WorldWideScience

Sample records for hull structural members

  1. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the standards of...

  2. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...

  3. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for the...

  4. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180 Section 154.180 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests for...

  5. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to provide...

  6. Calculation for Hull Strength Construction in Offshore Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Ship classification societies such as Det Norske Veritas, American Bureau of Shipping, and Lloyd's. Register have established standard calculation forms for hull loads, strength requirements, thickness of hull plating, reinforcing stiffeners, girders, and other structures. This paper therefore used the relevant ...

  7. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... National University. The goal of the study has been to establish a rational practical design oriented approach to collision resistance that is more sophisticated than previous theoretically based procedures and less complicated than conventional nonlinear finite element methods. The main tasks undertaken...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  8. Effects of symmetrical foundation on sound radiation from a submarine hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Su, Jinpeng; Wang, Jian; Hua, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    The effects of a passive noise control method for suppressing sound radiation from a submarine hull structure are investigated. The control method is realized by symmetrizing the foundation about the horizontal plane. The coupled finite element method and boundary element method are adopted to compute the acoustic characteristics of the submerged hull. From the numerical results, the symmetrical foundation has advantages in sound radiation reduction when the hull is subjected to the axial load, but has little influences in the vertical and transverse load cases. Using the modal decomposition technique, the contributions of each individual mode to the sound radiation are analyzed to reveal the mechanism of the control method.

  9. Acoustic emission localization on ship hull structures using a deep learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgoulas, George; Kappatos, Vassilios; Nikolakopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high dimension......In this paper, deep belief networks were used for localization of acoustic emission events on ship hull structures. In order to avoid complex and time consuming implementations, the proposed approach uses a simple feature extraction module, which significantly reduces the extremely high...

  10. Structural vibration and acoustic radiation of coupled propeller-shafting and submarine hull system due to propeller forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yegao; Su, Jinpeng; Hua, Hongxing; Meng, Guang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the structural and acoustic responses of a coupled propeller-shafting and submarine pressure hull system under different propeller force excitations. The entire system, which consists of a rigid propeller, a main shaft, two bearings and an orthogonally stiffened pressure hull, is submerged in a heavy fluid. The shaft is elastically connected to the pressure hull by a radial bearing and a thrust bearing. The theoretical model of the structural system is formulated based on a modified variational method, in which the propeller, the main shaft and the bearings are treated as a lumped mass, an elastic beam and spatially distributed spring-damper systems, respectively. The rings and stringers in the pressure hull are modeled as discrete structural elements. The acoustic field generated by the hull is calculated using a spectral Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral formulation. A strongly coupled structure-acoustic interaction analysis is employed to achieve reasonable solutions for the coupled system. The displacement of the pressure hull and the sound pressure of the fluid are expanded in the form of a double mixed series using Fourier series and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials, providing a flexible way for the present method to account for the individual contributions of circumferential wave modes to the vibration and acoustic responses of the pressure hull in an analytical manner. The contributions of different circumferential wave modes of the pressure hull to the structural and acoustic responses of the coupled system under axial, transversal and vertical propeller forces are investigated. Computed results are compared with those solutions obtained from the coupled finite element/boundary element method. Effects of the ring and the bearing stiffness on the acoustic responses of the coupled system are discussed.

  11. Study of integrated structure of mercury target container with safety hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Ishikura, Shuichi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) are promoting a plan to construct a neutron scattering facility. In the facility, 1 MW pulsed proton beam from a high-intensity proton accelerator will be injected into a mercury target in order to produce high-intensity neutrons. In the spallation mercury target system design, an integrated structure of target container with a safety hull was proposed to ensure the safety and to collect mercury in a case of mercury leakage caused by the target beam window failure. The inner structure arrangement of the mercury target container was determined based on the thermal hydraulic analytical results of 3 GeV, 1 MW proton beam injection. The safety hull consists of containers for helium and heavy water. The containers for mercury target, helium and heavy water will be connected each other by reinforcement ribs mounted on the surface of each container. As for the feasibility of the integrated mercury target container with the safety hull, the static structure strength analyses were carried out under the condition of an internal pressure of 0.8 MPa, which was determined based on the maximum operation pressure of 0.5 MPa and the safety margin, in order to clarify its structural strength. As a result, it was made clear that the maximum static stress appeared on the each container by the internal pressure could be suppressed less than the allowable stress of SUS316L at 300degC, 142.5 MPa, by adding reinforcement ribs on the surface of each container. (author)

  12. Biofilm community structure and the associated drag penalties of a groomed fouling release ship hull coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Vora, Gary J; Hunsucker, J Travis; Gardner, Harrison; Leary, Dagmar H; Kim, Seongwon; Lin, Baochuan; Swain, Geoffrey

    2018-02-01

    Grooming is a proactive method to keep a ship's hull free of fouling. This approach uses a frequent and gentle wiping of the hull surface to prevent the recruitment of fouling organisms. A study was designed to compare the community composition and the drag associated with biofilms formed on a groomed and ungroomed fouling release coating. The groomed biofilms were dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria as well the diatoms Navicula, Gomphonemopsis, Cocconeis, and Amphora. Ungroomed biofilms were characterized by Phyllobacteriaceae, Xenococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and the pennate diatoms Cyclophora, Cocconeis, and Amphora. The drag forces associated with a groomed biofilm (0.75 ± 0.09 N) were significantly less than the ungroomed biofilm (1.09 ± 0.06 N). Knowledge gained from this study has helped the design of additional testing which will improve grooming tool design, minimizing the growth of biofilms and thus lowering the frictional drag forces associated with groomed surfaces.

  13. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  14. Optimum Position of Acoustic Emission Sensors for Ship Hull Structural Health Monitoring Based on Deep Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappatos, Vassilios; Karvelis, Petros; Georgoulas, George

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a method for the estimation of the optimum sensor positions for acoustic emission localization on ship hull structures is presented. The optimum sensor positions are treated as a classification (localization) problem based on a deep learning paradigm. In order to avoid complex...

  15. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-03-22

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  17. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d...

  18. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981. ...

  19. Effect of Fiber Reinforcement on the Response of Structural Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Gregor; Li, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a series of investigations on the effect of fiber reinforcement on the response of structural members in direct tension and flexure under reversed cyclic loading conditions. The design approach of the fiber reinforced cementitious composite is based on fracture mechanics...... and an ultimate tensile strain capacity on the order of several percent. Subsequently, the synergistic effects of composite deformation mechanisms in the ECC and structural members subjected to large shear reversals are identified. Beneficial effects observed in the reinforced ECC structural members as compared...... to conventional reinforced concrete include improved composite integrity, energy dissipation, ductility, and damage tolerance....

  20. Exotensioned structural members with energy-absorbing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockwell, Michael Ian

    2017-08-22

    Structural members having enhanced load bearing capacity per unit mass include a skeleton structure formed from strips of material. Notches may be placed on the strips and a weave of tensile material placed in the notches and woven around the skeleton structure. At least one pair of structural members can be jointed together to provide very strong joints due to a weave patterns of tensile material, such as Kevlar, that distributes stress throughout the structure, preventing stress from concentrating in one area. Methods of manufacturing such structural members include molding material into skeletons of desired cross section using a matrix of molding segments. Total catastrophic failures in composite materials are substantially avoided and the strength to weight ratio of structures can be increased.

  1. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-12-08

    Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called "TVDS") is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  2. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called “TVDS” is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  3. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-01-01

    Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called “TVDS”) is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image. PMID:27941635

  4. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  5. Nonlinear load-displacement analysis of structures having members ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid or hollow reclan~lar and circular crosssection members are most extensively used in medium and small size steel structures. Such crosssections are non-warping cross-section. They are extensively used because of their strength and the ease to assemble. The governing differential equations and the corresponding ...

  6. Energy absorption characteristics of lightweight structural member by stacking conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Juho; Yang, Yongjun; Hwang, Woochae; Pyeon, Seokbeom; Min, Hanki; Yeo, Ingoo; Yang, Inyoung

    2012-04-01

    The recent trend in vehicle design is aimed at improving crash safety and environmental-friendliness. To solve these issues, the needs for lighter vehicle to limit exhaust gas and improve fuel economy has been requested for environmental-friendliness. Automobile design should be made for reduced weight once the safety of vehicle is maintained. In this study, composite structural members were manufactured using carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) which are representative lightweight structural materials. Carbon fiber has been researched as alternative to metals for lightweight vehicle and better fuel economy. CFRP is an anisotropic material which is the most widely adapted lightweight structural member because of their inherent design flexibility and high specific strength and stiffness. Also, variation of CFRP interface number is important to increase the energy absorption capacity. In this study, one type of circular shaped composite tube was used, combined with reinforcing foam. The stacking condition was selected to investigate the effect of the fiber orientation angle and interface number. The crashworthy behavior of circular composite material tubes subjected to static axial compression under same conditions is reported. The axial static collapse tests were carried out for each section member. The collapse modes and the energy absorption capability of the members were analyzed.

  7. Separation and purification of soluble polymers and cell wall fractions from wheat, rye and hull less barley endosperm flours for structure-nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Penny; Shelat, Kinnari; Collins, Helen; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-12-11

    The nutritional values associated with the cell walls of cereal endosperm flours are due to a combination of solubilized arabinoxylan and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan as well as residual nonsolubilized cell wall material. In order to investigate structure-nutrition relationships, an appropriate method for the complete functional and structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in various cereal endosperm flours is described. This involves the separation of soluble polymers and the residual cell wall fraction without using organic solvents, and the fractionation of soluble polymers into arabinoxylan- and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan-rich fractions for subsequent analysis. This methodology is applied to endosperm flours from wheat, hull-less barley and rye, and could be extended to include studies on the effects of food processing with respect to yield and characteristics of the three fractions in order to better understand the structural basis for nutritional functionality.

  8. Effect of corrosion on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Van, Tuyen; Yang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik's probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  10. Asymmetric structure of five and six membered DNA hairpin loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, U.; Chang, S.

    1995-01-01

    The tertiary structure of nucleic acid hairpins was elucidated by means of the accessibility of the single-strand-specific nuclease from mung bean. This molecular probe has proven especially useful in determining details of the structural arrangement of the nucleotides within a loop. In this study 3'-labeling is introduced to complement previously used 5'-labeling in order to assess and to exclude possible artifacts of the method. Both labeling procedures result in mutually consistent cleavage patterns. Therefore, methodological artifacts can be excluded and the potential of the nuclease as structural probe is increased. DNA hairpins with five and six membered loops reveal an asymmetric loop structure with a sharp bend of the phosphate-ribose backbone between the second and third nucleotide on the 3'-side of a loop. These hairpin structures differ from smaller loops with 3 or 4 members, which reveal this type of bend between the first and second 3' nucleotide, and resemble with respect to the asymmetry anticodon loops of tRNA.

  11. Effective Hull IMMR plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Mireille

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the Hull Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Plan is to ensure the total integrity of the Floating Production Unit. To be efficient, the Monitoring has to be part of the Hull Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Plan (IMMR). The IMMR Plan should be developed during the design and project phases and take into account the interfaces between the different systems and teams' tasks in operation. The IMMR is multidisciplinary and form part of the hand-over to ensure an efficient and early implementation. Implementation of such a complex plan requires: - Cross-functionality: take advantage of the synergies - Boldness: break the mould and think outside the box - Listening: be attentive, be available, - Mutual support: during good and bad times. This paper presents the way Total believe the Hull IMMR Plan shall be developed, implemented and followed up. (Author)

  12. On coreflective hulls in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    topological spaces in the category [0; 1]-TOP of [0; 1]-topological spaces. We also show that the coreflective hull of a single-point s[0; 1]-topological space in the category s[0; 1]-TOP of stratified [0; 1]-topological spaces is the category of discrete [0; ...

  13. European single-hull regulation in force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The European Union (EU)has decided that from 21 October 2003 no single-hull tanker carrying heavy grades of oil will be permitted to enter or leave ports or offshore installations or anchor in areas under the jurisdiction of the EU member states. Some of the provisions of the EU regulation will not be in force until 2010. The article looks back on what has led up to to the current regulations, beginning with the Titanic disaster of 1914.

  14. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  15. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  16. The inter-relationship between processing-induced molecular structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled and hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fangyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the microwave irradiation (MIR)-induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to the truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept raw or were irradiated with microwaves for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated using the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance). Molecular structure changes as a result of processing were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation region. Compared to the raw samples, MIR processing decreased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable microbial crude protein and increased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein and endogenous protein supply without affecting the total truly absorbed protein supply to the small intestine (DVE) and degraded protein balance (OEB) in ruminant livestock systems. Changes in protein molecular structure (spectral intensities) were highly correlated with the changes in the truly absorbed protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. The results of the present study show that the changes in protein molecular structure as a result of MIR feed processing were associated with the truly absorbed protein supply to ruminant livestock systems. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Study on practical application of a longitudinal hull strength theory considering camber in cross section; Yokodanmen no sori wo koryoshita sentai tate kyodo riron no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, M.; Suzuki, K.; Furuno, H. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Suzuki, K.

    1997-10-01

    Discussions were given on practical application of a stress analyzing method for thin-wall deformed cross-sectional beam considering cross section camber in longitudinal bending. The non-static calculation method described in the previous report can be applied to a box-type cross section having multi-connected cells, bulk cargo transport vessels and container ships with dual hull structure, and oil tankers with dual hull structure of medium size. The calculation method was capable of achieving remarkable enhancement in efficiency over that of conventional calculation methods. The present study is intended to make the method applicable also to multi-connected cross section shapes having more than one longitudinal partitions as used in dual hull VLCC and ULCC. As a result, an expanded non-static calculation system was developed, which has introduced into the conception described in the previous report a new conception of triple point and independent start point members. As a result of applying the method to dual hull bulk cargo transport vessels, container ships, dual hull oil tankers of medium size, VLCC and ULCC, it was verified that the system operated properly. Remarkable efficiency improvement has been made possible as compared with conventional analysis methods applied to individual ships. The system is capable of automatic calculation, and makes possible the practical application of the hull strength theory considering cross section camber. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version”

  19. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    resistance and flow noise arising from flow-structure interaction, it is necessary to test the shape of the submarine , which includes the length-to...UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at

  20. Tuning Material and Component Properties to Reduce Weight and Increase Blastworthiness of a Notional V-Hull Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    for designing blast-resistant structures [16]. The failure mechanisms in unidirectional fiber -reinforced composites of delamination, fiber -matrix...debonding, matrix cracking, and fiber breakage have been considered for creating blast mitigation configurations [17]. For similar purposes...characteristics of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid,” Journal of Materials Science, 2003. 16. Hoo Fatt, M.S., and

  1. Some basic design methods for HSC Structural Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Hoang, Cao Linh; Hagsten, Lars German

    1998-01-01

    Key-note paper.The paper deals with methods based on the theory of plasticity to be used in the design of reinforced concrete members of high strength concrete. Formulae for the bending capacity of beams subjected to pure bending are given. Methods for shear design of beams are described. Emphasis...... is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced beams and lightly shear reinforced beams. The consequences of sliding in cracks on the strength of disk elements are also described. The methods described are compared with results of tests with high strength concrete...

  2. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  3. Why University Members Use and Resist Technology? A Structure Enactment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Canchu; Singer, Ross; Ha, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    This case study investigated university members' use of and resistance to a communication information technology system in a higher education organization. This case study utilized the technology enactment framework to examine structure enactment in university members' technology use and resistance. We found that the following structures were…

  4. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.K. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.M., E-mail: stuart@bpi.cam.ac.u [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bhinde, T. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Castro, M.A.; Millan, C. [Instituto Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla) (Spain); Medina, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C{sub 7}, C{sub 9} and C{sub 11}) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C{sub 11} homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C{sub 7} homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  5. Crystal structure of the Fe-member of usovite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystals of the title compound, with the idealized composition Ba2CaFeAl2F14, dibarium calcium iron(II dialuminium tetradecafluoride, were obtained serendipitously by reacting a mixture of the binary fluorides BaF2, CaF2 and AlF3 in a leaky steel reactor. The compound crystallizes in the usovite structure type (Ba2CaMgAl2F14, with Fe2+ cations replacing the Mg2+ cations. The principal building units are distorted [CaF8] square-antiprisms (point group symmetry 2, [FeF6] octahedra (point group symmetry -1 and [AlF6] octahedra that are condensed into undulating 2∞[CaFeAl2F14]4− layers parallel (100. The Ba2+ cations separate the layers and exhibit a coordination number of 12. Two crystal structure models with a different treatment of the disordered Fe site [mixed Fe/Ca occupation, model (I, versus underoccupation of Fe, model (II], are discussed, leading to different refined formulae Ba2Ca1.310 (15Fe0.690 (15Al2F14 [model (I] and Ba2CaFe0.90 (1Al2F14 [model (II].

  6. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  7. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  8. Exploitation of Ultrahigh-Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete for the Strengthening of Concrete Structural Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Osta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete members are very important due to several factors, including unexpected increases in load levels and/or the damaging impact of aggressive environmental conditions on structural concrete members. Many researchers have turned to using materials for the repair and strengthening of damaged structures or the construction of new concrete structural members. Ultrahigh-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC, characterized by superior structural and durability performance in aggressive environmental conditions, is one of the materials that have been considered for the repair and strengthening of concrete structural members. The repair or strengthening of concrete structures using UHPFRC needs a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of both the strengthening material and the strengthened concrete structure at service load conditions, in addition to an understanding of the design guidelines governing the use of such materials for effective repair and strengthening. In this study, the recent issues and findings regarding the use of UHPFRC as a repair or strengthening material for concrete structural members are reviewed, analysed, and discussed. In addition, recommendations were made concerning areas where future attention and research on the use of UHPFRC as a strengthening material needs to be focused if the material is to be applied in practice.

  9. Basic studies on computer aided concurrent engineering for hull structure design and piping design; Kakugi ittai wo koryoshita doji heikotekina sekkei no shien ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, K.; Sawada, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Considering integrated hull and piping design in shipbuilding industry as a good example for concurrent engineering (CE), discussions were given on a computer aided method to perform integrated hull and piping design smoothly. When CE aiding by means of a computer is considered, it is important to discuss a method for information management not only for `utilization of product models`, but also for `maintaining consistency between items of product information` and `concurrent utilization and production of product information` in concurrent designs. For the CE aided information management, utilization and production of the product information is effective if restrictive relationship between items of product information, and design functions are made clear. Definitions were given on the restrictive relationship between items of product information and `restrictive relationship information` that has `decision/provisional decision`, `date and time`, `designer` and `design functions`. Furthermore, `comprehensive relationship between items of product information` that can be produced from the restrictive relationship information was defined as a `restrictive network`. Utilizing the restrictive relationship between items of product information for CE aiding is effective. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Structural characterization of silver nanoparticles phyto-mediated by a plant waste, seed hull of Vigna mungo and their biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadavenkatesan, Thivaharan; Vinayagam, Ramesh; Selvaraj, Raja

    2017-11-01

    Nanobiotechnology has rapidly become a critical facet of nanotechnology. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles, making use of the hull of black gram (Vigna mungo), paves the way for a simple and eco-friendly utilization of a domestic waste to a product with antioxidant and anticoagulant activities. The emergence of silver nanoparticles was characterized by a variety of methods UV-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy added to energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, particle size distribution and FT-IR spectroscopy analyses. A discrete band at 421 nm was obtained from UV-visible spectroscopy of the silver nanoparticle suspension. The extract sourced from the hull of black gram showed evidence of the presence of a variety of functional moieties of phytochemicals using FTIR spectroscopy. These were also deemed responsible for maintaining the stability of silver nanoparticles. SEM and EDAX techniques combined, proved that the zero-valent silver nanoparticles were lesser than 100 nm in size. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was confirmed, as deduced by the (1 1 1) plane, from XRD analysis. The potential of the phytochemicals in maintaining the steadiness of nanoparticles was implied by the zeta potential value that stood at -30.3 mV. In the current study, we have endeavored to comprehend the antioxidant and anticoagulant nature of the green-synthesized benign silver nanoparticles.

  11. Members' Preferences for Co-operative Structures: An Experimental Conjoint Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Lans, van der I.A.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract As market conditions change rapidly in the 21st century, questions arise concerning how the organizational structures of co-operatives (co-ops) can meet the challenges that these new conditions pose. This paper introduces a framework to structure marketing co-ops (MCs) based on members¿

  12. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE FROM OAT HULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Paschoal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.

  13. Adsorption of aqueous copper on peanut hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kanika Octavia

    A method was established for measuring the adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution to unmodified and modified peanut hulls at constant temperature and pH. Modification of the hulls was performed by oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide. During the modification process, the hydrogen peroxide solubilizes the lignin component, making the surface more porous which increases the availability of binding sites, while simultaneously oxidizing the cellulose. The oxidation of alcohol groups creates more binding sites by creating functional groups such as COO-, which increases chelation to metal ions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms delignification of the peanut hulls by the disappearance of carboxyl peaks of the modified hulls, which were originally produced from the lignin content. Although, oxidation is not fully confirmed, it is not ruled out because the expected carboxylate peak (1680 cm-1) maybe overshadowed by a broad peak due to OH bending of water adsorbed to the hulls. Hulls adsorbed copper from solutions in the concentration range of 50-1000 ppm of CuCl2. Concentrations of pre- and post-adsorption solutions were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The adsorption isotherms were fit to known two and three-parameter models, evaluated and the binding mechanism was inferred. Maximum surface coverage was 3.5 +/- 0.6 mg Cu2+ /g hull for unmodified hulls and 11 +/- 1 mg Cu2+/g hull for modified hulls. The adsorption for the hulls is best described by the Langmuir model, suggesting monolayer, homogeneous adsorption. With a free energy of adsorption of 10.5 +/- 0.9 kJ/mol for unmodified hulls and 14.5 +/-0.4 kJ/mol for modified hulls, the process is categorized as chemisorption for both types of hulls. The adsorption for both hulls is also described by the Redlich-Peterson model, giving beta nearer to 1 than 0, which further suggests homogeneous adsorption described by the Langmuir model. After rinsing the hulls

  14. Ultimate Longitudinal Strength of Composite Ship Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangming; Huang, Lingkai; Zhu, Libao; Tang, Yuhang; Wang, Anwen

    2017-01-01

    A simple analytical model to estimate the longitudinal strength of ship hulls in composite materials under buckling, material failure and ultimate collapse is presented in this paper. Ship hulls are regarded as assemblies of stiffened panels which idealized as group of plate-stiffener combinations. Ultimate strain of the plate-stiffener combination is predicted under buckling or material failure with composite beam-column theory. The effects of initial imperfection of ship hull and eccentricity of load are included. Corresponding longitudinal strengths of ship hull are derived in a straightforward method. A longitudinally framed ship hull made of symmetrically stacked unidirectional plies under sagging is analyzed. The results indicate that present analytical results have a good agreement with FEM method. The initial deflection of ship hull and eccentricity of load can dramatically reduce the bending capacity of ship hull. The proposed formulations provide a simple but useful tool for the longitudinal strength estimation in practical design.

  15. Internal Stress Monitoring of In-Service Structural Steel Members with Ultrasonic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuohua; He, Jingbo; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-23

    Internal stress in structural steel members is an important parameter for steel structures in their design, construction, and service stages. However, it is hard to measure via traditional approaches. Among the existing non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, the ultrasonic method has received the most research attention. Longitudinal critically refracted (Lcr) waves, which propagate parallel to the surface of the material within an effective depth, have shown great potential as an effective stress measurement approach. This paper presents a systematic non-destructive evaluation method to determine the internal stress in in-service structural steel members using Lcr waves. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, a stress evaluation formula is derived. Factor of stress to acoustic time difference is used to describe the relationship between stress and measurable acoustic results. A testing facility is developed and used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Two steel members are measured by using the proposed method and the traditional strain gauge method for verification. Parametric studies are performed on three steel members and the aluminum plate to investigate the factors that influence the testing results. The results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for determining stress in in-service structural steel members.

  16. Internal Stress Monitoring of In-Service Structural Steel Members with Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuohua Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal stress in structural steel members is an important parameter for steel structures in their design, construction, and service stages. However, it is hard to measure via traditional approaches. Among the existing non-destructive testing (NDT methods, the ultrasonic method has received the most research attention. Longitudinal critically refracted (Lcr waves, which propagate parallel to the surface of the material within an effective depth, have shown great potential as an effective stress measurement approach. This paper presents a systematic non-destructive evaluation method to determine the internal stress in in-service structural steel members using Lcr waves. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, a stress evaluation formula is derived. Factor of stress to acoustic time difference is used to describe the relationship between stress and measurable acoustic results. A testing facility is developed and used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Two steel members are measured by using the proposed method and the traditional strain gauge method for verification. Parametric studies are performed on three steel members and the aluminum plate to investigate the factors that influence the testing results. The results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for determining stress in in-service structural steel members.

  17. Exact natural frequencies of plane structures composed of slender elastic curved members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. K.; Howson, W. P.

    1994-08-01

    Exact finite elements form the basis of a new and convenient procedure for converging with certainty upon the required natural frequencies of any plane structure composed of slender elastic curved members of constant radius. Solution of the inherent transcendental eigenvalue problem is achieved through a variation on the powerful Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Two illustrative examples are included.

  18. Greater Engagement Among Members of Gay-Straight Alliances: Individual and Structural Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2017-01-01

    Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgen-der female, 68% White, Mage = 16.07). Multilevel modeling results indicated that members who perceived more support/socializing from their GSA, had more LGB friends, were longer serving members, and were in GSAs with more open and respectful climates reported greater engagement. Further, there was a curvilinear association between organizational structure in the GSA and engagement: Perceptions of more structure were associated with greater engagement to a point, after which greater structure was related to less engagement. PMID:28757649

  19. Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members under Uniform Loads Using Truss Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Truss model is an analytical approach to predict the strength of reinforced concrete members with geometric or statical discontinuous regions. This study investigates the use of truss model to predict the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members with discontinuity areas under monotonic loading. The estimated failure load and its corresponding deformation are the main objective of this research. Twenty and three samples including short shear walls, short columns and deep beams tested by other researchers throughout the literature have been selected. Then their truss models as well as their three dimensional finite element models are analyzed using ABAQUS software. The comparison of experimental and analytical results shows fair correlation between them. Also, the structural response of samples estimated by truss model analysis is fairly acceptable.

  20. An Evaluation of Mechanical Properties with the Hardness of Building Steel Structural Members for Reuse by NDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Fujita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The reuse system proposed by the authors is one method to reduce the environmental burden in the structural field. As for reusable members, we take up building steel structures used for plants and warehouses. These buildings are assumed to be demolished within approximately 30 years or more for physical, architectural, economic, or social reasons in Japan. In this paper, the performance of steel structural members of a gable frame is evaluated with a non-destructive test for reuse. First, the flow to estimate mechanical properties of steel structural members such as tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation is shown via a non-destructive test. Next, tensile strength, yield strength, and elongation of steel structural members are estimated, with hardness measured with a portable ultrasonic hardness tester. Finally, the mechanical properties of steel structural members for reuse are estimated based on the proposed flow.

  1. John Hull and the Money Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  2. Novel self-sensing carbon nanotube-based composites for rehabilitation of structural steel members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shafique; Doshi, Sagar; Schumacher, Thomas; Thostenson, Erik T.; McConnell, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue and fracture are among the most critical forms of damage in metal structures. Fatigue damage can initiate from microscopic defects (e.g., surface scratches, voids in welds, and internal defects) and initiate a crack. Under cyclic loading, these cracks can grow and reach a critical level to trigger fracture of the member which leads to compromised structural integrity and, in some cases, catastrophic failure of the entire structure. In our research, we are investigating a solution using carbon nanotube-based sensing composites, which have the potential to simultaneously rehabilitate and monitor fatigue-cracked structural members. These composites consist of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) layer and a carbon nanotube-based sensing layer, which are integrated to form a novel structural self-sensing material. The sensing layer is composed of a non-woven aramid fabric that is coated with carbon nanotubes (CNT) to form an electrically conductive network that is extremely sensitive to detecting deformation as well as damage accumulation via changes in the resistance of the CNT network. In this paper, we introduce the sensing concept, describe the manufacturing of a model sensing prototype, and discuss a set of small-scale laboratory experiments to examine the load-carrying capacity and damage sensing response.

  3. Stiffness degradation-based damage model for RC members and structures using fiber-beam elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zongming; Zhang, Yaoting; Lu, Jiezhi; Fan, Jian

    2016-12-01

    To meet the demand for an accurate and highly efficient damage model with a distinct physical meaning for performance-based earthquake engineering applications, a stiffness degradation-based damage model for reinforced concrete (RC) members and structures was developed using fiber beam-column elements. In this model, damage indices for concrete and steel fibers were defined by the degradation of the initial reloading modulus and the low-cycle fatigue law. Then, section, member, story and structure damage was evaluated by the degradation of the sectional bending stiffness, rod-end bending stiffness, story lateral stiffness and structure lateral stiffness, respectively. The damage model was realized in Matlab by reading in the outputs of OpenSees. The application of the damage model to RC columns and a RC frame indicates that the damage model is capable of accurately predicting the magnitude, position, and evolutionary process of damage, and estimating story damage more precisely than inter-story drift. Additionally, the damage model establishes a close connection between damage indices at various levels without introducing weighting coefficients or force-displacement relationships. The development of the model has perfected the damage assessment function of OpenSees, laying a solid foundation for damage estimation at various levels of a large-scale structure subjected to seismic loading.

  4. HULLED WHEAT FARMING IN DEVELI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  5. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow form...

  6. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  7. RESEARCH ON HULL-FORM OPTIMIZATION OF A PASSENGER SHIP USING HULL-FORM MODIFICATION ALGORITHM WITH GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes an automatic hull form control algorithm to effectively control the hull form of a ship. A Gaussian distribution function is implemented in the proposed algorithm that automatically controls the hull form in conjunction with an optimization algorithm that is executed during the hull form optimization procedure. The hull form optimization algorithm adopts sequential quadratic programming for the optimizer, and the wave-making resistance is used as an objective function and is solved using the potential-based panel method. A high-speed passenger ship is selected as the target ship, and the results of a numerical analysis of the original hull are compared to those of the optimized hull obtained using the hull form optimization in order to verify the effectiveness of the hull-form optimization technique using the proposed automatic hull form control algorithm.

  8. RESEARCH ON HULL-FORM OPTIMIZATION OF A PASSENGER SHIP USING HULL-FORM MODIFICATION ALGORITHM WITH GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes an automatic hull form control algorithm to effectively control the hull form of a ship. A Gaussian distribution function is implemented in the proposed algorithm that automatically controls the hull form in conjunction with an optimization algorithm that is executed during the hull form optimization procedure. The hull form optimization algorithm adopts sequential quadratic programming for the optimizer, and the wave-making resistance is used as an objective function and is solved using the potential-based panel method. A high-speed passenger ship is selected as the target ship, and the results of a numerical analysis of the original hull are compared to those of the optimized hull obtained using the hull form optimization in order to verify the effectiveness of the hull-form optimization technique using the proposed automatic hull form control algorithm.

  9. TOGETHER OR APART? STRUCTURAL FUNDS AND REAL CONVERGENCE IN THE NEW MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomir Cristina Flavia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between the structural funds provided by the European Union (EU and the real convergence of the New Member States that joined the EU in 2004. We also assess the effect of the crisis on this. According to the empirical studies in this area, the impact can be both negative and positive. Furthermore, in the latter case, the correlation is not very strong and depends on several factors. To meet the research objective, we have structured this paper into five parts. In the first part, we make a short presentation of the Cohesion policy and its evolution in time. In the second part, we explore the importance of the subject in the economic literature. In the third one, we explain the methodology used in this paper. We contribute to the literature by creating a Real Convergence Index (RCI and by assessing the evolution of this index and of the structural funds payments from 2004 until 2010 in five New Member States (Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. The fourth part describes the results obtained. The structural funds payments reached a maximum level in 2007 in all the countries, with the exception of Slovenia. After this point, they recorded decreasing levels, mainly because of the economic and financial crisis. Within this group of countries, Poland and Slovakia recorded an increase in RCI during 2009 and 2010, even though the amounts of payments started decreasing. The highest level of structural funds payments and the maximum level of RCI are not synchronized, with the exception of the Czech Republic. This could come as a result of the lagging effects of structural funds on the economic convergence. The fifth part of the paper summarizes the conclusions of our research. The analysis confirms the previous work in this field. Specifically, it does not provide us with a clear result regarding the relationship between the absorption of structural funds and the real

  10. Service robot for hull-blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Iborra García, Andrés José; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Marín García, Fulgencio; Fernández Meroño, José María

    2001-01-01

    Present grit blasting technology for hull cleaning is very pollutant, environmentally unaffordable, and it is progressively forbidden in the most environmental countries (mainly north of Europe). At the time being, the above methodology has been partially substituted by ultra highpressure water blasting, however they do not show as good performance as the grit blasting systems. This paper describes a service robot for hull blasting. The technology we developed consists of the cleanin...

  11. Biochemistry and Crystal Structure of Ectoine Synthase: A Metal-Containing Member of the Cupin Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Widderich

    Full Text Available Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology and growth. Ectoine synthase (EctC catalyzes the last step in ectoine production and mediates the ring closure of the substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid through a water elimination reaction. However, the crystal structure of ectoine synthase is not known and a clear understanding of how its fold contributes to enzyme activity is thus lacking. Using the ectoine synthase from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis (Sa, we report here both a detailed biochemical characterization of the EctC enzyme and the high-resolution crystal structure of its apo-form. Structural analysis classified the (SaEctC protein as a member of the cupin superfamily. EctC forms a dimer with a head-to-tail arrangement, both in solution and in the crystal structure. The interface of the dimer assembly is shaped through backbone-contacts and weak hydrophobic interactions mediated by two beta-sheets within each monomer. We show for the first time that ectoine synthase harbors a catalytically important metal co-factor; metal depletion and reconstitution experiments suggest that EctC is probably an iron-dependent enzyme. We found that EctC not only effectively converts its natural substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid into ectoine through a cyclocondensation reaction, but that it can also use the isomer N-alpha-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as its substrate, albeit with substantially reduced catalytic efficiency. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeting amino acid residues that are evolutionarily highly conserved among the extended EctC protein family, including those forming the presumptive iron-binding site, were conducted to functionally analyze the properties of the resulting EctC variants. An assessment of

  12. Biochemistry and Crystal Structure of Ectoine Synthase: A Metal-Containing Member of the Cupin Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widderich, Nils; Kobus, Stefanie; Höppner, Astrid; Riclea, Ramona; Seubert, Andreas; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Heider, Johann; Smits, Sander H J; Bremer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology and growth. Ectoine synthase (EctC) catalyzes the last step in ectoine production and mediates the ring closure of the substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid through a water elimination reaction. However, the crystal structure of ectoine synthase is not known and a clear understanding of how its fold contributes to enzyme activity is thus lacking. Using the ectoine synthase from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis (Sa), we report here both a detailed biochemical characterization of the EctC enzyme and the high-resolution crystal structure of its apo-form. Structural analysis classified the (Sa)EctC protein as a member of the cupin superfamily. EctC forms a dimer with a head-to-tail arrangement, both in solution and in the crystal structure. The interface of the dimer assembly is shaped through backbone-contacts and weak hydrophobic interactions mediated by two beta-sheets within each monomer. We show for the first time that ectoine synthase harbors a catalytically important metal co-factor; metal depletion and reconstitution experiments suggest that EctC is probably an iron-dependent enzyme. We found that EctC not only effectively converts its natural substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid into ectoine through a cyclocondensation reaction, but that it can also use the isomer N-alpha-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as its substrate, albeit with substantially reduced catalytic efficiency. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeting amino acid residues that are evolutionarily highly conserved among the extended EctC protein family, including those forming the presumptive iron-binding site, were conducted to functionally analyze the properties of the resulting EctC variants. An assessment of enzyme activity

  13. Biochemistry and Crystal Structure of Ectoine Synthase: A Metal-Containing Member of the Cupin Superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höppner, Astrid; Riclea, Ramona; Seubert, Andreas; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Heider, Johann; Smits, Sander H. J.; Bremer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute and chemical chaperone widely used by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea to fend-off the detrimental effects of high external osmolarity on cellular physiology and growth. Ectoine synthase (EctC) catalyzes the last step in ectoine production and mediates the ring closure of the substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid through a water elimination reaction. However, the crystal structure of ectoine synthase is not known and a clear understanding of how its fold contributes to enzyme activity is thus lacking. Using the ectoine synthase from the cold-adapted marine bacterium Sphingopyxis alaskensis (Sa), we report here both a detailed biochemical characterization of the EctC enzyme and the high-resolution crystal structure of its apo-form. Structural analysis classified the (Sa)EctC protein as a member of the cupin superfamily. EctC forms a dimer with a head-to-tail arrangement, both in solution and in the crystal structure. The interface of the dimer assembly is shaped through backbone-contacts and weak hydrophobic interactions mediated by two beta-sheets within each monomer. We show for the first time that ectoine synthase harbors a catalytically important metal co-factor; metal depletion and reconstitution experiments suggest that EctC is probably an iron-dependent enzyme. We found that EctC not only effectively converts its natural substrate N-gamma-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid into ectoine through a cyclocondensation reaction, but that it can also use the isomer N-alpha-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid as its substrate, albeit with substantially reduced catalytic efficiency. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments targeting amino acid residues that are evolutionarily highly conserved among the extended EctC protein family, including those forming the presumptive iron-binding site, were conducted to functionally analyze the properties of the resulting EctC variants. An assessment of enzyme activity

  14. An intelligent ultrasonic inspection system for flooded member detection in offshore structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, G; Pearson, J; Stirling, G

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic system for automatic underwater inspection of steel jacket offshore installation is described. It is based on the unambiguous detection of water ingress in normally sealed tubular members, thereby providing an indication of through-wall structural failure. A novel transducer design, based on a dual frequency array of 1-3 connectivity thickness drive transducers, is used to provide the required sensitivity and act also as an environmental monitor for input to an expert system, which performs automatic data analysis. Although intended primarily for operation on a remotely operated vehicle, the system may be employed satisfactorily by a driver. A series of test trials is described, and the prototype is shown to perform very well for all intended modes of operation.

  15. Dynamic Absorbers Used to Reduce Transient Time of Spacecraft Structural Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kotsur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the dynamic absorber effect on damping of low frequency transient processes, which occur when a spacecraft  (SC performs scheduled maneuvers.Transient time is analysed to define the effectiveness of using dynamic absorbers in the SC with non-rigid large-sized structural members. The Spacecraft “Kondor” is considered as a prototype.Two dynamical models of the SC in question are built and analyzed, namely the first one without absorbers and the other one with mounted absorbers. The both models represent a combination of point masses, connected with each other by viscoelastic coupling. The motion equations in modal coordinates are deduced using the Lagrange equation of the second kind.The prototype data chosen from the open publications are used as initial data for the model. The absorber parameters are iteratively selected without solving optimization problem.As a transient model, is used an initial displacement of four particular degrees of freedom, which correspond to the main non-rigid structural members (antenna module, solar panels.The result obtained shows that the use of dynamic absorbers allows us to decrease the time of particular transient process under consideration totally by 55%.The main utility of the proposed method is that it can be used at the front end engineering design stage of a newly designed SC to prevent arising spurious modes. The model can also be useful for an existing SC, which for various reasons does not meet requirements of the transient process time.The paper clearly shows the positive effect of dynamic absorbers available in the SC construction.

  16. Evolutionary, structural and functional interplay of the IκB family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaherin Basith

    Full Text Available A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (IκB. Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of IκB that appear to regulate NF-κB by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of IκB family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the IκB family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 IκB subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD, our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different IκB subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in IκB genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct IκB functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the IκB family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

  17. Effects of internal mass distribution and its isolation on the acoustic characteristics of a submerged hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Herwig; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    The primary aim of machinery isolation in marine vessels is to isolate structural vibration of the onboard machinery from the hull and to reduce far-field radiation of underwater noise. A substantial proportion of the total submarine mass is on flexible mounts that isolate supported masses from the hull at frequencies above the mounting system resonant frequency. This reduces the dynamically effective mass of the hull and affects the signature of the marine vessel due to propeller excitation. A fully coupled finite element/boundary element (FE/BE) model has been developed to investigate the effect of mass distribution and isolation in a submerged hull. The finite element model of the structure includes internal structures to represent the machinery and other flexibly mounted components. Changes in the radiated sound power demonstrate the effect of machinery isolation on the acoustic signature of the submerged hull due to the external propeller forces. Results are also presented to show how the arrangement of flexible mounts for a large internal structure can influence the radiation due to machinery forces.

