WorldWideScience

Sample records for hull shock response

  1. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Jung Lee; Chia-Hao Hsu; Chien-Hua Huang

    2008-01-01

    The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shoc...

  2. Pressure Hull Analysis under Shock Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hull of high performance submarines must resist underwater shock loading due to exploding torpedoes or depth bombs. An underwater shock involving an initial shock wave and successive bubble pulsating waves is so complex that a theoretical technique for deriving shock pressure distribution is required for improving simulation efficiency. Complete shock loading is obtained theoretically in this work, and responses of a submarine pressure hull are calculated using ABAQUS USA (Underwater Shock Analysis codes. In the long run, this deflection and stress data will assist in examining the structural arrangement of the submarine pressure hull.

  3. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    OpenAIRE

    O’Hara, G.J.; Cunniff, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the abs...

  4. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... main setups were used during the tests, corresponding to the hulls being connected to an offshore windmill and being free floating. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: • The Response Amplitude Operators of the hulls in two different configurations and with waves coming from 3...... the supervision of Jens Peter Kofoed in the deep wave basin in the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering laboratory at Aalborg University during spring 2012....

  5. Scaling for Shock Response of Equipment in Different Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. O’Hara

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents scaling rules developed to predict the response of submarine equipment subjected to underwater chemical explosions. The computer was used as a surrogate for shock tests. A simplified model of a hull section was used to contain frame-mounted single degree of freedom equipment. A general scaling rule has been developed to handle the spread in the shock response attributable to the charge weight, equipment weight, and equipment frequency, where the shock response is the absolute maximum acceleration of the equipment mass as a function of the shock factor for a given charge weight. The article also examines those cases where a new hull is derived from an original hull by the linear scaling law. The solution of the shock response is well known when the internal equipment has also been linearly scaled. A new general scaling rule is developed for those cases when the equipment is not linearly scaled, that is, the equipment and charge weight used with the original hull remains unchanged when installed in the linearly scaled hull or a completely different equipment and charge weight are used with the new hull. It is emphasized that the test sections were short and devoid of typical equipment present in a real compartment. The results, nevertheless, provide trends and ratios in shock design values, not necessarily absolute design numbers. The approach taken in developing these scaling rules could be useful for enhancing field data that may exist for a given class of boat to allow greater usage of these data for different equipment subject to a variety of charge weights, attack geometries, and other boats.

  6. Structural and acoustic response of a finite stiffened submarine hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-zhong; Jiang, Chen-ban; Xu, Rui-yang

    2016-12-01

    After borrowing the idea of precise integration method, a precise integration transfer matrix method (PITMM) is proposed by modifying traditional transfer matrix method. The submarine hull can be modeled as joined conicalcylindrical-spherical shells. By considering the effect of the ring-stiffeners, the field transfer matrixes of shells of revolution are obtained accurately by PITMM. After assembling the field transfer matrixes into an entire matrix, the dynamic model is established to solve the dynamic responses of the joined shell. By describing the sound pressure in fluid by modified wave superposition method (MWSM) and collocating points along the meridian line of the joined shell, finally the structural and acoustic responses of a finite stiffened submarine hull can be predicted by coupled PITMM and MWSM. The effectiveness of the present method has been verified by comparing the structural and acoustic responses of the spherical shell with existing results. Furthermore, the effects of the model truncation, stiffness and thickness on the structural and acoustic responses of the submarine hull are studied.

  7. Underwater Explosion Damage of Ship Hull Panels

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rarnajeyathilagam; Vendhan, C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Underwater explosion is a major threat to ships and submarines in a war environment. The prediction of the mode and the extent of the failure is an essential step in designing for shock loading. The localised failure in a hull panel is severe compared to the global response of the ship. In this study, an attempt has been made to predict the response and failure modes of three types of hull panels (flat, concave, and convex). The shock loading on the hull panel has been estimated based on the ...

  8. Underwater Explosion Damage of Ship Hull Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rarnajeyathilagam

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Underwater explosion is a major threat to ships and submarines in a war environment. The prediction of the mode and the extent of the failure is an essential step in designing for shock loading. The localised failure in a hull panel is severe compared to the global response of the ship. In this study, an attempt has been made to predict the response and failure modes of three types of hull panels (flat, concave, and convex. The shock loading on the hull panel has been estimated based on the Taylor's plate theory. The numerical analysis has been carried out using the CSAIGENSA (DYNA3D code that employs nonlinear finite element model.

  9. Structural and acoustic responses of a submarine hull due to propeller forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Sascha; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2009-08-01

    The low frequency structural and acoustic responses of a simplified axisymmetric submarine model to fluctuating propeller forces along the submarine axis are investigated. The forces arise from a hydrodynamic mechanism and are transmitted from the propeller to the submarine hull through both the shaft and the fluid. Numerical models have been developed to simulate the strongly coupled structure-fluid interaction of a submerged vessel in the frequency domain. The structure is modelled using the finite element method, so that more complex features such as ring-stiffeners, bulkheads and the propulsion system can be taken into account. A simple, passive vibration attenuation system known as a resonance changer is included in the model of the propeller/shafting system. The surrounding fluid is modelled using the boundary element method. The influence and importance of model parameters such as structural stiffness and fluid loading effects are investigated. Due to the fluctuating propeller forces, the hull is excited by axial structural forces transmitted through the propeller/shafting system as well as by acoustic dipoles, where the dipoles are correlated to the structural forces in strength and direction. The acoustic dipole at the propeller also radiates sound directly to the far field of the surrounding fluid. It is demonstrated that the performance of the RC is negatively influenced at frequencies above the fundamental axial resonance of the hull by the effect of forces transmitted through the fluid. Another problem arises due to increased axial movement of the propeller, when the RC is optimised to minimise excitation of the hull via the propeller shaft. This results in an additional sound field that excites the submarine hull in a similar manner to the fluid forces that arise directly from the hydrodynamic mechanism.

  10. Nonequilibrium volumetric response of shocked polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, B E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Polymers are well known for their non-equilibrium deviatoric behavior. However, investigations involving both high rate shock experiments and equilibrium measured thermodynamic quantities remind us that the volumetric behavior also exhibits a non-equilibrium response. Experiments supporting the notion of a non-equilibrium volumetric behavior will be summarized. Following that discussion, a continuum-level theory is proposed that will account for both the equilibrium and non-equilibrium response. Upon finding agreement with experiment, the theory is used to study the relaxation of a shocked polymer back towards its shocked equilibrium state.

  11. External shocks, policy response and economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the responsiveness of real income and the balance of payments to external shocks in a small open economy. It is shown that tariff restrictions and age rigidities tend to increase responsiveness and quota restrictions tend to educe it. The implications for policy response are considered and a micro-theoretic foundation for the distinction between expenditure-reducing and expenditure-switching policies is provided.

  12. 基于声固耦合法的环肋壳水下冲击数值仿真试验%Numerical Simulation Test of Ring-Stiffened Hull Subjected to Underwater Shock Based on Coupled Acoustic-Structural Arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈高杰; 沈晓乐; 王树乐; 程素秋

    2015-01-01

    The ring-stiffened hull is one of the most common types of submarine pressure hull. Underwater shock response analysis is important for anti-shock design of submarine. The coupled acoustic–structural arithmetic was used to simulate and analyze the transient dynamic response of a submarine pressure hull with a ring-stiffened cylinder and two hemispherical ends, which experienced loading by an underwater explosion (UNDEX). The results showed that the distribution of local cavitations formed on the fluid–structure interface and the plastic strain at front position was smaller than at back position on the middle section. The numerical method presented in this paper can be used in designing stiffened optimum submersible vehicle.%环肋壳是潜艇耐压壳的常见结构形式之一,水下冲击响应分析对潜艇抗水下爆炸设计具有重要意义。利用声固耦合法对由环肋圆筒和2个半球组成的小型潜艇耐压壳简化模型进行水下冲击数值仿真试验,分析环肋壳在水下爆炸载荷作用下的瞬态动力响应。结果表明:该方法在流固耦合面上会形成局部空化,中截面上迎爆面的塑性应变小于背爆源,可为潜艇耐压壳的优化设计提供参考。

  13. Shock-loading response of advanced materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-08-01

    Advanced materials, such as composites (metal, ceramic, or polymer-matrix), intermetallics, foams (metallic or polymeric-based), laminated materials, and nanostructured materials are receiving increasing attention because their properties can be custom tailored specific applications. The high-rate/impact response of advanced materials is relevant to a broad range of service environments such as the crashworthiness of civilian/military vehicles, foreign-object-damage in aerospace, and light-weight armor. Increased utilization of these material classes under dynamic loading conditions requires an understanding of the relationship between high-rate/shock-wave response as a function of microstructure if we are to develop models to predict material behavior. In this paper the issues relevant to defect generation, storage, and the underlying physical basis needed in predictive models for several advanced materials will be reviewed.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It…

  15. Underwater shock response analysis of a floating vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Meijer, G.J.; Lemmen, P.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form ot a

  16. Underwater shock response analysis of a floating vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Lemmen, P.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a

  17. Thresholds in shock response across the elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, F. L.; Bourne, N. K.

    2017-01-01

    Compendia of shock data have been assembled across national laboratories across the world. Previous work has shown a threshold in behaviour for materials; the weak shock limit. This corresponds to the stress state at which the shock is overdriven in a single front. Here the shock velocity-particle velocity data for elements and compounds has been systematically analysed to note discontinuities in the data. A range of materials show such features and the form of the discontinuity in each case is analysed. Some of these are found to correspond to martensitic phase transformations as expected whilst others are more difficult to classify. Particular groups within the elements show characteristic forms according to their groupings within the periodic table. Typical datasets are presented and trends in behaviour are noted for a range of elements.

  18. Shock Analysis on a Packaged Washing Machine from Damage Boundary: Shock Response Spectrum to Component Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Both analyses of the damage boundary and shock response spectrum (RSR are the basis for the development of the protective packaging system. The shock analysis through lab test and numerical simulation found that the root cause of packaging failure was due to the stress of the critical component beyond the yield limit of the material. Lab shock test data showed that the packaging design based on the damage boundary is conservative, and the RSR could be helpful and provide support to develop more effective packaging system. Furthermore, numerical simulation can accurately analyze the component and the entire product packaging system in great detail.

  19. Measurement of Naval Ship Responses to Underwater Explosion Shock Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Kwon Park

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The shock-resistance capability of battle ships against a non-contact underwater explosion (UNDEX is a very critical factor of survivability. In July 1987 and April 2000, we successfully conducted UNDEX shock tests for a coastal mine hunter (MHC and a mine sweeper/hunter (MSH of Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN, at the Chinhae bay, Korea. Test planning for conducting these shock tests included responsibilities, methods, and procedures. Test instruments were developed and tested on a drop shock machine to confirm availability in the actual shock tests with emphasis on shock resistance, remote control and reliability. All vital systems of the ships were confirmed to be capable of normal operational condition without significant damages during the explosion shot. By analyzing the test results, the tactical operational safety zone of the ships in underwater explosion environments was estimated. In this paper, we described the results of measurement of naval ship responses to underwater explosion shock loadings including test planning, sensor locations, data reduction, explosive devices, instrumentation and damage assessments of MSH.

  20. Shock compression response of Ti+B reactive powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, M.; Gurumurthy, A.; Kennedy, G. B.; Gokhale, A. M.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2014-05-01

    The shock compression response of Ti+2B (1:2 Ti:B stoichiometric ratio) reactive powder mixtures at ~50% theoretical material density (TMD) is investigated for shock pressures up to 5 GPa to investigate the possible shock-induced chemical reactivity of this highly exothermic mixture. The shock adiabat is produced from instrumented parallel-plate gas-gun impact experiments on encapsulated powders using poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges to measure the input and propagated stresses and wave speed in the powder. The shock compression regime is probed from crush-up to full density and onward to assess the potential onset of a shock-induced chemical reaction event in the powder mixture. A series of two-dimensional continuum meso-scale simulations on validated simulated microstructures are performed to predict the shock compression response and identify the meso-scale mechanics that are essential for reaction. The suitability of the synthetic microstructural representations is evaluated by comparing the experimental and predicted pressure traces.

  1. Underwater Shock Response Analysis of a Floating Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. van Aanhold

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a surface vessel to underwater shock has been calculated using an explicit finite element analysis. The analysis model is two-dimensional and contains the floating steel structure, a large surrounding water volume and the free surface. The underwater shock is applied in the form of a plane shock wave and cavitation is considered in the analysis. Advanced computer graphics, in particular video animations, provide a powerful and indispensable means for the presentation and evaluation of the analysis results.

  2. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    the effect of the hull cavitation. The function PIC or 0, and is determined during the numerical calculations. Case PIC is valid for the case with no cavitation, and the case δ(r,t) = 0 corresponds to the case with hull cavitation. The results from these calculations allow us to draw the following conclusions. 1) The pressures generated depend greatly on the irregularity of waves. In particular, the shock pressures are affected by this irregularity, making the prediction of their magnitude almost impossible. 2) In the majority of cases, the elastic deformation of thin hull elements by a short duration water wave pressure pulse is accompanied by hull cavitation. The effect of cavitation may be important, provided that the time of loading by the water wall pressure is less than the period of the fundamental frequency of the hull element oscillations. 3) The cavitation zones can enclose practically the whole wet surface and thus completely change the water loading onto the hull element, compared to the pressures that would be developed in the absence of cavitation. 4) The hull element deformation generates surface pressure and cavitation waves. 5) Cavitation interaction of extreme water waves with structures, and hull response, are complex topics, which are not well understood and are expected to be important in the design of advanced ships in the future. 6) The existence of rogue waves makes it important to re-examine some of the ideas developed earlier which are fundamental to merchant ship design.

  3. Transient hot-film sensor response in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ortgies, K. R.; Gartenberg, E.

    1989-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed to determine the response of a hot-film sensor, mounted flush on the side wall of a shock tube, to unsteady flow behind a normal shock wave. The present experiments attempt to isolate the response of the anemometer due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface. The experiments, performed at low supersonic shock speeds in air, are described along with the data acquisition procedure. The change in convective heat transfer is deduced from the data and the results are compared with those from transient boundary layer theory and another set of experimental results. Finally, a transient local heat transfer coefficient is formulated for use as the forcing function in a hot-film sensor instrument model simulation.

  4. Heat shock response and autophagy--cooperation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokladny, Karol; Myers, Orrin B; Moseley, Pope L

    2015-01-01

    Protein quality control (proteostasis) depends on constant protein degradation and resynthesis, and is essential for proper homeostasis in systems from single cells to whole organisms. Cells possess several mechanisms and processes to maintain proteostasis. At one end of the spectrum, the heat shock proteins modulate protein folding and repair. At the other end, the proteasome and autophagy as well as other lysosome-dependent systems, function in the degradation of dysfunctional proteins. In this review, we examine how these systems interact to maintain proteostasis. Both the direct cellular data on heat shock control over autophagy and the time course of exercise-associated changes in humans support the model that heat shock response and autophagy are tightly linked. Studying the links between exercise stress and molecular control of proteostasis provides evidence that the heat shock response and autophagy coordinate and undergo sequential activation and downregulation, and that this is essential for proper proteostasis in eukaryotic systems.

  5. Shock responses of nanoporous aluminum by molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Meizhen; Yang, Yantao; Liao, Yi; Wang, Kun; Chen, Yun; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We present systematic investigations on the shock responses of nanoporous aluminum (np-Al) by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The dislocation nucleation sites are found to concentrate in low latitude region near the equator of the spherical void surfaces. We propose a continuum wave reflection theory and a resolved shear stress model to explain the distribution of dislocation nucleation sites. The simulations reveals two mechanisms of void collapse: the plasticity mechanism and the internal jetting mechanism. The plasticity mechanism, which leads to transverse collapse of voids, prevails under relatively weaker shocks; while the internal jetting mechanism, which leads to longitudinal filling of the void vacuum, plays more significant role as the shock intensity increases. In addition, an abnormal thermodynamic phenomenon (i.e., arising of temperature with pressure dropping) in shocked np-Al is discovered. This phenomenon is incompatible with the conventional Rankine-Hugoniot theory, and is expl...

  6. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases : looking beyond the heat shock response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) - and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases - has often been suggested as a

  7. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Österlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular...... stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent...... the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high...

  8. Shock Protection of Portable Electronic Products: Shock Response Spectrum, Damage Boundary Approach, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Goyal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive shock response spectrum (SRS and damage boundary methods for evaluating product fragility and designing external cushioning for shock protection are described in detail with references to the best available literature. Underlying assumptions are carefully reviewed and the central message of the SRS is highlighted, particularly as it relates to standardized drop testing. Shortcomings of these methods are discussed, and the results are extended to apply to more general systems. Finally some general packaging and shock-mounting strategies are discussed in the context of protecting a fragile disk drive in a notebook computer, although the conclusions apply to other products as well. For example, exterior only cushioning (with low restitution to reduce subsequent impacts will provide a slenderer form factor than the next best strategy: interior cushioning with a “dead” hard outer shell.

  9. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.;

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  10. On the wave induced responses for a high-speed hydrofoil catamaran. Part 2. Cabin connected to hull by spring and response to vibration; Suichuyokutsuki kosoku sodotei no harochu oto ni tsuite. 2. Dokuritsu kozogata cabin to yodo oto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, H.; Kitamura, M.; Kawamura, T. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A high-speed hydrofoil catamaran under development has such a structure that an independent cabin is mounted on catamaran hulls, the cabin is connected with the hulls by using four soft springs, and hydrofoils are attached to the front and rear of the cabin. The structural design conception was as follows: the self-weight of the cabin is supported by lifting power of the hydrofoils while the boat is cruising; longitudinal motions of the catamaran hulls are absorbed by soft spring struts to make the motions more difficult to be transmitted into the cabin; and vibration excited by engines rotating at high speeds, attached to rear of the catamaran hulls, is not transmitted directly to the cabin structurally. A towing experiment was carried out by using divided models of about 1/10 scale in counter waves and regular waves to investigate their vibration response characteristics in waves. Furthermore, an experimental boat made of aluminum alloy with about 1/3 scale of the design boat was attached with composite structural struts made of springs and rubber parts to perform cruising experiments on an actual sea area. As a result, it was found that vibration excited by main engines in the catamaran hulls is transmitted very little to the cabin. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Exploring the Dynamics of Responses to Food Production Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aled Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Food production shocks can lead to food crises where access to appropriate quantities and quality of food become inadequate, unaffordable, or unreliable on a major scale. While the physical causes of food production shocks are well researched, the dynamics of responses to them are less well understood. This paper reviews those dynamics and includes evidence gathered via interviews of 44 expert practitioners sourced globally from academia, government, industry, think-tanks, and development/relief organizations. The paper confirms that policy interventions are often prioritised for national interests and poorly coordinated at regional and global scales. The paper acknowledges future compounding trends such as climate change and demographic shifts and suggests that while there are signs of incremental progress in better managing the impacts of shock events, coordinated responses at scale will require a paradigm shift involving major policy, market, and technological advancements, and a wide range of public and private sector stakeholders.

  12. Circuit architecture explains functional similarity of bacterial heat shock responses

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Masayo; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock response is a stress response to temperature changes and a consecutive increase in amounts of unfolded proteins. To restore homeostasis, cells upregulate chaperones facilitating protein folding by means of transcription factors (TF). We here investigate two heat shock systems: one characteristic to gram negative bacteria, mediated by transcriptional activator sigma32 in E. coli, and another characteristic to gram positive bacteria, mediated by transcriptional repressor HrcA in L. lactis. We construct simple mathematical model of the two systems focusing on the negative feedbacks, where free chaperons suppress sigma32 activation in the former, while they activate HrcA repression in the latter. We demonstrate that both systems, in spite of the difference at the TF regulation level, are capable of showing very similar heat shock dynamics. We find that differences in regulation impose distinct constrains on chaperone-TF binding affinities: the binding constant of free sigma32 to chaperon DnaK, known to...

  13. Experimental investigation of the shock response of bismuth under one-dimensional shock-loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Glenn; Millett, Jeremy; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Hameed, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the dynamic response of bismuth is largely derived from the existence of multiple phase transitions attainable with increasing pressure. In addition, its industrial use has grown in recent years (e.g. in solder as a replacement for lead), in part due to its relatively low toxicity. While some shock experiments have been conducted on bismuth they have largely concentrated on equation of state research at relatively low stresses. To the authors' knowledge the strength behaviour under shock is not prevalent in the literature. To this end, the low pressure response of bismuth targets has been experimentally investigated here using commercial stress gauges mounted in both longitudinal and lateral orientation with respect to the loading axis. Of particular note was the potential to observe the relatively low pressure phase transitions in the lateral stress response.

  14. Households' vulnerability and responses to shocks: evidence from rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndirangu, L.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Vulnerability, HIV/AIDS, weather shocks, risk management, coping strategies, rural households, gender.   Empirical investigation on household’s responses to sources of vulnerability is important for designing and implementation of social policies. The design of an effective re

  15. Households' vulnerability and responses to shocks: evidence from rural Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndirangu, L.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: Vulnerability, HIV/AIDS, weather shocks, risk management, coping strategies, rural households, gender.   Empirical investigation on household’s responses to sources of vulnerability is important for designing and implementation of social policies. The design of an effective

  16. Dynamic response of shear thickening fluid under laser induced shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianqian; Zhong, Fachun; Yin, Qiuyun; Huang, Chenguang

    2015-02-01

    The dynamic response of the 57 vol./vol. % dense spherical silica particle-polyethylene glycol suspension at high pressure was investigated through short pulsed laser induced shock experiments. The measured back free surface velocities by a photonic Doppler velocimetry showed that the shock and the particle velocities decreased while the shock wave transmitted in the shear thickening fluid (STF), from which an equation of state for the STF was obtained. In addition, the peak stress decreased and the absorbed energy increased rapidly with increasing the thickness for a thin layer of the STF, which should be attributed to the impact-jammed behavior through compression of particle matrix, the deformation or crack of the hard-sphere particles, and the volume compression of the particles and the polyethylene glycol.

  17. Heat shock response and mammal adaptation to high elevation (hypoxia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaolin; XU Cunshuan; WANG Xiujie; WANG Dongjie; WANG Qingshang; ZHANG Baochen

    2006-01-01

    The mammal's high elevation (hypoxia) adaptation was studied by using the immunological and the molecular biological methods to understand the significance of Hsp (hypoxia) adaptation in the organic high elevation, through the mammal heat shock response. (1) From high elevation to low elevation (natural hypoxia): Western blot and conventional RT-PCR and real-time fluorescence quota PCR were adopted. Expression difference of heat shock protein of 70 (Hsp70) and natural expression of brain tissue of Hsp70 gene was determined in the cardiac muscle tissue among the different elevation mammals (yak). (2)From low elevation to high elevation (hypoxia induction):The mammals (domestic rabbits) from the low elevation were sent directly to the areas with different high elevations like 2300, 3300 and 5000 m above sea level to be raised for a period of 3 weeks before being slaughtered and the genetic inductive expression of the brain tissue of Hsp70 was determined with RT-PCR. The result indicated that all of the mammals at different elevations possessed their heat shock response gene. Hsp70 of the high elevation mammal rose abruptly under stress and might be induced to come into being by high elevation (hypoxia). The speedy synthesis of Hsp70 in the process of heat shock response is suitable to maintain the cells' normal physiological functions under stress. The Hsp70 has its threshold value. The altitude of 5000 m above sea level is the best condition for the heat shock response, and it starts to reduce when the altitude is over 6000 m above sea level. The Hsp70 production quantity and the cell hypoxia bearing capacity have their direct ratio.

  18. Initial Climate Response to a Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The risk of the termination of a deployment of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been raised as one of the key concerns about these ideas. Early studies demonstrated that a rapid warming of the climate would follow such a termination with global mean temperatures rapidly rising towards the levels that would have been expected in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Further work has noted the contrasting timescale of the adjustment of global mean temperature and sea-level rise, with sea-levels responding much slower and not reaching the same levels as would have been the case in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Whilst these previous studies have shown the basics of the response to a termination of SRM, a detailed analysis of the climate response in the first months or years of a termination has not been investigated. To conduct such an analysis tens of simulations with a termination of SRM are conducted, starting from the end of a G1 simulation with the HadCM3 model. The termination is initiated in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter to investigate whether the response depends on the season. Analyzing these results I find some novel dynamic responses in the initial months and years following a termination of SRM which have not been seen in previous studies which employed decadal-scale averages. These include: A reduction in the global-scale hydrological cycle's intensity in the first weeks following termination, counter to the longer-term increase; An almost instantaneous adjustment of land-mean precipitation to the equilibrium value; And substantial shifts in the pattern of precipitation in the initial years that are distinct from those seen in the equilibrium response and which are characterized by large increases in terrestrial precipitation and runoff in many regions.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SHOCK SPECTRUM RESPONSE OF ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tretiakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to analyze the increase in the effectiveness of traditional methods for carrying out shock tests of land vehicles, in order to assess their strength, reliability and durability. Methodology. To achieve this purpose, the authors of the article developed a technique for conducting impact tests and effective algorithm based on the ideas and methodological proposals contained in the UN Guidelines on the “Recommendations for Transportations of Dangerous Goods”. Findings. With the use of the modern programming language SI-Sharp, a specialized software package was created that implements the algorithm for handling shock processes, which has a "friendly" interface with the user of this complex and other software products of the computing environment powered by Windows. With the application of this complex, the results of tests of the tank-container of the model CTL-26/0.4, type UN T14 under different shock loading (collision rates, geometric, inertial and damping parameters of this design were processed. As a result, an objective evaluation of the properties of the tested object was obtained, and a conclusion was made that the calculated shock response spectrum (SRS was exceeded, its minimum permissible value in the entire spectrum of the investigated frequencies. Originality. For the first time, a complex theoretical and practical approach to the study of the strength, reliability, and durability of transport mechanical structures subjected to impact loads on the basis of the evaluation of the impact response spectra was realized. Practical value. The application of the proposed methodology and the developed software package for carrying out shock tests made it possible to increase the reliability of these tests, to shorten the time of their testing and to process the results. The results of the testing of the tank-container tests showed that this vehicle fully provides the required normative parameters of strength

  20. Shock compression response of forsterite above 250 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori; Ozaki, Norimasa; Miyanishi, Kohei; Asaumi, Yuto; Kimura, Tomoaki; Albertazzi, Bruno; Sato, Yuya; Sakawa, Youichi; Sano, Takayoshi; Sugita, Seiji; Matsui, Takafumi; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2016-08-01

    Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) is one of the major planetary materials, and its behavior under extreme conditions is important to understand the interior structure of large planets, such as super-Earths, and large-scale planetary impact events. Previous shock compression measurements of forsterite indicate that it may melt below 200 GPa, but these measurements did not go beyond 200 GPa. We report the shock response of forsterite above ~250 GPa, obtained using the laser shock wave technique. We simultaneously measured the Hugoniot and temperature of shocked forsterite and interpreted the results to suggest the following: (i) incongruent crystallization of MgO at 271 to 285 GPa, (ii) phase transition of MgO at 285 to 344 GPa, and (iii) remelting above ~470 to 500 GPa. These exothermic and endothermic reactions are seen to occur under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. They indicate complex structural and chemical changes in the system MgO-SiO2 at extreme pressures and temperatures and will affect the way we understand the interior processes of large rocky planets as well as material transformation by impacts in the formation of planetary systems.

  1. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  2. Recent Findings about the Yersinia enterocolitica Phage Shock Protein Response

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Saori; Andrew J. Darwin

    2012-01-01

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response in bacteria that is essential for virulence of the human pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. This article summarizes some recent findings about Y. enterocolitica Psp system function. Increased psp gene expression requires the transcription factor PspF, but under non-inducing conditions PspF is inhibited by an interaction with another protein, PspA, in the cytoplasm. A Psp-inducing stimulus causes PspA to reloca...

  3. Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  4. On the shock response of the magnesium alloy Elektron 675

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Siviour, Clive; Wielewski, Euan

    2011-06-01

    Alloying elements such as aluminium, zinc or rare-earths allow precipitation hardening of magnesium (Mg). The low densities of such strengthened Mg alloys have led to their adoption as aerospace materials and (more recently) they are being considered as armour materials. Consequently, understanding their response to high-strain rate loading is becoming increasingly important. Here, the plate-impact technique was employed to measure longitudinal stress evolution in armour-grade wrought Mg-alloy Elektron 675 under 1D shock loading. The strength and spall behaviour was interrogated, with an estimate made of the material's Hugoniot elastic limit. Finally, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were employed to investigate post-shock microstructural changes.

  5. Molecular communications between plant heat shock responses and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2012-08-01

    As sessile, plants are continuously exposed to potential dangers including various abiotic stresses and pathogen attack. Although most studies focus on plant responses under an ideal condition to a specific stimulus, plants in nature must cope with a variety of stimuli at the same time. This indicates that it is critical for plants to fine-control distinct signaling pathways temporally and spatially for simultaneous and effective responses to various stresses. Global warming is currently a big issue threatening the future of humans. Reponses to high temperature affect many physiological processes in plants including growth and disease resistance, resulting in decrease of crop yield. Although plant heat stress and defense responses share important mediators such as calcium ions and heat shock proteins, it is thought that high temperature generally suppresses plant immunity. We therefore specifically discuss on interactions between plant heat and defense responses in this review hopefully for an integrated understanding of these responses in plants.

  6. Molecular shock response of explosives: electronic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgrne, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolme, Cindy A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eakins, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy in the range 400-800 nm was coupled to ultrafast laser generated shocks to begin addressing the question of the extent to which electronic excitations are involved in shock induced reactions. Data are presented on shocked polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin films and single crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Shocked PMMA exhibited thin film interference effects from the shock front. Shocked PETN exhibited interference from the shock front as well as broadband increased absorption. Relation to shock initiation hypotheses and the need for time dependent absorption data (future experiments) is briefly discussed.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of adaptive heat shock response of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-song Li

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus, a gram-positive facultative anaerobe, is one of the most important lactic acid bacteria widely used in the dairy fermentation industry. In this study, we have analyzed the global transcriptional profiling of S. thermophilus upon temperature change. During a temperature shift from 42°C to 50°C, it is found that 196 (10.4% genes show differential expression with 102 up-regulated and 94 down-regulated at 50°C. In particular, 1 Heat shock genes, such as DnaK, GroESL and clpL, are identified to be elevated at 50°C; 2 Transcriptional regulators, such as HrcA, CtsR, Fur, MarR and MerR family, are differentially expressed, indicating the complex molecular mechanisms of S. thermophilus adapting to heat shock; 3 Genes associated with signal transduction, cell wall genes, iron homeostasis, ABC transporters and restriction-modification system were induced; 4 A large number of the differentially expressed genes are hypothetical genes of unknown function, indicating that much remains to be investigated about the heat shock response of S. thermophilus. Experimental investigation of selected heat shock gene ClpL shows that it plays an important role in the physiology of S. thermophilus at high temperature and meanwhile we confirmed ClpL as a member of the CtsR regulon. Overall, this study has contributed to the underlying adaptive molecular mechanisms of S. thermophilus upon temperature change and provides a basis for future in-depth functional studies.

  8. Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock can be caused by any condition that reduces blood flow, including: Heart problems (such as heart attack or heart failure ) Low blood volume (as with heavy bleeding or dehydration ) Changes in blood vessels (as with infection ...

  9. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d' Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  10. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

  11. A SIMPLE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF HEAT SHOCK RESPONSE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufi Neder Meyer

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a simple model for the elicitation of the heat shock response in rats. Design: Laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratories. Sample: Seventy-nine adult male albino rats (weight range 200 g to 570 g. Procedures: Exposure to heat stress by heating animals in a warm bath for 5 min after their rectal temperatures reached 107.60 F (420 C. Liver and lung samples were collected for heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70 detection (Western analysis. Results: Western analysis was positive for HSP70 in the liver and in the lungs of heated animals. There was a temporal correlation between heating and HSP70 detection: it was strongest 1 day after heating and reduced afterwards. No heated animals died. Conclusion: These data show that heating rats in a warm (45o C bath, according to parameters set in this model, elicits efficiently the heat shock response.OBJETIVO: Obter um modelo simples para tentar esclarecer a resposta ao choque térmico em ratos. LOCAL: Laboratório de pesquisa da Universidade. MÉTODO: Amostra: 79 ratos albinos, adultos, entre 200g a 570g. Procedimentos: Exposição ao calor, em banho quente, por 5 minutos, após a temperatura retal chegar a 42 graus centigrados. Biópsias de fígado e pulmão foram obtidas para detectar a proteina 70 (HSP 70, pelo "Western blot". RESULTADOS: As análises foram positivas nos animais aquecidos, com uma correlação entre aquecimento e constatação da HSP 70. Foi mais elevada no primeiro dia e não houve óbitos nos animais aquecidos. CONCLUSÃO: Os ratos aquecidos a 45 graus centígrados respondem eficientemente ao choque térmico.

  12. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  13. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  14. Shock response of the commercial high explosive Detasheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, B. W.; Ramsay, J. B.; Anderson, M. U.; Graham, R. A.

    1994-12-01

    The mechanical and chemical response of the flexible commercial high explosive DetasheetR is studied under controlled impact and plane-wave, high explosive loading. Results on nonreactive material behavior, sound speed, shock-initiation sensitivity and detonation pressure are presented. The material is found to respond in a viscous manner reminiscent of viscoelastic response of polymeric materials. Time-resolved pressure and pressure-rate measurements with PVDF piezoelectric polymer gauges are presented along with Manganin pressure and plate-dent test measurements of detonation pressure. Detonation pressures of 18GPa are indicated. Pressure measurements show initiation of reaction between 3 and 8 mm for an impact stress of 3.1 GPa. Plane wave loading wedge tests show run distances to detonation consistent with the pressure measurements, and with behavior like that of XTX8003 (80 % PETN/20 % Sylgard 182R).

  15. Global transcriptome analysis of the heat shock response ofshewanella oneidensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Sarah; Liu, Xueduan; Yan, Tinfeng; Wu, Liyou; Alm, Eric; Arkin, Adam P.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2004-04-30

    Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for bioremediation studies because of its diverse respiratory capabilities. However, the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of S. oneidensis to survive and adapt to various environmentally relevant stresses is poorly understood. To define this organism's molecular response to elevated growth temperatures, temporal gene expression profiles were examined in cells subjected to heat stress using whole-genome DNA microarrays for S. oneidensis MR-1. Approximately 15 percent (711) of the predicted S. oneidensis genes represented on the microarray were significantly up- or down-regulated (P < 0.05) over a 25-min period following shift to the heat shock temperature (42 C). As expected, the majority of S. oneidensis genes exhibiting homology to known chaperones and heat shock proteins (Hsps) were highly and transiently induced. In addition, a number of predicted genes encoding enzymes in glycolys is and the pentose cycle, [NiFe] dehydrogenase, serine proteases, transcriptional regulators (MerR, LysR, and TetR families), histidine kinases, and hypothetical proteins were induced in response to heat stress. Genes encoding membrane proteins were differentially expressed, suggesting that cells possibly alter their membrane composition or structure in response to variations in growth temperature. A substantial number of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins displayed down-regulated co-expression patterns in response to heat stress, as did genes encoding prophage and flagellar proteins. Finally, based on computational comparative analysis of the upstream promoter regions of S.oneidensis heat-inducible genes, a putative regulatory motif, showing high conservation to the Escherichia coli sigma 32-binding consensus sequence, was identified.

  16. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan.

  17. The simplified interaction tool for efficient and accurate underwater shock analysis of naval ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Trouwborst, W.; Vaders, J.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need for good quality UNDEX response estimates of naval ships, TNO developed the Simplified Interaction Tool (SIT) for underwater shock analysis. The SIT is a module of user routines linked to LS-DYNA, which generates the UNDEX loading on the wet hull of a 3D finite element m

  18. Heat shock response and insulin-associated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michael J; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Blagg, Brian S J

    2012-03-01

    Dysfunctional insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling contributes to the pathological progression of diabetes, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's diseases (HD). Despite their prevalence, there are limited therapeutic options available for the treatment of these neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, establishing a link between insulin/IGF-I and the pathoetiology of these diseases may provide alternative approaches toward their management. Many of the heat shock proteins (Hsps) are well-known molecular chaperones that solubilize and clear damaged proteins and protein aggregates. Recent studies suggest that modulating Hsps may represent a promising therapeutic avenue for improving insulin and IGF-I signaling. Pharmacological induction of the heat shock response (HSR) may intersect with insulin/IGF-I signaling to improve aspects of neurodegenerative phenotypes. Herein, we review the intersection between Hsps and the insulin/IGF systems under normal and pathological conditions. The discussion will emphasize the potential of non-toxic HSR inducers as viable therapeutic agents.

  19. Metastable Features of Economic Networks and Responses to Exogenous Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseiny, Ali; Palestrini, Antonio; Gallegati, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    It has been proved that network structure plays an important role in addressing a collective behaviour. In this paper we consider a network of firms and corporations and study its metastable features in an Ising based model. In our model, we observe that if in a recession the government imposes a demand shock to stimulate the network, metastable features shape its response. Actually we find that there is a minimum bound where demand shocks with a size below it are unable to trigger the market out from recession. We then investigate the impact of network characteristics on this minimum bound. We surprisingly observe that in a Watts-Strogatz network though the minimum bound depends on the average of the degrees, when translated into the economics language, such a bound is independent of the average degrees. This bound is about $0.44 \\Delta$GDP, where $\\Delta$GDP is the gap of GDP between recession and expansion. We examine our suggestions for the cases of the United States and the European Union in the recent r...

  20. Dynamic Response of Stiffened Plates with Holes Subjected to Shock Waves and Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    The power field of shock waves and fragments is analyzed and set up, and the damage modes of stiffened plates are put forward. According to the structural characters of the stiffened plates investigated and the properties of the shock waves and fragments, the experiments on the shock waves acting on the stiffened plates (penetrated and non-penetrated by fragments) are mainly conducted. The dynamic response rules of stiffened plates with holes under shock waves and fragments loading are obtained. The results show that the penetration of fragments into stiffened plates hardly affects their deformation produced by shock waves.

  1. Comparison of Shock Response Spectrum for Different Gun Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Cordes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Soft Catch Gun at Picatinny Arsenal is regularly used for component testing. Most shots contain accelerometers which record accelerations as a function of time. Statistics of accelerometer data indicate that the muzzle exit accelerations are, on average, higher than tactical firings. For that reason, Soft Catch Gun tests with unusually high accelerations may not be scored for Lot Acceptance Tests (LAT by some customers. The 95/50 Normal Tolerance Limit (NTL is proposed as a means of determining which test results should be scored. This paper presents comparisons of Shock Response Spectra (SRS used for the 95/50 scoring criteria. The paper also provides a Discussion Section outlining some concerns with scoring LAT results based on test results outside of the proposed 95/50 criteria.

  2. Disclosure and the Cost of Capital: Evidence from Firms' Responses to the Enron Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Leuz; Catherine Schrand

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the link between disclosure and the cost of capital. We exploit an exogenous cost of capital shock created by the Enron scandal in Fall 2001 and analyze firms' disclosure responses to this shock. These tests are opposite to the typical research design that analyzes cost of capital responses to disclosure changes. In reversing the tests and using an exogenous shock, we mitigate concerns about omitted variables in traditional cross-sectional disclosure studies. We estimate s...

  3. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D.; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  4. Modeling the anisotropic shock response of single-crystal RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, Darby

    Explosives initiate under impacts whose energy, if distributed homogeneously throughout the material, translates to temperature increases that are insufficient to drive the rapid chemistry observed. Heterogeneous thermomechanical interactions at the meso-scale (i.e. between single-crystal and macroscale) leads to the formation of localized hot spots. Direct numerical simulations of mesoscale response can contribute to our understanding of hot spots if they include the relevant deformation mechanisms that are essential to the nonlinear thermomechanical response of explosive molecular crystals. We have developed a single-crystal model for the finite deformation thermomechanical response of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX). Because of the low symmetry of RDX, a complete description of nonlinear thermoelasticity requires a careful decomposition of free energy into components that represent the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) response and the coupling between isochoric deformation and both deviatoric and hydrostatic stresses. An equation-of-state (EOS) based on Debye theory that defines the PVT response was constructed using experimental data and density functional theory calculations. This EOS replicates the equilibrium states of phase transformation from alpha to gamma polymorphs observed in static high-pressure experiments. Lattice thermoelastic parameters defining the coupled isochoric free energy were obtained from molecular dynamics calculations and previous experimental data. Anisotropic crystal plasticity is modeled using Orowan's expression relating slip rate to dislocation density and velocity. Details of the theory will be presented followed by discussion of simulations of flyer plate impact experiments, including recent experiments diagnosed with in situ X-ray diffraction at the Advanced Photon Source. Impact conditions explored within the experimental effort have spanned shock pressures ranging from 1-10 GPa for several crystallographic orientations

  5. Exercise-induced ROS in heat shock proteins response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Ivan; Mercatelli, Neri; Caporossi, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cells have evolved multiple and sophisticated stress response mechanisms aiming to prevent macromolecular (including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) damage and to maintain or re-establish cellular homeostasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are among the most highly conserved, ubiquitous, and abundant proteins in all organisms. Originally discovered more than 50 years ago through heat shock stress, they display multiple, remarkable roles inside and outside cells under a variety of stresses, including also oxidative stress and radiation, recognizing unfolded or misfolded proteins and facilitating their restructuring. Exercise consists in a combination of physiological stresses, such as metabolic disturbances, changes in circulating levels of hormones, increased temperature, induction of mild to severe inflammatory state, increased production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). As a consequence, exercise is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase in different HSPs in several tissues, which appears to be also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodeling processes related to the training regime. Among all factors involved in the exercise-related modulation of HSPs level, the ROS production in the contracting muscle or in other tissues represents one of the most attracting, but still under discussion, mechanism. Following exhaustive or damaging muscle exercise, major oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is likely involved in HSP expression, together with mechanically induced damage to muscle proteins and the inflammatory response occurring several days into the recovery period. Instead, the transient and reversible oxidation of proteins by physiological concentrations of ROS seems to be involved in the activation of stress response following non-damaging muscle exercise. This review aims to provide a critical update on the role of HSPs response in exercise-induced adaptation or damage in humans, focusing on experimental

  6. Biomechanical and Biochemical Cellular Response Due to Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    using shock- wave-induced cavitation . Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 29, 1769-1776. Lew, H. L., J. H. Poole, S. Alvarez, and W. Moore, 2005...sheets of adipose derived stem cells to shock waves. A key guideline in the experimental design was to suppress cavitation . To this end we...shock-exposed cells and controls. We attribute this to the absence of cavitation . Time-resolved gene expression revealed that a large

  7. Developmental control of the heat shock response in Xenopus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bienz, M

    1984-01-01

    Xenopus cells express two major proteins on heat shock, designated hsp 70 and hsp 30. Several cDNA clones for the corresponding mRNAs were identified and sequenced. Inducibility and abundance of heat shock mRNAs in various cell types and developmental stages was determined by nuclease S1-mapping. The only cells found to contain hsp 70 mRNA without heat shock are the oocytes. The level of this stored hsp 70 mRNA is not increased by heat shock. After fertilization, hsp 70 mRNA becomes undetecta...

  8. RNA-Seq-based analysis of cold shock response in Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, a bacterium harboring a single cold shock protein encoding gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cold shock responses and the roles of cold shock proteins in microorganisms containing multiple cold shock protein genes have been well characterized, related studies on bacteria possessing a single cold shock protein gene have not been reported. Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis MB4, a thermophile harboring only one known cold shock protein gene (TtescpC, can survive from 50° to 80 °C, but has poor natural competence under cold shock at 50 °C. We therefore examined cold shock responses and their effect on natural competence in this bacterium. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of T. tengcongensis before and after cold shock were analyzed by RNA-seq and over 1200 differentially expressed genes were successfully identified. These genes were involved in a wide range of biological processes, including modulation of DNA replication, recombination, and repair; energy metabolism; production of cold shock protein; synthesis of branched amino acids and branched-chain fatty acids; and sporulation. RNA-seq analysis also suggested that T. tengcongensis initiates cell wall and membrane remodeling processes, flagellar assembly, and sporulation in response to low temperature. Expression profiles of TtecspC and failed attempts to produce a TtecspC knockout strain confirmed the essential role of TteCspC in the cold shock response, and also suggested a role of this protein in survival at optimum growth temperature. Repression of genes encoding ComEA and ComEC and low energy metabolism levels in cold-shocked cells are the likely basis of poor natural competence at low temperature. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated changes in global gene expression under cold shock and identified several candidate genes related to cold shock in T. tengcongensis. At the same time, the relationship between cold shock response and poor natural competence at low temperature was preliminarily elucidated. These findings provide a foundation for future studies on genetic

  9. Modeling shock responses of plastic bonded explosives using material point method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hailin; Zhao, Feng; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Shock responses of plastic bonded explosives are modeled using material point method as implemented in the Uintah Computational Framework. Two-dimensional simulation model was established based on the micrograph of PBX9501. Shock loading for the explosive was performed by a piston moving at a constant velocity. Unreactive simulation results indicate that under shock loading serious plastic strain appears on the boundary of HMX grains. Simultaneously, the plastic strain energy transforms to thermal energy, causing the temperature to rise rapidly on grain boundary areas. The influence of shock strength on the responses of explosive was also investigated by increasing the piston velocity. And the results show that with increasing shock strength, the distribution of plastic strain and temperature does not have significant changes, but their values increase obviously. Namely, the higher the shock strength is, the higher the temperature rise will be.

