress is the main environmental factor limiting yield. The component a priori more sensitive to most stresses is the amount of radiation absorbed. The effect of stresses influence on the total amount of radiation absorbed by barley crop during its vegetation and the photosynthetic efficiency of radiation conversion. Growth inhibition is accompanied by reductions in leaf and cell wall extensibility. Grain yield under drought conditions is source limited. Supply of assimilates to the developing inflorescence plays a critical role in establishing final grain number and grain size. Grain weight is negatively affected by drought, high temperature, and any other factors that may reduce grain filling duration and grain filling rate. Awns and glaucousness confer better performance of barley under drought stress conditions. Barley responds with an increased accumulation of a number of proteins when subjected to different stress inducing cell dehydration. Screening techniques that are able to identify desirable genotypes based on the evaluation of physiological traits related to stress evasion and stress resistance maybe useful in breeding barley for resistance to stress, particularly drought stress. Crop management and breeding can reduce the incidence of stress on yield. The effect of these practices is sustained by an understanding of their physiology. In this paper the physiological basis of the processes determining barley yield and the incidence of stresses on photosynthetic metabolism that determine grain yield of barley is discussed. .

  2. Esterase polymorphism marking cultivars of Manihot esculenta, Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gazoli Resende

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Esterase isozymes were used to detected substrate-preference polymorphism in twenty cultivars of Manihot esculenta, and to show cultivar-specific variation of this species. A relatively complex extraction solution of proteins from leaves was needed to show a larger number of esterase isozymes. Similarity between cultivars from six groups ranged from 51 to 96%. The cultivars identified by the same name seemed to be biochemically different regarding esterase isozymes. Esterase isozyme electrophoretic patterns could, therefore, be used to discriminate the cultivars identified by the same name, and to monitor the vegetative propagation of cultivars maintained in the germplasm collection. In breeding strategies, isoesterase analysis could be used to avoid intercrossing between the similar genotypes.Isoenzimas esterases foram usadas no presente estudo, para detectar polimorfismos específicos para diferentes substratos em vinte cultivares de Manihot esculenta, e para mostrar variações específicas de cultivares nesta espécie. Os diferentes cultivares de M. esculenta tem sido mantidos na coleção de germoplasma do Departamento de Agronomia da Universidade Estadual de Maringá (Maringá, PR, e foram provenientes de cultivares tradicionais coletados nas regiões sudoeste e noroeste do Estado. Foi necessário a utilização de uma solução de extração de proteínas relativamente mais complexa, para evidenciar um maior número de isoenzimas esterases. A similaridade entre os cultivares variou de 51 a 96%. Cultivares identificados pelo mesmo nome parecem ser bioquimicamente diferentes para as isoenzimas esterases. Os padrões eletroforéticos das isoesterases podem, portanto, serem usados para discriminar os cultivares que são identificados pelo mesmo nome, e para monitorar a propagação vegetativa dos cultivares mantidos na coleção de germoplasma. A análise das isoesterases pode também ser usada para evitar cruzamentos entre genótipos mais

  3. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  4. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  5. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  6. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  7. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  8. HvCKX2 gene silencing by biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in barley leads to different phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Wojciech; Orczyk, Wacław; Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2012-11-07

    CKX genes encode cytokinin dehydrogenase enzymes (CKX), which metabolize cytokinins in plants and influence developmental processes. The genes are expressed in different tissues and organs during development; however, their exact role in barley is poorly understood. It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of HvCKX1 decreased the CKX level, especially in those organs which showed the highest expression, i.e. developing kernels and roots, leading to higher plant productivity and higher mass of the roots [1]. The same type of RNAi construct was applied to silence HvCKX2 and analyze the function of the gene. Two cultivars of barley were transformed with the same silencing and selection cassettes by two different methods: biolistic and via Agrobacterium. The mean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of Golden Promise was 3.47% (±2.82). The transcript level of HvCKX2 in segregating progeny of T(1) lines was decreased to 34%. The reduction of the transcript in Agrobacterium-derived plants resulted in decreased CKX activity in the developing and developed leaves as well as in 7 DAP (days after pollination) spikes. The final phenotypic effect was increased productivity of T(0) plants and T(1) lines. Higher productivity was the result of the higher number of seeds and higher grain yield. It was also correlated with the higher 1000 grain weight, increased (by 7.5%) height of the plants and higher (from 0.5 to 2) numbers of spikes. The transformation efficiency of Golden Promise after biolistic transformation was more than twice as low compared to Agrobacterium. The transcript level in segregating progeny of T(1) lines was decreased to 24%. Otherwise, the enzyme activity found in the leaves of the lines after biolistic transformation, especially in cv. Golden Promise, was very high, exceeding the relative level of the control lines. These unbalanced ratios of the transcript level and the activity of the CKX enzyme negatively

  9. Comparison between four blackberry (Rubus sp.) cultivars to light variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enciso, B.E.; Gómez, C.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper compares four Colombian blackberry cultivars- (Rubus sp.) light compensation points, leaf area, chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity. Time can be saved and efficiency improved by adapting different cultivars to differing luminosity once these parameters have been determined and established. The four cultivars involved were -Guarne-, -San Antonio-, -Sara 3- and -Pacho 2- forming part of Corpoica-s blackberry collection at the Sena farm in Manizales. The results revealed that all four cultivars had different light compensation points. They also showed that net photosynthesis varied amongst cultivars, even when grown in the same environmental conditions and that total chlorophyll and leaf area may be used as indicators of response to the conditions being evaluated. Key words: Photosynthesis, leaf area, radiation, compensation point, photons flow density (PFD), chlorophyll [es