  18. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  19. [The structure of social representations on health and illness among members of social movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Helena Eri; Silva, Jessica Reis E; de Moura, Luciana Melo; Bermúdez, Ximena Pamela Días; Odeh, Muna Muhammad

    2015-09-01

    The scope of the study was to identify the structure of social representations regarding health and illness as expressed by representatives of social movements. The study included 66 members of social movements in the Federal District of Brazil. A questionnaire was applied to obtain the socio-economic profile of the participants and the free association technique was used in order to identify the likely peripheral and central core of the social representations analyzed by version 2000 EVOC software (Ensemble de Programmes Permettant l'Analyse des Évocations). The study results indicate that the majority of the participants have been activists for longer than six years, male, young adults, with above high school level education, monthly income over two minimum salaries, and are users of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Concerning the social representations of health structure, it was found that "quality of life" comprised the core system, while in the case of the social representations of illness, the core was found to be "suffering." The study suggests that the respondents' social representations of health and illness remain distant from a Social Determinants paradigm considered necessary for the assertion of the right to health and for achieving quality of life.

  20. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  1. Physical properties of peanut hull pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, O O

    2008-03-01

    Peanut hull (peanut pods and waste materials from processing of peanuts) was pelleted through a 3/16-in. (4.76 mm) diameter die. The effect of change in moisture content (4.2-21.2%, wet basis) of the pellets (due to exposure of the pellets to low or high humidity storage environments) on physical properties were measured. Pelleting increased the bulk density of the peanut hull from 151 kg/m(3) to more than 600 kg/m(3). Bulk density, particle density and durability of the pelleted peanut hull of pellets were significantly affected by moisture content attained by the pellets during exposure to the low or high humidity environment. Air relative humidity significantly influenced the rate at which the pellets exchange moisture with the environment while air temperature did not. The values of the constants of the GAB model were obtained from moisture sorption isotherm at 25 degrees C.

  2. Replacement of minimum steel bar reinforcement with steel fibres in structural concrete members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, F.; Holschemacher, K.; Müller, T.; Kieslich, H.

    2017-09-01

    Using lightweight concrete enables a decrease in dead load and thermal conductivity in the case of the manufacturing of structural concrete members. With the addition of steel fibres in concrete, its properties are altered from brittle to ductile, so that the use of additional minimum reinforcement for securing ductility and crack control can be avoided. This study is aimed at investigating the possibility of replacing conventional minimum steel bar reinforcement with steel fibre reinforcement in lightweight aggregate concrete under flexural loading. Therefore, six full-scaled beams with two different lightweight aggregate concretes (LWAC) (oven-dry densities of reinforcement were prepared. For each LWAC, a beam with traditional steel bars, a beam with steel fibres and a beam with a combination of steel fibre reinforcement and reduced steel bar reinforcement were produced. The cracking behaviour of the lightweight concrete beams was studied in a four-point bending test. The results of this study show that it is possible to replace a high amount of the conventional mesh or bar reinforcement with steel fibres.

  3. Structure and Cancer Immunotherapy of the B7 Family Member B7x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jeon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1 is a member of the B7 family that can inhibit T cell function. B7x protein is absent in most normal human tissues and immune cells, but it is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with negative clinical outcome. The expression pattern and function of B7x suggest that it may be a potent immunosuppressive pathway in human cancers. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the human B7x immunoglobulin variable (IgV domain at 1.59 Å resolution and mapped the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies. We developed an in vivo system to screen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against B7x and found that the clone 1H3 significantly inhibited growth of B7x-expressing tumors in vivo via multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the surviving mice given 1H3 treatment were resistant to tumor rechallenge. Our data suggest that targeting B7x on tumors is a promising cancer immunotherapy and humanized 1H3 may be efficacious for immunotherapy of human cancers.

  4. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free-free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations of the struck...... ship hull during ship-ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load-deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic energy...

  5. Determination of digestibility of almond hull in sheep | Yalchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and digestibility of almond hull using in vitro, sacco and vivo methods. Chemical compositions of almond hull and alfalfa hay were determined. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of almond hull were lower than ...

  6. Development of a remotely controlled testing platform with low-drag air-ventilated hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Konstantin I.; Perry, Nicholaus I.; Mattson, Alexander W.; Chaney, Christopher S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses the development and testing of a remotely controlled boat platform with an innovative air-ventilated hull. The application of air cavities on the underside of ship hulls is a promising means for reducing hydrodynamic drag and pollutant emissions and increasing marine transportation efficiency. Despite this concept's potential, design optimization and high-performance operation of novel air-cavity ships remain a challenging problem. Hull construction and sensor instrumentation of the model-scale air-cavity boat is described in the paper. The modular structure of the hull allows for easy modifications, and an electric propulsion unit enables self-propelled operation. The boat is controlled remotely via a radio transmission system. Results of initial tests are reported, including thrust, speed, and airflow rate in several loading conditions. The constructed platform can be used for optimizing air-cavity systems and testing other innovative hull designs. This system can be also developed into a high-performance unmanned boat.

  7. Multi-Hull Flow Visualization: An Investigation of Flow Visualization Techniques for Trimaran Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Denz, Thomas; Smith, Stephanie; Shrestha, Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    .... However, much is unknown about the hydrodynamic characteristics of multiple hulls. The objective of this study was to explore innovative techniques for qualitatively visualizing flow that could provide insight to aid designers...

  8. Chemical composition and nutritional characteristics of some hull less and hulled barley cultivars grown in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, S; Kalra, S

    2001-02-01

    Three hull less and nine hulled barley cultivars were grown during 1995-96 at Research Farm, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India and were used for chemical analysis such as nutritional and antinutritional parameters. Dolma, a hull less barley cultivar had higher contents of protein, fat, starch, in vitro digestibility of protein and starch, in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn. Hulled cultivar BH-331 showed higher values of phytic acid (925 mg/100 g), polyphenols (625 mg/100 g) and amylase inhibitor activity (169 AIU) which might have contributed towards poor in vitro digestibility of Ca, Fe and Zn. Phytic acid and polyphenols manifested significantly negative correlation with in vitro availability of Ca, Fe and Zn and protein digestibility. Whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed significant and negative correlation (-0.992) only with starch digestibility.

  9. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  10. Genetic Structure and Distribution of the Colibactin Genomic Island among Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putze, Johannes; Hennequin, Claire; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Wenlan; Homburg, Stefan; Karch, Helge; Bringer, Marie-Agnés; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Oswald, Eric; Forestier, Christiane; Hacker, Jörg; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    A genomic island encoding the biosynthesis and secretion pathway of putative hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide colibactin has been recently described in Escherichia coli. Colibactin acts as a cyclomodulin and blocks the eukaryotic cell cycle. The origin and prevalence of the colibactin island among enterobacteria are unknown. We therefore screened 1,565 isolates of different genera and species related to the Enterobacteriaceae by PCR for the presence of this DNA element. The island was detected not only in E. coli but also in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter koseri isolates. It was highly conserved among these species and was always associated with the yersiniabactin determinant. Structural variations between individual strains were only observed in an intergenic region containing variable numbers of tandem repeats. In E. coli, the colibactin island was usually restricted to isolates of phylogenetic group B2 and inserted at the asnW tRNA locus. Interestingly, in K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, C. koseri, and three E. coli strains of phylogenetic group B1, the functional colibactin determinant was associated with a genetic element similar to the integrative and conjugative elements ICEEc1 and ICEKp1 and to several enterobacterial plasmids. Different asn tRNA genes served as chromosomal insertion sites of the ICE-associated colibactin determinant: asnU in the three E. coli strains of ECOR group B1, and different asn tRNA loci in K. pneumoniae. The detection of the colibactin genes associated with an ICE-like element in several enterobacteria provides new insights into the spread of this gene cluster and its putative mode of transfer. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of genetic exchange between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19720753

  11. Structural phase transition in a growing network model with tunable member intimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kibum; Jo, Woo Seong; Kim, Beom Jun

    2017-05-01

    Users of online communities become more intimate in time by writing posts and exchanging comments to each other. Although a certain level of intimacy among a group of members can be beneficial for the activity of the whole community, too strong intimacy among existing members can make newcomers feel alienated, driving them to leave the community. In this letter, we introduce a growing network model in which we systematically study the effect of member intimacy on the formation of connected component of the network. We introduce a parameter called clinginess and control how the member intimacy affects the communication activity. We observe that cumulative number of users who leave the community exhibits a transition-like behavior, similarly to the discontinuous transition in statistical mechanics models. Implication of our result in constructing a sustainable online community is also discussed.

  12. "Keisri hull" on viimast korda laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Neli hooaega Ugala repertuaaris olnud Jaan Krossi romaani põhjal lavastatud draama "Keisri hull" etendub viimast korda 10. veebruaril. Viimane etendus on pühendatud Jaan Krossi 90. sünniaastapäevale, mis on 19. veebruaril. Lavastajad Peeter Tammearu ja Jaak Allik. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  13. Exploration of Nursing Faculty Members' Lived Experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obizoba, Cordelia O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…

  14. Exact natural frequencies for out-of-plane motion of plane structures composed of curved beam members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, W. P.; Jemah, A. K.; Zhou, J. Q.

    1995-06-01

    Exact finite elements form the basis of a new and convenient procedure for converging with certainty upon any required natural frequency of out-of-plane motion of any plane structure composed of slender elastic curved members. Solution of the inherent transcendental eigenvalue problem is achieved through a variation on the powerful Wittrick-Williams algorithm. Two illustrative examples are included.

  15. Micro-heterogeneity of corn hulls cellulosic fiber biopolymer studied by multiple-particle tracking (MPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel technique named multiple-particle tracking (MPT) was used to investigate the micro-structural heterogeneities of Z-trim, a zero calorie cellulosic fiber biopolymer produced from corn hulls. The Multiple-Particle Tracking (MPT) method was used in this study, which was originally described by ...

  16. Delinquency Among Members of Hong Kong Youth Street Gangs: The Role of the Organizational Structures of Gangs and Triad Affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Khiatani, Paul Vinod

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the importance of organizational structures and formal affiliations with the Hong Kong triads to delinquency among youth street gang members in Hong Kong. More specifically, this study examines the relative importance of the number of organizational structures and triad affiliation to patterns of delinquency in a sample of active members of youth street gangs ( N = 201). With the aid of outreach social workers, a convenience sampling method was used to recruit a gender-balanced sample of at-risk youths. Logistic regression analysis of the survey data that was gathered indicated that formal affiliation to Hong Kong triads and the presence of organizational structures significantly increased the odds of delinquency (independently of each other). Suggestions for future research on gang membership and delinquency, with particular reference to the Asian context, are provided.

  17. A Review on the Use of Agriculture Waste Material as Lightweight Aggregate for Reinforced Concrete Structural Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hung Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture industry is one of the main industries in the Southeast Asia region due to its favourable conditions for plantations. In fact, Southeast Asia region is the world’s largest producer of palm oil and coconut. Nevertheless, vast plantation of these agriculture products leads to equally large amount of waste materials emanating from these industries. Previously, researchers have attempted to utilize the resulting waste materials such as oil palm shell, palm oil clinker, and coconut shell from these industries as lightweight aggregate to produce structural grade lightweight aggregate concrete. In order to promote the concept of using such concrete for actual structural applications, this paper reviews the use of such agriculture-based lightweight aggregate concrete in reinforced concrete structural members such as beam and slab, which were carried out by researchers in the past. The behaviour of the structural members under flexural, shear, and torsional load was also summarized. It is hoped that the knowledge attained from the paper will provide design engineers with better idea and proper application of design criteria for structural members using such agriculture waste as lightweight aggregate.

  18. CO2-H2O based pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of soybean hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-11-01

    The high carbohydrate content of soybean hull makes it an attractive biorefinery resource. But hydrolyzing its complex structure requires concerted enzyme activities, at least cellulase, xylanase, pectinase and α-galactosidase. Effective pretreatment that generates minimal inhibitory products is important to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. Combined CO2-H2O pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei enzyme broths was studied here. The pretreatment was evaluated at 80°C-180°C temperature and 750psi-1800psi pressure, with fixed moisture content (66.7%) and pretreatment time (30min). Ground hulls without and with different pretreatments were hydrolyzed by enzyme at 50°C and pH 4.8 and compared for glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, mannose and total reducing sugar release. CO2-H2O pretreatment at 1250psi and 130°C was found to be optimal. Compared to the unpretreated hulls hydrolyzed with 2.5-fold more enzyme, this pretreatment improved glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose and mannose releases by 55%, 35%, 105%, 683% and 52%, respectively. Conversions of 97% for glucose, 98% for xylose, 41% for galactose, 59% for arabinose, 87% for mannose and 89% for total reducing sugar were achieved with Spezyme CP at 18FPU/g hull. Monomerization of all carbohydrate types was demonstrated. At the optimum pretreatment condition, generation of inhibitors acetic acid, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was negligible, 1.5mg/g hull in total. The results confirmed the effective CO2-H2O pretreatment of soybean hulls at much lower pressure and temperature than those reported for biomass of higher lignin contents. The lower pressure requirement reduces the reactor cost and makes this new pretreatment method more practical and economical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Particle-spring method for form finding grid shell structures consisting of flexible members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijvenhoven, M.; Hoogenboom, P.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general design method is described that can significantly reduce the effort needed for form finding grid shells consisting of flexible members. This design method is based on particle-spring models for simulating the behaviour of a grid shell during construction. Hereby, the stress

  20. Measuring hull girder deformations on a 9300 TEU containership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Jos; Schiere, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    A 9300 TEU container carrier was equipped in 2006 with instrumentation aimed at wave induced accelerations, and motions. In 2010 the system was extended with strain sensors to include structural loads. Section loads for vertical bending could be readily obtained but the originally intended derivation of horizontal bending and torsion from the measured strains was found to be unreliable. This paper addresses an alternative approach that was adopted in the post processing of results. In particular the concept to use acceleration sensors to capture global hull deformations along the length of the hull, and the use of a data fusion procedure to obtain section loads from combined sensor data and finite element calculations. The approach is illustrated by comparison of actually measured accelerations and local strains with values obtained from the data fusion model. It is concluded that the approach is promising but in need of further validation and development. In particular the number and shapes of the modes used may not have been sufficient to represent the true deflection and thus strain distributions along the high loaded areas.

  1. FPSO global strength and hull optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junyuan; Xiao, Jianhua; Ma, Rui; Cao, Kai

    2014-03-01

    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  2. Automatic welding systems for large ship hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregi, B.; Granados, S.; Hascoet, JY.; Hamilton, K.; Alonso, M.; Ares, E.

    2012-04-01

    Welding processes represents about 40% of the total production time in shipbuilding. Although most of the indoor welding work is automated, outdoor operations still require the involvement of numerous operators. To automate hull welding operations is a priority in large shipyards. The objective of the present work is to develop a comprehensive welding system capable of working with several welding layers in an automated way. There are several difficulties for the seam tracking automation of the welding process. The proposed solution is the development of a welding machine capable of moving autonomously along the welding seam, controlling both the position of the torch and the welding parameters to adjust the thickness of the weld bead to the actual gap between the hull plates.

  3. Shape and Size of Initial Geometrical Imperfections of Structural Glass Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešek Ondřej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper measuring and determining of initial geometrical imperfections of set of glass members are presented. Measured specimens had the different dimensions and different composition – monolithic glass or laminated glass using different types of interlayer foils and glass panes. The shape of initial overall bow was measured using different methods and results were statistically evaluated and compared with allowable values defined in standards.

  4. The Crystal Structure of the Protein-Disulfide Isomerase Family Member ERp27 Provides Insights into Its Substrate Binding Capabilities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Franz-Xaver; Koelmel, Wolfgang; Kuper, Jochen; Drechsler, Johannes; Mais, Christine; Hermanns, Heike M.; Schindelin, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of all cellular proteins pass through the secretory pathway and hence undergo oxidative folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and related members of the PDI family assist in the folding of substrates by catalyzing the oxidation of two cysteines and isomerization of disulfide bonds as well as by acting as chaperones. In this study, we present the crystal structure of ERp27, a redox-inactive member of the PDI family. The structure reveals its substrate-binding cleft, which is homologous to PDI, but is able to adapt in size and hydrophobicity. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments demonstrate that ERp27 is able to distinguish between folded and unfolded substrates, only interacting with the latter. ERp27 is up-regulated during ER stress, thus presumably allowing it to bind accumulating misfolded substrates and present them to ERp57 for catalysis. PMID:23192347

  5. A study on the static and impact structural behavior of concrete filled steel tubular members under Tsunami flotsam collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Mahmud Kori; Kawano, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake triggered the Tsunami which caused massive great damage of the structural building either by the Tsunami waves themselves or by the Tsunami flotsam impact. With respect to the wave pressure, the loads by wave pressure are treated as statically equivalent loads. On the other hand, with respect to the collision of flotsam, the quantitative design method has not been established so far. The collision between Tsunami flotsam and concrete filled steel tubular (CFT) member is studied. Specimens consist of square, circular, and diamond cross-sectional shapes. The three dimensional finite element analysis (FEM) by MSC Marc Mentat (2012) was performed to evaluate static behavior of CFT members subjected to concentrated lateral load. The tip shape of lateral load is intended the collision with Tsunami flotsam. The solid element is used for steel tubes and infill concrete, respectively. The contact analysis between tip shapes of load and the steel as well as the concrete and steel are also considered. The fiber element analysis program developed by Kawano (1995) is employed to the impact response analysis. The members are modelled by beam-column elements with a cross section consisting of stress fibers. The collision model is developed to consider that Tsunami flotsam with the velocity 7m/sec collides with the CFT members. The gap element is employed to model the contact and separation between Tsunami flotsam and CFT members. The precision of analytical models of the FEM analysis and the frame analysis is confirmed by the comparison with the experimental test results. The FEM analysis is capable reproducing the deflected shape of the static test which also same as those of impact test results. It is discussed the comparison of energy absorption capacity of a CFT member under both impact and static loading.

  6. Structure of BT_3984, a member of the SusD/RagB family of nutrient-binding molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakolitsa, Constantina; Xu, Qingping; Rife, Christopher L; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Das, Debanu; Deller, Marc C; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D; Morse, Andrew T; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Tien, Henry J; Trame, Christine B; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Hodgson, Keith O; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    The crystal structure of the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron protein BT_3984 was determined to a resolution of 1.7 Å and was the first structure to be determined from the extensive SusD family of polysaccharide-binding proteins. SusD is an essential component of the sus operon that defines the paradigm for glycan utilization in dominant members of the human gut microbiota. Structural analysis of BT_3984 revealed an N-terminal region containing several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), while the signature C-terminal region is less structured and contains extensive loop regions. Sequence and structure analysis of BT_3984 suggests the presence of binding interfaces for other proteins from the polysaccharide-utilization complex.

  7. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides simple but rational procedures for prediction of extreme wave – induced sectional hull girder forces with reasonable engineering accuracy. The procedures take into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient......, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is based on rational methods it can be applied for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies or to account for specific operational profiles....

  8. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers....... It is investigated how the accuracy is improved, as the wake field is modelled more precisely. The thrust variation and pressure distribution on the blade from the CFD simulation with the hull wake model are also analyzed.......Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...

  9. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new type of robot for underwater hull cleaning on ships with non-magnetic hulls. This robot is based on the concept that cleaning hulls regularly, without waiting to take them out of the water, will improve the efficiency of the ships and will permit a reduction...... and constraints of the environment solves the most difficult problems that arise when moving along hulls. Some of these are changing planes, negotiating appendices, avoiding portholes, passing corners, and other elements. This greatly simplifies the control mechanisms that are required for its operation making...

  10. Hydrodynamics of single-deadrise hulls and their catamaran configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi S. Bari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric planing hulls are often used on high-speed catamarans. In this study, a linearized potential-flow method is applied for modeling steady hydrodynamics of single asymmetric hulls and their catamaran setups. Numerical results are validated with available experimental data and empirical correlations. Parametric calculation results are presented for the lift coefficient and the center of pressure for variable hull geometry, spacings, and speed regimes. The lift coefficient is found to increase at smaller hull spacings and decrease at higher Froude numbers and higher deadrise angles.

  11. Employing social accounting matrix multipliers to profile the bioeconomy in the EU member states: is there a structural pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Philippidis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of 'bioeconomy' is gathering momentum in European Union (EU policy circles as a sustainable model of growth to reconcile continued wealth generation and employment with bio-based sustainable resource usage. Unfortunately, in the literature an economy-wide quantitative assessment covering the full diversity of this sector is lacking due to relatively poor data availability for disaggregated bio-based activities. This research represents a first step by employing social accounting matrices (SAMs for each EU27 member encompassing a highly disaggregated treatment of traditional 'bio-based' agricultural and food activities, as well as additional identifiable bioeconomic activities from the national accounts data. Employing backward-linkage (BL, forward-linkage (FL and employment multipliers, the aim is to profile and assess comparative structural patterns both across bioeconomic sectors and EU Member States. The results indicate six clusters of EU member countries with homogeneous bioeconomy structures. Within cluster statistical tests reveal a high tendency toward 'backward orientation' or demand driven wealth generation, whilst inter-cluster statistical comparisons by bio-based sector show only a moderate degree of heterogeneous BL wealth generation and, with the exception of only two sectors, a uniformly homogeneous degree of FL wealth generation. With the exception of forestry, fishing and wood activities, bio-based employment generation prospects are below non bioeconomy activities. Finally, milk and dairy are established as 'key sectors'.

  12. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  13. THE ECONOMIC STRUCTURES IN THE ROMANIAN REGIONS AND COUNTIES AND THE EU MEMBER STATES. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara, IORDAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bridging the gap between countries, and thus decresing poverty, is the greatest challenge of European countries in the context of the European social cohesion. The risk of future economic difficulties caused by the size of budget deficits is beared by the funds to be allocated to social inclusion in the EU and the EU member countries. They will be concerned in the post-crisis period with aligning the requirements of progress, of poverty reduction, but also of ensuring the sustainability of public finances. For Romania, cohesion is particularly important as most regions show significant differences as compared to the EU average and the national average. This group also includes the South Muntenia Region, which has many advantages for faster progress and to be able to exploit the opportunities offered by the implementation of the Europe 2020 strategy.

  14. Structure of armadillo ACBP: a new member of the acyl-CoA-binding protein family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costabel, Marcelo D., E-mail: costabel@criba.edu.ar [Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ermácora, Mario R. [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Bernal (Argentina); Santomé, José A. [Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFYB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica (UBA-CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alzari, Pedro M. [Unité de Biochimie Structurale, Institut Pasteur, Paris (France); Guérin, Diego M. A. [Unidad de Biofisica (CSIC-UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Grupo de Biofísica, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2006-10-01

    The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. ACBP is a carrier for activated long-chain fatty acids and has been associated with many aspects of lipid metabolism. Its secondary structure is highly similar to that of the corresponding form of bovine ACBP and exhibits the unique flattened α-helical bundle (up–down–down–up) motif reported for animal, yeast and insect ACBPs. Conformational differences are located in loops and turns, although these structural differences do not suffice to account for features that could be related to the unusual biochemistry and lipid metabolism of the Harderian gland.

  15. INTEGRATION OF SHIP HULL ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE PLANNING, SCHEDULING AND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Romuald Iwańkowicz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.

  16. Research development of buckling and ultimate strength of hull plate and stiffened panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yanting

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buckling and ultimate strength of hull plate and stiffened panel are important contents in the de-sign of ship structures,have achieved plenteous results in recent years. The research development of buck-ling and ultimate strength of steel hull plate and stiffened panel in the past decade at home and abroad is re-viewed for the convenience of carrying out studies and researches. The case of static loading is emphatical-ly described,the cyclic loading and dynamic loading are also introduced. A systematical overview is pre-sented for intact structures and damaged structures under single load or combined loads,in accordance with four kinds of research methods,which are experiment,numerical computation method,analytical method and comprehensive approach. The superiority and inferiority of each research method are assessed. Significant achievements are summarized,and six further problems are identified for the future study.

  17. Crystal structure of cytomegalovirus IE1 protein reveals targeting of TRIM family member PML via coiled-coil interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Scherer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all α-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5α We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less

  18. A novel member of the protein disulfide oxidoreductase family from Aeropyrum pernix K1: structure, function and electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Katia; Pedone, Emilia; Langella, Emma; De Simone, Giuseppina; Rossi, Mosè; Pedone, Carlo; Bartolucci, Simonetta

    2006-09-29

    The formation of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues is a rate-limiting step in protein folding. To control this oxidative process, different organisms have developed different systems. In bacteria, disulfide bond formation is assisted by the Dsb protein family; in eukarya, disulfide bond formation and rearrangement are catalyzed by PDI. In thermophilic organisms, a potential key role in disulfide bond formation has recently been ascribed to a new cytosolic Protein Disulphide Oxidoreductase family whose members have a molecular mass of about 26 kDa and are characterized by two thioredoxin folds comprising a CXXC active site motif each. Here we report on the functional and structural characterization of ApPDO, a new member of this family, which was isolated from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Functional studies have revealed that ApPDO can catalyze the reduction, oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bridges. Structural studies have shown that this protein has two CXXC active sites with fairly similar geometrical parameters typical of a stable conformation. Finally, a theoretical calculation of the cysteine pK(a) values has suggested that the two active sites have similar functional properties and each of them can impart activity to the enzyme. Our results are evidence of functional similarity between the members of the Protein Disulphide Oxidoreductase family and the eukaryotic enzyme PDI. However, as the different three-dimensional features of these two biological systems strongly suggest significantly different mechanisms of action, further experimental studies will be needed to make clear how different three-dimensional structures can result in systems with similar functional behavior.

  19. Structural characterization of Helicobacter pylori dethiobiotin synthetase reveals differences between family members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Klimecka, Maria; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Nicholls, Robert A.; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cuff, Marianne E.; Xu, Xiaohui; Cymborowski, Marcin; Murshudov, Garib N.; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek (MCSG); (UV); (MRC)

    2012-07-11

    Dethiobiotin synthetase (DTBS) is involved in the biosynthesis of biotin in bacteria, fungi, and plants. As humans lack this pathway, DTBS is a promising antimicrobial drug target. We determined structures of DTBS from Helicobacter pylori (hpDTBS) bound with cofactors and a substrate analog, and described its unique characteristics relative to other DTBS proteins. Comparison with bacterial DTBS orthologs revealed considerable structural differences in nucleotide recognition. The C-terminal region of DTBS proteins, which contains two nucleotide-recognition motifs, differs greatly among DTBS proteins from different species. The structure of hpDTBS revealed that this protein is unique and does not contain a C-terminal region containing one of the motifs. The single nucleotide-binding motif in hpDTBS is similar to its counterpart in GTPases; however, isothermal titration calorimetry binding studies showed that hpDTBS has a strong preference for ATP. The structural determinants of ATP specificity were assessed with X-ray crystallographic studies of hpDTBS-ATP and hpDTBS-GTP complexes. The unique mode of nucleotide recognition in hpDTBS makes this protein a good target for H. pylori-specific inhibitors of the biotin synthesis pathway.

  20. Evaluation of Soybean Hulls in Grower Turkey Diets | Etuk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 42 day study was carried out to evaluate the effect of soybean hulls (SBH) in diets of grower turkeys. Four experimental turkey grower diets were formulated such that soybean hulls made up of 0.0 (control diet), 10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of the diets respectively replacing maize and soybean meal. These diets were offered ...

  1. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sign the report and confirm the validity of its contents. (b) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must... the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer...

  2. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) If you use an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) as the predominate means to examine the vessel's underwater hull plating, you must provide the OCMI with a report in a format that is acceptable.... (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE...

  3. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification... equipment: (1) All watertight doors shall be operated locally by manual power and also by hydraulic or...

  4. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and... presence of a marine inspector once every five years; (4) Remove all passengers from the vessel when the sea valves are being examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5...

  5. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number display. 181.29 Section 181.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on each...

  6. Structural plasticity among glutathione transferase Phi members: natural combination of catalytic residues confers dual biochemical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pégeot, Henri; Mathiot, Sandrine; Perrot, Thomas; Gense, Frédéric; Hecker, Arnaud; Didierjean, Claude; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    The glutathione transferase (GST) gene family is divided into 14 classes in photosynthetic organisms. Among them, the Phi class (GSTF) is composed of a large number of genes that are often induced in response to environmental constraints due to their ability to detoxify xenobiotics, to their peroxidase activity and to their involvement in the biosynthesis and/or transport of secondary metabolites. However, the exact functions of GSTFs from many plants including Populus trichocarpa are unknown. Here, following GSTF1 characterization, we have performed a comparative analysis of the seven other GSTFs found in poplar by systematically evaluating the biochemical and enzymatic properties of the corresponding recombinant proteins and of variants mutated for active site residues and by determining the three-dimensional structures of several representatives. Owing to the presence of a cysteine with a pK a value around 5 in their active site, GSTF3, F7, and F8 displayed a thiol transferase activity in addition to the usual glutathione transferase and peroxidase activities. From structural analyses, it appeared that these dual biochemical properties originate from the existence of a certain variability in the β1-α1 loop. This allows positioning of several active site residues at proximity of the glutathione molecule, which itself remains unchanged in GSTF three-dimensional structures. These results highlight the promiscuity of some GSTFs and that changes of active site residues in some isoforms during evolution generated functional diversity by modifying their activity profile. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5EY6, 5F05, 5F06, and 5F07. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

    2013-01-31

    The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

  8. Structure and surface chemistry of 5-membered cyclic molecules on Rh(111): Thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzer, F. P.; Bertel, E.; Goldmann, A.

    1988-07-01

    The interaction of thiophene with Rh(111) has been investigated using angle resolved UV photoelectron spectroscopy (ARUPS), thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), LEED and Auger spectroscopy (AES). A thiophene monolayer is stable at Tdesulphurisation step is followed by a complex reaction sequence involving hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of hydrocarbon residues. TDS and ARUPS results are consistent with a C 4 hydrocarbon fragment, which in part is desorbed as butadiene. Sulphur desorption is not observed from the Rh(111) surface, but the S adatoms arrange into a ( 3× 3) R30° LEED structure after elimination from the hydrocarbon ring, if thiophene dosing is performed at 300 K.

  9. Nurses' participation in personal knowledge transfer: the role of leader-member exchange (LMX) and structural empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alicia; Wong, Carol A; Laschinger, Heather

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Kanter's theory by examining relationships among structural empowerment, leader-member exchange (LMX) quality and nurses' participation in personal knowledge transfer activities. Despite the current emphasis on evidence-based practice in health care, research suggests that implementation of research findings in everyday clinical practice is unsystematic at best with mixed outcomes. This study was a secondary analysis of data collected using a non-experimental, predictive mailed survey design. A random sample of 400 registered nurses who worked in urban tertiary care hospitals in Ontario yielded a final sample of 234 for a 58.5% response rate. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the combination of LMX and structural empowerment accounted for 9.1% of the variance in personal knowledge transfer but only total empowerment was a significant independent predictor of knowledge transfer (β=0.291, t=4.012, PTheory, higher levels of empowerment and leader-member exchange quality resulted in increased participation in personal knowledge transfer in practice. The results reinforce the pivotal role of nurse managers in supporting empowering work environments that are conducive to transfer of knowledge in practice to provide evidence-based care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Genetic analysis and morphological identification of pilus-like structures in members of the genus Bifidobacterium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Cell surface pili in Gram positive bacteria have been reported to orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity and the development of biofilms. So far, little if any information is available on the presence of pilus-like structures in human gut commensals like bifidobacteria. Results and discussion In this report, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) of various bifidobacterial strains belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis revealed the existence of appendages resembling pilus-like structures. Interestingly, these microorganisms harbour two to six predicted pilus gene clusters in their genome, with each organized in an operon encompassing the major pilin subunit-encoding gene (designated fimA or fimP) together with one or two minor pilin subunit-encoding genes (designated as fimB and\\/or fimQ), and a gene encoding a sortase enzyme (strA). Quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR analysis and RT-PCR experiments revealed a polycistronic mRNA, encompassing the fimA\\/P and fimB\\/Q genes, which are differentially expressed upon cultivation of bifidobacteria on various glycans.

  11. Wide diversity in structure and expression profiles among members of the Caenorhabditis elegans globin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradov Serge

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of high throughput genome sequencing facilities and powerful high performance bioinformatic tools has highlighted hitherto unexpected wide occurrence of globins in the three kingdoms of life. In silico analysis of the genome of C. elegans identified 33 putative globin genes. It remains a mystery why this tiny animal might need so many globins. As an inroad to understanding this complexity we initiated a structural and functional analysis of the globin family in C. elegans. Results All 33 C. elegans putative globin genes are transcribed. The translated sequences have the essential signatures of single domain bona fide globins, or they contain a distinct globin domain that is part of a larger protein. All globin domains can be aligned so as to fit the globin fold, but internal interhelical and N- and C-terminal extensions and a variety of amino acid substitutions generate much structural diversity among the globins of C. elegans. Likewise, the encoding genes lack a conserved pattern of intron insertion positioning. We analyze the expression profiles of the globins during the progression of the life cycle, and we find that distinct subsets of globins are induced, or repressed, in wild-type dauers and in daf-2(e1370/insulin-receptor mutant adults, although these animals share several physiological features including resistance to elevated temperature, oxidative stress and hypoxic death. Several globin genes are upregulated following oxygen deprivation and we find that HIF-1 and DAF-2 each are required for this response. Our data indicate that the DAF-2 regulated transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO positively modulates hif-1 transcription under anoxia but opposes expression of the HIF-1 responsive globin genes itself. In contrast, the canonical globin of C. elegans, ZK637.13, is not responsive to anoxia. Reduced DAF-2 signaling leads to enhanced transcription of this globin and DAF-16 is required for this effect

  12. Effect of Alkali-Silica Reaction on Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Saouma, Victor [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was discovered in the early 40s by Stanton (1940) of the California Division of Highways. Since, it has been recognized as a major degradation mechanism for concrete dams and transportation infrastructures. Sometimes described as the ’cancer of concrete’, this internal swelling mechanism causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. There are no known economically viable solutions applicable to massive concrete to prevent the reaction once initiated. The e ciency of the mitigation strategies for ASR subjected structures is limited. Several cases of ASR in nuclear generating stations have been disclosed in Japan (Takatura et al. 2005), Canada at Gentilly 2 NPP (Tcherner and Aziz 2009) 1, and more recently, in the United States for which the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Information Notice (IN) 2011-20, ’Concrete Degradation by Alkali Silica Reaction,’ on November 18, 2011, to provide the industry with information related to the ASR identified at Seabrook. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR degradation can be visually detected and that numerous non nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) have already experienced ASR in a large majority of the States (e.g., Department of Transportation survey reported by Touma (Touma 2000)), the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed in the perspective of license renewal and long-term operation beyond 60 years. The aim of this report is to perform an extensive parametric series of 3D nonlinear finite element analyses of three di erent “beam-like” geometries, including two di erent depths, three di erent types of boundary conditions, and four other parameters: namely, the ASR volumetric expansion, the reinforcement ratio, the loss of elastic modulus induced by ASR and the loss of tensile strength caused by ASR.

  13. Boat Hull Blisters: Repair Techniques and Long Term Effects on Hull Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    blistering of boat hulls is a serious problem which affects many fiber- glass polyester boats. It can range from a surficial cosmetic problem to a deep...something present in the resin itself. We have reported blistering vhen sorbitol is added to the resin. Pritchard has reported on the role of excess glycol...Is blistering and water absorption only a cosmetic and surficial problem or does deep seated damage occur after prolonged water exposure? The

  14. Union Members Are Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... different directions. • The connection forces between the hulls and the wind turbine pile. • The natural frequency of oscillation. For the study, realistic scale models of the hulls of the crew boats were supplied by the client, Hauschildt Marine. The laboratory tests were performed by Arthur Pecher under...

  16. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  17. [New approaches to the monitoring of hospital hygiene: assessment of hygiene skills of staff members by structured interviews and observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, R; Münster, W; Hoffmann, G; Heudorf, U

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demands on hygiene in hospitals require improved methods of systematic monitoring by the Public Health Service. The hygiene skills of at least 20% of the hospital physicians and nurses were evaluated by structured interviews and observation. The results were presented to the hospitals. In total, 184 persons were reviewed in 5 hospitals. On average, 7 out of 10 questions on hygiene knowledge were answered correctly, 74% of the persons asked demonstrated proper hand hygiene and 66% of them were not wearing any jewellery on their hands. There were no significant differences between physicians and nurses. The slight differences between the 5 hospitals were transferred into a ranking. The application of the method provides additional information on hygiene in hospitals and allows a comparison of the hygiene skills of their staff members. The results form the basis for a dialogue between hospital and Public Health Service. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Morphological influence of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hulls on rheological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/CN suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work aims to extract and characterize fibrous, rod-like and spherical cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hull and to investigate the structure-morphology-rheology relationships. The rheological behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/CNs suspensions was also examined to guide the solve...

  19. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time, a...

  20. 2-Hetaryl-1,3-tropolones based on five-membered nitrogen heterocycles: synthesis, structure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury A. Sayapin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of derivatives of 2-hetaryl-1,3-tropolone (β-tropolone was prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of 2-methylbenzoxazoles, 2-methylbenzothiazoles and 2,3,3-trimethylindoline with 3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,2-benzoquinone. The molecular structures of the three representative compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography. In crystal and (as shown by the DFT PBE0/6-311+G** calculations in solution, 2-hetaryl-4,5,6,7-tetrachloro- and 2-hetaryl-5,6,7-trichloro-1,3-tropolones exist in the NH-tautomeric form with a strong resonance-assisted intramolecular N–H···O hydrogen bond. The mechanism of the formation of 1,3-tropolones in the reaction of methylene-active five-membered heterocycles with o-chloranil in acetic acid solution has been studied using density functional theory (DFT methods. The reaction of 2-(2-benzoxa(thiazolyl-5,6,7-trichloro(4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-1,3-tropolones with alcohols leads to the contraction of the seven-membered tropone ring with the formation of 2-(2-benzoxa(thiazolyl-6-alkoxycarbonylphenols. The molecular structure of 2-(2-ethoxycarbonyl-6-hydroxy-3,4,5-trichlorophenylbenzoxazole has been determined by X-ray diffraction. 2-(2-Benzoxa(thiazolyl-6-alkoxycarbonylphenols display intense green fluorescence with anomalous Stokes shifts caused by the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT effects.

  1. "Keisri hull" kui müstiline fantasy / Siimon Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Siimon

    2006-01-01

    30. sept. Ugalas esietendunud Jaan Krossi "Keisri hull" (autoridramatiseering), lavastajad Jaak Allik ja Peeter Tammearu. Kunstnik on Jaanus Laagriküll ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Konovalov. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  2. Hull shape optimization for autonomous underwater vehicles using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag estimation and shape optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV hulls are critical to energy utilization and endurance improvement. In the present work, a shape optimization platform composed of several commercial software packages is presented. Computational accuracy, efficiency and robustness were carefully considered and balanced. Comparisons between experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to prove that a two-dimensional (2D unstructured mesh, a standard wall function and adaptive mesh refinement could greatly improve efficiency as well as guarantee accuracy. Details of the optimization platform were then introduced. A comparison of optimizers indicates that the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA obtains a better hull shape than particle swarm optimization (PSO, despite being a little more time consuming. The optimized hull shape under general volume requirement could provide reference for AUV hull design. Specific requirements based on optimization testify of the platform’s robustness.