  10. Probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulations of co-combustion of hazelnut hull and coal blends: Data-driven modeling and response surface optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukada, Musa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the thermogravimetric behaviour of the co-combustion of hazelnut hull (HH) and coal blends using three approaches: multi non-linear regression (MNLR) modeling based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) (1), optimization based on response surface methodology (RSM) (2), and probabilistic uncertainty analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature (3). The response variable was predicted by the best-fit MNLR model with a predicted regression coefficient (R(2)pred) of 99.5%. Blend ratio of 90/10 (HH to coal, %wt), temperature of 405°C, and heating rate of 44°Cmin(-1) were determined as RSM-optimized conditions with a mass loss of 87.4%. The validation experiments with three replications were performed for justifying the predicted-mass loss percentage and 87.5%±0.2 of mass loss were obtained under RSM-optimized conditions. The probabilistic uncertainty analysis were performed by using Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Disturbed fluid responsiveness and lactate/pyruvate ratio as predictors for mortality of septic shock patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdalla Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: After fluid resuscitation and hemodynamic stability, persistently elevated BLL could predict mortality, while elevated BPL could predict survival of septic shock patients. Continuous non-invasive evaluation of fluid responsiveness judged by PVI and SI could provide sensitive screening for survival outcome of shocked patients. Wider scale comparative studies are mandatory for establishment of discriminative PVI and BLL cutoff points for prediction of survival of shocked patients.

  12. Global analysis of heat shock response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A. P. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Wall, J. D. (University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO); Hazen, T. C. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); He, Z. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Zhou, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Huang, K. H. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Gaucher, Sara P.; He, Q. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Hadi, Masood Z.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Alm, Eric J. (Physical Biosciences Division, Berkeley, CA); Singh, A. K.

    2005-08-01

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature. Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation of metal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in the direction of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under a variety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of this organism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-cell transcriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-fold change or greater; Z {ge} 1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463 genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13 C from a growth temperature of 37 C for this organism and suggested both direct and indirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categories that were significantly affected included posttranslational modifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energy production and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport, metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; and biogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed the presence of features of both negative and positive regulation which included the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to the alternate sigma factors {sigma}{sup 32} and {sigma}{sup 54}. While mechanisms of heat shock control for some genes appeared to coincide with those established for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique control schemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of protein expression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggested good agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shock proteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), and AhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility of posttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES (DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU

  13. A minimal titration modelization of the mammalian dynamical heat shock response

    CERN Document Server

    Aude, Sivéry; Thommen, Quentin

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stress, such as oxidative or heat stress, induces the activation of the Heat Shock Response (HSR) which leads to an increase in the heat shock proteins (HSPs) level. These HSPs act as molecular chaperones to maintain proteostasis. Even if the main heat shock response partners are well known, a detailed description of the dynamical properties of the HSR network is still missing. In this study, we derive a minimal mathematical model of cellular response to heat shock that reproduces available experimental data sets both on transcription factor activity and cell viability. This simplistic model highlights the key mechanistic processes that rule the HSR network and reveals (i) the titration of Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) by chaperones as the guiding line of the network, (ii) that protein triage governs the fate of damaged proteins and (iii) three different temperature regimes describing normal, acute or chronic stress.

  14. HSF transcription factor family, heat shock response, and protein intrinsic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerheide, Sandy D; Raynes, Rachel; Powell, Chase; Xue, Bin; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2012-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins are highly abundant in all kingdoms of life, and several protein functional classes, such as transcription factors, transcriptional regulators, hub and scaffold proteins, signaling proteins, and chaperones are especially enriched in intrinsic disorder. One of the unique cellular reactions to protein damaging stress is the so-called heat shock response that results in the upregulation of heat shock proteins including molecular chaperones. This molecular protective mechanism is conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes and allows an organism to respond to various proteotoxic stressors, such as heat shock, oxidative stress, exposure to heavy metals, and drugs. The heat shock response- related proteins can be expressed during normal conditions (e.g., during the cell growth and development) or can be induced by various pathological conditions, such as infection, inflammation, and protein conformation diseases. The initiation of the heat shock response is manifested by the activation of the heat shock transcription factors HSF 1, part of a family of related HSF transcription factors. This review analyzes the abundance and functional roles of intrinsic disorder in various heat shock transcription factors and clearly shows that the heat shock response requires HSF flexibility to be more efficient. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers

  15. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  16. Recent findings about the Yersinia enterocolitica phage shock protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Saori; Darwin, Andrew J

    2012-02-01

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system is a conserved extracytoplasmic stress response in bacteria that is essential for virulence of the human pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. This article summarizes some recent findings about Y. enterocolitica Psp system function. Increased psp gene expression requires the transcription factor PspF, but under non-inducing conditions PspF is inhibited by an interaction with another protein, PspA, in the cytoplasm. A Psp-inducing stimulus causes PspA to relocate to the cytoplasmic membrane, freeing PspF to induce psp gene expression. This PspA relocation requires the integral cytoplasmic membrane proteins, PspB and PspC, which might sense an inducing trigger and sequester PspA by direct interaction. The subsequent induction of psp gene expression increases the PspA concentration, which also allows it to contact the membrane directly, perhaps for its physiological function. Mutational analysis of the PspB and PspC proteins has revealed that they both positively and negatively regulate psp gene expression and has also identified PspC domains associated with each function. We also compare the contrasting physiological roles of the Psp system in the virulence of Y. enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In S. Typhimurium, PspA maintains the proton motive force, which provides the energy needed to drive ion importers required for survival within macrophages. In contrast, in the extracellular pathogen Y. enterocolitica, PspB and PspC, but not PspA, are the Psp components needed for virulence. PspBC protect Y. enterocolitica from damage caused by the secretin component of its type 3 secretion system, an essential virulence factor.

  17. Electric shock causes physiological stress responses in shore crabs, consistent with prediction of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Robert W; Adams, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Animal pain is defined by a series of expectations or criteria, one of which is that there should be a physiological stress response associated with noxious stimuli. While crustacean stress responses have been demonstrated they are typically preceded by escape behaviour and thus the physiological change might be attributed to the behaviour rather than a pain experience. We found higher levels of stress as measured by lactate in shore crabs exposed to brief electric shock than non-shocked controls. However, shocked crabs showed more vigorous behaviour than controls. We then matched crabs with the same level of behaviour and still found that shocked crabs had stronger stress response compared with controls. The finding of the stress response, coupled with previous findings of long-term motivational change and avoidance learning, fulfils the criteria expected of a pain experience.

  18. Response of ocean bottom dwellers exposed to underwater shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. H. R.; Kaiho, Kunio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of experiments to estimate the mortality of ocean bottom dwellers, ostracoda, against underwater shock wave exposures. This study is motivated to verify the possible survival of ocean bottom dwellers, foraminifera, from the devastating underwater shock waves induced mass extinction of marine creatures which took place at giant asteroid impact events. Ocean bottom dwellers under study were ostracoda, the replacement of foraminifera, we readily sampled from ocean bottoms. An analogue experiment was performed on a laboratory scale to estimate the domain and boundary of over-pressures at which marine creatures' mortality occurs. Ostracods were exposed to underwater shock waves generated by the explosion of 100mg PETN pellets in a chamber at shock over-pressures ranging up to 44MPa. Pressure histories were measured simultaneously on 113 samples. We found that bottom dwellers were distinctively killed against overpressures of 12MPa and this value is much higher than the usual shock over-pressure threshold value for marine-creatures having lungs and balloons.

  19. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  20. 14 CFR 27.755 - Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.755 Hulls. For each rotorcraft, with a hull and auxiliary floats, that is to be approved for both taking off from and landing...

  1. Thermospheric Nitric Oxide Response to Shock-led Storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipp, D J; Pette, D V; Kilcommons, L M; Isaacs, T L; Cruz, A A; Mlynczak, M G; Hunt, L A; Lin, C Y

    2017-02-01

    We present a multi-year superposed epoch study of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry nitric oxide (NO) emission data. NO is a trace constituent in the thermosphere that acts as cooling agent via infrared (IR) emissions. The NO cooling competes with storm time thermospheric heating resulting in a thermostat effect. Our study of nearly 200 events reveals that shock-led interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are prone to early and excessive thermospheric NO production and IR emissions. Excess NO emissions can arrest thermospheric expansion by cooling the thermosphere during intense storms. The strongest events curtail the interval of neutral density increase and produce a phenomenon known as thermospheric 'overcooling'. We use Defense Meteorological Satellite Program particle precipitation data to show that interplanetary shocks and their ICME drivers can more than double the fluxes of precipitating particles that are known to trigger the production of thermospheric NO. Coincident increases in Joule heating likely amplify the effect. In turn, NO emissions more than double. We discuss the roles and features of shock/sheath structures that allow the thermosphere to temper the effects of extreme storm time energy input and explore the implication these structures may have on mesospheric NO. Shock-driven thermospheric NO IR cooling likely plays an important role in satellite drag forecasting challenges during extreme events.

  2. Effects of hypertension on hemodynamic response and serum nitrite concentration during graded hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmaki, Babak; Nasimi, Ali; Khazaei, Majid

    2011-09-01

    Hypertensive patients have higher morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage. In this study, we investigated hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations during graded hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT) rats. Thirteen male rats were divided into two groups, namely HT (n = 6) and NT (n = 7). Hypertension was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt method in uninephrectomized rats. After 8 weeks, graded hemorrhagic shock was induced during 34 minutes in four steps separated by 8-minute intervals (totally 16 ml/kg). The animals were kept in this condition for 120 minutes (shock period). Then, they were resuscitated with blood withdrawal. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the experiment. Blood samples were taken before and after shock induction and at the end of the shock period. HT rats experienced more MAP and HR reduction during the shock period and less improvement of hemodynamic response after resuscitation compared with the NT group (p 0.05). More reduction of MAP after hemorrhagic shock, less improvement of MAP and HR after resuscitation and low survival rate in HT animals suggested the impairment of cardiovascular system adaptation of HT animals during blood loss and it should be considered in management of hypertensive subjects.

  3. Depressed left ventricular performance. Response to volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ognibene, F.P.; Parker, M.M.; Natanson, C.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Parrillo, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    Volume infusion, to increase preload and to enhance ventricular performance, is accepted as initial management of septic shock. Recent evidence has demonstrated depressed myocardial function in human septic shock. We analyzed left ventricular performance during volume infusion using serial data from simultaneously obtained pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic measurements and radionuclide cineangiography. Critically ill control subjects (n = 14), patients with sepsis but without shock (n = 21), and patients with septic shock (n = 21) had prevolume infusion hemodynamic measurements determined and received statistically similar volumes of fluid resulting in similar increases in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. There was a strong trend (p = 0.004) toward less of a change in left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI) after volume infusion in patients with sepsis and septic shock compared with control subjects. The LVSWI response after volume infusion was significantly less in patients with septic shock when compared with critically ill control subjects (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate significantly altered ventricular performance, as measured by LVSWI, in response to volume infusion in patients with septic shock.

  4. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version” o

  5. Characterizations of boundary pluripolar hulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djire, I.K.; Wiegerinck, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present some basic properties of the so-called boundary relative extremal function and discuss boundary pluripolar sets and boundary pluripolar hulls. We show that for B-regular domains the boundary pluripolar hull is always trivial on the boundary of the domain and present a “boundary version” o

  6. Financial Constraints and the Response of Business Investment to Monetary Policy Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Timothy J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study I investigate what impact monetary policy shocks have on firms’ fixed investment, the less liquid portion of gross investment that requires more planning. I account for firms facing financial constraints firms by utilizing a common measure of asset size, which is used in previous literature. I use two exogenous, continuous series of monetary policy shocks to show that constrained firms have statistically different responses to policy than unconstrained firms. Specifically, I find that constrained firms’ fixed investment significantly responds more to monetary policy shocks than unconstrained firms.

  7. An Equation of State for Foamed Divinylbenzene (DVB) Based on Multi-Shock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq; Schroen, Diana; Gustavsen, Richard; Bartram, Brian

    2013-06-01

    The methodology for making foamed Divinylbenzene (DVB) is described. For a variety of initial densities, foamed DVB is examined through multi-shock compression and release experiments. Results from multi-shock experiments on LANL's 2-stage gas gun will be presented. A simple conservative Lagrangian numerical scheme, utilizing total-variation-diminishing interpolation and an approximate Riemann solver, will be presented as well as the methodology of calibration. It has been previously demonstrated that a single Mie-Gruneisen fitting form can replicate foam multi-shock compression response at a variety of initial densities; such a methodology will be presented for foamed DVB.

  8. An equation of state for polyurea aerogel based on multi-shock response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, T. D.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Bartram, B. D.

    2014-05-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of polyurea aerogel (PUA) is examined through both single shock Hugoniot data as well as more recent multi-shock compression experiments performed on the LANL 2-stage gas gun. A simple conservative Lagrangian numerical scheme, utilizing total variation diminishing (TVD) interpolation and an approximate Riemann solver, will be presented as well as the methodology of calibration. It will been demonstrated that a p-a model based on a Mie-Gruneisen fitting form for the solid material can reasonably replicate multi-shock compression response at a variety of initial densities; such a methodology will be presented for a commercially available polyurea aerogel.

  9. Heat-shock-induced cellular responses to temperature elevations occurring during orthopaedic cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, E B; Haugh, M G; Tallon, D; Casey, C; McNamara, L M

    2012-12-07

    Severe heat-shock to bone cells caused during orthopaedic procedures can result in thermal damage, leading to cell death and initiating bone resorption. By contrast, mild heat-shock has been proposed to induce bone regeneration. In this study, bone cells are exposed to heat-shock for short durations occurring during surgical cutting. Cellular viability, necrosis and apoptosis are investigated immediately after heat-shock and following recovery of 12, 24 h and 4 days, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells, using flow cytometry. The regeneration capacity of heat-shocked Balb/c mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MC3T3-E1s has been investigated following 7 and 14 day's recovery, by quantifying proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. An immediate necrotic response to heat-shock was shown in cells exposed to elevated temperatures (45°C, 47°C and most severe at 60°C). A longer-term apoptotic response is induced in MLO-Y4s and, to a lesser extent, in MC3T3-E1s. Heat-shock-induced differentiation and mineralization by MSCs. These findings indicate that heat-shock is more likely to induce apoptosis in osteocytes than osteoblasts, which might reflect their role as sensors detecting and communicating damage within bone. Furthermore, it is shown for the first time that mild heat-shock (less than equal to 47°C) for durations occurring during surgical cutting can positively enhance osseointegration by osteoprogenitors.

  10. The Asymmetric Effects of Oil Price Shocks on the Chinese Stock Market: Evidence from a Quantile Impulse Response Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quantile impulse response approach to investigate the impact of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns. This process allows us to uncover asymmetric effects of oil price shocks on stock market returns by taking into account the different quantiles of oil price shocks. Our results show that the responses of Chinese stock market returns to oil price shocks differ greatly, depending on whether the oil and stock market is in a bust or boom state and whether the shock is driven by demand or supply. The impacts of oil price shocks on Chinese stock returns present asymmetric features. In particular during a bust phase, oil supply and demand shocks significantly depress stock market returns, while during a boom period, the aggregate demand shock enhances stock market returns. These results suggest some important implications for investors and decision makers.

  11. Expression of Heat Shock and Other Stress Response Proteins in Ticks and Cultured Tick Cells in Response to Anaplasma spp. Infection and Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Villar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are ectoparasites of animals and humans that serve as vectors of Anaplasma and other pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. Ticks and the pathogens that they transmit have coevolved molecular interactions involving genetic traits of both the tick and the pathogen that mediate their development and survival. In this paper, the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs and other stress response proteins (SRPs was characterized in ticks and cultured tick cells by proteomics and transcriptomics analyses in response to Anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock. The results of these studies demonstrated that the stress response was activated in ticks and cultured tick cells after Anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock. However, in the natural vector-pathogen relationship, HSPs and other SRPs were not strongly activated, which likely resulted from tick-pathogen coevolution. These results also demonstrated pathogen- and tick-specific differences in the expression of HSPs and other SRPs in ticks and cultured tick cells infected with Anaplasma spp. and suggested the existence of post-transcriptional mechanisms induced by Anaplasma spp. to control tick response to infection. These results illustrated the complexity of the stress response in ticks and suggested a function for the HSPs and other SRPs during Anaplasma spp. infection.

  12. Properties of post-shock solar wind deduced from geomagnetic indices responses after sudden impulses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shock plays a key role in causing the global dynamic changes of the geospace environment. For the perspective of Solar-Terrestrial relationship, it will be of great importance to estimate the properties of post-shock solar wind simply and accurately. Motivated by this, we performed a statistical analysis of IP shocks during 1998-2008, focusing on the significantly different responses of two well-used geomagnetic indices (SYMH and AL) to the passive of two types of IP shocks. For the IP shocks with northward IMF (91 cases), the SYMH index keeps on the high level after the sudden impulses (SI) for a long time. Meanwhile, the change of AL index is relative small, with an mean value of only -29 nT. However, for the IP shocks with southward IMF (92 cases), the SYMH index suddenly decreases at a certain rate after SI, and the change of AL index is much significant, of -316 nT. Furthermore, the change rate of SYMH index after SI is found to be linearly correlated with the post-shock reconnection ...

  13. The shock and spall response of AA 7010-T7651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Wood, David; Painter, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    Aluminium alloys are used extensively in armour. Their use as armour materials is primarily due to their relatively low densities and their high strength characteristics. The aerospace-grade 7000-series alloy Al7010-T7651 is one possible contender for armour. In this study a series of plate-impact experiments were undertaken to investigate the behaviour of this alloy under shock. Manganin stress gauges and a heterodyne velocimeter system were used to interrogate both strength and dynamic tensile failure (spall) respectively; with microscopic analysis of recovered samples providing insight into the development of failure in the material.

  14. On Fuzzy Simplex and Fuzzy Convex Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong QIU; Wei Quan ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss fuzzy simplex and fuzzy convex hull,and give several representation theorems for fuzzy simplex and fuzzy convex hull.In addition,by giving a new characterization theorem of fuzzy convex hull,we improve some known results about fuzzy convex hull.

  15. Management of the endoplasmic reticulum stress by activation of the heat shock response in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Tang, Hongting; Liu, Zihe

    2014-01-01

    In yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by Hac1p. The heat shock response (HSR) mediated by Hsf1p, mainly regulates cytosolic processes and protects...

  16. Mathematical modeling of heat shock protein synthesis in response to temperature change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Zuzanna; Zylicz, Maciej

    2009-08-07

    One of the most important questions in cell biology is how cells cope with rapid changes in their environment. The range of common molecular responses includes a dramatic change in the pattern of gene expression and the elevated synthesis of so-called heat shock (or stress) proteins (HSPs). Induction of HSPs increases cell survival under stress conditions [Morimoto, R.I., 1993. Cells in stress: transcriptional activation of heat shock genes. Science 259, 1409-1410]. In this paper we propose a mathematical model of heat shock protein synthesis induced by an external temperature stimulus. Our model consists of a system of nine nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of the key variables involved in the regulation of HSP synthesis. Computational simulations of our model are carried out for different external temperature stimuli. We compare our model predictions with experimental data for three different cases-one corresponding to heat shock, the second corresponding to slow heating conditions and the third corresponding to a short heat shock (lasting about 40 min). We also present our model predictions for heat shocks carried out up to different final temperatures and finally we present a new hypothesis concerning the molecular response to stress that explains some phenomena observed in experiments.

  17. Limiting Performance Analysis of Underwater Shock Isolation of a System with Biodynamic Response Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zong

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic response of shipboard crew to underwater shock is of a major concern to navies. An underwater shock can produce very high accelerations, resulting in severe human injuries aboard a battleship. Protection of human bodies from underwater shock is implemented by installing onboard isolators. In this paper, the optimal underwater shock isolation to protect human bodies is studied. A simple shock-structure-isolator-human interaction model is first constructed. The model incorporates the effect of fluid-structure interaction, biodynamic response of human body, isolator influence. Based on this model, the optimum shock isolation is then formulated. The performance index and restriction are defined. Thirdly, GA (genetic algorithm is employed to solve the formulated optimization problem. GA is a powerful evolutionary optimization scheme suitable for large-scale and multi-variable optimization problems that are otherwise hard to be solved by conventional methods. A brief introduction to GA is given in the paper. Finally, the method is applied to an example problem and the limiting performance characteristic is obtained.

  18. CHARADE: A characteristic code for calculating rate-dependent shock-wave response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Tonks, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report we apply spatially one-dimensional methods and simple shock-tracking techniques to the solution of rate-dependent material response under flat-plate-impact conditions. This method of solution eliminates potential confusion of material dissipation with artificial dissipative effects inherent in finite-difference codes, and thus lends itself to accurate calculation of elastic-plastic deformation, shock-to-detonation transition in solid explosives, and shock-induced structural phase transformation. Equations are presented for rate-dependent thermoelastic-plastic deformation for (100) planar shock-wave propagation in materials of cubic symmetry (or higher). Specific numerical calculations are presented for polycrystalline copper using the mechanical threshold stress model of Follansbee and Kocks with transition to dislocation drag. A listing of the CHARADE (for characteristic rate dependence) code and sample input deck are given. 26 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Dynamic response of electronic systems to shocks and vibrations: Application of analytical (mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhir E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Some basic problems of the dynamic response of electronic and photonic (E&P systems to shocks and vibrations are addressed and discussed. The emphasis is on analytical (mathematical modeling, the reliability physics behind the addressed phenomena, and design-for-reliability (DfR issues and challenges. The addressed problems include 1 linear response: effect of viscous damping, shock tests vs. drop tests, role of compliant interfaces, and maximum acceleration and maximum dynamic stress as a suitable reliability criterion; 2 nonlinear response: printed circuit board (PCB experiencing an impact load applied to its support contour and ball-grid-array (BGA testing on the board level; 3 shock protection of portable electronics, including the possible use of nano-wires as a suitable protective “cushion”. The fruitfulness of the probabilistic DfR (PDfR concept to quantify and assure the field (operational reliability of E&P devices and systems is also indicated.

  20. Convective response of a wall-mounted hot-film sensor in a shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. Sidney, Jr.; Ortgies, Kelly R.; Gartenberg, Ehud; Carraway, Debra L.

    1991-01-01

    Shock tube experiments were performed in order to determine the response of a single hot-film element of a sensor array to transiently induced flow behind weak normal shock waves. The experiments attempt to isolate the response due only to the change in convective heat transfer at the hot-film surface mounted on the wall of the shock tube. The experiments are described, the results being correlated with transient boundary layer theory and compared with an independent set of experimental results. One of the findings indicates that the change in the air properties (temperature and pressure) precedes the air mass transport, causing an ambiguity in the sensor response to the development of the velocity boundary layer. Also, a transient, local heat transfer coefficient is formulated to be used as a forcing function in an hot-film instrument model and simulation which remains under investigation.

  1. Cytokinin modulates proteomic, transcriptomic and growth responses to temperature shocks in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Martin; Jedelský, Petr L; Novák, Jan; Schlosser, Andreas; Brzobohatý, Břetislav

    2014-07-01

    As sessile organisms, plants must sense environmental conditions and adjust their growth and development processes accordingly, through adaptive responses regulated by various internal factors, including hormones. A key environmental factor is temperature, but temperature-sensing mechanisms are not fully understood despite intense research. We investigated proteomic responses to temperature shocks (15 min cold or heat treatments) with and without exogenous applications of cytokinin in Arabidopsis. Image and mass spectrometric analysis of the two-dimensionally separated proteins detected 139 differentially regulated spots, in which 148 proteins were identified, most of which have not been previously linked to temperature perception. More than 70% of the temperature-shock response proteins were modulated by cytokinin, mostly in a similar manner as heat shock. Data mining of previous transcriptomic datasets supported extensive interactions between temperature and cytokinin signalling. The biological significance of this finding was tested by assaying an independent growth response of Arabidopsis seedlings to heat stress: hypocotyl elongation. This response was strongly inhibited in mutants with deficiencies in cytokinin signalling or endogenous cytokinin levels. Thus, cytokinins may directly participate in heat signalling in plants. Finally, large proportions of both temperature-shock and cytokinin responsive proteomes co-localize to the chloroplast, which might therefore host a substantial proportion of the temperature response machinery.

  2. Heat shock response of the blue crab Portunus pelagicus:thermal stress and acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaila Qari

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of prior heat shock on the CTMax of differently acclimated Portunus pelagicus (P. pelagicus) as well as the time course of the changes in CTMax post heat shock. Methods: Crabs P. pelagicus were held in laboratory aquaria in tanks, which were supplied with filtered and aerated seawater. Crabs were acclimated at 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C for 3 weeks before their CTMax was determined. The CTMax was recorded for each crab as the median temperature during the 5 min period when a crab was not able to right itself, the average CTMax was calculated. The effect of heat shock on subsequent CTMax was measured. Crabs were heat shocked at temperature 1 °C lower than the CTMax for 20 min, followed by either 0.5 h, 1 h or 1.5 h recovery at 20 °C. The same procedure was repeated at other acclimation temperatures (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). Results: Temperature acclimation of P. pelargicus from 20-35 °C progressively increased the CTMax. Acclimation at 35 °C the CTMax was 42.66 °C, whereas acclimation at 20 °C the CTMax was 39.8 °C. In P. pelagicus acclimated, at 20 °C the CTMax values after heat shock were significantly higher than crabs in control for 30 min, 1 h and 1.5 h after heat shock. In the 25 °C and 30 °C acclimated crabs, the CTMax values after heat shock were significantly higher than control only in 30 min and 1 h after heat shock. No significant differences in 35 °C acclimated crabs between control and heat shocked crabs were found after recovery for 30 min, 1 h, or 1.5 h. Conclusions: Heat shock caused significant rises in the CTMax, however, this increase was progressively reduced with longer recovery times at the acclimation temperature. For 20 °C acclimated crabs, the increased CTMax was still evident after 90 min, but for 25 °C and 30 °C crabs, the response was over after 90 min. Heat shock of 35 °C crabs was problematical, the CTMax gave no increased thermotolerance. It must be concluded that the

  3. Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii is a novel suppressor of heat shock response in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Keiichi; Yamagishi, Nobuyuki; Saito, Youhei; Takasaki, Midori; Konoshima, Takao; Hatayama, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Because heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in protecting cells and in the pathophysiology of diseases such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders, the use of regulators of the expression of Hsps in mammalian cells seems to be useful as a potential therapeutic modality. To identify compounds that modulate the response to heat shock, we analyzed several natural products using a mammalian cell line containing an hsp promoter-regulated reporter gene. In this study, we found that an extract from Fructus Arctii markedly suppressed the expression of Hsp induced by heat shock. A component of the extract arctigenin, but not the component arctiin, suppressed the response at the level of the activation of heat shock transcription factor, the induction of mRNA, and the synthesis and accumulation of Hsp. Furthermore, arctigenin inhibited the acquisition of thermotolerance in mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Thus, arctigenin seemed to be a new suppressive regulator of heat shock response in mammalian cells, and may be useful for hyperthermia cancer therapy. PMID:16817321

  4. Dynamic response and modeling of a carbon fiber— epoxy composite subject to shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. S.; Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite samples were tested to determine their response to one dimensional shock loading with the ultimate goal of developing a micromechanics based numerical model of the dynamic response. The material tested had high fiber content (62-68% by volume) and low porosity. Wave speeds for shocks traveling along the carbon fibers are significantly higher than for those traveling transverse to the fibers or through the bulk epoxy. As a result, the dynamic material response is dependent on the relative shock—fiber orientation; a complication that must be captured in the numerical models. Shocks traveling transverse to the fibers show an inelastic response consistent with the material constituent parts. Shocks traveling along the fiber direction travel faster and exhibit both elastic and plastic characteristics over the stress range tested; up to 15 GPa. Results presented detail the anisotropic material response, which is governed by different mechanisms along each of the two principle directions in the composite. Finally, numerical modeling of this response is described in detail and validated against the experimental data.

  5. Study on characteristics of response to nodal vibration in a main hull of a large-size ferry boat; Ogata feri no shusentai yodo oto tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takimoto, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kasuda, T.; Yanagi, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    Demand for reduction in vibration and noise in large-size ferry boats has been severer in recent years. On the other hand, vibration exciting force in main engines and propellers is on an increasing trend in association with increase in speed and horsepower. A large-size ferry boat uses an intermediate-speed diesel engine which has high vibration exciting frequency. Therefore, discussions were given on characteristics of response to nodal vibration in a main hull induced by primary internal moment in a main engine in a large-size ferry boat mounting an intermediate speed main engine. Results of detailed vibration calculations, vibration experiments using an actual ship, and results of measurements were used for the discussions. Natural frequency for two-node vibration above and below the main hull was set for an equation of estimation such that the whole ship is hypothesized to have been structured with beams having the same cross section according to the Todd`s equation, and effect of rigidity of the long structure can be evaluated. Parameters were derived by using the minimum square method that uses the measured natural frequency of the ship A through the ship E among large-size ferry boats. The derived result may be summarized as follows: this equation of estimation has an estimation error of about 5% against the natural frequency for nodal vibration above and below the main hull; and this equation of estimation has an estimation error of about 30% against the acceleration in the vertical direction at the end of the stern. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Utilization of statistical table for waves in North-west Pacific Ocean and a long-term estimation on hull responses; Seihoku Taiheiyo haro tokeihyo no riyo to sentai oto choki yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Designing a vessel to sail oceans for an extended period of time requires statistical estimation on different hull responses to waves. To meet the requirement, it is necessary to accurately identify hydrographic conditions (particularly waves) which are considered to be encountered by the vessel. This paper makes clear the statistical characteristics of the wave statistics table presented by Fang et al, and compares them with other processes for discussion. This statistics collection is based on data collected in China, Hong Kong and Japan, including those collected in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, the North Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. It was found that these data provide results slightly lower than the long-term estimation values derived from data of the global wave statistics (GWS) prepared by Hogben et al. The cause for this was found attributable to the format of the statistical data, especially setting of wave height classes. However, since the data provided by Fang et al include items of detailed information on small sea areas near the Chinese coast lines, the data are thought to provide useful information source in investigating long-term hull response characteristics relative to spatial spread of the sea areas in the North-west Pacific Ocean. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Shock and Release Response of Unreacted Epon 828: Shot 2s-905

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisa, Matthew Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Donald Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-16

    This document summarizes the shock and release response of Epon 828 measured in the dynamic impact experiment 2s-905. Experimentally, a thin Kel-F impactor backed by a low impedance foam impacted an Epon 828 target with embedded electromagnetic gauges. Computationally, a one dimensional simulation of the impact event was performed, and tracer particles were located at the corresponding electromagnetic gauge locations. The experimental configuration was such that the Epon 828 target was initially shocked, and then allowed to release from the high-pressure state. Comparisons of the experimental gauge and computational tracer data were made to assess the performance of equation of state (EOS) 7603, a SESAME EOS for Epon 828, on and off the principal shock Hugoniot. Results indicate that while EOS 7603 can capture the Hugoniot response to better that 1%, while the sound speeds at pressure are under-predicted by 6 - 7%.

  8. Network analysis of oyster transcriptome revealed a cascade of cellular responses during recovery after heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Zhang

    Full Text Available Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.

  9. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insub Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called “TVDS” is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  10. A Target-Less Vision-Based Displacement Sensor Based on Image Convex Hull Optimization for Measuring the Dynamic Response of Building Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Insub; Kim, JunHee; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-12-08

    Existing vision-based displacement sensors (VDSs) extract displacement data through changes in the movement of a target that is identified within the image using natural or artificial structure markers. A target-less vision-based displacement sensor (hereafter called "TVDS") is proposed. It can extract displacement data without targets, which then serve as feature points in the image of the structure. The TVDS can extract and track the feature points without the target in the image through image convex hull optimization, which is done to adjust the threshold values and to optimize them so that they can have the same convex hull in every image frame and so that the center of the convex hull is the feature point. In addition, the pixel coordinates of the feature point can be converted to physical coordinates through a scaling factor map calculated based on the distance, angle, and focal length between the camera and target. The accuracy of the proposed scaling factor map was verified through an experiment in which the diameter of a circular marker was estimated. A white-noise excitation test was conducted, and the reliability of the displacement data obtained from the TVDS was analyzed by comparing the displacement data of the structure measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The dynamic characteristics of the structure, such as the mode shape and natural frequency, were extracted using the obtained displacement data, and were compared with the numerical analysis results. TVDS yielded highly reliable displacement data and highly accurate dynamic characteristics, such as the natural frequency and mode shape of the structure. As the proposed TVDS can easily extract the displacement data even without artificial or natural markers, it has the advantage of extracting displacement data from any portion of the structure in the image.

  11. Distortions in the international migrant labor market :evidence from Filipino migration and wage responses to destination country economic shocks

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, David; Theoharides, Caroline; Yang, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The authors use an original panel dataset of migrant departures from the Philippines to identify the responsiveness of migrant numbers and wages to gross domestic product shocks in destination countries. They find a large significant elasticity of migrant numbers to gross domestic product shocks at destination, but no significant wage response. This is consistent with binding minimum wages...

  12. Vibration mode of torsion balance and its response to external shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤洁; 罗俊; 范淑华

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic vibration modes of typical torsion balances and their response to the external shock are discussed in detail. The study is important and instructive for improving measurement precision of gravitational experiments employing torsion balances, and gives a reasonable interpretation on detecting earthquake by high precision torsion balance.

  13. Effects of hypophysectomy and ACTH1–10 on responsiveness to electric shock in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    Response behavior of rats to unescapable electric shock was studied in intact and hypophysectomized animals. The threshold for flinch, jerk, run and jump was significantly lowered in hypophysectomized rats as compared to that of intact controls. Treatment with the ACTH analogue ACTH1–10 did not affe

  14. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  15. Lysosomal responses to heat-shock of seasonal temperature extremes in Cd-exposed mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múgica, M; Izagirre, U; Marigómez, I

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature extremes on lysosomal biomarkers in mussels exposed to a model toxic pollutant (Cd) at different seasons. For this purpose, temperature was elevated 10°C (from 12°C to 22°C in winter and from 18°C to 28°C in summer) for a period of 6h (heat-shock) in control and Cd-exposed mussels, and then returned back to initial one. Lysosomal membrane stability and lysosomal structural changes in digestive gland were investigated. In winter, heat-shock reduced the labilisation period (LP) of the lysosomal membrane, especially in Cd-exposed mussels, and provoked transient lysosomal enlargement. LP values recovered after the heat-shock cessation but lysosomal enlargement prevailed in both experimental groups. In summer, heat-shock induced remarkable reduction in LP and lysosomal enlargement (more markedly in Cd-exposed mussels), which recovered within 3 days. Besides, whilst heat-shock effects on LP were practically identical for Cd-exposed mussels in winter and summer, the effects were longer-lasting in summer than in winter for control mussels. Thus, lysosomal responsiveness after heat-shock was higher in summer than in winter but recovery was faster as well, and therefore the consequences of the heat shock seem to be more decisive in winter. In contrast, inter-season differences were attenuated in the presence of Cd. Consequently, mussels seem to be better prepared in summer than in winter to stand short periods of abrupt temperature change; this is, however, compromised when mussels are exposed to pollutants such as Cd.

  16. Shock initiated thermal and chemical responses of HMX crystal from ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Song, Huajie; Liu, Yi; Huang, Fenglei

    2014-07-21

    To gain an atomistic-level understanding of the thermal and chemical responses of condensed energetic materials under thermal shock, we developed a thermal shock reactive dynamics (TS-RD) computational protocol using molecular dynamics simulation coupled with ReaxFF force field. β-Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) was selected as a a target explosive due to its wide usage in the military and industry. The results show that a thermal shock initiated by a large temperature gradient between the "hot" region and the "cold" region results in thermal expansion of the particles and induces a thermal-mechanical wave propagating back and forth in the system with an averaged velocity of 3.32 km s(-1). Heat propagating along the direction of thermal shock leads to a temperature increment of the system and thus chemical reaction initiation. Applying a continuum reactive heat conduction model combined with the temperature distribution obtained from the RD simulation, a heat conduction coefficient is derived as 0.80 W m(-1) K(-1). The chemical reaction mechanisms during thermal shock were analyzed, showing that the reaction is triggered by N-NO2 bond breaking followed by HONO elimination and ring fission. The propagation rates of the reaction front and reaction center are obtained to be 0.069 and 0.038 km s(-1), based on the time and spatial distribution of NO2. The pressure effect on the thermal shock was also investigated by employing uniaxial compression before the thermal shock. We find that compression significantly accelerates thermal-mechanical wave propagation and heat conduction, resulting in higher temperature and more excited molecules and thus earlier initiation and faster propagation of chemical reactions.

  17. Hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentration during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Majid; Barmaki, Babak; Nasimi, Ali

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypertension on hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations in normotensive (NT) and deoxycorticosteron acetate (DOCA)-Salt hypertensive (HT) rats. Uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock was induced in NT and HT rats (n=7 each) by preliminary bleed of 25 ml/kg followed by a 75% tail amputation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and serum nitrite were measured pre-hemorrhage and during hemorrhage. Changes in time-averaged MAP after hemorrhage were significantly greater in HT group than NT. After resuscitation, the HT rats failed to restore MAP to baseline level. Serum nitrite level in both groups was significantly increased during shock period. Survival rate of HT animals was lower than NT group, although it was not statistically significant. Marked reduction of MAP and less improvement after resuscitation suggested the less adaptation of cardiovascular system in HT animals which may interfere with management of these subjects during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.

  18. On the shock response of Pisum Sativum (a.k.a the Common Pea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighs, James; Hazell, Paul; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth

    2011-06-01

    The high strain-rate response of biological and organic structures is of interest to numerous fields ranging from the food industry (dynamic pasteurisation) to astrobiology (e.g. the theory of panspermia, which suggests that planets could be `seeded' with life `piggy-backing' of interplanetary bodies). Consequently, knowledge of the damage mechanisms and viability of shocked organic material is of paramount importance. In this study a single-stage gas-gun has been employed to subject samples of Pisum Sativum (the Common Pea) to semi-planar shock loading, corresponding to impact pressures of up to c.3 GPa. The experimental approach adopted is discussed along with results from Manganin gauges embedded in the target capsule which show the loading history. Further, the viability of the shock-loaded peas was investigated via attempts at germination. Finally, microscopic examination of the impacted specimens allowed a qualitative assessment of damage mechanisms to be made.

  19. Theoretical study of the porosity and temperature effects on the shock response of graphitic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourasseau, Emeric; Pineau, Nicolas; Hebert, David; Soulard, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The response of graphite, and graphite-like materials, to shock compression have been the subject of numerous experimental studies over a few decades, showing a substantial dependence of the shock properties (Hugoniot curves, transition to diamond, ...) on the initial porosity and granularity of the polycrystalline samples. Theoretical studies of these processes have been enabled only recently, thanks to the development of computationally efficient empirical potentials such as LCBOPII which reproduce accurately the various phases of carbon (graphene, graphite, diamond, liquid carbon) and the few available ab initio data for shock compression of graphite. These studies are restricted to monocrystalline samples which, in the case of graphite, represent a serious approximation to the actual experimental set-ups and may explain the large over-estimation of the graphite/diamond transition pressure (~ 60 GPa vs. 15-25 GPa). In this paper we present a theoretical study on the shock compression of porous graphite by means of Molecular Dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations using the LCBOPII potential. The results are compared to the available experimental data and the role of porosity and temperature on the shock properties and graphite/diamond transition is discussed.

  20. Molecular dynamic study of Shock wave response of bulk amorphous polyvinyl chloride: effect of chain length and force field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2015-06-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics in conjunction with multi-scale shock technique is utilized to investigate shock wave response of bulk amorphous polyvinyl chloride. Dependence of chain length on physical and mechanical behaviour of polymeric material at ambient condition of temperature and pressure are well known but unknown for extreme conditions. Non-reactive force fields PCFF, COMPASS and PCFF+ were used to determine applicability of the force field for the study of the material subjected to shock loads. Several samples of PVC with various chain lengths were subjected to a range of shock compression from 1.5-10.0 km/s. Even though dependence of chain length was observed for lower shock strengths but was not for intense shock loads. The principle Hugoniot points, calculated by applying hydrostatic Rankine-Hugoniot equations and as well as multi-scale shock technique, were compared against LASL experimental shock data, demonstrating superior performance of PCFF+ force-field over PCFF and COMPASS. Shock induced melting characteristic and vibrational spectroscopic study were conducted and compared with experimental data to observe differences in response with relation to different force fields, chain length of the material for different shock intensities.

  1. On the shock response of PCTFE (Kel-F 81¯)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D. C.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Hameed, A.; Millett, J. C. F.; Hazell, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    The polymeric material PCTFE (Kel-F 81®) has found a useful niche in explosive research due to its use not only an explosive binder but also as a explosive simulant. Knowledge of shock propagation in explosives is of paramount importance primarily from a safety perspective both in terms of reaction to a designed stimulus and to off-normal (accident) events. To this end, as part of a more general investigation into the relationship between polymeric structure and high strain-rate response, the dynamic response of PCFTE (more commonly known as Kel-F 81®) has been investigated via a series of plate-impact experiments. Using this technique both the shock and release behaviour of PCTFE have been investigated. The data obtained for the shock response agreed with previously obtained data from the literature. Deviation from the Hugoniot was seen in the pressure-particle velocity plane, a response attributed here to material strength. With regards to the behaviour of the release Hugoniot, a two-tiered response was observed. Initially a tensile elastic wave with an approximate velocity of 3.00 mm μs-1 was noted until a particle velocity of 0.36 mm μs-1. After this initial region a linear release Hugoniot was apparent, a response comparable to behaviour seen in other polymers.

  2. Acidic pH shock induces the expressions of a wide range of stress-response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Soon-Kwang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental signals usually enhance secondary metabolite production in Streptomycetes by initiating complex signal transduction system. It is known that different sigma factors respond to different types of stresses, respectively in Streptomyces strains, which have a number of unique signal transduction mechanisms depending on the types of environmental shock. In this study, we wanted to know how a pH shock would affect the expression of various sigma factors and shock-related proteins in S. coelicolor A3(2. Results According to the results of transcriptional and proteomic analyses, the major number of sigma factor genes were upregulated by an acidic pH shock. Well-studied sigma factor genes of sigH (heat shock, sigR (oxidative stress, sigB (osmotic shock, and hrdD that play a major role in the secondary metabolism, were all strongly upregulated by the pH shock. A number of heat shock proteins including the DnaK family and chaperones such as GroEL2 were also observed to be upregulated by the pH shock, while their repressor of hspR was strongly downregulated. Oxidative stress-related proteins such as thioredoxin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and osmotic shock-related protein such as vesicle synthases were also upregulated in overall. Conclusion From these observations, an acidic pH shock was considered to be one of the strongest stresses to influence a wide range of sigma factors and shock-related proteins including general stress response proteins. The upregulation of the sigma factors and shock proteins already found to be related to actinorhodin biosynthesis was considered to have contributed to enhanced actinorhodin productivity by mediating the pH shock signal to regulators or biosynthesis genes for actinorhodin production.

  3. Dynamic Responses Analysis of a Building Structure Subjected to Ground Shock from a Tunnel Explosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Li; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic responses of a multi-storey building without or with a sliding base-isolation device for ground shock induced by an in-tunnel explosion are numerically analyzed.The effect of an adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel,which affects ground shock propagation,is considered in the analysis.Different modeling methods,such as the eight-node equal-parametric finite element and mass-lumped system,are used to establish the coupling model consisting of the two adjacent tunnels,the surrounding soil medium with the Lysmer viscous boundary condition,and the multi-storey building with or without the sliding base-isolation device.In numerical calculations,a continuous friction model,which is different from the traditional Coulomb friction model,is adopted to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the accumulated errors.Some example analyses are subsequently performed to study the response characteristics of the building and the sliding base-isolation device to ground shock.The effect of the adjacent tunnel in between the building and the explosion tunnel on the ground shock wave propagation is also investigated.The final conclusions based on the numerical results will provide some guidance in engineering practice.