  10. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  11. Green Barley as an Ingredient in Pasta: Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Characteristics Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišová Eva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study was to determine antioxidant activity, sensory properties as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and chlorophyll content of raw and cooked pasta enriched by 1%, 3% and 5% addition of green barley powder. Results of antioxidant activity showed that increase of green barley addition increase antioxidant activity of pasta. The values in raw pasta obtained by DPPH ranged from 1.17 (control to 1.81 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM, after cooking values ranged from 0.82 (control to 1.59 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM. Similar tendency was signed by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power method. In enriched pasta was also found higher content of total polyphenol (0.19 in control raw sample and 1.81 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta ranged from 0.10 in control sample to 0.73 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition as well as total flavonoid content (results of raw pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.41 mg QE/g DM in pasta with 5% of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.29 mg QE/g DM in variant with 5% green barley. Green barley also enriched pasta for chlorophyll with the best results in 5% addition. From prepared variants of enriched pasta the best overall acceptability was sign in 3% of green barley addition. Pastas enriched with plant-derived bioactive compounds such as green barley may confer health benefits to consumers.

  12. Reduction of deoxynivalenol in barley by treatment with aqueous sodium carbonate and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David; House, James D; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2005-11-01

    Naturally contaminated lots of Canadian barley containing either 18.4 or 4.3 microg/g deoxynivalenol (DON) were heated at 80 degrees C, with small amounts of water or 1 M sodium carbonate solution to study the rate of DON reduction. Samples were heated in sealed polypropylene containers for periods of up to 8 days. In the 18.4 microg/g DON barley, rapid reductions were observed: with no solutions added, DON declined to 14.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to 4.9 microg/g after 8 days solely due to heat; with water at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON levels reached 3.7 microg/g after 8 days; with 1 M sodium carbonate solution added at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 4.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to 0.4 microg/g after 8 days; with 20 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 1.4 microg/g after 1 day and to near-zero levels after 8 days. In the 4.3 microg/g DON barley, more gradual reductions were evident: with no solutions added, DON declined to 2.9 microg/g after 8 days solely due to heat; with water at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON levels reached 2.3 microg/g after 8 days; with 1 M sodium carbonate solution added at 10 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 2.7 microg/g after 1 day, and to near-zero levels after 8 days; with 20 mL/100 g barley, DON declined to 1.4 microg/g after 1 day and to near-zero levels after 3, 5 and 8 days.

  13. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  14. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  15. Effects of Site and Cultivar on Consumer Acceptance of Pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, John M; Merhaut, Donald J; Jia, Zhenyu; Arpaia, Mary Lu; Mauk, Peggy A; Preece, John E

    2018-05-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an important fruit in many cultures. The fruit and juice have risen in popularity as it was discovered that pomegranate has relatively high antioxidant activity compared to most other fruits. In this study, six cultivars were utilized to determine consumer acceptance compared to the industry standard, 'Wonderful,' which comprises 90% to 95% of commercial production in the United States. Fruit were sourced from 2 cultivar field trials, one in inland Riverside, California, and one in coastal Ventura County, California. Cultivars selected for the study included 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' 'Haku Botan,' 'Loffani,' 'Phoenicia,' 'Wonderful,' and 'cv. 857,' an heirloom cultivar from Ventura County, CA, U.S.A. Pomegranate arils were subject to sensory evaluation by 87 untrained consumer panelists in late 2016. Panelists were given pomegranate arils and asked to score the samples using a 9-point Hedonic scale for the following fruit quality traits: aril color, sweetness, tartness, seed hardness, bitterness, and overall desirability. There were significant differences among cultivars for all traits assessed by the sensory panelists. There were differences in acceptance among consumers for 'Wonderful' depending on if it was grown on the coast versus inland, and consumers preferred inland- versus coastal-grown 'Wonderful.' 'Wonderful' pomegranate was associated with cultivars that consumers scored low on desirability for bitterness. Cultivars that scored well in overall desirability compared with 'Wonderful' were 'cv. 857,' 'Eversweet,' 'Green Globe,' and 'Phoenicia.' Consumer sensory panels are important to determine scientifically which cultivars are desired by the public. These panels allowed for the determination of which pomegranate cultivars are liked or disliked by consumers and why. If the pomegranate growers know the most desirable cultivars for consumers, they are more likely to adopt and plant them, thus potentially increasing the

  16. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  17. EFFECTS OF BARLEY FLOUR ADDITION AND BAKING TEMPERATURE ON Β-GLUCANS CONTENT AND BISCUITS PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Džafić, A; Oručević-Žuljević, Sanja; Spaho, Nermina; Akagić, Asima

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities to improve the nutritional value of biscuits. Therefore, the content of β-glucans, physical, chemical and sensory properties of biscuits were determined in relation to a share of added barley flour and a baking temperature. Five different blends of barley and wheat were used for biscuit production: barley/wheat flours in combinations: 0/100; 25/75; 50/50; 75/25 and 100/0 according to the procedure described in AACC method 10-52. The temp...

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  19. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  20. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...