  3. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  4. Crystal structure and potential physiological role of zebra fish thioesterase superfamily member 2 (fTHEM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shanshan; Li, Han; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Ying, E-mail: zhouying@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2015-08-07

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is an essential protein for mammalian cell proliferation. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes hydrolysis of thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro, while its in vivo function remains unrevealed. In this study, Zebra fish was selected as a model organism to facilitate the investigations on THEM2. First, we solved the crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 at the resolution of 1.80 Å, which displayed a similar scaffolding as hTHEM2. Second, functional studies demonstrated that fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA in vitro. In addition, injection of morpholino against fTHEM2 at one-cell stage resulted in distorted early embryo development, including delayed cell division, retarded development and increased death rate. The above findings validated our hypothesis that fTHEM2 could serve as an ideal surrogate for studying the physiological functions of THEM2. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 is presented. • fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA. • The influence of fTHEM2 on early embryo development is demonstrated.

  5. Predicting the density of structural timber members in service. The combine use of wood cores and drill resistance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Condea, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Drilling devices is used to get information about the cross-section properties and internal defects of structural members. Drill resistance is correlated with density which is often used to predict the mechanical properties of timber elements. However in situ a regression curve cannot be obtained and pre-existent curves provides unreliable predictions. The present paper proposes a procedure for in situ “calibration” of drill resistance data. The “calibration” is based on density values from wood cores taken in the close vicinity of drill holes. Two approaches were tested. One approach based on a regression curve built using wood cores density and drill resistance values obtained from a limited number of members. The other approach uses the information of one wood core to “calibrate” the drill resistance profile taken at the same member. Following this procedure a density prediction is obtained showing a low mean percentage error and a medium coefficient of determination.Los dispositivos de perforación se utilizan a menudo para obtener información sobre las propiedades de la sección transversal y defectos internos de los elementos estructurales de madera. La resistencia a la perforación se correlaciona con la densidad que, a menudo, se utiliza para obtener la predicción de las propiedades mecánicas de los elementos de madera. Sin embargo, una curva de regresión no puede ser obtenida in situ y las curvas de preexistentes proporcionan predicciones poco fiables. En el presente trabajo se propone un procedimiento de “calibración” in situ de los datos de resistencia de perforación obtenidos en cada caso. La “calibración” se basa en los valores de densidad de pequeñas probetas de madera tomadas en las inmediaciones de los taladros. Para ello se plantean 2 métodos: Un primer enfoque basado en obtener una curva de regresión a partir de los valores de densidad de pequeñas probetas de madera y los valores de resistencia a

  6. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Heon Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-Vtype, DLWL type, bulb shape (bulb height and size; and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-Vtype, DLWL type. WAVIS version 1.3 code is usedfor the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  8. The Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Information Technology (IT): And the Barriers to Its Establishment at the University of Isfahan from the Faculty Member's Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh; Mohsen, Allammeh Sayyed; Hassan, Ghalavandi; Aboulghassim, Farhang; Zaman, Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organizational structure between IT and the barriers to its establishment in University of Isfahan from faculty member's viewpoints in 2007-2008. The questionnaires were prepared and examined based on the organization dimensions of organizational structures (formality,…

  9. Toward free-surface modeling of planing vessels: simulation of the Fridsma hull using ALE-VMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, I.; Dunaway, J.; Kvandal, J.; Spinks, J.; Bazilevs, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we focus on a class of applications involving surface vessels moving at high speeds, or "planing". We introduce a Fridsma planing hull benchmark problem, and simulate it using the finite-element-based ALE-VMS (Bazilevs et al. in Math Models Methods Appl Sci 2012; Takizawa et al. in Arch Comput Methods Eng 19: 171-225, 2012) approach. The major reasons for selecting this problem is the relative simplicity of the hull geometry and the existence of high-quality experimental data used for the purposes of validation. The ALE-VMS approach is formulated in the context of the Mixed Interface-Tracking/Interface-Capturing Technique (MITICT) (Tezduyar in Arch Comput Methods Eng 8:83-130, 2001; Akin et al. in Comput Fluids 36:2-11, 2007; Cruchaga et al. in Int J Numer Methods Fluids 54:1021-1031, 2007), where the level set technique is used for capturing the air-water interface, and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method is employed to track the interface between the fluid and structure. In this work, the planing hull structure is treated as a six-degree-of-freedom rigid object. The computational results obtained for the Fridsma hull, which include convergence of the trim angle and drag under mesh refinement, match well with the experimental data.

  10. Strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise building with account for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belostotskiy Aleksandr Mikhaylovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is devoted to strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise (54-storey building with allowance for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members (columns and walls. Finite element method (FEM is used for structural analysis. The authors present formulations of problems, governing equations, information about basic three-dimensional finite element models (so-called “design” (ideal model, the first “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of columns from the project and the second “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of walls from the project of the coupled system “high-rise building - foundation” within ANSYS Mechanical software and their verification, numerical approach to structural analysis and corresponding solvers. Finite element models include mainly 4-node structural shell elements (suitable for analyzing foundation slabs, floor slabs and load-bearing walls and three-dimensional 2-node beam elements (suitable for analyzing beams and columns, special spring-damper elements and multipoint constraint elements. Detailed finite element mesh on the bottom foundation slab is agreed with the location of piles. The advanced model of Prof. Yu.K. Zaretsky is used for approximation of soil behavior. Construction sequence and various types of nonlinearities are taken into account. The results of modal analysis, static and dynamic analysis with various load combinations (gravity load, facade load, dead (constant loads, temporary loads, wind load, snow load, crown load etc. are considered, the results of the regulatory assessment of the strength of structures (obtained with the use of corresponding software in accordance with design codes of the Russian Federation are under consideration as well. The corresponding displacements, stresses, natural vibration frequencies can be used for research and development of the correct monitoring

  11. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  12. Plant food supplement (PFS) market structure in EC Member States, methods and techniques for the assessment of individual PFS intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Murga, Liliana; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Ngo, Joy; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Williamson, Gary; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2011-12-01

    The popularity of herbal products, especially plant food supplements (PFS) and herbal medicine is on the rise in Europe and other parts of the world, with increased use in the general population as well as among specific subgroups encompassing children, women or those suffering from diseases such as cancer. The aim of this paper is to examine the PFS market structures in European Community (EC) Member States as well as to examine issues addressing methodologies and consumption data relating to PFS use in Europe. A revision of recent reports on market data, trends and main distribution channels, in addition an example of the consumption of PFS in Spain, is presented. An overview of the methods and administration techniques used to assess individual food consumption as a starting point, including their uses and limitations, as well as some examples of studies that collect Food Supplement (FS) information, including herbal/botanical/plant-derived products are also discussed. Additionally, the intake estimation process of food nutrients is described and used to propose the PFS ingredients intake estimation process. Nationally representative PFS consumption data is scarce in Europe. The majority of studies have been conducted in Scandinavia and the UK. However the heterogeneity of definitions, study design and objectives make it difficult to compare results and extrapolate conclusions.

  13. Control of minimum member size in parameter-free structural shape optimization by a medial axis approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Steinmann, Paul

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a manufacturing constraint for controlling the minimum member size in structural shape optimization problems, which is for example of interest for components fabricated in a molding process. In a parameter-free approach, whereby the coordinates of the FE boundary nodes are used as design variables, the challenging task is to find a generally valid definition for the thickness of non-parametric geometries in terms of their boundary nodes. Therefore we use the medial axis, which is the union of all points with at least two closest points on the boundary of the domain. Since the effort for the exact computation of the medial axis of geometries given by their FE discretization highly increases with the number of surface elements we use the distance function instead to approximate the medial axis by a cloud of points. The approximation is demonstrated on three 2D examples. Moreover, the formulation of a minimum thickness constraint is applied to a sensitivity-based shape optimization problem of one 2D and one 3D model.

  14. Signatures of self-assembly in size distributions of wood members in dam structures of Castor canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Blersch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Beavers (Castor canadensis construct dams on rivers throughout most of their historical range in North America, and their impact on water patterns in the landscape is considerable. Dam formation by beavers involves two processes: (1 intentional construction through the selection and placement of wood and sediment, which facilitates (2 the passive capture and accretion of suspended wood and sediment. The second process is a self-assembly mechanism that the beavers leverage by utilizing energy subsidies of watershed transport processes. The relative proportion of beaver activity to self-assembly processes in dam construction, however, is unknown. Here we show that lotic self-assembly processes account for a substantial portion of the work expended in beaver dam construction. We found through comprehensive measurement of the stick dimensions that the distributions for diameter, length, and volume are log-normal. By noting evidence of teeth markings, we determined that size distributions skewed significantly larger for wood handled by beavers compared to those that were not. Subsequent mass calculations suggest that beavers perform 50%–70% of the work of wood member placement for dam assembly, with riparian self-assembly processes contributing the remainder. Additionally, our results establish a benchmark for assessing the proportion of self-assembly work in similar riparian structures.

  15. Crystal structure and catalytic characterization of the dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 (DHRS4) from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiela, Michael; Faust, Annette; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund; Scheidig, Axel J

    2017-11-19

    The human dehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4 (DHRS4) is a tetrameric protein that is involved in the metabolism of several aromatic carbonyl compounds, steroids, and bile acids. The only invertebrate DHRS4 that has been characterized to date is that from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We have previously cloned and initially characterized this protein that was recently annotated as DHRS4_CAEEL in the UniProtKB database. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of the full-length DHRS4_CAEEL protein in complex with diacetyl revealed its tetrameric structure and showed that two subunits are connected via an intermolecular disulfide bridge that is formed by N-terminal cysteine residues (Cys5) of each protein chain, which increases the enzymatic activity. A more detailed biochemical and catalytic characterization shows that DHRS4_CAEEL shares some properties with human DHRS4 such as relatively low substrate affinities with aliphatic α-diketones and a preference for aromatic dicarbonyls such as isatin, with a 30-fold lower Km value compared with the human enzyme. Moreover, DHRS4_CAEEL is active with aliphatic aldehydes (e.g. hexanal), while human DHRS4 is not. Dehydrogenase activity with alcohols was only observed with aromatic alcohols. Protein thermal shift assay revealed a stabilizing effect of phosphate buffer that was accompanied by an increase in catalytic activity of more than two-fold. The study of DHRS4 homologs in simple lineages such as C. elegans may contribute to our understanding of the original function of this protein that has been shaped by evolutionary processes in the course of the development from invertebrates to higher mammalian species. Structural data are available in the PDB under the accession numbers 5OJG and 5OJI. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  17. Ship Hull Principal Dimensions Optimization Employing Fuzzy Decision-Making Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an optimization method for the ship hull principal dimensions scheme employing the fuzzy decision-making theory. First of all, the paper establishes the fuzzy decision-making model of the ship hull principal dimensions optimization, and then a series of ship hull principal dimensions schemes are accordingly constructed by employing the variable value method. On the basis of this, the fuzzy decision-making method is employed to evaluate the series ship hull principal dimensions schemes. Finally, the optimal ship hull principal dimensions scheme is obtained. The example demonstration verified the proposed method’s validity for ship hull principal dimensions optimization economic performance.

  18. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  19. Sociology Faculty Members Employed Part-Time in Community Colleges: Structural Disadvantage, Cultural Devaluation, and Faculty-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, John W.; Mahabir, Cynthia; Vitullo, Margaret Weigers

    2016-01-01

    The large majority of faculty members teaching in community colleges are employed on a part-time basis, yet little is known about their working conditions and professional engagement. This article uses data from a recent national survey of faculty members teaching sociology in community colleges to provide this information, with particular…

  20. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  1. Growth of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 in almond hull and shell slurries and survival in drying almond hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Harris, Linda J

    2006-04-01

    Traceback investigation of a 2000 to 2001 outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds led to isolation of the outbreak strain Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 on three geographically linked almond farms. Interviews with these growers revealed that significant rain fell during the 2000 harvest when many almonds were drying on the ground. The objectives of this study were to document weather conditions during the 2000 harvest, determine the potential for growth of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in hull or shell slurries, and evaluate survival of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on wet almond hulls during drying. Dry almond hulls and in-shell kernels wetted for 24 h increased in weight by 250 to 300% and 100%, respectively. Both hull and shell slurries supported rapid growth of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 at 24 degrees C; slurries containing hulls also supported growth at 15 degrees C. Maximum Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 concentrations of 6.2 and 7.8 log CFU/ml were observed at 15 and 24 degrees C, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 grown in wet hulls that were incubated at 24 degrees C survived drying at either 15 or 37 degrees C. Reductions of 1 to 3 log CFU/g of dry hull were observed during drying; reductions generally declined as incubation time increased from 2 to 7 days. Evaluation of shipping records revealed that approximately 60% of outbreak-associated almonds had not been exposed to rain, eliminating this factor as the sole cause of the outbreak. However, the data provide evidence that wet almonds may be a greater risk for high concentrations of Salmonella, and specific guidelines should be established for harvesting and processing almonds that have been exposed to rain or other water sources.

  2. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  3. Ru(II) carbazole thiosemicarbazone complexes with four membered chelate ring: Synthesis, molecular structures and evaluation of biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Raj; Ramesh, Rengan; Małecki, Jan Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    Formation of ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [RuH(CO)(PPh3)2(L)] (where L=N-Substituted 9-ethyl carbazole thiosemicarbazone ligands) has been described from the reactions of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] and substituted carbazole thiosemicarbazones in 1:1 equivalent respectively. The composition of the complexes was established by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H ,13C and 31P) and UV-visible spectral methods. The solid state molecular structure of the ligands (L1-L3) and one of the complexes have been analysed by single-crystal X-ray studies, and found that the ruthenium(II) complexes possess a pseudo-octahedral geometry. The thiosemicarbazone ligand is coordinated to ruthenium as a monoanionic bidendate N,S-donor forming a four-membered chelate ring with a bite angle of 64.47(5)°. The stability of the complexes in aqueous medium was confirmed by UV-visible and ESI-Mass spectral studies. The DNA binding interactions of the complexes with Calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption, emission, elctrochemical, circular dichromism and viscosity measurements revealed that the complexes could interact with DNA via intercalation. Further, their protein binding ability was monitored by the quenching of tryptophan emission using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The alterations in the secondary structure of BSA by the complexes were confirmed with synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectral studies. The ability of complexes to cleave BSA varies from 3>2>1 in the presence of activator like H2O2, as revealed from SDS-PAGE is consistent with their strong hydrophobic interaction with the protein. Free-radical scavenging ability of all the complexes were also carried out against a panel of radicals such as DPPH, NO, OH, O2- and reducing power assay under in vitro experimental conditions. The potential of complexes to act as anticancer agents is thoroughly examined on human cervical cancer cell line HeLa, Osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and a normal mouse

  4. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    .... This led to the accelerated corrosion of the exposed steel ship hull on paint holidays because of the substantial difference of the electric potentials between the steel ship hull and the nickel...

  5. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  6. Characterization Of Cladding Hull Wastes From Used Nuclear Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang K.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Used cladding hulls from pressurized water reactor (PWR are characterized to provide useful information for the treatment and disposal of cladding hull wastes. The radioactivity and the mass of gamma emitting nuclides increases with an increase in the fuel burn-up and their removal ratios are found to be more than 99 wt.% except Co-60 and Cs-137. In the result of measuring the concentrations of U and Pu included in the cladding hull wastes, most of the residues are remained on the surface and the removal ratio of U and Pu are revealed to be over 99.98 wt.% for the fuel burn-up of 35,000 MWd/tU. An electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA line scanning shows that radioactive fission products are penetrated into the Zr oxide layer, which is proportional to the fuel burn-up. The oxidative decladding process exhibits more efficient removal ratio of radionuclides.

  7. Ship Hull Principal Dimensions Optimization Employing Fuzzy Decision-Making Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping, Chen; Jie, Xu; You, Gong; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an optimization method for the ship hull principal dimensions scheme employing the fuzzy decision-making theory. First of all, the paper establishes the fuzzy decision-making model of the ship hull principal dimensions optimization, and then a series of ship hull principal dimensions schemes are accordingly constructed by employing the variable value method. On the basis of this, the fuzzy decision-making method is employed to evaluate the series ship hull principal dimensi...

  8. Isolation and chemical analyses of nonfermented fiber fractions of oat hulls and cottonseed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garleb, K A; Bourquin, L D; Hsu, J T; Wagner, G W; Schmidt, S J; Fahey, G C

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate, using both in situ and in vivo methodology, the nonfermented fiber fraction of oat hulls (OH) and cottonseed hulls (CSH) and to compare the concentrations of alkali-labile phenolic monomers, nitrobenzene oxidizable phenolic monomers, and neutral monosaccharides, as well as the cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) carbon-13 (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, of the nonfermented fraction with the original OH or CSH. The in situ isolation procedure involved a 30-h ruminal pretreatment and an 8-h acid:pepsin pretreatment followed by 1 to 7 additional days of incubation in the rumen. Fractions not fermented in vivo were isolated from duodena, ileal, and fecal material obtained from a site and extent of digestion trial in which these byproducts were fed to sheep at 80% of the diet (as-fed basis) and they represented the sole source of dietary fiber. Based on nonfermented fraction composition, both in situ and in vivo, all components analyzed were degraded to some extent. Also, all components present in original byproduct material were present in both the in situ and in vivo nonfermented fractions. Based on NMR analysis, cellulose crystallinity did not change during either long-term in situ or in vivo fermentation. However, CSH cellulose was more crystalline than that of OH. The ADL content of OH and CSH was 6.1% and 19.4%, respectively, and very little (15%) of the ADL disappeared during either in situ or in vivo fermentation. Much of the p-coumaric and ferulic acid of OH, associated with the cell wall matrix as lignin-carbohydrate and phenolic-carbohydrate complexes, was recovered in the fermented fractions. Data are interpreted to indicate that lignin encrustation and cellulose crystallinity are factors affecting CSH fermentation. Lignin encrustation and the presence of lignin-carbohydrate/phenolic-carbohydrate complexes are factors that inhibit OH fermentation.

  9. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suardíaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  10. MAO-A inhibitory activity of quercetin from Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lasse; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde; Jäger, Anna Katharina

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated MAO-A inhibitory activity of methanol extract of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull., which traditionally has been used as a nerve calming remedy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanolic extract of Calluna vulgaris was partitioned against heptane, ethyl acetate...... and water. The three fractions were tested in a photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay. The ethyl acetate phase showed the highest MAO-A inhibitory activity. Quercetin was isolated by VLC through bioassay-guided fractionation and purified by re-crystallisation. The structure was elucidated by LC...

  11. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 176.650 Section 176.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull...

  12. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... require a two vessel escort system for double hull tankers over 5,000 GT transporting oil in bulk in PWS... 2008 that double hull tankers be escorted by a two vessel escort system when in transit through PWS... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 168 RIN 1625-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince...

  13. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  14. Convex Hull Abstraction in Specialisation of CLP Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peralta, J.C.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both top-down goal directed propagation a...

  15. Chemical composition of hulled, dehulled and naked oat grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In grain samples of hulled (5 samples), dehulled (5 samples) and naked (4 samples) oats, the following components were determined: chemical composition (ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and its components) and amino acids and fatty acid composition. The grain of naked and dehulled oats contained ...

  16. On the epireflective hull of topological nearness groups in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To find the specific nature of the objects that are in the epireflective hull of the symmetric topological spaces in the category of nearness spaces is a long open problem. See [BCH05]for more information. Here we consider topological nearness groups as a full subcategory of nearness groups and ask the analogous question ...

  17. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY FOR LINER VESSELS ENGAGED IN ESSENTIAL SERVICES IN THE FOREIGN COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a... differential. Port risk premiums are eligible for subsidy but not for determining the U.S.-foreign cost...

  18. "Keisri hull" pürib taas filmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus otsustas anda arendustoetust mängufilmidele "Keisri hull" (režissöör Peeter Simm, arendaja Lege Artis Film), "Rahad ette" (režissöör Jaak Kilmi, arendaja Eetriüksus), "Öölendurid" (režissöör Peeter Urbla, arendaja Exitfilm)

  19. Op hulle stukke. Jeanette Ferreira, samesteller. Kaapstad: Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wat deur die Russe vir oorlogsdoeleindes opgelei is te deprogrammeer sodat hulle weer vrygelaat kan word. Daar kom egter 'n kin- kel in die kabel wanneer Edelweiss, die afrig- ter van die oorlogsdolfyne, uitvind wat die opdrag van Anton is. Hy verdwyn met die vier beste dolfyne. Daarna begin 'n soektog oor die lengte en ...

  20. Opvoeders se persepsies van hulle werkmotivering: 'n kwalitatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    205. Opvoeders se persepsies van hulle werkmotivering: 'n kwalitatiewe studie. N.E.J. Wevers en G.M. Steyn. Fakulteit Opvoedkunde, Universiteit van Suid- Afrika, Posbus 392, Unisa, 0003 Suid-Afrika newevers@webonline.co.za; steyngm1@unisa.ac.za. Teachers' perception of their work motivation: a qualitative study.

  1. Providing Structural Model Variables Related to Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Jamali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Understanding the factors that create job satisfaction can increase it and motivate faculty to engage in research. This study aims to research into these factors. Materials and Methods:214 faculty members working at SUMS were selected randomly. Data was collected and analyzed. Results: A meaningful relationship between the predictor variables (management support, subjective norm and job security and job satisfaction was found. The mediator (self efficacy also showed a significant correlation with the criterion variable (job satisfaction. The results showed that the predictive path analysis (management support, subjective norm and job security and significant indirect effect through the mediator (self efficacy with job satisfaction. Conclusion: Too many variables affect job satisfaction of faculty members, some of which were examined. The results of the analysis show that occupational safety and efficacy to the most effective use of the criterion variable of job satisfaction are significant.

  2. Supporting members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  3. Characterization of fly ash, slag and glass hull for the obtaining of vitreous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Valderrama, D. M.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents the structural and thermal characterization of fly ash, the waste from blast furnace slag and the glass hull, generated as common residues in industry, which cannot be recycled easily or destroyed in a simple and fast way. In the particular case of fly ash, at present are being used as a lightweight aggregate in the production of cement, concrete and additive in the production of glass and glass ceramics. As far as the slag and hull, are being used as additives for the asphalt and concretes, however its use still is restricted, reason why its use in alternative ways are necessary. Initially the chemical composition of residues was established, determining that the fly ashes contains SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides; 90% of the total composition, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. As minor constituents, small percentages of Mg, P, S, K, Na and Ti were found. For the slag case, the phases of Fe3O4, Ca3Mg (SiO2)4 and Ca(MgAl)(Si,Al)2O6 were identified, observing the presence of amorphous phase higher than 94% of the total phase of the system. Meanwhile, the glass hull sample showed a higher percentage of 95% amorphicity, mainly identifying a weak signal associated with silicon oxide SiO2. The thermal analyses of the samples, exhibit a decrease in mass for samples between 25-1000°C was observed, which can be attributed to different physical-chemical events that occur in the materials. The heat flow for each sample is related with the removal of the water retained by the physisorption processes around 92-110°C in all cases. With this previous characterization of the precursors, a sample was composed using 70% fly ash, 10% slag and 20% of glass hull was composed and treated at 1200°C/1.5 hours, obtaining a dense black glassy material for potential applications in field of the glass ceramics.

  4. Crystal structure of a member of a novel family of dioxygenases (PF10014) reveals a conserved cupin fold and active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; Grant, Joanna; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    PF10014 is a novel family of 2-oxyglutarate-Fe(2+) -dependent dioxygenases that are involved in biosynthesis of antibiotics and regulation of biofilm formation, likely by catalyzing hydroxylation of free amino acids or other related ligands. The crystal structure of a PF10014 member from Methylibium petroleiphilum at 1.9 Å resolution shows strong structural similarity to cupin dioxygenases in overall fold and active site, despite very remote homology. However, one of the β-strands of the cupin catalytic core is replaced by a loop that displays conformational isomerism that likely regulates the active site. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. UPF201 archaeal specific family members reveal structural similarity to RNA-binding proteins but low likelihood for RNA-binding function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy N Rao

    Full Text Available We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54 to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40% and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and five alpha-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  6. Hispanic/Latino Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Influence of Family Structure, Perceived Peer Norms, and Family Members' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…

  7. Crystal structure of human Charcot-Leyden crystal protein, an eosinophil lysophospholipase, identifies it as a new member of the carbohydrate-binding family of galectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas, D D; Elbert, B L; Zhou, Z; Leffler, H; Ackerman, S J; Acharya, K R

    1995-12-15

    The Charcot-Leyden crystal (CLC) protein is a major autocrystallizing constituent of human eosinophils and basophils, comprising approximately 10% of the total cellular protein in these granulocytes. Identification of the distinctive hexagonal bipyramidal crystals of CLC protein in body fluids and secretions has long been considered a hallmark of eosinophil-associated allergic inflammation. Although CLC protein possesses lysophospholipase activity, its role(s) in eosinophil or basophil function or associated inflammatory responses has remained speculative. The crystal structure of the CLC protein has been determined at 1.8 A resolution using X-ray crystallography. The overall structural fold of CLC protein is highly similar to that of galectins -1 and -2, members of an animal lectin family formerly classified as S-type or S-Lac (soluble lactose-binding) lectins. This is the first structure of an eosinophil protein to be determined and the highest resolution structure so far determined for any member of the galectin family. The CLC protein structure possesses a carbohydrate-recognition domain comprising most, but not all, of the carbohydrate-binding residues that are conserved among the galectins. The protein exhibits specific (albeit weak) carbohydrate-binding activity for simple saccharides including N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and lactose. Despite CLC protein having no significant sequence or structural similarities to other lysophospholipase catalytic triad has also been identified within the CLC structure, making it a unique dual-function polypeptide. These structural findings suggest a potential intracellular and/or extracellular role(s) for the galectin-associated activities of CLC protein in eosinophil and basophil function in allergic diseases and inflammation.

  8. Radiation shielding member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Tsutomu

    1998-03-17

    An iron box having optional width, depth and height with no back board is secured to the outer surface of an iron shielding member formed by laminating optional number of iron plates having an optional thickness. Optional number of structural walls acting also as partition walls and comprising a synthetic resin and having a neutron shielding function of a predetermined thickness is disposed between the front plate and the back face of the iron box. Pellets made of a synthetic resin having a radiation shielding function are filled in the iron box. As the synthetic resin having a neutron ray shielding function, a polyethylene resin is preferably used. The radiation shielding member thus constituted is used for a radiation shielding door. Radiation rays irradiated from a chamber are shielded except for neutron rays by the iron shielding member. Neutron rays permeate the iron shielding member, and are shielded by the layers of polyethylene pellets filled in the iron box. (I.N.)

  9. The crystal structure of jasrouxite, a Pb-Ag-As-Sb member of the lillianite homologous series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Jasrouxite, Ag16Pb4(Sb25As15)Σ40S72, is triclinic, space group P-1, lattice parameters a = 8.2917(5), b = 19.101(1), c = 19.487(1) Å, α = 89.731(1)°, β = 83.446(1)°, and γ = 89.944(1)°. Unit-cell volume is V = 3066.1(3) Å3, Z = 1 for the title formula. It is the N = 4 member of the lillianite...... contain excess number of Ag sites. Unlike lillianite, the alternating (311)PbS slabs are non-equivalent and each of them has two types of differently occupied diagonal planes of atoms, always present in a 2:1 ratio. This results in triclinic symmetry with only small distortions from monoclinic metrics...

  10. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders......-induced stress ranges in a container ship, where the associated fatigue damage rates calculated from a combination of the rain-flow counting method and the Palmgren-Miner damage rule are compared with damage predictions obtained from a computationally much faster frequency fatigue analysis using a spectral...

  11. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Luiz Foletto; Ederson Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz Jahn

    2006-01-01

    Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reacti...

  12. Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul

    2003-01-01

    is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...... of the trim. Calculated results and experiments for resistance and trim agree well for high velocities. Keywords: planing boat, vortex lattice, spray...

  13. A Convex Hull Formulation for the Design of Optimal Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jonuzaj, S; Adjiman, CS

    2016-01-01

    The design of mixtures plays an important role in improving process and product performance but is challenging because it requires finding the optimal number, identities and compositions of mixture components and using nonlinear property models. To address this, a general modeling framework for mixture design problems is presented. It integrates Generalized Disjunctive Programming (GDP) into Computer-Aided Mixture/blend Design via Hull Reformulation (HR). The design methodology is applied suc...

  14. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  15. Probabilistic Structural Analysis of Ship Hull Longitudinal Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    7fo-v+VZ2 -6- #( 2+V7- V )1/2 (12) 11 Z. Vz2 . Vs2V )/ (2 I - 2VS2 - s=e mz (13) M o N vih ,-re: Y m= safety index ,. mn/, 0 - central safety factor...surface finish, load, heat treatment , direct surface environment, temperature, time, corrosion, etc. The approach given by Equation (18) has been

  16. Review of Hull Structural Monitoring Systems for Navy Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    cases of uniaxial strain, the dummy gauge is attached perpendicularly to the active gauge. The dummy gauge is connected in a Wheatstone bridge ...interface (GUI) on the bridge . A more typical configuration with four long-base strain gauges (LBSGs) is however illustrated in Figure 2. In this...in the bow to measure slamming incidents, bow emergence and slamming pressures. On larger vessels where the deckhouse and bridge are located aft

  17. Microwave-Assisted Alkali Pre-Treatment, Densification and Enzymatic Saccharification of Canola Straw and Oat Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim

    2017-03-26

    The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.

  18. Simulation of Propeller – Hull Interaction Using Ranse Solver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Senthil Prakash

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work simulates propeller-hull interaction effects by a novel method namely, coupling a Vortex Lattice Method (VLM with a RANSE solver. The VLM generates the propeller forces based on the inputs of blade geometry, wake at propeller inlet, the required thrust and the propeller revolutions. The propeller forces thus obtained are distributed in the fluid domain at the propeller disk region at specific cells. These cells lie close to the blade coordinates and the forces are assigned to the centroids of cells by means of a user-defined function (UDF. The introduction of the body forces into the fluid domain, emulates the propeller action in the field of flow with consequent influences on the flow kinematics. Therefore the interaction effect between propeller and ship hull is simulated successfully by coupling the two methods. Thereby the kinematical aspects such as effective wake conditions are obtained. The results based on the methodology have been verified by comparison with data from the KCS ship available in recent published literature. The method establishes a successful numerical tank approach in understanding the ship hull-propeller interaction problem.

  19. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  20. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  1. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  2. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing.

  3. Recombination structure and genetic relatedness among members of the family Bromoviridae based on their RNAs 1 and 2 sequence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Moncef

    2009-06-01

    In determining putative recombination events and their evolution rates in the RNAs 1 and 2 of currently the known members of the family Bromoviridae, a detailed study comprising 107 accessions retrieved from the international databases, has been carried out by using RECCO and RDP v3.31beta algorithms. These programs allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in all the five virus genera composing the family Bromoviridae with various degrees of consistency. The RNAs 1 and 2 showed inferred phylogenies fully congruent and clearly delineated five clusters representing the five studied virus genera. In this respect, we proposed to classify the Ilarviruses in three distinct subgroups instead of 10 as mentioned in several reports of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses where its suggestions were based on antigenic differences. Moreover, we confirmed that Alfalfa mosaic virus should be considered as a component of the Ilarvirus genus instead of being the unique representative of Alfamovirus genus. In addition, Pelargonium zonate spot and Olive latent 2 viruses fully deserve their affiliation to the family Bromoviridae.

  4. Structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses suggest that indole-3-acetic acid methyltransferase is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Ross, Jeannine; Guan, Ju; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P; Chen, Feng

    2008-02-01

    The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 A resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in IAA

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be authorized under the same conditions as are applicable to waste under this subpart. (b) Gin trash may be...

  6. Structural and Functional Analysis of the RNA Transport Element, a Member of an Extensive Family Present in the Mouse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevitch, Sergey; Michalowski, Daniel; Zolotukhin, Andrei S.; Schneider, Ralf; Bear, Jenifer; Roth, Patricia; Pavlakis, George N.; Felber, Barbara K.

    2005-01-01

    We previously identified an RNA transport element (RTE), present in a subclass of rodent intracisternal A particle retroelements (F. Nappi, R. Schneider, A. Zolotukhin, S. Smulevitch, D. Michalowski, J. Bear, B. Felber, and G. Pavlakis, J. Virol. 75:4558-4569, 2001), that is able to replace Rev-responsive element regulation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1. RTE-directed mRNA export is mediated by a still-unknown cellular factor(s), is independent of the CRM1 nuclear export receptor, and is conserved among vertebrates. Here we show that this RTE folds into an extended RNA secondary structure and thus does not resemble any known RTEs. Computer searches revealed the presence of 105 identical elements and more than 3,000 related elements which share at least 70% sequence identity with the RTE and which are found on all mouse chromosomes. These related elements are predicted to fold into RTE-like structures. Comparison of the sequences and structures revealed that the RTE and related elements can be divided into four groups. Mutagenesis of the RTE revealed that the minimal element contains four internal stem-loops, which are indispensable for function in mammalian cells. In contrast, only part of the element is essential to mediate RNA transport in microinjected Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei. Importantly, the minimal RTE able to promote RNA transport has key structural features which are preserved in all the RTE-related elements, further supporting their functional importance. Therefore, RTE function depends on a complex secondary structure that is important for the interaction with the cellular export factor(s). PMID:15681436

  7. Assembly of synthetic functional cellulosomal structures onto theLactobacillus plantarumcell surface - a potent member of the gut microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Johanna; Moraïs, Sarah; Ben-David, Yonit; Salama, Rachel; Shamshoum, Melina; Lamed, Raphael; Shoham, Yuval; Bayer, Edward A; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2018-02-16

    Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria. Here, we employed the "adaptor scaffoldin" strategy to overcome the low levels of protein displayed on the bacterial cell surface. The approach mimics natural cellulosome elaborated architectures, thus exploiting the exponential features of their Lego-like combinatorics. Using this approach, we produced several bacterial consortia of Lactobacillus plantarum , a potent gut microbe which provides a very robust genetic framework for lignocellulosic degradation. We successfully engineered surface display of large, fully active self-assembling cellulosomal complexes containing an unprecedented number of catalytic subunits all produced in vivo by the cell-consortia. Our results demonstrate superior enzyme stability and performance of the cellulosomal machinery, compared to the equivalent secreted free enzyme system and high cellulase-to-xylanase ratios proved beneficial for efficient degradation of wheat straw. Importance The multiple benefits of lactic acid bacteria are well established in health and industry. Here we present an approach to extensively increase the cell-surface display of proteins via successive assembly of interactive components. Our findings present a stepping stone towards proficient engineering of Lactobacillus plantarum , a widespread, environmentally important bacterium and potent microbiome member, for

  8. Structural and functional insights into Aeropyrum pernix OppA, a member of a novel archaeal OppA subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, M; Gogliettino, M; Fiume, I; Pocsfalvi, G; Catara, G; Rossi, M; Palmieri, G

    2011-02-01

    In this study we gain insight into the structural and functional characterization of the Aeropyrum pernix oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA(Ap)) previously identified from the extracellular medium of an Aeropyrum pernix cell culture at late stationary phase. OppA(Ap) showed an N-terminal Q32 in a pyroglutamate form and C-terminal processing at the level of a threonine-rich region probably involved in protein membrane anchoring. Moreover, the OppA(Ap) protein released into the medium was identified as a "nicked" form composed of two tightly associated fragments detachable only under strong denaturing conditions. The cleavage site E569-G570 seems be located on an exposed surface loop that is highly conserved in several three-dimensional (3D) structures of dipeptide/oligopeptide-binding proteins from different sources. Structural and biochemical properties of the nicked protein were virtually indistinguishable from those of the intact form. Indeed, studies of the entire bacterially expressed OppA(Ap) protein owning the same N and C termini of the nicked form supported these findings. Moreover, in the middle exponential growth phase, OppA(Ap) was found as an intact cell membrane-associated protein. Interestingly, the native exoprotein OppA(Ap) was copurified with a hexapeptide (EKFKIV) showing both lysines methylated and possibly originating from an A. pernix endogenous stress-induced lipoprotein. Therefore, the involvement of OppA(Ap) in the recycling of endogenous proteins was suggested to be a potential physiological function. Finally, a new OppA from Sulfolobus solfataricus, SSO1288, was purified and preliminarily characterized, allowing the identification of a common structural/genetic organization shared by all "true" archaeal OppA proteins of the dipeptide/oligopeptide class.

  9. Solution structure and interface-driven self-assembly of NC2, a new member of the Class II hydrophobin proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qin; Kwan, Ann H; Sunde, Margaret

    2014-06-01

    Hydrophobins are fungal proteins that self-assemble spontaneously to form amphipathic monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. Hydrophobin assemblies facilitate fungal transitions between wet and dry environments and interactions with plant and animal hosts. NC2 is a previously uncharacterized hydrophobin from Neurospora crassa. It is a highly surface active protein and is able to form protein layers on a water:air interface that stabilize air bubbles. On a hydrophobic substrate, NC2 forms layers consisting of an ordered network of protein molecules, which dramatically decrease the water contact angle. The solution structure and dynamics of NC2 have been determined using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structure of this protein displays the same core fold as observed in other hydrophobin structures determined to date, including the Class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII from Trichoderma reesei, but certain features illuminate the structural differences between Classes I and II hydrophobins and also highlight the variations between structures of Class II hydrophobin family members. The unique properties of hydrophobins have attracted much attention for biotechnology applications. The insights obtained through determining the structure, biophysical properties and assembly characteristics of NC2 will facilitate the development of hydrophobin-based applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structure of an MmyB-like regulator from C. aurantiacus, member of a new transcription factor family linked to antibiotic metabolism in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingping; van Wezel, Gilles P; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Klock, Heath E; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Lesley, Scott A; Godzik, Adam; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Wilson, Ian A

    2012-01-01

    Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp) (Caur_2278) from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid). MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed.

  11. Structure of an MmyB-like regulator from C. aurantiacus, member of a new transcription factor family linked to antibiotic metabolism in actinomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Xu

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are important bacterial sources of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Many antibiotic gene clusters are controlled by pathway-specific activators that act in response to growth conditions. Here we present the crystal structure of an MmyB-like transcription regulator MltR (PDB code 3pxp (Caur_2278 from Chloroflexus aurantiacus, in complex with a fatty acid (myristic acid. MltR is a distant homolog of the methylenomycin activator MmyB and consists of an Xre-type N-terminal DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding module that is related to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS domain. This structure has enabled identification of a new family of bacterial transcription factors that are distributed predominantly in actinomycetes. Bioinformatics analysis of MltR and other characterized family members suggest that they are likely associated with antibiotic and fatty acid metabolism in actinomycetes. Streptomyces coelicolor SCO4944 is a candidate as an ancestral member of the family. Its ortholog in S. griseus, SGR_6891, is induced by A-factor, a γ-butyrolactone that controls antibiotic production and development, and is adjacent to the A-factor synthase gen, afsA. The location of mltR/mmyB homologs, in particular those adjacent to less well-studied antibiotic-related genes, makes them interesting genetic markers for identifying new antibiotic genes. A model for signal-triggered DNA-binding by MltR is proposed.

  12. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member - Homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Witz, Sandra

    2014-03-12

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members. 2014 Witz et al.

  13. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Witz

    Full Text Available Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members.

  14. Evaluating the connecting members of cold-formed steel structures in reconstruction of earthquake-prone areas in Iran using the AHP methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Bitarafan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of earthquake risk, Iran is placed among the first 10 countries in the world, and it is located on the earthquake belt of Alpine–Himalaya. But despite the timeworn areas in towns and villages in Iran, the need to study critical situations seems vital. Thus, the use of cold-formed steel structures due to its high execution speed, low consumption of materials, and flexibility of its executing methods seems to be appropriate in order to reconstruct or to rehabilitate vulnerable areas in comparison with other buildings. One of the major weaknesses of cold-formed steel structures is the type of attachment of their members to each other; in this regard, in this study, first various methods of connecting these members were extracted from interviews with experts in the field of earthquake engineering and construction management… by applying the group decision-making method based on a pairwise comparison model. Finally, the preferences and ultimate weights of the indices were determined, and finally, it has been concluded that attaching using bolts is the best method of cold-formed steel attachment in Iran due to its high resistance against earthquake loads and long life span in reconstructing and rehabilitating the earthquake zone.