  4. Responses of properties in the plasma sheet and at the geosynchronous orbit to interplanetary shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Li; LIU ZhenXing; ZUO PingBing; ZHANG LingQian; DUAN SuPing

    2009-01-01

    On July 22,2004,the WIND spacecraft detected a typical interplanetary shock. There was sustaining weak southward magnetic field in the preshock region and the southward field was suddenly enhanced across the shock front (i.e.,southward turning). When the shock impinged on the magnetosphere,the magnetospheric plasma convection was abruptly enhanced in the central plasma sheet,which was directly observed by both the TC-1 and Cluster spacecraft located in different regions. Simultaneously,the Cluster spacecraft observed that the dawn-to-dusk electric field was abruptly enhanced. The variations of the magnetic field observed by TC-1,Cluster,GOES-10 and GOES-12 that were distributed in different regions in the plasma sheet and at the geosynchronous orbit are obviously distinct. TC-1 observations showed that the magnetic intensity kept almost unchanged and the elevation angle decreased,but the Cluster spacecraft,which was also in the plasma sheet and was further from the equator,observed that the magnetic field was obviously enhanced. Simultaneously,GOES-12 located near the midnight observed that the magnetic intensity sharply increased and the elevation angle decreased,but GOES-10 located in the dawn side observed that the magnetic field was merely compressed with its three components all sharply increasing. Furthermore,the energetic proton and electron fluxes at nearly all channels observed by five LANL satellites located at different magnetic local times (MLTs) all showed impulsive enhancements due to the compression of the shock. The responses of the energetic particles were much evident on the dayside than those on the nightside. Especially the responses near the midnight were rather weak. In this paper,the possible reasonable physical explanation to above observations is also discussed. All the shock-induced responses are the joint effects of the solar wind dynamic pressure pulse and the magnetic field southward turning.

  5. Geomagnetic and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Sakharov, Ya. A.; Lorentzen, D. L.; Samsonov, S. N.

    2017-08-01

    We have examined multi-instrument observations of the magnetospheric and ionospheric response to the interplanetary shock on January 24, 2012. Apart from various instruments, such as ground and space magnetometers, photometers, and riometers used earlier for a study of possible response to a shock, we have additionally examined variations of the ionospheric total electron content as determined from the global navigation satellite system receivers. Worldwide ground magnetometer arrays detected shock-induced sudden commencement (SC) with preliminary and main impulses throughout the dayside sector. A magnetic field compression was found to propagate through the magnetosphere with velocity less than the local Alfven velocity. Though the preliminary pulse was evident on the ground, its signature was not observed by the THEMIS and GOES satellites in the magnetosphere. The SC was accompanied by a burst of cosmic noise absorption recorded along a latitudinal network of riometers in the morning and evening sectors. The SC also caused an impulsive enhancement of dayside auroral emissions (shock aurora) as observed by the hyperspectral all-sky imager NORUSCA II at Barentsburg and the meridian scanning photometer at Longyearbyen (both at Svalbard). The VHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway) observed a SC-associated increase in electron density in the lower ionosphere (100-180 km). The system for monitoring geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power lines at the Kola Peninsula recorded a burst of GIC during the SC. A ≤10% positive pulse of the ionospheric total electron content caused by the SC in the dusk sector was found. On the basis of the multi-instrument information, a validated theory of the magnetosphere-ionosphere response to IP shock may be constructed.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have enough... stability great enough to minimize the probability of capsizing the rotorcraft for the worst combination...

  7. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Dahlsten

    Full Text Available Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of (group I) Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 cold shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Elias; Isokallio, Marita; Somervuo, Panu; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    Profound understanding of the mechanisms foodborne pathogenic bacteria utilize in adaptation to the environmental stress they encounter during food processing and storage is of paramount importance in design of control measures. Chill temperature is a central control measure applied in minimally processed foods; however, data on the mechanisms the foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum activates upon cold stress are scarce. Transcriptomic analysis on the C. botulinum ATCC 3502 strain upon temperature downshift from 37°C to 15°C was performed to identify the cold-responsive gene set of this organism. Significant up- or down-regulation of 16 and 11 genes, respectively, was observed 1 h after the cold shock. At 5 h after the temperature downshift, 199 and 210 genes were up- or down-regulated, respectively. Thus, the relatively small gene set affected initially indicated a targeted acute response to cold shock, whereas extensive metabolic remodeling appeared to take place after prolonged exposure to cold. Genes related to fatty acid biosynthesis, oxidative stress response, and iron uptake and storage were induced, in addition to mechanisms previously characterized as cold-tolerance related in bacteria. Furthermore, several uncharacterized DNA-binding transcriptional regulator-encoding genes were induced, suggesting involvement of novel regulatory mechanisms in the cold shock response of C. botulinum. The role of such regulators, CBO0477 and CBO0558A, in cold tolerance of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was demonstrated by deteriorated growth of related mutants at 17°C.

  10. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kurata

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms, even in situations where much simpler designs seem to be sufficient for generating nominal functionality. Using module-based analysis coupled with rigorous mathematical comparisons, we propose that in analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of cellular systems and the presence of hierarchical modular structures can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. We employ the Escherichia coli heat shock response system, a strongly conserved cellular mechanism, as an example to explore the design principles of such modular architectures. In the heat shock response system, the sigma-factor sigma32 is a central regulator that integrates multiple feedforward and feedback modules. Each of these modules provides a different type of robustness with its inherent tradeoffs in terms of transient response and efficiency. We demonstrate how the overall architecture of the system balances such tradeoffs. An extensive mathematical exploration nevertheless points to the existence of an array of alternative strategies for the existing heat shock response that could exhibit similar behavior. We therefore deduce that the evolutionary constraints facing the system might have steered its architecture toward one of many robustly functional solutions.

  11. Rice hull smoke extract protects mice against a salmonella lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice hulls accounting for 20% of the rice crop are a byproduct of post-harvest rice processing. Endotoxemia (sepsis, septic shock) is an inflammatory, virulent often fatal disease that results mainly from infection with Salmonella and other Gram-negative bacteria. The present study investigated the...

  12. Heterogeneity in the smoking response to health shocks by out-of-pocket spending risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael R; Marti, Joachim

    2014-10-01

    An existing literature demonstrates that adverse changes to health can lead to improvements in health behaviors. Although the exact explanations for these empirical findings are debated, some posit that individuals learn about their true health risks through health shocks. Updated health risk information can then induce changes in health behaviors. While we follow a learning framework, we argue that past work has neglected the role of health insurance and medically related financial risk within this decision making context. Using longitudinal data from 11 European countries, we investigate the impact of a new cardiovascular (CV) health shock on smoking decisions among older adults and examine whether personal exposure to medical spending risk influences the smoking response. We then explore two potential mechanisms for this link: larger updates to health risk beliefs and higher medical expenditures to incentivize behavior change. We find that CV shocks impact the propensity to smoke, with relatively more impact among individuals with high financial risk exposure to medical spending. We also see larger increases in out-of-pocket expenditures following a shock for this group--consistent with the latter mechanism for behavior change.

  13. A minimal titration model of the mammalian dynamical heat shock response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivéry, Aude; Courtade, Emmanuel; Thommen, Quentin

    2016-12-01

    Environmental stress, such as oxidative or heat stress, induces the activation of the heat shock response (HSR) and leads to an increase in the heat shock proteins (HSPs) level. These HSPs act as molecular chaperones to maintain cellular proteostasis. Controlled by highly intricate regulatory mechanisms, having stress-induced activation and feedback regulations with multiple partners, the HSR is still incompletely understood. In this context, we propose a minimal molecular model for the gene regulatory network of the HSR that reproduces quantitatively different heat shock experiments both on heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and HSPs activities. This model, which is based on chemical kinetics laws, is kept with a low dimensionality without altering the biological interpretation of the model dynamics. This simplistic model highlights the titration of HSF1 by chaperones as the guiding line of the network. Moreover, by a steady states analysis of the network, three different temperature stress regimes appear: normal, acute, and chronic, where normal stress corresponds to pseudo thermal adaption. The protein triage that governs the fate of damaged proteins or the different stress regimes are consequences of the titration mechanism. The simplicity of the present model is of interest in order to study detailed modelling of cross regulation between the HSR and other major genetic networks like the cell cycle or the circadian clock.

  14. Cardiovascular and inflammatory response to cholecystokinin during endotoxemic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Rafael Simone; Bertozi, Giuliana; Mestriner, Fabíola Leslie; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Queiróz Cunha, Fernando; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari

    2013-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) was first described as a gastrointestinal hormone, but its receptors have been located in cardiac and vascular tissues, as well as in immune cells. Our aims were to investigate the role of CCK on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hypotension and its ability to modulate previously reported inflammatory mediators, therefore affecting cardiovascular function. To conduct these experiments, rats had their jugular vein cannulated for drug administration, and also, the femoral artery cannulated for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate records. Endotoxemia induced by LPS from Escherichia coli (1.5 mg/kg; i.v.) stimulated the release of CCK, a progressive drop in MAP, and increase in heart rate. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), nitrate, vasopressin, and lactate levels were elevated in the endotoxemic rats. The pretreatment with proglumide (nonselective CCK antagonist; 30 mg/kg; i.p.) aggravated the hypotension and also increased plasma TNF-α and lactate levels. On the other hand, CCK (0.4 μg/kg; i.v.) administered before LPS significantly restored MAP, reduced aortic and hepatic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production, and elevated plasma vasopressin and IL-10 concentrations; it did not affect TNF-α. Physiological CCK concentration reduced nitrite and iNOS synthesis by peritoneal macrophages, possibly through a self-regulatory IL-10-dependent mechanism. Together, these data suggest a new role for the peptide CCK in modulating MAP, possibly controlling the inflammatory response, stimulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, and reducing vascular and macrophage iNOS-derived nitric oxide production. Based on these findings, CCK could be used as an adjuvant therapeutic agent to improve cardiovascular function.

  15. The Role of Heat Shock Response in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuya Kondo; Hiroyuki Motoshima; Motoyuki Igata; Junji Kawashima; Takeshi Matsumura; Hirofumi Kai; Eiichi Araki

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of life-style related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), appears to be unstoppable. It is also difficult to cease their complications in spite of many antidiabetic medications or intervention of public administration. We and our collaborators found that physical medicine using simultaneous stimulation of heat with mild electric current activates heat shock response, thereby reducing visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, chronic infla...

  16. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE) pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave ...

  17. Mathematical Modeling of the Heat-Shock Response in HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Rakesh1 1Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command,DoD Biotechnology High...shock response have already been used as components of larger mathematical models for predicting inflammation in heat stroke (33) and optimizing cancer

  18. Effects of hypertension on hemodynamic response and serum nitrite concentration during graded hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Barmaki; Ali Nasimi; Majid Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive patients have higher morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage. In this study, we investigated hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations during graded hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT) rats. Methods: Thirteen male rats were divided into two groups, namely HT (n = 6) and NT (n = 7). Hypertension was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt method in uninephrectomized rats. After 8 weeks, graded hemor...

  19. Effects of heat shock, stannous chloride, and gallium nitrate on the rat inflammatory response

    OpenAIRE

    House, S.D.; Guidon, P T; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Kyriakos, R.; Bockman, R S; Mistry, T.; Gallagher, P.A.; Hightower, L E

    2001-01-01

    Heat and a variety of other stressors cause mammalian cells and tissues to acquire cytoprotection. This transient state of altered cellular physiology is nonproliferative and antiapoptotic. In this study, male Wistar rats were stress conditioned with either stannous chloride or gallium nitrate, which have immunosuppressive effects in vivo and in vitro, or heat shock, the most intensively studied inducer of cytoprotection. The early stages of inflammation in response to topical suffusion of me...

  20. The Role of Heat Shock Response in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuya Kondo; Hiroyuki Motoshima; Motoyuki Igata; Junji Kawashima; Takeshi Matsumura; Hirofumi Kai; Eiichi Araki

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of life-style related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), appears to be unstoppable. It is also difficult to cease their complications in spite of many antidiabetic medications or intervention of public administration. We and our collaborators found that physical medicine using simultaneous stimulation of heat with mild electric current activates heat shock response, thereby reducing visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, chronic infla...

  1. Interplay between RNA interference and heat shock response systems in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The genome expression pattern is strongly modified during the heat shock response (HSR) to form an adaptive state. This may be partly achieved by modulating microRNA levels that control the expression of a great number of genes that are embedded within the gene circuitry. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between two highly conserved and universal house-keeping systems, the HSR and microRNA machinery, in Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrated that pronounced interstrain differences in th...

  2. Seed germination of montane forest species in response to ash, smoke and heat shock in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga-Aguilar, Susana; Briones, Oscar; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

    2011-05-01

    In many fire-prone ecosystems, seed germination is triggered by heat shock, smoke, ash and charred wood. However, few studies concerning the effect of these fire products on the germination of tropical and subtropical species exist. We assessed the effect of fire products and their interactions on seed germination in 12 species that frequently grow in burned areas of pine-oak and mixed forest in a mountainous subtropical area. Each species was exposed to a predetermined treatment of heat shock, which was optimised in accordance with a previous study. For smoke treatments, seeds were immersed in smoke water, whereas for ash treatments, 1.5 g of ash was added to the incubation medium. Germination increased in 92% of the species in response to the products of fire. Both the smoke water and the ash treatments promoted germination in four species that had permeable seed covers and physiological dormancy. Six species with physical dormancy required both heat shock and smoke water or ash to break dormancy. Our results indicate that seed germination response to fire products depends on the species and/or dormancy type. The germination response to the fire products varied between species; therefore, fire products may influence the species composition in post-fire regeneration.

  3. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  4. Neurotoxicity induced by arsenic in Gallus Gallus: Regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wen; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Houjuan; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic, a naturally occurring heavy metal pollutant, is one of the functioning risk factors for neurological toxicity in humans. However, little is known about the effects of arsenic on the nervous system of Gallus Gallus. To investigate whether arsenic induce neurotoxicity and influence the oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) response in chickens, seventy-two 1-day-old male Hy-line chickens were treated with different doses of arsenic trioxide (As2O3). The histological changes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the expressions of Hsps were detected. Results showed slightly histology changes were obvious in the brain tissues exposure to arsenic. The activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were decreased compared to the control, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased gradually along with increase in diet-arsenic. The mRNA levels of Hsps and protein expressions of Hsp60 and Hsp70 were up-regulated. These results suggested that sub-chronic exposure to arsenic induced neurotoxicity in chickens. Arsenic exposure disturbed the balance of oxidants and antioxidants. Increased heat shock response tried to protect chicken brain tissues from tissues damage caused by oxidative stress. The mechanisms of neurotoxicity induced by arsenic include oxidative stress and heat shock protein response in chicken brain tissues.

  5. Laser shock experiments to investigate and to model various aspects of the response of metals to shock loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthe L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser driven shocks allow studying the dynamic behaviour of condensed matter over small spatial (∼μm to mm-order and temporal (∼ps to ns-order scales, at extremely high strain rates (∼107 s−1. They can be used to test the predictive capability of constitutive models over wide ranges of loading pressures and pulse durations. We present experimental results in laser shock-loaded metals (iron, gold, tin, based on various, complementary techniques including time-resolved velocity measurements, transverse shadowgraphy and post-shock analyses of recovered samples. The data are used to investigate several shock wave processes such as yielding and polymorphic transformations, melting, spall fracture and dynamic fragmentation in both solid and melted states. On the basis of comparisons with numerical simulations, the abilities and limitations of several models are briefly discussed.

  6. KPNA3-knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak associated with the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori) by reducing heat shock factor transport into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wei, Guoqing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Li, Kedong; Zhang, Congfen; Dai, Lishang; Sun, Yu; Liu, Dongran; Zhu, Baojian; Liu, Chaoliang

    2016-01-10

    In this study, we investigated the role of karyopherin alpha 3 in the heat shock response in male silkworm pupae. Karyopherin alpha recognizes the classical nuclear location sequence on proteins and transports them into the nucleus by forming a trimetric complex with karyopherin beta. Three predicted karyopherin alphas (KPNA1, KPNA2 and KPNA3) have been identified from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Pull-down assay result showed that KPNA3 can pull down heat shock transcription factor (HSF) from proteins extracted from tissues using non-denature lysis buffer. After 45 °C heat shock on male B. mori pupae for 30 min, we identified two heat shock protein (HSP) mRNA expression peaks correlating with HSP19.9, HSP20.4 and HSP25.4 at 4 h (peak 1) and 24 h (peak 2). The second peak was eliminated after knockdown of KPNA3. Similar results were obtained following knockdown of HSF, which is the trans-activating factor of heat shock. However, KPNA3 knockdown was not accompanied by the decreased HSF protein levels at 24 h after heat shock which were observed following HSF knockdown. We also expressed recombinant protein GST-KPNA3 and His-HSF in Escherichia coli to perform GST pull-down assay and the result confirmed the interaction between KPNA3 and HSF. We concluded that KPNA3 knockdown eliminates the second heat shock protein peak in the heat shock response of male silkworm pupae by reducing HSF transport into the nucleus.

  7. Unrestrained AMPylation targets cytosolic chaperones and activates the heat shock response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truttmann, Matthias C.; Zheng, Xu; Hanke, Leo; Damon, Jadyn R.; Grootveld, Monique; Krakowiak, Joanna; Pincus, David; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2017-01-01

    Protein AMPylation is a conserved posttranslational modification with emerging roles in endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. However, the range of substrates and cell biological consequences of AMPylation remain poorly defined. We expressed human and Caenorhabditis elegans AMPylation enzymes—huntingtin yeast-interacting protein E (HYPE) and filamentation-induced by cyclic AMP (FIC)-1, respectively—in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a eukaryote that lacks endogenous protein AMPylation. Expression of HYPE and FIC-1 in yeast induced a strong cytoplasmic Hsf1-mediated heat shock response, accompanied by attenuation of protein translation, massive protein aggregation, growth arrest, and lethality. Overexpression of Ssa2, a cytosolic heat shock protein (Hsp)70, was sufficient to partially rescue growth. In human cell lines, overexpression of active HYPE similarly induced protein aggregation and the HSF1-dependent heat shock response. Excessive AMPylation also abolished HSP70-dependent influenza virus replication. Our findings suggest a mode of Hsp70 inactivation by AMPylation and point toward a role for protein AMPylation in the regulation of cellular protein homeostasis beyond the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:28031489

  8. Detecting plant metabolic responses induced by ground shock using hyperspectral remote sensing and physiological contact measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W.L.; Cater, G.A.

    1996-12-03

    A series of field experiments were done to determine if ground shock could have induced physiological responses in plants and if the level of the response could be observed. The observation techniques were remote sensing techniques and direct contact physiological measurements developed by Carter for detecting pre-visual plant stress. The remote sensing technique was similar to that used by Pickles to detect what appeared to be ground shock induced plant stress above the 1993 Non Proliferation Experiment`s underground chemical explosion. The experiment was designed to provide direct plant physiological measurements and remote sensing ratio images and from the same plants at the same time. The simultaneous direct and remote sensing measurements were done to establish a ground truth dataset to compare to the results of the hyperspectral remote sensing measurements. In addition, the experiment was designed to include data on what was thought to be the most probable interfering effect, dehydration. The experimental design included investigating the relative magnitude of the shock induced stress effects compared to dehydration effects.

  9. On the Shock-Response-Spectrum Recursive Algorithm of Kelly and Richman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin N.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Foster, Winfred A.

    2010-01-01

    The monograph Principles and Techniques of Shock Data Analysis written by Kelly and Richman in 1969 has become a seminal reference on the shock response spectrum (SRS) [1]. Because of its clear physical descriptions and mathematical presentation of the SRS, it has been cited in multiple handbooks on the subject [2, 3] and research articles [4 10]. Because of continued interest, two additional versions of the monograph have been published: a second edition by Scavuzzo and Pusey in 1996 [11] and a reprint of the original edition in 2008 [12]. The main purpose of this note is to correct several typographical errors in the manuscript's presentation of a recursive algorithm for SRS calculations. These errors are consistent across all three editions of the monograph. The secondary purpose of this note is to present a Matlab implementation of the corrected algorithm.

  10. Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, M R

    1966-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero.

  11. Research on Simulation and Test of the Nonlinear Responses for the Hydraulic Shock Absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建武; 刘延庆

    2003-01-01

    Basically on the multi-body system dynamics,the virtual prototype of the hydraulic shock absorber for the bench test is developed in the ADAMS environment.Dynamic behaviors of the absorber are studied by both computer simulation and real test.Numerical predictions of dynamic responses are produced by the established virtual prototype of the absorber and compared with experimental results.It has been shown from the comparison that the vibration behaviors of the prototype with hysteretic damping characteristics are considered to be more identical with the bench test results than those of the same prototype with piecewise linear damping properties are.The current virtual prototype of the shock absorber is correct and can be a developing terrace for the optimizing design of the absorber and matching capability of the whole car.

  12. In Vivo Profiling Reveals a Competent Heat Shock Response in Adult Neurons: Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisia Carnemolla

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is the main pathway used by cells to counteract proteotoxicity. The inability of differentiated neurons to induce an HSR has been documented in primary neuronal cultures and has been proposed to play a critical role in ageing and neurodegeneration. However, this accepted dogma has not been demonstrated in vivo. We used BAC transgenic mice generated by the Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas project to investigate the capacity of striatal medium sized spiny neurons to induce an HSR as compared to that of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. We found that all cell populations were competent to induce an HSR upon HSP90 inhibition. We also show the presence and relative abundance of heat shock-related genes and proteins in these striatal cell populations. The identification of a competent HSR in adult neurons supports the development of therapeutics that target the HSR pathway as treatments for neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. The role of the membrane-initiated Heat Shock Response in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar eBromberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is a cellular response to diverse environmental and physiological stressors resulting in the induction of genes encoding molecular chaperones, proteases and other proteins that are essential for protection and recovery from cellular damage. Since different perturbations cause accumulation of misfolded proteins, cells frequently encounter fluctuations in the environment which alter proteostasis. Since tumor cells use their natural adaptive mechanism of coping with stress and misfolded proteins, in recent years, the proteostasis network became a promising target for anti-tumor therapy. The membrane is the first to be affected by heat shock and therefore may be the first one to sense heat shock. The membrane also connects between the extracellular and the intracellular signals. Hence, there is a cross talk between the HSR and the membranes since heat shock can induce changes in the fluidity of membranes, leading to membrane lipid remodeling that occurs in several diseases such as cancer. During the last decade, a new possible therapy has emerged in which an external molecule is used that could induce membrane lipid re-organization. Since at the moment there are very few substances that regulate the HSR effectively, an alternative way has been searched to modulate chaperone activities through the plasma membrane. Recently, we suggested that the use of the membrane Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 modulators regulated the HSR in cancer cells. However, the primary targets of the signal transduction pathway are yet un-known. This review provides an overview of the current literature regarding the role of HSR in membrane remodeling in cancer since a deep understanding of the membrane biology in cancer and the membrane heat sensing pathway is essential to design novel efficient therapies.

  14. Fed state prior to hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma in a porcine model results in altered liver transcriptomic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Determan

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of trauma-related mortality in both civilian and military settings. Resuscitation often results in reperfusion injury and survivors are susceptible to developing multiple organ failure (MOF. The impact of fed state on the overall response to shock and resuscitation has been explored in some murine models but few clinically relevant large animal models. We have previously used metabolomics to establish that the fed state results in a different metabolic response in the porcine liver following hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In this study, we used our clinically relevant model of hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma and the Illumina HiSeq platform to determine if the liver transcriptomic response is also altered with respect to fed state. Functional analysis of the response to shock and resuscitation confirmed several typical responses including carbohydrate metabolism, cytokine inflammation, decreased cholesterol synthesis, and apoptosis. Our findings also suggest that the fasting state, relative to a carbohydrate prefed state, displays decreased carbohydrate metabolism, increased cytoskeleton reorganization and decreased inflammation in response to hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. Evidence suggests that this is a consequence of a shrunken, catabolic state of the liver cells which provides an anti-inflammatory condition that partially mitigates hepatocellar damage.

  15. Relationship between the induction of heat shock proteins and the decrease in glucocorticoid receptor during heat shock response in human osteosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亮年

    1995-01-01

    Previously,it has been found that glucocorticoid receptor(GR)binding activity decreasedrapidly during heat shock response in HOS-8603,a human osteosarcorna cell line.In this study,Therelationship between the induction of heat shock proteins(HSPs)and the decrease in GR was furtherstudied in the same cell line.It was found that even though quercetin could specifically inhibit the ex-pression of hsp90α and hsp70 mRNA,it could not prevent GR from the decrease in response to the heatshock treatment.This represents the first reported evidence that the induction of HSPs and the decrease inGR during heat shock response were 2 independent biological events.The results of the present study furthershowed that although the heat shock treatment alone had no effects on alkaline phosphatase(AKP)activity,itcould completely block the induction of AKP activity in HOS-8603 cells by dexamethasone(Dex),a syntheticglucocorticoid.These results demonstrate that the heat shock-induced alteration in GR was accompanied by adecrease in GR functional activity.Furthermore,when the induction of HSPs was inhibited by the treatmentof cells with quercetin,the stimulatory effects of Dex on AKP activity could still be inhibited completely bythe heat shock treatment.The results of this part,on the basis of GR functional activity,further demonstratethat quercetin could not inhibit the heat shock-induced decrease in GR,even though it could inhibit the induc-tion of HSPs.To clarify further the effects of quercetin alone on GR binding activity in HOS-8603 cells,theregulation of GR by quercetin was also studied.It was found for the first time that quercetin coulddown-regulate GR in a time-dependent manner significantly,and that the down-regulation of GR by quercetinin HOS-8603 cells paralelled with a decrease in glucocorticoid-mediated functional responses,suggesting thatthe down-regulation of GR by quercetin is of biological significance.

  16. Response of the magnetic field and plasmas at the geosynchronous orbit to interplanetary shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Chao; ZONG QiuGang; WANG YongFu

    2009-01-01

    Interplanetary shock can greatly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere,causing the temporal and spatial changes of the magnetic field and plasmas at the geosynchronous orbit.In this paper,we use the magnetic field data of GOES satellites from 1997 to 2007 and the plasma data of MPA on the LANL satellites from 1997 to 2004 to study the properties of magnetic field and plasma (0.03-45 keV) at the geosynchronous orbit (6.6 R_E) within 3 hours before and after the arrival of shock front at the geosynchronous orbit through both case study and superposed epoch analysis.It is found that following the arrival of shock front at the geosynchronous orbit,the magnetic field magnitude,as well as GSM B_z component increases significantly on the dayside (8-16 LT),while the By component has almost no change before and after shock impacts.In response to the interplanetary shock,the proton becomes much denser with a peak number density of 1.2 cm~(-3),compared to the typical number density of 0.7 cm~(-3).The proton temperature increases sharply,predominantly on the dusk and night side.The electron,density increases dramatically on the night side with a peak number density of 2.0 cm~(-3).The inferred ionospheric O~+ density after the interplanetary shock impact reaches the maximum value of 1.2 cm~(-3) on the dusk side and exhibits the clear dawn-dusk asymmetry.The peak of the anisotropy of proton's temperature is located at the noon sector,and the anisotropy decreases towards the dawn and dusk side.The minimum of temperature anisotropy is on the night side.It is suggested that the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave and whistler wave can be stimulated by the proton and electron temperature anisotropy respectively.The computed electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave (EMIC) intense on the day side (8-16 LT) with a frequency value of 0.8 Hz,and the wave intensity decreases towards the dawn and dusk side,the minimum value can be found on the night side.The computed electron

  17. Shock response of single crystal and nanocrystalline pentaerythritol tetranitrate: Implications to hotspot formation in energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Zhao, F P; An, Q; Wu, H A; Goddard, W A; Luo, S N

    2013-10-28

    We investigate shock response of single crystal and nanocrystalline pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) with a coarse-grained model and molecular dynamics simulations, as regards mechanical hotspot formation in the absence or presence of grain boundaries (GBs). Single crystals with different orientations, and columnar nanocrystalline PETN with regular hexagonal, irregular hexagonal, and random GB patterns, are subjected to shock loading at different shock strengths. In single crystals, shock-induced plasticity is consistent with resolved shear stress calculations and the steric hindrance model, and this deformation leads to local heating. For regular-shaped hexagonal columnar nanocrystalline PETN, different misorientation angles lead to activation of different/same slip systems, different deformation in individual grains and as a whole, different GB friction, different temperature distributions, and then, different hotspot characteristics. Compared to their regular-shaped hexagonal counterpart, nanocrystalline PETN with irregular hexagonal GB pattern and that with random GBs, show deformation and hotspot features specific to their GBs. Driven by stress concentration, hotspot formation is directly related to GB friction and GB-initiated crystal plasticity, and the exact deformation is dictated by grain orientations and resolved shear stresses. GB friction alone can induce hotspots, but the hotspot temperature can be enhanced if it is coupled with GB-initiated crystal plasticity, and the slip of GB atoms has components out of the GB plane. The magnitude of shearing can correlate well with temperature, but the slip direction of GB atoms relative to GBs may play a critical role. Wave propagation through varying microstructure may also induce differences in stress states (e.g., stress concentrations) and loading rates, and thus, local temperature rise. GB-related friction and plasticity induce local heating or mechanical hotspots, which could be precursors to chemical

  18. Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock

    KAUST Repository

    Brüwer, Jan D.

    2017-08-17

    Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin.Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host\\'s antiviral response.Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.

  19. Shock Wave Response of Iron-based In Situ Metallic Glass Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Gauri R.; Rauls, Michael B.; Kelly, James P.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Hodge, Andrea M.; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The response of amorphous steels to shock wave compression has been explored for the first time. Further, the effect of partial devitrification on the shock response of bulk metallic glasses is examined by conducting experiments on two iron-based in situ metallic glass matrix composites, containing varying amounts of crystalline precipitates, both with initial composition Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4. The samples, designated SAM2X5-600 and SAM2X5-630, are X-ray amorphous and partially crystalline, respectively, due to differences in sintering parameters during sample preparation. Shock response is determined by making velocity measurements using interferometry techniques at the rear free surface of the samples, which have been subjected to impact from a high-velocity projectile launched from a powder gun. Experiments have yielded results indicating a Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) to be 8.58 ± 0.53 GPa for SAM2X5-600 and 11.76 ± 1.26 GPa for SAM2X5-630. The latter HEL result is higher than elastic limits for any BMG reported in the literature thus far. SAM2X5-600 catastrophically loses post-yield strength whereas SAM2X5-630, while showing some strain-softening, retains strength beyond the HEL. The presence of crystallinity within the amorphous matrix is thus seen to significantly aid in strengthening the material as well as preserving material strength beyond yielding.

  20. Geomagnetic and ionospheric response to the arrival of interplanetary shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, Vladimir; Pilipenko, Vjacheslav; Kozyreva, Olga; Baddeley, Lisa; Sakharov, Yaroslav; Samsonov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    The magnetosphere and ionosphere response to the arrival of interplanetary shock wave at 24 January 2012 caused by CME was investigated using complex of spacecraft and ground-based instruments. The SSC produce strong increase of the density, temperature, energetic particles fluxes with energies from 40 keV to >2 MeV inside the magnetosphere as seen from the THEMIS, GOES spacecrafts data. The interplanetary shock wave which produce SSC is a not shock wave in the outer magnetosphere (Mf ≈ 0.4) according the THEMIS spacecraft data. SSC produce the substorm development on the night side during prolonged positive Bz-component of IMF and generation of Pc4-5 pulsations on the morning side. On the evening side SSC cause the increase of the TEC (ΔTEC≈ 8-9%), determined by the GPS receivers in Scandinavia. The response was accompanied by the increase of the electron density at the altitudes 100-200 km as seen from the VHF EISCAT radar in Tromso. So the main contribution to TEC increase has the lower part of the ionosphere. Obviously the TEC response is caused the particle precipitation into the ionosphere. It testified by the strong increase of the aurora intensity at different spectrum lines (400-700 nm) which registered by hyperspectral imager NARUSSCA II of the Polar Geophysical institute in Svalbard. The increase of the CNA in Scandinavia and in Svalbard was also registered during SSC. The SSC produce strong increase of the GIC (geomagnetically induced currents) at electric power lines of the Kola Peninsula and Karelia ( 30 A).

  1. Viscoelastic and shock response of nanoclay and graphite platelet reinforced vinyl ester nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagableh, Ahmad Mohammad

    The focus of ongoing research at University of Mississippi is to develop stronger, safer and more cost-effective structural materials for the new generation naval ships with an emphasis on lightweight nanoparticle reinforced glass/carbon polymeric based composites and structural foams for blast, shock and impact mitigation. Brominated 510A-40 vinyl ester nanocomposite resin systems are planned to be used in the composite face sheets of sandwich structures with fire-resistant foam layered in between to further reduce flammability along with optimal flexural rigidity, vibration damping and enhanced energy absorption. In this work, the viscoelastic and dynamic performance of brominated nanoclay and graphite platelet reinforced vinyl ester nanocomposites for blast (shock) loading applications are studied. The Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA Q800) was used to obtain the viscoelastic properties, modulus (stiffness), creep/ stress relaxation, and damping (energy dissipation), of 1.25 and 2.5 wt. percent nanoclay and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) reinforced brominated vinyl ester. Effects of frequency (time) on the viscoelastic behavior were investigated by sweeping the frequency over three decades: 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 Hz, and temperature range from 30-150°C at a step rate of 4°C per minute. Master curves were generated by time-temperature superpositioning of the experimental data at a reference temperature. Bromination of vinyl ester resin was found to significantly increase the glass transition temperature (Tg) and damping for all nanocomposites. The nano reinforced composites, however showed a drop in initial storage modulus with bromination. Nanocomposites with 1.25 and 2.5 M. percent graphite had the highest storage modulus along with the lowest damping among brominated specimens. In this research, a shock Tube, servo-hydraulic Material Testing System (MTS) and Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) are used to characterize the mechanical response and energy

  2. Firing Costs and Flexibility: Evidence from Firms' Employment Responses to Shocks in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Chari, A V; Sharma, Siddharth

    2013-07-01

    A key prediction of dynamic labor demand models is that firing restrictions attenuate firms' employment responses to economic fluctuations. We provide the first direct test of this prediction using data from India. We exploit the fact that rainfall fluctuations, through their effects on agricultural productivity, generate variation in local demand within districts over time. Consistent with the theory, we find that industrial employment is more sensitive to shocks where labor regulation is less restrictive. Our results are robust to controlling for endogenous firm placement and vary across factory size in a pattern consistent with institutional features of Indian labor law.

  3. Firing Costs and Flexibility: Evidence from Firms’ Employment Responses to Shocks in India*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Chari, A. V.; Sharma, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    A key prediction of dynamic labor demand models is that firing restrictions attenuate firms’ employment responses to economic fluctuations. We provide the first direct test of this prediction using data from India. We exploit the fact that rainfall fluctuations, through their effects on agricultural productivity, generate variation in local demand within districts over time. Consistent with the theory, we find that industrial employment is more sensitive to shocks where labor regulation is less restrictive. Our results are robust to controlling for endogenous firm placement and vary across factory size in a pattern consistent with institutional features of Indian labor law. PMID:24357882

  4. STATc is a key regulator of the transcriptional response to hyperosmotic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichinger Ludwig

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dictyostelium discoideum is frequently subjected to environmental changes in its natural habitat, the forest soil. In order to survive, the organism had to develop effective mechanisms to sense and respond to such changes. When cells are faced with a hypertonic environment a complex response is triggered. It starts with signal sensing and transduction and leads to changes in cell shape, the cytoskeleton, transport processes, metabolism and gene expression. Certain aspects of the Dictyostelium osmotic stress response have been elucidated, however, no comprehensive picture was available up to now. Results To better understand the D. discoideum response to hyperosmotic conditions, we performed gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. The transcriptional profile of cells treated with 200 mM sorbitol during a 2-hour time course revealed a time-dependent induction or repression of 809 genes, more than 15% of the genes on the array, which peaked 45 to 60 minutes after the hyperosmotic shock. The differentially regulated genes were applied to cluster analysis and functional annotation using gene GO terms. Two main responses appear to be the down-regulation of the metabolic machinery and the up-regulation of the stress response system, including STATc. Further analysis of STATc revealed that it is a key regulator of the transcriptional response to hyperosmotic shock. Approximately 20% of the differentially regulated genes were dependent on the presence of STATc. Conclusion At least two signalling pathways are activated in Dictyostelium cells subjected to hypertonicity. STATc is responsible for the transcriptional changes of one of them.

  5. The Anisotropic Dynamic Response of Ultrafast Shocked Single Crystal PETN and Beta-HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaug, Joseph; Armstrong, Michael; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Austin, Ryan; Ferranti, Louis; Fried, Laurence; Bastea, Sorin

    2015-06-01

    We report results from ultrafast shockwave experiments conducted on single crystal high explosives. Experimental results consist of 12 picosecond time-resolved dynamic response wave profile data, (ultrafast time-domain interferometry-TDI), which are used to validate calculations of anisotropic stress-strain behavior of shocked loaded energetic materials. In addition, here we present unreacted equations of state data from PETN and beta-HMX up to higher pressures than previously reported, which are used to extend the predictive confidence of hydrodynamic simulations. Our previous results derived from a 360 ps drive duration yielded anisotropic elastic wave response in single crystal beta-HMX ((110) and (010) impact planes). Here we provide results using a 3x longer drive duration to probe the plastic response regime of these materials. We compare our ultrafast time domain interferometry (TDI) results with previous gun platform results. Ultrafast time scale resolution TDI measurements further guide the development of continuum models aimed to study pore collapse and energy localization in shock-compressed crystals of beta-HMX. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hull, Mass. (a) Area No. 1 in Allerton Harbor. That area north of Hog Island beginning at latitude 42... jurisdiction, and at the discretion, of the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass....

  7. Innate and Adaptive Responses to Heat Shock Proteins in Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Direskeneli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet’s disease (BD is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disorder with both innate and adaptive immune responses. Heat shock proteins (HSP are highly conserved molecules in different species with scavenger activity and involved in correct folding of newly synthesized proteins. T and B cell responses against HSPs are observed in BD patients in both αβ and γδ T-cell populations. 60-kD HSP (HSP60 is also shown to be recognized by pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLR and is suggested to be an endogenous “danger” signal to the immune system with rapid inflammatory cytokine releases and enhancement of adaptive Th1-type responses. Elucidating the exact role of HSPs in BD pathogenesis might pave the way to less toxic therapeutic approaches to BD, such as antibacterial therapies and immunomodulation.

  8. Infectious Complications and Immune/Inflammatory Response in Cardiogenic Shock Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenica, Jiri; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Malaska, Jan; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Gottwaldova, Jana; Helanova, Katerina; Litzman, Jiri; Dastych, Milan; Tomandl, Josef; Spinar, Jindrich; Dostalova, Ludmila; Lokaj, Petr; Tomandlova, Marie; Pavkova, Monika Goldergova; Sevcik, Pavel; Legrand, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) are at a high risk of developing infectious complications; however, their early detection is difficult, mainly due to a frequently occurring noninfectious inflammatory response, which accompanies an extensive myocardial infarction (MI) or a postcardiac arrest syndrome. The goal of our prospective study was to describe infectious complications in CS and the immune/inflammatory response based on a serial measurement of several blood-based inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: Eighty patients with CS were evaluated and their infections were monitored. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, pentraxin 3, presepsin) were measured seven times per week. The control groups consisted of 11 patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction without CS and without infection, and 22 patients in septic shock. Results: Infection was diagnosed in 46.3% of patients with CS; 16 patients developed an infection within 48 h. Respiratory infection was most common, occurring in 33 out of 37 patients. Infection was a significant or even the main reason of death only in 3.8% of all patients with CS, and we did not find statistically significant difference in 3-month mortality between group of patients with CS with and without infection. There was no statistically significant prolongation of the duration of mechanical ventilation associated with infection. Strong inflammatory response is often in patients with CS due to MI, but we found no significant difference in the course of the inflammatory response expressed by evaluated biomarkers in patients with CS with and without infection. We found a strong relationship between the elevated inflammatory markers (sampled at 12 h) and the 3-month mortality: the area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic ranged between 0.683 and 0.875. Conclusion: The prevalence of infection in patients with CS was 46.3%, and respiratory tract infections were the most

  9. Immunohistochemical evaluation of the heat shock response to nonablative fractional resurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantash, Basil M.; Bedi, Vikramaditya P.; Struck, Steven K.; Chan, Kin F.

    2010-11-01

    Despite the emergence of nonablative fractional resurfacing (NFR) as a new therapeutic modality for skin photoaging, little is known about the molecular events that underlie the heat shock response to different treatment parameters. Human subjects are treated with a scanned 1550-nm fractional laser at pulse energies spanning 6 to 40 mJ and a 140-μm spot size. The heat shock response is assessed immunohistochemically immediately through 7 days posttreatment. At the immediately posttreatment time point, we observe subepidermal clefting in most sections. The basal epidermis and dermal zones of sparing are both found to express HSP47, but not HSP72. By day 1, expression of HSP72 is detected throughout the epidermis, while that of HSP47 remains restricted to the basal layer. Both proteins are detected surrounding the dermal portion of the microscopic treatment zone (MTZ). This pattern of expression persists through day 7 post-NFR, although neither protein is found within the MTZ. Immediately posttreatment, the mean collagen denaturation zone width is 50 μm at 6 mJ, increasing to 202 μm at 40 mJ. The zone of cell death exceeds the denaturation zone by 19 to 55% over this pulse energy range. The two zones converge by day 7 posttreatment.

  10. Cortisol and glucose responses in juvenile striped catfish subjected to a cold shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabi Adloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-shock stress happens when a fish had been adjusted to a specific water temperature or range of temperatures and is consequently exposed to a rapid drop in temperature, resulting in a cascade of physiological and behavioral responses and, in some cases, death. In the current study, the stress response of striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was studied by evaluating serum cortisol and glucose level following an abrupt reduction in water temperature (from 28°C to 15°C at different time points (prior to, and after 1h, 12h and 24h cold treatment, respectively. Regardless of some mortality occurred in cold challenged fish, none of the physiological parameters changed during evaluation period. The results, suggesting that despite of necessity of cortisol and glucose evaluation in any of stress assessment, yet, due to their high variability in different fish species, additional complementary tests such as measurement of other stress hormones e.g. heat shock proteins as well as blood-cell counts (preferably in chronic experiments should also be included.

  11. Development of Cubic Bezier Curve and Curve-Plane Intersection Method for Parametric Submarine Hull Form Design to Optimize Hull Resistance Using CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deddy Chrismianto; Ahmad Fauzan Zakki; Berlian Arswendo; Dong Joon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio (L/H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS DesignModeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient (Ct). The minimum Ct was obtained. The calculated difference in Ct values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the Ct of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius (rn) and higher L/H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail (rt) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  12. Development of cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method for parametric submarine hull form design to optimize hull resistance using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrismianto, Deddy; Zakki, Ahmad Fauzan; Arswendo, Berlian; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-12-01

    Optimization analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) have been applied simultaneously, in which a parametric model plays an important role in finding the optimal solution. However, it is difficult to create a parametric model for a complex shape with irregular curves, such as a submarine hull form. In this study, the cubic Bezier curve and curve-plane intersection method are used to generate a solid model of a parametric submarine hull form taking three input parameters into account: nose radius, tail radius, and length-height hull ratio ( L/ H). Application program interface (API) scripting is also used to write code in the ANSYS design modeler. The results show that the submarine shape can be generated with some variation of the input parameters. An example is given that shows how the proposed method can be applied successfully to a hull resistance optimization case. The parametric design of the middle submarine type was chosen to be modified. First, the original submarine model was analyzed, in advance, using CFD. Then, using the response surface graph, some candidate optimal designs with a minimum hull resistance coefficient were obtained. Further, the optimization method in goal-driven optimization (GDO) was implemented to find the submarine hull form with the minimum hull resistance coefficient ( C t ). The minimum C t was obtained. The calculated difference in C t values between the initial submarine and the optimum submarine is around 0.26%, with the C t of the initial submarine and the optimum submarine being 0.001 508 26 and 0.001 504 29, respectively. The results show that the optimum submarine hull form shows a higher nose radius ( r n ) and higher L/ H than those of the initial submarine shape, while the radius of the tail ( r t ) is smaller than that of the initial shape.

  13. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Roelien A. M.; Wiersma, Marit; van Marion, Denise M. S.; Zhang, Deli; Hoogstra-Berends, Femke; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Schmidt, Martina; Wieland, Thomas; Kampinga, Harm H.; Henning, Robert H.; Brundel, Bianca J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heat shock response (HSR) is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress.

  14. Modulation of heat shock protein response in SH-SY5Y by mobile phone microwaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emanuele; Calabrò; Salvatore; Condello; Monica; Currò; Nadia; Ferlazzo; Daniela; Caccamo; Salvatore; Magazù; Riccardo; Ientile

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate putative biological damage caused by GSM mobile phone frequencies by assessing electromagnetic fields during mobile phone working. METHODS: Neuron-like cells, obtained by retinoicacid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, were exposed for 2 h and 4 h to microwaves at 1800 MHz frequency bands. RESULTS: Cell stress response was evaluated by MTT assay as well as changes in the heat shock protein expression (Hsp20, Hsp27 and Hsp70) and caspase-3 activity levels, as biomarkers of apoptotic pathway. Under our experimental conditions, neither cell viability nor Hsp27 expression nor caspase-3 activity was significantly changed. Interestingly, a significant decrease in Hsp20 expression was observed at both times of exposure, whereas Hsp70 levels were significantly increased only after 4 h exposure. CONCLUSION: The modulation of the expression of Hsps in neuronal cells can be an early response to radiofrequency microwaves.

  15. Neurofilaments Function as Shock Absorbers: Compression Response Arising from Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Micha; Malka-Gibor, Eti; Zuker, Ben; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Beck, Roy

    2016-09-01

    What can cells gain by using disordered, rather than folded, proteins in the architecture of their skeleton? Disordered proteins take multiple coexisting conformations, and often contain segments which act as random-walk-shaped polymers. Using x-ray scattering we measure the compression response of disordered protein hydrogels, which are the main stress-responsive component of neuron cells. We find that at high compression their mechanics are dominated by gaslike steric and ionic repulsions. At low compression, specific attractive interactions dominate. This is demonstrated by the considerable hydrogel expansion induced by the truncation of critical short protein segments. Accordingly, the floppy disordered proteins form a weakly cross-bridged hydrogel, and act as shock absorbers that sustain large deformations without failure.

  16. Transcriptional Activation of a Constitutive Heterochromatic Domain of the Human Genome in Response to Heat ShockD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock triggers the assembly of nuclear stress bodies that contain heat shock factor 1 and a subset of RNA processing factors. These structures are formed on the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of specific human chromosomes, among which chromosome 9. In this article we show that these heterochromatic domains are characterized by an epigenetic status typical of euchromatic regions. Similarly to transcriptionally competent portions of the genome, stress bodies are, in fact, enriched in acetylated histone H4. Acetylation peaks at 6 h of recovery from heat shock. Moreover, heterochromatin markers, such as HP1 and histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, are excluded from these nuclear districts. In addition, heat shock triggers the transient accumulation of RNA molecules, heterogeneous in size, containing the subclass of satellite III sequences found in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9. This is the first report of a transcriptional activation of a constitutive heterochromatic portion of the genome in response to stress stimuli. PMID:14617804

  17. John Hull and the Money Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  18. John Hull and the Money Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, David

    2008-01-01

    John Hull's recent educational writings have included several on what he calls the "money culture". This is analysed and criticised in this article. Hull offers a Marxist and a neo-Marxist account of the role of money in western societies utilising the labour theory of value, false consciousness and the materialist interpretation of history. It is…

  19. [Value of dynamic arterial elastance in the predication of arterial pressure response to volume loading in shock patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mao-lei; Liu, Da-wei; Wang, Xiao-ting; Chen, Xiu-kai

    2013-05-07

    To explore the value of dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn) in the predication of arterial pressure response to volume loading in shock patients. A total of 32 patients with pulse indicator continuous cardiac output (PICCO) monitoring at our intensive care unit from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively studied. The decision of fluid replacement was based upon the presence of shock (mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≤ 65 mm Hg, systolic arterial pressure arterial pressure response to volume loading. Significantly different between MAP responders and MAP nonresponders, baseline Eadyn was an effective predictor of MAP increase after volume loading. The area under the ROC curve was 0.95 for the prediction of volume loading on MAP for Eadyn at baseline (P 0.85 predicted a MAP increase after volume administration with a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 92.3%. Baseline Eadyn may predict accurately arterial pressure response in MAP to volume loading in shock patients.

  20. Stomatal movement in response to long distance- communicated signals initiated by heat shock in partial roots of Commelina communis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The systematic or long-distance signal transmission plays crucial roles in animal lives. Compared with animals, however, much less is known about the roles of long-distance signal communication in plant lives. Using the model plant Commelina communis L., we have probed the root to shoot communication mediated by heat-shock signals. The results showed that a heat shock of 5 min at 40℃ in partial roots, i.e. half or even 1/4 root system, could lead to a significant decrease in stomatal conductance. The regulation capability depends on both heat shock temperature and the amount of root system, i.e. with higher temperature and more roots stressed, the leaf conductance would decrease more significantly. Interestingly, the stomatal regulation by heat shock signal is in a manner of oscillation: when stomata conductance decreased to the lowest level within about 30 min, it would increase rapidly and sometimes even exceed the initial level, and after several cycles the stomata conductance would be finally stabilized at a lower level. Feeding xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants could lead to a decrease in stomata conductance, suggesting that the heat shock-initiated signal is basically a positive signal. Further studies showed that heat shock was not able to affect ABA content in xylem sap, and also, not able to lead to a decrease in leaf water status, which suggested that the stomatal regulation was neither mediated by ABA nor by a hydraulic signal. Heat shock could lead to an increase in xylem sap H2O2 content, and moreover, the removal of H2O2 by catalase could partially recover the stomatal inhibition by xylem sap collected from heat-shocked plants, suggesting that H2O2 might be able to act as one of the root signals to control the stomatal movement. Due to the fact that heat-shock and drought are usually two concomitant stresses, the stomatal regulation by heat-shock signal should be of significance for plant response to stresses. The observation for the

  1. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    -Gaussian in stationary stochastic seaways. The statistical properties of a response are here described by the first four statistical moments through a Hermite series approximation to the probability density function. The peak value distributions of the low and high frequency responses are treated independently, due......A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  2. Shock Wave Speed and Transient Response of PE Pipe with Steel-Mesh Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyi Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel mesh can improve the tensile strength and stability of a polyethylene (PE pipe in a water supply pipeline system. However, it can also cause more severe water hammer hazard due to increasing wave speed. In order to analyze the influence of the steel mesh on the shock wave speed and transient response processes, an improved wave speed formula is proposed by incorporating the equivalent elastic modulus. A field measurement validates the wave speed formula. Moreover, the transient wave propagation and extreme pressures are simulated and compared by the method of characteristics (MOC for reinforced PE pipes with various steel-mesh densities. Results show that a steel mesh can significantly increase the shock wave speed in a PE pipe and thus can cause severe peak pressure and hydraulic surges in a water supply pipeline system. The proposed wave speed formula can more reasonably evaluate the wave speed and improve the transient simulation of steel-mesh-reinforced PE pipes.

  3. Response of S. boulardii cells to {sup 60} Co irradiation and heat shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.J.; Andrade, A.S.R.; Santos, R.G. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nicoli, J.R. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. Microbiologia

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Preparation of Saccharomyces boulardii, a non pathogenic yeast, has been widely used in Europe and other countries to prevent gastrointestinal disorders. However the mechanism of action of theses cells on the illness is unknown but the efficacy of S. boulardii depends on its viability. As trehalose is a well known viability protectant in yeast cells against several adverse conditions, we determined its level. We measured the level of trehalose in cells submitted to heat shock, gamma irradiation and simulation of gastric environmental, all these conditions are commonly found during the bio therapeutic production and in the patients oral treatment. Trehalose levels were higher in yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation ({sup 60} Cobalt) than in control cells. S. boulardii cells growth in log phase and submitted to the heat shock (40 deg C). Accumulated more trehalose than S. cerevisiae and unlikely to these cells, the pool of trehalose accumulated in S. boulardii was mobilized very slowly (70% of the trehalose pool was present 5 hours after the return to the normal temperature 30 deg C). Our results suggested a rather different trehalose metabolism in S. boulardii when compared with S. cerevisiae and showed that one of the response to the stress of irradiation was an increasing on the level of intracellular trehalose

  4. An extended finite element formulation for modeling the response of polycrystalline materials to shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    The eXtended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is a finite element based discretization technique developed originally to model dynamic crack propagation [1]. Since that time the method has been used for modeling physics ranging from static mesoscale material failure to dendrite growth. Here we adapt the recent advances of Benson et al. [2] and Belytchko et al. [3] to model shock loading of polycrystalline material. Through several demonstration problems we evaluate the method for modeling the shock response of polycrystalline materials at the mesoscale. Specifically, we use the X-FEM to model grain boundaries. This approach allows us to i) eliminate ad-hoc mixture rules for multi-material elements and ii) avoid explicitly meshing grain boundaries. ([1] N. Moes, J. Dolbow, J and T. Belytschko, 1999,``A finite element method for crack growth without remeshing,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 46, 131-150. [2] E. Vitali, and D. J. Benson, 2006, ``An extended finite element formulation for contact in multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian calculations,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 1420-1444. [3] J-H Song, P. M. A. Areias and T. Belytschko, 2006, ``A method for dynamic crack and shear band propagation with phantom nodes,'' International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 67, 868-893.)

  5. Induction of a heat shock response (HSP 72) in rat embryos exposed to selected chemical teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkes, P E; Doggett, B; Cornel, L

    1994-02-01

    A monoclonal antibody to the 72 kD heat shock protein (HSP 72), Western blot analysis and 2-D gel electrophoresis/autoradiography were used to determine whether selected chemical teratogens induced the synthesis and accumulation of HSP 72 in postimplantation rat embryos exposed in vitro. The chemical teratogens studied include N-Acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-Ac-AAF), cadmium chloride (CAD), cyclophosphamide (CP), sodium arsenite (AS), and sodium salicylate (SAL). Exposures to test chemicals were selected that produced obvious embryotoxicity characterized by abnormal development and growth retardation. Of the five chemical teratogens studied, AS and SAL induced the synthesis and accumulation of HSP 72 in day 10 rat embryos. The kinetics of HSP 72 accumulation, however, differed between AS- and SAL-treated embryos. Maximal levels of HSP 72 were observed 24 hours after AS exposure and 10 hours after SAL exposure. N-Ac-AAF, CD, and CP induced obvious embryotoxicity; however, none of these chemical teratogens induced HSP 72 at any of the timepoints assayed. Although only a small sample of chemical teratogens was studied, our results suggest that the heat shock response, characterized by the synthesis and accumulation of HSP 72, is not a general biomarker for chemical teratogens.

  6. Inactivation of GABAA receptor is related to heat shock stress response in organism model Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriela; Elizalde, Alejandro; Trujillo, Xochitl; Montoya-Pérez, Rocío; Mendoza-Magaña, María Luisa; Hernandez-Chavez, Abel; Hernandez, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying oxidative stress (OS) resistance are not completely clear. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a good organism model to study OS because it displays stress responses similar to those in mammals. Among these mechanisms, the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway is thought to affect GABAergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat shock stress (HS) on GABAergic activity in C. elegans. For this purpose, we tested the effect of exposure to picrotoxin (PTX), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), hydrogen peroxide, and HS on the occurrence of a shrinking response (SR) after nose touch stimulus in N2 (WT) worms. Moreover, the effect of HS on the expression of UNC-49 (GABAA receptor ortholog) in the EG1653 strain and the effect of GABA and PTX exposure on HSP-16.2 expression in the TJ375 strain were analyzed. PTX 1 mM- or H2O2 0.7 mM-exposed worms displayed a SR in about 80 % of trials. GABA exposure did not cause a SR. HS prompted the occurrence of a SR as did PTX 1 mM or H2O2 0.7 mM exposure. In addition, HS increased UNC-49 expression, and PTX augmented HSP-16.2 expression. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that oxidative stress, through either H2O2 exposure or application of heat shock, inactivates the GABAergic system, which subsequently would affect the oxidative stress response, perhaps by enhancing the activity of transcription factors DAF-16 and HSF-1, both regulated by the IIS pathway and related to hsp-16.2 expression.

  7. Heat shock response in yeast involves changes in both transcription rates and mRNA stabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the heat stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining mRNA levels and transcription rates for the whole transcriptome after a shift from 25 °C to 37 °C. Using an established mathematical algorithm, theoretical mRNA decay rates have also been calculated from the experimental data. We have verified the mathematical predictions for selected genes by determining their mRNA decay rates at different times during heat stress response using the regulatable tetO promoter. This study indicates that the yeast response to heat shock is not only due to changes in transcription rates, but also to changes in the mRNA stabilities. mRNA stability is affected in 62% of the yeast genes and it is particularly important in shaping the mRNA profile of the genes belonging to the environmental stress response. In most cases, changes in transcription rates and mRNA stabilities are homodirectional for both parameters, although some interesting cases of antagonist behavior are found. The statistical analysis of gene targets and sequence motifs within the clusters of genes with similar behaviors shows that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulons apparently contribute to the general heat stress response by means of transcriptional factors and RNA binding proteins.

  8. An equation of state for polymethylpentene (TPX) including multi-shock response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq D.; Gustavsen, Rick; Sanchez, Nathaniel; Bartram, Brian D.

    2012-03-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of polymethylpentene (TPX) is examined through both single shock Hugoniot data as well as more recent multi-shock compression and release experiments. Results from the recent multi-shock experiments on LANL's two-stage gas gun will be presented. A simple conservative Lagrangian numerical scheme utilizing total variation diminishing interpolation and an approximate Riemann solver will be presented as well as the methodology of calibration. It is shown that a simple Mie-Grüneisen EOS based on a Keane fitting form for the isentrope can replicate both the single shock and multi-shock experiments.

  9. Topoisomerase activity during the heat shock response in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Carranza, R; Membrillo-Hernández, J; Ramírez-Santos, J; Castro-Dorantes, J; Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Gómez-Eichelmann, M C

    1995-01-01

    During the upshift of temperature from 30 to 42, 45, 47, or 50 degrees C, an increase in the level of supercoiling of a reporter plasmid was observed. This increase was present in groE and dnaK mutants but was inhibited in cells treated with chloramphenicol and novobiocin. The intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio increased rapidly after an upshift in temperature from 30 to 47 degrees C and then decreased to reach a level above that observed at 30 degrees C. These results suggest that gyrase and proteins synthesized during heat shock are responsible for the changes seen in plasmid supercoiling. Proteins GroE and DnaK are probably not involved in this phenomenon. PMID:7768879

  10. The Role of Heat Shock Response in Insulin Resistance and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Kondo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of life-style related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, appears to be unstoppable. It is also difficult to cease their complications in spite of many antidiabetic medications or intervention of public administration. We and our collaborators found that physical medicine using simultaneous stimulation of heat with mild electric current activates heat shock response, thereby reducing visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and improving glucose homeostasis in mice models of T2DM, as well as in humans with MS or T2DM. This combination therapy exerts novel action on insulin signaling, β-cell protection and body compositions, and may provide a new therapeutic alternative in diabetic treatment strategy.

  11. The role of heat shock response in insulin resistance and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Igata, Motoyuki; Kawashima, Junji; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kai, Hirofumi; Araki, Eiichi

    2014-04-01

    The expansion of life-style related diseases, such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), appears to be unstoppable. It is also difficult to cease their complications in spite of many antidiabetic medications or intervention of public administration. We and our collaborators found that physical medicine using simultaneous stimulation of heat with mild electric current activates heat shock response, thereby reducing visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and improving glucose homeostasis in mice models of T2DM, as well as in humans with MS or T2DM. This combination therapy exerts novel action on insulin signaling, β-cell protection and body compositions, and may provide a new therapeutic alternative in diabetic treatment strategy.

  12. Mid Frequency Shock Response Determination by Using Energy Flow Method and Time Domain Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hyun Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock induced vibration can be more crucial in the mid frequency range where the dynamic couplings with structural parts and components play important roles. To estimate the behavior of structures in this frequency range where conventional analytical schemes, such as statistical energy analysis (SEA and finite element analysis (FEA methods may become inaccurate, many alternative methodologies have been tried up to date. This study presents an effective and practical method to accurately predict transient responses in the mid frequency range without having to resort to the large computational efforts. Specifically, the present study employs the more realistic frequency response functions (FRFs from the energy flow method (EFM which is a hybrid method combining the pseudo SEA equation (or SEA-Like equation and modal information obtained by the finite element analysis (FEA. Furthermore, to obtain the time responses synthesized with modal characteristics, a time domain correction is practiced with the input force signal and the reference FRF on a position of the response subsystem. A numerical simulation is performed for a simple five plate model to show its suitability and effectiveness over the standard analytical schemes.

  13. Caffeine Induces the Stress Response and Up-Regulates Heat Shock Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mohammad; Kawasaki, Ichiro; Gong, Joomi; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Caffeine has both positive and negative effects on physiological functions in a dose-dependent manner. C. elegans has been used as an animal model to investigate the effects of caffeine on development. Caffeine treatment at a high dose (30 mM) showed detrimental effects and caused early larval arrest. We performed a comparative proteomic analysis to investigate the mode of action of high-dose caffeine treatment in C. elegans and found that the stress response proteins, heat shock protein (HSP)-4 (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] chaperone), HSP-6 (mitochondrial chaperone), and HSP-16 (cytosolic chaperone), were induced and their expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. These findings suggest that high-dose caffeine intake causes a strong stress response and activates all three stress-response pathways in the worms, including the ER-, mitochondrial-, and cytosolic pathways. RNA interference of each hsp gene or in triple combination retarded growth. In addition, caffeine treatment stimulated a food-avoidance behavior (aversion phenotype), which was enhanced by RNAi depletion of the hsp-4 gene. Therefore, up-regulation of hsp genes after caffeine treatment appeared to be the major responses to alleviate stress and protect against developmental arrest.

  14. Dynamic Fracture of Nanocomposites and Response of Fiber Composite Panels to Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arun

    2009-06-01

    This lecture will present studies on the response of novel engineering materials to extreme dynamic loadings. In particular, the talk will focus on the behavior of sandwich composite materials to shock loading and dynamic fracture of nano-composite materials. Results from an experimental study on the response of sandwich materials to controlled blast loading will be presented. In this study, a shock tube facility was utilized to apply blast loading to simply supported plates of E-glass vinyl ester/PVC foam sandwich composite materials. Pressure sensors were mounted at the end of the muzzle section of the shock tube to measure the incident pressure and the reflected pressure profiles during the experiment. A high speed digital camera was utilized to capture the real time side deformation of the materials, as well as the development and progression of damage. Macroscopic and microscopic examination was then implemented to study the post-mortem damage. Conclusions on the relative performance of sandwich composites under blast loadings will also be discussed. Results from an experimental investigation conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of novel materials fabricated using nano sized particles in polymer matrix will also be presented. Unsaturated polyester resin specimens embedded with small loadings of nano sized particles of TiO2 and Al2O3 were fabricated using a direct ultrasonification method to study the effects of nanosized particles on nanocomposite fracture properties. The ultrasonification method employed produced nanocomposites with excellent particle dispersion as verified by TEM. Experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamic crack initiation and rapid crack propagation in theses particle reinforced materials. High-speed digital imaging was employed along with dynamic photoelasticity to obtain real time, full-field quantification of the stress field associated with the dynamic fracture process. Birefringent coatings were used to conduct

  15. LDH inhibition impacts on heat shock response and induces senescence of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Govoni, Marzia; Roberti, Marinella; Recanatini, Maurizio; Di Stefano, Giuseppina

    2017-07-15

    In normal cells, heat shock response (HSR) is rapidly induced in response to a variety of harmful conditions and represents one of the most efficient defense mechanism. In cancer tissues, constitutive activation converts HSR into a life-threatening process, which plays a major role in helping cell survival and proliferation. Overexpression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) has been widely reported in human cancers and was found to correlate with tumor progression. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the conditions in which HSR activation was shown to have the highest clinical significance. Transcription of HSPs is induced by HSF-1, which also activates glycolytic metabolism and increases the expression of LDH-A, the master regulator of the Warburg effect. In this paper, we tried to explore the relationship between HSR and LDH-A. In cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells, by using two enzyme inhibitors (oxamate and galloflavin), we found that the reduction of LDH-A activity led to decreased level and function of the major HSPs involved in tumorigenesis. Galloflavin (a polyphenol) also inhibited the ATPase activity of two of the examined HSPs. Finally, hindering HSR markedly lowered the alpha-fetoprotein cellular levels and induced senescence. Specific inhibitors of single HSPs are currently under evaluation in different neoplastic diseases. However, one of the effects usually observed during treatment is a compensatory elevation of other HSPs, which decreases treatment efficacy. Our results highlight a connection between LDH and HSR and suggest LDH inhibition as a way to globally impact on this tumor promoting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull... boat hull. (a) The primary hull identification number must be affixed— (1) On boats with transoms, to... hull/deck joint, whichever is lowest. (2) On boats without transoms or on boats on which it would be...

  17. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow...

  18. LPS-induced delayed preconditioning is mediated by Hsp90 and involves the heat shock response in mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Kaucsár

    Full Text Available We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI. LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB, we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning.Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, i.p. and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, i.p. doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, i.p.. Controls received saline (C or NB.Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning.LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning.

  19. HULLED WHEAT FARMING IN DEVELI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  20. Effect of two volume responsiveness evaluation methods on fluid resuscitation and prognosis in septic shock patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Qianghong; Yan Jing; Cai Guolong; Chen Jin; Li Li; Hu Caibao

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the effect of different volume responsiveness evaluation methods on volume therapy results and prognosis.This study was carried out to investigate the effect of two volume responsiveness evaluation methods,stroke volume variation (SW) and stroke volume changes before and after passive leg raising (PLR-ASV),on fluid resuscitation and prognosis in septic shock patients.Methods Septic shock patients admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Zhejiang Hospital,China,from March 2011 to March 2013,who were under controlled ventilation and without arrhythmia,were studied.Patients were randomly assigned to the SVV group or the PLR-ASV group.The SVV group used the Pulse Indication Continuous Cardiac Output monitoring of SW,and responsiveness was defined as SW->12%.The PLR-ASV group used ASV before and after PLR as the indicator,and responsiveness was defined as ASV >15%.Six hours after fluid resuscitation,changes in tissue perfusion indicators (lactate,lactate clearance rate,central venous oxygen saturation (SCVO2),base excess (BE)),organ function indicators (white blood cell count,neutrophil percentage,platelet count,total protein,albumin,alanine aminotransferase,total and direct bilirubin,blood urea nitrogen,serum creatinine,serum creatine kinase,oxygenation index),fluid balance (6-and 24-hour fluid input) and the use of cardiotonic drugs (dobutamine),prognostic indicators (the time and rate of achieving early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) standards,duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit stay,and 28-day mortality) were observed.Results Six hours after fluid resuscitation,there were no significant differences in temperature,heart rate,blood pressure,SpO2,organ function indicators,or tissue perfusion indicators between the two groups (P >0.06).The 6-and 24-hour fluid input was slightly less in the SW group than in the PLR-ASV group,but the difference was not statistically significant (P >0

  1. Laser-excited optical emission response of CdTe quantum dot/polymer nanocomposite under shock compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Pan [LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Kang, Zhitao; Summers, Christopher J. [Phosphor Technology Center of Excellence, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0826 (United States); Bansihev, Alexandr A.; Christensen, James M.; Dlott, Dana D. [School of Chemical Sciences and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Breidenich, Jennifer; Scripka, David A.; Thadhani, Naresh N. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Zhou, Min, E-mail: min.zhou@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Laser-driven shock compression experiments and corresponding finite element method simulations are carried out to investigate the blueshift in the optical emission spectra under continuous laser excitation of a dilute composite consisting of 0.15% CdTe quantum dots by weight embedded in polyvinyl alcohol polymer. This material is a potential candidate for use as internal stress sensors. The analyses focus on the time histories of the wavelength blue-shift for shock loading with pressures up to 7.3 GPa. The combined measurements and calculations allow a relation between the wavelength blueshift and pressure for the loading conditions to be extracted. It is found that the blueshift first increases with pressure to a maximum and subsequently decreases with pressure. This trend is different from the monotonic increase of blueshift with pressure observed under conditions of quasistatic hydrostatic compression. Additionally, the blueshift in the shock experiments is much smaller than that in hydrostatic experiments at the same pressure levels. The differences in responses are attributed to the different stress states achieved in the shock and hydrostatic experiments and the time dependence of the mechanical response of the polymer in the composite. The findings offer a potential guide for the design and development of materials for internal stress sensors for shock conditions.

  2. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  3. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  4. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Oenococcus oeni PSU-1 response to ethanol shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Nair; Champomier-Vergès, Marie; Anglade, Patricia; Baraige, Fabienne; Cordero-Otero, Ricardo; Bordons, Albert; Zagorec, Monique; Reguant, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    The correct development of malolactic fermentation depends on the capacity of Oenococcus oeni to survive under harsh wine conditions. The presence of ethanol is one of the most stressful factors affecting O. oeni performance. In this study, the effect of ethanol addition (12% vol/vol) on O. oeni PSU-1 has been evaluated using a transcriptomic and proteomic approach. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the main functional categories of the genes affected by ethanol were metabolite transport and cell wall and membrane biogenesis. It was also observed that some genes were over-expressed in response to ethanol stress (for example, the heat shock protein Hsp20 and a dipeptidase). Proteomic analysis showed that several proteins are affected by the presence of ethanol. Functions related to protein synthesis and stability are the main target of ethanol damage. In some cases the decrease in protein concentration could be due to the relocation of cytosolic proteins in the membrane, as a protective mechanism. The omic approach used to study the response of O. oeni to ethanol highlights the importance of the cell membrane in the global stress response and opens the door to future studies on this issue.

  5. A novel computational approach of image analysis to quantify behavioural response to heat shock in Chironomus Ramosus larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimalendu B. Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All living cells respond to temperature stress through coordinated cellular, biochemical and molecular events known as “heat shock response” and its genetic basis has been found to be evolutionarily conserved. Despite marked advances in stress research, this ubiquitous heat shock response has never been analysed quantitatively at the whole organismal level using behavioural correlates. We have investigated behavioural response to heat shock in a tropical midge Chironomus ramosus Chaudhuri, Das and Sublette. The filter-feeding aquatic Chironomus larvae exhibit characteristic undulatory movement. This innate pattern of movement was taken as a behavioural parameter in the present study. We have developed a novel computer-aided image analysis tool “Chiro” for the quantification of behavioural responses to heat shock. Behavioural responses were quantified by recording the number of undulations performed by each larva per unit time at a given ambient temperature. Quantitative analysis of undulation frequency was carried out and this innate behavioural pattern was found to be modulated as a function of ambient temperature. Midge larvae are known to be bioindicators of aquatic environments. Therefore, the “Chiro” technique can be tested using other potential biomonitoring organisms obtained from natural aquatic habitats using undulatory motion as a behavioural parameter.

  6. Dissipation of proton motive force is not sufficient to induce the phage shock protein response in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engl, C.; ter Beek, A.; Bekker, M.; Teixeira De Mattos, J.; Jovanovic, G.; Buck, M.

    2011-01-01

    Phage shock proteins (Psp) and their homologues are found in species from the three domains of life: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya (e.g. higher plants). In enterobacteria, the Psp response helps to maintain the proton motive force (PMF) of the cell when the inner membrane integrity is impaired. The

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  8. A "Surprising Shock" in the Cathedral: Getting Year 7 to Vocalise Responses to the Murder of Thomas Becket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Mary Partridge wanted her pupils not only to become more aware of competing and contrasting voices in the past, but to understand how historians orchestrate those voices. Using Edward Grim's eye-witness account of Thomas Becket's murder, her Year 7 pupils explored nuances in the word "shocking" as a way of distinguishing the responses of…

  9. Comparative physiology and transcriptional networks underlying the heat shock response in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, David [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Karve, Abhijit A [ORNL; Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Jawdy, Sara [ORNL; Allen, Sara M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The heat shock response continues to be layered with additional complexity as interactions and crosstalk among heat shock proteins (HSPs), the reactive oxygen network and hormonal signalling are discovered. However, comparative analyses exploring variation in each of these processes among species remain relatively unexplored. In controlled environment experiments, photosynthetic response curves were conducted from 22 to 42 C and indicated that temperature optimum of light-saturated photosynthesis was greater for Glycine max relative to Arabidopsis thaliana or Populus trichocarpa. Transcript profiles were taken at defined states along the temperature response curves, and inferred pathway analysis revealed species-specific variation in the abiotic stress and the minor carbohydrate raffinose/galactinol pathways. A weighted gene co-expression network approach was used to group individual genes into network modules linking biochemical measures of the antioxidant system to leaf-level photosynthesis among P. trichocarpa, G. max and A. thaliana. Network-enabled results revealed an expansion in the G. max HSP17 protein family and divergence in the regulation of the antioxidant and heat shock modules relative to P. trichocarpa and A. thaliana. These results indicate that although the heat shock response is highly conserved, there is considerable species-specific variation in its regulation.

  10. 响应面法优化大豆种皮果胶的酸提取工艺%The optimum acid-extraction conditions of soybean hull pectin by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许旭; 杨桃; 陈新

    2013-01-01

      通过响应面分析法对大豆种皮中果胶的提取工艺进行优化.利用响应面实验设计考察pH值、提取温度、提取时间、和液料比四个因素对果胶得率的影响,探讨果胶提取的最佳工艺条件.通过响应面实验得出,pH值、液料比对果胶得率有显著影响,大豆种皮果胶提取的最佳工艺条为:pH1.54、提取温度89.9℃、提取时间90 min,果胶最大得率为8.37%.%To optimize the extraction process of the soybean hull pectin by response surface methodology .The influ-ence factors of extraction temperature,pH of HCl solution,extraction time and liquid-solid ratio were evaluated using a fractional design,to explore the optimum conditions of pectin extract .Obtained by experiment,both the pH of HCl solution and liquid -solid ratio had significant effects on the extraction rate ,the optimum conditions of pectin ex-traction were pH of HCl solution 1.54,extraction temperature 89.9℃,extraction time 90 min,liquid-solid ratio14, and the optimal pectin yield is 8.37%.

  11. Scaling impact and shock-compression response for porous materials: Application to planetary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.

    2016-12-01

    A thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state does a good job of describing the response of porous materials to impact, so can provide insights into the accretion and cohesion of planetesimals too small to be significantly held together by gravity (e.g., tens of km or less in average diameter). The model identifies an offset in Hugoniot pressure (∆PH) due to porosity that is found to be in agreement with experimental shock-compression measurements for samples having a wide range of initial porosities. Assuming the Grüneisen parameter (γ) is proportional to volume (γ/V = constant), the relative offset in Hugoniot pressure as a function of initial porosity (φ = 1 - V0/V0por) and compression (η = 1 - V/V0) is ∆PH/PH = γ0 φ/[2(1 - φ) - γ0 (φ + η(1 - φ))] where subscripts 0 and por represent zero-pressure (non-porous) conditions and a porous sample, respectively. This additional thermal pressure at a given volume is due to the extra internal energy and corresponding temperature increase associated with collapsing pores (Fig. 1: near-identical curves for φ = 0.001 and 0.01). This result can be interpreted as indicating that upon collapse individual pores create hot spots with temperatures of order 103-104K above the background, suggesting that impact into an initially porous target can result in cohesion due to partial melting and vaporization. Moreover, the waste heat associated with pore closure far exceeds the dissipation in shock loading of non-porous material, reflecting the ability of a porous target to absorb and dissipate impact energy. The Mie-Grüneisen model along with analysis of waste heat thus provides a scaling for planetesimal impact that might explain how rock and regolith accrete into a gravitationally bound planet. Fig. 1. Porosity-induced anomaly in Hugoniot temperature per unit of porosity, shown as a function of compression for samples with initial porosity φ = 0.001 (green), 0.01 (blue) and 0.1 (gold

  12. Heat-shock-induced cellular responses to temperature elevations occurring during orthopaedic cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, E. B.; Haugh, M. G.; Tallon, D.; Casey, C.; McNamara, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Severe heat-shock to bone cells caused during orthopaedic procedures can result in thermal damage, leading to cell death and initiating bone resorption. By contrast, mild heat-shock has been proposed to induce bone regeneration. In this study, bone cells are exposed to heat-shock for short durations occurring during surgical cutting. Cellular viability, necrosis and apoptosis are investigated immediately after heat-shock and following recovery of 12, 24 h and 4 days, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 ...

  13. Heat shock protein translocation and expression response is attenuated in response to repeated eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Bayer, M.L.; Overgaard, K.

    2009-01-01

    and cytoskeletal protein fractions. The first bout of exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P ... weeks between bouts, and were compared with a control group (n = 6). Muscle biopsies collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3 h, 24 h and 7 days after exercise were quantified for mRNA levels and/or for HSP27, alpha beta-crystallin and inducible HSP70 content in cytosolic...... eccentric exercise bout. Our results show that HSP translocation and expression responses are induced by muscle damaging exercise, and suggest that such HSP responses are closely related to the extent of muscle damage Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...

  14. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in HSP70 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in heat shock response (HSR) were studied in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) collected from young (mean age = 22.6 +/- 1.7 years) and middle-aged (mean age = 56.3 +/- 4.7 years) subjects after 1 hour of heat shock at 42 degrees C. Genotype-specific HSR...... was measured by genotyping the subjects for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A(A-110C), HSPA1B(A1267G), and HSPA1L(T2437C), 1 each in the 3 HSP70 genes. A significant age-related decrease in the induction of Hsp70 occurred after heat shock in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The noninducible...

  15. Close correlation between heat shock response and cytotoxicity in Neurospora crassa treated with aliphatic alcohols and phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U.; Schweim, P.; Fracella, F.; Rensing, L. [Univ. of Bremen (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    In Neurospora crassa the aliphatic alcohols methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, and allyl alcohol and the phenolic compounds phenol, hydroquinone, resorcinol, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid were analyzed with respect to their capacities to induce heat shock proteins (HSP) and to inhibit protein synthesis. Both the alcohols and phenols showed the greatest levels of HSP induction at concentrations which inhibited the overall protein synthesis by about 50%. The abilities of the different alcohols to induce the heat shock response are proportional to their lipophilicities: the lipophilic alcohol isobutanol is maximally inductive at about 0.6 M, whereas the least lipophilic alcohol, methanol, causes maximal induction at 5.7 M. The phenols, in general, show a higher capability to induce the heat shock response. The concentrations for maximal induction range between 25 mM (sodium salicylate) and 100 mM (resorcinol). Glycerol (4.1 M) shifted the concentration necessary for maximal HSP induction by hydroquinone from 50 to 200 mM. The results reveal that the induction of HSP occurs under conditions which considerably constrain cell metabolism. The heat shock response, therefore, does not represent a sensitive marker for toxicity tests but provides a good estimate for the extent of cell damage.

  16. Role of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species in the modulation of heat shock protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, S; Dimauro, I; Mercatelli, N; Caporossi, D

    2014-01-01

    The multiple roles that have been associated with heat shock proteins (HSPs), inside and outside cells are remarkable. HSPs have been found to play a fundamental role in multiple stress conditions and to offer protection from subsequent insults. Exercise, because of the physiological stresses associated with it, is one of the main stimuli associated with a robust increase of different HSPs in several tissues. Given the combination of physiological stresses induced by exercise, and the 'cross-talk' that occurs between signaling pathways in different tissues, it is likely that exercise induces the HSP expression through a combination of 'stressors', among which reactive oxygen species (ROS) could play a major role. Indeed, although an imbalance between ROS production and antioxidant levels results in oxidative stress, causing damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids with a possible activation of the programed cell death pathway, at moderate concentrations ROS play an important role as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Many of the ROS-mediated responses actually protect the cells against oxidative stress and re-establish redox homeostasis. The aim of this review is to provide a critical update on the role of exercise-induced ROS in the modulation of the HSP's response, focusing on experimental results from animal and human studies where the link between redox homeostasis and HSPs' expression in different tissues has been addressed.

  17. The oxygen reduction pathway and heat shock stress response are both required for Entamoeba histolytica pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivos-García, Alfonso; Saavedra, Emma; Nequiz, Mario; Santos, Fabiola; Luis-García, Erika Rubí; Gudiño, Marco; Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2016-05-01

    Several species belonging to the genus Entamoeba can colonize the mouth or the human gut; however, only Entamoeba histolytica is pathogenic to the host, causing the disease amoebiasis. This illness is responsible for one hundred thousand human deaths per year worldwide, affecting mainly underdeveloped countries. Throughout its entire life cycle and invasion of human tissues, the parasite is constantly subjected to stress conditions. Under in vitro culture, this microaerophilic parasite can tolerate up to 5 % oxygen concentrations; however, during tissue invasion the parasite has to cope with the higher oxygen content found in well-perfused tissues (4-14 %) and with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species derived from both host and parasite. In this work, the role of the amoebic oxygen reduction pathway (ORP) and heat shock response (HSP) are analyzed in relation to E. histolytica pathogenicity. The data suggest that in contrast with non-pathogenic E. dispar, the higher level of ORP and HSPs displayed by E. histolytica enables its survival in tissues by diminishing and detoxifying intracellular oxidants and repairing damaged proteins to allow metabolic fluxes, replication and immune evasion.

  18. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  19. The heat shock response plays an important role in TDP-43 clearance: evidence for dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Jou; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Novoselov, Sergey; Miller, Jack; Nishimura, Agnes L; Scotter, Emma L; Vance, Caroline A; Cheetham, Michael E; Shaw, Christopher E

    2016-05-01

    Detergent-resistant, ubiquitinated and hyperphosphorylated Tar DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions are the pathological hallmark in ∼95% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ∼60% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. We sought to explore the role for the heat shock response in the clearance of insoluble TDP-43 in a cellular model of disease and to validate our findings in transgenic mice and human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis tissues. The heat shock response is a stress-responsive protective mechanism regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which increases the expression of chaperones that refold damaged misfolded proteins or facilitate their degradation. Here we show that manipulation of the heat shock response by expression of dominant active HSF1 results in a dramatic reduction of insoluble and hyperphosphorylated TDP-43 that enhances cell survival, whereas expression of dominant negative HSF1 leads to enhanced TDP-43 aggregation and hyperphosphorylation. To determine which chaperones were mediating TDP-43 clearance we over-expressed a range of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and identified DNAJB2a (encoded by DNAJB2, and also known as HSJ1a) as a potent anti-aggregation chaperone for TDP-43. DNAJB2a has a J domain, allowing it to interact with HSP70, and ubiquitin interacting motifs, which enable it to engage the degradation of its client proteins. Using functionally deleted DNAJB2a constructs we demonstrated that TDP-43 clearance was J domain-dependent and was not affected by ubiquitin interacting motif deletion or proteasome inhibition. This indicates that TDP-43 is maintained in a soluble state by DNAJB2a, leaving the total levels of TDP-43 unchanged. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the levels of HSF1 and heat shock proteins are significantly reduced in affected neuronal tissues from a TDP-43 transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and patients with

  20. Deployment of Lightweight Shock Mitigating Boat Manufacturing Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    VARTM Hull 1267 760 Deck 702 399 Console 540 350 Total 2509 1509 % Current 100% 60% % Savings - 40% Deployment of Lightweight Shock Mitigating...1430 47 Weight Evaluation- Baseline Boat Weights (lb) Segment Baseline 850 A 850 B 850 B-OM Fabrication Method Open Mold Open Mold VARTM Open...Segment Baseline 850 A 850 B 850 B-OM Fabrication Method Open Mold Open Mold VARTM Open Mold Hull 1115 843 717 789 Deck 665 587 481 529

  1. Individual responsiveness to shock and colony-level aggression in honey bees: evidence for a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Arian; Rodríguez-Cruz, Yoselyn; Giray, Tugrul

    2014-05-01

    The phenotype of the social group is related to phenotypes of individuals that form that society. We examined how honey bee colony aggressiveness relates to individual response of male drones and foraging workers. Although the natural focus in colony aggression has been on the worker caste, the sterile females engaged in colony maintenance and defense, males carry the same genes. We measured aggressiveness scores of colonies and examined components of individual aggressive behavior in workers and haploid sons of workers from the same colony. We describe for the first time, that males, although they have no stinger, do bend their abdomen (abdominal flexion) in a posture similar to stinging behavior of workers in response to electric shock. Individual worker sting response and movement rates in response to shock were significantly correlated with colony scores. In the case of drones, sons of workers from the same colonies, abdominal flexion significantly correlated but their movement rates did not correlate with colony aggressiveness. Furthermore, the number of workers responding at increasing levels of voltage exhibits a threshold-like response, whereas the drones respond in increasing proportion to shock. We conclude that there are common and caste-specific components to aggressive behavior in honey bees. We discuss implications of these results on social and behavioral regulation and genetics of aggressive response.

  2. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... analyses, it is shown that the influence of torsion induced warping stresses on the ultimate hull girder bending strength is small for ductile hull materials while torsion induced shear stresses will of course reduce the ship hull ultimate bending moment....

  3. Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23% and KASHO-2 (0.11%. Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments.doi:10.5219/272

  4. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eBernardini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained S. maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on efflux pumps' overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457.. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia.

  5. Dynamic response and residual stress fields of Ti6Al4V alloy under shock wave induced by laser shock peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Li, Liuhe; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Lixin; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng; Li, Bo; Guo, Chao; Liu, Lei; Che, Zhigang; Li, Weidong; Sun, Jianfei; Qiao, Hongchao

    2017-09-01

    Laser shock peening (LSP), an innovative surface treatment technique, generates compressive residual stress on the surface of metallic components to improve their fatigue performance, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. To illustrate the dynamic response during LSP and residual stress fields after LSP, this study conducted FEM simulations of LSP in a Ti6Al4V alloy. Results showed that when power density was 7 GW cm-2, a plastic deformation occurred at 10 ns during LSP and increased until the shock pressure decayed below the dynamic yield strength of Ti6Al4V after 60 ns. A maximum tensile region appeared beneath the surface at around 240 ns, forming a compressive-tensile-compressive stress sandwich structure with a thickness of 98, 1020 and 606 μm for each layer. After the model became stabilized, the value of the surface residual compressive stress was 564 MPa at the laser spot center. Higher value of residual stress across the surface and thicker compressive residual stress layers were achieved by increasing laser power density, impact times and spot sizes during LSP. A ‘Residual stress hole’ occurred with a high laser power density of 9 GW cm-2 when laser pulse duration was 10 ns, or with a long laser pulse duration of 20 ns when laser power density was 7 GW cm-2 for Ti6Al4V. This phenomenon occurred because of the permanent reverse plastic deformation generated at laser spot center.

  6. Noah, Joseph and Convex Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, N. W.; Chau, Y.; Chapman, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The idea of describing animal movement by mathematical models based on diffusion and Brownian motion has a long heritage. It has thus been natural to account for those aspects of motion that depart from the Brownian by the use of models incorporating long memory & subdiffusion (“the Joseph effect”) and/or heavy tails & superdiffusion (“the Noah effect”). My own interest in this problem was originally from a geoscience perspective, and was triggered by the need to model time series in space physics where both effects coincide. Subsequently I have been involved in animal foraging studies [e.g. Edwards et al, Nature, 2007]. I will describe some recent work [Watkins et al, PRE, 2009] which studies how fixed-timestep and variable-timestep formulations of anomalous diffusion are related in the presence of heavy tails and long range memory (stable processes versus the CTRW). Quantities for which different scaling relations are predicted between the two approaches are of particular interest, to aid testability. I will also present some of work in progress on the convex hull of anomalously diffusing walkers, inspired by its possible relevance to the idea of home range in biology, and by Randon-Furling et al’s recent analytical results in the Brownian case [PRL, 2009].

  7. Convex Hulls of Algebraic Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Gouveia, João

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a method to compute successive convex approximations of the convex hull of a set of points in R^n that are the solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the reals. The method relies on sums of squares of polynomials and the dual theory of moment matrices. The main feature of the technique is that all computations are done modulo the ideal generated by the polynomials defining the set to the convexified. This work was motivated by questions raised by Lov\\'asz concerning extensions of the theta body of a graph to arbitrary real algebraic varieties, and hence the relaxations described here are called theta bodies. The convexification process can be seen as an incarnation of Lasserre's hierarchy of convex relaxations of a semialgebraic set in R^n. When the defining ideal is real radical the results become especially nice. We provide several examples of the method and discuss convergence issues. Finite convergence, especially after the first step of the method, can be described expl...

  8. Comparative shock response of additively manufactured versus conventionally wrought 304L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Adams, D. P.; Nishida, E. E.; Song, B.; Maguire, M. C.; Carroll, J.; Reedlunn, B.; Bishop, J. E.; Palmer, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the compression and release behavior of impact-loaded 304L stainless steel specimens that were machined from additively manufactured (AM) blocks as well as baseline ingot-derived bar stock. The AM technology permits direct fabrication of net- or near-net-shape metal parts. For the present investigation, velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response for one-dimensional (i.e., uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the comparative Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, spall strength, and high-pressure yield strength of the AM and conventional materials. The possible contributions of various factors, such as composition, porosity, microstructure (e.g., grain size and morphology), residual stress, and/or sample axis orientation relative to the additive manufacturing deposition trajectory, are considered to explain differences between the AM and baseline 304L dynamic material results.

  9. Shock Compression Response of the Light Noble Gases: Neon and Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth; Shulenburger, Luke; Cochrane, Kyle; Lopez, Andrew; Shelton, Keegan; Villalva, Jose; Mattsson, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Understanding material behavior at extreme conditions is important to a wide range of processes in planetary astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Modeling the high pressure - high temperature processes requires robust equations of state (EOS). For many materials, EOS models have been developed using low-pressure Hugoniot data. Assumptions are made to extrapolate the EOS models to Mbar pressure regimes, leading to different model behavior at extreme conditions. In this work, we examine the high pressure response of the light noble gases: neon and helium in the multi-Mbar regime. We perform a series of shock compression experiments using Sandia's Z-Machine on cryogenically cooled liquids of Ne (26 K) and He (2.2 K) to measure the Hugoniot and reshock states. In parallel, we use density functional theory methods to calculate the Hugoniot and reshock states. The experiments validated the DFT simulations and the combined experimental and simulation results are used to assess the EOS models. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Managing membrane stress: the phage shock protein (Psp) response, from molecular mechanisms to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Nicolas; Engl, Christoph; Jovanovic, Goran; Huvet, Maxime; Toni, Tina; Sheng, Xia; Stumpf, Michael P H; Buck, Martin

    2010-09-01

    The bacterial phage shock protein (Psp) response functions to help cells manage the impacts of agents impairing cell membrane function. The system has relevance to biotechnology and to medicine. Originally discovered in Escherichia coli, Psp proteins and homologues are found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, in archaea and in plants. Study of the E. coli and Yersinia enterocolitica Psp systems provides insights into how membrane-associated sensory Psp proteins might perceive membrane stress, signal to the transcription apparatus and use an ATP-hydrolysing transcription activator to produce effector proteins to overcome the stress. Progress in understanding the mechanism of signal transduction by the membrane-bound Psp proteins, regulation of the psp gene-specific transcription activator and the cell biology of the system is presented and discussed. Many features of the action of the Psp system appear to be dominated by states of self-association of the master effector, PspA, and the transcription activator, PspF, alongside a signalling pathway that displays strong conditionality in its requirement.