  15. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha, F. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA. In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anticarcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anticarcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the

  16. Presence of the tunicateAsterocarpa humilison ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, Javier; Leclerc, Jean-Charles; Brante, Antonio; Daguin-Thiébaut, Claire; Díaz, Christian; Tellier, Florence; Viard, Frédérique

    2017-01-01

    Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports). This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe). In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S). Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S), south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S). The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions. In addition

  17. Presence of the tunicate Asterocarpa humilis on ship hulls and aquaculture facilities in the coast of the Biobío Region, south central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pinochet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-native ascidians are important members of the fouling community associated with artificial substrata and man-made structures. Being efficient fouling species, they are easily spread by human-mediated transports (e.g., with aquaculture trade and maritime transports. This is exemplified by the ascidian Asterocarpa humilis which displays a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere and has been recently reported in the Northern Hemisphere (NW Europe. In continental Chile, its first report dates back from 2000 for the locality of Antofagasta (23°S. Although there was no evidence about the vectors of introduction and spread, nor the source, some authors suggested maritime transport by ship hulls and aquaculture devices as putative introduction pathways and vectors. In the present study, we report for the first time the presence of A. humilis on the hull of an international ship in a commercial port in Concepción bay (36°S, south central Chile. We also found one individual associated to a seashell farm, 70 km far from Concepción bay. Further individuals were subsequently identified within Concepción bay: one juvenile settled upon international harbor pilings and a dozen individuals along aquaculture seashell longlines. For the first specimens sampled, species identification was ascertained using both morphological criteria and molecular barcoding, using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and a nuclear gene (ribosomal RNA 18S. The nuclear 18S gene and the mitochondrial gene COI clearly assigned the specimens to A. humilis, confirming our morphological identification. Two haplotypes were obtained with COI corresponding to haplotypes previously obtained with European and Northern Chilean specimens. The present study thus reports for the first time the presence of A. humilis in the Araucanian ecoregion, documenting the apparent expansion of this non-native tunicate in Chile over 2,000 km, spanning over three ecoregions

  18. Ethical Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Feedback Seeking: A Double-Moderated Mediation Model of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Unit Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Bin; Han, Zhuo; Song, Baihe

    2017-01-01

    This research elucidates the role of ethical leadership in employee feedback seeking by examining how and when ethical leadership may exert a positive influence on feedback seeking. Using matched reports from 64 supervisors and 265 of their immediate employees from a hotel group located in a major city in China, we proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that examines leader-member exchange (LMX) as the mediator and emotional intelligence as well as work-unit structure as double moderators in the relationships between ethical leadership and followers' feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers. Our findings indicated that (1) LMX mediated the positive relationship between ethical leadership and feedback seeking from both ethical leaders and coworkers, and (2) emotional intelligence and work-unit structure served as joint moderators on the mediated positive relationship in such a way that the relationship was strongest when the emotional intelligence was high and work-unit structure was more of an organic structure rather than a mechanistic structure.

  19. Ethical Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Feedback Seeking: A Double-Moderated Mediation Model of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Unit Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research elucidates the role of ethical leadership in employee feedback seeking by examining how and when ethical leadership may exert a positive influence on feedback seeking. Using matched reports from 64 supervisors and 265 of their immediate employees from a hotel group located in a major city in China, we proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that examines leader-member exchange (LMX as the mediator and emotional intelligence as well as work-unit structure as double moderators in the relationships between ethical leadership and followers’ feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers. Our findings indicated that (1 LMX mediated the positive relationship between ethical leadership and feedback seeking from both ethical leaders and coworkers, and (2 emotional intelligence and work-unit structure served as joint moderators on the mediated positive relationship in such a way that the relationship was strongest when the emotional intelligence was high and work-unit structure was more of an organic structure rather than a mechanistic structure.

  20. Ethical Leadership, Leader-Member Exchange and Feedback Seeking: A Double-Moderated Mediation Model of Emotional Intelligence and Work-Unit Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Bin; Han, Zhuo; Song, Baihe

    2017-01-01

    This research elucidates the role of ethical leadership in employee feedback seeking by examining how and when ethical leadership may exert a positive influence on feedback seeking. Using matched reports from 64 supervisors and 265 of their immediate employees from a hotel group located in a major city in China, we proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that examines leader-member exchange (LMX) as the mediator and emotional intelligence as well as work-unit structure as double moderators in the relationships between ethical leadership and followers’ feedback-seeking behavior from supervisors and coworkers. Our findings indicated that (1) LMX mediated the positive relationship between ethical leadership and feedback seeking from both ethical leaders and coworkers, and (2) emotional intelligence and work-unit structure served as joint moderators on the mediated positive relationship in such a way that the relationship was strongest when the emotional intelligence was high and work-unit structure was more of an organic structure rather than a mechanistic structure. PMID:28744251

  1. Visualizing a Complete Siphoviridae Member by Single-Particle Electron Microscopy: the Structure of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebeacua, Cecilia; Lai, Livia; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Brøndsted, Lone; van Heel, Marin

    2013-01-01

    Tailed phages are genome delivery machines exhibiting unequaled efficiency acquired over more than 3 billion years of evolution. Siphophages from the P335 and 936 families infect the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis using receptor-binding proteins anchored to the host adsorption apparatus (baseplate). Crystallographic and electron microscopy (EM) studies have shed light on the distinct adsorption strategies used by phages of these two families, suggesting that they might also rely on different infection mechanisms. Here, we report electron microscopy reconstructions of the whole phage TP901-1 (P335 species) and propose a composite EM model of this gigantic molecular machine. Our results suggest conservation of structural proteins among tailed phages and add to the growing body of evidence pointing to a common evolutionary origin for these virions. Finally, we propose that host adsorption apparatus architectures have evolved in correlation with the nature of the receptors used during infection. PMID:23135714

  2. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa DsbA Family Members: New insightsinto the Enzyme-Substrate Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, F.; Meza, A; Gulmarges, B

    2009-01-01

    Disulfide oxidoreductase DsbA catalyzes disulfide bond formation in proteins secreted to the periplasm and has been related to the folding process of virulence factors in many organisms. It is among the most oxidizing of the thioredoxin-like proteins, and DsbA redox power is understood in terms of the electrostatic interactions involving the active site motif CPHC. The plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa has two chromosomal genes encoding two oxidoreductases belonging to the DsbA family, and in one of them, the canonical motif CPHC is replaced by CPAC. Biochemical assays showed that both X. fastidiosa homologues have similar redox properties and the determination of the crystal structure of XfDsbA revealed substitutions in the active site of X. fastidiosa enzymes, which are proposed to compensate for the lack of the conserved histidine in XfDsbA2. In addition, electron density maps showed a ligand bound to the XfDsbA active site, allowing the characterization of the enzyme interaction with an 8-mer peptide. Finally, surface analysis of XfDsbA and XfDsbA2 suggests that X. fastidiosa enzymes may have different substrate specificities.

  3. Biochemical and structural analysis of Gox2181, a new member of the SDR superfamily from Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Yuan, Zuanning; Adam Yuan, Y; Lin, Jinping; Wei, Dongzhi

    2011-11-18

    Gluconobacter oxydans enable to oxidize sugars and polyols incompletely to corresponding materials with potential industrial applications, containing around 75 putative dehydrogenases. One of these putative dehydrogenases, Gox2181, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and its X-ray crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Gox2181 formed a homo-tetramer in the crystal that was coincident with the apparent molecular mass determined in the solution. Gox2181 displayed α/β-folding patterns, the conserved catalytic tetrad of Asn119-Ser147-Tyr162-Lys166, and the NAD-binding pocket, which aligned well with the 'classical' type of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes. Gox2181 was denoted SDR51C based on the SDR nomenclature system. The purified recombinant Gox2181 was demonstrated to be NAD(H)-dependent and active towards a wide range of substrates, including sugar alcohols, secondary alcohols, ketones, and ketoses. Among the substrates tested, Gox2181 displayed preference for secondary hydroxyl or carbonyl groups, showing low K(m) values with d-arabitol and butanedione. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SHIP HULL FOULING AS A MEANS OF MAKROZOOBENTHOS DISPERSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cupak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hulls of 9 boats operating in inland waterways and coastal Baltic waters along were examined for the presence of fouling organisms. A total of 23 animal taxa were recorded, 8 of them being alien species known to have been earlier introduced into the Baltic Sea basin. The most frequent taxa were: Amphibalanus improvisus, Chironomidae, Dreissena polymorpha, and Gammarus tigrinus. The fi ndings of this study clearly demonstrate the important role potentially played by small crafts in the introduction and spread of alien species not only in the River Odra estuary, but also in the coastal Baltic waters outside of the Odra plume.

  5. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  6. High rates of gasified rice hull biochar affect geranium and tomato growth in a soilless substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasified rice hull biochar (GRHB) is a byproduct of rice production, where rice hulls are gasified to generate energy for other aspects of rice processing. Other research has shown that GRHB up to 10% (v/v) in a soilless substrate can provide much, but not all, of a potted floriculture crops’ phosp...

  7. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M., E-mail: mbehgar@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A. [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H. [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  8. Sunflower hulls degradation by co-composting with different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conghos, M M; Aguirre, M E; Santamaría, R M

    2006-09-01

    The decomposition of sunflower hull and its mixtures was examined under mesophilic (M) and thermophilic (T) temperatures during 100 days. Thermophilic conditions were used to define the composting process. Vetch, alfalfa and ammonium nitrate were used as nitrogen co-substrates, in 6 treatments: sunflower hulls alone (C), sunflower hulls plus ammonium nitrate (CN), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa (CA), sunflower hulls plus alfalfa and ammonium nitrate (CAV), sunflower hulls plus vetch (CV), sunflower hulls plus vetch and ammonium nitrate (CVN). Total organic carbon (TOC), oxidizable carbon (OC), dry matter, ashes content, total nitrogen (N), cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pH, electrical conductivity and C to N ratio were measured to asses the efficiency of the composting process and to determine the best amendment. Results show that sunflower hulls (Sh) treatment with the organic amendments had a better response than the inorganic ones. This was concluded from the variation in the fiberfractions, the decrease in dry matter and the major decrease in C to N ratio.

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) team, at a minimum, consist of an ROV operator, a non-destructive testing... a combination of underwater surveys, internal examinations, and annual hull condition assessment... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings and...

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and other hull appurtenances; (2) Examine all sea chests; (3) Remove and inspect all sea valves in the presence of a marine... examined, if required by the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI); (5) Allow access to all internal...

  11. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42..., peaks, bilges, machinery spaces, and bunkers shall be examined to determine the condition of the framing...

  12. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently discovered and characterized rice hull liquid smoke extract was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-agar method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value of rice hull smoke extract was found to be 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial a...

  13. Structural Determinants of Substrate Recognition in the HAD Superfamily Member D-glycero-D-manno-Heptose-1,7-bisphosphate Phosphatase (GmhB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.; Wang, L; Huang, H; Peisach, E; Dunaway-Mariano, D; Allen, K

    2010-01-01

    The haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase (HAD) enzyme superfamily is the largest family of phosphohydrolases. In HAD members, the structural elements that provide the binding interactions that support substrate specificity are separated from those that orchestrate catalysis. For most HAD phosphatases, a cap domain functions in substrate recognition. However, for the HAD phosphatases that lack a cap domain, an alternate strategy for substrate selection must be operative. One such HAD phosphatase, GmhB of the HisB subfamily, was selected for structure-function analysis. Herein, the X-ray crystallographic structures of Escherichia coli GmhB in the apo form (1.6 {angstrom} resolution), in a complex with Mg{sup 2+} and orthophosphate (1.8 {angstrom} resolution), and in a complex with Mg{sup 2+} and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose 1{beta},7-bisphosphate (2.2 {angstrom} resolution) were determined, in addition to the structure of Bordetella bronchiseptica GmhB bound to Mg{sup 2+} and orthophosphate (1.7 {angstrom} resolution). The structures show that in place of a cap domain, the GmhB catalytic site is elaborated by three peptide inserts or loops that pack to form a concave, semicircular surface around the substrate leaving group. Structure-guided kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants was conducted in parallel with a bioinformatics study of sequence diversification within the HisB subfamily to identify loop residues that serve as substrate recognition elements and that distinguish GmhB from its subfamily counterpart, the histidinol-phosphate phosphatase domain of HisB. We show that GmhB and the histidinol-phosphate phosphatase domain use the same design of three substrate recognition loops inserted into the cap domain yet, through selective residue usage on the loops, have achieved unique substrate specificity and thus novel biochemical function.

  14. Structure-Function Analysis of 2-Keto-3-Deoxy-D-Glycero-D-Galacto-Nononate-9-Phosphate Phosphatase Defines Specificity Elements in Type C0 had Family Members

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Wang, L; Dunaway-Mariano, D; Allen, K

    2009-01-01

    The phosphotransferases of the haloalkanoate dehalogenase superfamily (HADSF) act upon a wide range of metabolites in all eukaryotes and prokaryotes and thus constitute a significant force in cell function. The challenge posed for biochemical function assignment of HADSF members is the identification of the structural determinants that target a specific metabolite. The '8KDOP' subfamily of the HADSF is defined by the known structure and catalytic activity of 2-keto-3-deoxy-8-phospho-d-manno-octulosonic acid (KDO-8-P) phosphatase. Homologues of this enzyme have been uniformly annotated as KDO-8-P phosphatase. One such gene, BT1713, from the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron genome was recently found to encode the enzyme 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-9-phosphonononic acid (KDN-9-P) phosphatase in the biosynthetic pathway of the 9-carbon ?-keto acid, 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galactonononic acid (KDN). To find the structural elements that provide substrate-specific interactions and to allow identification of genomic sequence markers, the x-ray crystal structures of BT1713 liganded to the cofactor Mg2+and complexed with tungstate or Formula/Neu5Ac were determined to 1.1, 1.85, and 1.63 A resolution, respectively. The structures define the active site to be at the subunit interface and, as confirmed by steady-state kinetics and site-directed mutagenesis, reveal Arg-64*, Lys-67*, and Glu-56 to be the key residues involved in sugar binding that are essential for BT1713 catalytic function. Bioinformatic analyses of the differentially conserved residues between BT1713 and KDO-8-P phosphatase homologues guided by the knowledge of the structure-based specificity determinants define Glu-56 and Lys-67* to be the key residues that can be used in future annotations.

  15. PENGKLASIFIKASIAN DEBITUR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA GRAHAM SCAN DALAM PENGAPLIKASIAN CONVEX HULL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS EKA ARIESTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational geometry is the mathematical science of computation by using the algorithm analysis to solve the problems of geometry. The problems of computational include polygon triangulations, convex hulls, Voronoi diagrams, and motion planning. Convex hull is the set of points that form a convex polygon that covers the entire set of points. The algorithms for determining the convex hull, among others, Graham Scan, Jarvis March, and Divide and Conquer. In the two-dimensional case, Graham Scan algorithm is highly efficient in the use of time complexity. This article discusses the quest convex hull of the data bank debtors, some of the data used to look at the classification accuracy of the convex hull formed. The coordinates of all the data found by using principal component analysis.After the data are analyzed, we get the accuracy of classification by 74%.

  16. Remote identification of the vibration amplitude of ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pinchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to develop the methodological support to determine vibration amplitude of the ship hull remotely using a coherent radar centimeter range based on the variation of the Doppler signal spectrum reflected from a vibrating surface.The paper presents a synthesized mathematical model of the radio signal reflected from the vibrating surface. It is the signal of coherent radar of continuous radiation with a known carrier frequency and the amplitude of the radiated signal. In the synthesis it was believed that the displacement in the radial direction with respect to the vibrating surface radar was sinusoidal.The dependences of the vibration amplitude on the value of the normalized Doppler radio signal spectrum at the second harmonic frequency are obtained. Cycle results of field experiments to study the variability of the sea surface, determining the level of its roughness, allows us to establish that the energy of surface waves of gravitational-capillary range has a high correlation with the wind speed. It is proved that the ratio of the spectral density levels at vibration frequency and its multiple frequencies is specified by the index of phase modulation linearly related to the amplitude of vibration of the ship hull.The results are significant for radar (radar detection of water targets using the coherent radar of centimeter range, ensuring the correct records of noise generated by the scattering of radio waves from the water surface.

  17. Solution structure and phylogenetics of Prod1, a member of the three-finger protein superfamily implicated in salamander limb regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acely Garza-Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be

  18. Hidrólise enzimática de casca de arroz utilizando-se celulases: efeito de tratamentos químicos e fotoquímicos Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice hull using cellulases: effect of chemical and photochemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Reyes

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we reported the study of rice hull enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase preparation. The results showed that previous treatment with light and sodium chlorite inhibits the enzymatic process (31.4 and 11.8%, respectively while hydrogen peroxide and ozone favoured the enzymatic production of reducing sugars (5.9 and 54.9%, respectively. Studies performed by quimiluminescence showed that the chlorite treatment produced the most significant change in the structure of rice hull. Nevertheless, this treatment did not favour the subsequent enzymatic process. Photomicrographs obtained from rice hull hydrolysates showed that pre-treatment changed mainly the inner epidermis and parenchyma cell and that they did not change cellular organization of the hull.

  19. Design Of A Small-Scale Hulling Machine For Improved Wet-Processed Coffee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of primary processing of coffee is a vital determinant of quality and price. Wet processing method produces higher quality beans but is very labourious. This work outlines the design of a small scale cost-effective ergonomic and easily maintained and operated coffee hulling machine that can improve quality and productivity of green coffee beans. The machine can be constructed from locally available materials at a relatively low cost of about NGN 140000.00 with cheap running cost. The beaters are made from rubber strip which can deflect when in contact with any obstruction causing little or no stresses on drum members and reducing the risk of damage to both the beans and machine. The machine is portable and detachable which make it fit to be owned by a group of farmers who can move it from one farm to the other making affordability and running cost easier. The easily affordable and relatively low running cost may be further reduced by the fact that the machine is powered by 3.0 Hp petrol engine which is suitable for other purposes among the rural dwellers. The eventual construction of the machine will encourage more farmers to go into wet processing of coffee and reduce the foreign exchange hitherto lost to this purpose.

  20. Job satisfaction and depression in the Spanish Society of Periodontology and Research (SEPA) members, and their relation to the burnout syndrome. Creation of a structural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Torres, Mercedes; Ríos-Santos, José-Vicente; López-Jiménez, Ana; Herrero-Climent, Mariano; Bullón, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    This study is aimed at getting to know the existing relationship between the dimensions of the burnout syndrome and job satisfaction, on one hand, and depressive feelings on the other through the creation of a structural model aimed at relating all these concepts on a sample of Spanish periodontists. The initial sample comprised 284 individuals, who represented 20% of the members of the Spanish Society of Periodontology and Research (www.SEPA.es). These individuals were chosen randomly by means of stratified sampling with proportional affixation by their autonomous community of residence. All participants were sent by post the MBI, CET and job-satisfaction questionnaires. The software package used for data analysis was LISREL v. 8.7 by checking models of structural equations so as to prove the proposed model's adjustment. The total number of answered questionnaires was 170 (59.85%). A positive relation was observed between emotional tiredness and depersonalization and depression. However, this dimension correlated negatively with job satisfaction and self-realization. The obtained results show that, in this sample of periodontists, job satisfaction acts as a modulator in the transition from emotional tiredness to depression.

  1. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  2. Effect of oat hulls on performance, gut capacity and feed passage time in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, H; Svihus, B

    2001-07-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study effects of oat hulls and their interaction with soluble fibre in broiler chickens. 2. In experiment 1, wheat or naked oats based diets with or without NSP-degrading enzymes were mixed with 0, 40 or 100 g/kg oat hulls which replaced a maize starch/soy isolate mixture, and the diets were fed to broiler chickens from 7-21 d of age. 3. Production results, AMEn determined between 14 and 16 d of age, and ileal digestibility indicated no negative effect of oat hulls on nutrient digestibility or weight gain. 4. Feed consumption increased significantly when oat hulls were included in the diet and relative gut weight increased correspondingly (Pdigestibility in wheat diets. 6. In experiment 2, mash diets were fed unsupplemented, or were supplemented with coarsely or finely ground oat hulls which replaced a maize starch/soy isolate mixture. 7. Faecal titanium dioxide excreted between 1 and 48 h after feeding of a gelatin capsule containing titanium dioxide, was used to calculate feed passage time. 8. There was a tendency (P=0.08) for faster feed passage with inclusion of coarsely ground oat hulls, but no effect of finely ground oat hulls was found.

  3. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Low-drag, Planing-tail Flying-boat Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydam, Henry B

    1948-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat incorporating a low-drag, planing-tail hull were determined from model tests made in Langley tank number 2 and compared with tests of the same flying boat incorporating a conventional-type hull. The planing-tail model, with which stable take-offs were possible for a large range of elevator positions at all center-of-gravity locations tested, had more take-off stability than the conventional model. No upper-limit porpoising was encountered by the planing-tail model. The maximum changes in rise during landings were lower for the planing-tail model than for the conventional model at most contact trims, an indication of improved landing stability for the planing-tail model. The hydrodynamic resistance of the planing-tail hull was lower than the conventional hull at all speeds, and the load-resistance ratio was higher for the planing-tail hull, being especially high at the hump. The static trim of the planing-tail hull was much higher than the conventional hull, but the variation of trim with speed during take-off was smaller.

  4. Solid-state fermentation of Mortierella isabellina for lipid production from soybean hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Soybean hull, generated from soybean processing, is a lignocellulosic material with limited industrial applications and little market value. This research is exploring a new application of soybean hull to be converted to fungal lipids for biodiesel production through solid-state fermentation. Mortierella isabellina was selected as the oil producer because of its high lipid content at low C/N ratio. Several cultivation factors were investigated, including moisture content, inoculums size, fungal spore age, and nutrient supplements, in an attempt to enhance the lipid production of the solid-state fermentation process. The results showed that lipid production with the increase of the moisture content and the spore age, while decreased as the size of inoculums increased. Nutrients addition (KH₂PO₄ 1.2 mg and MgSO₄ 0.6 mg/g soybean hull) improved the lipid production. The total final lipid reached 47.9 mg lipid from 1 g soybean hull after the conversion, 3.3-fold higher than initial lipid reserve in the soybean hull. The fatty acid profile analysis indicated that fatty acid content consisted of 30.0% of total lipid, and 80.4% of total fatty acid was C16 and C18. Therefore, lipid production from soybean hull is a possible option to enable soybean hull as a new resource for biodiesel production and to enhance the overall oil production from soybeans.

  5. Intake and digestibility of fatty acids in late-lactating dairy cows fed flaxseed hulls supplemented with monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Cristiano; da Silva-Kazama, Daniele; Kazama, Ricardo; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zeoula, Lucia M; Santos, Geraldo T D; Petit, Hélène V

    2011-11-01

    Flaxseed hull, a co-product obtained from flax processing, is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids but there is little information on digestibility of its nutrients by dairy cows. Four rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 665 ± 21 kg of body weight and 190 ± 5 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 28-d experimental periods to determine the effects of feeding monensin and flaxseed hulls on total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids. The four treatments were: (1) diet CO: control with neither flaxseed hulls nor monensin added; (2) diet FH containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g dry matter (DM); (3) diet MO with 16 mg monensin/kg DM; (4) diet HM containing 19·8 g flaxseed hulls/100 g DM and 16 mg monensin/kg DM. Diets provided similar amounts of protein and net energy of lactation. Digestibility of crude protein was higher for diets containing flaxseed hulls and for diets supplemented with monensin. Flaxseed hulls supplementation decreased digestibility of acid and neutral detergent fibre. Significantly higher digestibility of ether extract and individual fatty acids was observed for treatments with flaxseed hulls compared with treatments without flaxseed hulls. A combination of flaxseed hulls and monensin did not result in better fatty acid digestibility than when feeding only flaxseed hulls.

  6. Classification of Fusarium-Infected Korean Hulled Barley Using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Oh, Kyoungmin; Yoo, Hyeonchae; Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Moon S

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium -infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium -infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium -infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium -infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.

  7. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  8. Panel cutting method: new approach to generate panels on a hull in Rankine source potential approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jong Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new hull panel generation algorithm, namely panel cutting method, was developed to predict flow phenomena around a ship using the Rankine source potential based panel method, where the iterative method was used to satisfy the nonlinear free surface condition and the trim and sinkage of the ship was taken into account. Numerical computations were performed to investigate the validity of the proposed hull panel generation algorithm for Series 60 (CB=0.60 hull and KRISO container ship (KCS, a container ship designed by Maritime and Ocean Engineering Research Institute (MOERI. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  9. Business Ethics & Other Paradoxes, Jimmy Winfield, George Hull and Greg Fried : review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flockemann, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Business Ethics & Other Paradoxes by Jimmy Winfield, George Hull and Greg Fried is an attempt to demonstrate how careful philosophical analysis can help us resolve a number of deep ethical questions revolving around...

  10. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( Pphenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  11. Die onkunde van die Jode en hulle verwerping van die evangelie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kontras uitgewys tussen die misdaad van die Jode en die doel van God wat in vers 18 uitgedruk word (Metzger ... ens (1978: 28) dat ons ons nie kan vrypleit deur ons te beroep op die verborge raad van God nie - ons ... volk mislei het deur hulle vir hulle eie doel teen Jesus te gebruik. SÓ gesien, kom Lukas 24: 20 tot sy reg, ...

  12. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Load Line Assignments and Surveys-General Requirements § 42.09-35 Additional survey requirements for wood-hull...

  13. Analysis of flow over an axisymmetric hull-form using Large Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2017-11-01

    Large eddy simulations are performed for flow over an idealized axisymmetric hull at a Reynolds number of 1.1 million, based on hull length and freestream velocity. The domain is chosen to minimize confinement effects and the grid is designed to capture the near-wall physics as well as the evolution of turbulent wake. The entire hull is broken up into bow, mid and stern region and analyzed individually before merging them together, to ensure accurate solution on the final grid. The boundary layer is tripped on the bow region of the hull to make it turbulent as done in experiment. The turbulent boundary layer evolves on the mid region of the hull and eventually separates on the stern region due to the adverse pressure gradient, and forms the wake. Results are shown for the flow field and the pressure and skin-friction on the hull. The sensitivity of wake to the boundary layer characteristics on the stern is discussed. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Energy-Absorbing Beam Member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An energy-absorbing (EA) beam member and having a cell core structure is positioned in an aircraft fuselage proximate to the floor of the aircraft. The cell core structure has a length oriented along a width of the fuselage, a width oriented along a length of the fuselage, and a depth extending away from the floor. The cell core structure also includes cell walls that collectively define a repeating conusoidal pattern of alternating respective larger and smaller first and second radii along the length of the cell core structure. The cell walls slope away from a direction of flight of the aircraft at a calibrated lean angle. An EA beam member may include the cell core structure and first and second plates along the length of the cell core structure on opposite edges of the cell material.

  15. Extreme-value statistics from Lagrangian convex hull analysis I. Validation for homogeneous turbulent Boussinesq convection and MHD convection

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, J; Müller, W -C; Chapman, S C; Watkins, N W

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the convex hull to analyze physical questions related to the dispersion of a group of much more than four Lagrangian tracer particles in a turbulent flow. Validation of standard dispersion behaviors is a necessary preliminary step for use of the convex hull to describe turbulent flows. In simulations of statistically homogeneous and stationary Navier-Stokes turbulence, neutral fluid Boussinesq convection, and MHD Boussinesq convection we show that the convex hull can be used to reasonably capture the dispersive behavior of a large group of tracer particles. We validate dispersion results produced with convex hull analysis against scalings for Lagrangian particle pair dispersion. In addition to this basic validation study, we show that convex hull analysis provides information that particle pair dispersion does not, in the form of a extreme value statistics, surface area, and volume for a cluster of particles. We use the convex hull surface area and volume to examine the degree of...

  16. Nonparametric illumination correction for scanned document images via convex hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Gaofeng; Xiang, Shiming; Zheng, Nanning; Pan, Chunhong

    2013-07-01

    A scanned image of an opened book page often suffers from various scanning artifacts known as scanning shading and dark borders noises. These artifacts will degrade the qualities of the scanned images and cause many problems to the subsequent process of document image analysis. In this paper, we propose an effective method to rectify these scanning artifacts. Our method comes from two observations: that the shading surface of most scanned book pages is quasi-concave and that the document contents are usually printed on a sheet of plain and bright paper. Based on these observations, a shading image can be accurately extracted via convex hulls-based image reconstruction. The proposed method proves to be surprisingly effective for image shading correction and dark borders removal. It can restore a desired shading-free image and meanwhile yield an illumination surface of high quality. More importantly, the proposed method is nonparametric and thus does not involve any user interactions or parameter fine-tuning. This would make it very appealing to nonexpert users in applications. Extensive experiments based on synthetic and real-scanned document images demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hull using subcritical water technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Deniz; Saldaña, Marleny D A

    2015-10-01

    Hydrolysis of sweet blue lupin hulls was conducted in this study using subcritical water technology. Effects of process parameters, such as pressure (50-200 bar), temperature (160-220°C), flow rate (2-10 mL/min), and pH (2-12), were studied to optimize maximum hemicellulose sugars recovery in the extracts. Extracts were analyzed for total hemicellulose sugars, phenolics and organic carbon contents and solid residues left after treatments were also characterized. Temperature, flow rate, and pH had a significant effect on hemicellulose sugar removal; however, the effect of pressure was not significant. The highest yield of hemicellulose sugars in the extracts (85.5%) was found at 180°C, 50 bar, 5 mL/min and pH 6.2. The thermal stability of the solid residue obtained at optimum conditions improved after treatment and the crystallinity index increased from 11.5% to 58.6%. The results suggest that subcritical water treatment is a promising technology for hemicellulose sugars removal from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of peanut hulls as an alternative to bleaching clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, M. M.; El-Shami, S. M.; Taha, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Peanut hulls (PNH) were carbonized at different temperatures, times, and evaluated at different concentrations as an alternative to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude soybean oil with PNH was based on their delta free fatty acids, reduction in peroxide value (PV), reduction in phospholipids (PL) and bleachability. The performance of several commercially used bleaching clays was evaluated, for comparison. Mixtures were formulated including: PNH and Tonsil -N (TN), PNH and Fuller's earth (FE) and PNH and O-passive (OP) and examined. The oxidative stability of oils was determined. Results for the investigated commercial bleaching clays revealed: TN > FE > F > TF > OP. Highest reduction in PV and PL, and highest bleachability were achieved for soybean oil bleached with 2% PNH carbonized at 500 degree centigrade for 30 min (PNH). Mixtures of PNH with the three chosen bleaching clays indicated that 1PNH : 2TN gave the highest bleachability. CSO was miscella bleached in hexane using PNH and resulted in an appreciable improvement in all oil characteristics, especially in bleachability. Oxidative stability of oils was in the following order: TN > control > FE > PNH with Induction period values of 23.1 > 6.43 > 5.73 > 2.85 h, respectively. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. Characteristics and Treatment of Wastewater Generated During Underwater Hull Cleaning Operations of U.S. Navy Ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-10

    that hull cleaning wastewater may not be toxic to microalgae in the surface waters because the measured dissolved copper concentrations during hull...relating to hull cleaning. Among other things, the studies measured dissolved copper in the wastewater ranging from 0.13 mg/L to 4.3 mg/L. These...cleanings were lower than the observed IC50 values for the microalgae . Calculations determined the approximate amount of waste that would be generated

  20. Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...

  1. Pistachio hull water-soluble polysaccharides as a novel prebiotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Alavijeh, Safoura; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Hashmi, Sarwar

    2018-02-01

    We isolated and characterized pistachio hull polysaccharides (PHP). The PHP was a heteropolysaccharide mainly contained 75.50% (w/w) total sugar and 9.51% (w/w) uronic acid. As determined by GPC analysis, the polysaccharide with a molecular weight of 3.71×10 6 D (83.2%) was the most dominant fraction. Moreover, HPLC analysis indicated that PHP was predominantly composed of xylose, glucose, arabinose, and fructose with a molar ratio of 1.00:2.50:19.67:28.81. FT-IR and NMR analysis also confirmed the results obtained by HPLC and characterized preliminary structure features of the PHP. Functional properties of the PHP including water holding capacity (WHC: 2.44±0.05g water/g DM), and oil holding capacity (OHC: 11.53±0.04g oil/g DM) were significant compared to inulin used as reference prebiotic (pPHP remained 94.37% undigested in the simulated digestion process and stimulated the growth of L. plantarum PTCC 1896 and L. rhamnosus GG and increased the acetate, propionate and butyrate production over inulin in vitro. Totally, the PHP showed a considerable prebiotic capability and high WHC, OHC suggesting that the PHP is a potent pharmaceutical with good technological properties which can be used in food and drug industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Hull Scratching, Soaking, and Boiling on Antinutrients in Japanese Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Une, Satsuki; Nonaka, Koji; Akiyama, Junich

    2016-10-01

    The effects of hull processing, soaking, and boiling on the content or activity of antinutrients in the red sword bean (RSB; Canavalia gladiata) were investigated. RSB seeds were compared with kidney bean (KB; Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds that are starch based and often used as processed products in Japan. RSB seeds had higher weight, thicker hull, and higher protein content, but lower moisture content compared with KB seeds. Because of the strong and thick hull, the relative water absorption of untreated RSB seeds was very low after soaking. Seeds were soaked after dehulling, scratching, and roasting. The results showed that hull scratching was the optimal method for increasing water absorption during soaking compared with dehulling and roasting. After soaking, the water used for soaking was discarded, since it had a high content of polyphenols and bitter taste, and RSB seeds were boiled in fresh water for 20, 40, and 60 min. The results showed that polyphenol and tannin contents, antioxidant activity, and hemagglutinating activity, as well as maltase, sucrase, and trypsin inhibitor activities in scratched RSB seeds decreased significantly after boiling compared with those in raw seeds, whereas amylase inhibitor activity showed no significant change. Overall, it was concluded that the combination of hull scratching, soaking, and boiling in fresh water can reduce thermal-stable or sensitive antinutrients in RSB and thus, significantly improve its nutritional value. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Genetic Analysis and Mapping of TWH Gene in Rice Twisted Hull Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-bo LI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A mutant with twisted hulls was found in a breeding population of rice (Oryza sativa L.. The mutant shows less grain weight and inferior grain quality in addition to twisted hulls. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of mutant was controlled by a single recessive gene (temporarily designated as TWH. To map the TWH gene, an F2 population was generated by crossing the twh mutant to R725, an indica rice variety with normal hulls. For bulked segregant analysis, the bulk of mutant plants was prepared by mixing equal amount of plant tissue from 10 twisted-hull plants and the bulk of normal plants was obtained by pooling equal amount tissue of 10 normal-hull plants. Two hundred and seven pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers, which are distributed on 12 rice chromosomes, were used for polymorphism analysis of the parents and the two bulks. The TWH locus was initially mapped close to the SSR marker RM526 on chromosome 2. Therefore, further mapping was performed using 50 pairs of SSR primers around the marker RM526. The TWH was delimited between the SSR markers RM14128 and RM208 on the long arm of chromosome 2 at the genetic distances of 1.4 cM and 2.7 cM, respectively. These results provide the foundation for further fine mapping, cloning and functional analysis of the TWH gene.

  4. Test Studies of the Resistance and Seakeeping Performance of a Trimaran Planing Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Towing tank tests in calm water were performed on a trimaran planing hull to verify its navigational properties with different displacements and centres of gravity, as well as to assess the effects of air jets and bilge keels on the hull’s planing capabilities, and to increase the longitudinal stability of the hull. Hydrostatic roll tests, zero speed tests, and sea trials in the presence of regular waves were conducted to investigate the hull’s seakeeping ability. The test results indicate that the influence of the location of the centre of gravity on the hull resistance is similar to that of a normal trimaran planing hull; namely, moving the centre of gravity backward will reduce the resistance but lower the stability. Bilge keels improve the longitudinal stability but slightly affect the resistance, and the presence of air jets in the hull’s channels decreases the trim angle and increases heaving but has little effect on the resistance. Frequent small-angle rolling occurs in waves. The heaving and pitching motions peak at the encounter frequency of , and the peaks increase with velocity and move towards greater encounter frequencies. When the encounter frequency exceeds, the hull motion decreases, which leads to changes in the navigation speed and frequency.

  5. Performance of Holstein-Zebu cows under partial replacement of corn by coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Anamaria Almeida Costa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of corn by citrus pulp or coffee hulls explores the potential of dairy cows to digest fiber-rich feedstuffs. However, for the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, replacing citrus pulp by coffee hulls may reduce milk production costs, since citrus pulp needs to be imported from another state, while coffee hulls are highly available at essentially no cost. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the performance of crossbred cows fed concentrates containing 25% coffee hulls (Coffee or 25% citrus pulp (Pulp as a replacement for ground corn grain (Corn; 47.4% in the concentrate. Forty-two cows were blocked based on milk yield and allocated to one of the three treatments for 56 days, following a 14-day standardization period. Concentrates were fed twice a day during the milking routine, 1 kg to each 2.5 kg of the average milk yield for the block, determined at the end of the standardization period. The daily 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield was 7.5 kg for Corn, 7.9 kg for Pulp and 6.2 kg for Coffee (P 0.26. The Pulp concentrate provided the highest financial efficiency, while Coffee was the least efficient (P < 0.01. These data suggest that the potential of use of coffee hulls is low when added at rates equal to or greater than 25% of the concentrate offered during the milking routine.

  6. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  7. Hull forms and straight forward CFD free running trials of high-speed shuttle vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Chengzhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available SV-SJTU high-speed shuttle vessels are developed by Shanghai Jiao Tong University for fine seakeeping and high speed purposes. A series of SV-SJTUs have been developed, and are introduced in this paper. Straight forward CFD free running trials were conducted and the results are also presented. Hull resistance and motions are predicted by solving URANS equations and adopting the overset mesh method. The results of the straight forward CFD free running trials prove that SV-SJTUs have little resistance and fine hull motion in calm water, and their wave-making and splashing differ with different hull forms. This paper presents the designs of a variety of high performance ships, thereby providing quantitative and quali-tative references for researchers.

  8. Selectivity of the Cd2+/Ca2+ exchange on modified rice hull silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Flores, Norma A; Solache, Marcos; Olguín, M Teresa; Fripiat, José J; Pacheco-Malagón, Graciela; Saniger, José M; Bulbulian, Silvia

    2009-03-01

    The rice hull ash is composed by 94% of SiO2, an agricultural waste that can be recovered and purified by a depolymerization reaction yielding an organo-silicic gel. The purpose of this paper is to show that this silica can be used to fix Cd2+ from aqueous solution. The pH of hydrolysis of the organo-silicic gel is the main factor modifying the distribution between the solid and the solution. The contact time between the Cd2+ solution and the solid was studied to optimize the sorption conditions. The equilibrium measurements were performed after 40 hours at room temperature. The competition with Ca2+ ions in the solutions was also studied in order to evaluate the selectivity of the Cd2+ fixation. It was found that the rice hull ash has a higher capacity to fix Cd2+ than the rice hull derivatives.

  9. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  10. Basic dye adsorption onto an agro-based waste material--sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Yang, Fan; Wang, Yongqian; Ma, Li; Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Yang, Linzhang

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. The adsorption process of MB onto abandoned sesame hull (Sesamum indicum L.) (SH) was investigated in a batch system. The results showed that a wide range of pH (3.54-10.50) was favorable for the adsorption of MB onto SH. The Langmuir model displayed the best fit for the isothermal data. The exothermic adsorption process fits a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (359.88 mg g(-1)) was higher than most previously investigated low-cost bioadsorbents (e.g., peanut hull, wheat straw, etc.). This study indicated that sesame hull is a promising, unconventional, affordable and environmentally friendly bio-measure that is easily deployed for removing high levels of MB from wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 40 CFR 180.123a - Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls; statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic bromide residues in peanut... RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123a Inorganic bromide residues in peanut hay and peanut hulls... to cattle of peanut hay and peanut hulls containing residues of inorganic bromides will contribute...