  11. Experimental study of frost heaving force based on transient shock response using piezoceramic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruolin; Peng, Tongxiao; Wang, Ming L.

    2016-04-01

    In seasonally frozen soil regions, the frost heaving problem made it difficult to monitor or evaluate the pile safety for long term. So far, no mature tool can be utilized to monitor the frost heaving force, which was unevenly distributed along the pile. In this paper, a piezoceramic sensing based transient excitation response approach was proposed to monitor the frost heaving force in real time. Freeze-thaw cycles can result in great changes of soil engineering properties, including the frost heaving force. So, the freeze-thaw cycle was repeated fourth to study its effect. In the experiment, transient horizontal shock on the top of the pile will be detected by the 6 PZT sensors glued on the pile. The signal data received by the 6 PZT sensors can be used to illustrate the frost heaving force distribution along the pile. Moisture content effect is also one of the important reasons that cause the variation of soil mechanical properties. So three different moisture content (6%, 12%, 18%) testing soil were used in this experiment to detect the variance of the frost heaving force. An energy indicator was developed to quantitatively evaluate the frost heaving force applied on the pile. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was effective in monitoring the uneven distribution of frost heaving force along the pile.

  12. Heat shock protein 90 in plants: molecular mechanisms and roles in stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhao-Shi; Li, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Yang; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

    2012-11-23

    The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) family mediates stress signal transduction, and plays important roles in the control of normal growth of human cells and in promoting development of tumor cells. Hsp90s have become a currently important subject in cellular immunity, signal transduction, and anti-cancer research. Studies on the physiological functions of Hsp90s began much later in plants than in animals and fungi. Significant progress has been made in understanding complex mechanisms of HSP90s in plants, including ATPase-coupled conformational changes and interactions with cochaperone proteins. A wide range of signaling proteins interact with HSP90s. Recent studies revealed that plant Hsp90s are important in plant development, environmental stress response, and disease and pest resistance. In this study, the plant HSP90 family was classified into three clusters on the basis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, and biological functions. We discuss the molecular functions of Hsp90s, and systematically review recent progress of Hsp90 research in plants.

  13. Effects of heat shock, stannous chloride, and gallium nitrate on the rat inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, S D; Guidon, P T; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Kyriakos, R; Bockman, R S; Mistry, T; Gallagher, R A; Hightower, L E

    2001-04-01

    Heat and a variety of other stressors cause mammalian cells and tissues to acquire cytoprotection. This transient state of altered cellular physiology is nonproliferative and antiapoptotic. In this study, male Wistar rats were stress conditioned with either stannous chloride or gallium nitrate, which have immunosuppressive effects in vivo and in vitro, or heat shock, the most intensively studied inducer of cytoprotection. The early stages of inflammation in response to topical suffusion of mesentery tissue with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were monitored using intravital microscopy. Microvascular hemodynamics (venular diameter, red blood cell velocity [Vrbc], white blood cell [WBC] flux, and leukocyte-endothelial adhesion [LEA]) were used as indicators of inflammation, and tissue levels of inducible Hsp70, determined using immunoblot assays, provided a marker of cytoprotection. None of the experimental treatments blocked decreases in WBC flux during FMLP suffusion, an indicator of increased low-affinity interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelium known as rolling adhesion. During FMLP suffusion LEA, an indicator of firm attachment between leukocytes and vascular endothelial cells increased in placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals but not in heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, an anti-inflammatory effect. Hsp70 was not detected in aortic tissue from placebo and gallium nitrate-treated animals, indicating that Hsp70-dependent cytoprotection was not present. In contrast, Hsp70 was detected in aortic tissues from heat- and stannous chloride-treated animals, indicating that these tissues were in a cytoprotected state that was also an anti-inflammatory state.

  14. Shock tube investigation of dynamic response of pressure transducers for validation of rotor performance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershader, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    For some time now, NASA has had a program under way to aid in the validation of rotor performance and acoustics codes associated with the UH-60 rotary-wing aircraft; and to correlate results of such studies with those obtained from investigations of other selected aircraft rotor performance. A central feature of these studies concerns the dynamic measurement of surface pressure at various locations up to frequencies of 25 KHz. For this purpose, fast-response gauges of the Kulite type are employed. The latter need to be buried in the rotor; they record surface pressures which are transmitted by a pipette connected to the gauge. The other end of the pipette is cut flush with the surface. In certain locations, the pipette configuration includes a rather sharp right-angle bend. The natural question has arisen in this connection: In what way are the pipettes modifying the signals received at the rotor surface and subsequently transmitted to the sensitive Kulite transducer element. The basic details and results of the program performed and recently completed in the High Pressure Shock Tube Laboratory of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University are given.

  15. Heat Shock Protein 90 in Plants: Molecular Mechanisms and Roles in Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Zhi Ma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 family mediates stress signal transduction, and plays important roles in the control of normal growth of human cells and in promoting development of tumor cells. Hsp90s have become a currently important subject in cellular immunity, signal transduction, and anti-cancer research. Studies on the physiological functions of Hsp90s began much later in plants than in animals and fungi. Significant progress has been made in understanding complex mechanisms of HSP90s in plants, including ATPase-coupled conformational changes and interactions with cochaperone proteins. A wide range of signaling proteins interact with HSP90s. Recent studies revealed that plant Hsp90s are important in plant development, environmental stress response, and disease and pest resistance. In this study, the plant HSP90 family was classified into three clusters on the basis of phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, and biological functions. We discuss the molecular functions of Hsp90s, and systematically review recent progress of Hsp90 research in plants.

  16. Development of a General Shocked-Materials-Response Description for Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven M. Valone

    2000-07-01

    This report outlines broad modeling issues pertaining to polymeric materials behavior under detonation conditions. Models applicable system wide are necessary to cope with the broad range of polymers and complex composite forms that can appear in Laboratory weapons systems. Nine major topics are discussed to span the breadth of materials, forms, and physical phenomena encountered when shocking polymers and foams over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, shock strengths, confinement conditions, and geometries. The recommendations for directions of more intensive investigation consider physical fidelity, computational complexity, and application over widely varying physical conditions of temperature, pressure, and shock strength.

  17. Strategies of experiment standardization and response optimization in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock and chronic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Penny S; Tamariz, Francisco J; Barbee, Robert Wayne

    2010-04-01

    Exploratory pilot studies are crucial to best practice in research but are frequently conducted without a systematic method for maximizing the amount and quality of information obtained. We describe the use of response surface regression models and simultaneous optimization methods to develop a rat model of hemorrhagic shock in the context of chronic hypertension, a clinically relevant comorbidity. Response surface regression model was applied to determine optimal levels of two inputs--dietary NaCl concentration (0.49%, 4%, and 8%) and time on the diet (4, 6, 8 weeks)--to achieve clinically realistic and stable target measures of systolic blood pressure while simultaneously maximizing critical oxygen delivery (a measure of vulnerability to hemorrhagic shock) and body mass M. Simultaneous optimization of the three response variables was performed though a dimensionality reduction strategy involving calculation of a single aggregate measure, the "desirability" function. Optimal conditions for inducing systolic blood pressure of 208 mmHg, critical oxygen delivery of 4.03 mL/min, and M of 290 g were determined to be 4% [NaCl] for 5 weeks. Rats on the 8% diet did not survive past 7 weeks. Response surface regression model and simultaneous optimization method techniques are commonly used in process engineering but have found little application to date in animal pilot studies. These methods will ensure both the scientific and ethical integrity of experimental trials involving animals and provide powerful tools for the development of novel models of clinically interacting comorbidities with shock.

  18. RhoA Activation Sensitizes Cells to Proteotoxic Stimuli by Abrogating the HSF1-Dependent Heat Shock Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelien A M Meijering

    Full Text Available The heat shock response (HSR is an ancient and highly conserved program of stress-induced gene expression, aimed at reestablishing protein homeostasis to preserve cellular fitness. Cells that fail to activate or maintain this protective response are hypersensitive to proteotoxic stress. The HSR is mediated by the heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1, which binds to conserved heat shock elements (HSE in the promoter region of heat shock genes, resulting in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP. Recently, we observed that hyperactivation of RhoA conditions cardiomyocytes for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Also, the HSR is annihilated in atrial fibrillation, and induction of HSR mitigates sensitization of cells to this disease. Therefore, we hypothesized active RhoA to suppress the HSR resulting in sensitization of cells for proteotoxic stimuli.Stimulation of RhoA activity significantly suppressed the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR in HL-1 atrial cardiomyocytes as determined with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the HSF1 regulated human HSP70 (HSPA1A promoter and HSP protein expression by Western Blot analysis. Inversely, RhoA inhibition boosted the proteotoxic stress-induced HSR. While active RhoA did not preclude HSF1 nuclear accumulation, phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation, it did impair binding of HSF1 to the hsp genes promoter element HSE. Impaired binding results in suppression of HSP expression and sensitized cells to proteotoxic stress.These results reveal that active RhoA negatively regulates the HSR via attenuation of the HSF1-HSE binding and thus may play a role in sensitizing cells to proteotoxic stimuli.

  19. Theoretical study of the porosity effects on the shock response of graphitic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineau Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a theoretical study of the shock compression of porous graphite by means of combined Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations using the LCBOPII potential. The results show that the Hugoniostat methods can be used with “pole” properties calculated from porous models to reproduce the experimental Hugoniot of pure graphite and diamond with good accuracy. The computed shock temperatures show a sharp increase for weak shocks which we analyze as the heating associated with the closure of the initial porosity. After this initial phase, the temperature increases with shock intensity at a rate comparable to monocrystalline graphite and diamond. These simulations data can be exploited in view to build a full equation of state for use in hydrodynamic simulations.

  20. Heat-shock and stress response of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, M A

    1995-01-01

    Before and after a stress treatment, larval stages and adult worms of Haemonchus contortus were tested for the induction and expression of heat-shock proteins (HSPs) using immunoblot analysis with HSP70-and HSP65-specific monoclonal antibodies. Stress treatment or heat shock did not alter the signals obtained with these antibodies, but the amount of HSP70 differed between the successive stages. In addition, the different stages were metabolically labeled with [35S]-methionine during a temperature-shock or chemical treatment and proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The shocks resulted in an altered protein pattern. New was the de novo expression of a 20-kDa protein of adult worms after anthelmintic treatment.

  1. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Hung, SSO; Fangue, NA; Haller, L.; Verhille, CE; Zhao, J.; Todgham, AE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12....

  2. Silica Derived from Burned Rice Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. de Souza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new processes to obtain silica having high specific surface area from burned pre-treated rice hulls are presented and discussed. These procedures allow for the simultaneous recovery of biomass energy and the production of high quality silica at thermoelectric plants, without the risk of using corrosive substances in the burning process. The first method involves treatment of the hull with hot organic acid solutions before burning, the second with boiling water, both using an autoclave at temperatures close to150 °C, while the third method renders the hull fragile by treating it at 250 °C and reducing it to a fine powder before burning. The first two methods result in white amorphous silica that can show 500 m²/g of specific surface area. The third method, which does not remove the alkaline elements from the hull, produces an amorphous gray carbon-free powder whose specific surface area can be as high as 250 m²/g. An investigation of the specific surface area of the prepared silica indicates the alkaline elements are not mixed with silica in the hulls or combined as insoluble compounds. A comparison is made of these processes and the dissolution of silica by sodium hydroxide solutions is discussed.

  3. Theoretical insight into the heat shock response (HSR) regulation in Lactobacillus casei and L. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Zotta, Teresa; Iacumin, Lucilla; Reale, Anna

    2016-08-07

    The understanding of the heat shock response (HSR) in lactobacilli from a regulatory point of view is still limited, though an increased knowledge on the regulation of this central stress response can lead to improvements in the exploitation of these health promoting microorganisms. Therefore the aim of this in silico study, that is the first to be carried out for members of the Lactobacillus genus, was predicting how HSR influences cell functions in the food associated and probiotic species Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. To this purpose, thirteen whole genomes of these bacteria were analyzed to identify which genes involved in HSR are present. It was found that all the genomes share 25 HSR related genes, including those encoding protein repair systems, HSR repressors, HrcA and CtsR, and the positive regulators of HSR, alternative σ factors σ(32) and σ(24). Two genes encoding a σ(70)/σ(24) factor and a Lon protease, respectively, were found only in some genomes. The localization of the HSR regulators binding sites in genomes was analyzed in order to identify regulatory relationships driving HSR in these lactobacilli. It was observed that the binding site for the HrcA repressor is found upstream of the hrcA-grpE-dnaK-dnaJ and groES-groEL gene clusters, of two hsp genes, clpE, clpL and clpP, while the CtsR repressor binding site precedes the ctsR-clpC operon, clpB, clpE and clpP. Therefore the ClpE-ClpP protease complex is dually regulated by HrcA and CtsR. Consensus sequences for the promoters recognized by the HSR alternative σ factors were defined for L. casei and L. rhamnosus and were used in whole genome searches to identify the genes that are possibly regulated by these transcription factors and whose expression level is expected to increases in HSR. The results were validated by applying the same procedure of promoter consensus generation and whole genome search to an additional 11 species representative of the main Lactobacillus

  4. Response of a continuous biomethanation process to transient organic shock loads under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-04-15

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is a critical factor that controls the treatment efficiency and biogas production in anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, organic shock loads may cause significant process imbalances accompanied by a drop in pH and acid accumulation or even failure. This study investigated the response of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor to a series of transient organic shock loads of the substrate whey permeate, a high-strength organic wastewater from cheese making. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads of increasing magnitude (a one-day pulse of elevated feed organic concentration) under controlled (near 7) and uncontrolled pH conditions at a fixed HRT of 10 days. The reactor was resilient to up to a shock load of up to 8.0 g SCOD/L·d under controlled pH conditions but failed to recover from the serious imbalance caused by a 3.0-g SCOD/L·d shock load, thus indicating the critical effect of pH on system resilience. The acidified reactor was not restored by interrupted feeding under the acidic conditions that were formed (pH ≤ 4.5) but was successfully restored after pH adjustment to 7. The reactor subsequently reverted to continuous mode without pH control and showed a performance comparable to the stable performance at the design OLR of 1.0 g SCOD/L·d. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically in association with disturbances in the reactor conditions, whereas the archaeal community structure remained simple and less variable during the shock loading experiments. The structural shifts of the bacterial community were well correlated with the process performance changes, and performance recovery was generally accompanied by recovery of the bacterial community structure. The overall results suggest that the reactor pH, rather than simply acting as an accumulation of organic acids, had a crucial effect on the resilience and robustness of the microbial community and thus on the reactor performance under organic

  5. Response Regularity of Single-Hull Submarine Subject to the Bubble Pulsation Load%单壳体潜艇在气泡脉动载荷作用下的响应规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳永威; 王超; 朱枫; 王奂钧

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Geers and Hunter's Method of the bubble pulsation load in free field, the condition of free—field assumption was analyzed in this paper through the Kelvin Impulse Method. And the comparison of calculated results with the experimental data was carried out which indicated the validity of the algorithm. Analysis of different bubble responses of the simplified single-hull submarine structure shows that: when the distance between bubble and the structure is three times greater than bubble radius, the impact of structure to the bubble can be ignored; the response of structure subject to bubble pulsation can be solved effectively by the vibro-acoustic coupling method; under the low-frequency bubble pulsation load, the first-order and third-order vertical movement of the structure is aroused with the former as main style; when the first-order wet frequency of the structure differs from that of bubble pulsation with constant value, the trend of negative correlation is presented between the structure frequency and whip-like amplitude; when the frequency of bubble pulsation is close to the wet frequency of the structure, the peak of structure response appears.%基于Geers与Hunter提出的自由场气泡脉动载荷计算方法,利用开尔文冲量法分析气泡自由场假设成立的条件,并将简单结构的计算结果同试验值进行对比,验证了所用算法的有效性.通过对简化的单壳体潜艇结构在不同气泡工况下响应的求解分析,得出如下结论:当气泡与边界距离大于其半径的3倍时,可忽略结构对气泡运动的影响;声固耦合法可有效求解结构在气泡脉动下的响应;在低频气泡脉动载荷激励下,结构的一阶及三阶垂向运动被激起,且以一阶运动为主;结构一阶垂向湿频率与气泡脉动的频率相差一定时,结构频率与其鞭状运动幅度呈负相关趋势;当气泡脉动频率与结构湿频率接近时,结构的响应出现峰值.

  6. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed reactive oxygen species production mediates the (-schisandrin B-induced glutathione and heat shock responses in H9c2 cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that ROS arising from the CYP-catalyzed metabolism of (-Sch B elicit glutathione antioxidant and heat shock responses, thereby protecting against oxidant-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes.

  7. Effect of corrosion on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Van, Tuyen; Yang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik's probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

  8. Analytic Disks and the Projective Hull

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson Jr, H. Blaine; Wermer, John

    2008-01-01

    Let X be a complex manifold and c a simple closed curve in X. We address the question: What conditions on c ensure the existence of a 1-dimensional complex subvariety V with boundary c in X. When X = C^n, an answer to this question involves the polynomial hull of gamma. When X = P^n, complex projective space, the projective hull hat{c} of c comes into play. One always has V contained in hat{c}, and for analytic curves they conjecturally coincide. In this paper we establish an approximate anal...

  9. Short-term heat shock affects the course of immune response in Galleria mellonella naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertyporokh, Lidiia; Taszłow, Paulina; Samorek-Pieróg, Małgorzata; Wojda, Iwona

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate how exposition of infected insects to short-term heat shock affects the biochemical and molecular aspects of their immune response. Galleria mellonella larvae were exposed to 43°C for 15min, at the seventy second hour after natural infection with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. As a result, both qualitative and quantitative changes in hemolymph protein profiles, and among them infection-induced changes in the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), were observed. Heat shock differently affects the expression of the tested immune-related genes. It transiently inhibits expression of antifungal peptides gallerimycin and galiomicin in both the fat body and hemocytes of infected larvae. The same, although to a lesser extent, concerned apoLp-III gene expression and was observed directly after heat shock. Nevertheless, in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, apoLp-III expression was higher in comparison to unshocked larvae in the fat body but not in hemocytes, which was consistent with the higher amount of this protein detected in the hemolymph of the infected, shocked larvae. Furthermore, lysozyme-type activity was higher directly after heat shock, while antifungal activity was significantly higher also in larvae that had recovered from heat shock, in comparison to the respective values in their non-shocked, infected counterparts. These results show how changes in the external temperature modulate the immune response of G. mellonella suffering from infection with its natural pathogen B. bassiana.

  10. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by...

  11. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...-522), at: (a) Each piping connection dismantled on a routine basis; (b) Cargo discharge and...

  12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  13. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements of... for the purposes of sale, must identify that boat with two hull identification numbers that meet the...

  14. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for... the heating capacity to meet § 154.174(b)(2) or § 154.176(b)(2); (b) Have stand-by heating to...

  15. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  16. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this... construction of the contiguous steel hull structure must meet the thickness and steel grade in Table 1 for...

  17. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and...

  18. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general...

  19. Role of the ribosome-associated protein PY in the cold-shock response of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Brandi, Anna; Dzeladini, Nadire; Fabbretti, Attilio; Carzaniga, Thomas; Piersimoni, Lolita; Pon, Cynthia L; Giuliodori, Anna Maria

    2013-04-01

    Protein Y (PY) is an Escherichia coli cold-shock protein which has been proposed to be responsible for the repression of bulk protein synthesis during cold adaptation. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro data which clarify the role of PY and its mechanism of action. Deletion of yfiA, the gene encoding protein PY, demonstrates that this protein is dispensable for cold adaptation and is not responsible for the shutdown of bulk protein synthesis at the onset of the stress, although it is able to partially inhibit translation. In vitro assays reveal that the extent of PY inhibition changes with different mRNAs and that this inhibition is related to the capacity of PY of binding 30S subunits with a fairly strong association constant, thus stimulating the formation of 70S monomers. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that PY competes with the other ribosomal ligands for the binding to the 30S subunits. Overall these results suggest an alternative model to explain PY function during cold shock and to reconcile the inhibition caused by PY with the active translation observed for some mRNAs during cold shock. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Role of the ribosome-associated protein PY in the cold-shock response of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Brandi, Anna; Dzeladini, Nadire; Fabbretti, Attilio; Carzaniga, Thomas; Piersimoni, Lolita; Pon, Cynthia L; Giuliodori, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Protein Y (PY) is an Escherichia coli cold-shock protein which has been proposed to be responsible for the repression of bulk protein synthesis during cold adaptation. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro data which clarify the role of PY and its mechanism of action. Deletion of yfiA, the gene encoding protein PY, demonstrates that this protein is dispensable for cold adaptation and is not responsible for the shutdown of bulk protein synthesis at the onset of the stress, although it is able to partially inhibit translation. In vitro assays reveal that the extent of PY inhibition changes with different mRNAs and that this inhibition is related to the capacity of PY of binding 30S subunits with a fairly strong association constant, thus stimulating the formation of 70S monomers. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that PY competes with the other ribosomal ligands for the binding to the 30S subunits. Overall these results suggest an alternative model to explain PY function during cold shock and to reconcile the inhibition caused by PY with the active translation observed for some mRNAs during cold shock. PMID:23420694

  1. Role of the ribosome-associated protein PY in the cold-shock response of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, F; Brandi, A; Dzeladini, N.; Fabbretti, A.; Carzaniga, T.; Piersimoni, L.; Pon, C L; Giuliodori, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein Y (PY) is an Escherichia coli cold-shock protein which has been proposed to be responsible for the repression of bulk protein synthesis during cold adaptation. Here, we present in vivo and in vitro data which clarify the role of PY and its mechanism of action. Deletion of yfiA, the gene encoding protein PY, demonstrates that this protein is dispensable for cold adaptation and is not responsible for the shutdown of bulk protein synthesis at the onset of the stress, although it is able ...

  2. Applying dynamic parameters to predict hemodynamic response to volume expansion in spontaneously breathing patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J; Grissom, Colin K; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Brown, Samuel M

    2013-02-01

    Volume expansion is a mainstay of therapy in septic shock, although its effect is difficult to predict using conventional measurements. Dynamic parameters, which vary with respiratory changes, appear to predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge in mechanically ventilated, paralyzed patients. Whether they predict response in patients who are free from mechanical ventilation is unknown. We hypothesized that dynamic parameters would be predictive in patients not receiving mechanical ventilation. This is a prospective, observational, pilot study. Patients with early septic shock and who were not receiving mechanical ventilation received 10-mL/kg volume expansion (VE) at their treating physician's discretion after initial resuscitation in the emergency department. We used transthoracic echocardiography to measure vena cava collapsibility index and aortic velocity variation before VE. We used a pulse contour analysis device to measure stroke volume variation (SVV). Cardiac index was measured immediately before and after VE using transthoracic echocardiography. Hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in cardiac index 15% or greater. Fourteen patients received VE, five of whom demonstrated a hemodynamic response. Vena cava collapsibility index and SVV were predictive (area under the curve = 0.83, 0.92, respectively). Optimal thresholds were calculated: vena cava collapsibility index, 15% or greater (positive predictive value, 62%; negative predictive value, 100%; P = 0.03); SVV, 17% or greater (positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82%, P = 0.03). Aortic velocity variation was not predictive. Vena cava collapsibility index and SVV predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge patients with septic shock who are not mechanically ventilated. Optimal thresholds differ from those described in mechanically ventilated patients.

  3. Applying dynamic parameters to predict hemodynamic response to volume expansion in spontaneously breathing patients with septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanspa, Michael J.; Grissom, Colin K.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Volume expansion is a mainstay of therapy in septic shock, although its effect is difficult to predict using conventional measurements. Dynamic parameters, which vary with respiratory changes, appear to predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge in mechanically ventilated, paralyzed patients. Whether they predict response in patients who are free from mechanical ventilation is unknown. We hypothesized that dynamic parameters would be predictive in patients not receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods This is a prospective, observational, pilot study. Patients with early septic shock and who were not receiving mechanical ventilation received 10 ml/kg volume expansion (VE) at their treating physician's discretion after initial resuscitation in the emergency department. We used transthoracic echocardiography to measure vena cava collapsibility index (VCCI) and aortic velocity variation (AoVV) prior to VE. We used a pulse contour analysis device to measure stroke volume variation (SVV). Cardiac index was measured immediately before and after VE using transthoracic echocardiography. Hemodynamic response was defined as an increase in cardiac index ≥ 15%. Results 14 patients received VE, 5 of which demonstrated a hemodynamic response. VCCI and SVV were predictive (Area under curve = 0.83, 0.92, respectively). Optimal thresholds were calculated: VCCI ≥ 15% (Positive predictive value, PPV 62%, negative predictive value, NPV 100%, p = 0.03); SVV ≥ 17% (PPV 100%, NPV 82%, p = 0.03). AoVV was not predictive. Conclusions VCCI and SVV predict hemodynamic response to fluid challenge patients with septic shock who are not mechanically ventilated. Optimal thresholds differ from those described in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:23324885

  4. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  5. Ferruccio Ritossa's scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Antonio; Santoro, M Gabriella; Tanguay, Robert M; Hightower, Lawrence E

    2012-03-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock proteins, which impact many areas of current biology and medicine, and has created a new avenue for more exciting discoveries. In recognition of the discovery of the heat shock response, Cell Stress Society International (CSSI) awarded Professor Ritossa with the CSSI medallion in October 2010 in Dozza, Italy. This article is based on a session of the Fifth CSSI Congress held in Québec commemorating Professor Ritossa and his discovery.

  6. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  7. Identification of genes involved in cold-shock response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANDREAS BORCHEL; MARIEKE VERLEIH; ALEXANDER REBL; TOM GOLDAMMER

    2017-09-01

    A rapid decline in temperature poses a major challenge for poikilothermic fish, as their entire metabolism depends on ambient temperature. The gene expression of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss having undergone such a cold shock (0◦C) was compared to a control (5◦C) in a microarray and quantitative real-time PCR based study. The tissues of gill, kidney and liver were examined. The most differently expressed genes were found in liver, many of them contributing to the network ‘cellular compromise, cellular growth and proliferation’.However, the number of genes found to be regulated at 0◦Cwas surprisingly low. Instead of classical genes involved in temperature shock, the three genes encoding fibroblast growth factor 1 (fgf1), growth arrest and DNA-damageinducible,alpha (gadd45a) and sclerostin domain-containing protein 1 (sostdc1) were upregulated in the liver upon cold shock in two different rainbow trout strains, suggesting that these genes may be considered as general biomarkers for cold shock in rainbow trout.

  8. The role of the heat shock response in the cytoprotection of the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malago, Joshua Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the intestinal epithelial cells produce constitutive amount of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that are elevated following stressful stimuli. As the intestine is constantly exposed to variety of agents like diet, normal flora, infectious microorganisms, chemicals, and immune medi

  9. Effects of hypertension on hemodynamic response and serum nitrite concentration during graded hemorrhagic shock in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Barmaki

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: More reduction of MAP after hemorrhagic shock, less improvement of MAP and HR after resuscitation and low survival rate in HT animals suggested the impairment of cardiovascular system adaptation of HT animals during blood loss and it should be considered in management of hypertensive subjects.

  10. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes...

  11. High Energy-Density Materials with Fast Energy Release: Molecular Scale Shock Response of Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ORGANIZATION. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information...Transient absorption spectroscopy of laser shocked explosives”, presented by S. D. McGrane 2012 LANL Advanced Thermometry Workshop, “Femtosecond...condensed phases using femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering”, presented by Nhan Dang Poster presentations: 2010 LANL Chemistry Capabilities

  12. Genetic responses of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) to heat shock and epibiont infestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkeviciute, Egle; Kania, Per Walter; Skovgaard, Alf

    2015-01-01

    Expression of stress-related genes was investigated in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa in relation to heat shock at two different salinities (10 and 32‰), and it was furthermore investigated whether experimentally induced epibiont infestation led to elevated expression of stress-related genes. E...

  13. Study of Residual Strength Index of Damaged Ship Hulls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIEn-rong; CUIWei-cheng; WANZheng-quan; QIUQiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of non-symmetric flood and rigidity loss of damaged ship hulls to external loads. Based on the calculation method of ultimate strength of damaged ship hulls under non-symmetric bending, the effect of collision, grounding and explosion damage on the ultimate strength of ship hull is also analyzed. Then, residual strength index of damaged ship hulls is given based on extreme loads and ultimate strength calculations. The critical sea state of damaged shin hulls is also predicted.

  14. "Keisri hull" on viimast korda laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Neli hooaega Ugala repertuaaris olnud Jaan Krossi romaani põhjal lavastatud draama "Keisri hull" etendub viimast korda 10. veebruaril. Viimane etendus on pühendatud Jaan Krossi 90. sünniaastapäevale, mis on 19. veebruaril. Lavastajad Peeter Tammearu ja Jaak Allik. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  15. "Keisri hull" on viimast korda laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Neli hooaega Ugala repertuaaris olnud Jaan Krossi romaani põhjal lavastatud draama "Keisri hull" etendub viimast korda 10. veebruaril. Viimane etendus on pühendatud Jaan Krossi 90. sünniaastapäevale, mis on 19. veebruaril. Lavastajad Peeter Tammearu ja Jaak Allik. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  16. Hull Form Design and Optimization Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division NURBS – Non Uniform Rational B-Spline ONR – Office of Naval Research SSF – Steady Ship Flow SWATH – Small...normalized using different hull parameters. Output HulGen has the ability to create a NURBS surface in Rhinoceros, a commercial 3D modeling software

  17. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  18. Projective Hulls and Characterizations of Meromorphic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, J T; Levenberg, N; Ransford, T J

    2011-01-01

    We give conditions characterizing holomorphic and meromorphic functions in the unit disk of the complex plane in terms of certain weak forms of the maximum principle. Our work is directly inspired by recent results of John Wermer, and by the theory of the projective hull of a compact subset of complex projective space developed by Reese Harvey and Blaine Lawson.

  19. Committee VI.1. Extreme Hull Girder Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    Committee Mandate. Evaluate and develop direct calculation procedures for extreme wawe loads on ship hull girders. Due consideration shall be given to stochastic and non-linear effects. The procedures shall be assessed by comparison with in-service experiences, model tests and more refined...

  20. Caloric restriction induces heat shock response and inhibits B16F10 cell tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelle, Marta G.; Davis, Ashley; Price, Nathan L.; Ali, Ahmed; Fürer-Galvan, Stefanie; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition is one of the most consistent strategies for increasing mean and maximal lifespan and delaying the onset of age-associated diseases. Stress resistance is a common trait of many long-lived mutants and life-extending interventions, including CR. Indeed, better protection against heat shock and other genotoxic insults have helped explain the pro-survival properties of CR. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo responses to heat shock were investigated using two different models of CR. Murine B16F10 melanoma cells treated with serum from CR-fed rats showed lower proliferation, increased tolerance to heat shock and enhanced HSP-70 expression, compared to serum from ad libitum-fed animals. Similar effects were observed in B16F10 cells implanted subcutaneously in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to CR. Microarray analysis identified a number of genes and pathways whose expression profile were similar in both models. These results suggest that the use of an in vitro model could be a good alternative to study the mechanisms by which CR exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects. PMID:25948793

  1. The clonal antibody response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa heat shock protein is highly diverse in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulanova, M; Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O;

    1997-01-01

    The GroEL protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to the bacterial 60-65 kDa heat shock protein family. A strong antibody response to GroEL has been found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic pulmonary infection caused by P. aeruginosa. Clonotypes of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against Gro...... antibody clones against GroEL. The appearance of new clones with time reflected the long duration of the chronic infection. A striking addition of new clonotypes during the observation period occurred when a new unrelated bacterium (Burkholderia cepacia) had become established as a cause of the pulmonary...

  2. Life or death? A Physiogenomic Approach to Understand Individual Variation in Responses to Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Phillips, E. S.; Slater-Jefferies, J. L.; Jackson, A. A.; Hanson, M. A. Folic acid supplementation during the juvenile-pubertal period in rats modifies...hemorrhage and attendant shock via regulation of genetic mechanisms and to provide knowledge that will lead to genetically-informed personalized...Glutamine [197-199] Yes Histone deacetylase inhibitors (e.g., valproic acid ) [168-169, 200-201] No Naloxone [202] Yes 430 Current Genomics, 2011, Vol

  3. The Response of Household Saving to the Large Shock of German Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln

    2008-01-01

    German reunification was a large, unexpected shock for East Germans, with different economic consequences for different birth cohorts. Exploiting German reunification as a natural experiment, I analyze the validity of the life-cycle consumption model. In the empirical part, I derive three stylized features concerning the saving behavior of East vs. West Germans in the 1990s: (i) East Germans have higher saving rates than West Germans after reunification, (ii) this East-West gap in saving rate...

  4. Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arman, Bedri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cagin, Tahir [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

  5. Identification of Mild Freezing Shock Response Pathways in Barley Based on Transcriptome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Dezhi; Yang, Qian; Zeng, Jianbin; Jin, Gulei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zhang, Guoping; Dai, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature is a major abiotic stress affecting crop growth and productivity. A better understanding of low temperature tolerance mechanisms is imperative for developing the crop cultivars with improved tolerance. We herein performed an Illumina RNA-sequencing experiment using two barley genotypes differing in freezing tolerance (Nure, tolerant and Tremois, sensitive), to determine the transcriptome profiling and genotypic difference under mild freezing shock treatment after a very short acclimation for gene induction. A total of 6474 differentially expressed genes, almost evenly distributed on the seven chromosomes, were identified. The key DEGs could be classified into six signaling pathways, i.e., Ca(2+) signaling, PtdOH signaling, CBFs pathway, ABA pathway, jasmonate pathway, and amylohydrolysis pathway. Expression values of DEGs in multiple signaling pathways were analyzed and a hypothetical model of mild freezing shock tolerance mechanism was proposed. Expression and sequence profile of HvCBFs cluster within Frost resistance-H2, a major quantitative trait locus on 5H being closely related to low temperature tolerance in barley, were further illustrated, considering the crucial role of HvCBFs on freezing tolerance. It may be concluded that multiple signaling pathways are activated in concert when barley is exposed to mild freezing shock. The pathway network we presented may provide a platform for further exploring the functions of genes involved in low temperature tolerance in barley.

  6. Immediate Dose-Response Effect of High-Energy Versus Low-Energy Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Cutaneous Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert; Sorg, Heiko; Forstmeier, Vinzent; Knobloch, Karsten; Liodaki, Eirini; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kisch, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Elucidation of the precise mechanisms and therapeutic options of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is only at the beginning. Although immediate real-time effects of ESWT on cutaneous hemodynamics have recently been described, the dose response to different ESWT energies in cutaneous microcirculation has never been examined. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups that received either focused high-energy shock waves (group A: total of 1000 impulses, 10 J) to the lower leg of the hind limb, focused low-energy shock waves (group B: total of 300 impulses, 1 J) or placebo shock wave treatment (group C: 0 impulses, 0 J) using a multimodality shock wave delivery system (Duolith SD-1 T-Top, Storz Medical, Tägerwilen, Switzerland). Immediate microcirculatory effects were assessed with the O2C (oxygen to see) system (LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany) before and for 20 min after application of ESWT. Cutaneous tissue oxygen saturation increased significantly higher after high-energy ESWT than after low-energy and placebo ESWT (A: 29.4% vs. B: 17.3% vs. C: 3.3%; p = 0.003). Capillary blood velocity was significantly higher after high-energy ESWT and lower after low-energy ESWT versus placebo ESWT (group A: 17.8% vs. group B: -22.1% vs. group C: -5.0%, p = 0.045). Post-capillary venous filling pressure was significantly enhanced in the high-energy ESWT group in contrast to the low-energy ESWT and placebo groups (group A: 25% vs. group B: 2% vs. group C: -4%, p = 0.001). Both high-energy and low-energy ESWT affect cutaneous hemodynamics in a standard rat model. High-energy ESWT significantly increases parameters of cutaneous microcirculation immediately after application, resulting in higher tissue oxygen saturation, venous filling pressure and blood velocity, which suggests higher tissue perfusion with enhanced oxygen saturation, in contrast to low-energy as well as placebo ESWT. Low-energy ESWT also increased tissue oxygen

  7. Intersexual differences of heat shock response between two amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus) in Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedulina, Daria; Meyer, Michael F.; Gurkov, Anton; Kondratjeva, Ekaterina; Baduev, Boris; Gusdorf, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Acute temperature fluctuations are common in surface waters, and aquatic organisms may manifest physiological responses to punctuated temperature spikes long before behavioral responses. Ectotherms, especially cryophilic stenotherms such as those endemic to Lake Baikal (Siberia), may demonstrate specialized physiological responses to acute temperature increases because their proteomes have evolved to function most efficiently at lower temperatures (e.g., <10 °C). Therefore, our study questioned the nature and degree of variation in physiological response to acute thermal stress in two congenerous, endemic Baikal amphipod species, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus. We hypothesized that because interspecific and intersexual thermosensitivity varies significantly among ectotherms, there would be divergent intersexual and interspecific strategies to withstand acute thermal stress, manifested in different protein compositions and concentrations. We exposed individuals to the species’ respective LT50 for one hour followed by a three-hour recovery period. We then performed 1D-PAGE, Western blotting, 2D-PAGE, and Mass Spectrometry techniques and assessed relative intersexual and interspecific changes in proteomic composition and heat shock protein 70 level. Our results demonstrate that females tend to be more sensitive to an acute thermal stimulus than males, most likely because females allocate significant energy to reproduction and less to heat shock response, evidenced by females’ significantly lower LT50time. Lower level of Hsp70 was found in females of the thermosensitive E. verrucosus compared to males of this species. No intersexual differences were found in Hsp70 level in thermotolerant E. cyaneus. Higher levels of hemocyanin subunits and arginine kinase were found in E. cyaneus females after heat shock and recovery compared to males, which was not found for E. verrucosus, suggesting interspecific mechanisms for E. cyaneus’s higher

  8. Important role of class I heat shock genes hrcA and dnaK in the heat shock response and the response to pH and NaCl stress of group I Clostridium botulinum strain ATCC 3502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Katja; Lindström, Miia; Somervuo, Panu; Heap, John T; Minton, Nigel P; Korkeala, Hannu

    2011-05-01

    Class I heat shock genes (HSGs) code for molecular chaperones which play a major role in the bacterial response to sudden increases of environmental temperature by assisting protein folding. Quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR gene expression analysis of the food-borne pathogen Clostridium botulinum grown at 37°C showed that the class I HSGs grpE, dnaK, dnaJ, groEL, and groES and their repressor, hrcA, were expressed at constant levels in the exponential and transitional growth phases, whereas strong downregulation of all six genes was observed during stationary phase. After heat shock from 37 to 45°C, all HSGs were transiently upregulated. A mutant with insertionally inactivated hrcA expressed higher levels of class I HSGs during exponential growth than the wild type, followed by upregulation of only groES and groES after heat shock. Inactivation of hrcA or of dnaK encoding a major chaperone resulted in lower maximum growth temperatures than for the wild type and reduced growth rates under optimal conditions compared to the wild type. The dnaK mutant showed growth inhibition under all tested temperature, pH, and NaCl stress conditions. In contrast, the growth of an hrcA mutant was unaffected by mild temperature or acid stress compared to the wild-type strain, indicating that induced class I HSGs support growth under moderately nonoptimal conditions. We show that the expression of class I HSGs plays a major role for survival and growth of C. botulinum under the stressful environmental conditions that may be encountered during food processing or growth in food products, in the mammalian intestine, or in wounds.

  9. Phenotypic Identification of the Redox Dye Methylene Blue as an Antagonist of Heat Shock Response Gene Expression in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Angela L.; Cabello, Christopher M.; Qiao, Shuxi; Azimian, Sara; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Repurposing approved and abandoned non-oncological drugs is an alternative developmental strategy for the identification of anticancer therapeutics that has recently attracted considerable attention. Due to the essential role of the cellular heat shock response in cytoprotection through the maintenance of proteostasis and suppression of apoptosis, small molecule heat shock response antagonists can be harnessed for targeted induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. Guided by gene expression array analysis and a phenotypic screen interrogating a collection of 3,7-diamino-phenothiazinium derivatives, we have identified the redox-drug methylene blue (MB), used clinically for the infusional treatment of methemoglobinemia, as a negative modulator of heat shock response gene expression in human metastatic melanoma cells. MB-treatment blocked thermal (43 °C) and pharmacological (celastrol, geldanamycin) induction of heat shock response gene expression, suppressing Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) upregulation at the mRNA and protein level. MB sensitized melanoma cells to the apoptogenic activity of geldanamycin, an Hsp90 antagonist known to induce the counter-regulatory upregulation of Hsp70 expression underlying cancer cell resistance to geldanamycin chemotherapy. Similarly, MB-cotreatment sensitized melanoma cells to other chemotherapeutics (etoposide, doxorubicin). Taken together, these data suggest feasibility of repurposing the non-oncological redox drug MB as a therapeutic heat shock response antagonist for cancer cell chemosensitization. PMID:23429201

  10. Phenotypic Identification of the Redox Dye Methylene Blue as an Antagonist of Heat Shock Response Gene Expression in Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg T. Wondrak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Repurposing approved and abandoned non-oncological drugs is an alternative developmental strategy for the identification of anticancer therapeutics that has recently attracted considerable attention. Due to the essential role of the cellular heat shock response in cytoprotection through the maintenance of proteostasis and suppression of apoptosis, small molecule heat shock response antagonists can be harnessed for targeted induction of cytotoxic effects in cancer cells. Guided by gene expression array analysis and a phenotypic screen interrogating a collection of 3,7-diamino-phenothiazinium derivatives, we have identified the redox-drug methylene blue (MB, used clinically for the infusional treatment of methemoglobinemia, as a negative modulator of heat shock response gene expression in human metastatic melanoma cells. MB-treatment blocked thermal (43 °C and pharmacological (celastrol, geldanamycin induction of heat shock response gene expression, suppressing Hsp70 (HSPA1A and Hsp27 (HSPB1 upregulation at the mRNA and protein level. MB sensitized melanoma cells to the apoptogenic activity of geldanamycin, an Hsp90 antagonist known to induce the counter-regulatory upregulation of Hsp70 expression underlying cancer cell resistance to geldanamycin chemotherapy. Similarly, MB-cotreatment sensitized melanoma cells to other chemotherapeutics (etoposide, doxorubicin. Taken together, these data suggest feasibility of repurposing the non-oncological redox drug MB as a therapeutic heat shock response antagonist for cancer cell chemosensitization.

  11. The heat-shock response co-inducer arimoclomol protects against retinal degeneration in rhodopsin retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, D A; Aguila, M; McCulley, C H; Bevilacqua, D; Mendes, H F; Athanasiou, D; Novoselov, S S; Kanuga, N; Munro, P M; Coffey, P J; Kalmar, B; Greensmith, L; Cheetham, M E

    2014-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited diseases that cause blindness due to the progressive death of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. There are currently no effective treatments for RP. Inherited mutations in rhodopsin, the light-sensing protein of rod photoreceptor cells, are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant RP. The majority of mutations in rhodopsin, including the common P23H substitution, lead to protein misfolding, which is a feature in many neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have shown that upregulating molecular chaperone expression can delay disease progression in models of neurodegeneration. Here, we have explored the potential of the heat-shock protein co-inducer arimoclomol to ameliorate rhodopsin RP. In a cell model of P23H rod opsin RP, arimoclomol reduced P23H rod opsin aggregation and improved viability of mutant rhodopsin-expressing cells. In P23H rhodopsin transgenic rat models, pharmacological potentiation of the stress response with arimoclomol improved electroretinogram responses and prolonged photoreceptor survival, as assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness in the retina. Furthermore, treated animal retinae showed improved photoreceptor outer segment structure and reduced rhodopsin aggregation compared with vehicle-treated controls. The heat-shock response (HSR) was activated in P23H retinae, and this was enhanced with arimoclomol treatment. Furthermore, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is induced in P23H transgenic rats, was also enhanced in the retinae of arimoclomol-treated animals, suggesting that arimoclomol can potentiate the UPR as well as the HSR. These data suggest that pharmacological enhancement of cellular stress responses may be a potential treatment for rhodopsin RP and that arimoclomol could benefit diseases where ER stress is a factor. PMID:24853414

  12. FPSO Global Strength and Hull Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junyuan Ma; Jianhua Xiao; Rui Ma; Kai Cao

    2014-01-01

    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  13. TLP hull structural design and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jiahui; Ren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Tension leg platform (TLP) has been one of the most favorite deep-water platform concepts for offshore oil and gas field exploration and development.As of now,a total of 24 TLPs have been installed worldwide with 3 more to be installed in the near future and 5 more under design.Most of these installations are in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM).Water depths for these TLP installations range from 150 m to 1 600 m.It is highly expected that China will have her first TLP designed,fabricated,and installed in the very near future.In order to satisfy the need for a unified hull structural design practice,this paper presents the design philosophy of a conventional TLP hull structure with emphases on critical structural components design and analysis methodologies.