  12. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert; Altelaar, Maarten; de Vries, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  13. Improvement to the Standardization Life-Cycle-Cost Model for Hull, Mechanical, and Electrical Components and Equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Electrical Systems B Flame Arrestor-Ventilation Deck and Hull Machinery B Exhaust Floodlight -Electrical Electrical Systems B Flowmeter Fluid Systems B...Deck and Hull Machinery B Light Assembly-Signal Electrical Systems B Light Switch Assembly Electrical Systems C Light- Beacon Electrical Systems D Light

  14. Scattering effect of submarine hull on propeller non-cavitation noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingsan; Shen, Yang; Jin, Shuanbao; Hu, Pengfei; Lan, Rensheng; Zhuang, Shuangjiang; Liu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the non-cavitation noise caused by propeller running in the wake of submarine with the consideration of scattering effect caused by submarine's hull. The computation fluid dynamics (CFD) and acoustic analogy method are adopted to predict fluctuating pressure of propeller's blade and its underwater noise radiation in time domain, respectively. An effective iteration method which is derived in the time domain from the Helmholtz integral equation is used to solve multi-frequency waves scattering due to obstacles. Moreover, to minimize time interpolation caused numerical errors, the pressure and its derivative at the sound emission time is obtained by summation of Fourier series. It is noted that the time averaging algorithm is used to achieve a convergent result if the solution oscillated in the iteration process. Meanwhile, the developed iteration method is verified and applied to predict propeller noise scattered from submarine's hull. In accordance with analysis results, it is summarized that (1) the scattering effect of hull on pressure distribution pattern especially at the frequency higher than blade passing frequency (BPF) is proved according to the contour maps of sound pressure distribution of submarine's hull and typical detecting planes. (2) The scattering effect of the hull on the total pressure is observable in noise frequency spectrum of field points, where the maximum increment is up to 3 dB at BPF, 12.5 dB at 2BPF and 20.2 dB at 3BPF. (3) The pressure scattered from hull is negligible in near-field of propeller, since the scattering effect surrounding analyzed location of propeller on submarine's stern is significantly different from the surface ship. This work shows the importance of submarine's scattering effect in evaluating the propeller non-cavitation noise.

  15. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  16. In vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of green hull of Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to count the oxidative damage in cells. We assessed the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of green hull of Juglans regia in this study. According to our results the maximum antibacterial activity was observed in ethanolic extract when compared to other extract. So, the ethanolic extract was studied for antioxidant activity which exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. In conclusion, green hull of J. regia showed strong reducing power activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results justify the therapeutic application of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Keywords: Juglans regia, Ethanolic extract, Antioxidants, DPPH, Antibacterial activity

  17. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hyung Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  18. The hydrodynamics analysis for the underwater robot with a spherical hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiaojuan; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan

    2009-05-01

    The underwater spherical robot has a spherical pressure hull which contains power modules, sensors, and so on. It lacks robot arms or end effectors but is highly maneuverable, for the simplest symmetrical geometry is the sphere. This paper analyzes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic model with CFD software, concludes the spherical robot's hydrodynamic characteristics, and compares these characteristics with the hydrodynamic model of another underwater robot which has a streamlined hull. The effect of sphere hydraulic resistance on the control of the robot is analyzed with some examples.

  19. OPERATION HARDTACK. Project 3.5. Loading and Response of Submarine Hulls from Underwater Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Hulls from Underwater Bursts, Extracted Version 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Rich, H.L., Project Officer; Weinberger, F.; Habib, E.T.; Bort , R.L.; Sette, W.J...SLO A D IN G oa n d R E S P O N S E o f S U B M A R IN E tULLS from UNDERWATER BURSTS H. L. Rich, Project Officer F. Weinberger E.T. Habib R.L. Bort W...OBJECTIVES The objectives established for Project 3.5 were to: (1) determine the range ior lethal hull dam - age to a submarine-like (Squaw) target

  20. Construction of the discrete hull for the combinatorics of a regular pentagonal tiling of the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez-Solano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The article A “regular” pentagonal tiling of the plane by P. L. Bowers and K. Stephenson, Conform. Geom. Dyn. 1, 58–86, 1997, defines a conformal pentagonal tiling. This is a tiling of the plane with remarkable combinatorial and geometric properties. However, it doesn’t have finite local complexi...... combinatorial data, which rather automatically has finite local complexity. In this paper we give a construction of the discrete hull just from the combinatorial data. The main result of this paper is that the discrete hull is a Cantor space....

  1. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) core and rice hulls as components of container media for growing Pinus halepensis M. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianthi, Tsakaldimi

    2006-09-01

    The feasibility of replacing peat or perlite with rice hulls and ground kenaf core to grow a Mediterranean species (Pinus halepensis M.), was investigated. Treatments involved the following growing media: 70 peat:30 perlite as a control, 70 peat:30 rice hulls, 50 peat:50 rice hulls, kenaf (100%) and 60 kenaf:20 peat:20 rice hulls. The seedlings' quality and the physical and chemical properties of the substrates were evaluated. After this, the seedlings were planted in the field and their field performance was recorded. The results showed that the growth medium 70 peat:30 rice hulls can successfully be used for the production of P. halepensis, since the seedlings' nursery and field performance were similar to, or even better than those obtained with the control medium. The seedlings produced in the growth media containing kenaf did not attain a suitable planting size and showed poorer field performance than control seedlings.

  2. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93) was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content. PMID:26785070

  3. PSI Member Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Secretaries International, Kansas City, MO.

    A survey of 2,700 of the 27,000 members of Professional Secretaries International received 755 responses yielding the following profile of secretarial workers: (1) the average member is female, about 45 years old, married with no dependents living at home, and owns a single-family home in the suburbs; (2) most respondents have worked in office or…

  4. Characterization and Mineralization Rates of Low Temperature Peanut Hull and Pine Chip Biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can potentially increase soil fertility and sequester carbon by incorporating nutrients and stable black carbon into the soil; however its effect on soil nitrogen (N and carbon (C processes is not well understood. A defined methodology to characterize biochar is necessary to predict how specific biochars will affect C and N mineralization. We amended a Tifton soil (Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults with peanut hull (Arachis hypogaea; PH; 2.1% N and pine chip (Pinus taeda; PC: 0.4% N biochar at application rates of 1% and 2% (w/w and performed a 136-day mineralization study. A companion 24-day mineralization study amended Tifton soil with PH and PC biochar at 2% and their respective feedstocks at equal C rates. Soil C mineralization rates were monitored periodically throughout each study and total N mineralization rates were also measured. In addition, we characterized each biochar using thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometer (TGA-MS, proximate analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and total mineral analysis to identify biochar characteristics that might correlate with mineralization properties. Limited C (<2% mineralized from both biochars, but mineralization rates of soil amended with PH biochar were higher than PC biochar. Carbon mineralization correlated well with estimated aliphatic content determined by TGA-MS but not with volatile content indicated by proximate analysis. Nitrogen was not mineralized from either biochar, indicating that plant-based biochar should not be considered a source of N for plant growth. The N in biochar may be contained in the stable aromatic structure of the biochar, as indicated by TGA-MS, and not available to soil microbes.

  5. Injection molded plastic helical gear filled with carbon powder made from rice hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen Chu; Itagaki, Takayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Mikio

    2017-07-01

    Natural materials are focused on the ecological responsibility, all over the world. The rice-hull contains natural silica about 20 wt.%. Therefore, a carbonized rice-hull; Rice-Hull-Silica-Carbon (RHSC) is focused as effective utilization of the discarded rice hull. In this study, test plastic helical gears were made form polyacetal copolymer filled with RHSC powder by injection molding. Test helical gears were operated on endurance test. The bulk temperature and noise of test gears were measured during gears operation. Then, the tooth damage of test gears were investigated by using optical microscope. It is clarified that difference of tooth damage by kind of test gears. Moreover, the transition of gear bulk temperature and noise during operation are investigated. Based on these results, the effect of RHSC powder is discussed. From the discussions, it seems reasonable to conclude : (1) The heat resistance of plastic gear is improved by adding the RHSC powder. (2) The fatigue life of plastic gear is improved by adding suitable amount of the RHSC powder. (3) The sound pressure level of plastic gear is reduced by adding the smaller median grain diameter of RHSC powder.

  6. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those computed under § 25.527. In addition— (1.... (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern...

  7. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Water Loads § 23.529 Hull and main float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern landing. For symmetrical step, bow, and stern landings, the limit water reaction load factors are those.... Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern landing conditions must be investigated. In addition— (1) The loading for...

  8. The flavonoid herbacetin diglucoside as a constituent of the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, K.; Vincken, J.P.; Verhoef, R.P.; Oostveen, van W.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Lignans in flaxseed are known to be part of a macromolecule in which they are connected through the linker-molecule hydroxy-methyl-glutaric acid (HMGA). In this study, the lignan macromolecule was extracted from flaxseed hulls and degraded to its monomeric constituents by complete saponification.

  9. Parboiled rice hull mulch in containers reduces liverwort and bittercress growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of preemergence herbicides for weed control is not always possible; some crops and many enclosed production sites are not labeled for herbicide applications. The objective of this research was to determine the utility of parboiled rice hull mulch for controlling two of the most common weeds in ...

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Bene (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica) hull essential oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rezaie, Mitra; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Asili, Javad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, sixty three compounds were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Bene hull. The major components were determined to be α-pinene (20.8 %), camphene (8.4 %), β-myrcene (8.2 %) and limonene (8...

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  12. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. 115.650 Section 115.650 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  13. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conducting the hull examination; (b) The name of the participating diving contractor and underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) company accepted by the OCMI under § 176.650 of this part; (c) The name and... damage, underwater body cleanliness (if known), and the anticipated draft of the vessel at the time of...

  14. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  15. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarełko Wiesła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  16. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  17. Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Graded Levels of Soybean Hull on Blood, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Grower Pigs. ... (MCV) values with the groups on SBH diets. The heart girth circumference, heart weight, kidney weight, live body weight, and dressed carcass weight were all significantly (p<0.05) affected by the dietary levels of SBH.

  18. Quality characteristics of low fat chicken nuggets: effect of salt substitute blend and pea hull flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, Brahma Deo

    2015-04-01

    Effect of salt substitution (Treat I) and added pea hull flour (PHF) at 8 (Treat-II), 10 (Treat-III) and 12 % (Treat-IV) levels on the quality of low fat chicken nuggets (Control) was investigated. Replacement of NaCl significantly affected (P nuggets without significant effect on various attributes.

  19. Structure-function relationships in the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Comparison to other members of the Ly-6 family and snake venom alpha-neurotoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Ellis, V

    1994-01-01

    -anchored membrane proteins. Recent evidence has highlighted similarities between the individual domains of uPAR and the large family of secreted, single domain snake venom alpha-neurotoxins, suggesting that uPAR may adopt the same gross folding pattern as these structurally well characterized proteins. Structural...

  20. Ship hull fouling in the port of Recife, Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Ports of big coastal cities are exposed to exotic species as a consequence of shipping traffic. As the Port of Recife receives an annual average of 491 ships from other regions of Brazil and from all over the world, this work was aimed at knowing which marine animals were passively transported on such vessels hulls, in order to map and monitor new bioinvasions in the area. Thus, 32 vessels of several origins were investigated between November 2005 and March 2006, samples were taken and the macrofauna identified. Sixty species of associated animals were identified, consisting of 28 sessile species, particularly the Cirripedia Balanomorpha and Lepadomorpha as dominants, 8 sedentary animals, namely Mytillidae and Dreissenidae and 23 free-living species, particularly, Caprellidae, Gammaridae, Tanaidacea, Turbellaria, Nemertea and Polychaeta. The first occurrence of Conchoderma virgatum was recorded with exact location for the Brazilian littoral, and Conchoderma auritum, Amphibalanus subalbidus and Haliplanella lineata were recorded for the first time at the littoral of Pernambuco State. The invasion pathway was confirmed for Amphibalanus reticulatus and Mytilopsis leucophaeta, invader species of the estuarine area of Recife's city. Megabalanus coccopoma was considered as a risk invader species for the region.Regiões portuárias das grandes cidades litorâneas estão sujeitas à recepção de espécies exóticas como conseqüência da movimentação dos navios. Como o Porto do Recife recebe uma média anual de 491 atracações de navios, provenientes de várias regiões do Brasil e do mundo, objetivou-se conhecer quais animais marinhos eram transportados passivamente nos cascos das embarcações para mapear e monitorar novas invasões biológicas na área. Assim, foram investigados 32 barcos de diversas origens, nos meses de novembro de 2005 a março de 2006, tendo a macrofauna sido amostrada e identificada. Foram encontradas 60 espécies de animais

  1. Understanding and Limiting School Board Member Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Terry; Jones, Stephanie; Purvis, Mary L.; Rubin, David B.; Thrasher, Doralee; Underwood, Julie; Watkins, W. David

    This book is a primer on board-member liability issues and is intended for both board members and school attorneys. The first chapter, "The Legal System," examines federal sources of legal authority, state and local sources of legal authority, and federal and state judicial structures. Liability under state tort law is the subject of chapter 2,…

  2. Structural mutations of C-domains in members of the Ig superfamily. Consequences for the interactions between the T cell antigen receptor and the zeta 2 homodimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Rubin, B; Caspar-Bauguil, S

    1992-01-01

    -alpha-deficient Jurkat variant. Computer model analysis showed that the Ti-alpha phenylalanine195 directly contributed to the beta-sheet facing away from the Ti-beta chain, indicating that it could be directly involved in the interactions between one or more of the CD3 chains or the zeta 2 dimer. Site...... assembly of the Ti-alpha and -beta mutations were due to any direct effects on the interaction between zeta and the Ti alpha beta dimer or to indirect effects are discussed.......Several molecules belonging to the Ig superfamily are expressed together with noncovalently associated subunits. This applies for membrane-bound IgM and IgD, some of the FcR, and the Ti dimers of the TCR. The interactions between members of the Ig superfamily and their associated subunits are still...

  3. Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity of Walnut Hull Extract via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Caspase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Meshkini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut hull (wal hull is an agricultural by-product that is widely used in traditional medicine for alleviating pain and treating skin diseases, however, recently it has gained much attention in modern pharmacology due to its antioxidant properties. The current study was aimed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of Persian wal hull extract and evaluate its biological effects on platelet function. Experimental data showed that acetone extract of wal hulls has a high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The analytical study of crude extract by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated different types of high- and low-molecular-weight compounds that are basically and biologically important. Moreover, an in vitro study revealed that wal hull extract at a concentration of 50 μg/mL inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and protein secretion by 50%, without any cytotoxic effects on platelets. The examined extract suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and also caspase activation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Identically, N-acetylcysteine inhibited the increase of reactive oxygen species level induced by thrombin in platelets, and supported a link between cellular redox status and caspase activation in activated platelets. Presumably, the antiplatelet activity of wal hull extract is related to its polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. Therefore, wal hulls can be considered as a candidate for thrombotic disorders.

  4. Rice hull extracts inhibit proliferation of MCF-7 cells with G₁ cell cycle arrest in parallel with their antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Nam-Jin; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Seung-Ah; Baek, Jin-A; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2015-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has been a major dietary staple worldwide for centuries. Growing interest in the beneficial effects of antioxidants has inspired investigation of rice hulls as an attractive source of chemopreventive compounds for breast cancer intervention. We prepared methanol extracts from rice hulls of three Korean bred cultivars (japonica), Ilpum, Heugjinju, and Jeogjinju, and one japonica weedy rice, WD-3. We examined the antiproliferative potential of the hull extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the related mechanisms thereof. Hull extracts inhibited proliferation of the cells and mediated G0/G1 phase arrest by suppressing cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases, where WD-3 extract showed the most potent. Blockage of p21 expression by small interfering RNA transfection attenuated G1 phase arrest induced by WD-3 extract. The WD-3 extract exhibited greater antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds, compared with other rice hulls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the F4 fractioned from WD-3 extract revealed that cinnamic acid derivatives were the major active constituents. The F4 fraction most potently inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells than WD-3 extract through the suppression of cell cycle regulatory factors. Collectively, our results suggest that the pigmented rice hulls possess greater antioxidant and chemopreventive activity against breast cancer than the other rice cultivars tested, demonstrating that WD-3 rice hulls are an attractive source of chemopreventive bioactive compounds.

  5. Impact of total substitution of corn for soybean hulls in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Patricia Viana Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substituting corn for soybean hulls on the apparent digestibility of nutrients, carcass performance and characteristics, and yield of cuts of 25 non-castrated male Santa Ines lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg, at approximately 6 months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 × 1.0 m, considering a totally randomized design, fed 600 g/kg of forage and 400 g/kg of concentrate. Soybean hulls replaced corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, total carbohydrates (TC, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN in g/day, and the digestibility of NFC increased linearly with the soybean hull replacement. Crude protein intake displayed a quadratic response, whereas the intake of EE in g/day, the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, NDFap and TC, TDN, average daily gain, carcass characteristics, and yield of cuts were not affected by the soybean hull levels. Soybean hull substitution increased the intake of DM and nutrients, making it possible to replace up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the diets for confined sheep, as it does not compromise performance, digestibility, carcass characteristics, or yield of cuts when used in sheep nutrition.

  6. Crack arrestability of ship hull steel plate in accidental conditions: Application of high arrestability endowed ultra fine-grain surface layer steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Hagiwara, Yukito [Oita R and D Lab. (Japan); Oshita, Shigeru [Nippon Steel Corp., Oita (Japan). Oita Works; Inoue, Takehiro [Nippon Steel Corp., Futsu, Chiba (Japan). Steel Research Labs.; Hashimoto, Kunifumi; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Tada, Masuo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan); Yajima, Hiroshi [Univ. of Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    A new type steel plate with ultra fine-grained surface layers (SUF steel) has been developed to improve crack arrestability. The application of this new type steel makes it possible to prevent catastrophic brittle fracture accidents of ship hull structures in emergency conditions, such as in serious collisions or groundings. It will reduce further the risk of casualties and environmental pollutions, caused by accidents of large crude oil carriers (VLCCs). The authors have investigated the validity for the application of the new type steel with ultra-high crack arrestability. Both computer simulations for collision of two VLCCs and large-scale fracture testings for crack arrestability have been carried out to study the accidental cases. The simulation results suggest that a collision generates a significant amount of plastic strain damage for the hull plate around a struck part. For example, the sheer strake plate near the struck part suffers 5 to 10% of plastic strain, before an inner-hull ruptures. Therefore, the effect of plastic strain (10% level) on crack arrestability of steel plates (the SUF plate and a conventional TMCP plate) was examined by standard ESSO tests, ultra wide-plate duplex ESSO tests, and sheer strake model tests. The test results are as follows: (1) Plastic strain deteriorates crack arrestability of steel plates. (2) Sufficient crack arrestability at 0 deg. C cannot be expected in the conventional TMCP steel plate plastically strained by about 10%. (3) The SUF plate maintains high crack arrestability even after introducing 10% plastic strain, at design temperature of 0 deg. C.

  7. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 116.300 Section 116.300 Shipping... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below for the hull material of...

  8. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural design. 177.300 Section 177.300 Shipping...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply with the structural design requirements of one of the standards listed below...

  9. Structure of Escherichia coli RutC, a member of the YjgF family and putative aminoacrylate peracid reductase of the rut operon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapik, Aleksandra Alicja; Petkowski, Janusz Jurand; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Cymborowski, Marcin Tadeusz; Cooper, David Robert; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Krajewska, Wanda Malgorzata; Minor, Wladek

    2014-10-02

    RutC is the third enzyme in the Escherichia coli rut pathway of uracil degradation. RutC belongs to the highly conserved YjgF family of proteins. The structure of the RutC protein was determined and refined to 1.95 Å resolution. This crystal belonged to space group P21212 and contained six molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by SAD phasing and was refined to an Rwork of 19.3% (Rfree = 21.7%). Moreover, the final model revealed that this protein has a Bacillus chorismate mutase-like fold and forms a homotrimer with a hydrophobic cavity in the center of the structure and ligand-binding clefts between two subunits. A likely function for RutC is the reduction of peroxy-aminoacrylate to aminoacrylate as a part of a detoxification process.

  10. Preparation and X-ray structures of complexes of 18-membered crown ethers with polyfunctional guests: Urea and (O-alkyliso)uronium salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwijk, Jos W.H.M.; van Hummel, G.J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Aarts, Veronika M.L.J.; Daasvatn, Kari; Geevers, Jan; den Hertog, H.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1988-01-01

    The preparation and X-ray structure determinations of six complexes of urea and (O-n-butyliso)uronium salts with crown ethers are presented. Urea forms isostructural 5:1 adducts with 18-crown-6 (1) and aza-18-crown-6 (2), in which two urea molecules are each hydrogen bonded to two neighbouring

  11. Relationships between IgE/IgG4 epitopes, structure and function in Anisakis simplex Ani s 5, a member of the SXP/RAL-2 protein family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Flor García-Mayoral

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anisakiasis is a re-emerging global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis larvae. This zoonotic disease is characterized by severe gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptoms which may misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies. The Anisakis allergen Ani s 5 is a protein belonging to the SXP/RAL-2 family; it is detected exclusively in nematodes. Previous studies showed that SXP/RAL-2 proteins are active antigens; however, their structure and function remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of Ani s 5 and its main IgE and IgG4 binding regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The tertiary structure of recombinant Ani s 5 in solution was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mg2+, but not Ca2+, binding was determined by band shift using SDS-PAGE. IgE and IgG4 epitopes were elucidated by microarray immunoassay and SPOTs membranes using sera from nine Anisakis allergic patients. The tertiary structure of Ani s 5 is composed of six alpha helices (H, with a Calmodulin like fold. H3 is a long, central helix that organizes the structure, with H1 and H2 packing at its N-terminus and H4 and H5 packing at its C-terminus. The orientation of H6 is undefined. Regarding epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 immunoglobulins, the same eleven peptides derived from Ani s 5 were bound by both IgE and IgG4. Peptides 14 (L40-K59, 26 (A76-A95 and 35 (I103-D122 were recognized by three out of nine sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first reported 3D structure of an Anisakis allergen. Magnesium ion binding and structural resemblance to Calmodulin, suggest some putative functions for SXP/RAL-2 proteins. Furthermore, the IgE/IgG4 binding regions of Ani s 5 were identified as segments localized on its surface. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the interactions that occur between immunoglobulins and allergens

  12. Relationships between IgE/IgG4 epitopes, structure and function in Anisakis simplex Ani s 5, a member of the SXP/RAL-2 protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mayoral, María Flor; Treviño, Miguel Angel; Pérez-Piñar, Teresa; Caballero, María Luisa; Knaute, Tobias; Umpierrez, Ana; Bruix, Marta; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Anisakiasis is a re-emerging global disease caused by consumption of raw or lightly cooked fish contaminated with L3 Anisakis larvae. This zoonotic disease is characterized by severe gastrointestinal and/or allergic symptoms which may misdiagnosed as appendicitis, gastric ulcer or other food allergies. The Anisakis allergen Ani s 5 is a protein belonging to the SXP/RAL-2 family; it is detected exclusively in nematodes. Previous studies showed that SXP/RAL-2 proteins are active antigens; however, their structure and function remain unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of Ani s 5 and its main IgE and IgG4 binding regions. The tertiary structure of recombinant Ani s 5 in solution was solved by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mg2+, but not Ca2+, binding was determined by band shift using SDS-PAGE. IgE and IgG4 epitopes were elucidated by microarray immunoassay and SPOTs membranes using sera from nine Anisakis allergic patients. The tertiary structure of Ani s 5 is composed of six alpha helices (H), with a Calmodulin like fold. H3 is a long, central helix that organizes the structure, with H1 and H2 packing at its N-terminus and H4 and H5 packing at its C-terminus. The orientation of H6 is undefined. Regarding epitopes recognized by IgE and IgG4 immunoglobulins, the same eleven peptides derived from Ani s 5 were bound by both IgE and IgG4. Peptides 14 (L40-K59), 26 (A76-A95) and 35 (I103-D122) were recognized by three out of nine sera. This is the first reported 3D structure of an Anisakis allergen. Magnesium ion binding and structural resemblance to Calmodulin, suggest some putative functions for SXP/RAL-2 proteins. Furthermore, the IgE/IgG4 binding regions of Ani s 5 were identified as segments localized on its surface. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the interactions that occur between immunoglobulins and allergens and, in turn, facilitate the design of novel diagnostic tests and immunotherapeutic

  13. Structural and Functional Insights into Aeropyrum pernix OppA, a Member of a Novel Archaeal OppA Subfamily▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, M.; Gogliettino, M.; Fiume, I.; Pocsfalvi, G.; Catara, G.; Rossi, M.; Palmieri, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we gain insight into the structural and functional characterization of the Aeropyrum pernix oligopeptide-binding protein (OppAAp) previously identified from the extracellular medium of an Aeropyrum pernix cell culture at late stationary phase. OppAAp showed an N-terminal Q32 in a pyroglutamate form and C-terminal processing at the level of a threonine-rich region probably involved in protein membrane anchoring. Moreover, the OppAAp protein released into the medium was identified as a “nicked” form composed of two tightly associated fragments detachable only under strong denaturing conditions. The cleavage site E569-G570 seems be located on an exposed surface loop that is highly conserved in several three-dimensional (3D) structures of dipeptide/oligopeptide-binding proteins from different sources. Structural and biochemical properties of the nicked protein were virtually indistinguishable from those of the intact form. Indeed, studies of the entire bacterially expressed OppAAp protein owning the same N and C termini of the nicked form supported these findings. Moreover, in the middle exponential growth phase, OppAAp was found as an intact cell membrane-associated protein. Interestingly, the native exoprotein OppAAp was copurified with a hexapeptide (EKFKIV) showing both lysines methylated and possibly originating from an A. pernix endogenous stress-induced lipoprotein. Therefore, the involvement of OppAAp in the recycling of endogenous proteins was suggested to be a potential physiological function. Finally, a new OppA from Sulfolobus solfataricus, SSO1288, was purified and preliminarily characterized, allowing the identification of a common structural/genetic organization shared by all “true” archaeal OppA proteins of the dipeptide/oligopeptide class. PMID:21097609

  14. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase...

  15. The roles of the convex hull and the number of potential intersections in performance on visually presented traveling salesperson problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Douglas; Lee, Michael D; Dry, Matthew; Hughes, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem requires finding the shortest tour through a two-dimensional array of points. MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have suggested that people solve such problems by using a global-to-local perceptual organizing process based on the convex hull of the array. We review evidence for and against this idea, before considering an alternative, local-to-global perceptual process, based on the rapid automatic identification of nearest neighbors. We compare these approaches in an experiment in which the effects of number of convex hull points and number of potential intersections on solution performance are measured. Performance worsened with more points on the convex hull and with fewer potential intersections. A measure of response uncertainty was unaffected by the number of convex hull points but increased with fewer potential intersections. We discuss a possible interpretation of these results in terms of a hierarchical solution process based on linking nearest neighbor clusters.

  16. Evaluation of Test Antifouling (AF) and Foul Release Coating Systems on Bilge Keel Panels and Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radakovich, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... Evaluation consisted of two phases, bilge keel panel testing and hull patch testing. Four ships served as test platforms for bilge keel panel testing; USS FOSTER (DD 980). USS THOMAS GATES (CG 51), USS LEYTE GULF (CG 55...

  17. Embryonic origins of hull cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano through cell lineage analysis: developmental and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Maxime; Egger, Bernhard; Wolff, Carsten; Mouton, Stijn; Houthoofd, Wouter; Fonderie, Pamela; Couvreur, Marjolein; Artois, Tom; Borgonie, Gaëtan

    2009-08-01

    The development of macrostomid flatworms is of interest for evolutionary developmental biology research because these taxa combine characteristics of the canonical spiral cleavage pattern with significant deviations from this pattern. One such deviation is the formation of hull cells, which surround the remaining embryonic primordium during early development. Using live observations with a 4D microscope system, histology, and 3D reconstructions, we analyzed the ontogeny of these hull cells in the macrostomid model organism Macrostomum lignano. Our cell lineage analysis allowed us to find the precursors of the hull cells in this species. We discuss the relation between macrostomid development and the development of other spiralians and the question of whether hull cells are homologous within rhabditophoran flatworms.

  18. The influence of proanthocyanidin-rich bean hulls and level of dietary protein on energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility by adult cockerels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, M A; Feuerstein, D; McNab, J M; McCorquodale, C

    1993-07-01

    Cotyledons and hulls were prepared from twelve varieties of field beans (Vicia faba L.). Adult cockerels were tube-fed either beans, cotyledons or hull diets containing high or low levels of protein. Metabolizable energy coefficients and starch digestibility coefficients were determined for beans, cotyledons and hull diets. Lipid digestibility coefficients from hull diets were also determined. When cotyledons were fed there were no significant differences in the way in which adult cockerels metabolized energy or digested starch from the proanthocyanidin-free and proanthocyanidin-rich varieties (0.780, 0.908, 0.775 and 0.918 respectively). When beans were fed, however, both energy metabolizability and starch digestibility decreased due to the presence of hulls, with proanthocyanidin-rich hulls decreasing values the most to 0.660 and 0.819 respectively, and proanthocyanidin-free hulls decreasing values to a lesser extent to 0.709 and 0.886 respectively. Diets composed of proanthocyanidin-rich hulls depressed metabolizable energy and maize starch digestibility. Their effect on maize starch digestibility, however, was considerably less than that on bean starch. Lipid digestibility was enhanced by proanthocyanidins but only when the protein content of the diet was high. There was a significant correlation (P bean starch digestibility v. proanthocyanidin content of coloured-flowered bean hulls (P < 0.001). The regression of maize starch digestibility v. hull proanthocyanidins was also significant at P < 0.005.

  19. Prize for a Faculty Member for Research in an Undergraduate Institution Lecture: Studies of the Structure and Properties of Oxide Glasses with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affatigato, Mario

    2013-03-01

    This presentation will summarize the research work carried out by Prof. Affatigato and his undergraduate students over the past eighteen years. It will focus on some highlighted projects, namely: the determination of glass structure using laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometry; studies of glass modification by laser irradiation; bactericidal glass; and, most recently, glass manufacturing by aerolevitation and glasses for particle detection. The work on mass spectrometry will cover a broad range of oxide glass systems, including the borates, borosilicates, germanate, and gallate families. It has provided novel insights into the structure of glasses at intermediate length scales, measurements that are hard to obtain by any other techniques. The studies of glass structure modification will primarily center on vanadate glasses, which also form the basis for more recent electronic conductivity work at the heart of new particle calorimeter detectors. This project shows the power of serendipity and the strong capabilities of undergraduate students involved in advanced work and state of the art instrumentation. Bactericidal glass illustrates a nice collaborative project that involved simple borate glasses and helped pioneer their use in the human body--work that has led to significant medical developments by other colleagues and researchers. Finally, the aerolevitation project gives new insight into the crystallization and property behavior of glasses and melts at very high temperatures (from 2000 °C to 3000 °C). The work by Prof. Affatigato and his students has been supported by grants from the Research Corporation, the Petroleum Research Fund, and, primarily, by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  20. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, Sarathy K; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    Calpains are Ca(2+) dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca(2+) signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca(2+) , which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca(2+) bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca(2+) -binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca(2+) signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit. Database Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank database under accession number 4OKH. © 2014 FEBS.

  1. Acoustical characteristic predictions of a multi-layer system of a submerged vehicle hull mounted sonar simplified to an infinite planar model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hee Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull Mounted Sonar (HMS is a long range submerged vehicle's hull-mounted passive sonar system which detects low-frequency noise caused by machineries of enemy ships or submerged vehicles. The HMS needs a sound absorption /insulation multi-layer structure to shut out the self-noise from own machineries and to amplify signals from outside. Therefore, acoustic analysis of the multi-layer system should be performed when the HMS is designed. This paper simplified the HMS multi-layer system to be an infinite planar multi-layer model. Also, main excitations that influence the HMS were classified into mechanical, plane wave and turbulent flow excitation, and the investigations for each excitation were performed for various models. Stiffened multi-layer analysis for mechanical excitation and general multi-layer analysis for turbulent flow excitation were developed. The infinite planar multi-layer analysis was expected to be more useful for preliminary design stage of HMS system than the infinite cylindrical model because of short analysis time and easiness of parameter study.

  2. The structures of Alcaligenes faecalis D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase before and after NAD+ and acetate binding suggest a dynamical reaction mechanism as a member of the SDR family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Mominul; Shimizu, Satoru; Hossain, Md Tofazzal; Yamamoto, Tamotsu; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Kaoru; Tsunoda, Masaru; Amano, Hitoshi; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Takénaka, Akio

    2008-05-01

    D-3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between D-3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, has been classified into the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family and is a useful marker in the assay of diabetes mellitus and/or ketoacidosis. The enzyme from Alcaligenes faecalis was crystallized in the apo form and in the holo form with acetate as a substrate analogue. The crystal structures of both forms were determined at 2.2 angstroms resolution. The enzyme is a tetramer composed of four subunits assembled with noncrystallographic 222 point symmetry. Each subunit has two domains. The principal domain adopts the Rossmann fold essential for nucleotide binding, which is a common feature of the SDR family. NAD+ is bound in a large cleft in the domain. The pyrophosphate group of NAD+ is covered by the small additional domain, which is supported by two extended arms allowing domain movement. In the catalytic site, a water molecule is trapped by the catalytic Tyr155 and Ser142 residues in the vicinity of the bound NAD+ and acetate. The substrate analogue acetate is bound above the nicotinamide plane. A substrate (D-3-hydroxybutylate) bound model can reasonably be constructed by adding two C atoms into the void space between the water O atom and the methyl group of the acetate, suggesting a substrate-bound state before enzymatic reaction occurs. Based on these structural features, a reaction mechanism has been proposed.

  3. Structural insights to the metal specificity of an archaeal member of the LigD 3'-phosphoesterase DNA repair enzyme family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ushati; Smith, Paul; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    LigD 3'-phosphoesterase (PE) enzymes perform end-healing reactions at DNA breaks. Here we characterize the 3'-ribonucleoside-resecting activity of Candidatus Korarchaeum PE. CkoPE prefers a single-stranded substrate versus a primer-template. Activity is abolished by vanadate (10 mM), but is less sensitive to phosphate (IC(50) 50 mM) or chloride (IC(50) 150 mM). The metal requirement is satisfied by manganese, cobalt, copper or cadmium, but not magnesium, calcium, nickel or zinc. Insights to CkoPE metal specificity were gained by solving new 1.5 Å crystal structures of CkoPE in complexes with Co(2+) and Zn(2+). His9, His15 and Asp17 coordinate cobalt in an octahedral complex that includes a phosphate anion, which is in turn coordinated by Arg19 and His51. The cobalt and phosphate positions and the atomic contacts in the active site are virtually identical to those in the CkoPE·Mn(2+) structure. By contrast, Zn(2+) binds in the active site in a tetrahedral complex, wherein the position, orientation and atomic contacts of the phosphate are shifted and its interaction with His51 is lost. We conclude that: (i) PE selectively binds to 'soft' metals in either productive or non-productive modes and (ii) PE catalysis depends acutely on proper metal and scissile phosphate geometry.

  4. Crystal structures of the DNA-binding domain tetramer of the p53 tumor suppressor family member p73 bound to different full-site response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethayathulla, Abdul S; Nguyen, H Thien; Viadiu, Hector

    2013-02-15

    How cells choose between developmental pathways remains a fundamental biological question. In the case of the p53 protein family, its three transcription factors (p73, p63, and p53) each trigger a gene expression pattern that leads to specific cellular pathways. At the same time, these transcription factors recognize the same response element (RE) consensus sequences, and their transactivation of target genes overlaps. We aimed to understand target gene selectivity at the molecular level by determining the crystal structures of the p73 DNA-binding domain (DBD) in complex with full-site REs that vary in sequence. We report two structures of the p73 DBD bound as a tetramer to 20-bp full-site REs based on two distinct quarter-sites: GAACA and GAACC. Our study confirms that the DNA-binding residues are conserved within the p53 family, whereas the dimerization and tetramerization interfaces diverge. Moreover, a conserved lysine residue in loop L1 of the DBD senses the presence of guanines in positions 2 and 3 of the quarter-site RE, whereas a conserved arginine in loop 3 adapts to changes in position 5. Sequence variations in the RE elicit a p73 conformational response that might explain target gene specificity.

  5. Performance and carcass traits of goat kids fed high-concentrate diets containing citrus pulp or soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montanher Polizel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of partial replacement of ground corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goat kids. Twenty one Boer x Saanen kids (initial BW 15.8 ± 0.7kg, nine males and 12 females, were distributed in a complete randomized block design, according to sex and initial body weight. Treatments were set by replacing 50% of ground corn (DM basis for citrus pulp or soybean hulls; whereas, forage concentrate ratio was of 10:90. Partial replacement of corn by citrus pulp or soybean hulls increased dry matter intake, average daily gain and final body weight, but feed efficiency was not affected. There was no difference between citrus pulp or soybean hulls. Inclusion of coproducts increased slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight and longissimus muscle area, with no difference between citrus pulp and soybean hulls. Subcutaneous fat thickness, hot and cold carcass yields, shrink after chilling and body wall thickness were not affected by treatments. Citrus pulp and soybean hulls can replace 50% of ground corn (DM basis increasing dry matter intake and weight gain in goat kids enabling higher slaughter weight at earlier age.

  6. Influence of harvest year in the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Herchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of five years on physico-chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull oils. Oil and protein on flaxseed hull varied between 20.15 and 22.56 and 17.45 and 19.14, respectively. The albumin fraction dominated the seed hull protein composition (44 - 47%. Flaxseed hull oils showed significantly high unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (6.61 - 8.36 and calculated oxidizability (Cox values (10.88 - 12.30. The physiochemical parameters determined included saponification value (SV (174 -182 mg KOH/g, unsaponifiable matter (UM (1.32 - 1.64%, peroxide value (PV (1.70 - 2.20 mequiv/kg, Oxidation value (OV (4.40 - 5.90 and oil stability (1.10 - 1.42 h. The highest content of total phenolic acids and total tocopherols were recorded on hull sample collected in 2008. Flavanoid content ranged from 11 to 19 mg/100 g oil. Antioxidant activity differed significantly; the greatest inhibition (61.38% was for the hull sample collected in 2008.

  7. Distribution Characterization of Leaf and Hull Pubescences and Genetic Analysis of Their Numbers in japonica Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-biao ZHU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributions of pubescences on leaf blade and hull in japonica rice were observed under an optical microscope. Numbers of leaf and hull pubescences in P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations were investigated in three combinations of japonica rice (Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R, Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and Liuyan 189A/HR-122, and genetic analysis for these two traits were conducted by using the joint analysis method of P1, P2, F1, B1, B2 and F2 generations with the mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance models. Leaf pubescences characterized by swollen base and fine tip distributed regularly on the boundary between dark green stripe and light green stripe of leaf blade. Hull pubescences with various lengths distributed irregularly on the whole hull. Numbers of leaf pubescences in the reciprocal combinations of Sidao 10A/Wuyujing 3R and Wuyujing 3A/Sidao 10R and numbers of hull pubescences in all the three combinations were controlled by one pair of additive major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. In the combination of Liuyan 189A/HR-122, number of leaf pubescences was controlled by one pair of additive-dominant major genes plus additive-dominant polygenes. Both numbers of leaf and hull pubescences were mainly governed by major genes.

  8. Hull Formula and Standard of Compensation for Expropriation in Postcolonial States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya’kub Aiyub Kadir

    2017-08-01

    ABSTRAK: Setelah progam dekolonisasi negara-negara jajahan, salah satu isu yang mencuat dalam hukum internasional adalah perlindungan investasi asing dari nasionalisasi  negera negara baru merdeka. Dalam hal ini hull formula yang mulanya didesain oleh negara Amerika terhadap Mexico, digunakan sebagai standar kompensasi dari nasionalisasi. Dari perspektif negara negara poskolonial standar ini dianggap tidak adil, bahkan standar ini digunakan hanya untuk memperkuat dominasi negara negara penjajah di bekas jajahannya. Dengan menggunakan metodologi kajian hukum kritis, tulisan ini ingin mengkaji sejauhmana relevansi hull formula untuk diterapkan dalam konteks negara-negara poskolonial. Tulisan ini diharapkan dapat berkontribusi untuk pemahaman konsep tentang standar kompensasi terhadap nasionalisasi di negara negara poskolonial, dan dapat membuka wacana merumuskan kembali standar secara lebih fair dan adil dari perspektif  negara postkolonial.