  14. Is persistent hypotension after transient cardiogenic shock associated with an inflammatory response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Park

    Full Text Available We evaluated the recovery of cardiovascular function after transient cardiogenic shock. Cardiac tamponade was performed for 1 h and post-shock data were collected in 5 domestic large white female pigs (43 ± 5 kg for 6 h. The control group (N = 5 was observed for 6 h after 1 h of resting. During 1 h of cardiac tamponade, experimental animals evolved a low perfusion status with a higher lactate level (8.0 ± 2.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower standard base excess (-7.3 ± 3.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower urinary output (0.9 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.4 mL·kg-1·h-1, lower mixed venous saturation, higher ileum partial pressure of CO2-end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 gap and a lower cardiac index than the control group. Throughout the 6-h recovery phase after cardiac tamponade, tamponade animals developed significant tachycardia with preserved cardiac index, resulting in a lower left ventricular stroke work, suggesting possible myocardial dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction was present with persistent systemic hypotension as well as persistent pulmonary hypertension. In contrast, oliguria, hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were corrected by the 6th hour. The inflammatory characteristics were an elevated core temperature and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in the tamponade group compared to the control group. We conclude that cardiovascular recovery after a transient and severe low flow systemic state was incomplete. Vascular dysfunction persisted up to 6 h after release of tamponade. These inflammatory characteristics may also indicate that inflammatory activation is a possible pathway involved in the pathogenesis of cardiogenic shock.

  15. Is persistent hypotension after transient cardiogenic shock associated with an inflammatory response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Park

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the recovery of cardiovascular function after transient cardiogenic shock. Cardiac tamponade was performed for 1 h and post-shock data were collected in 5 domestic large white female pigs (43 ± 5 kg for 6 h. The control group (N = 5 was observed for 6 h after 1 h of resting. During 1 h of cardiac tamponade, experimental animals evolved a low perfusion status with a higher lactate level (8.0 ± 2.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower standard base excess (-7.3 ± 3.3 vs 2.0 ± 0.9 mEq/L, lower urinary output (0.9 ± 0.9 vs 3.0 ± 1.4 mL·kg-1·h-1, lower mixed venous saturation, higher ileum partial pressure of CO2-end tidal CO2 (EtCO2 gap and a lower cardiac index than the control group. Throughout the 6-h recovery phase after cardiac tamponade, tamponade animals developed significant tachycardia with preserved cardiac index, resulting in a lower left ventricular stroke work, suggesting possible myocardial dysfunction. Vascular dysfunction was present with persistent systemic hypotension as well as persistent pulmonary hypertension. In contrast, oliguria, hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were corrected by the 6th hour. The inflammatory characteristics were an elevated core temperature and increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in the tamponade group compared to the control group. We conclude that cardiovascular recovery after a transient and severe low flow systemic state was incomplete. Vascular dysfunction persisted up to 6 h after release of tamponade. These inflammatory characteristics may also indicate that inflammatory activation is a possible pathway involved in the pathogenesis of cardiogenic shock.

  16. The Aerodynamic Forces on Airship Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    The new method for making computations in connection with the study of rigid airships, which was used in the investigation of Navy's ZR-1 by the special subcommittee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics appointed for this purpose is presented. The general theory of the air forces on airship hulls of the type mentioned is described and an attempt was made to develop the results from the very fundamentals of mechanics.

  17. The hull number of an oriented graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Chartrand

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We present characterizations of connected graphs G of order n≥2 for which h+(G=n. It is shown that for every two integers n and m with 1≤n−1≤m≤(n2, there exists a connected graph G of order n and size m such that for each integer k with 2≤k≤n, there exists an orientation of G with hull number G.

  18. Tissue-type-specific heat-shock response and immunolocalization of class I low-molecular-weight heat-shock proteins in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung-Luo Jinn; Pi-Fang Linda Chang; Yih-Ming Chen [National Taiwan Univ. (China)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    A monospecific polyclonal antibody was used to study the tissue-type specificity and intracellular localization of class I low-molecular-weight (LMW) heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in soybean (Glycine max) under different heat-shock regimes. In etiolated soy-bean seedlings, the root meristematic regions contained the highest levels of LMW HSP. No tissue-type-specific expression of class I LMW HSP was detected using the tissue-printing method. In immunolocalization studies of seedlings treated with HS (40{degrees}C for 2 h) the class I LMW HSPs were found in the aggregated granular structures, which were distributed randomly in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. When the heat shock was released, the granular structures disappeared and the class I LMW HSPs became distributed homogeneously in the cytoplasm. When the seedlings were then given a more severe heat shock following the initial 40{degrees}C {yields} 28{degrees}C treatment, a large proportion of the class I LMW HSPs that originally localized in the cytoplasm were translocated into the nucleus and nucleolus. Class I LMW HSPs may assist in the resolubilization of proteins denatured or aggregated by heat and may also participate in the restoration of organellar function after heat shock.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Hull Girder Vibrations and Bow Impact of a Large Ship Sailing in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to evaluate the hull structural vibrations response of large ships in extreme seas. Studies of hydroelastic response of an ultra large ship have been conducted with comparative verification between experimental and numerical methods in order to estimate the wave loads response considering hull vibration and water impact. A segmented self-propelling model with steel backbone system was elaborately designed and the experiments were performed in a tank. Time domain numerical simulations of the ship were carried out by using three-dimensional nonlinear hydroelasticity theory. The results from the computational analyses have been correlated with those from model tests.

  20. Cardiogenic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock - cardiogenic ... electrical system of the heart (heart block) Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump ... orthostatic hypotension) Weak (thready) pulse To diagnose cardiogenic shock, a catheter (tube) may be placed in the ...

  1. Heat-shock protein 70 from plant biofactories of recombinant antigens activate multiepitope-targeted immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriani, Giampaolo; Mancini, Camillo; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Baschieri, Selene

    2012-04-01

    Although a physiological role of heat-shock proteins (HSP) in antigen presentation and immune response activation has not been directly demonstrated, their use as vaccine components is under clinical trial. We have previously demonstrated that the structure of plant-derived HSP70 (pHSP70) can be superimposed to the mammalian homologue and similarly to the mammalian counterpart, pHSP70-polypeptide complexes can activate the immune system. It is here shown that pHSP70 purified from plant tissues transiently expressing the influenza virus nucleoprotein are able to induce both the activation of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted polyclonal T-cell responses and antibody production in mice of different haplotypes without the need of adjuvant co-delivery. These results indicate that pHSP70 derived from plants producing recombinant antigens may be used to formulate multiepitope vaccines.

  2. Comparative evaluation of central venous pressure and sonographic inferior vena cava variability in assessing fluid responsiveness in septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjri Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fluid infusion, the most critical step in the resuscitation of patients with septic shock, needs preferably continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonographically measured inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC CI in comparison to central venous pressure (CVP in predicting fluid responsiveness in septic shock. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients of septic shock requiring ventilatory support (invasive/noninvasive were included. Patients with congestive heart failure, raised intra-abdominal pressure, and poor echo window were excluded from the study. They were randomly divided into two groups based on mode of fluid resuscitation - Group I (CVP and Group II (IVC CI. Primary end-points were mean arterial pressure (MAP of ≥65 mmHg and CVP >12 mmHg or IVC CI <20% in Groups I and II, respectively. Patients were followed till achievement of end-points or maximum of 6 h. Outcome variables (pulse rate, MAP, urine output, pH, base deficit, and ScvO 2 were serially measured till the end of the study. Survival at 2 and 4 weeks was used as secondary end-point. Results: Primary end-point was reached in 31 patients (15 in Group I and 16 in Group II. Fluid infusion, by either method, had increased CVP and decreased IVC CI with resultant negative correlation between them (Pearson correlation coefficient -0.626. There was no significant difference in the amount of fluid infused and time to reach end-point in two groups. Comparison in outcome variables at baseline and end-point showed no significant difference including mortality. Conclusion: CVP and IVC CI are negatively correlated with fluid resuscitation, and both methods can be used for resuscitation, with IVC CI being noninferior to CVP.

  3. Specific phosphorylation of histone demethylase KDM3A determines target gene expression in response to heat shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-bin Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone lysine (K residues, which are modified by methyl- and acetyl-transferases, diversely regulate RNA synthesis. Unlike the ubiquitously activating effect of histone K acetylation, the effects of histone K methylation vary with the number of methyl groups added and with the position of these groups in the histone tails. Histone K demethylases (KDMs counteract the activity of methyl-transferases and remove methyl group(s from specific K residues in histones. KDM3A (also known as JHDM2A or JMJD1A is an H3K9me2/1 demethylase. KDM3A performs diverse functions via the regulation of its associated genes, which are involved in spermatogenesis, metabolism, and cell differentiation. However, the mechanism by which the activity of KDM3A is regulated is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1 specifically phosphorylates KDM3A at Ser264 (p-KDM3A, which is enriched in the regulatory regions of gene loci in the human genome. p-KDM3A directly interacts with and is recruited by the transcription factor Stat1 to activate p-KDM3A target genes under heat shock conditions. The demethylation of H3K9me2 at the Stat1 binding site specifically depends on the co-expression of p-KDM3A in the heat-shocked cells. In contrast to heat shock, IFN-γ treatment does not phosphorylate KDM3A via MSK1, thereby abrogating its downstream effects. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that a KDM can be modified via phosphorylation to determine its specific binding to target genes in response to thermal stress.

  4. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions.

  5. Comparative Shock Response of Additively Manufactured Versus Conventionally Wrought 304L Stainless Steel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Adams, D. P.; Nishida, E. E.; Song, B.; Maguire, M. C.; Carroll, J.; Reedlunn, B.; Bishop, J. E.

    2015-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the compression and release behavior of impact-loaded 304L stainless steel specimens machined from additively manufactured (AM) blocks as well as baseline ingot-derived bar stock. The AM technology allows direct fabrication of metal parts. For the present study, a velocity interferometer (VISAR) measured the time-resolved motion of samples subjected to one-dimensional (i.e., uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging from 0.2 to 7.5 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the comparative Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, spall strength, and high-pressure yield strength of the AM and conventional materials. Observed differences in shock loading and unloading characteristics for the two 304L source variants have been correlated to complementary Kolsky bar results for compressive and tensile testing at lower strain rates. The effects of composition, porosity, microstructure (e.g., grain size and morphology), residual stress, and sample axis orientation relative to the additive manufacturing deposition trajectory have been assessed to explain differences between the AM and baseline 304L dynamic mechanical properties. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Synergistic skin heat shock protein expression in response to combined laser treatment with a diode laser and ablative fractional lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Sonja, Grunewald; Haedersdal, Merete

    2014-06-01

    Diode laser-based skin heating has been shown to minimise scars by interfering with wound healing responses through the induction of heat shock proteins (HSP). HSP are also induced after ablative fractional laser (AFXL) wound healing. AFXL itself is highly recommended for scar treatment. Therefore, the sequential combination of both modalities may produce superior outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the pretreatment effects of a diode laser before AFXL on wound healing responses in terms of HSP up-regulation in an in vitro model. Immediate responses and responses on days 1, 3 or 6 post-procedure were studied in an in vitro porcine skin model (n = 240). Untreated samples served as control. Immunohistochemical investigation (Hsp70) was performed in all untreated controls, diode laser-, AFXL-, and in diode laser + AFXL-treated samples. Hsp70 was shown to be up-regulated by all interventions between days 1 and 6 after interventions. The largest effect was caused by the combination of a diode laser and an AFXL procedure. Diode laser exposure induces a skin HSP response that can be further enhanced by sequential AFXL treatment. Clinical studies are necessary to investigate the dose response of HSP on scar formation and refine suitable laser exposure settings.

  7. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... be useful for the rational design of new double hull tanker side structures against ship collision to reduced the risk of oil pollution and for the collision resistance evaluation of existing double hull tanker structures....

  8. Hydrodynamics of single-deadrise hulls and their catamaran configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi S. Bari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric planing hulls are often used on high-speed catamarans. In this study, a linearized potential-flow method is applied for modeling steady hydrodynamics of single asymmetric hulls and their catamaran setups. Numerical results are validated with available experimental data and empirical correlations. Parametric calculation results are presented for the lift coefficient and the center of pressure for variable hull geometry, spacings, and speed regimes. The lift coefficient is found to increase at smaller hull spacings and decrease at higher Froude numbers and higher deadrise angles.

  9. Hydrodynamic Hull Damping (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    convert strain energy to heat. This phenomenon is due to the local microplastic strains in the nonhomogeneous material of ship structures. This...Frequency response of the structure is obtained with an impact load, since an impact can be considered as an approxima- tion of an impulse function which...contains energy in the wide frequency band. 2-15 Impact tests in ship vibration are generally performed using two common types of actuators: wave

  10. Response of beryllium to severe thermal shocks -simulation of disruption and vertical displacement events in future thermonuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Roedig, M.; Schuster, A. [Association Euratom-Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Merola, M.; Qian, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium will play an important role for plasma facing components in next step thermonuclear fusion devices such as ITER. In particular for the first wall beryllium will be used with an armor thickness of several millimeters. However, during plasma instabilities they will experience severe thermal shocks. Here plasma disruptions with deposited energy densities of several ten MJm{sup -2} are the most essential damaging mechanism. However, a signifant fraction of the incident energy will be absorbed by a dense cloud of ablation vapor, hence reducing the effective energy density at the beryllium surface to values in the order of 10 MJm{sup -2}. To investigate the material response to all these plasma instabilities thermal shock tests on small scale test coupons (disruption effects) and on actively cooled divertor modules (VDEs) have been performed in the electron beam test facility JUDITH at ITER relevant surface heat loads. These tests have been performed on different bulk beryllium grades and on plasma sprayed coatings; the influence of pulse duration, power density, and temperature effects has been investigated experimentally. Detailed in-situ diagnostics (for beam characterization, optical pyrometry etc.) and post mortem analyses (profilometry, metallography, optical and electron microscopy) have been applied to quantify the resulting material damage. 1D- and 2D models have developed to verify the experimental results obtained in the electron beam simulation experiments. (J.P.N.)

  11. Erythrocyte heat shock protein responses to chronic (in vivo) and acute (in vitro) temperature challenge in diploid and triploid salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranyan, Pillai V; Ross, Neil W; Benfey, Tillmann J

    2017-04-01

    This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates. After chronic (100d) acclimation of fish to 5, 15 and 25°C, triploid erythrocytes had lower HSP70, HSP90, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and ubiquitin (free and total) levels than diploids in both species. Furthermore, Atlantic salmon erythrocytes showed significantly higher protein breakdown (based on conjugated ubiquitin levels) in triploids than diploids after acute heat stress in vitro, but no significant difference was detected between ploidies after acute cold stress. These results indicate that: 1) triploid erythrocytes synthesize more total protein per cell than diploids as a result of increased cell size; 2) triploids have sufficient total HSP levels for survival under low stress conditions; and 3) the lower basal titres of HSPs in triploids may be a handicap when combating acute stress. Taken together, this suggests that triploids are limited in their ability to withstand thermal stress because of a reduced ability to maintain proteostasis under stressful conditions.

  12. Reactivation of the Shock-Tunnel Facility at Fort Cronkhite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    This final report describes the results of work undertaken to reactivate the Shock Tunnel Facility at Battery Townsley, Fort Cronkhite, Marin County, California. The facility has been reactivated and can not be utilized for blast testing. The major emphasis will be testing of concepts pertaining to programs of interest to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and in particular to civil defense oriented research. However, a wide variety of testing requirements can be accommodated. For example, past programs at the facility have included: tests of debris from trees subjected to blast for Bell Telephone Laboratories; tests of the response of aluminum hull panels to blast loading and of the response of a model surface effects ship for the Naval Ship Research and Development center, and tests of the response of a radome prototype to blast loading conducted for ANCOM (the radome manufacturer). The Shock Tunnel Facility is located in a former coastal defense 16-inch gun emplacement constructed by the US Army beginning in 1938. It was converted in 1967 to serve as a facility for full-scale testing of the loading and response of structural elements and civil defense equipment. It remained in operation until November 1976 when Battery Townsley was turned over to the National Park Service. Work under the present purchase order consisted of the following major tasks: (I) cleanup and secure the facility, (II) reactivate the shock tunnel, and (III) design permanent facility improvements. (WHK)

  13. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  14. Estrogen deprivation does not affect vascular heat shock response in female rats: a comparison with oxidative stress markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragem, Antônio Azambuja; Ludwig, Mirna Stela; Heck, Thiago Gomes; Baldissera, Fernanda Giesel; dos Santos, Analu Bender; Frizzo, Matias Nunes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo

    2015-09-01

    Hot flashes, which involve a tiny rise in core temperature, are the most common complaint of peri- and post-menopausal women, being tightly related to decrease in estrogen levels. On the other hand, estradiol (E2) induces the expression of HSP72, a member of the 70 kDa family of heat shock proteins (HSP70), which are cytoprotective, cardioprotective, and heat inducible. Since HSP70 expression is compromised in age-related inflammatory diseases, we argued whether the capacity of triggering a robust heat shock (HS) response would be still present after E2 withdrawal. Hence, we studied the effects of HS treatment (hot tub) in female Wistar rats subjected to bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) after a 7-day washout period. Twelve h after HS, the animals were killed and aortic arches were surgically excised for molecular analyses. The results were compared with oxidative stress markers in the plasma (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipoperoxidation) because HSP70 expression is also sensitive to redox regulation. Extracellular (plasma) to intracellular HSP70 ratio, an index of systemic inflammatory status, was also investigated. The results showed that HS response was preserved in OVX animals, as inferred from HSP70 expression (up to 40% rise, p oxidative stress, hematological parameters, and glycemic control either. This suggests that the lack of estrogen per se could not be solely ascribed as the unique source of low HSP70 expression as observed in long-term post-menopausal individuals. As a consequence, periodic evaluation of HSP70 status (iHSP70 vs. eHSP70) may be of clinical relevance because decreased HS response capacity is at the center of the onset of menopause-related dysfunctions.

  15. Exogenous heat shock cognate protein 70 pretreatment attenuates cardiac and hepatic dysfunction with associated anti-inflammatory responses in experimental septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Lin, Shih-Jen; Liou, Shu-Fen; Dai, Zen-Kong; Yeh, Jwu-Lai; Wu, Jiunn-Ren

    2014-12-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that intracellular heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) can be released into extracellular space with physiologic effects. However, its extracellular function in sepsis is not clear. In this study, we hypothesize that extracellular HSC70 can protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced myocardial and hepatic dysfunction because of its anti-inflammatory actions. In Wistar rats, septic shock developed with hypotension, tachycardia, and myocardial and hepatic dysfunction at 4 h following LPS administration (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Pretreatment with recombinant bovine HSC70 (20 μg/kg, i.v.) attenuated LPS-induced hypotension and tachycardia by 21% and 23%, respectively (P shock cognate protein 70 also prevented LPS-induced hypoglycemia (217 vs. 59 mg/dL, P shock, extracellular HSC70 conveys pleiotropic protection on myocardial, hepatic, and systemic derangements, with associated inhibition of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase 2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9, through mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor κB signaling pathways. Therefore, extracellular HSC70 may have a promising role in the prophylactic treatment of sepsis.

  16. Hemorrhagic Shock-induced Endothelial Cell Activation in a Spontaneous Breathing and a Mechanical Ventilation Hemorrhagic Shock Model Is Induced by a Proinflammatory Response and Not by Hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, Matijs; Wulfert, Francis M.; Jongman, Rianne M.; Schipper, Martin; Houwertjes, Martin C.; Vaneker, Michiel; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Teppema, Luc J.; Aarts, Leon P. H. J.; Heeringa, Peter; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Molema, Grietje

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The interaction between neutrophils and activated endothelium is essential for the development of multiple organ dysfunction in patients with hemorrhagic shock (HS). Mechanical ventilation frequently is used in patients with HS. The authors sought to investigate the consequences of mec

  17. Real-time characterization of the neuronal response to osmotic shock by digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomariz, Maria; Garcia, Isabel; Soto-Sánchez, Cristina; Martínez-Navarrete, Gema; Fernández, Eduardo; Fimia, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy has numerous applications in biology for visualizing living cells and 3D tissues. This technique allows for the direct visualization of biological structures avoiding invasive and phototoxic procedures such as fixation and dying processing. In this study we have characterized the morphometry changes of neurons subject to osmolarity changes. For this purpose, we have measured the variations of the amplitude and the oscillation frequency of the plasmatic membrane, as well as the volume changes of the cells before the osmotic shock. There was a relation between the neural culture ageing and its behavioral changes. "Long-term" cultures that had not previously been studied were used to analyze the behavioral changes in aged cells.

  18. Shock compression response of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) plastic to 985 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Root, Seth, E-mail: sroot@sandia.gov; Mattsson, Thomas R.; Cochrane, Kyle; Lemke, Raymond W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87125 (United States); Knudson, Marcus D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87125 (United States); Institute for Shock Physics and Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) plastic (PMP) is a hydrocarbon polymer with potential applications to inertial confinement fusion experiments and as a Hugoniot impedance matching standard for equation of state experiments. Using Sandia's Z-machine, we performed a series of flyer plate experiments to measure the principal Hugoniot and reshock states of PMP up to 985 GPa. The principal Hugoniot measurements validate density functional theory (DFT) calculations along the Hugoniot. The DFT calculations are further analyzed using a bond tracking method to understand the dissociation pathway under shock compression. Complete dissociation occurs at a compression factor similar to other sp3-hybridized, C-C bonded systems, which suggests a limiting compression for C-C bonds. The combined experimental and DFT results provide a solid basis for constructing an equation of state model for PMP.

  19. CHIP Knockdown Reduced Heat Shock Response and Protein Quality Control Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, Z; Bao, X; Qin, Y; Taylor, A; Shang, F; Wu, M

    2015-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) systems, including molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), plays an important role in maintaining intracellular protein homeostasis. Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70- interacting protein (CHIP) links the chaperone and UPPs, thus contributing to the repair or removal of damaged proteins. Over-expression of CHIP had previously been used to protect cells from environmental stress. In order to gain a more physiologic mechanism of the advantage conferred by CHIP, we induced a CHIP knockdown and monitored the ability of cells to cope with environmental stress. To knockdown CHIP, the human lens epithelial cell line HLE B3 was transfected with lentiviral particles that encode a CHIP short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or negative control lentiviral particles. Stable CHIP-knock down cells (KD) and negative control cells (NC) were selected with puromycin. After exposure to heat shock stress, there was no change observed in the expression of Hsp90. In contrast, Hsp70 levels increased significantly in NC cells but less so in KD cells. Hsp27 levels also increased after heat shock, but only in NC cells. Protein ubiquitination was reduced when CHIP was knocked down. CHIP knockdown reduced the ability to clear aggregation proteins. When same levels of aggregation-prone RFP-mutant crystallin fusion protein, RFP/V76D-γD, was expressed, there was ~9- fold more aggregates in KD cells as compared to that observed in NC cells. Furthermore, KD cells were more sensitive to toxicity of amino acid analog canavanine as compared to NC cells. Together, these data indicate that CHIP is required for PQC and that CHIP knockdown diminished cellular PQC capacity in lens cells.

  20. Anti-Shock Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Ames Research Center developed a prototype pressure suit for hemophiliac children, based on research of astronauts' physiological responses in microgravity. Zoex Corporation picked up the design and patents and developed an anti-shock garment for paramedic use. Marketed by Dyna Med, the suit reverses the effect of shock on the body's blood distribution by applying counterpressure to the legs and abdomen, returning blood to vital organs and stabilizing body pressure until the patient reaches a hospital. The DMAST (Dyna Med Anti-Shock Trousers) employ lower pressure than other shock garments, and are non-inflatable.

  1. Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of shock-wave induced decomposition in cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystals: anisotropic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Nhan C; Dreger, Zbigniew A; Gupta, Yogendra M; Hooks, Daniel E

    2010-11-04

    Plate impact experiments on the (210), (100), and (111) planes were performed to examine the role of crystalline anisotropy on the shock-induced decomposition of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) crystals. Time-resolved emission spectroscopy was used to probe the decomposition of single crystals shocked to peak stresses ranging between 7 and 20 GPa. Emission produced by decomposition intermediates was analyzed in terms of induction time to emission, emission intensity, and the emission spectra shapes as a function of stress and time. Utilizing these features, we found that the shock-induced decomposition of RDX crystals exhibits considerable anisotropy. Crystals shocked on the (210) and (100) planes were more sensitive to decomposition than crystals shocked on the (111) plane. The possible sources of the observed anisotropy are discussed with regard to the inelastic deformation mechanisms of shocked RDX. Our results suggest that, despite the anisotropy observed for shock initiation, decomposition pathways for all three orientations are similar.

  2. The self-built ecovillage in L'Aquila, Italy: community resilience as a grassroots response to environmental shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, Francesca; Forino, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    The paper applies the community resilience approach to the post-disaster case of Pescomaggiore, an Italian village affected by the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009. A group of residents refused to accept the housing recovery solutions proposed by the government, opting for autonomous recovery. They developed a housing project in the form of a self-built ecovillage, characterised by earthquake-proof buildings made of straw and wood. The project is a paradigmatic example of a community-based response to an external shock. It illustrates the concept of 'community resilience', which is widely explored in the scientific debate but still vaguely defined. Based on qualitative methodologies, the paper seeks to understand how the community resilience process can be enacted in alternative social practices such as ecovillages. The goal is to see under which conditions natural disasters can be considered windows of opportunity for sustainability.

  3. Ferruccio Ritossa’s scientific legacy 50 years after his discovery of the heat shock response: a new view of biology, a new society, and a new journal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The pioneering discovery of the heat shock response by the Italian scientist Ferruccio Ritossa reached maturity this year, 2012. It was 50 years ago that Professor Ritossa, through an extraordinary combination of serendipity, curiosity, knowledge and inspiration, published the first observation that cells could mount very strong transcriptional activity when exposed to elevated temperatures, which was coined the heat shock response. This discovery led to the identification of heat shock prote...

  4. [Pathophysiology of hemorragic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copotoiu, R; Cinca, E; Collange, O; Levy, F; Mertes, P-M

    2016-11-01

    This review addresses the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock, a condition produced by rapid and significant loss of intravascular volume, which may lead to hemodynamic instability, decreases in oxygen delivery, decreased tissue perfusion, cellular hypoxia, organ damage, and death. The initial neuroendocrine response is mainly a sympathetic activation. Haemorrhagic shock is associated altered microcirculatory permeability and visceral injury. It is also responsible for a complex inflammatory response associated with hemostasis alteration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, John J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

    2011-06-29

    Organisms in the genus Shewanella have become models for response to environmental stress. One of the most important environmental stresses is change in osmolarity. In this study, we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during osmotic stress. Osmotic stress in SB2B was induced through exposure to NaCl, and the time-course proteomics response was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Protein trends were qualitatively compared to gene expression trends and to phenotypic characterization. Osmotic stress affects motility, and has also been associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition (due to induction of branched chain amino acid degradation pathways); however, we show this is not the case for SB2B. Although proteins and genes involved with branched chain amino acid degradation are induced, fatty acid degradation pathways are not induced and no change in the fatty acid profile occurs in SB2B as a result of osmotic shock. The most extensive response of SB2B over the time course of acclimation to high salt involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased expression of signal transduction associated with motility and restricted cell division and DNA replication. After SB2B has switched to increased branched chain amino acid degradation, motility, and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels.

  6. Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 Modulates Epithelial Integrity, Heat Shock Protein, and Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in Intestinal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Klingspor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have shown positive effects on gastrointestinal diseases; they have barrier-modulating effects and change the inflammatory response towards pathogens in studies in vitro. The aim of this investigation has been to examine the response of intestinal epithelial cells to Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (E. faecium, a probiotic positively affecting diarrhea incidence in piglets, and two pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, with specific focus on the probiotic modulation of the response to the pathogenic challenge. Porcine (IPEC-J2 and human (Caco-2 intestinal cells were incubated without bacteria (control, with E. faecium, with enteropathogenic (EPEC or enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC each alone or in combination with E. faecium. The ETEC strain decreased transepithelial resistance (TER and increased IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in both cell lines compared with control cells, an effect that could be prevented by pre- and coincubation with E. faecium. Similar effects were observed for the increased expression of heat shock protein 70 in Caco-2 cells. When the cells were challenged by the EPEC strain, no such pattern of changes could be observed. The reduced decrease in TER and the reduction of the proinflammatory and stress response of enterocytes following pathogenic challenge indicate the protective effect of the probiotic.

  7. Nosography of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, severe sepsis, septic shock, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in internal medicine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Spoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is defined by the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria associated with an infection microbiologically or clinically evidenced. In Italy sepsis is responsible for 80,000 hospital admissions per year and, in the last decades, severe sepsis and septic shock cases are increasing, in correlation with the increased prevalence of multi-drugresistant microbial strains. The predominant etiologic agents are Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but sepsis caused by fungi is increasing. The host response with both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes is responsible for organic failures, which complicate the syndrome, and for the susceptibility to secondary infections. The impairment of one or more organs or systems may be the onset clinical presentation. The organ dysfunctions complicating sepsis involve mainly cardiorespiratory system, kidneys, hemostatis and central nervous system. Fever or hypothermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis or leukopenia, elevated blood levels of lactate and procalcitonin, hypotension are diagnostically sensitive findings for sepsis. Definitive diagnosis requires isolation of the pathogen from blood sample or from the focus of infection. Therapeutic success against sepsis depends on the appropriate use of antibiotics, on the treatment of hemodynamic and respiratory disorder and on general supportive care. In some cases the use of activated protein C is to take in consideration.

  8. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  9. Impact of total substitution of corn for soybean hulls in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Patricia Viana Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substituting corn for soybean hulls on the apparent digestibility of nutrients, carcass performance and characteristics, and yield of cuts of 25 non-castrated male Santa Ines lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg, at approximately 6 months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 × 1.0 m, considering a totally randomized design, fed 600 g/kg of forage and 400 g/kg of concentrate. Soybean hulls replaced corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, total carbohydrates (TC, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN in g/day, and the digestibility of NFC increased linearly with the soybean hull replacement. Crude protein intake displayed a quadratic response, whereas the intake of EE in g/day, the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, NDFap and TC, TDN, average daily gain, carcass characteristics, and yield of cuts were not affected by the soybean hull levels. Soybean hull substitution increased the intake of DM and nutrients, making it possible to replace up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the diets for confined sheep, as it does not compromise performance, digestibility, carcass characteristics, or yield of cuts when used in sheep nutrition.

  10. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  11. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Angileri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1 is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH, an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethylbenzoyl] cyclohexane-1,3-dione. However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  12. RESPONSE OF CYPRINUS CARPIO TO PHENOL AND FURFURAL SHOCK LOADS IN PACT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment efficiency, design factors and kinetic coefficients were studied using two pilots of activated sludge (AS and powdered activated carbon technology (PACT, for treating Tehran Oil Refinery effluent, in a duration of more than 12 months In order to evaluate the performance of each system against growth inhibitor shock loads, different concentrations of phenol and furfural (10-300 mg/l were applied, following a series of experiments in which, treated effluents from the two systems were used as influent water into two aquariums containing freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio of 9-15g weight, 6-9 cm length and with a fish density of 5g/1. Results of fish fatal rates with 125 and 250-mg/l phenol were 16% and 38% for AS system and 5.6% and 8% for PACT system, respectively. Changing the growth inhibitor to furfural, with a concentration of 100 mg/I, led to the fatal rates of 100% and 0% for AS and PACT systems, respectively. Increasing furfural load to 300 mg/I destroyed only 20% of fish in PACT pilot.

  13. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  14. Systemic cytokine response in moribund mice of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mitsumasa; Kajiwara, Hideko; Iida, Ken-ichiro; Hoshina, Takayuki; Kusuhara, Koichi; Hara, Toshiro; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2011-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes severe invasive disease in humans, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). We previously reported a mouse model that is similar to human STSS. When mice were infected intramuscularly with 10(7) CFU of S. pyogenes, all of them survived acute phase of infection. After 20 or more days of infection, a number of them died suddenly accompanied by S. pyogenes bacteremia. We call this phenomenon "delayed death". We analyzed the serum cytokine levels of mice with delayed death, and compared them with those of mice who died in the acute phase of intravenous S. pyogenes infection. The serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in mice of delayed death were more than 100 times higher than those in acute death mice. IL-10 and IL-12, which were not detected in acute death, were also significantly higher in mice of delayed death. IL-6 and MCP-1 (CCL-2) were elevated in both groups of mice. It was noteworthy that not only pro-inflammatory cytokines but also anti-inflammatory cytokines were elevated in delayed death. We also found that intravenous TNF-α injection accelerated delayed death, suggesting that an increase of serum TNF-α induced S. pyogenes bacteremia in our mouse model.

  15. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M., E-mail: robert.tanguay@ibis.ulaval.ca [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Genetics, Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS) and PROTEO, 1030 avenue de la médecine, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2014-04-23

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  16. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner...

  17. 77 FR 59575 - Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 181 Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Coast... requesting public comments regarding the existing regulatory requirement to indicate a boat's model year as part of the 12-character Hull Identification Number (HIN). Under current regulations in 33 CFR part 181...

  18. Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

  19. Registration of Harriman low-phytate, hulled spring barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS), has released 'Harriman', (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Reg. No. xxxxxx, P.I. xxxxxx). Harriman is a hulled, low-phytate barley, the second to be developed and released by the USDA-ARS. Compared to the previously released hulled, l...

  20. The evolution of the phage shock protein response system: interplay between protein function, genomic organization, and system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvet, M; Toni, T; Sheng, X; Thorne, T; Jovanovic, G; Engl, C; Buck, M; Pinney, J W; Stumpf, M P H

    2011-03-01

    Sensing the environment and responding appropriately to it are key capabilities for the survival of an organism. All extant organisms must have evolved suitable sensors, signaling systems, and response mechanisms allowing them to survive under the conditions they are likely to encounter. Here, we investigate in detail the evolutionary history of one such system: The phage shock protein (Psp) stress response system is an important part of the stress response machinery in many bacteria, including Escherichia coli K12. Here, we use a systematic analysis of the genes that make up and regulate the Psp system in E. coli in order to elucidate the evolutionary history of the system. We compare gene sharing, sequence evolution, and conservation of protein-coding as well as noncoding DNA sequences and link these to comparative analyses of genome/operon organization across 698 bacterial genomes. Finally, we evaluate experimentally the biological advantage/disadvantage of a simplified version of the Psp system under different oxygen-related environments. Our results suggest that the Psp system evolved around a core response mechanism by gradually co-opting genes into the system to provide more nuanced sensory, signaling, and effector functionalities. We find that recruitment of new genes into the response machinery is closely linked to incorporation of these genes into a psp operon as is seen in E. coli, which contains the bulk of genes involved in the response. The organization of this operon allows for surprising levels of additional transcriptional control and flexibility. The results discussed here suggest that the components of such signaling systems will only be evolutionarily conserved if the overall functionality of the system can be maintained.

  1. Response to Hepatocarcinoma Hca-F of Mice Immunized with Heat Shock Protein 70 from Elemene Combo Tumor Cell Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianying Guo; Guangxia Shi; Zhihong Gao; Jie Shen; Rong Xing; Zhenchao Qian

    2006-01-01

    To analyze immune response to murine hepatocarcinoma Hca-F of mice immunized with heat shock protein 70(HSP70) derived from elemene combo tumor cell vaccine (EC-TCV) of Hca-F, HSP70 was isolated from EC-TCV by ADP affinity chromatography. Mice were immunized with HSP70 intraperitoneally three times and spleen cells were sampled. For cells, their proliferation and cytotoxicity against Hca-F were measured with MTT assay and their phenotypes were analyzed with flow cytometry. Spleen cells of immunized mice with HSP70 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity against Hca-F and proliferation than that of normal control mice, but less potent than that of mice immunized with EC-TCV. Among three groups, the percent of γδ T lymphocytes in the mice immunized with HSP70 (35.5%) was the highest compared with 6.25% in normal mice, and 28.4% in the mice immunized with EC-TCV. Immunization of HSP70 derived from EC-TCV could elicit potent immune response to Hca-F. HSP70 is one of elements inducing anti-tumor immune responses against Hca-F. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):291-295.

  2. Ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2, and heat shock protein 27: potential targets of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besgen, Petra; Trommler, Paul; Vollmer, Sigrid; Prinz, Joerg Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Psoriasis is an HLA-Cw6-associated T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the skin that is often triggered by streptococcal angina. To identify keratinocyte proteins, which may become psoriatic autoantigens as the result of an immune response against streptococci, rabbits were immunized with heat-killed Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcal immunization induced Ab formation against various human keratinocyte proteins. Sera from psoriasis patients reacted against several of these proteins as well. Common serologic reactivities of rabbits and patients included the proteins ezrin, maspin, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), heat shock protein (hsp)27, and keratin 6. When used for stimulation of blood lymphocytes, ezrin, maspin, PRDX2, and hsp27 induced increased T cell activation in psoriasis patients, which was particularly evident for HLA-Cw6(+) individuals. Ag-specific T cell lines generated with these proteins consisted predominantly of CD8(+) T cells and used TCR beta-chain rearrangements, which were highly homologous to those expanded within the corresponding skin lesion. Several immunodominant epitopes on the different proteins could be defined according to sequence alignments with the whole genome of S. pyogenes. Our data indicate that maspin, ezrin, PRDX2, hsp27, and potentially keratin 6 could act as autoantigens of a streptococcal-induced autoimmune response and represent targets of the exaggerated T cell response in psoriasis. Additionally, ezrin and hsp27 might constitute antigenic links between psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease, uveitis, or arteriosclerosis, which are clinically associated.

  3. Analysis of the heat shock response in mouse liver reveals dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARalpha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallanat, B.; Anderson, S.P.; Brown-Borg, H.M.; Ren, H.; Kersten, A.H.; Jonnalagadda, S.; Srinivasan, S.; Corton, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by heat shock (HS) through

  4. A Mage3/Heat Shock Protein70 DNA vaccine induces both innate and adaptive immune responses for the antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Rollins, Lisa; Gu, Qinlong; Chen, Si-Yi; Huang, Xue F

    2009-12-11

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly effective and versatile molecules in promoting antitumor immune responses. We tested whether a HSP-based DNA vaccine can induce effective immune response against Mage3, a cancer testis (CT) antigen frequently expressed in many human tumors, thereby controlling the Mage3-expressing tumor. The vaccine was constructed by linking human inducible HSP70 to the C-terminus of a modified Mage3 gene (sMage3) that was attached at its N-terminus with the signal leader sequence of the human RANTES for releasing the expressed fusion protein from the transduced cells. Intramuscular injection of sMage3Hsp DNA induced CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell and antibody responses. Vaccination with sMage3Hsp DNA was more effective in inhibiting Mage3-expressing TC-1 tumors. When we dissected the antitumor activity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by immunizing CD4(+) and CD8(+) knockout mice with sMage3Hsp DNA, we found that both CD8(+) T and CD4(+) T cells played a role in control of inoculated tumor, but did not constitute the whole of immune protection in the prophylactic immunization. Instead, depletion of natural killer (NK) cells led to a major loss of antitumor activity in the immunized mice. These results indicate that the HSP-based Mage3 DNA vaccine can more effectively inhibit tumor growth by inducing both the innate immune responses and Mage3-specific adaptive immune responses via the Hsp-associated adjuvant function.

  5. Combination of two oxidant stressors suppresses the oxidative stress and enhances the heat shock protein 27 response in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Delliaux, Stephane; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Boussuges, Alain; Gole, Yoann; Jammes, Yves

    2010-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the combination of 2 oxidant stressors (hyperoxia and fatiguing exercise) might reduce or suppress the oxidative stress. We concomitantly measured the plasma concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp) that protect the cells against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. Healthy humans breathed pure oxygen under normobaric condition for 50-minute periods during which they stayed at rest or executed maximal static handgrip sustained until exhaustion. They also repeated handgrip bouts in normoxic condition. We performed venous blood measurements of 2 markers of the oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced ascorbic acid) and Hsp27. Under normoxic condition, the handgrip elicited an oxidative stress and a modest increase in plasma Hsp27 level (+7.1 +/- 5.4 ng/mL). Under hyperoxic condition, (1) at rest, compared with the same time schedule in normoxic condition, we measured an oxidative stress (increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased reduced ascorbic acid levels) and the plasma Hsp27 level increased (maximal variation, +12.5 +/- 6.0 ng/mL); and (2) after the handgrip, the oxidative stress rapidly disappeared. The combination of both hyperoxia and handgrip bout doubled the Hsp27 response (maximal variation, +24.8 +/- 9.2 ng/mL). Thus, the combination of 2 hits eliciting an oxidative stress seems to induce an adaptive Hsp27 response that might counterbalance an excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Melanoma-associated antigen tyrosinase but not Melan-A/MART-1 expression and presentation dissociate during the heat shock response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Valeria; Frankenberger, Bernhard; Heinz, Oksana; Brandl, Anna; Ruhland, Sibylle; Issels, Rolf Dieter; Noessner, Elfriede

    2005-03-01

    Heat shock has been shown to have pleiotropic effects on tumor physiology besides a direct cytotoxic effect. In the present study, we address the question whether heat shock treatment has an impact on the antigenicity of human melanoma cells and their specific recognition by cytotoxic lymphocytes. The heat shock response was induced by treating the cells with two different thermal isoeffect doses, which resulted in equivalent clonogenic survival, mimicking doses achieved during clinical hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Antigen expression and immune recognition by cytotoxic T cells was studied using the human melanoma cell lines 624.38-MEL, SK-MEL23, WM115 and WM266-4, which naturally express, process and present tyrosinase and Melan-A/melanoma antigen recognized by T cells (MART)-1-derived peptides in the context of HLA-A2 molecules. We demonstrate that during the heat shock response following the two thermal doses, heat shock protein 70 (Mr 72 kDa) (HSP70) was induced with differential kinetics; tyrosinase protein and mRNA levels dissociated with a significant increase in tyrosinase protein and a decrease in transcript levels. A similar dissociation was not observed for Melan-A/MART-1. Furthermore, tyrosinase-specific T-cell recognition did not correlate with changes in HSP70 and antigen protein levels. These results suggest that caution has to be taken when considering protein levels as a marker for the antigenic status of a tumor. Moreover, these results document the maintenance of immunological homeostasis during recovery from heat treatment, thus challenging the view that tumor cells subjected to heat shock become resistant to CTL recognition.

  7. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Kristoffer T; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Ostgaard, Hege N; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long-term training adaptations in the antioxidant- and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long-term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  8. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS TO UPHILL AND DOWNHILL EXERCISE IN HEART, SKELETAL MUSCLE, LUNG AND KIDNEY TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo C. B. Lollo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Running on a horizontal plane is known to increase the concentration of the stress biomarker heat-shock protein (HSP, but no comparison of the expression of HSP70 has yet been established between the uphill (predominantly concentric and downhill (predominantly eccentric muscle contractions exercise. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships between eccentric and concentric contractions on the HSP70 response of the lung, kidney, gastrocnemius, soleus and heart. Twenty-four male Wistar weanling rats were divided into four groups: non-exercised and three different grades of treadmill exercise groups: horizontal, uphill (+7% and downhill (-7% of inclination. At the optimal time-point of six hours after the exercise, serum uric acid, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined by standard methods and HSP70 by the Western blot analysis. HSP70 responds differently to different types of running. For kidney, heart, soleus and gastrocnemius, the HSP70 expression increased, 230, 180, 150 and 120% respectively of the reference (horizontal. When the contraction was concentric (uphill and compared to downhill the increase in response of HSP70 was greater in 80% for kidney, 75% for gastrocnemius, 60% for soleus and 280% for the heart. Uric acid was about 50% higher (0.64 ± 0.03 mg·dL-1 in the uphill group as compared to the horizontal or downhill groups. Similarly, the activities of serum CK and LDH were both 100% greater for both the uphill and downhill groups as compared to the horizontal group (2383 ± 253 and 647.00 ± 73 U/L, respectively. The responsiveness of HSP70 appeared to be quite different depending on the type of tissue, suggesting that the impact of exercise was not restricted to the muscles, but extended to the kidney tissue. The uphill exercise increases HSP70 beyond the eccentric type and the horizontal running was a lower HSP70 responsive stimulus

  9. Antibody responses to mycobacterial and self heat shock protein 65 in autoimmune arthritis: epitope specificity and implication in pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Ro; Kim, Eugene Y; Cerny, Jan; Moudgil, Kamal D

    2006-11-15

    Many autoimmune diseases are believed to involve primarily T cell-mediated effector mechanisms. There is increasing realization, however, that Abs may also play a vital role in the propagation of T cell-driven disorders. In this study, on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of human rheumatoid arthritis, we examined the characteristics of serum Ab response to mycobacterial heat shock protein (hsp) 65 (Bhsp65), self (rat) hsp65 (Rhsp65), and linear peptides spanning these two molecules. The AA-resistant WKY (RT.1(l)) rat responded to the heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunization with a rapid burst of Abs to both Bhsp65 and Rhsp65. These Abs reacted with numerous peptide epitopes; however, this response was reduced to a few epitopes with time. On the contrary, the susceptible Lewis (RT.1(l)) rat developed a relatively lower Ab response to Bhsp65, and Abs to Rhsp65 did not appear until the recovery from the disease. The Ab response in Lewis rats diversified with progression of AA, and there was an intriguing overlap between the repertoire of Bhsp65-reactive B and T cells during the recovery phase of AA. Nonetheless, subsets of the repertoire of the late Abs in both rat strains became focused on the same epitope regions of Bhsp65 and Rhsp65. The functional relevance of these Abs was evident from the results showing that sera from recovery phase Lewis or WKY rats, but not that of naive rats, afforded protection against subsequent AA. These results are of significance in further understanding of the role of humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis.