  9. Coefficients of Propeller-hull Interaction in Propulsion System of Inland Waterway Vessels with Stern Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kulczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Propeller-hull interaction coefficients - the wake fraction and the thrust deduction factor - play significant role in design of propulsion system of a ship. In the case of inland waterway vessels the reliable method of predicting these coefficients in early design stage is missing. Based on the outcomes from model tests and from numerical computations the present authors show that it is difficult to determine uniquely the trends in change of wake fraction and thrust deduction factor resulting from the changes of hull form or operating conditions. Nowadays the resistance and propulsion model tests of inland waterway vessels are carried out rarely because of relatively high costs. On the other hand, the degree of development of computational methods enables’ to estimate the reliable values o interaction coefficients. The computations referred to in the present paper were carried out using the authors’ own software HPSDKS and the commercial software Ansys Fluent.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN NAKED AND HULLED OAT (AVENA SATIVA L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chmelová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine suitable conditions for antioxidant extraction from different oat (Avena sativa L. varieties, specifically naked oat (Tatran, and yellow (Atego, black (Paddock and white (Fredy hulled oats. Antioxidant activity was determined by radical-scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical. The results showed that methanol reported the highest recovery of antioxidant compounds in range from 150 to 228 μg/g plant material. The highest antioxidant activities were measured in naked oat Tatran (228 μg/g plant material and black hulled oat Paddock (202 μg/g plant material. We achieved higher yields of antioxidant activities by increasing the solid-liquid ratio (w/v (229 – 303 μg/g plant material. Extraction time was 240 minutes for maximal antioxidant activities in all oat varieties.

  11. Structure of 1,5-benzodiazepinones in the solid state and in solution: Effect of the fluorination in the six-membered ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pérez-Torralba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two novel tetrafluorinated 1,5-benzodiazepinones were synthesized and their X-ray structures determined. 6,7,8,9-Tetrafluoro-4-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group and 6,7,8,9-tetrafluoro-1,4-dimethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one in the triclinic P−1 space group. Density functional theory studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p level were carried out on these compounds and on four non-fluorinated derivatives, allowing to calculate geometries, tautomeric energies and ring-inversion barriers, that were compared with the experimental results obtained by static and dynamic NMR in solution and in solid state.

  12. Properties of Moldings Prepared from LDPE-Pumpkin Seed Hulls Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, standard polymer blends for different applications have been more and more often replaced by blends containing raw materials. The use of natural materials as filler in thermoplastics brings both economic and environmental benefits. The use of a given vegetable filler depends on the geographic location and natural occurrence of the vegetables in a given geographic region. In Poland, for instance, the pumpkin is one of such vegetables. They are used for producing oil which is pressed from pumpkin seeds. Pumpkin seeds are then collected, dried and purified to produce waste material in hull form. Particles of ground pumpkin seed hulls with varying sizes and weight-in-weight concentration ranging from 0% to 20% relative to the matrix are used as filler in low-density polyethylene. Pumpkin seed hulls are ground and sieved. Four fractions of hulls with different particle sizes are produced: <0.2mm, 0.2mm-0.4mm, 0.4mm-0.6mm, 0.6mm-0.8mm. The paper reports the results of investigation of the mechanical properties, i.e., strength properties determined by static tensile testing and hardness measurement, of injection molds produced at constant processing parameters. In addition, the cross sections of the obtained products are subjected to microscopic examination. Relationships are determined between tensile modulus, maximum tensile stress, tensile stress at yield, maximum tensile strain, tensile strain at yield as well as Shore hardness and weigh-in-weight concentration of the powdered natural filler and its grain sizes. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  13. Design of high-speed planing hulls for the improvement of resistance and seakeeping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-speed vessels require good resistance and seakeeping performance for safe operations in rough seas. The resistance and seakeeping performance of high-speed vessels varies significantly depending on their hull forms. In this study, three planing hulls that have almost the same displacement and principal dimension are designed and the hydrodynamic characteristics of those hulls are estimated by high-speed model tests. All model ships are deep-V type planing hulls. The bows of no.2 and no.3 model ships are designed to be advantageous for wave-piercing in rough water. No. 2 and no. 3 model ships have concave and straight forebody cross-sections, respectively. And length-to-beam ratios of no.2 and no.3 models are larger than that of no.1 model. In calm water tests, running attitude and resistance of model ships are measured at various speeds. And motion tests in regular waves are performed to measure the heave and pitch motion responses of the model ships. The required power of no.1 (VPS model is smallest, but its vertical motion amplitudes in waves are the largest. No.2 (VWC model shows the smallest motion amplitudes in waves, but needs the greatest power at high speed. The resistance and seakeeping performance of no.3 (VWS model ship are the middle of three model ships, respectively. And in regular waves, no.1 model ship experiences ‘fly over’ phenomena around its resonant frequency. Vertical accelerations at specific locations such as F.P., center of gravity of model ships are measured at their resonant frequency. It is necessary to measure accelerations by accelerometers or other devices in model tests for the accurate prediction of vertical accelerations in real ships.

  14. Characterization and Mineralization Rates of Low Temperature Peanut Hull and Pine Chip Biochars

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Keith; Gaskin, Julia; Cabrera, Miguel; Miller, William; Das, K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Biochar can potentially increase soil fertility and sequester carbon by incorporating nutrients and stable black carbon into the soil; however its effect on soil nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) processes is not well understood. A defined methodology to characterize biochar is necessary to predict how specific biochars will affect C and N mineralization. We amended a Tifton soil (Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults) with peanut hull (Arachis hypogaea; PH; 2.1% N) and pine chip (Pin...

  15. Thin-Walled Beam Theories and Their Applications in the Torsional Strength Analysis of Ship Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    numerous deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The system has been utilized in a study of a frigate under an assumed torsional/flexural load, the...transverse bulkheads and r deep web frames. Figure 18 indicates that, despite the poor agreement in twist angle, the axial stress results compare quite...under torsional loads. This will be the case for a typical warship hull, because of the large number of deep web frames and transverse bulkheads. The

  16. Carbonized rice hull as substratum to produce tamboril-da-mata and garapeira seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Huezer Viganô Sperandio; Waldir Nagel Schirmer; Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira; Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles

    2009-01-01

    The production of forest seedlings, in quantity and quality, is one of the most important steps for the establishment of good stands with native species. Therefore, the substrate is the factor that makes a significant influence in the development of seedlings and many materials can be used in its original composition or combined. This work focus on evaluating the influence of carbonized rice hull as substrate for the production of seedlings of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong) and...

  17. Effect of alum (top-dressed and mixed) with rice hulls on pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effects of alum top dressed or mixed with rice hulls as litter management methods on pH and NH3 emissions. A total of 180 broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 12 pens to a density of 0.07 m2/bird for 5 weeks, creating 4 replicates of 3 experimental treatments with 15 ...

  18. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates...... developed is illustrated by application to a tanker. For a given set of inspection and repair criteria, the ultimate bending moment and reliability as a function of ship age is predicted....

  19. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    and has a great resistance to corrosion . When aluminum reacts with oxygen, a thin layer of oxide is created and provides corrosion protection .3...made of aluminum rather than steel is the vehicle hull because the same level of protection could be achieved at a lighter weight. A rectangular...the design of military vehicles. Since World War II, rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) steel has been the primary material used to protect main armor

  20. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal; Maria Cristina Thomaz; Pedro Henrique Watanabe; Urbano dos Santos Ruiz; Alessandro Borges Amorim; Everton Daniel; Susana Zaneti da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source...

  1. Losses through gases and effluent and nutritional value of Brachiaria decumbens with addition of soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Clayton Oliveira Dantas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the losses of nutrient through gases and effluents, the nutrient recovery, fermentation parameters and the chemical parameters of silages of Brachiaria decumbens with the addition of soybean hulls, testing five levels of inclusion: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (as is, with five replications per treatment. After the standardization cut of the forage, performed at 5 cm from the soil level, the soil was fertilized with nitrogen and potassium in the form of ammonium sulfate and potassium chloride, respectively, at 60 kg/ha. After 60 days, the grass was cut at 10 cm from the soil and ensiled. Experimental silos with capacity of 10 liters with Bunsen valve were used. Silos had 3 kg of sand conditioned at the bottom for retention of the effluents. The results show that the contents of dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent insoluble fiber and total digestible nutrients presented positive linear behavior with the inclusion of soybean hulls. In the grass silages with addition of soybean hulls, there was greater recovery of dry matter in relation to the control silage, which is a reflection of the negative linear behavior for the values of losses of gases and effluent. There was quadratic behavior in the pH values and negative linear behavior for the ammonia N values and buffering capacity with the inclusion of the additive in the grass silage. Inclusion of soybean hulls is sufficient to improve the fermentation pattern and minimize the losses through gases and effluents, contributing to the nutrient recovery, in addition to promoting overall improvement of the nutritional value of Brachiaria grass silages.

  2. An interpolation method of b-spline surface for hull form design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bae Jung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of B-spline surface interpolation of scattered points for a hull form design, which are not arbitrarily scattered, but can be arranged in a series of contours permitting variable number of points in the contours. A new approach that allows different parameter value for each point on the same contour has been adopted. The usefulness and quality of the interpolation has been demonstrated with some experimental results.

  3. Efficiency measurement with a non-convex free disposal hull technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuyama, Hirofumi; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Sekitani, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the basic monotonicity properties of least-distance (in)efficiency measures on the class of non-convex FDH (free disposable hull) technologies. We show that any known FDH least-distance measure violates strong monotonicity over the strongly (Pareto-Koopmans) efficient frontier....... Taking this result into account, we develop a new class of FDH least-distance measures that satisfy strong monotonicity and show that the developed (in)efficiency measurement framework has a natural profit interpretation....

  4. Design of a High Speed Planing Hull with a Cambered Step and Surface Piercing Hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    than 15 degrees to achieve the best results. The Model 5631 Dynaplane design addresses the extension of Clement’s design with respect to a 20...specific applications. In our very high speed Dynaplane configuration, the SPSC hydrofoils designed by Dr. Brizzolara proved to be the best option. 43...Adapted from original code written by Greg Mitchell and Clint Lawler % for use in the Resistance Module for the Planing Hull Analysis and

  5. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partha, Sarathy K.; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L. [Queens

    2014-08-21

    Calpains are Ca2+dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca2+ signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca2+, which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca2+ bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca2+-binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca2+ signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit.

  6. Structural analysis of DNA binding by C.Csp231I, a member of a novel class of R-M controller proteins regulating gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, M. B.; Streeter, S. D.; Thresh, S.-J.; Swiderska, A.; McGeehan, J. E.; Kneale, G. G., E-mail: geoff.kneale@port.ac.uk [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The structure of the new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence is presented, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins is discussed. An unusual extended spacer between the dimer binding sites suggests a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers. In a wide variety of bacterial restriction–modification systems, a regulatory ‘controller’ protein (or C-protein) is required for effective transcription of its own gene and for transcription of the endonuclease gene found on the same operon. We have recently turned our attention to a new class of controller proteins (exemplified by C.Csp231I) that have quite novel features, including a much larger DNA-binding site with an 18 bp (∼60 Å) spacer between the two palindromic DNA-binding sequences and a very different recognition sequence from the canonical GACT/AGTC. Using X-ray crystallography, the structure of the protein in complex with its 21 bp DNA-recognition sequence was solved to 1.8 Å resolution, and the molecular basis of sequence recognition in this class of proteins was elucidated. An unusual aspect of the promoter sequence is the extended spacer between the dimer binding sites, suggesting a novel interaction between the two C-protein dimers when bound to both recognition sites correctly spaced on the DNA. A U-bend model is proposed for this tetrameric complex, based on the results of gel-mobility assays, hydrodynamic analysis and the observation of key contacts at the interface between dimers in the crystal.

  7. Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

    2010-10-13

    The objective of this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (HB) cultivar (CDC McGwire) in terms of ruminant feed value. The study revealed that altered starch HB cultivars possessed several desirable feed characteristics, distinct from conventional normal starch HB, although they were similar in some respects: (1) basic chemical and carbohydrate subfraction profiles varied; (2) starch degradation kinetics showed altered starch HB containing higher soluble starch, rumen undegraded starch, lower degradable starch, and slower degradation rate; (3) all altered starch HB cultivars had similar soluble and degradable starch, different from that of conventional normal starch HB; (4) two waxy HB cultivars were lower, whereas the high-amylose cultivar was similar in effective degradability of the starch as compared to conventional normal starch HB; (5) zero-amylose waxy HB had the greater effective degradability of protein among HB cultivars; and (6) amylopectin in HB had a positive relationship with protein supply (increasing amylopectin was correlated with increased effective degradability of protein). Overall, these results demonstrate that the alteration of starch structure in granule affects not only starch fermentation and utilization but also protein value in hull-less barley. In summary, the HB cultivars with modified starch might be a better feed grain for ruminants than the normal starch HB.

  8. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV measurement of flow around moving objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, D.; Longmire, E.K. [University of Minnesota, Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recently developed method to measure three components of velocity within a volumetric space. We present a visual hull technique that automates identification and masking of discrete objects within the measurement volume, and we apply existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to measure the velocity surrounding the objects. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling bodies of different shape with Reynolds number {proportional_to}1,000. Acquired image sets are processed using separate routines to reconstruct both the volumetric mask around the object and the surrounding tracer particles. After particle reconstruction, the reconstructed object mask is used to remove any ghost particles that otherwise appear within the object volume. Velocity vectors corresponding with fluid motion can then be determined up to the boundary of the visual hull without being contaminated or affected by the neighboring object velocity. Although the visual hull method is not meant for precise tracking of objects, the reconstructed object volumes nevertheless can be used to estimate the object location and orientation at each time step. (orig.)

  9. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV measurement of flow around moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, D.; Longmire, E. K.

    2012-10-01

    Tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a recently developed method to measure three components of velocity within a volumetric space. We present a visual hull technique that automates identification and masking of discrete objects within the measurement volume, and we apply existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to measure the velocity surrounding the objects. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling bodies of different shape with Reynolds number ~1,000. Acquired image sets are processed using separate routines to reconstruct both the volumetric mask around the object and the surrounding tracer particles. After particle reconstruction, the reconstructed object mask is used to remove any ghost particles that otherwise appear within the object volume. Velocity vectors corresponding with fluid motion can then be determined up to the boundary of the visual hull without being contaminated or affected by the neighboring object velocity. Although the visual hull method is not meant for precise tracking of objects, the reconstructed object volumes nevertheless can be used to estimate the object location and orientation at each time step.

  10. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  11. Composition of liquid rice hull smoke and anti-inflammatory effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Yang, Jun Young; Kang, Mi Young; Park, Jun Cheol; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-05-11

    A new liquid rice hull smoke extract with a smoky aroma and sugar-like odor prepared by pyrolysis of rice hulls followed by liquefaction of the resulting smoke contained 161 compounds characterized by GC/MS. Antioxidative, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract were assessed in vitro and in vivo. At pH 5, the extract inhibited 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and β-hexosaminidase releases from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 mouse macrophage leukemia cells and ionophore A23187-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic cells without significant cytotoxicity. 12-O-Tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was applied to the ears of CD-1 mice to induce inflammation (edema), which was accompanied by increases in a series of biomarkers. Topical application of 1% of the extract as well as feeding mice a standard diet with 1% extract for two weeks significantly reduced the expression of biomarkers associated with the TPA-induced inflammation. These include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), myeloperoxidase (MPO). These in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate the potential value of rice hull smoke extract derived from a major agricultural byproduct to serve as a new biomaterial for the improvement of food quality and safety and the environment.

  12. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  13. Convex hull or crossing avoidance? Solution heuristics in the traveling salesperson problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N; Chronicle, Edward P; Ormerod, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    Untrained adults appear to have access to cognitive processes that allow them to perform well in the Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). They do so despite the famous computational intractability of the problem, which stems from its combinatorial complexity. A current hypothesis is the humans' good performance is based on following a strategy of connecting boundary points in order (the convex hull hypothesis). Recently, an alternative has been proposed, that performance is governed by a strategy of avoiding crossings. We examined the crossing avoidance hypothesis from the perspectives of its capacity to explain existing data, its theoretical adequacy, and its ability to explain the results of three new experiments. In Experiment 1, effects on the solution quality of number of points versus number of interior points were compared. In Experiment 2, the distributions of observed paths were compared with those predicted from the two hypotheses. In Experiment 3, figural effects were varied to induce crossings. The results of the experiments were more consistent with the convex hull than with the crossing avoidance hypothesis. Despite its simplicity and intuitive appeal, crossing avoidance does not provide a complete alternative to the convex hull hypothesis. Further elucidation of human strategies and heuristics for optimization problems such as the E-TSP will aid our understanding of how cognitive processes have adapted to the demands of combinatorial difficulty.

  14. Countercurrent extraction of soluble sugars from almond hulls and assessment of the bioenergy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Offeman, Richard D; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Bayati, Andre K; Orts, William J

    2015-03-11

    Almond hulls contain considerable proportions (37% by dry weight) of water-soluble, fermentable sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), which can be extracted for industrial purposes. The maximum optimal solids loading was determined to be 20% for sugar extraction, and the addition of 0.5% (w/v) pectinase aided in maintaining a sufficient free water volume for sugar recovery. A laboratory countercurrent extraction experiment utilizing a 1 h steep followed by three extraction (wash) stages produced a high-concentration (131 g/L fermentable sugar) syrup. Overall, sugar recovery efficiency was 88%. The inner stage washing efficiencies were compatible with solution equilibrium calculations, indicating that efficiency was high. The concentrated sugar syrup was fermented to ethanol at high efficiency (86% conversion), and ethanol concentrations in the broth were 7.4% (v/v). Thin stillage contained 233 g SCOD/L, which was converted to biomethane at an efficiency of 90% with a biomethane potential of 297 mL/g SCODdestroyed. Overall, results suggested that a minima of 49 gal (185 L) ethanol and 75 m(3) methane/t hulls (dry whole hull basis) are achievable.

  15. Bow hull-form optimization in waves of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses optimization techniques to obtain bow hull form of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier in calm water and in waves. Parametric modification functions of SAC and section shape of DLWL are used for hull form variation. Multi-objective functions are applied to minimize the wave-making resistance in calm water and added resistance in regular head wave of λ/L = 0.5. WAVIS version 1.3 is used to obtain wave-making resistance. The modified Fujii and Takahashi's formula is applied to obtain the added resistance in short wave. The PSO algorithm is employed for the optimization technique. The resistance and motion characteristics in calm water and regular and irregular head waves of the three hull forms are compared. It has been shown that the optimal brings 13.2% reduction in the wave-making resistance and 13.8% reduction in the added resistance at λ/L = 0.5; and the mean added resistance reduces by 9.5% at sea state 5.

  16. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  17. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow.

  18. Determination of Chemical Composition, Physical Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Treated Walnut Hull by Neurospora Sitophila through Nylon Bag and Gas Production Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maasoomeh Takalloozadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, chemical composition, gas production characteristics, effective degradability and nutritive value index (NVI of DM and CP by in situ method of treated walnut hull by Nurospora Sitophila were studied. Three fistulated Kermani ram were used for determination of Walnut hull degradability. Data were analysed using completely randomize design. By processing walnut hull with Neurospora Sitophila, water holding capacity and total content of tannin and phenol decreased significantly, while the insoluble ash increased significantly. Processing had no significant effect on degradability parameters and NVI of dry matter and crude protein. Gas production volume in untreated Walnut hull in times 6, 12 and 24 hours increased significantly with comparison to the treated Walnut hull. Generally, processing of walnut hull with Nurospora Sitophila had no significant effect on nutritive value of this feedstuff.

  19. Hulled and hull-less barley grains with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent total-tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Raboy, V

    2016-03-01

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an initial average BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled or hull-less barley in isocaloric diets. Hulled barleys were the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington and the near-isogenic LPA mutant 955 (M955) with P availabilities of 36 and 95%, respectively. Hull-less lines were produced by crossing NB and the LPA mutant 422 line with a hull-less line, producing hull-less NB (HNB) and hull-less mutant 422 (HM422) with P availabilities of 41 and 66%, respectively. Pigs were in individual metabolism cages or pens for Phase 1 (d 0 to 14) and Phase 2 (d 14 to 35). Diets defined as NB, HNB, HM422, or M955 with no added inorganic P (iP) had available P (aP) concentrations of 0.27, 0.28, 0.35, and 0.40% for Phase 1 and 0.15, 0.17, 0.23, and 0.31% for Phase 2, respectively. Only diet M955 was adequate in aP. Therefore, iP was added to the P-deficient diets to make diets NB + iP, HNB + iP, and HM422 + iP with aP equal to that in diet M955. Overall (d 0 to 35), ADG and G:F were greater ( absorbed greater ( + iP that was equal to diet M955 in aP. Therefore, LPA barley, especially M955 with 95% aP, will reduce the use of iP in swine diets, reduce P pollution from swine manure, and support the goal of achieving global P sustainability.

  20. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  1. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  2. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-07-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO₂. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials' thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  3. Development the Care Evaluation Scale Version 2.0: a modified version of a measure for bereaved family members to evaluate the structure and process of palliative care for cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mitsunori; Aoyama, Maho; Nakahata, Misato; Yamada, Yuji; Abe, Mutsumi; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Shirado, Akemi; Shutoh, Mariko; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Hamano, Jun; Miyamoto, Aoi; Yoshida, Saki; Sato, Kazuki; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya

    2017-01-23

    The Care Evaluation Scale (CES1.0) was designed to allow bereaved family members to evaluate the structure and process of care, but has been associated with a high frequency of misresponses. The objective of this study was to develop a modified version of CES1.0 (CES2.0) that would eliminate misresponses while maintaining good reliability and validity. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey by mail in October 2013. The participants were bereaved family members of patients who died from cancer in seven institutions in Japan. All family members were asked to complete CES2.0, the short form CES1.0, items on overall care satisfaction, the Family Satisfaction with Advanced Cancer Care (FAMCARE) Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ). To examine test-retest reliability, all participants were asked to complete a second CES2.0. Of 596 questionnaires sent, 461 (77%) were returned and 393 (66%) were analyzed. In the short form CES1.0, 17.1% of the responses were identified as misresponses. No misresponses were found in CES2.0. We identified 10 CES2.0 subscales similar to those in CES1.0 using exploratory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha was 0.96, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83. Correlations were found between CES2.0 and overall satisfaction (r = 0.83) and FAMCARE (r = 0.58). In addition, total CES2.0 scores were negatively correlated with the PHQ-9 (r = -0.22) and BGQ (r = -0.10). These results suggest that CES2.0 eliminated misresponses associated with CES1.0 while maintaining good reliability and validity and greatly improving test-retest reliability.

  4. AGU members receive Fulbrights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five AGU members were granted senior Fulbright awards for university teaching and advanced research abroad for 1981-1982, according to the U.S. International Communications Agency and the Board of Foreign Scholarships.Yvonne Herman-Rosenberg, associate professor of geology at the Washington State University in Pullman, will research Black Sea Quaternary benthoic foraminifera as indicators of sea-level fluctuations. The research will be conducted at the University of Bucharest in Romania from May through July, 1982.

  5. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  6. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  7. Alateen Members' and Non-Members' Understanding of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph A.; McCormick, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Alateen (n=49) and non-Alateen (n=52) members were compared on knowledge and understanding of alcoholism. Results indicated Alateen members understood alcoholism as family disease and alcoholism as treatable. Alateen members suggested educational curriculum with message of successful treatment for alcoholic, whereas non-Alateen members stressed…

  8. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  9. Isolation and structure of a novel charged member of the red-pigment-concentrating hormone-adipokinetic hormone family of peptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Wilps, H; Kellner, R

    1990-01-01

    A hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae has been isolated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., and its primary structure was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion when the peptide was incubated with carboxypeptidase A. The octapeptide has the sequence pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2 and is clearly defined as a novel member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of peptides. It is the first charged member of this family to be found. The synthetic peptide causes an increase in the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration in a dose-dependent fashion in blowflies and therefore is named 'Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosaemic hormone' (Pht-HrTH). In addition, receptors in the fat-body of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) recognize the peptide, resulting in carbohydrate elevation in the blood. However, fat-body receptors of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) do not recognize this charged molecule, and thus no lipid mobilization is observed in this species. PMID:2386478

  10. Genetic Control of a Transition from Black to Straw-White Seed Hull in Rice Domestication1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Jingjie Zhu, Yan Zhou; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication. PMID:21263038

  11. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  12. A Structural Equation Model of the Effects of Negative Affectivity, Leader-Member Exchange, and Perceived Job Mobility on In-role and Extra-role Performance: A Chinese Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui; Law; Chen

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) with the effects of perceived job mobility on in-role performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We further model negative affectivity as the antecedent of both LMX and perceived job mobility and suggest that LMX and perceived job mobility mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and performance. We obtained matching data from supervisor and subordinates in a major battery manufacturing company in southern China. Subordinates provided the negative affectivity, perceived job mobility, and LMX assessment, and their immediate supervisors provided the in-role performance and OCB assessment. Results from a structural equation analysis show that both LMX and perceived job mobility predicted OCB. Instead of being a direct antecedent of OCB, the relationship between negative affectivity and OCB is found to be mediated by LMX and perceived job mobility. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Molecular cloning of a novel, putative G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones structurally related to members of the FSH, TSH, LH/CG receptor family from mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1993-01-01

    hormone (FSH, TSH, LH/CG) receptor family from mammals, including a very large, extracellular N terminus (18-25% sequence identity) and a 7 transmembrane region (44-48% sequence identity). As with the mammalian glycoprotein hormone receptor genes, the sea anemone receptor gene yields transcripts which can...... be alternatively spliced, thereby yielding a shortened receptor variant only containing the large extracellular (soluble) N terminus. All this is strong evidence that the putative glycoprotein hormone receptor from sea anemones is evolutionarily related to those from mammals. This is the first report showing......Using oligonucleotide probes derived from consensus sequences of known vertebrate and invertebrate G protein-coupled receptors, we have cloned the cDNA for a presumed G protein-coupled receptor from sea anemones. This receptor shows a striking structural homology with members of the glycoprotein...

  14. Structure-function analysis of Knr4/Smi1, a newly member of intrinsically disordered proteins family, indispensable in the absence of a functional PKC1-SLT2 pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Fabien; Dagkessamanskaia, Adilia; Martin-Yken, Helene; Graille, Marc; Van Tilbeurgh, Herman; Uversky, Vladimir N; François, Jean M

    2008-08-01

    The coordination between cell wall synthesis and cell growth in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae implicates the PKC1-dependent MAP kinase pathway. KNR4, encoding a 505 amino acid long protein, participates in this coordination, since it displays synthetic lethality with all the members of the PKC1 pathway and shows physical interaction with Slt2/Mpk1. The recent finding that KNR4 interacts genetically or physically with more than 100 partners implicated in different cellular processes raised the question of how these interactions may occur and their physiological significance. This called for an in-depth structure-function analysis of the Knr4 protein, which is reported in the present paper. Computational analysis supported by biochemical and biophysical data characterize Knr4 as a newly identified member of the growing family of intrinsically disordered proteins. Despite disordered regions that are located at the N- and C-termini and are probably responsible for fine regulatory function; this protein contains a structured central core (amino acid residues 80-340) that is able to restore wild-type phenotypes of knr4Delta mutant in stress conditions. However, this fragment was unable to complement synthetic lethality between knr4 mutations and deletions of genes encoding protein kinases of the PKC1-dependent pathway. For these crucial events to occur, the presence of the N-terminal part of Knr4 protein is indispensable. Moreover, we demonstrate that this protein is essential for cell viability in the absence of a functional Pkc1-Slt2 pathway, since the lethality caused by KNR4 deletion in such a genetic background could not be compensated by overexpression of any gene from yeast genomic libraries. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Structural and Biochemical Investigation of PglF from Campylobacter jejuni Reveals a New Mechanism for a Member of the Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegert, Alexander S. [Department; Thoden, James B. [Department; Schoenhofen, Ian C. [National; Watson, David C. [National; Young, N. Martin [National; Tipton, Peter A. [Department; Holden, Hazel M. [Department

    2017-11-03

    Within recent years it has become apparent that protein glycosylation is not limited to eukaryotes. Indeed, in Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, more than 60 of its proteins are known to be glycosylated. One of the sugars found in such glycosylated proteins is 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-d-glucopyranose, hereafter referred to as QuiNAc4NAc. The pathway for its biosynthesis, initiating with UDP-GlcNAc, requires three enzymes referred to as PglF, PglE, and PlgD. The focus of this investigation is on PglF, an NAD+-dependent sugar 4,6-dehydratase known to belong to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Specifically, PglF catalyzes the first step in the pathway, namely, the dehydration of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-d-xylo-hexos-4-ulose. Most members of the SDR superfamily contain a characteristic signature sequence of YXXXK where the conserved tyrosine functions as a catalytic acid or a base. Strikingly, in PglF, this residue is a methionine. Here we describe a detailed structural and functional investigation of PglF from C. jejuni. For this investigation five X-ray structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. In addition, kinetic analyses of the wild-type and site-directed variants were performed. On the basis of the data reported herein, a new catalytic mechanism for a SDR superfamily member is proposed that does not require the typically conserved tyrosine residue.

  16. European Unique Hull Identification Number for Inland Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Ružić

    2006-03-01

    the Rhine Vessel InspectionRegulations in order to minimize the administrative efforts ofharmonization. As members of the ER! group, we made a proposalfor such a new identification number (the so calledERN, which was discussed by the ERI expert group takinginto account the input from the Joint Working Group ofCCNR and EC. In this paper, we will desclibe our proposal toER!, which was later slightly modified within a special ER! expertgroup.

  17. Offers for our members

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  18. Offers for our members

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  19. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

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    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  20. Family members' beliefs about the impact of needs satisfaction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated family members' beliefs about the impact of needs satisfaction on conflict resolution in Jos metropolis, Plateau State. A sample size of 120 family members were drawn from 60 families in Jos metropolis using purposive sampling. A 25-item structured questionnaire on family members' beliefs about the ...

  1. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  2. The Application of Rice Hull Mulch and Potassium Nitrate on Growth and Yield of Kailan (Brassica oleraceae var. Long Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ramadiana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K is absorbed by plants in larger amounts than any other mineral element except N to optimalize plant growth. Mulches may be influenced an available K at vegetative growth phase of plant. The research was conducted in Simpang Kanan Village, Gisting, Tanggamus Lampung Province. The objectives of this research were to study the application of KNO3 and rice hull mulch on growth and yield of kailan. Fields experiments were arranged by a factorial in a completely randomized block design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. A first factor was (1 dosages of KNO3 (150, 175, 200, 225, and 250 kg ha-1 and the second factor was mulch of the rice hull (with and without the rice hull. The results showed that the application of the rice hull did not significantly affected the yield of kailan, however the application of KNO3 till 250 kg ha-1 increased the level of greenness up to 6.10% and the wide of leaf up to 18,57%. In addition, the present of potassium fertilizer suspended with the rice hull significantly affected the width of kalian leaf.

  3. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  4. Grading timber and glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann; Roland Hernandez

    2006-01-01

    Because of its biological nature, which is influenced by many factors as discussed in Chapter 6, the quality of timber is enormously variable. Therefore, some sort of arrangement or classification must be undertaken prior to its use, in order to get the most out of this valuable resource. It is obvious that not all lumber can be used for the same purposes because not...

  5. Purified cellulose, soybean hulls and citrus pulp as a source of fiber for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is an important component, which has a direct effect on intake, digestion, and absorption of nutrients; and also alters intestinal microbiota and morphology according to solubility. One digestibility trial and one performance experiment were performed to evaluate the effects of sources of fiber in diets for 21 day weaned piglets. The experimental diets used in both trials consisted of a control diet and diets with purified cellulose, soybean hulls or citrus pulp as a main source of dietary fiber. To evaluate the digestibility of nutrients (Assay 1, the total feces and urine collection method was used. The fiber sources did not affect nutrient digestibility, except for soluble fiber, which increased with the inclusion of citrus (Citrus sinensisL. pulp. To evaluate performance, morphophysiology and microbiology of the digestive tract of weaned piglets, a total of 32 castrated male piglets was used. Slaughter of animals was implemented at 35 and 50 days of age. The use of soybean (Glycine max L. hulls and citrus pulp in diets increased the number of goblet cells and the density of villi in the jejunum. The viscosities of stomach and cecum contents increased due to the addition of citrus pulp. Soybean hulls and the citrus pulp included in diets reduced the occurrence of E. coli in the small intestines of piglets slaughtered at 35 days of age. Among the fiber sources, purified cellulose in piglet diets promotes better performance of animals, due to the modulation of the small intestine microbiota, with lower E. coli occurrence resulting in higher villus density.

  6. Turbulence modeling of transverse flow on ship hulls in shallow water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, Ken-Robert Gjelstad

    2010-09-15

    The hydrodynamic forces acting on a ship that travels in restricted water vary greatly with water depth and the geometry of the ship hull. This will affect the ship maneuverability in terms of various flow effects like for instance squat, when the ship is sucked down towards the seabed due to a pressure drop on the hull at forward speed. It is, thus, important to gain detailed knowledge on these aspects of marine engineering. The problem is in the present work addressed through a numerical investigation of turbulent transverse flow on two-dimensional ship sections in shallow water. The numerical code is validated against traditional flow problems in the literature. Namely, the Backward-facing step (BFS) and the Smoothly-contoured ramp (SCR). 2D and 3D laminar flows and 2D low Reynolds number turbulent flows are calculated, and the results are found to be in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental comparison data. The turbulence model used in the calculations is the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras model. The overall goal of achieving more efficient and accurate numerical schemes will always be in focus of code development. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is then a very helpful tool to save both time for grid generation prior to the calculations in question and the CPU hours needed to solve the governing equations. The latter is even more evident in a parallel environment. These aspects are included in the present investigation as part of the process to adapt and investigate a CFD tool suitable to handle turbulent flows on a ship hull in shallow water. Several physical and numerical parameters are included in the present study and the Plackett-Burman screening design is utilized to efficiently analyze the results. With the latter method, a simple function for calculating the drag force on a two-dimensional ship section as function of the given parameters has been obtained. (Author)

  7. Microstructure development of chars derived from high-temperature pyrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Boateng; P.H. Cooke; K.B. Hicks [US Department of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA (United States). Agriculture Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center

    2007-03-15

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is a thermochemical conversion process that provides an economic production of pyrolysis oils/bio-oils. The process also results in a residual solid residue, char, that comprises carbon and mineral ash that can be a potential source of fuel or a valuable co-product. Depending on the exposure time and temperature, pyrolysis can increase the interfacial surface areas of the residual char thereby enhancing its absorptive capacity. Char residues can be used for physical or chemical absorption and as catalyst support or base material for fertilizers. The reactions that occur during char combustion or gasification are heterogeneous hence the reaction rates are microstructure dependent. Ashes from biomass derived chars can be high either in calcium or silica with the latter exceeding 90% levels in certain grain hull residues. Depending on the microstructural transformations which occur during thermal degradation of the biomass, silica-laden ashes can be a potential source of pozzolan for the construction industry. In this study, the microstructure of the chars derived from fast pyrolysis of barley-hull was studied using environmental scanning electron microscopy under low vacuum conditions. The results indicate a gradual increase in convoluted microstructure related to the superficial organization of epidermal cells, including stomata and trichomes that eventually assume the form of various morphotypes of phytoliths. Characterization of the temporal events of high temperature evolution of the hull microstructure provides practical implications of its combustion reactivities and also provides information useful for predicting potential masonry applications for the resulting ash. 18 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield.

  9. Development prospects of the banking industry in the new EU member countries and forthcoming member countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Košak

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Bank consolidation has substantially decreased the number of banks in European banking, which has had important implications for the banking sectors structure in all EU member countries. The consolidation processes have had a tremendous impact on the developments in banking sectors of new EU member countries, wheremajor structural changes have been initiated mostly by new entrant banks from the old EU member countries. The future banking development in new EU member countries will very likely follow some main patterns known from the old EU members. Rather speculative conjectures, which are based on a comparison with banking sectors in other EU member countries indicate, that the total-asset-to-GDPratio in new member countries should further improve in the future. The banking sector growth will be based mostly on the growth of the credit to non-banking sector, while banks are not expected anymore to use non-bank deposits as a predominant way of funding. Instead potentials for alternative funding possibilities should be activated. Although the non-bank financial intermediaries in new EU membersrepresent a serious competition to banks, their relative underdevelopment prevents them from impacting the developments in banking sectors as known from old EU member countries.

  10. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  11. Melt containment member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieken, Joel R.; Heidloff, Andrew J.

    2014-09-09

    A tubular melt containment member for transient containment of molten metals and alloys, especially reactive metals and alloys, includes a melt-contacting layer or region that comprises an oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide material that is less reactive as compared to the counterpart stoichiometric rare earth oxide. The oxygen-deficient (sub-stoichiometric) rare earth oxide can comprise oxygen-deficient yttria represented by Y.sub.2O.sub.3-x wherein x is from 0.01 to 0.1. Use of the oxygen-deficient rare earth oxide as the melt-contacting layer or region material reduces reaction with the melt for a given melt temperature and melt contact time.

  12. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  13. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  14. RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho). A new structure type with five- and six-membered rings as building units in a gold network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Birgit; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    RE{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn (RE = Y, Sm, Gd-Ho) intermetallic compounds were synthesized by melting the elements in sealed tantalum tubes. They exhibit a new structure type which was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and refined from single crystal diffraction data: Cmcm, a = 736.9(2), b = 1489.4(2), c = 1330.4(3) pm, wR2 = 0.0371, 1184 F{sup 2} values and 55 variables for Y{sub 3}Au{sub 4.92}Zn{sub 1.08} and a = 739.0(1), b = 1495.8(2), c = 1339.2(2) pm, wR2 = 0.0325, 1410 F{sup 2} values and 54 variables for Tb{sub 3}Au{sub 5}Zn. The network consists of five- and six-membered gold rings in puckered conformations. Atoms of the rare earth elements are placed within the cavities of this network where every third cavity is filled by a Zn{sub 2} dumbbell. The structure is discussed in detail and compared with the gold substructure of Hf{sub 7}Au{sub 10}.

  15. Instrument for determining the transuranic element content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodzinski, R. L.; Wogman, N. A.; Nielson, H. L.; Brown, D. P.

    1979-07-01

    An instrument has been designed, constructed, and evaluated for the identification and quantitative determination of transuranic elements by detection of neutrons emitted from their (..cap alpha.., n) and spontaneous fission reactions. Although optimized for batch evaluation of chopped leached nuclear fuel cladding hulls, the principle can be adapted to continuous feed operations. Unique electronic circuitry permits the sorting of neutron emissions depending on their origin which can be directly related to the isotopic composition of very small amounts of transuranic activities present in extreme gamma radiation fields. Efficiencies, sensitivities, and detection limits are discussed.

  16. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  17. In situ degradation of almond (Prunus dulcis L.) hulls, a potential feed material for ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    JAFARI, SAEID; Alizadeh, Alireza; IMNI, ALI; Meng, Goh Yong; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; EBRAHIMI, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The nutritive values of almond hulls (Ahs), alfalfa (ALF), and sugar beet pulp (SBP) were determined using the in situ nylon bag technique. The ruminal dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics of 4 varieties of Ahs were compared with ALF and SBP. The almond varieties tested were Rabbi (RAB), Mamaii (MAM), Shahrud 15 (SH15), and Shokufe (SH). Samples were incubated in triplicate at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in 3 rumen-fistulated steers. The average total degradability fraction (TDF) of...

  18. The Thermal Cracking Experiment Research of Tar from Rice Hull Gasification for Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. S.; Mi, T.; We, Q. X.; Chen, Y. F.; Li, X. H.

    the tar from rice hull gasification for power generation which is cracked in high temperature is studied in this paper, the results reveal the part of compositions which have smaller RT in tar is first cracked into H2, CO2 and carbon, and then carbon react with H2 and CO2, and CH4, CO are formed; the cracked efficiency of tar can reach 28.66%, the carbon deposit among cracked tar can reach 12.76%, the results of the GC-MS analysis showed the aromatic extent of with tar cracking reaction carrying out in high temperature.

  19. STUDY ON THE ENERGY NUTRITION VALUES OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  20. Convex hull and tour crossings in the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem: implications for human performance studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Iris; Stege, Ulrike; Schactman, Alissa

    2003-03-01

    Recently there has been growing interest among psychologists in human performance on the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). A debate has been initiated on what strategy people use in solving visually presented E-TSP instances. The most prominent hypothesis is the convex-hull hypothesis, originally proposed by MacGregor and Ormerod (1996). We argue that, in the literature so far, there is no evidence for this hypothesis. Alternatively we propose and motivate the hypothesis that people aim at avoiding crossings.

  1. The Effect of Rise Angle of V-Hull Non Ballast Ship on Seakeeping Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkady Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new concept in ship design was used to be alternative of ballast water system, to emerge that remedy the introduction of invasive marine species and the disadvantages of ballast water treatment systems. Thus, the hydrodynamic influences due to hull line variation of this kind of ships were studied, using the invariant cross-section area curve under the design draft to change the rise angle at bottom. Then numerical calculation was used to get the seakeeping at each angle. Two 3D models were constructed for 59000 DWT oil tankers and 35000 DWT bulk carriers, where the result of the bulk carrier was exposed.

  2. Substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) analysis of the transport domain of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) and other family members reveals features of structural and functional importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinta, Ras; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Ng, Amy M L; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D

    2017-06-09

    The human SLC28 family of concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) proteins has three members: hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. Na(+)-coupled hCNT1 and hCNT2 transport pyrimidine and purine nucleosides, respectively, whereas hCNT3 transports both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides utilizing Na(+) and/or H(+) electrochemical gradients. Escherichia coli CNT family member NupC resembles hCNT1 in permeant selectivity but is H(+)-coupled. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and the engineered cysteine-less hCNT3 protein hCNT3(C-), substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis with the membrane-impermeant thiol reactive reagent p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate was performed on the transport domain (interfacial helix 2, hairpin 1, putative transmembrane domain (TM) 7, and TM8), as well as TM9 of the scaffold domain of the protein. This systematic scan of the entire C-terminal half of hCNT3(C-) together with parallel studies of the transport domain of wild-type hCNT1 and the corresponding TMs of cysteine-less NupC(C-) yielded results that validate the newly developed structural homology model of CNT membrane architecture for human CNTs, revealed extended conformationally mobile regions within transport-domain TMs, identified pore-lining residues of functional importance, and provided evidence of an emerging novel elevator-type mechanism of transporter function. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.

    2007-01-01

    Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic....../water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH...

  4. Effect of corn- and soybean hull-based creep feed and backgrounding diets on lifelong performance and carcass traits of calves from pasture and rangeland conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three separate studies were conducted to investigate the life-long effect of creep feeding, creep feeding energy source (soybean hulls, SC, or corn, CC) and interactive effects of creep feed with backgrounding dietary energy source (soybean hulls, SBR, or corn, CBR) on calf growth performance, carca...

  5. Fermentation of oat and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol by recombinant industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under diverse oxygen environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we evaluated the capacity of recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH 396 and YRH 400 strains to ferment sugars from oat hull and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol. The strains were genetically modified by chromosomal integration of Pichia stipitis XYLI/XYL...

  6. Personality characteristics of Wikipedia members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Lamdan, Naama; Madiel, Rinat; Hayat, Tsahi

    2008-12-01

    Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members.

  7. Characteristics and treatment of wastewater generated during underwater hull cleaning operations of U.S. Navy ships

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Donna J.

    1996-01-01

    For the last 15 years the U.S Navy has been using an underwater diver-operated brush mechanism to clean marine fouling on ship hulls. During this operation, it has been shown that 1 to 2 mils of antifouling paint (which is 40-50 percent cuprous oxide by weight) are removed, resulting in the discharge of up to 1300 pounds of copper into the surrounding surface waters. This paper reviewed and summarized the recent studies which have been conducted relating to hull cleaning. Among other things, ...

  8. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...

  9. Soybean hulls as a primary ingredient in forage-free diets for limit-fed growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löest, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Drouillard, J S; Blasi, D A; Bindel, D J

    2001-03-01

    In Exp. 1, 300 heifers (260 kg initial BW) were used to compare growth performance of cattle fed forage-free diets containing predominantly soybean hulls with that of cattle receiving roughage- and corn-based diets and to determine whether cattle fed soybean hull-based diets would respond to supplementation with methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA), lipid-coated betaine, or concentrated separator by-product (CSB; a source of betaine). Treatments included 1) a roughage-based diet fed at 2.75% of BW, 2) a corn-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW, 3) a corn-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW, 4) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW (SH1.5), 5) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW (SH2.25), 6) SH1.5 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet (10 g/d MHA), 7) SH2.25 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet, 8) SH2.25 top-dressed with 7 g/d of a lipid-coated betaine product (4.2 g/d betaine), and 9) SH2.25 top-dressed with 250 g/d CSB (15.5 g/d betaine). Supplemental MHA, betaine, and CSB did not change DMI, ADG, or gain:feed ratio for cattle fed soybean hulls. Heifers fed soybean hull-based diets gained 29% slower (P < 0.05) and had 27% lower gain:feed ratios than heifers fed the corn-based diets. Cattle fed soybean hull-based diets had gains that were lower (P < 0.05) than those of cattle fed the roughage-based diets, but gain:feed ratios were similar because cattle were fed less of the soybean hull-based diets. Roughage-fed cattle had similar gains but 25% lower (P < 0.05) gain:feed ratios than cattle fed the corn-based diets. In Exp. 2, degradation by ruminal microbes of betaine in anhydrous betaine, betaine-HCl, feed-grade betaine, lipid-coated betaine, and CSB was evaluated in vitro using ruminal inocula collected from steers fed a high-grain or high-roughage diet. The roughage diet led to less betaine disappearance than the grain diet. More betaine was degraded from CSB than from other sources, perhaps because sugars provided by CSB stimulated fermentation, but no large differences

  10. Hydrodynamic Tests in the N.A.C.A. Tank of a Model of the Hull of the Short Calcutta Flying Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth E

    1937-01-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a model of the hull of the Short Calcutta (N.A.C.A. Model 47) are presented in non-dimensional form. This model represents one of a series of hulls of successful foreign and domestic flying boats the characteristics of which are being obtained under similar test conditions in the N.A.C.A. tank. The take-off distance and time for a flying boat having the hull of the Calcutta are compared at two values of the gross load with the corresponding distances and times for the same flying boat having hulls of two representative American types, the Sikorsky S-40 and the N.A.C.A. 11-A. This comparison indicates that for hulls of the widely different forms compared, the differences in take-off time and distance are negligible.

  11. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  12. Modeling and characterization of strengthened concrete tension members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The structural potential for cracking of externally strengthened concrete tension members, can be predicted with three parameters, describing the structural cracking potential based on fracture mechanical properties of the of concrete and interface between concrete and strengthening medium...

  13. Genetic variability of hull-less barley accessions based on molecular and quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses Sayd

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability of hull-less barley genotypes, for the selection of parents and identification of genotypes adapted to the irrigated production system in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eighteen hull-less barley accessions were evaluated, and three covered barley accessions served as reference. The characterization was based on 157 RAPD molecular markers and ten agronomic traits. Genetic distance matrices were obtained based on molecular markers and quantitative traits. Graphic grouping and dispersion analyses were performed. Genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability was high among genotypes. Ethiopian accessions were genetically more similar, and the Brazilian ones were genetically more distant. For agronomic traits, two more consistent groupings were obtained, one with the most two-rowed materials, and the other with six-rowed materials. The more diverging materials were the two-rowed CI 13453, CN Cerrado 5, CN Cerrado 1, and CN Cerrado 2. The PI 356466, CN Cerrado 1, PI 370799, and CI 13453 genotypes show agronomic traits of interest and, as genetically different genotypes, they are indicated for crossing, in breeding programs.

  14. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X.H.; Shi, Y.; Chang, S.G.; Fisher, J.W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M.J.; Wignarajah, K.

    2001-12-21

    The use of the activated carbon produced from rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deep space missions has been demonstrated. The optimal carbonization temperature range was found to be between 600 C and 750 C. The burnoff of 61.8% was found at 700 C in pyrolysis and 750 C in activation. The BET surface area of the activated carbon from rice hulls was determined to be 172 m{sup 2}/g when prepared at 700 C. The presence of oxygen in flue gas is essential for effective adsorption of NO by the activated carbon. On the contrary, water vapor inhibits the adsorption efficiency of NO. Consequently, water vapor in flue gas should be removed by drying agents before adsorption to ensure high NO adsorption efficiency. All of NO in the flue gas was removed for more than one and a half hours when 10% oxygen was present and using a ratio of the carbon weight to the flue gas flow rate (W/F) of 15.4 g-min/L. The reduction of the adsorbed NO to form N{sub 2} can be effectively accomplished under anaerobic conditions at 550 C. For NO saturated activated carbon, the loss of carbon mass was determined to be about 0.16% of the activated carbon per cycle of regeneration. The reduction of the adsorbed NO also regenerates the activated carbon. The regenerated activated carbon exhibits improved NO adsorption efficiency.

  15. Dietary Fiber Extraction from Defatted Corn Hull by Hot-Compressed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn hulls were abundant and inexpensive byproducts of the corn dry or wet milling processes, but most of them were discarded as agro-wastes. The aim of this study was to extract the dietary fiber by hot-compressed water (HCW from defatted corn hull and to determine the chemical properties. Results showed that temperature and time played critical roles in extraction efficiency; the maximal yield of dietary fiber A (DFA extracted by HCW reached 33.0% at 150°C for 60 min. The yield of dietary fiber B (DFB increased from 2.0% to 56.9% as the temperature increased from 110 to 180°C, while the yield of solid residue (SR decreased from 88.7% to 27.7%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results demonstrated that C-H, O-H, C=O, COO- occurred in the DFA, SR and DFB. The dietary fiber polysaccharides consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and uronic acid.

  16. Effects of hull form parameters on seakeeping for YTU gulet series with cruiser stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakici Ferdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the relations between seakeeping characteristics and hull form parameters for YTU Gulet series with cruiser stern. Seakeeping analyses are carried out by means of a computer software which is based on the strip theory and statistical short term response prediction method. Multiple regression analysis is used for numerical assessment through a computer software. RMS heave-pitch motions and absolute vertical accelerations on passenger saloon for Sea State 3 at head waves are investigated for this purpose. It is well known that while ship weight and the ratios of main dimensions are the primary factors on ship motions, other hull form parameters (CP, CWP, CVP, etc. are the secondary factors. In this study, to have an idea of geometric properties on ship motions of gulets three different regression models are developed. The obtained outcomes provide practical predictions of seakeeping behavior of gulets with a high level of accuracy that would be useful during the concept design stage

  17. Heterosis for hull number and seed yield per plant in oil rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterosis for hull number and seed yield per plant was studied in the hybrid combinations of the F, genera­tion obtained by diallel-crossing five cultivars of winter oil rape. A trial with the parental lines and F, hybrids was established at the Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. The materials were hand-sown according to a randomized block design with three replications. The size of samples used to analyze the two traits was 33 plants per treatment (parents and F1 hybrids. The level of heterosis was calculated relative to the parental mean (according to the formula H1=F1/(P1+P2/2 x l00 and relative to the better parent (according to the formula H2=F1/BPxl00. Heterosis for hull number was found m a number of combinations. The largest heterosis value relative to the parental mean was recorded in the combination Jet Neuf x Banaćanka (67.78%, while heterosis relative to the better parent ranged from -20.22 to 48.52%. Heterosis for seed yield per plant were high and positive in most of the combinations, except for Sremica x Banaćanka. The values ranged between 17.61 and 159 68% relative to the parental mean and between 3.40 and 149.00% relative to the better parent. .

  18. Molecular Characterization of Arabinoxylans from Hull-Less Barley Milling Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxi Wang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylans were prepared from different hull-less barley milling fractions (bran, shorts and flour. The yields of hull-less bran arabinoxylan (HBB-AX, shorts arabinoxylan (HBS-AX and flour arabinoxylan (HBF-AX were 8.42%, 4.08% and 2.13% respectively. Sugar composition analysis showed that arabinose and xylose were the main sugars. HBF-AX had the highest Ara/Xyl ratio, followed by HBS-AX and HBB-AX. Size exclusion chromatography analysis (HPSEC showed that HBF-AX had the highest molecular weight, followed by HBS-AX and HBB-AX, which had the lowest molecular weight. Aqueous solutions of HBB-AX, HBS-AX and HBF-AX had higher molecular weight(Mw than in 0.5 mol/L NaOH and 1.0 mol/L NaOH. Dynamic light scattering analysis (DLS showed that HBB-AX, HBS-AX and HBF-AX had existed in two states in distilled water, 0.5 mol/LNaOH, 1.0 mol/L NaOH, and DMSO/H2O (90/10, an unaggregated state and an aggregated state, with the latter predominating.

  19. Removal of Neutral Red from aqueous solution by adsorption on spent cottonseed hull substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Qi [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Gong Wenqi, E-mail: gongwenqi@yahoo.com.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Xie Chuanxin [SINOPEC Research Institute of Safety Engineering, Qingdao 266071 (China); Yang Dongjiang [Environmental Futures Centre and Griffith School of Environment, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222 (Australia); Ling Xiaoqing; Yuan Xiao; Chen Shaohua [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu Xiaofang [School of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Cottonseed hull, a low-cost widely available agricultural waste in China, after used as substrate for the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation, was tested for the removal of Neutral Red (NR), a cationic dye, from aqueous solution. A batch adsorption study was carried out with varied solution pH, adsorbent dosage, reaction time and initial NR concentration. The results show that the kinetics of dye removal by the spent cottonseed hull substrate (SCHS) is prompt in the first 5 min and the adsorption equilibrium can be attained after 240 min. The biosorption kinetics and equilibrium follow typical pseudo-second-order and Langmuir adsorption models. Thermodynamic parameters of {Delta}G{sup o}, {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o} show that the adsorption is a spontaneous and endothermic process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for the characterization of possible dye-biosorbent interaction. This study provides a facile method to produce low-cost biosorbent for the purification of dye contaminated water.

  20. Effects of hull form parameters on seakeeping for YTU gulet series with cruiser stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Cakici

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the relations between seakeeping characteristics and hull form parameters for YTU Gulet series with cruiser stern. Seakeeping analyses are carried out by means of a computer software which is based on the strip theory and statistical short term response prediction method. Multiple regression analysis is used for numerical assessment through a computer software. RMS heave-pitch motions and absolute vertical accelerations on passenger saloon for Sea State 3 at head waves are investigated for this purpose. It is well known that while ship weight and the ratios of main dimensions are the primary factors on ship motions, other hull form parameters (CP, CWP, CVP, etc. are the secondary factors. In this study, to have an idea of geometric properties on ship motions of gulets three different regression models are developed. The obtained outcomes provide practical predictions of seakeeping behavior of gulets with a high level of accuracy that would be useful during the concept design stage.

  1. CROWDED HYBRID PANEL MANUFACTURED WITH PEANUT HULLS REINFORCED WITH ITAÚBA WOOD PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Barbirato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815726In this paper, it was considered the study of the potential use of peanut hulls and wood particles of itaúba (Mezilaurus itauba species in order to add value to these materials through the manufacture of hybrid particle board in order to compare the physical and mechanical performances as well as durability. For these procedures, it was used the bi-component polyurethane resin based on castor beans (mammon oil and urea-formaldehyde. The product quality was evaluated based on the requirements of the standards NBR 14.810:2006 APA PRP and 108, through physico-mechanical and microstructural durability. The results indicate that the incorporation of wood particles warrants an increase in physical-mechanical properties of the particleboard manufactured with peanut hulls, the polyurethane resin based on castor oil was effective as a particle adhesive binder and the durability assay indicated that the material should be used under conditions of low exposure to moisture.

  2. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You-Xing; Liang, Wen-Juan; Fan, Hui-Jin; Ma, Qing-Yun; Tian, Wei-Xi; Dai, Hao-Fu; Jiang, He-Zhong; Li, Ning; Ma, Xiao-Feng

    2011-08-16

    Natural products inhibiting fatty acid synthase (FAS) are appearing as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L. resulted in the isolation of ten compounds (1-10) mainly including flavonoids and oleane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, in which all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. Additionally, compounds 8 and 9 were new hederagenin derivatives and were elucidated as hederagenin 3-O-(2,3-di-O-acetyl-α-l-arabinofuranosyl)-(1→3)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-l-arabinopyranoside and hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-α-l-arabinofuranosyl)-(1→3)-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-l-arabinopyranoside, respectively. All these isolates were evaluated for inhibitory activities of FAS, which showed these isolates had inhibitory activity against FAS with IC(50) values ranging from 6.69 to 204.40 μM, comparable to the known FAS inhibitor EGCG (IC(50)=51.97 μM). The study indicates that the hulls of Nephelium lappaceum L. could be considered as potential sources of promising FAS inhibitors and the oleane-type triterpene oligoglycosides could be considered as another type of natural FAS inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the Almond Harvesting and Hulling Mechanization Process: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of the almond harvesting system with a very high level of mechanization frequently used in Apulia for the almond harvesting and hulling process. Several tests were carried out to assess the technical aspects related to the machinery and to the mechanized harvesting system used itself, highlighting their usefulness, limits, and compatibility within the almond cultivation sector. Almonds were very easily separated from the tree, and this circumstance considerably improved the mechanical harvesting operation efficiency even if the total time was mainly affected by the time required to manoeuvre the machine and by the following manual tree beating. The mechanical pick-up from the ground was not effective, with only 30% of the dropped almond collected, which mainly was caused by both the pick-up reel of the machine being unable to approach the almonds dropped near the base of the trunk and the surface condition of the soil being unsuitably arranged for a mechanized pick-up operation. The work times concerning the hulling and screening processes, carried out at the farm, were heavily affected by several manual operations before, during, and after the executed process; nevertheless, the plant work capability varied from 170 to 200 kg/h with two operators.

  4. Mechanism of Antibacterial Activities of a Rice Hull Smoke Extract (RHSE) against Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium In Vitro and in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2017-12-21

    The present study tested antibacterial activity of a rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and examined its mode of suppressive action in vitro and in mice. In vitro studies showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 1.29% (v/v). The inactivation was confirmed by complete loss of cell viability in the range of 104 to 107 colony forming units of the resistant Salmonella Typhimurium strain. Agarose and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses were used to evaluate the integrities of bacterial genomic DNA and total cellular protein profiles. The antibacterial action of RHSE results from a leakage of intracellular macromolecules following rupture of bacterial cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the cells shows that RHSE also induced deleterious morphological changes in the bacterial cell membrane of the pathogens. In vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE at a 1 × MIC concentration was examined in a bacterial gastroenteritis model using Balb/c mice orally infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium. The results show greatly decreased excretion of the bacteria into the feces and suppressed translocation of the bacteria to internal organs (cecum, mesenteric lymph node, spleen, and liver) compared with the infected mice not subjected to the RHSE treatment. Collectively, the present findings indicate that the mechanism of the antibacterial activities both in vitro and in the gastroenteritis environment of the animal model is the result of the direct disruption of cell structure, leading to cell death. RHSE has the potential to serve as a multifunctional food additive that might protect consumers against infections by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived smoke as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application in foods and feeds. Published 2017. This article

  5. New members of the A{sub 2}M′M{sub 2}{sup ″} structure family (A=Ca, Sr, Yb, La; M′=In,Sn,Pb; M″=Si,Ge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jehle, Michael; Dürr, Ines; Fink, Saskia; Lang, Britta; Langenmaier, Michael; Steckhan, Julia; Röhr, Caroline, E-mail: caroline@ruby.chemie.uni-freiburg.de

    2015-01-15

    The new mixed tetrelides Sr{sub 2}PbGe{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}SnGe{sub 2}, several mixed Ca/Sr (A{sup II}) germanides A{sub 2}{sup II}(Sn,Pb)Ge{sub 2} and two polymorphs of La{sub 2}InSi{sub 2} represent new members of the general structure family of ternary alkaline-earth/lanthanoid main group silicides/germanides A{sub 2}M′M{sub 2}{sup ″}(M′=In,Sn,Pb;M″=Si,Ge). All compounds were synthesized from melts of the elements and their crystal structures have been determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sr{sub 2}PbGe{sub 2} (Cmmm, a=402.36(11), b=1542.3(4), c=463.27(10) pm) crystallizes with the Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2}-type structure. In exhibiting infinite planar Ge zig-zag chains, it represents one border of the compound series. The other borderline case, where only [Ge{sub 2}] dumbbells are left as Ge building units, is represented by the Ca/Yb tin germanides Ca{sub 2}SnGe{sub 2} and Yb{sub 2}SnGe{sub 2} (Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}-type; P4/mbm, a=748.58(13)/740.27(7), c=445.59(8)/435.26(5) pm). In between these two border structures compounds with variable Si/Ge chain lengths could be obtained by varying the averaged size of the A{sup II} cations: Ca{sub 0.45}Sr{sub 1.55}PbGe{sub 2} (new structure type; Pbam, a=791.64(5), b=2311.2(2), c=458.53(3) pm) contains planar six-membered chain segments [Ge{sub 6}]. Tetrameric pieces [Ge{sub 4}] are the conspicuous structure elements in Ca{sub 1.16}Sr{sub 0.84}SnGe{sub 2} and La{sub 2}InSi{sub 2} (La{sub 2}InNi{sub 2}-type; Pbam, a=781.01(2)/762.01(13), b=1477.95(3)/1494.38(6), c=457.004(9)/442.1(3) pm). The tetragonal form of ’La{sub 2}InSi{sub 2}{sup ′} (exact composition: La{sub 2}In{sub 1.07}Si{sub 1.93}, P4/mbm, a=1309.11(12), c=443.32(4) pm) also crystallizes in a new structure type, containing only [Si{sub 3}] trimers as cutouts of the planar chains. In all structures the Si/Ge zig-zag chains/chain segments are connected by In/Sn/Pb atoms to form planar M layers, which are separated by pure A layers. Band

  6. Ti/Zr isomorphism in wadeite: The crystal structure of the titanium-dominant K2(Ti0.55Zr0.45)Si3O9 member of the series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, O. V.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Ageeva, O. A.; Erofeeva, K. G.

    2017-05-01

    The crystal structure of the titanium-rich mineral wadeite K2(Ti0.55Zr0.45)Si3O9 from rischorrites of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia) is studied by X-ray diffraction (XCalibur-S diffractometer, R = 0.0459): a = 6.8611(6) Å and c = 10.0611(9) Å; space group P63/ m, Z = 6, D x = 3.03 g/cm3. It is shown that the unit-cell parameters and volume of the mineral of mixed (Ti/Zr) composition are naturally intermediate between those of the terminal members of the isomorphous wadeite-based K2ZrSi3O9-K2(Ti0.55Zr0.45)Si3O9-K2TiSi3O9 series. The expected correlation is due to the ionic radii of Zr4+ and Ti4+ which determine the lengths of Zr/Ti-O bonds in octahedra. The data of field observations and microscopic studies show that the Ti-dominant wadeite is formed on the basis of primary zirconium mineral in the course of a late imposed process under unique geochemical conditions.

  7. HULL INSPECTION PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR A NEW SHIPBUILDING PROJECT (CASE STUDY OF BIC 11.02 A NEW SHIPBUILDING PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Endro W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull construction process for a new shipbuilding project usualy consist of a set of stages. Starting from material identification, marking, cutting fabrication, assembly and testing. For many shipyard hull inspection activity and hull production stages are joined to simplify production progress monitoring. A 20% credit given for inspection activity. Inspection activities particulary for hull construction which consist of inspection and repair work. Schedule slip of a new shipbuilding is very potencial. This condition is met when man power allocation and work priority are not set properly. Therefore, a clear parameter which conduct with inspection productivity to production manager should be provided. This parameter could help production manager to determine priority of repair work. In this case, differences parameter between production that is using pane measurement and inspection that is using compartement measurement. These two different parameter could make difficulties, particulary when production manager want to know how much progess has been done. A new method to converting the two different parameter has become a topic of this paper

  8. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-15 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hull examination. If the vessel is already participating in the program or if a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is used during the program, the preliminary exam step may be omitted. Once you complete... underwater survey portion of the examination process, you may receive credit for a period of time such that...

  10. 46 CFR 71.50-27 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV). 71.50-27 Section 71.50-27 Shipping COAST GUARD...-27 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle.... (b) You may use an underwater ROV to conduct the underwater survey. The underwater ROV operating team...

  11. 46 CFR 115.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hull examination. If the vessel is already participating in the program or if a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is used during the program, the preliminary exam step may be omitted. Once you complete... underwater survey portion of the examination process, you may receive credit for a period of time such that...

  12. Effects of faba bean and faba bean hulls on expression of selected genes in the small intestine of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, A.J.M.; Baal, van J.; Meulen, van der J.; Smits, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) study in pigs, effects were studied of intestinal perfusion of ground faba beans (Vicia faba), faba bean hulls, or saline on intestinal net fluid absorption in intestinal segments either challenged or not with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC).

  13. The cost calculus model for the hull roughness; Um modelo para calculo do custo da rugosidade do casco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Antonino Di [International Paint (Akzo Nobel Ltda.), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The economic importance of the condition of the immersed hull cannot be underestimated; any increase of the roughness may result in a significant increase in the operational costs of a ship. There are two main types of roughness, biological and physical, each one with its proper characteristics of macro and micro roughness; when an increase in the roughness of the underwater hull occurs, the frictional resistance of the ship or .drag. also increases, resulting in additional power and consequent increase of the fuel consumption to keep the speed of the ship. Keeping the power constant will result in lower speed and greater voyage times. Aiming the better understanding of the effect of the roughness in the performance, costs and operational efficiency of a ship, International Paint developed a new model called 'Hull Roughness Penalty Calculator', a program that predicts the increase of the hull roughness during in service time specified service and combines it with the fouling risk associated with different types of antifoulings. The model compares fuel consumptions and costs of different types of TBT free antifoulings to derive the potential benefit, and also can be used to compare the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulphur oxides. (author)

  14. Effect of Calcereous Cow Horn and Storage on the Physicochemical Properties of Cement-Bonded Particleboards from Groundnut Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunkunle Olaoluwa Ayobami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine particles of the groundnut hull and cow horn samples were prepared and subjected to hydration experiments with Portland cement with the moisture content maintained around 12%. All the compatibility factor values were very well above 60% making the different combinations appropriate for particleboard production. Metal analyses suggested high concentrations of Ca in both samples with values of  wt% and  wt% for the cow horn and groundnut hull samples, respectively. Potassium was also present in high concentrations but was lower than that of calcium. The cow horn was found to be a good substitute for the synthetic additives. Combinations of with the cow horn gave better compatibility ( between the groundnut hull particles and the Portland cement due to chelation, with the hot-water-treated samples being the best. Bond formation was established through the hydroxyl (–OH, carbonyl (C=O, esters or ethers (C–O, and amide (N–H functional groups on the groundnut hall samples. Storage over a period of time also gave a better compatibility of the groundnut hull sample with cement even in the absence of hot-water pretreatments and chemical additives.

  15. Perceptions of the users of urine diversion dry (UDD) toilets in medium density mixed housing in Hull Street, Kimberley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsebe, GN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available urine diversion dry (UDD) toilet. The latter provides a reasonable solution to the current sanitation challenge. This study explores the perceptions of the users of the UDD toilets installed in the medium density mixed housing development of Hull Street...

  16. Embryonic origins of hull cells in the flatworm Macrostomum lignano through cell lineage analysis : developmental and phylogenetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Maxime; Egger, Bernhard; Wolff, Carsten; Mouton, Stijn; Houthoofd, Wouter; Fonderie, Pamela; Couvreur, Marjolein; Artois, Tom; Borgonie, Gaetan

    The development of macrostomid flatworms is of interest for evolutionary developmental biology research because these taxa combine characteristics of the canonical spiral cleavage pattern with significant deviations from this pattern. One such deviation is the formation of hull cells, which surround

  17. Differential Proteomic Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals Alterations in Hull Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Rice hull, the outer cover of the rice grain, determines grain shape and size. Changes in the rice hull proteome in different growth stages may reflect the underlying mechanisms involved in grain development. To better understand these changes, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the rice hull proteome in the booting, flowering, and milk-ripe growth stages. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed to predict their potential functions during development. Gene ontology (GO terms and pathways were used to evaluate the biological mechanisms involved in rice hull at the three growth stages. In total, 5,268 proteins were detected and characterized, of which 563 were differentially expressed across the development stages. The results showed that the flowering and milk-ripe stage proteomes were more similar to each other (r=0.61 than either was to the booting stage proteome. A GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was used to predict their roles during rice hull development. The potential functions of 25 significantly differentially expressed proteins were used to evaluate their possible roles at various growth stages. Among these proteins, an unannotated protein (Q7X8A1 was found to be overexpressed especially in the flowering stage, while a putative uncharacterized protein (B8BF94 and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (Q9FPK6 were overexpressed only in the milk-ripe stage. Pathways regulated by differentially expressed proteins were also analyzed. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2, and two magnesium-chelatase subunits, ChlD (Q6ATS0, and ChlI (Q53RM0, were associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis at different developmental stages. The expression of Q9SDJ2 in the flowering and milk-ripe stages was validated by qRT-PCR. The 25 candidate proteins may be pivotal markers for controlling rice hull development

  18. Cracking in Flexural Reinforced Concrete Members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    The system of cracks developing in reinforced concrete is in many aspects essential when modelling structures in both serviceability- and ultimate limit state. This paper discusses the behavior concerning crack development in flexural members observed from tests and associates it with two different...... existing models. From the investigations an approach is proposed on how to predict the crack pattern in flexural members involving two different crack systems; primary flexural cracks and local secondary cracks. The results of the approach is in overall good agreement with the observed tests and captures...... the pronounced size effect associated with flexural cracking in which the crack spacing and crack widths are approximately proportional to the depth of the member....

  19. New xanthones and cytotoxic constituents from Garcinia mangostana fruit hulls against human hepatocellular, breast, and colorectal cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gamal A; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; El-Halawany, Ali M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M

    2017-02-23

    Cancer has proceeded to surpass one of the most chronic illnesses to be the major cause of mortality in both the developing and developed world. Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, family Guttiferae) known as the queen of fruits, is one of the most popular tropical fruits. It is cultivated in Southeast Asian countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Philippines. Traditionally, numerous parts of G. mangostana have been utilized to treat various ailments such as abdominal pain, haemorrhoids, food allergies, arthritis, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, wound infection, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. Although anticancer activity has been reported for the plant, the goal of the study was designed to isolate and characterize the active metabolites from G. mangostana and measure their cytotoxic properties. In this research, the mechanism of antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of the tested compounds was investigated. The CHCl 3 fraction of the air-dried fruit hulls was repeatedly chromatographed on SiO 2 , RP 18 , Diaion HP-20, and polyamide columns to furnish fourteen compounds. The structures of these metabolites were proven by UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR measurements and HRESIMS. Additionally, the cytotoxic potential of all compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG2 cell lines using SRB-U assay. Antiproliferative and cell cycle interference effects of potentially potent compounds were tested using DNA content flow cytometry. The mechanism of cell death induction was also studied using annexin-V/PI differential staining coupled with flow cytometry. The CHCl 3 soluble fraction afforded two new xanthones: mangostanaxanthones V (1) and VI (2), along with twelve known compounds: mangostanaxanthone IV (3), β-mangostin (4), garcinone E (5), α-mangostin (6), nor-mangostin (7), garcimangosone D (8), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene (10), 2,4,3`-trihydroxybenzophenone-6-O-β-glucopyranoside (11

  20. Use of Bacillus subtilis isolates from Tua-nao towards nutritional improvement of soya bean hull for monogastric feed application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongputtisin, P; Khanongnuch, C; Kongbuntad, W; Niamsup, P; Lumyong, S; Sarkar, P K

    2014-09-01

    Soya bean hull (SBH) is a cheap and high-fibre content feed ingredient that obtained after soya bean oil extraction. Microbial fermentation was expected to improve SBH qualities before applying to animals, especially monogastric animals. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis MR10 and TK8 that were isolated from Tua-nao, a traditional fermented soya bean in northern Thailand, were used for fermented soya bean hull (FSBH) production. Both could easily grow at 37°C in SBH as the sole substrate. MR10 produced the highest β-mannanase activity (400 U g(-1) SBH) on day 2, while TK8 produced the highest cellulase activity (14·5 U g(-1) SBH) on day 3. After fermentation, the nutritional quality of SBH was obviously improved by an increase in soluble sugars, soluble proteins, crude protein and crude lipid, and a decrease in the content of raffinose family oligosaccharides. Scavenging activity (%) of SBH against ABTS radical cation was also increased from 14 to 27 and 20% by MR10 and TK8 fermentation, respectively. According to the GRAS property of these both strains and various improvements of nutritional values, the fermented SBH proved to be a potential feed ingredient, especially for the monogastric animals. Normally, soya bean hull has been recognized as only a worthless by-product from soya bean oil production process because of its low utilizable nutrients. Our study introduced an alternative way to utilize this worthless residue using biotechnological knowledge. The nutritional quality of soya bean hull was improved by microbial fermentation. Fermented soya bean hull can be used as a cheap, safe and high-nutrient feed ingredient for livestock production, especially monogastric animals, to promote their growth performances, instead of using antibiotics in some regions of the world. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  2. Removal of Remazol brilliant violet textile dye by adsorption using rice hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Geyse Adriana Correa; Silva, Domingos Sergio Araujo; Santos, Clayane Carvalho dos; Bezerra, Cicero Wellington Brito; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu, E-mail: cwb.bezerra@ufma.br [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, (UFMA), Sao Luis (Brazil); Vieira, Adriana Pires [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The release of industrial effluents into the environment causes widespread contamination of aquatic systems. Adsorption is seen as one of the most promising treatment processes, and lignocellulosic materials have gained prominence as adsorbents. This study investigates the potential of rice hulls, either in natura or treated with nitric acid, as adsorbents for removal of the dye. The adsorbents were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and pH at point of zero charge. The dye adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode, using different experimental conditions. The kinetic adsorption data could be fitted using the model of Elovich. The Freundlich model provided the best fit to the isothermal data. The thermodynamic parameters confirmed the spontaneity of the adsorption process. These adsorbents offer an alternative for dye removal, with advantages including biomass availability and low cost. (author)

  3. Solving Wave Flow Energy Propagated by Twin-Hull Ships (Catamarans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim Kamil, Md; Muslim, Mazlan; Ali, Ishak

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to put forward a method of solution of wave flow energy propagated by twin-hull ships utilizing ship wave resistance integral equation by Tuck-Lazauskas [8]. The underlying principle of the governing equation is based on the linear thin ship theory pioneered by Michell. The ship wave resistance integral equation by Tuck-Lazauskas is improvised in which the upper limit of the mathematical integration of the governing equation is set to the final root instead of π/2 as in the original equation to eliminate the problem of solving such a divergent improper integral. The method of solution and the theoretical results are validated against works of others experimentally and theoretically. The results obtained by the proposed method are found to be very consistent and more closely fit to the experimental results in comparison with those obtained by other theoretical method as presented in this paper.

  4. The effect of vessel speed on the survivorship of biofouling organisms at different hull locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Piola, Richard F; Taylor, Michael D; Hewitt, Chad L; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2010-07-01

    This study used a specially designed MAGPLATE system to quantify the en route survivorship and post-voyage recovery of biofouling assemblages subjected to short voyages (bow, amidships and stern) was also examined. While no significant differences were evident in en route survivorship of biofouling organisms amongst hull locations, biofouling cover and richness were markedly reduced on faster vessels relative to slower craft. Therefore, the potential inoculum size of non-indigenous marine species and richness is likely to be reduced for vessels that travel at faster speeds (> 14 knots), which is likely to also reduce the chances of successful introductions. Despite this, the magnitude of introductions from biofouling on fast vessels can be considered minor, especially for species richness where 90% of source-port species were recorded at destinations.

  5. Quality and storability of chicken nuggets formulated with green banana and soybean hulls flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Biswas, Ashim Kumar; Sahoo, Jhari; Chatli, Manish Kumar; Sivakumar, S

    2013-12-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of green banana (GBF) and soybean hulls flours (SHF) on the physicochemical characteristics, colour, texture and storage stability of chicken meat nuggets. The addition of GBF and SHF in the nugget formulations was effective in sustaining desired cooking yield and emulsion stability besides nutritional benefits. Protein and fat contents were decreased (p > 0.05), but fibers and ash contents was increased (p  0.05%) than control and treatments. Lipid oxidation products, however, unaffected (p > 0.05) but increased in all samples over storage time. Flour treatments showed a positive impact in respect to microbiological quality, however, sensory evaluation indicated comparable scores for all attributes at all times. So, incorporation of GBF and SHF in the formulation could improve the quality and storage stability of chicken nuggets.

  6. Unraveling intermittent features in single-particle trajectories by a local convex hull method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoiselée, Yann; Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a model-free method to detect change points between distinct phases in a single random trajectory of an intermittent stochastic process. The local convex hull (LCH) is constructed for each trajectory point, while its geometric properties (e.g., the diameter or the volume) are used as discriminators between phases. The efficiency of the LCH method is validated for six models of intermittent motion, including Brownian motion with different diffusivities or drifts, fractional Brownian motion with different Hurst exponents, and surface-mediated diffusion. We discuss potential applications of the method for detection of active and passive phases in the intracellular transport, temporal trapping or binding of diffusing molecules, alternating bulk and surface diffusion, run and tumble (or search) phases in the motion of bacteria and foraging animals, and instantaneous firing rates in neurons.

  7. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    in their newly applied conditions. The effects of water absorption of newly applied antifouling coatings on frictional resistance were measured. A flexible rotor with artificial welding seams on its periphery has been designed and constructed to estimate the influence of welding seams on drag resistance. Both......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...... the density of welding seams (number per 5 m ship side) and the height of welding seams had a significant effect on drag resistance....

  8. Numerical simulation of hull curved plate forming by electromagnetic force assisted line heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wang, Shun; Liu, Yujun; Li, Rui; Liu, xiao

    2017-11-01

    Line heating is a common method in shipyards for forming of hull curved plate. The aluminum alloy plate is widely used in shipbuilding. To solve the problem of thick aluminum alloy plate forming with complex curved surface, a new technology named electromagnetic force assisted line heating(EFALH) was proposed in this paper. The FEM model of EFALH was established and the effect of electromagnetic force assisted forming was verified by self development equipment. Firstly, the solving idea of numerical simulation for EFALH was illustrated. Then, the coupled numerical simulation model of multi physical fields were established. Lastly, the reliability of the numerical simulation model was verified by comparing the experimental data. This paper lays a foundation for solving the forming problems of thick aluminum alloy curved plate in shipbuilding.

  9. Modeling of steady motion and vertical-plane dynamics of a tunnel hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Chaney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-speed marine vehicles can take advantage of aerodynamically supported platforms or air wings to increase maximum speed or transportation efficiency. However, this also results in increased complexity of boat dynamics, especially in the presence of waves and wind gusts. In this study, a mathematical model based on the fully unsteady aerodynamic extreme-ground-effect theory and the hydrodynamic added-mass strip theory is applied for simulating vertical-plane motions of a tunnel hull in a disturbed environment, as well as determining its steady states in calm conditions. Calculated responses of the boat to wind gusts and surface waves are demonstrated. The present model can be used as a supplementary method for preliminary estimations of performance of aerodynamically assisted marine craft.

  10. Modeling of steady motion and vertical-plane dynamics of a tunnel hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Christopher S.; Matveev, Konstantin I.

    2014-06-01

    High-speed marine vehicles can take advantage of aerodynamically supported platforms or air wings to increase maximum speed or transportation efficiency. However, this also results in increased complexity of boat dynamics, especially in the presence of waves and wind gusts. In this study, a mathematical model based on the fully unsteady aerodynamic extreme-ground-effect theory and the hydrodynamic added-mass strip theory is applied for simulating vertical-plane motions of a tunnel hull in a disturbed environment, as well as determining its steady states in calm conditions. Calculated responses of the boat to wind gusts and surface waves are demonstrated. The present model can be used as a supplementary method for preliminary estimations of performance of aerodynamically assisted marine craft.