  10. Heat-shock responsive genes identified and validated in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua liver, head kidney and skeletal muscle using genomic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daily and seasonal changes in temperature are challenges that fish within aquaculture settings cannot completely avoid, and are known to elicit complex organismal and cellular stress responses. We conducted a large-scale gene discovery and transcript expression study in order to better understand the genes that are potentially involved in the physiological and cellular aspects of stress caused by heat-shock. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library construction and characterization to identify transcripts that were dysregulated by heat-shock in liver, skeletal muscle and head kidney of Atlantic cod. These tissues were selected due to their roles in metabolic regulation, locomotion and growth, and immune function, respectively. Fish were exposed for 3 hours to an 8°C elevation in temperature, and then allowed to recover for 24 hours at the original temperature (i.e. 10°C. Tissue samples obtained before heat-shock (BHS, at the cessation of heat-shock (CS, and 3, 12, and 24 hours after the cessation of heat-shock (ACS, were used for reciprocal SSH library construction and quantitative reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (QPCR analysis of gene expression using samples from a group that was transferred but not heat-shocked (CT as controls. Results We sequenced and characterized 4394 ESTs (1524 from liver, 1451 from head kidney and 1419 from skeletal muscle from three "forward subtracted" libraries (enriched for genes up-regulated by heat-shock and 1586 from the liver "reverse subtracted" library (enriched for genes down-regulated by heat-shock, for a total of 5980 ESTs. Several cDNAs encoding putative chaperones belonging to the heat-shock protein (HSP family were found in these libraries, and "protein folding" was among the gene ontology (GO terms with the highest proportion in the libraries. QPCR analysis of HSP90α and HSP70-1 (synonym: HSPA1A mRNA expression showed significant up

  11. Hypovolemic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thready Tests that may be done include: Blood chemistry, including kidney function tests and those tests looking ... severe shock. Severe hypovolemic shock may lead to death, even with immediate medical attention. Older adults are ...

  12. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4–5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4–2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1–5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01–0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) ...

  13. Calculation of the hull and of the car-suspension systems of airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzio, R

    1924-01-01

    Differential and integral curves are presented and well as numerous calculations relating to hulls. Some of the calculations include those relating to hulls, those relating to the invariability of the shape of the hulls, and those relating to the suspension of the hull.

  14. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of...

  15. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate...

  16. Regulation of Inflammatory Responses in Shock-Related Syndromes by Synthetic Oligopeptides and Steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Zee (Marten)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInflammation is the body’s way of responding to disturbances in homeostasis. Depending on the triggering event and the site of inflammation, the inflammatory response has different physiological purposes and pathological consequences (Figure 1). Inducers of inflammation are either foreig

  17. [Alteration of neural oscillations in hippocampal CA3 area in the fast avoidance response rat before and after electric shock avoidance training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Dan; Guan, Yan; Tang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Zheng; Li, Jing; Li, Min; Zhu, Zai-Man; Pan, Qun-Wan

    2015-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship of spatial learning ability and specific electrical activities of neural oscillations in the rat. The fast and general avoidance response groups were selected on the basis of the animals' responses to the electric shock in Y type maze, and their local field potentials (LFPs) of hippocampal CA3 area were recorded by wireless telemetry before and after shock avoidance training, respectively. The components of neural oscillations related to spatial identifying and learning ability were analyzed. The results showed that, compared with the general avoidance response group, the fast avoidance response group did not show any differences of LFPs in hippocampal CA3 area before electric shock avoidance trial, but showed significantly increased percentages of 0-10 Hz and 30-40 Hz rhythm in right hippocampal CA3 area after the shock avoidance training (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Fast Fourier transform showed that percentage increase of 0-10 Hz band occurred mainly in θ (3-7 Hz) frequency, and 30-40 Hz frequency change was equivalent to the γ1 band. Furthermore, compared with those before training, only the percentages of β, β2 (20-30 Hz) and γ1 rhythm increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in fast avoidance response rats after training, while the θ rhythm percentage remained unchanged. In contrast, θ rhythm percentage and the large amplitude (intensity: +2.5 - -2.5 db) θ waves in right CA3 area of general avoidance response rats were significantly reduced after training (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the increased percentages of β2 and γ1 rhythm and high-level (unchanged) percentage of θ rhythm in the right hippocampus CA3 area might be related to strong spatial cognition ability of fast avoidance response rats.

  18. Suppressive and Facilitative Effects of Shock Intensity and Interresponse Times Followed by Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jessica B.; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although response-dependent shock often suppresses responding, response facilitation can occur. In two experiments, we examined the suppressive and facilitative effects of shock by manipulating shock intensity and the interresponse times that produced shock. Rats' lever presses were reinforced on a variable-interval 40-s schedule of food…

  19. Suppressive and Facilitative Effects of Shock Intensity and Interresponse Times Followed by Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Jessica B.; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although response-dependent shock often suppresses responding, response facilitation can occur. In two experiments, we examined the suppressive and facilitative effects of shock by manipulating shock intensity and the interresponse times that produced shock. Rats' lever presses were reinforced on a variable-interval 40-s schedule of food…

  20. Coping with shocks in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debebe, Z.Y.; Mebratie, A.; Sparrow, R.; Abebaw, D.; Dekker, M.; Alemu, G.; Bedi, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on household survey data and event history interviews undertaken in a highly shock prone country, this paper investigates which shocks trigger which coping responses and why? We find clear differences in terms of coping strategies across shock types. The two relatively covariate shocks, that

  1. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  2. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  3. Dynamic crushing response of closed-cell aluminium foams during shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Kader, M. A.; Hazell, P. J.; Escobedo-Diaz, J. P.; Brown, A. D.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Saadatfar, M.; Quadir, M. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the impact response of aluminium foams is essential for assessing their energy absorption capacity under dynamic loading. In this paper, the dynamic compaction behavior of closed-cell aluminium foam (CYMAT ™) has been tested using the plate-impact technique. Post-impacted samples have been examined using optical microscopy to observe the microstructural changes with the objective of elucidating the pore-collapse mechanism.

  4. Notes on aerodynamic forces on airship hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckerman, L B

    1923-01-01

    For a first approximation the air flow around the airship hull is assumed to obey the laws of perfect (i.e. free from viscosity) incompressible fluid. The flow is further assumed to be free from vortices (or rotational motion of the fluid). These assumptions lead to very great simplifications of the formulae used but necessarily imply an imperfect picture of the actual conditions. The value of the results depends therefore upon the magnitude of the forces produced by the disturbances in the flow caused by viscosity with the consequent production of vortices in the fluid. If these are small in comparison with the forces due to the assumed irrotational perfect fluid flow the results will give a good picture of the actual conditions of an airship in flight.

  5. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill;

    2009-01-01

    , forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is used as a base to derive semi-analytical formulas such that approximate wave load calculations can be performed by a simple spreadsheet program. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase. Since the procedure...

  6. The Local Transformation of the Catamaran-stern Hull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Na

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]Lines plan of a ship related to resistance,structural strength,and economic benefit,is a complicated system engineering.Especially for the catamaran-stern hull,the designers have to modify the lines plan of the ship,in order to combine the catamaran-stern with the main ship hull.This paper use trigonometric function method to achieve the local transformation of catamaran-stern hull;on the other hand,making it programmed can effectively shorten the cycle of shipbuilding.

  7. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  8. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  9. Early Onset of Heat-Shock Response in Mouse Embryos Revealed by Quantification of Stress-Inducible hsp70i RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J. Wangh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock response is fully established in mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage, but it is unclear when this response first arises during development. To shed light on this question, we used a single-tube method to quantify mRNA levels of the heat shock protein genes hsp70.1 and hsp70.3 (hsp70i in individual cleavage-stage embryos that had or had not been heat-shocked. While untreated, healthy embryos contained very low copy numbers of hsp70i RNA, heat shock rapidly induced the synthesis of hundreds of hsp70i transcripts per blastomere at both the 4-cell and the 8-cell stages. In addition, we performed hsp70i measurements in embryos that had not been heat-shocked but had been very slow in developing.Quantification of hsp70i RNA and genomic DNA copy numbers in these slow-growing embryos demonstrated the presence of two distinct populations. Some of the embryos contained considerable levels of hsp70i RNA, a finding consistent with the hypothesis of endogenous metabolic stress accompanied by cell cycle arrest and delayed development. Other slow-growing embryos contained no hsp70i RNA and fewer than expected hsp70i gene copies, suggesting the possibility of ongoing apoptosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mouse embryos can activate hsp70i expression in response to sub-lethal levels of stress as early as at the 4-cell stage. Our results also indicate that quantification of hsp70i DNA and RNA copy numbers may provide a diagnostic tool for embryonic health.

  10. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier,glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Belmonte; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte; Mo(i)se Co(e)ffier; Florence Le Pessot; Olga Miralles-Barrachina; Martine Hiron; Antony Leplingard; Jean-Fran(c)ois Lemeland; Bernadette Hecketsweiler; Maryvonne Daveau

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock.METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP),jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder.Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed.RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ±0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation.CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model.

  11. Response of anaerobic granular sludge to a shock load of zinc oxide nanoparticles during biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hui; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Hong; Liu, Kun

    2012-06-05

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in consumer and industrial products highlights a need to understand their potential environmental impacts. In this study, the response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to a shock load of ZnO NPs during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment was reported. It was observed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS and the methane production were not significantly influenced at ZnO NPs of 10 and 50 mg per gram of total suspended solids (mg/g-TSS), but they were decreased when the dosage of ZnO NPs was greater than 100 mg/g-TSS. The visualization of EPS structure with multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that ZnO NPs mainly caused the decrease of proteins by 69.6%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis further indicated that the C-O-C group of polysaccharides and carboxyl group of proteins in EPS were also changed in the presence of ZnO NPs. The decline of EPS induced by ZnO NPs resulted in their deteriorating protective role on the inner microorganisms of AGS, which was in correspondence with the observed lower general physiological activity of AGS and the death of microorganisms. Further investigation showed that the negative influence of ZnO NPs on methane production was due to their severe inhibition on the methanization step.

  12. A dislocation density-based continuum model of the anisotropic shock response of single crystal α-cyclotrimethylene trinitramine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, D. J.; Addessio, F. L.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Ramos, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a model for the finite deformation thermomechanical response of α-cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX). Our model accounts for nonlinear thermoelastic lattice deformation through a free energy-based equation of state developed by Cawkwell et al. (2016) in combination with temperature and pressure dependent elastic constants, as well as dislocation-mediated plastic slip on a set of slip systems motivated by experimental observation. The kinetics of crystal plasticity are modeled using the Orowan equation relating slip rate to dislocation density and the dislocation velocity developed by Austin and McDowell (2011), which naturally accounts for transition from thermally activated to dislocation drag limited regimes. Evolution of dislocation density is specified in terms of local ordinary differential equations reflecting dislocation-dislocation interactions. This paper presents details of the theory and parameterization of the model, followed by discussion of simulations of flyer plate impact experiments. Impact conditions explored within this combined simulation and experimental effort span shock pressures ranging from 1 to 3 GPa for four crystallographic orientations and multiple specimen thicknesses. Simulation results generated using this model are shown to be in strong agreement with velocimetry measurements from the corresponding plate impact experiments. Finally, simulation results are used to motivate conclusions about the nature of dislocation-mediated plasticity in RDX.

  13. Investigation of weldments in Victoria-class submarine pressure-hull using magnetic flux leakage and Barkhausen noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, A. A.; Babbar, V.; Krause, T. W.; Clapham, L.

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation of the stress state within submarine hulls can contribute to risk assessments, which provide assurance that in-service induced stresses will not adversely affect the service life of the naval structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetic NDE techniques for identification of stresses associated with weldments in two original pressure hulls of Canada's Victoria class submarines. Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and flux-controlled Barkhausen Noise measurements were investigated for identification of patch boundaries and welds in two sections of Victoria-class submarine-hull steel. While MFL showed clear demarcation of weld boundaries, Barkhausen measurements did not provide sufficiently clear response to identify these features in submarine hull samples. For a better understanding of Barkhausen response, uniaxial tensile stress was investigated on separate samples of submarine steel. A nonlinear dependence of Barkhausen response was observed, with a weaker sensitivity to tensile stresses below 200 MPa. This behavior, combined with the presence of substantial surface compressive stresses, was used to explain the observed insensitivity of Barkhausen measurements to the presence of welds.

  14. Shock-tube calibration of a fast-response pressure transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kung-Ming; Lu, Frank K.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of a miniature fast-response piezoresistive pressure transducer determined dynamically was found to be slightly higher than that determined statically. Thus, mean pressures in a turbulent or unsteady flowfield that are measured using statically-calibrated pressure transducers would be slightly above true values. Unsteady pressure measurements to obtain space-time correlations and spectra can, however, be properly performed if the slight error is acceptable. These measurements are, obviously, subjected to limitations imposed by the bandwidth and the spatial resolution of the transducer. The noise spectrum revealed that the noise is predominantly above the transducer's resonant frequency. Filtering to improve the signal-to-noise ratio is particularly necessary when using the transducers at their low range. Transducer drift increases the signal-to-noise ratio and can adversely affect mean measurements.

  15. Development of Drop/Shock Test in Microelectronics and Impact Dynamic Analysis for Uniform Board Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallolimath, Sharan Chandrashekar

    For the past several years, many researchers are constantly developing and improving board level drop test procedures and specifications to quantify the solder joint reliability performance of consumer electronics products. Predictive finite element analysis (FEA) by utilizing simulation software has become widely acceptable verification method which can reduce time and cost of the real-time test process. However, due to testing and metrological limitations it is difficult not only to simulate exact drop condition and capture critical measurement data but also tedious to calibrate the system to improve test methods. Moreover, some of the important ever changing factors such as board flexural rigidity, damping, drop height, and drop orientation results in non-uniform stress/strain distribution throughout the test board. In addition, one of the most challenging tasks is to quantify uniform stress and strain distribution throughout the test board and identify critical failure factors. The major contributions of this work are in the four aspects of the drop test in electronics as following. First of all, an analytical FEA model was developed to study the board natural frequencies and responses of the system with the consideration of dynamic stiffness, damping behavior of the material and effect of impact loading condition. An approach to find the key parameters that affect stress and strain distributions under predominate mode responses was proposed and verified with theoretical solutions. Input-G method was adopted to study board response behavior and cut boundary interpolation methods was used to analyze local model solder joint stresses with the development of global/local FEA model in ANSYS software. Second, no ring phenomenon during the drop test was identified theoretically when the test board was modeled as both discrete system and continuous system. Numerical analysis was then conducted by FEA method for detailed geometry of attached chips with solder

  16. From protein-protein interaction to therapy response: Molecular imaging of heat shock proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Gang [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484 (United States); Chen Xiaoyuan [Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology and Bio-X Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1201 Welch Rd, P095, Stanford, CA 94305-5484 (United States)], E-mail: shawchen@stanford.edu

    2009-05-15

    HSP70 promoter-driven gene therapy and inhibition of HSP90 activity with small molecule inhibitors are two shining points in a newly developed cohort of cancer treatment. For HSP70 promoters, high efficiency and heat inducibility within a localized region make it very attractive to clinical translation. The HSP90 inhibitors exhibit a broad spectrum of anticancer activities due to the downstream effects of HSP90 inhibition, which interfere with a wide range of signaling processes that are crucial for the malignant properties of cancer cells. In this review article, we summarize exciting applications of newly emerged molecular imaging techniques as they relate to HSP, including protein-protein interactions of HSP90 complexes, therapeutic response of tumors to HSP90 inhibitors, and HSP70 promoters-controlled gene therapy. In the HSPs context, molecular imaging is expected to play a vital role in promoting drug development and advancing individualized medicine.

  17. Effect of Nitrogen on Hull Traits and Its Causes in Yangdao6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lian-xin; WANG Yu-long; DONG Gui-chun; HUANG Jian-yi; ZHANG Ya-jie; CAI Hui-rong

    2002-01-01

    The experiments were carried out under solution and pot cultural conditions with rice Yangdao6. Effect of nitrogen on hull size, weight and plumpness and its relationship with plant nutrition were analysed. On comparison with no fertilization, low N application concentration from transplanting to heading, or employing basal fertilizer or tiller promoting one would result in increment of hull size and weight,while raising N application concentration from transplanting to heading or employing excessive spike fertilizer would result in smaller, lighter hull and poorer hull plumpness. The more amount of nitrogen applied, the more hull development would be inhibited. Top dressing at heading would facilitate hull substance accumulation, but its effect on hull size was small. The variation of hull traits differed in the following order: hull weight > hull weight per unit area > hull area > hull length > hull width. Hull traits were highly significantly correlated to the nitrogen content of plant at heading, with correlation coefficient from - 0. 8684* * to- 0.9336 * *, and positively correlated to the contents of soluble sugar and starch at heading, with correlation coefficient of 0.6660NS - 0.9501 * *. Improving hull characters would be beneficial to substance accumulation of grain, thus improving grain weight considerably(r = 0.6388 * -0.9574 * * ).

  18. Induction of Antioxidant and Heat Shock Protein Responses During Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K Biggar; Jing Zhang; Shannon N Tessier; Fabien Pifferi; Martine Perret; Kenneth B Storey

    2015-01-01

    A natural tolerance of various environmental stresses is typically supported by various cytoprotective mechanisms that protect macromolecules and promote extended viability. Among these are antioxidant defenses that help to limit damage from reactive oxygen species and chaper-ones that help to minimize protein misfolding or unfolding under stress conditions. To understand the molecular mechanisms that act to protect cells during primate torpor, the present study charac-terizes antioxidant and heat shock protein (HSP) responses in various organs of control (aroused)and torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. Protein expression of HSP70 and HSP90a was elevated to 1.26 and 1.49 fold, respectively, in brown adipose tissue during torpor as compared with control animals, whereas HSP60 in liver of torpid animals was 1.15 fold of that in control (P<0.05). Among antioxidant enzymes, protein levels of thioredoxin 1 were elevated to 2.19 fold in white adipose tissue during torpor, whereas Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase 1 levels rose to 1.1 fold in skeletal muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, total antioxidant capacity was increased to 1.6 fold in liver during torpor (P<0.05), while remaining unchanged in the five other tissues. Overall, our data suggest that antioxidant and HSP responses are modified in a tissue-specific manner during daily torpor in gray mouse lemurs. Furthermore, our data also show that cytoprotective strategies employed during primate torpor are distinct from the strategies in rodent hibernation as reported in previous studies.

  19. Gene expression profiles of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 from Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li; Wu, Jun X; Qin, Dao Z; Liu, Xiang C; Lu, Zhao C; Lv, Li Z; Pan, Zi L; Chen, Hao; Li, Guang W

    2015-01-01

    Empoasca onukii Matsuda is a worldwide pest that causes great economic loss in tea growing areas and is significantly affected by temperatures. Heat shock protein (Hsp) genes are important in insects' response to temperature stress. In this study, two full-length Hsp genes, Eohsp90 and Eohsp70, were cloned from E. onukii using rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends. The open reading frames of Eohsp90 and Eohsp70 were 2,172 bp and 2,016 bp in length, respectively. Their deduced amino acid sequences of Eohsp90 and Eohsp70 showed high homology with other species. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of Eohsp90 and Eohsp70 in E. onukii adults exposed to various temperatures (-5, 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 38, 41 and 44°C) for 1 h, and at extreme temperatures (0°C and 41°C) for various time duration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min) were investigated via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The relative expression levels of both Eohsp90 and Eohsp70 in E. onukii adults were upregulated as the temperature rises or falls over time, except in the -5°C or 44°C temperature groups. Moreover, the expression level in the temperature elevated groups was higher than that of the lower temperature groups. In addition, the Eohsp70 generally demonstrated a higher transcriptional level than Eohsp90, and both genes had a higher expression profile in female adults compared with the males. The expression profiles indicated that Eohsp90 and Eohsp70 may play important roles in E. onukii adult responses to ecologically relevant environmental temperature threat.

  20. "Keisri hull" kui müstiline fantasy / Siimon Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Siimon

    2006-01-01

    30. sept. Ugalas esietendunud Jaan Krossi "Keisri hull" (autoridramatiseering), lavastajad Jaak Allik ja Peeter Tammearu. Kunstnik on Jaanus Laagriküll ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Konovalov. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  1. "Keisri hull" kui müstiline fantasy / Siimon Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Siimon

    2006-01-01

    30. sept. Ugalas esietendunud Jaan Krossi "Keisri hull" (autoridramatiseering), lavastajad Jaak Allik ja Peeter Tammearu. Kunstnik on Jaanus Laagriküll ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Konovalov. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  2. Efficient protocols for point-convex hull inclusion decision problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ye

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Secure Multi-party Computation (SMC is dedicated to solve trust problems in cooperative computing with each participant’s private data. Privacy Preserving Computational Geometry (PPCG is a special area in SMC and being widely researched. In the real world, PPCG theories can be found being used in various occasions such as military cooperation, commercial competitions and so on. Point-convex hull inclusion problem is a practical case in PPCG and has its profound values. This paper firstly investigates the point inclusion problem with static convex hull, and then marches on to the cases of active convex hull, including the parallel moving and rotating ones. To solve the problems above, we propose a secure protocol to determine the relative position of a private point and a private convex hull in the first place. Compared with previous solutions, our protocols perform better in efficiency, especially when the number of the convex hull’s point is large.

  3. Hull shape optimization for autonomous underwater vehicles using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag estimation and shape optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV hulls are critical to energy utilization and endurance improvement. In the present work, a shape optimization platform composed of several commercial software packages is presented. Computational accuracy, efficiency and robustness were carefully considered and balanced. Comparisons between experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD were conducted to prove that a two-dimensional (2D unstructured mesh, a standard wall function and adaptive mesh refinement could greatly improve efficiency as well as guarantee accuracy. Details of the optimization platform were then introduced. A comparison of optimizers indicates that the multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA obtains a better hull shape than particle swarm optimization (PSO, despite being a little more time consuming. The optimized hull shape under general volume requirement could provide reference for AUV hull design. Specific requirements based on optimization testify of the platform’s robustness.

  4. Computing Hulls And Centerpoints In Positive Definite Space

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, P Thomas; Phillips, Jeff M; Venkatasubramanian, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms for computing approximate hulls and centerpoints for collections of matrices in positive definite space. There are many applications where the data under consideration, rather than being points in a Euclidean space, are positive definite (p.d.) matrices. These applications include diffusion tensor imaging in the brain, elasticity analysis in mechanical engineering, and the theory of kernel maps in machine learning. Our work centers around the notion of a horoball: the limit of a ball fixed at one point whose radius goes to infinity. Horoballs possess many (though not all) of the properties of halfspaces; in particular, they lack a strong separation theorem where two horoballs can completely partition the space. In spite of this, we show that we can compute an approximate "horoball hull" that strictly contains the actual convex hull. This approximate hull also preserves geodesic extents, which is a result of independent value: an immediate corollary is that we can approxima...

  5. Pretreatment of rice hulls by ionic liquid dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Joan G; Reza, M Toufiq; Vasquez, Victor R; Coronella, Charles J

    2012-06-01

    As a highly available waste product, rice hulls could be a starting block in replacing liquid fossil fuels. However, their silica covering can make further use difficult. This preliminary study investigates effects of dissolving rice hulls in the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, (HMIM Cl), and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIM Cl), and what lignocellulosic components can be precipitated from the used ionic liquid with water and ethanol. EMIM Ac dissolution at 110 °C for 8 h was found to completely remove lignin from rice hulls, while ethanol was capable of precipitating lignin out of the used EMIM Ac. With 8h dissolution at 110 °C using HMIM Cl, approximately 20% of the cellulose in the rice hull sample can be precipitated out using water as co-solvent, while more than 60% of the hemicellulose can be precipitated with ethanol.

  6. Active control of radiated pressure of a submarine hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Tso, Yan; Juniper, Ross

    2008-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of the active control of low-frequency radiated pressure from submarine hulls is presented. Two typical hull models are examined in this paper. Each model consists of a water-loaded cylindrical shell with a hemispherical shell at one end and conical shell at the other end, which forms a simple model of a submarine hull. The conical end is excited by an axial force to simulate propeller excitations while the other end is free. The control action is implemented through a Tee-sectioned circumferential stiffener driven by pairs of PZT stack actuators. These actuators are located under the flange of the stiffener and driven out of phase to produce a control moment. A number of cost functions for minimizing the radiated pressure are examined. In general, it was found that the control system was capable of reducing more than half of the total radiated pressure from each of the submarine hull for the first three axial modes.

  7. Technological response to economic disruption: The role of new technologies in mitigating exogenous economic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Aron Scott

    2003-07-01

    The three essays in this dissertation deal with the role of technology in mitigating economic disruption. Much research has been done on the disruptive effects of technology; in contrast, these essays look at how technology can be used to reduce the effects of exogenous disruptions. Each essay looks at the issue at a different level; the first at the firm level, the second at the industry level and the final essay at the level of the national economy. The first essay examines the options and possible strategies for firms faced with increased instability in their electricity supply, as recently occurred in California. This paper develops response strategies for companies affected by an electrical crisis. These responses fall into three categories: Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the State. The technologies available to companies choosing to lead are reviewed, along with constraints to their adoption. From these strategies, it can be shown that areas with unstable electrical markets can expect a loss of firms to locales with less risk and uncertainty, unless governments adopt policies promoting distributed generation. The second essay projects the economic impacts of the adoption of high-temperature superconductor (FITS) technologies in electric generation, transmission, and distribution systems. Three technologies utilizing high-temperature superconductors are analyzed for their potential impact on the electrical utility industry. Distributed superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (D-SMES), superconducting cable, and HTS generators are each described along with their possible uses in the electrical utility industry. The economic impact of these technologies is then projected, along with a comparison between them and conventional technologies. The third essay deals with the role of technology in mitigating the economic effects of the reaction to terrorist attacks. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, public and private investments are

  8. Heat shock protein 90 is responsible for hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Ai; Zhen Yang; Fa-Zu Qiu; Tong Zhu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the participation of HSP90 in portal hypertensive rat mesentery in vitro.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western-blot were used to examine the expression of HSP90 in mesenteric vasculature. HSP90 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the role of HSP90 in hyperdynamic circulation was examined by in vitro mesenteric perfusion studies.RESULTS: HSP90 was overexpressed in endothelium of mesentery vasculature in animals with experimental portal hypertension induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL) compared with normal animals. Geldanamycin (GA), a special inhibitor of HsPg0 signaling, attenuated ACh-dependent vasodilation but did not affect vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside in normal rats. In PVL animals, the perfused mesentery was hyporesponsive to vasoconstrictor methoxamine. GA significantly potentiated methoxamineinduced vasoconstrictor after PVL.CONCLUSION: HsPg0 plays a key role in NO-dependent hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertension and provides a novel method for future treatment of portal hypertension.

  9. Hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing hulls with air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High-speed heavy loaded monohull ships can benefit from application of drag-reducing air cavities under stepped hull bottoms. The subject of this paper is the steady hydrodynamic modeling of semi-planing air-cavity hulls. The current method is based on a linearized potential-flow theory for surface flows. The mathematical model description and parametric calculation results for a selected configuration with pressurized and open air cavities are presented.

  10. Estimating hull coating thickness distributions using the EM Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Corriere, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    The underwater hull coating system on surface ships is comprised anti-corrosive (AC) and anti-fouling (AF) paint The AF layers are designed to wear away, continuously leaching cuprous oxide to inhibit marine growth. The thickness of the AF paint layers determines the expected service life of a coating system. Thus, it is important to assess the thickness of the AF layers to determine if the current hull coating system is sufficient. The Naval Ship Technical Manual (NSTM) provides specific gui...

  11. Impact of Cardiovascular Health on Hearing: Interview with Ray Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Judy K.

    2006-01-01

    Do you belong to a sports club or gym? Do you like to work out, play tennis, swim, or run regularly? If so, you are also improving your hearing health. I did not learn this from a sports column; I learned it from interviewing Ray Hull. Dr. Raymond H. Hull, PhD, is a professor of communication sciences and disorders, audiology, and director of the…

  12. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  13. The 26 December 2001 Solar Eruptive Event Responsible for GLE63: III. CME, Shock Waves, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Kiselev, V. I.; Uralov, A. M.; Klein, K.-L.; Kochanov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The SOL2001-12-26 moderate solar eruptive event (GOES importance M7.1, microwaves up to 4000 sfu at 9.4 GHz, coronal mass ejection (CME) speed 1446 km s-1) produced strong fluxes of solar energetic particles and ground-level enhancement (GLE) of cosmic-ray intensity (GLE63). To find a possible reason for the atypically high proton outcome of this event, we study multi-wavelength images and dynamic radio spectra and quantitatively reconcile the findings with each other. An additional eruption probably occurred in the same active region about half an hour before the main eruption. The latter produced two blast-wave-like shocks during the impulsive phase. The two shock waves eventually merged around the radial direction into a single shock traced up to 25 R_{⊙} as a halo ahead of the expanding CME body, in agreement with an interplanetary Type II event recorded by the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) experiment on the Wind spacecraft. The shape and kinematics of the halo indicate an intermediate regime of the shock between the blast wave and bow shock at these distances. The results show that i) the shock wave appeared during the flare rise and could accelerate particles earlier than usually assumed; ii) the particle event could be amplified by the preceding eruption, which stretched closed structures above the developing CME, facilitated its lift-off and escape of flare-accelerated particles, enabled a higher CME speed and stronger shock ahead; iii) escape of flare-accelerated particles could be additionally facilitated by reconnection of the flux rope, where they were trapped, with a large coronal hole; and iv) the first eruption supplied a rich seed population accelerated by a trailing shock wave.

  14. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Deciphers Host Responses Altered during Dengue Shock Syndrome and Reveals the Role of Innate Immunity in Severe Dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Devignot, Stéphanie; Sapet, Cédric; Duong, Veasna; Bergon, Aurélie; Rihet, Pascal; Ong, Sivuth; Patrich T Lorn; Chroeung, Norith; Ngeav, Sina; Tolou, Hugues J.; Buchy, Philippe; Couissinier-Paris, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering host responses contributing to dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the life-threatening form of acute viral dengue infections, is required to improve both the differential prognosis and the treatments provided to DSS patients, a challenge for clinicians. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a prospective study, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of whole blood cells from 48 matched Cambodian children: 19 progressed to DSS while 16 and 13 presented respectively ...

  15. Presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors are involved in the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response during septic shock in pithed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Barbara; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2004-01-01

    Our study was undertaken to investigate whether bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects the neurogenic vasopressor response in rats in vivo by presynaptic mechanisms and, if so, to characterize the type of presynaptic receptor(s) operating in the initial phase of septic shock.In pithed and vagotomized rats treated with pancuronium, electrical stimulation (ES) (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers or intravenous bolus injection of noradrenaline ...

  16. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oswaldo Cadenas

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n; second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  17. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature.

  18. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  19. Design of high-speed planing hulls for the improvement of resistance and seakeeping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-speed vessels require good resistance and seakeeping performance for safe operations in rough seas. The resistance and seakeeping performance of high-speed vessels varies significantly depending on their hull forms. In this study, three planing hulls that have almost the same displacement and principal dimension are designed and the hydrodynamic characteristics of those hulls are estimated by high-speed model tests. All model ships are deep-V type planing hulls. The bows of no.2 and no.3 model ships are designed to be advantageous for wave-piercing in rough water. No. 2 and no. 3 model ships have concave and straight forebody cross-sections, respectively. And length-to-beam ratios of no.2 and no.3 models are larger than that of no.1 model. In calm water tests, running attitude and resistance of model ships are measured at various speeds. And motion tests in regular waves are performed to measure the heave and pitch motion responses of the model ships. The required power of no.1 (VPS model is smallest, but its vertical motion amplitudes in waves are the largest. No.2 (VWC model shows the smallest motion amplitudes in waves, but needs the greatest power at high speed. The resistance and seakeeping performance of no.3 (VWS model ship are the middle of three model ships, respectively. And in regular waves, no.1 model ship experiences ‘fly over’ phenomena around its resonant frequency. Vertical accelerations at specific locations such as F.P., center of gravity of model ships are measured at their resonant frequency. It is necessary to measure accelerations by accelerometers or other devices in model tests for the accurate prediction of vertical accelerations in real ships.

  20. [Cardiogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houegnifioh, Komlanvi Kafui; Gfeller, Etienne; Garcia, Wenceslao; Ribordy, Vincent

    2014-08-13

    Cardiogenic shock, especially when it complicates a myocardial infarction, is still associated with high mortality rate. Emergency department or first care physicians are often the first providers to assess the cardiogenic shock patient, and plays thereby a key role in achieving a timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will detail the actual physiopathology understanding of the cardiogenic shock, its diagnosis and management focusing on the care within the emergency department.

  1. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  2. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  3. Flip to Regular Triangulation and Convex Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingcen; Cao, Thanh-Tung; Tan, Tiow-Seng

    2017-02-01

    Flip is a simple and local operation to transform one triangulation to another. It makes changes only to some neighboring simplices, without considering any attribute or configuration global in nature to the triangulation. Thanks to this characteristic, several flips can be independently applied to different small, non-overlapping regions of one triangulation. Such operation is favored when designing algorithms for data-parallel, massively multithreaded hardware, such as the GPU. However, most existing flip algorithms are designed to be executed sequentially, and usually need some restrictions on the execution order of flips, making them hard to be adapted to parallel computation. In this paper, we present an in depth study of flip algorithms in low dimensions, with the emphasis on the flexibility of their execution order. In particular, we propose a series of provably correct flip algorithms for regular triangulation and convex hull in 2D and 3D, with implementations for both CPUs and GPUs. Our experiment shows that our GPU implementation for constructing these structures from a given point set achieves up to two orders of magnitude of speedup over other popular single-threaded CPU implementation of existing algorithms.

  4. The Role of Sulfhydryl Reactivity of Small Molecules for the Activation of the KEAP1/NRF2 Pathway and the Heat Shock Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response are two essential cytoprotective mechanisms that allow adaptation and survival under conditions of oxidative, electrophilic, and thermal stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks of genes with versatile protective functions. The two pathways are independently regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2 and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1, respectively. The activity of these transcriptional master regulators increases during conditions of stress and also upon encounter of small molecules (inducers, both naturally occurring as well as synthetically produced. Inducers have a common chemical property: the ability to react with sulfhydryl groups. The protein targets of such sulfhydryl-reactive compounds are equipped with highly reactive cysteine residues, which serve as sensors for inducers. The initial cysteine-sensed signal is further relayed to affect the expression of large networks of genes, which in turn can ultimately influence complex cell fate decisions such as life and death. The paper summarizes the multiple lines of experimental evidence demonstrating that the reactivity with sulfhydryl groups is a major determinant of the mechanism of action of small molecule dual activators of the KEAP1/NRF2 pathway and the heat shock response.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  6. 船舶推进轴系冲击响应计算方法%Research on shock response method of ship propulsive shafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩江桂; 吴新跃; 贺少华

    2012-01-01

    主要分析动态设计方法(DDAM)进行船舶推进轴系抗冲击计算的不足,研究时域方法的可行性;并应用时域方法进行部分轴段和轴瓦的冲击响应计算,冲击激励采用BV0430标准;通过计算得到了Von Mises应力和位移响应,找到冲击薄弱部位和部件,给出冲击激励施加方法及其依据,为抗冲优化设计提供参考.%The deficiency of the dynamic design method( DDAM)that is adopted to calculate the anti-shock capability of propulsion shaft is analyzed and the feasibility of time-domain means is studied. The shock response calculations of the part of the shaft and sleeve are carried out by time domain methods that impact incentives is introduced by BV0430 standards. According to the results of calculation, the Von Mises stress and displacement response were obtained, the weak parts of impact were found, the applied method and basis of impact incentives were presented in order to provide the reference on the optimal design of anti-shock.

  7. AN EFFICIENT ALGORITHM FOR THE CONVEX HULL OF PLANAR SCATTERED POINT SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Fu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Computing the convex hull of a point set is requirement in the GIS applications. This paper studies on the problem of minimum convex hull and presents an improved algorithm for the minimum convex hull of planar scattered point set. It adopts approach that dividing the point set into several sub regions to get an initial convex hull boundary firstly. Then the points on the boundary, which cannot be vertices of the minimum convex hull, are removed one by one. Finally the concave points on the boundary, which cannot be vertices of the minimum convex hull, are withdrew. Experimental analysis shows the efficiency of the algorithm compared with other methods.

  8. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simos, N.; Zhong, Z.; Ghose, S.; Kirk, H. G.; Trung, L.-P.; McDonald, K. T.; Kotsina, Z.; Nocera, P.; Assmann, R.; Redaelli, S.; Bertarelli, A.; Quaranta, E.; Rossi, A.; Zwaska, R.; Ammigan, K.; Hurh, P.; Mokhov, N.

    2016-11-01

    A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5 ×1020 p /cm2 . The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF) selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (˜5 ×1018 p cm-2 ). In addition, the

  9. Radiation damage and thermal shock response of carbon-fiber-reinforced materials to intense high-energy proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Simos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the effects of energetic protons on carbon-fiber composites and compounds under consideration for use as low-Z pion production targets in future high-power accelerators and low-impedance collimating elements for intercepting TeV-level protons at the Large Hadron Collider has been undertaken addressing two key areas, namely, thermal shock absorption and resistance to irradiation damage. Carbon-fiber composites of various fiber weaves have been widely used in aerospace industries due to their unique combination of high temperature stability, low density, and high strength. The performance of carbon-carbon composites and compounds under intense proton beams and long-term irradiation have been studied in a series of experiments and compared with the performance of graphite. The 24-GeV proton beam experiments confirmed the inherent ability of a 3D C/C fiber composite to withstand a thermal shock. A series of irradiation damage campaigns explored the response of different C/C structures as a function of the proton fluence and irradiating environment. Radiolytic oxidation resulting from the interaction of oxygen molecules, the result of beam-induced radiolysis encountered during some of the irradiation campaigns, with carbon atoms during irradiation with the presence of a water coolant emerged as a dominant contributor to the observed structural integrity loss at proton fluences ≥5×10^{20}  p/cm^{2}. The carbon-fiber composites were shown to exhibit significant anisotropy in their dimensional stability driven by the fiber weave and the microstructural behavior of the fiber and carbon matrix accompanied by the presence of manufacturing porosity and defects. Carbon-fiber-reinforced molybdenum-graphite compounds (MoGRCF selected for their impedance properties in the Large Hadron Collider beam collimation exhibited significant decrease in postirradiation load-displacement behavior even after low dose levels (∼5×10^{18}

  10. Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

    2008-05-01

    Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility.

  11. Reentry Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1998-01-01

    Dear Xiao Lan, You remember the pain of culture and reentry shock; humor me please; let mereview the facts for the sake of the students you are sending here in greater numbers.Culture shock is the emotional pain that people experience when they visit a newcountry and find customs, experiences, smells, and non-verbal communication stylesto be different from their own country.

  12. Bioactivities and antiradical properties of millet grains and hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-09-14

    Antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts of kodo and pearl millet whole grains, dehulled grains, and hulls were examined by monitoring inhibition of radical-induced DNA scission, human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and phospholipid liposome oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC), hydroxyl and peroxyl radical inhibition, and antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells were also determined. Major hydroxycinnamic acids in dehulled grains and hulls were identified and quantified using HPLC. Phenolic extract of kodo millet exhibited higher inhibition activities against oxidation of LDL cholesterol and liposome than that of pearl millet. All phenolic extracts exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA scission. The TPC of hulls of kodo and pearl millets were 3 times higher than those of their corresponding whole grains. At the end of 96 h of incubation, kodo millet extracts inhibited cell proliferation in the range of 75-100%. Antioxidant activities of phenolic extracts were in the order hull > whole grain > dehulled grain. Dehulling reduced the antioxidant potential of whole millet grains. Ferulic and p-coumaric acids were the major hydroxycinnamic acids, and their contents ranged from 17.8 to 1685 μg/g defatted meal and from 3.5 to 680 μg/g defatted meal, respectively. Dehulled grains, as well as the hull fraction, may serve as potential sources of nutraceutical and functional food ingredients in health promotion.

  13. Ship Resistance of Quadramaran With Various Hull Position Configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanuar; Gunawan; A Muhyi; A Jamaluddin

    2016-01-01

    Multihull ships are widely used for sea transportation, and those with four hulls are known as quadramarans. Hull position configurations of a quadramaran include the diamond, tetra, and slice. In general, multihull vessels traveling at high speeds have better hydrodynamic efficiency than monohull ships. This study aims to identify possible effects of various quadramaran hull position configurations on ship resistance for hull dimensions of 2 m length, 0.21 m breadth, and 0.045 m thickness. We conducted a towing test in which we varied the hull spacing and speed atFr values between 0.08 and 0.62 and measured the total resistance using a load cell transducer. The experimental results reveal that the lowest total resistance was achieved with a diamond quadramaran configuration atFr = 0.1-0.6 and an effective interference factor of up to 0.35 withS/L = 3/10 andR/L = 1/2 atFr = 0.62.

  14. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  15. The relationship of CO2 metabolism to tissue perfusion, microcirculation, and treatment response in shock and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Arnaldo Dubin belicht de relatie tussen het CO2- of koolstofdioxidemetabolisme, weefselperfusie door microcirculatie en het effect van behandeling op shock en sepsis. Het monitoren van CO2 in weefsels kan waardevolle informatie verschaffen over de circulatie in het lichaam en de weefseldoorbloeding.

  16. The relationship of CO2 metabolism to tissue perfusion, microcirculation, and treatment response in shock and sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Arnaldo Dubin belicht de relatie tussen het CO2- of koolstofdioxidemetabolisme, weefselperfusie door microcirculatie en het effect van behandeling op shock en sepsis. Het monitoren van CO2 in weefsels kan waardevolle informatie verschaffen over de circulatie in het lichaam en de weefseldoorbloeding.

  17. Glibenclamide dose response in patients with septic shock: effects on norepinephrine requirements, cardiopulmonary performance, and global oxygen transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Lange, Matthias; Ertmer, Christian; Broeking, Katrin; Van Aken, Hugo; Orecchioni, Alessandra; Rocco, Monica; Bachetoni, Alessandra; Traber, Daniel L; Landoni, Giovanni; Pietropaoli, Paolo; Westphal, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels are important regulators of arterial vascular smooth muscle tone and are implicated in the pathophysiology of catecholamine tachyphylaxis in septic shock. The present study was designed as a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, clinical pilot study to determine whether different doses of glibenclamide have any effects on norepinephrine requirements, cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, and global oxygen transport in patients with septic shock. We enrolled 30 patients with septic shock requiring invasive hemodynamic monitoring and norepinephrine infusion of 0.5 microg.kg-1.min-1 or greater to maintain MAP between 65 and 75 mmHg. In addition to standard therapy, patients were randomized to receive either 10, 20, or 30 mg of enteral glibenclamide. Systemic hemodynamics, global oxygen transport including arterial lactate concentrations, gas exchange, plasma glucose concentrations, and electrolytes were determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 h after administration of the study drug. Glibenclamide decreased plasma glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner but failed to reduce norepinephrine requirements. None of the doses had any effects on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics, global oxygen transport, gas exchange, or electrolytes. These data suggest that oral glibenclamide in doses from 10 to 30 mg fails to counteract arterial hypotension and thus to reduce norepinephrine requirements in catecholamine-dependent human septic shock.