  11. Convex hull based neuro-retinal optic cup ellipse optimization in glaucoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Liu, Jiang; Cherian, Neetu Sara; Sun, Ying; Lim, Joo Hwee; Wong, Wing Kee; Tan, Ngan Meng; Lu, Shijian; Li, Huiqi; Wong, Tien Ying

    2009-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. Glaucoma can be diagnosed through measurement of neuro-retinal optic cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). Automatic calculation of optic cup boundary is challenging due to the interweavement of blood vessels with the surrounding tissues around the cup. A Convex Hull based Neuro-Retinal Optic Cup Ellipse Optimization algorithm improves the accuracy of the boundary estimation. The algorithm's effectiveness is demonstrated on 70 clinical patient's data set collected from Singapore Eye Research Institute. The root mean squared error of the new algorithm is 43% better than the ARGALI system which is the state-of-the-art. This further leads to a large clinical evaluation of the algorithm involving 15 thousand patients from Australia and Singapore.

  12. Mean perimeter and mean area of the convex hull over planar random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Lanoiselée, Yann; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the geometric properties of the convex hull over n successive positions of a planar random walk, with a symmetric continuous jump distribution. We derive the large n asymptotic behavior of the mean perimeter. In addition, we compute the mean area for the particular case of isotropic Gaussian jumps. While the leading terms of these asymptotics are universal, the subleading (correction) terms depend on the finer details of the jump distribution and describe a ‘finite size effect’ of discrete-time jump processes, allowing one to accurately compute the mean perimeter and the mean area even for small n, as verified by Monte Carlo simulations. This is particularly valuable for applications dealing with discrete-time jumps processes and ranging from the statistical analysis of single-particle tracking experiments in microbiology to home range estimations in ecology.

  13. Removal of Remazol brilliant violet textile dye by adsorption using rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyse Adriana Corrêa Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The release of industrial effluents into the environment causes widespread contamination of aquatic systems. Adsorption is seen as one of the most promising treatment processes, and lignocellulosic materials have gained prominence as adsorbents. This study investigates the potential of rice hulls, either in natura or treated with nitric acid, as adsorbents for removal of the dye. The adsorbents were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13C-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and pH at point of zero charge. The dye adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode, using different experimental conditions. The kinetic adsorption data could be fitted using the model of Elovich. The Freundlich model provided the best fit to the isothermal data. The thermodynamic parameters confirmed the spontaneity of the adsorption process. These adsorbents offer an alternative for dye removal, with advantages including biomass availability and low cost.

  14. Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Maria; Strand, Jakob; Eklund, Britta; Ytreberg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r2 = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissection of QTLs for Hull Silicon Content on the Short Arm of Rice Chromosome 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-rong WU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The QTL qHUS6 for hull silicon content in rice was previously located on the short arm of rice chromosome 6. By using an F2:3 population segregating in the RM587–RM19784 region harboring qHUS6 in an isogenic background, two QTLs for hull silicon content were detected, of which qHUS6-1 was located in the distal region and qHUS6-2 in the region proximal to the centromere. Three rice plants carrying small heterozygous segments in the target region were selected, of which two covered the qHUS6-1 region and the other covered the qHUS6-2 region. Three F2:3 populations were derived from the selfed seeds of the three plants, respectively. QTL mapping was performed using the two populations segregating in the qHUS6-1 region, and qHUS6-1 was delimited to a 147.0-kb region flanked by the markers RM510 and RM19417. Five groups of F3 lines with different genotypic compositions in the qHUS6-2 region were selected from the other F2:3 population. Two QTLs were separated with two-way ANOVA, of which qHUS6-2a was located in the interval defined by RM19706–RM19795 and qHUS6-2b in the interval RM314–RM19665.

  16. Effect of segregation bands on corrosion of steel plate for ship hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant progress in the manufacturing of sheet metal ships carried both by optimizing the chemical compositions of steel mills as well as rolling and heat treatment, it still fails to remove the effects of persistent segregation. As a result we observed anisotropy of mechanical properties of the material which essentially complicates the process of construction for shipbuilding industry. Anisotropy of mechanical properties occurring in sheet metal hull is even more dangerous, that during their work, they are exposed to continuous exposure variable charges arising from sea surface waves. Another factor weakening the resistance to cracking metal ship is sea-water, which in the surface layer is highly aerated and very aggressive corrosion. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of the segregation bands in the process of corrosion of low alloy steels used for ship hull. It was estimate a rate of corrosion in aerated sea water areas of the metal with or without segregation bands. After corrosion tests were made observations of specimens surfaces. Inside the segregation bands were found phosphorus. The contents of it were exceeded the average this element content in the steel. At the same time areas of the sheet metal with segregation bands were slowly corroded than areas without bands, although the changes of corrosion rate was similar in nature.Corrosion activity of rich in phosphorus segregation band is similar to phosphate corrosion inhibitors. These are effective in the presenceof chloride in seawater to form a protective layer that protects against corrosion segregation band. Under the observation on scanningelectron microscope there was no change in the appearance of surface samples after corrosion tests. A future direction of research will be estimate the stress corrosion in the same species – with and without segregation bands.

  17. Rice hull smoke extract inactivates Salmonella Typhimurium in laboratory media and protects infected mice against mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Park, Jun Cheol; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-01-01

    A previously characterized rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) was tested for bactericidal activity against Salmonella Typhimurium using the disc-diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of RHSE was 0.822% (v/v). The in vivo antibacterial activity of RHSE (1.0%, v/v) was also examined in a Salmonella-infected Balb/c mouse model. Mice infected with a sublethal dose of the pathogens were administered intraperitoneally a 1.0% solution of RHSE at four 12-h intervals during the 48-h experimental period. The results showed that RHSE inhibited bacterial growth by 59.4%, 51.4%, 39.6%, and 28.3% compared to 78.7%, 64.6%, 59.2%, and 43.2% inhibition with the medicinal antibiotic vancomycin (20 mg/mL). By contrast, 4 consecutive administrations at 12-h intervals elicited the most effective antibacterial effect of 75.0% and 85.5% growth reduction of the bacteria by RHSE and vancomycin, respectively. The combination of RHSE and vancomycin acted synergistically against the pathogen. The inclusion of RHSE (1.0% v/w) as part of a standard mouse diet fed for 2 wk decreased mortality of 10 mice infected with lethal doses of the Salmonella. Photomicrographs of histological changes in liver tissues show that RHSE also protected the liver against Salmonella-induced pathological necrosis lesions. These beneficial results suggest that the RHSE has the potential to complement wood-derived smokes as antimicrobial flavor formulations for application to human foods and animal feeds. The new antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory rice hull derived liquid smoke has the potential to complement widely used wood-derived liquid smokes as an antimicrobial flavor and health-promoting formulation for application to foods. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to US original government works.

  18. Effects of adlay hull extracts on uterine contraction and Ca2+ mobilization in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Min; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chiang, Wenchang; Wang, Paulus S

    2008-09-01

    Dysmenorrhea is directly related to elevated PGF(2alpha) levels. It is treated with nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Western medicine. Since NSAIDs produce many side effects, Chinese medicinal therapy is considered as a feasible alternative medicine. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating dysmenorrhea. However, the relationship between smooth muscle contraction and adlay extracts remains veiled. Therefore, we investigated this relationship in the rat uterus by measuring uterine contraction activity and recording the intrauterine pressure. We studied the in vivo and in vitro effects of the methanolic extracts of adlay hull (AHM) on uterine smooth muscle contraction. The extracts were fractionated using four different solvents: water, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane; the four respective fractions were AHM-Wa, AHM-Bu, AHM-EA, and AHM-Hex. AHM-EA and its subfractions (175 microg/ml) inhibited uterine contractions induced by PGF(2alpha), the Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644, and high K(+) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. AHM-EA also inhibited PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions in vivo; furthermore, 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA inhibited the Ca(2+)-dependent uterine contractions. Thus 375 microg/ml of AHM-EA consistently suppressed the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations induced by PGF(2alpha) and high K(+). We also demonstrated that naringenin and quercetin are the major pure chemical components of AHM-EA that inhibit PGF(2alpha)-induced uterine contractions. Thus AHM-EA probably inhibited uterine contraction by blocking external Ca(2+) influx, leading to a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Thus adlay hull may be considered as a feasible alternative therapeutic agent for dysmenorrhea.

  19. A markerless motion capture system to study musculoskeletal biomechanics: visual hull and simulated annealing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, S; Mündermann, L; Chaudhari, A M; Demattio, T; Cobelli, C; Andriacchi, T P

    2006-06-01

    Human motion capture is frequently used to study musculoskeletal biomechanics and clinical problems, as well as to provide realistic animation for the entertainment industry. The most popular technique for human motion capture uses markers placed on the skin, despite some important drawbacks including the impediment to the motion by the presence of skin markers and relative movement between the skin where the markers are placed and the underlying bone. The latter makes it difficult to estimate the motion of the underlying bone, which is the variable of interest for biomechanical and clinical applications. A model-based markerless motion capture system is presented in this study, which does not require the placement of any markers on the subject's body. The described method is based on visual hull reconstruction and an a priori model of the subject. A custom version of adapted fast simulated annealing has been developed to match the model to the visual hull. The tracking capability and a quantitative validation of the method were evaluated in a virtual environment for a complete gait cycle. The obtained mean errors, for an entire gait cycle, for knee and hip flexion are respectively 1.5 degrees (+/-3.9 degrees ) and 2.0 degrees (+/-3.0 degrees ), while for knee and hip adduction they are respectively 2.0 degrees (+/-2.3 degrees ) and 1.1 degrees (+/-1.7 degrees ). Results for the ankle and shoulder joints are also presented. Experimental results captured in a gait laboratory with a real subject are also shown to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the presented method in a clinical environment.

  20. Development the Care Evaluation Scale Version 2.0: a modified version of a measure for bereaved family members to evaluate the structure and process of palliative care for cancer patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miyashita, Mitsunori; Aoyama, Maho; Nakahata, Misato; Yamada, Yuji; Abe, Mutsumi; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Shirado, Akemi; Shutoh, Mariko; Okamoto, Yoshiaki; Hamano, Jun; Miyamoto, Aoi; Yoshida, Saki; Sato, Kazuki; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire survey by mail in October 2013. The participants were bereaved family members of patients who died from cancer in seven institutions in Japan...

  1. Space strategy and governance of ESA small member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagath, Daniel; Papadimitriou, Angeliki; Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty-two Member States with a variety of governance structures and strategic priorities regarding their space activities. The objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of the national space governance structures and strategic priorities of the eleven smaller Member States (based on annual ESA contributions). A link is made between the governance structure and the main strategic objectives. The specific needs and interests of small and new Member States in the frame of European Space Integration are addressed. The first part of the paper focuses on the national space governance structures in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The governance models of these Member States are identified including the responsible ministries and the entities entrusted with the implementation of space strategy/policy and programmes of the country. The second part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in the eleven smaller ESA Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators for space investments. In a third and final part, attention is given to the specific needs and interests of the smaller Member States in the frame of European space integration. ESA instruments are tailored to facilitate the needs and interests of the eleven smaller and/or new Member States.

  2. Panel Members | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Panel Members. Members of the Panel as constituted by the Academy. Chair person. Prof. Sandhya S. Visweswariah is a JC Bose National Fellow, Department of Molecular Reproduction & Developmental, Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. Her areas of specialization are Biochemistry, Protein Structure ...

  3. Some functional and adaptive aspects of vessel member morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis of functionally adaptive diversification of wood structure in the course of evolution as advanced by Carlquist is critically tested for vessel member length and type of perforation plate. The functional significance of within-tree variation in vessel member morphology is discussed

  4. Strength and stiffness capacity utilisation of timber members in roof ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the individual strength properties, the mean bending strength capacity utilised per member was found to be the highest. The results of this study can be used for decision support related to wood property evaluation throughout the structural lumber value chain where roof truss members are the end products. Keywords: ...

  5. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Sellers, William I

    2014-01-01

    The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH)) from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb) to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH) has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH) scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2) = 0.97-0.99) and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%). Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08). Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011) and apparent density (volCH/Mb) therefore decreases with mass (r(2) = 0.36, pprimates scale body mass to vol(CH) with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05) and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2) = 0.46, p = 0.025). We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  6. Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data (SADCP) collected aboard the NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER during cruise NF-10-01 and NF-10-02

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upper ocean current velocity measurements collected with NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER's Teledyne RD Instruments 150 kHz hull-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler...

  7. Tanks Test of a Model of the Hull of the Navy PB-1 Flying Boat - N.A.C.A. Model 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, John M

    1936-01-01

    A model of the hull of the Navy PB-1 flying boat was tested in the N.A.C.A. tank as part of a program intended to provide information regarding the water performance of hulls of flying boats of earlier design for which hydrodynamic data have heretofore been unavailable. Tests were made according to the general method over the range of practical loadings with the model both fixed in trim and free to trim. A free-to-trim test according to the specific method was also made for the design load and take-off speed corresponding to those of the full-scale flying boat. The resistance obtained from the fixed-trim test was found to be about the same as that of the model of the NC flying-boat hull, and greater at the hump but smaller at high speeds than that of a model of the Sikorsky S-40 flying-boat hull.

  8. Metabolite Variation of Peanut Hulls (Arachis hypogaea L. from Three Locations of Lombok Island on the Basis of GC-MS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Hadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a part of studies to investigate the potential of natural products from Lombok Island for antidiabetic agents. This study was directed to learn the metabolite variations of peanut hulls collected from three different locations in Lombok Island. The hull samples were extracted in methanol, followed by partition process into three fractions using three solvents with varied polarities (dichloromethane, hexane and acetone. The fractions were then separated and identified for their chemical composition by using GC-MS instrument. Metabolite variations of three extracts showed that the antidiabetic compounds stigmast-5-en-3-ol and oleic acid were found in all three locations with different percentages of abundance. Another antidiabetic compound, linoleic acid, was only identified in peanut hulls from the village of Pringga Jurang (PJ. Besides the antidiabetic compounds, there were other major compounds with known biological activities discussed to find other uses of the hulls.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide modification enhances the ability of biochar (hydrochar) produced from hydrothermal carbonization of peanut hull to remove aqueous heavy metals: Batch and column tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and modeling investigations were conducted to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on hydrothermally produced biochar (hydrochar) from peanut hull to remove aqueous heavy metals. Characterization measurements showed that hydrogen peroxide modification increased the oxygen-c...

  10. Velocity Data collected from moored Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers positioned in Vieques Sound and Virgin Passage in the US Caribbean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Velocity data were collected from Hull-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers moored across Virgin Passage between Culebra, Puerto Rico and St. Thomas, USVI, and...

  11. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukasawa Toichi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner’s rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  12. On the effects of hull-girder vibration upon fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship disaggregated by short-term sea state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichi Fukasawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hull-girder vibration on the fatigue strength of a Post-Panamax container ship are discussed in the present paper. Firstly, the short-term sea states are categorized according to the occurrence probability of each sea state. Time histories of hull-girder stress in short-term sea states are calculated by means of a nonlinear simulation code of ship response assuming that the hull-girder is rigid and flexible. Then, the calculated stress peaks are processed by the rainflow counting method, where two different counting procedures are used based on the considerations of crack propagation behaviors. Finally, the fatigue damage in life time of the ship in each categorized short-term sea state is estimated by means of Miner's rule. Based on the calculated results, the effects of hull-girder vibrations on the fatigue damage are clarified by disaggregated damage from short-term sea state.

  13. How Deployments Affect Service Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Interestingly, some service members welcomed the longer working days as a way to keep themselves busy and distracted from homesickness or thoughts of...want more-frequent communica- tion home. Some members with whom we spoke felt that talking to family while on deploy- ment only increased homesickness ...debt, to save for college , or to buy such items as cars. In this way, the rewards of a hard de- ployment can have long-term effects for military

  14. 7 CFR 985.25 - Alternate members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 985.25 Section 985.25 Agriculture....25 Alternate members. An alternate for a member shall act in the place of such member (a) in the member's absence, (b) in the event of the member's death, removal, resignation, or disqualification...

  15. 7 CFR 925.27 - Alternate members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate members. 925.27 Section 925.27 Agriculture... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Administrative Body § 925.27 Alternate members. An alternate member shall act in the place of the member during such member's absence or at such member's request, and may be assigned other...

  16. Study on estimating fluid force acting on a hull during maneuvering movement; Soju undoji no sentai ni sayosuru ryutairyoku no suitei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, K.; Kijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    With types of general cargo vessel and VLCC vessel as the object of discussion, a method was discussed to estimate fluid force acting theoretically on a hull during maneuvering movement, taking frame line shape into consideration. A vortex model was improved by giving consideration of time-based decay on intensity of discrete vortex lines based on the Rankine vortex. Modeling of flow fields around a hull was attempted to deal with movements in which width and draft are small as compared with the ship length, and turning angle speed and deviation angle are small. It was assumed that the ship speed is slow and effects of waves can be disregarded. Specular images of the hull were taken with regard to free surface, and handled as a double body model. Speed potential to express flow fields around a hull is required to satisfy the following five boundary conditions of Laplace, substance surface, free vortex layers, infinity and exfoliation. The potential may be handled as a two-dimensional problem in a field near the hull by using assumption of a slender and long body and conformal mapping. It was found possible to estimate hull fluid force with relatively good accuracy. Fine linear coefficients derived from the estimation were used to have performed highly accurate determination on course stabilization. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effects of oat hulls and wood shavings on digestion in broilers and layers fed diets based on whole or ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, H; Svihus, B; Krogdahl, A

    2003-05-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of inclusion of oat hulls in diets based on whole or ground wheat for broilers. Effects of wood shavings on layers were investigated in a further experiment. 2. Inclusion of oat hulls in wheat-based broiler diets did not affect weight gain. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE), corrected for insoluble fibre contents, was improved by oat hull inclusion. 3. Gizzard size increased with inclusion of oat hulls, whole wheat, wood shavings and grit. 4. Starch digestibility was significantly increased by inclusion of oat hulls for broilers, and by wood shavings for layers. 5. Wood shavings and whole wheat did not affect bile acid concentration of gizzard contents. However, the total amount of bile acids in gizzard increased with access to wood shavings due to an increase in the weight of gizzard contents, indicating an increased gastroduodenal reflux. 6. Fibre concentration was considerably higher in the gizzard contents than in the feed. 7. Duodenal particle size decreased with access to grit. No effect of hulls or whole wheat inclusion was found, indicating that all particles are ground to a certain critical size before leaving the gizzard.

  18. La analogía sociobiológica del desarrollo de la ciencia, la epistemología evolucionista de David Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz G., Rosaura

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The eminent philosopher of biology, David Hull has proposed that a "general theory of evolution" can be advanced that would account for the evolution of organisms as well as for the evolution of scientific knowledge. According to Hull, competition among scientists plays in conceptual evolution a similar essential role as competition among organisms plays in biological evolution. Hull uses the sociobiology tradition to explain the apparently altruistic behavior of scientists in the search for knowledge.

    David Hull, uno de los filósofos de la biología más destacados en la actualidad, propone una "Teoría general de evolución" que, afirma, explica tanto la evolución de los seres vivos como el desarrollo del conocimiento científico. En el caso de la evolución conceptual, Hull sostiene que la competencia entre científicos juega un papel esencial en el avance de la ciencia, de manera similar a lo que ocurre en la evolución biológica. Entre otras cuestiones Hull recupera la tradición de la sociobiología para la explicación del comportamiento aparentemente altruista de los científicos en la búsqueda del conocimiento.

  19. An approach to computerized preliminary design procedure of mid-size superyachts from hull modeling to interior space arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ho Nam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A concept of preliminary design for mid-size superyachts is explored. First, the profile of a superyacht is interactively designed with the help of freeform curve functionality and graphical user interface (GUI based interaction. The hull form is then constructed using major characteristic curves such as design waterline, deck sideline, and sections in addition to the predefined profile curve. After exterior hull modeling is done, the arrangement of significant interior spaces of all decks is carried out. A genetic algorithm is exploited to find a space arrangement by considering space fitness values, space proximity, and stairs connectivity of relevant spaces. A goal of the paper is to offer a step-by-step procedure for superyacht design from scratch or when initial information is not sufficient for complete design. For this purpose, a GUI based superyacht design system is developed. This design approach is expected to help users interactively design mid-size superyachts.

  20. 7 CFR 982.32 - Initial members and nomination of successor members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial members and nomination of successor members... Initial members and nomination of successor members. (a) Members and alternate members of the Board... members and alternate members specified in § 982.30(b) (1) through (3) shall be made by the largest...

  1. Validation of Numerical Predictions of the Impact Forces and Hydrodynamics of a Deep-V Planing Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    force a planing hull model in roll motion was designed and built. The Forced Roll Mechanism was intended to act as a dynamometer that forces a...test runs. The dynamometer can be configured to either oscillate the model or hold the model at a fixed roll angle, and measure the forces whether...post assembly measure purely vertical and horizontal (sway) forces in the tow tank reference frame. However, the bi-axial load cell is attached to the

  2. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA_Appendix 4_Geophysical Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    CR Environmental, Inc. (CR) was contracted by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. (GZA) to perform hydrographic and geophysical surveys of an approximately 3.35 square mile area off the eastern shore of Hull, Massachusetts. Survey components included: • Single-beam bathymetry; • 100-kHz and 500-kHz side scan sonar; • Magnetometry; and • Low to mid-frequency sub-bottom profiling.

  3. INVESTIGATION OF ADSORBABILITY OF SILICON DIOXIDE FROM RICE HULL AS REGARDS COPPER (II) AND MANGANESE (II) IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Холомейдик (Kholomeydik), Анна (Anna) Николаевна (Nikolaevna); Николенко (Nikolenko), Юрий (Jurij) Михайлович (Mihajlovich); Земнухова (Zemnuhova), Людмила (Ljudmila) Алексеевна (Alekseevna); Устинов (Ustinov), Алекандр (Alekandr) Юрьевич (Jur'evich); Майоров (Mayorov), Виталий (Vitalij) Юрьевич (Yur'evich); Полякова (Polyakova), Наталья (Natal'ja) Владимировна (Vladimirovna)

    2015-01-01

    The samples silicone dioxide containing 95−99,9% of the basic substance depending on conditions of the raw materials preparation and the temperature of treatment were obtained from rice hull by the oxidation burring method. Their phase composition and morphology were studied. The samples have amorphous and crystal state. Their specific surface and pore size distribution were determined by nitrogen adsorption. The specific surface value varied in the range of 6−230 m2/g and the pore diameters ...

  4. Effects of different grinding levels (particle size of soybean hull on starting pigs performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of grinding of soybean hulls (SH on starting pigs (15-30 kg diets. Experiment I consisted of a digestibility trial with 12 barrows, initial average body weight 21.9±1.29 kg, in which the best digestibility coefficient (DC of DM and GE was obtained with SH ground through a 2.5mm screen mesh, evaluated for CP and ME, a best DC was attained with 3.0 mm screen mesh. In the Experiment II, five diets with increasing SH (2.5 mm levels (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 % for starting piglets were formulated. A quadratic response in daily weight gain (DWG occurred, according to SH inclusion. Worst DWG occurred at 7.75 % SH inclusion. Daily feed intake, feed: gain ratio and plasma urea nitrogen were not affected by inclusion levels. In conclusion, although soybean hull grinding improves the digestible nutrients, inclusion of SH on starting pig diets is economically unfeasible.Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para estudar os efeitos da moagem da casca de soja (CS nas dietas de leitões na fase inicial (15-30 kg. O Experimento I consistiu de um ensaio de digestibilidade com 12 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 21,9±1,29 kg. O melhor coeficiente de digestibilidade (CD da MS e EB foi obtido com a peneira 3,0 mm. No Experimento II, foram formuladas cinco dietas com níveis crescentes (0, 3, 6, 9 e 12% de CS (2,5 mm para suínos na fase inicial. Foi obtida resposta quadrática para ganho diário de peso (GDP em função dos níveis crescentes de CS. Pior GDP ocorreu com 7,75 % de inclusão de CS. Consumo diário de ração, conversão alimentar e nitrogênio da uréia plasmática não foram influenciados pela inclusão da CS. Conclui-se que, embora a moagem melhore a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da casca de soja, a sua inclusão nas dietas de suínos na fase inicial é economicamente inviável.

  5. Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Ashley R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence in function of the resulting paralogs via subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of plant form. The LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1 SEPALLATA (SEP genes have been linked with the origin and diversification of the grass spikelet, but it is uncertain 1 when the duplication event that produced the LHS1 clade and its paralogous lineage Oryza sativa MADS5 (OSM5 occurred, and 2 how changes in gene structure and/or expression might have contributed to subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization in the two lineages. Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP and maximum likelihood (ML methods, respectively. Results Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3 domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence. Conclusions Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene

  6. Duplication and diversification of the LEAFY HULL STERILE1 and Oryza sativa MADS5 SEPALLATA lineages in graminoid Poales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence in function of the resulting paralogs via subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization is hypothesized to have played a major role in the evolution of plant form. The LEAFY HULL STERILE1 (LHS1) SEPALLATA (SEP) genes have been linked with the origin and diversification of the grass spikelet, but it is uncertain 1) when the duplication event that produced the LHS1 clade and its paralogous lineage Oryza sativa MADS5 (OSM5) occurred, and 2) how changes in gene structure and/or expression might have contributed to subfunctionalization and/or neofunctionalization in the two lineages. Methods Phylogenetic relationships among 84 SEP genes were estimated using Bayesian methods. RNA expression patterns were inferred using in situ hybridization. The patterns of protein sequence and RNA expression evolution were reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods, respectively. Results Phylogenetic analyses mapped the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event to the base of the grass family. MP character reconstructions estimated a change from cytosine to thymine in the first codon position of the first amino acid after the Zea mays MADS3 (ZMM3) domain converted a glutamine to a stop codon in the OSM5 ancestor following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event. RNA expression analyses of OSM5 co-orthologs in Avena sativa, Chasmanthium latifolium, Hordeum vulgare, Pennisetum glaucum, and Sorghum bicolor followed by ML reconstructions of these data and previously published analyses estimated a complex pattern of gain and loss of LHS1 and OSM5 expression in different floral organs and different flowers within the spikelet or inflorescence. Conclusions Previous authors have reported that rice OSM5 and LHS1 proteins have different interaction partners indicating that the truncation of OSM5 following the LHS1/OSM5 duplication event has resulted in both partitioned and potentially novel gene functions. The complex

  7. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  8. Determination of trace copper in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on modified soybean hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang Guoqiang, E-mail: xianggq@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang Yingming; Jiang Xiuming; He Lijun; Fan Lu; Zhao Wenjie [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Soybean hull was chemically modified with citric acid and used as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of trace amounts of Cu{sup 2+} in food samples by flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effect of pH, sample flow rate and volume, elution flow rate and volume and co-existing ions on the recovery of the analyte were investigated. The results showed that Cu{sup 2+} could be adsorbed on the modified soybean hull at pH 8.0 and eluted by 2.0 mL of 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacity of modified soybean hull was found to be 18.0 mg g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.8 ng mL{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+} with an enrichment factor of 18. The analytical result for the certified reference tea sample (GBW07605) was in a good agreement with the certified value. The proposed method has also been successfully applied to the determination of trace Cu{sup 2+} in dried sweet potato, lake water and milk powder, the recovery of Cu{sup 2+} for spiked samples was between 91% and 109.6%.

  9. Simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in sunflower-treated seeds (hull and kernel) by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Higes, Mariano; Martín, María T; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José L

    2016-01-01

    A validated analytical method to determine seven neonicotinoids (dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in sunflower seeds (hull and kernel) using HPLC coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is presented. Sample clean-up based on a solid-liquid extraction, and the removal of lipid fraction, in the case of kernels, is proposed and optimised. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 0.3 × 10(-3) to 1.2 × 10(-3) µg g(-1) and from 1.0 × 10(-3) to 4.0 × 10(-3) µg g(-1), with good precision, and recovery values ranged from 90% to 104% for hulls and kernels. The method was applied for the analysis of five thiamethoxam-dressed sunflower seeds and four non-treated seeds, where, besides thiamethoxam, residues of the other neonicotinoid, clothianidin, were also detected and confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Finally, the presence of residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin in collected sunflower seeds (hulls) coming from coated seeds confirmed the translocation of these neonicotinoids through the plant up to these seeds.

  10. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  11. Data on photo-nanofiller models for self-cleaning foul release coating of ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mohamed S; El-Safty, Sherif A; El-Sockary, Maher A; Hashem, Ahmed I; Abo Elenien, Ossama M; El-Saeed, Ashraf M; Fatthallah, Nesreen A

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Smart photo-induced silicone/TiO2 nanocomposites with dominant [110] exposed surfaces for self-cleaning foul-release coatings of ship hulls" (Selimet al., 2016) [1]. This article reports on successfully designing and controlling TiO2 spherical single crystal photo-nanofillers and indicating evidence of fouling resistance after stimulation through UV radiation exposure. These data also reveal that the influence of well-dispersed spherical TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) into the polymer matrix surface features on the prepared fouling release (FR) coating. Single crystal TiO2 nanospheres have played a large role in the scenario of photocatalysis due to its cost effectiveness, inert nature and photo stability. The model output and the surface and mechanical behavior data of the fabricated UV-irradiated silicone-based FR nanocoatings are made publicly available through analyzing nanocomposite topology, superhydrophilicity and self-cleaning efficiency in order to enable critical analysis of the tailored model. It also investigates the photo-bactericidal effect confirmed through biofilm coverage data disability. The modeled nanocomposites were subjected to comparable studies with other published models so as to understand how different UV-irradiated nano-scale parameters propagate and affect bulk film response.

  12. Degradation of Al/SiCp composites produced with rice-hull ash and aluminum cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Lozano, R; Gutiérrez, C A; Pech-Canul, M A; Pech-Canul, M I

    2008-01-01

    The use of recycling aluminum from beverage containers and rice-hull ash (RHA) offers to be an attractive alternative for the economic production of Al/SiCp composites. However, corrosion phenomena in the composites represent technological barriers yet to be resolved before they can be exploited to their full potential. A simple methodology involving characterization by XRD, SEM, EDX, FTIR and ICP was designed in order to investigate the causes of the rapid degradation in a humid environment of Al/SiCp composites produced with RHA and aluminum cans. Results reveal that the use of RHA was beneficial to avoid degradation through the formation and subsequent hydration of the Al4C3 phase. However with condensed moisture acting as an electrolyte, localized corrosion took place with aggressive damage manifested by the disintegration of the composite into a powdery mixture. The relevant corrosion mechanism was mainly attributed to microgalvanic coupling between the Mg2Si intermetallic compound and the matrix (although other phases such as SiC, Si, MgAl2O4 could also work as microcathodes).

  13. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV of flow around moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of velocity around arbitrarily moving objects is of interest in many applications. This includes flow around marine animals and flying insects, flow around supercavitating projectiles, and flow around discrete drops or particles in multiphase flows. We present a visual hull technique that employs existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to automate identification, masking and tracking of discrete objects within a three-dimensional volume, while allowing computation and avoiding contamination of the surrounding three-component fluid velocity vectors. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling objects of different shape, namely a sphere, cube, tetrahedron and cylinder. Four high-speed cameras and a laser are used to acquire images of these objects falling within liquid seeded with tracer particles. The acquired image sets are then processed to reconstruct both the object and the surrounding tracer particles. The reconstructed object is used to estimate the object location at each time step and mask the reconstructed particle volume, while the reconstructed tracer particles are cross-correlated with subsequent particle volumes to obtain the fluid velocity vectors. Supported by NSF IDBR Grant #0852875.

  14. Potential Propagation by Seed and Cuttings of the Azorean Native Calluna vulgaris (L. Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the potential propagation by seed and cuttings of the Azorean native Calluna vulgaris (L. Hull. for landscape conservation. With that purpose we have performed several germination and cuttings trials, using plant material from wild populations of this species. In the germination trials, we tested the effects of photoperiod length (8 and 16 h, temperature (10, 15, 20, and 20–10°C, seed age (6, 108, and 270 days, temperature of seed storage (4°C and room temperature, and seed surface sterilization on the germination characteristics. In the cuttings trials, we tested the effects of stem cutting type, cultural conditions, cuttings’ harvest month, and rooting substrates on the rooting percentages. The best percentages of germination, 93 and 90%, were obtained with fresh seeds and surface sterilized and sown under an 8 h photoperiod and with temperatures of 10°C or 15°C, respectively; germination after seed storage during 270 days is significantly superior (71% when seeds are stored at 4°C. The best percentages of rooting were achieved for straight (96% or heel cuttings (90% harvested in March, planted on soil from natural stands of C. vulgaris and Erica azorica Hochst., outdoors in half shade, and partially covered with transparent polyethylene film.

  15. Lead sheathing of ship hulls in the Roman period: Archaeometallurgical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahanov, Yaacov, E-mail: yak@research.haifa.ac.il [Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Ashkenazi, Dana [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2011-08-15

    An archaeometallurgical analysis of samples of lead sheathing from five ships of the Roman period was carried out in order to determine their composition and microstructure, and to obtain a better understanding of their manufacturing processes. The examinations included optical microscopy of metallographic cross-sections, microhardness tests, scanning electron microscopy, including energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the samples were all composed of lead covered with an oxide layer. The sheet thicknesses, microhardness values and microhardness distribution, as well as the grain size distribution, led to the conclusion that all of the sheets were produced by the same technology, using hammering, and were probably used for the same purpose. The presence of antimony was observed in the sample from the Roman ship from Caesarea, which may hint at an Italian (Sardinian) origin of the material, and perhaps of the ship. - Research Highlights: {yields} During the Roman period ship hulls were sheathed with lead. {yields} Five samples have been analysed for their characteristics and manufacturing process. {yields} The process was cold-working (strain-hardening) using hammering. {yields} The lead was open-casted on a flat stone, and later hammered at room temperature. {yields} Antimony in the Caesarea shipwreck may indicate an Italian origin of construction.

  16. Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull as a zero cost alternative for Rhodamine B dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Shraddha; Jaspal, Dipika Kaur

    2017-07-15

    Treatment of polluted water has been considered as one of the most important aspects in environmental sciences. Present study explores the decolorization potential of a low cost natural adsorbent Xanthium strumarium L. seed hull for the adsorption of a toxic xanthene dye, Rhodamine B (RHB). The characterization of the adsorbent revealed the presence of high amount of carbon, when exposed to Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Further appreciable decolorization took place which was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis noticing shift in peaks. Isothermal studies indicated multilayer adsorption following Freundlich isotherm. The rate of adsorption was supported by second order kinetics directing a chemical phenomenon during the process with dominance of film diffusion as the rate governing step. Moreover paper aims at correlating the chemical arena to the mathematical aspect providing an in-depth information of the studied treatment process. For proper assessment and validation of the observed data, experimental data has been statistically treated by applying different error functions namely, Chi-square test (χ 2 ), Sum of absolute errors (EABS) and Normalized standard deviation (NSD). Further practical applicability of the low cost adsorbent was evaluated by continuous column mode studies with 72.2% of dye recovery. Xanthium strumarium L. proved to be environment friendly low cost natural adsorbent for decolorizing RHB from aquatic system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. What Lies Beneath? An Evaluation of Rapid Assessment Tools for Management of Hull Fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke Murray, Cathryn; Therriault, Thomas W.; Pakhomov, Evgeny

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increased understanding of marine invasions, non-indigenous species (NIS) continue to be redistributed at both global and regional scales. Since prevention is an important element of NIS programs, monitoring vectors responsible for NIS introductions and spread, such as hull fouling, has become a priority and methods should be selected carefully to balance accuracy, time, and cost. Two common fouling assessment tools for the marine recreational boating vector were evaluated for accuracy using a traditional underwater SCUBA survey in coastal British Columbia: a dockside level of fouling assessment and a behavioral questionnaire model. Results showed that although rapid, dockside assessments did not provide an accurate assessment of fouling present below the surface, at least not in this region. In contrast, a questionnaire-based model using four easily obtained variables (boat type, age of antifouling paint, storage type, and occurrence of long distance trips) reliably identified boats carrying macrofouling species, a proxy for risk of NIS transport. Once validated, this fouling model tool could be applied in border inspection or quarantine situations where decisions must be made quickly. Further development and refinement of rapid assessment tools would improve our ability to prevent new introductions and manage spread of existing invasive species.

  18. Removal of some metal ions by activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, M. Madhava; Ramana, D.K.; Seshaiah, K. [Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Wang, M.C., E-mail: mcwang@cyut.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong Township 41349, Taichung County, Taiwan (China); Chien, S.W. Chang [Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufong Township 41349, Taichung County, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-30

    Removal of lead [Pb(II)], zinc [Zn(II)], copper [Cu(II)], and cadmium [Cd(II)] from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Phaseolus aureus hulls (ACPAH), an agricultural waste was studied. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial concentration of metal ions on the removal was evaluated by batch method. The removal of metal ions by ACPAH was pH dependent and the optimum pH values were 7.0, 8.0, 7.0 and 6.0 for Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), and Temkin isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity values of ACPAH for metal ions were 21.8 mg g{sup -1} for Pb(II), 21.2 mg g{sup -1} for Zn(II), 19.5 mg g{sup -1} for Cu(II), and 15.7 mg g{sup -1} for Cd(II). The experiments demonstrated that the removal of metal ions followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Desorption experiments were carried out using HCl solution with a view to regenerate the spent adsorbent and to recover the adsorbed metal ions.

  19. A Moessbauer Spectral Study of the Hull Steel and Rusticles Recovered from the Titanic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Gary J., E-mail: glong@umr.edu; Hautot, Dimitri [University of Missouri-Rolla, Department of Chemistry (United States); Grandjean, Fernande; Vandormael, D. [University of Liege, Institute of Physics, B5 (Belgium); Leighly, H. P. [University of Missouri-Rolla, Department of Metallurgical Engineering (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The recent recovery of steel from the Titanic has permitted a 295 K conversion electron Moessbauer spectral study of the Titanic hull plate steel oriented with the gamma-ray direction either perpendicular or parallel to the microstructural banding directions. The two spectra reveal virtually identical average orientations of the magnetization close to the plane of the plate. The hyperfine parameters are virtually identical to those of {alpha}-iron, a finding which agrees with the chemical analysis which reveals at most 0.21 wt% carbon corresponding to 3 wt% of cementite in pearlite. A 4.2 to 295 K transmission Moessbauer spectral study of the rusticles reveals small particles of geothite undergoing superparamagnetic relaxation with a blocking temperature of ca. 300 K. In addition approximately two percent of the Moessbauer spectral absorption area corresponds to a quadrupole doublet with hyperfine parameters typical of green rust. The identified iron containing components in therusticles agree with the powder X-ray diffraction results which reveal the predominant presence of small particles of poorly crystallized goethite and traces of quartz and green rust. An average size of 20{+-}5 nm for the goethite particles is obtained from both the average hyperfine field and the broadening of the X-ray diffraction peaks. The magnetic anisotropy constant of the goethite particles deduced from the hyperfine field and the particle size is 8x10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}.

  20. HULL’S MANUFACTURING COST STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the structure of costs of several processes associated with the shipbuilding industry. The analysed productive processes are: cutting preparation procedures, steel plate cutting processes, processes of hull plates and stiffeners forming, associated transportation and assembling of plates and profiles, and finally the welding processes. The methodology allows a shipyard to identify the main costs related to the manufacturing of the hull and the aspects that should be improved for increase productivity. The methodology adopted may easily be adapted by each shipyard creating a work database in order to improve and update these formulas by adding new corrective coefficients based on the type of the built ship or construction complexity of certain ship blocks. It is analysed 2 independent case studies that took place at different Portuguese shipyards and covering different aspects of the steel hull shipbuilding processes. The first case study considers time and cost analysis of cutting preparation processes made by the design office, cutting/marking of steel plates and forming processes of stiffeners and hull plates, required for the construction of an 83m Hopper Barge, built by MPG, at LISNAVE Mitrena Shipyard, Portugal, 2010. The second case considers the time and cost analysis of stiffeners cutting, steel plates and stiffeners assembly and welding, associated with the building of several blocks of an 80m fisheries supporting vessel by JOPERINOX Shipyard at Alverca, Portugal, 2008.