  18. Synergy of environmental variables alters the thermal window and heat shock response: an experimental test with the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Diana; Narciso, Luís; Diniz, Mário Sousa; Vinagre, Catarina

    2014-07-01

    The intertidal zone is an extremely variable habitat, imposing stressful conditions on its inhabiting communities. Tolerance towards extremes of temperature, salinity and pH are crucial in these habitats. Despite the vast literature on stress tolerance, few studies have focused on the synergistic effects of several variables on thermal tolerance and HSP70 (heat shock protein 70 kDa) levels. In this work, the crabs were exposed to three experimental conditions 1) thermal ramp at standard pH (8) and saline conditions (35‰) (named T), 2) thermal ramp at standard pH (8) and hyposaline conditions (15‰) (named T plus HypoS), and 3) thermal ramp at lower pH (7) and standard saline conditions (35‰) (named T plus A). Two physiological parameters (Critical Thermal Maximum - CTMax, and osmolality) and a stress biomarker (HSP70) were chosen for this analysis. These parameters were measured in all of the aforementioned conditions. CTMax for each set of conditions was reached by exposing the organisms to a rate of temperature increase of 1 °C h(-1) until loss of equilibrium. Haemolymph samples were taken every 2 °C to quantify HSP70 and osmolality. Results showed that CTMax did not differ between crabs solely exposed to T stress and crabs exposed to T plus HypoS stress. However, HSP70 production was impaired in T plus HypoS stress. When crabs were exposed to T plus A stress, they showed a significantly higher CTMax, suggesting that short-term exposure to acidified conditions may alter the thermal window of this species. Nevertheless, in T plus A conditions HSP70 production was impaired as well. Regarding osmolality it decreased according to temperature increase in all tested stress conditions. This study showed that the heat stress response is altered by the synergistic effect of variables. Physiological end-points (i.e. CTMax) may vary and the expression of stress proteins such as HSP70 may be impaired.

  19. Suppression of rpoH (htpR) mutations of Escherichia coli: heat shock response in suhA revertants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, T; Kusukawa, N; Yura, T

    1987-09-01

    Temperature-resistant pseudorevertants were isolated from rpoH (htpR) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 that cannot grow at a high temperature owing to a deficiency in sigma 32 required for the induction of heat shock proteins. Among them was a class of revertants carrying a suppressor mutation, designated suhA, that suppressed all the nonsense and missense rpoH mutations tested. suhA is located at 77 min, about 1 min away from rpoH, on the genetic map. In contrast to the rpoH mutants, the suhA revertants that contained both rpoH (nonsense) and suhA mutations were fully or partially proficient in the induction of heat shock proteins upon exposure to a high temperature. Under these conditions, transcription from two heat shock promoters as determined by operon fusion was transiently activated. In one of the rpoH(Am) suhA revertants studied in detail, an increase in temperature caused the synthesis of significant amounts of sigma 32, accompanied by increased stability and accumulation of rpoH mRNAs. On the other hand, the same mutation (suhA6) only weakly suppressed the rpoH deletion mutant; however, two of the major heat shock genes, dnaK and groE, were apparently induced in the absence of sigma 32. Thus, suhA6 seems to bring about the induction of heat shock genes by at least two mechanisms, one increasing the level of sigma 32 synthesis, and the other activating some transcription factor other than sigma 32.

  20. Hemodynamic response of modified fluid gelatin compared with lactated ringer's solution for volume expansion in emergency resuscitation of hypovolemic shock patients: preliminary report of a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J J; Huang, M S; Tang, G J; Kao, W F; Shih, H C; Su, C H; Lee, C H

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cardiac and hemodynamic responses to a rapid infusion of 1000 ml of modified fluid gelatin (group A) or 1000 ml of lactated Ringer's solution (group B) in emergency room patients suffering from shock. This prospective, randomized, open, noncrossover study was performed at a medical center university hospital in a surgical resuscitation room in the emergency department. The subjects were 34 patients with either hypovolemic or neurogenic shock who were admitted to the emergency room. A resuscitation protocol according to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) with an additional central venous line or Swan-Ganz catheters for hemodynamic monitoring was used. Physical parameters and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1 hour after the infusion of each fluid. In both groups the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic and diastolic pressure, central venous pressure (CVP), and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) increased significantly. The CVP and PAOP increased significantly more in the modified fluid gelatin resuscitation group. In patients with traumatic or neurogenic shock due to acute volume deficiency, there was significantly better hemodynamic improvement, judged by CVP and PAOP measurements using the modified fluid gelatin for volume replacement than with lactated Ringer's solution during the first hour of resuscitation.

  1. Effect of anaerobic and stationary phase growth conditions on the heat shock and oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Acosta, Alondra; Sandoval, María L; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The natural living style of Escherichia coli occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, where most of its existence is spent under anaerobic conditions and in stationary phase of growth. Here we report on the heat shock response of E. coli K-12 cells growing in the presence or absence of oxygen. An rpoH mutant (impaired in the synthesis of the sigma(32) transcriptional factor) exhibited an increased sensitivity to heat shock but only in the exponential phase of aerobic growth, suggesting that in anaerobic growth conditions, and in aerobic stationary phase, sigma(32)-independent mechanisms are playing a prime role in protecting cells from heat stress. Our results demonstrated that sigma(S) is not involved in this protection system. Studies on the kinetics of synthesis of Heat shock proteins (Hsp) after an abrupt rise in temperature demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, the synthesis of Hsp is triggered faster and is sustained for a longer period of time compared to aerobic growth conditions. Finally, the heated cells in the exponential phase of aerobic growth displayed a high concentration of oxidatively damaged proteins in the presence of 4 mM H(2)O(2), in sharp contrast to cultures of stationary phase or anaerobic growth.

  2. Trade-offs between predator avoidance and electric shock avoidance in hermit crabs demonstrate a non-reflexive response to noxious stimuli consistent with prediction of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Barry; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-09-01

    Arthropods have long been thought to respond to noxious stimuli by reflex reaction. One way of testing if this is true is to provide the animal with a way to avoid the stimulus but to vary the potential cost of avoidance. If avoidance varies with potential cost then a decision making process is evident and the behaviour is not a mere reflex. Here we examine the responses of hermit crabs to electric shock within their shell when also exposed to predator or non-predator odours or to no odour. The electric shocks start with low voltage but increase in voltage with each repetition to determine how odour affects the voltage at which the shell is abandoned. There was no treatment effect on the voltage at which hermit crabs left their shells, however, those exposed to predator odours were less likely to evacuate their shells compared with no odour or low concentrations of non-predator odour. However, highly concentrated non-predator also inhibited evacuation. The data show that these crabs trade-off avoidance of electric shock with predator avoidance. They are thus not responding purely by reflex and the data are thus consistent with predictions of pain but do not prove pain.

  3. Double-hulling of the bulk carriers%散货船的双壳化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫中华

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the technical background of the double-hulling of the bulk carriers and describes the 3 major problems for its design. It finally compares the characteristics of the single/double hull bulk carriers by listing.

  4. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE FROM OAT HULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Paschoal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.

  5. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6 % of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show that for highly...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...

  6. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6% of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show......During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...

  7. Expression patterns of two heat-shock cognate 70 genes during immune responses and larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jiang, X F; Guo, W B; Yan, J; Zhou, K Y

    2016-09-16

    Two heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 family transcripts, heat-shock protein 70 cognate 5 and heat-shock protein 70 cognate 3 (designated as EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3, respectively), were isolated from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis and their expression profiles were evaluated for their responsiveness to larval development and immune challenge in adult crabs. The HSPs exhibited 45-89% identity with other heat-shock proteins, and they shared similar structural features. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was detected not only during infection but also during the developmental larval stages. The EsHSC70s were enriched, and their expression fluctuated during early development. EsHSC70 mRNA expression was significantly induced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge in all of the tissues studied (P < 0.05). Expression of EsHSC70 mRNA in the hepatopancreas and at the early zoeal stages was particularly pronounced, and the two EsHSC70s exhibited differential expression patterns both chronologically and spatially. The EsHSC70-5 mRNA level was significantly downregulated in the intestine and gills compared to that in controls at nearly all time points, and was expressed at a lower level after the bacterial challenge, indicating that EsHSC70-5 and EsHSC70-3 respond to immune challenges. The stage-specific enrichment of EsHSC70 transcripts in crabs suggests that these stress proteins play an essential role during brachyurization events.

  8. Hull-form optimization of KSUEZMAX to enhance resistance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deploys optimization techniques to obtain the optimum hull form of KSUEZMAX at the conditions of full-load draft and design speed. The processes have been carried out using a RaPID-HOP program. The bow and the stern hull-forms are optimized separately without altering neither, and the resulting versions of the two are then combined. Objective functions are the minimum values of wave-making and viscous pressure resistance coefficients for the bow and stern. Parametric modification functions for the bow hull-form variation are SAC shape, section shape (U-V type, DLWL type, bulb shape (bulb height and size; and those for the stern are SAC and section shape (U-V type, DLWL type. WAVIS version 1.3 code is used for the potential and the viscous-flow solver. Prior to the optimization, a parametric study has been conducted to observe the effects of design parameters on the objective functions. SQP has been applied for the optimization algorithm. The model tests have been conducted at a towing tank to evaluate the resistance performance of the optimized hull-form. It has been noted that the optimized hull-form brings 2.4% and 6.8% reduction in total and residual resistance coefficients compared to those of the original hull-form. The propulsive efficiency increases by 2.0% and the delivered power is reduced 3.7%, whereas the propeller rotating speed increases slightly by 0.41 rpm.

  9. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  10. Expression of the stress-response regulators CtsR and HrcA in the uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Oliveira, Lorayne Lauria; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Deivid; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Laport, Marinella Silva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an ubiquitous bacterium but little is known about mechanisms that allow its persistence in diverse environments. Here we evaluated S. saprophyticus growth and survival during heat shock, the expression of stress response regulators ctsR and hrcA through qRT-PCR and heat shock protein synthesis through (35)S-Met metabolic labeling. S. saprophyticus does not tolerate temperatures much higher than the optimal 37 °C, as its growth is greatly affected at 42 °C, though viability is maintained up to 48 °C. At 42 °C, the expression of ctsR and hrcA repressor genes approximately triple when compared to 37 °C and continue to increase together with temperature till 48 °C. Expression of hrcA peaks after 20 min of heat shock and decreases significantly after 30 min, indicating that heat stress response regulated by this gene may last 20-30 min. An increase in temperature is accompanied by the synthesis of at least eight proteins, three of which are likely the chaperones DnaK, GroEL and ClpB. In silico analysis indicate that the groEL gene may be regulated by HrcA, clpB by CtsR and dnaK by both repressors. This is the first work to discuss heat stress response in S. saprophyticus and a step forward in the understanding of mechanisms that make this a widespread and emergent pathogen.

  11. The Projective Hull of Certain Curves in C^2

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, F. Reese; Lawson, Jr, H. Blaine; Wermer, John

    2006-01-01

    The projective hull X^ of a subset X in complex projective space P^n is an analogue of the classical polynomial hull of a set in C^n. If X is contained in an affine chart C^n on P^n, then the affine part of X^ is the set of points x in C^n for which there exists a constant M=M_x so that |p(x)| 0. Let X^(M) be the set of points x where M_x can be chosen < M. Using an argument of E. Bishop, we show t...

  12. Analysis of international one meter class hull shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Forn, Ariadna

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that up to 23 different model were racing the IOM worlds in 2014. These means that skippers has a broad range of designs when buying a new boat. This project aims to analyse different hull shapes of International One Metre Class in order to have the necessary technical information to know how the hull shapes affect the seakeeping and boat performance. Every year the number of skippers and design keep increasing (2825 last year), therefore understanding how an IOM boat per...

  13. Finding Convex Hulls Using Quickhull on the GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Tzeng, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    We present a convex hull algorithm that is accelerated on commodity graphics hardware. We analyze and identify the hurdles of writing a recursive divide and conquer algorithm on the GPU and divise a framework for representing this class of problems. Our framework transforms the recursive splitting step into a permutation step that is well-suited for graphics hardware. Our convex hull algorithm of choice is Quickhull. Our parallel Quickhull implementation (for both 2D and 3D cases) achieves an order of magnitude speedup over standard computational geometry libraries.

  14. Design of convex hull plate forming by pure line heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-biao; JI Zhuo-shang; LIU Yu-jun

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a ship-hull plate forming way by pure line heating. The heating lines forming the required bending angle is determined by curvature analysis method. Heating along the calculated heating lines results in bland plate with initial transverse curvature. Then, the plate with desired convex shape can be obtained by heating in the longitudinal edge. This is the whole forming process by pure line heating. This paper presents a method of plane development for ship-hull plate with B-spline surface representation, and provides the shrinkage heating lines in the forming process. This forming way would facilitate temperature control and make plate forming automatically easy.

  15. A Sensor System for Detection of Hull Surface Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suardíaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor system for detecting defects in ship hull surfaces. The sensor was developed to enable a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations on ship hulls. To achieve this, the proposed sensor system captures images with the help of a camera and processes them in real time using a new defect detection method based on thresholding techniques. What makes this method different is its efficiency in the automatic detection of defects from images recorded in variable lighting conditions. The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results.

  16. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull structure-B/ALL. 32.63-20 Section 32.63-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL..., and Carrying Certain Dangerous Bulk Cargoes § 32.63-20 Hull structure—B/ALL. (a) General. In addition...

  17. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  18. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. 29.519 Section 29.519 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft,...

  19. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  20. Properties of the phage-shock-protein (Psp) regulatory complex that govern signal transduction and induction of the Psp response in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic, Goran; Engl, Christoph; Mayhew, Antony J.; Burrows, Patricia C.; Buck, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The phage-shock-protein (Psp) response maintains the proton-motive force (pmf) under extracytoplasmic stress conditions that impair the inner membrane (IM) in bacterial cells. In Escherichia coli transcription of the pspABCDE and pspG genes requires activation of σ 54-RNA polymerase by the enhancer-binding protein PspF. A regulatory network comprising PspF–A–C–B–ArcB controls psp expression. One key regulatory point is the negative control of PspF imposed by its binding to PspA. It has been p...

  1. CD44-deficiency attenuates the immunologic responses to LPS and delays the onset of endotoxic shock-induced renal inflammation and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rampanelli

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication during systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, a potentially deadly clinical condition characterized by whole-body inflammatory state and organ dysfunction. CD44 is a ubiquitously expressed cell-surface transmembrane receptor with multiple functions in inflammatory processes, including sterile renal inflammation. The present study aimed to assess the role of CD44 in endotoxic shock-induced kidney inflammation and dysfunction by using CD44 KO and WT mice exposed intraperitoneally to LPS for 2, 4, and 24 hours . Upon LPS administration, CD44 expression in WT kidneys was augmented at all time-points. At 2 and 4 hours, CD44 KO animals showed a preserved renal function in comparison to WT mice. In absence of CD44, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma and kidneys were lower, while renal expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was higher. The cytokine levels were associated with decreased leukocyte influx and endothelial activation in CD44 KO kidneys. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated a role of CD44 in enhancing macrophage cytokine responses to LPS and leukocyte migration. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that lack of CD44 impairs the early pro-inflammatory cytokine response to LPS, diminishes leukocyte migration/chemotaxis and endothelial activation, hence, delays endotoxic shock-induced AKI.

  2. Early response roles for prolactin cortisol and circulating and cellular levels of heat shock proteins 72 and 90α in severe sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, K; Apostolou, K; Briassouli, E; Goukos, D; Psarra, K; Botoula, E; Tsagarakis, S; Magira, E; Routsi, C; Nanas, S; Briassoulis, G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP) and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS) or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) compared to healthy subjects (H). Patients with early (first 48 hrs) SS (n = 29) or SIRS (n = 29) admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72) and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α) were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P SIRS compared to H (P SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  3. Are gauge shocks really shocks?

    CERN Document Server

    Alcubierre, M

    2005-01-01

    The existence of gauge pathologies associated with the Bona-Masso family of generalized harmonic slicing conditions is proven for the case of simple 1+1 relativity. It is shown that these gauge pathologies are true shocks in the sense that the characteristic lines associated with the propagation of the gauge cross, which implies that the name ``gauge shock'' usually given to such pathologies is indeed correct. These gauge shocks are associated with places where the spatial hypersurfaces that determine the foliation of spacetime become non-smooth.

  4. Membrane association of PspA depends on activation of the phage-shock-protein response in Yersinia enterocolitica

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Saori; Gueguen, Erwan; Horstman, N. Kaye; Andrew J. Darwin

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of the bacterial phage-shock-protein (Psp) system involves communication between integral (PspBC) and peripheral (PspA) cytoplasmic membrane proteins and a soluble transcriptional activator (PspF). In this study protein subcellular localization studies were used to distinguish between spatial models for this putative signal transduction pathway in Yersinia enterocolitica. In non-inducing conditions PspA and PspF were almost exclusively in the soluble fraction, consistent with them ...

  5. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  6. Coping with shocks in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); D. Abebaw Ejigie (Degnet); M. Dekker (Marleen); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBased on household survey data and event history interviews undertaken in a highly shock prone country, this paper investigates which shocks trigger which coping responses and why? We find clear differences in terms of coping strategies across shock types. The two relatively covariate

  7. Health Shocks and Retirement:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program (fleksjob) but this effect is not strongly...

  8. Management of refractory cardiogenic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyentovich, Alex; Barghash, Maya H; Hochman, Judith S

    2016-08-01

    Cardiogenic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs in response to reduced cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume and results in tissue hypoxia. Cardiogenic shock has several underlying aetiologies, with the most common being acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Refractory cardiogenic shock presents as persistent tissue hypoperfusion despite administration of adequate doses of two vasoactive medications and treatment of the underlying aetiology. Investigators of the SHOCK trial reported a long-term mortality benefit of emergency revascularization for shock complicating AMI. Since the publication of the SHOCK trial and subsequent guideline recommendations, the increase in community-based use of percutaneous coronary intervention for this condition has resulted in a significant decline in mortality. Despite these successes in the past 15 years, mortality still remains exceptionally high, particularly in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. In this Review, we discuss the aetiology and pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock and summarize the data on the available therapeutics and their limitations. Although new mechanical circulatory support devices have been shown to improve haemodynamic variables in patients with shock complicating AMI, they did not improve clinical outcomes and are associated with high costs and complications.

  9. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  10. "Keisri hull" pürib taas filmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus otsustas anda arendustoetust mängufilmidele "Keisri hull" (režissöör Peeter Simm, arendaja Lege Artis Film), "Rahad ette" (režissöör Jaak Kilmi, arendaja Eetriüksus), "Öölendurid" (režissöör Peeter Urbla, arendaja Exitfilm)

  11. "Keisri hull" pürib taas filmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus otsustas anda arendustoetust mängufilmidele "Keisri hull" (režissöör Peeter Simm, arendaja Lege Artis Film), "Rahad ette" (režissöör Jaak Kilmi, arendaja Eetriüksus), "Öölendurid" (režissöör Peeter Urbla, arendaja Exitfilm)

  12. The fundamental formulas for vertices of convex hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kazi Salimullah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents four formulas for solution of convex hull problem. It aims to analyze how many points are vertices out of total input points, how many vertices lie on a horizontal or vertical lines, position of vertices and number of vertices on lower and higher lines(horizontal or vertical.

  13. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    in the use of the chemicals that are usually employed to prevent the growth of marine life on the hull and which are generally harmful to the environment. The robot described in this paper is an underactuated morphologically adapted robot that through an appropriate morphology and making use of the forces...

  14. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    -water characteristics. The hull wake field is simulated without the propeller flow to check whether it is preserved at the propeller plane or not. Propeller flow simulations are made with mean axial wake varying only along the radius (i.e. circumferentially uniform), whole axial wake and upstream transverse wake...

  15. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... American Bureau of Shipping published in “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels” 1981. (b) Along... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment...

  16. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...

  17. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  18. Convex Hull Abstraction in Specialisation of CLP Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peralta, J.C.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both top-down goal directed propagation a...

  19. Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul

    2003-01-01

    is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...

  20. The CLO3403/CLO3404 two-component system of Clostridium botulinum E1 Beluga is important for cold shock response and growth at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, Gerald; Derman, Yagmur; Kirk, David G; Palonen, Eveliina; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2014-01-01

    In order to survive a temperature downshift, bacteria have to sense the changing environment and adjust their metabolism and structure. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) play a central role in sensing and responding to many different environmental stimuli. Although the nonproteolytic (group II) Clostridium botulinum represents a major hazard in chilled foods, the cold adaption mechanisms of group II C. botulinum organisms are not known. Here, we show that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS of C. botulinum E1 Beluga is involved in the cold shock response and growth at 12°C. Cold shock induced the expression of the genes encoding the histidine kinase (clo3403) and the response regulator (clo3404) by more than 100-fold after 5 h relative to their expression in a nonshocked culture at the corresponding time point. The involvement of CLO3403/CLO3404 in growth at low temperature was demonstrated by impaired growth of the insertional clo3403 and clo3404 knockout mutants at 12°C compared to the growth of the wild-type culture. Additionally, the inactivation of clo3403 had a negative effect on motility. The growth efficiency at 12°C of the TCS mutants and the motility of the kinase mutants were restored by introducing a plasmid harboring the operon of the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS. The results suggest that the CLO3403/CLO3404 TCS is important for the cold tolerance of C. botulinum E1 Beluga.

  1. Detection of the host immune response to Burkholderia mallei heat-shock proteins GroEL and DnaK in a glanders patient and infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Kei; Meyers, Jennifer L; Deshazer, David; Riggins, Renaldo N; Halasohoris, Stephanie; England, Marilyn; Ribot, Wilson; Norris, Sarah L; Waag, David M

    2007-10-01

    We examined, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, the host immune response to 2 heat-shock proteins (hsps) in a patient and mice previously infected with Burkholderia mallei. The patient was the first reported human glanders case in 50 years in the United States. The expression of the groEL and dnaK operons appeared to be dependent upon a sigma(32) RNA polymerase as suggested by conserved heat-shock promoter sequences, and the groESL operon may be negatively regulated by a controlling invert repeat of chaperone expression (CIRCE) site. In the antisera, the GroEL protein was found to be more immunoreactive than the DnaK protein in both a human patient and mice previously infected with B. mallei. Examination of the supernatant of a growing culture of B. mallei showed that more GroEL protein than DnaK protein was released from the cell. This may occur similarly within an infected host causing an elevated host immune response to the B. mallei hsps.

  2. Loss of Jak2 selectively suppresses DC-mediated innate immune response and protects mice from lethal dose of LPS-induced septic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Zhong

    Full Text Available Given the importance of Jak2 in cell signaling, a critical role for Jak2 in immune cells especially dendritic cells (DCs has long been proposed. The exact function for Jak2 in DCs, however, remained poorly understood as Jak2 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality. Here we established Jak2 deficiency in adult Cre(+/+Jak2(fl/fl mice by tamoxifen induction. Loss of Jak2 significantly impaired DC development as manifested by reduced BMDC yield, smaller spleen size and reduced percentage of DCs in total splenocytes. Jak2 was also crucial for the capacity of DCs to mediate innate immune response. Jak2(-/- DCs were less potent in response to inflammatory stimuli and showed reduced capacity to secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha and IL-12. As a result, Jak2(-/- mice were defective for the early clearance of Listeria after infection. However, their potency to mediate adaptive immune response was not affected. Unlike DCs, Jak2(-/- macrophages showed similar capacity secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that Jak2 selectively modulates innate immune response in a DC-dependent manner. Consistent with these results, Jak2(-/- mice were remarkably resistant to lethal dose of LPS-induced septic shock, a deadly sepsis characterized by the excessive innate immune response, and adoptive transfer of normal DCs restored their susceptibility to LPS-induced septic shock. Mechanistic studies revealed that Jak2/SATA5 signaling is pivotal for DC development and maturation, while the capacity for DCs secretion of proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by both Jak2/STAT5 and Jak2/STAT6 signaling.

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Deep-Stepped Planing-Tail Flying-Boat Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of three deep-stepped planing-tail flying-boat hulls differing only in the amount of step fairing. The hulls were derived by increasing the unfaired step depth of a planing-tail hull of a previous aerodynamic investigation to a depth about 92 percent of the hull beam. Tests were also made on a transverse-stepped hull with an extended afterbody for the purpose of comparison and in order to extend and verify the results of a previous investigation. The investigation indicated that the extended afterbody hull had a minimum drag coefficient about the same as a conventional hull, 0.0066, and an angle-of-attack range for minimum drag coefficient of 0.0057 which was 14 percent less than the transverse stepped hull with extended afterbody; the hulls with step fairing had up to 44 percent less minimum drag coefficient than the transverse-stepped hull, or slightly more drag than a streamlined body having approximately the same length and volume. Longitudinal and lateral instability varied little with step fairing and was about the same as a conventional hull.

  4. Optimization of Wigley Hull Form in order to Ensure the Objective Functions of the Seakeeping Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Bagheri; Hassan Ghassemi

    2014-01-01

    The research performed in this paper was carried out to investigate the computational procedure to design seakeeping optimized ship hull form. To reach the optimized hull form, four stages should be done, which consists of: generate alternative hull form, seakeeping calculations, objective functions and optimization techniques. There are many parameters that may be determined in ship hull form optimization. This paper deals with developed strip theory for determining the seakeeping performance, genetic algorithm (GA) as optimization method, high order equations for curve fitting of the hull form and finally reaching to the minimum bow vertical motion in regular head waves. The Wigley hull is selected as an initial hull and carried to be optimized. Two cases are considered. For the first case, the only form coefficients of the hull (CB, CM, CW, CP) are changed and main dimensions (L, B, T) are fixed. In the second case both hull form and main dimensions are varied simultaneously. Finally, optimized hull form and its seakeeping performances are presented. The results of optimization procedure demonstrate that the optimized hull forms yield a reduction in vertical motion and acceleration.

  5. Suppression of rpoH (htpR) mutations of Escherichia coli: heat shock response in suhA revertants.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobe, T; Kusukawa, N; Yura, T

    1987-01-01

    Temperature-resistant pseudorevertants were isolated from rpoH (htpR) mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 that cannot grow at a high temperature owing to a deficiency in sigma 32 required for the induction of heat shock proteins. Among them was a class of revertants carrying a suppressor mutation, designated suhA, that suppressed all the nonsense and missense rpoH mutations tested. suhA is located at 77 min, about 1 min away from rpoH, on the genetic map. In contrast to the rpoH mutants, the suh...

  6. The immune responses and expression of metallothionein (MT) gene and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to waterborne arsenic (As(3+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2016-10-01

    Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 16.4±1.9cm, and mean weight 71.6±6.4g) were exposed for 20days with the different levels of waterborne arsenic concentration (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400μg/L). The plasma cortisol of S. schlegelii was significantly increased by the waterborne arsenit exposure. In the immune responses, the immunoglobulin M (Ig M) and lysozyme activity of S. schlegelii were significantly increased by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of S. schlegelii was inhibited by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The substantial increases in the gene expression such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) were observed by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The results demonstrated that waterborne arsenic exposure can induce the significant alterations in the immune responses and specific gene expression of S. schlegelii. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Neurogenic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Rafael; Pasquier, Mathieu; Clerc, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2014-08-13

    The neurogenic shock is a common complication of spinal cord injury, especially when localized at the cervical level. Characterized by a vasoplegia (hypotension) and bradycardia, the neurogenic shock is secondary to the damage of the sympathetic nervous system. The clinical presentation often includes tetraplegia, with or without respiratory failure. Early treatment aims to minimize the occurrence of secondary spinal cord lesions resulting from systemic ischemic injuries. Medical management consists in a standardized ABCDE approach, in order to stabilize vital functions and immobilize the spine. The hospital care includes performing imaging, further measures of neuro-resuscitation, and coordinated surgical assessment and treatment of any other injury.

  8. Presynaptic cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are involved in the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response during septic shock in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Barbara; Schlicker, Eberhard

    2004-06-01

    1. Our study was undertaken to investigate whether bacterial endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affects the neurogenic vasopressor response in rats in vivo by presynaptic mechanisms and, if so, to characterize the type of presynaptic receptor(s) operating in the initial phase of septic shock. 2. In pithed and vagotomized rats treated with pancuronium, electrical stimulation (ES) (1 Hz, 1 ms, 50 V for 10 s) of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers or intravenous bolus injection of noradrenaline (NA) (1-3 nmol x kg(-1)) increased the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by about 30 mmHg. Administration of LPS (0.4 and 4 mg x kg(-1)) under continuous infusion of vasopressin inhibited the neurogenic vasopressor response by 25 and 50%, respectively. LPS did not affect the increase in DBP induced by exogenous NA. 3. The LPS-induced inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist SR 141716A (0.1 micromol x kg(-1)), but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist SR 144528 (3 micromol x kg(-1)), the vanilloid VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (1 micromol x kg(-1)) or the histamine H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit (0.1 micromol x kg(-1)). The four antagonists by themselves did not affect the increase in DBP induced by ES or by injection of NA in rats not exposed to LPS. 4. We conclude that in the initial phase of septic shock, the activation of presynaptic CB(1) receptors by endogenously formed cannabinoids contributes to the inhibition of the neurogenic vasopressor response.

  9. Effects of two fluid resuscitations on the bacterial translocation and inflammatory response of small intestine in rats with hemorrhagic shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xin-yue; REN Cong-cai; ZHOU Qiang; PANG Qing-feng; WU Chang-yi; ZENG Yin-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of two fluid resuscitations on the bacterial translocation and the inflammatory factors of small intestine in rats with hemorrhagic shock. Methods: Fifty SD healthy male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 per group):Group A (Sham group), Group B (Ringer's solution for 1 h), Group C (Ringer's solution for 24 h), Group D (hydroxyethyl starch for 1 h) and Group E ((hydroxyethyl starch for 24 h). A model of rats with hemorrhagic shock was established. The bacterial translocation in liver, content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and changes of myeloperoxidase enzyme (MPO) activities in small intestine were pathologically investigated after these two fluid resuscitations, respectively. Results: The bacterial translocation and the expression of TNF-α in the small intestine were detected at 1 h and 24 h after fluid resuscitation. There were significant increase in the number of translocated bacteria, TNF-α and MPO activities in Group C compared with Group B, significant decrease in Group E compared with Group D and in Group B compared with Group D. The number of translocated bacteria and TNF-α expression significantly decreased in Group E as compared with Group C.Conclusions: The bacterial translocation and the expression of TNF-α in the small intestine exist 24 h after fluid resuscitation. 6% hydroxyethyl starch can improve the intestinal mucosa barrier function better than the Ringer's solution.

  10. [The role of heat shock proteins HSP90 in the response of immune cells to centimeter microwaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, E G; Khrenov, M O; Novoselova, T V; Cherenkov, D A; Lunin, S M; Fesenko, E E

    2008-01-01

    The effects of low-level electromagnetic waves (8.15-18 GHz, 1 microW/cm2, 1 h) on the production of heat shock proteins, several cytokines, and nitric oxide in isolated mouse macrophages and lymphocytes were examined both under normal conditions and after the treatment of the cells with geldanamycin (GA), a depressor of activity of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). The irradiation of cells without GA induced the production of Hsp70, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and the tumor necrosis factor -alpha (TNF-alpha). No changes in the production of Hsp90 in irradiated cells were observed, but intracellular locations of Hsp25 and Hsp70 altered. The preliminary treatment of cells with GA did not remove the effects of microwaves: in these conditions, the synthesis of all cytokines tested, nitric oxide, as well as total and membrane amount of Hsp70, and the amount of Hsp25 in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton increased. Moreover, the exposure of cells incubated with GA resulted in the reduction of Hsp90-alpha production.

  11. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.

  12. Microbial population responses to pH and salt shock during phenols degradation under high salt conditions revealed by RISA and AFDRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bin; Wang, Ping; Liao, Wenchao; Ye, Qian; Xu, Meilan; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-01-01

    The responses of microbial community to pH and salt shock during phenols degradation under high salt conditions were revealed by two DNA fingerprint methods, i.e. ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and amplified functional DNA restriction analysis (AFDRA), together with 16S rDNA clone library analysis. It was shown that the phenols removal rate was improved with increasing NaCl concentration from 0 to 50 mg/L, and could remain at a high level even in the presence of 100 mg/L NaCl. The degradation efficiency remained stable under neutral conditions (pH 7.0-9.0), but decreased sharply under acidic (below pH 5.0) or more alkaline conditions (above pH 10.0). The community structure was dramatically changed during salt fluctuations, with Halomonas sp. and Marinobacter sp. as the predominant salt-tolerant species. Meanwhile, Marinobacter sp. and Alcaligenes faecalis sp. were the major species which might play the key role for stabilizing the treatment systems under different pH conditions. Moreover, the changes of phenol hydroxylase genes were analyzed by AFDRA, which showed that these functional genes were substantially different under any shock conditions.

  13. The cell wall sensor Wsc1p is involved in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in response to hypo-osmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Tania; Ragni, Enrico; Mizzi, Luca; Fascio, Umberto; Popolo, Laura

    2004-10-15

    The cell wall is essential to preserve osmotic integrity of yeast cells. Some phenotypic traits of cell wall mutants suggest that, as a result of a weakening of the cell wall, hypo-osmotic stress-like conditions are created. Consequent expansion of the cell wall and stretching of the plasma membrane trigger a complex response to prevent cell lysis. In this work we examined two conditions that generate a cell wall and membrane stress: one is represented by the cell wall mutant gas1Delta and the other by a hypo-osmotic shock. We examined the actin cytoskeleton and the role of the cell wall sensors Wsc1p and Mid2p in these stress conditions. In the gas1 null mutant cells, which lack a beta(1,3)-glucanosyltransferase activity required for cell wall assembly, a constitutive marked depolarization of actin cytoskeleton was found. In a hypo-osmotic shock wild-type cells showed a transient depolarization of actin cytoskeleton. The percentage of depolarized cells was maximal at 30 min after the shift and then progressively decreased until cells reached a new steady-state condition. The maximal response was proportional to the magnitude of the difference in the external osmolarity before and after the shift within a given range of osmolarities. Loss of Wsc1p specifically delayed the repolarization of the actin cytoskeleton, whereas Wsc1p and Mid2p were essential for the maintenance of cell integrity in gas1Delta cells. The control of actin cytoskeleton is an important element in the context of the compensatory response to cell wall weakening. Wsc1p appears to be an important regulator of the actin network rearrangements in conditions of cell wall expansion and membrane stretching.

  14. Early Response Roles for Prolactin Cortisol and Circulating and Cellular Levels of Heat Shock Proteins 72 and 90α in Severe Sepsis and SIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vardas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the early heat shock protein (HSP and hormonal stress response of intensive care unit (ICU patients with severe sepsis/septic shock (SS or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS compared to healthy subjects (H. Methods. Patients with early (first 48 hrs SS (n=29 or SIRS (n=29 admitted to a university ICU and 16 H were enrolled in the study. Serum prolactin, cortisol, and plasma ACTH were determined using immunoassay analyzers. ELISA was used to evaluate extracellular HSPs (eHSP90α, eHSP72 and interleukins. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI values for intracellular HSPs (iHSP72, iHSP90α were measured using 4-colour flow-cytometry. Results. Prolactin, cortisol, and eHSP90α levels were significantly increased in SS patients compared to SIRS and H (P<0.003. ACTH and eHSP72 were significantly higher in SS and SIRS compared to H (P<0.005. SS monocytes expressed lower iHSP72 MFI levels compared to H (P=0.03. Prolactin was related with SAPS III and APACHE II scores and cortisol with eHSP90α, IL-6, and lactate (P<0.05. In SS and SIRS eHSP90α was related with eHSP72, IL-6, and IL-10. Conclusion. Prolactin, apart from cortisol, may have a role in the acute stress response in severe sepsis. In this early-onset inflammatory process, cortisol relates to eHSP90α, monocytes suppress iHSP72, and plasma eHSP72 increases.

  15. Anti-tumor necrosis factor VNAR single domains reduce lethality and regulate underlying inflammatory response in a murine model of endotoxic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojalil, Rafael; Mata-González, María Teresa; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Yee, Yepci; Argueta, Iván; Bolaños, Lucía; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis Manuel; Camacho-Villegas, Tanya Amanda; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; García-Ubbelohde, Walter Jakob; Licea-Navarro, Alexei Fedorovish; Márquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Paniagua-Solís, Jorge Fernando

    2013-04-02

    In sepsis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is the key factor triggering respiratory burst, tissue injury and disseminated coagulation. Anti-TNF strategies based on monoclonal antibodies or F(ab')₂ fragments have been used in sepsis with contradictory results. Immunoglobulin new antigen receptors (IgNAR) are a unique subset of antibodies consisting of five constant (CNAR) and one variable domains (VNAR). VNAR domains are the smallest, naturally occurring, antibody-based immune recognition units, having potential use as therapy. Our aim was to explore the impact of an anti-TNF VNAR on survival in an experimental model of endotoxic shock. Also, mRNA expression and serum protein of several inflammatory molecules were measured. Endotoxic shock was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male Balb/c mice. Animals were treated with anti-TNF VNAR domains, F(ab')₂ antibody fragments, or saline solution 15 minutes before, 2 h and 24 h after lethal dose₁₀₀ (LD₁₀₀) LPS administration. TNF blockade with either VNAR domains or F(ab')₂ fragments were associated with lower mortality (60% and 75%, respectively) compared to LD₁₀₀. Challenge with LPS induced significant production of serum TNF and interleukins -10 and -6 at 3 h. After that, significant reduction of IL-6 at 24 h (vs 3 h) was shown only in the VNAR group. Nitrites level also increased in response to LPS. In liver, TNF and IL-10 mRNA expression showed a pro-inflammatory imbalance in response to LPS. Blocking TNF was associated with a shift towards an anti-inflammatory status; however, polarization was more pronounced in animals receiving F(ab')₂ fragments than in those with VNAR therapy. With regard to IL-6, gene expression was increased at 3 h in all groups. TNF blockade was associated with rapid and sustained suppression of IL-6 expression, even more evident in the VNAR group. Finally, expression of inducible-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increased in response to LPS at 3 h, but this was decreased

  16. Shock tube study of the fuel structure effects on the chemical kinetic mechanisms responsible for soot formation, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, M.; Clary, D. W.; Ramachandra, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    Soot formation in oxidation of allene, 1,3-butadiene, vinylacetylene and chlorobenzene and in pyrolysis of ethylene, vinylacetylene, 1-butene, chlorobenzene, acetylen-hydrogen, benzene-acetylene, benzene-butadiene and chlorobenzene-acetylene argon-diluted mixtures was studied behind reflected shock waves. The results are rationalized within the framework of the conceptual models. It is shown that vinylacetylene is much less sooty than allene, which indicates that conjugation by itself is not a sufficient factor for determining the sooting tendency of a molecule. Structural reactivity in the context of the chemical kinetics is the dominant factor in soot formation. Detailed chemical kinetic modeling of soot formation in pyrolysis of acetylene is reported. The main mass growth was found to proceed through a single dominant route composed of conventional radical reactions. The practically irreversible formation reactions of the fused polycyclic aromatics and the overshoot by hydrogen atom over its equilibrium concentration are the g-driving kinetic forces for soot formation.

  17. Fuzzy Clustering Using the Convex Hull as Geometrical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Liparulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to fuzzy clustering is proposed in this paper. It aims to relax some constraints imposed by known algorithms using a generalized geometrical model for clusters that is based on the convex hull computation. A method is also proposed in order to determine suitable membership functions and hence to represent fuzzy clusters based on the adopted geometrical model. The convex hull is not only used at the end of clustering analysis for the geometric data interpretation but also used during the fuzzy data partitioning within an online sequential procedure in order to calculate the membership function. Consequently, a pure fuzzy clustering algorithm is obtained where clusters are fitted to the data distribution by means of the fuzzy membership of patterns to each cluster. The numerical results reported in the paper show the validity and the efficacy of the proposed approach with respect to other well-known clustering algorithms.

  18. Terrestrial laser scanning used to detect asymmetries in boat hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; López-Alvarez, Francisco; Ordóñez, Celestino; Menéndez, Agustín; Bernardo-Sánchez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying asymmetries in boat hull sections reconstructed from point clouds captured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A surface was first fit to the point cloud using a nonparametric regression method that permitted the construction of a continuous smooth surface. Asymmetries in cross-sections of the surface were identified using a bootstrap resampling technique that took into account uncertainty in the coordinates of the scanned points. Each reconstructed section was analyzed to check, for a given level of significance, that it was within the confidence interval for the theoretical symmetrical section. The method was applied to the study of asymmetries in a medium-sized yacht. Identified were differences of up to 5 cm between the real and theoretical sections in some parts of the hull.

  19. The design of underwater hull-cleaning robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fu-cai; GUO Li-bin; MENG Qing-xin; LIU Fu-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The research on underwater ship-hull cleaning robot was conducted on the purpose of realizing the automation of cleaning underwater ship hull so that service life of ship will be prolonged and ship speed will raised. Moreover, fuel consumption and the work intensity of divers will be reduced. In this paper, the current situation and the latest technology in China and abroad were analyzed;meanwhile, the typical characteristics of the underwater cleaning robot were introduced. According to the work principle of the underwater cleaning robot, the emphasis was put on the analysis and study of permanent-magnetic absorption, magnetic wheel, airproof and anticorrosion, underwater cleaning equipment and control system. The robot is easy in rotation and simple in control.

  20. A Mean Point Based Convex Hull Computation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digvijay Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal solution of a Linear Programming problem (LPP is a basic feasible solution and all basic feasible solutions are extreme or boundary points of a convex region formed by the constraint functions of the LPP. In fact, the feasible solution space is not always a convex set so the verification of extreme points for optimality is quite difficult. In order to cover the non-convex feasible points within a convex set, a convex hull is imagined so that the extreme or boundary points may be checked for evaluation of the optimum solution in the decision-making process. In this article a computer assisted convex hull computation algorithm using the Mean Point and Python code verified results of the designed algorithm are discussed.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Water-Soluble Gum from Flaxseed Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Fatma; Koubaa, Mohamed; Barba, Francisco J; Roohinejad, Shahin; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2016-08-02

    Soluble flaxseed gum (SFG) was extracted from flax (Linum usitatissimum) hulls using hot water, and its functional groups and antioxidant properties were investigated using infrared spectroscopy and different antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), reducing power capacity, and β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacity of SFG showed interesting DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 SFG = 2.5 mg·mL(-1)), strong ABTS radical scavenging activity (% inhibition ABTS = 75.6% ± 2.6% at 40 mg·mL(-1)), high reducing power capacity (RPSFG = 5 mg·mL(-1)), and potent β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity (IC50 SFG = 10 mg·mL(-1)). All of the obtained results demonstrate the promising potential use of SFG in numerous industrial applications, and a way to valorize flaxseed hulls.

  2. Interaction of phosphorus and pistachio green hull on some growth characteristics and nutrients in pistachio (Pistacia vera L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fekri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of phosphorus (P and pistachio waste (raw and dry on growth and chemical composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L. cv. Badami Zarand seedlings, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted. Treatments were three levels of P (0, 50 and 100 mg P/kg soil and three levels of pistachio green hull (0, 3 and 6% w/w. The results showed that at the first level of P application, the 3% pistachio waste treatment increased root and shoot dry weight, number of leaves and leaf area of pistachio seedlings. While, application of 6% pistachio hull significantly decreased these parameters, as compared to the control. However, root and shoot nutrient concentrations including P, sodium, zinc, iron and copper at the first level of P were reduced by pistachio waste application. At the first level of pistachio waste, P application increased root and shoot dry weight, number of leaves and leaf area of pistachio seedlings. But, all nutrient concentrations of root and shoots, except P, were reduced by increasing P level. The best response of dry weight of roots and shoots, number of leaves and leaf area of pistachio seedlings was observed from application of 3% pistachio hulls and 50 mg P/kg of soil. In general, the results of this experiment indicated that application of 50 mg P/kg soil was more effective than 100 mg P/kg soil on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings. Application of 3% pistachio green hull and 50 mg P/kg soil improved growth of pistachio seedlings.

  3. Oxidative stress in deep scattering layers: Heat shock response and antioxidant enzymes activities of myctophid fishes thriving in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Rita; Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Pires, Vanessa; Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-12-01

    Diel vertical migrators, such as myctophid fishes, are known to encounter oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) during daytime in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and, therefore, have to cope with temperature and oxidative stress that arise while ascending to warmer, normoxic surface waters at night-time. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant defense strategies and heat shock response (HSR) in two myctophid species, namely Triphoturus mexicanus and Benthosema panamense, at shallow and warm surface waters (21 kPa, 20-25 °C) and at hypoxic, cold (≤1 kPa, 10 °C) mesopelagic depths. More specifically, we quantified (i) heat shock protein concentrations (HSP70/HSC70) (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], and (iii) lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. HSP70/HSC70 levels increased in both myctophid species at warmer, well-oxygenated surface waters probably to prevent cellular damage (oxidative stress) due to increased oxygen demand under elevated temperatures and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. On the other hand, CAT and GST activities were augmented under hypoxic conditions, probably as preparatory response to a burst of oxyradicals during the reoxygenation phase (while ascending). SOD activity decreased under hypoxia in B. panamense, but was kept unchanged in T. mexicanus. MDA levels in B. panamense did not change between the surface and deep-sea conditions, whereas T. mexicanus showed elevated MDA and HSP70/HSC70 concentrations at warmer surface waters. This indicated that T. mexicanus seems to be not so well tuned to temperature and oxidative stress associated to diel vertical migrations. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how different species might respond to the impacts of environmental stressors (e.g. expanding mesopelagic hypoxia

  4. Co-induction of the heat shock response ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of human spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: implications for therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bilal; Nirmalananthan, Niranjanan; Gray, Anna L.; La Spada, Albert R.; Hanna, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, also known as Kennedy’s disease, is an adult-onset hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the first exon in the androgen receptor gene. Pathologically, the disease is defined by selective loss of spinal and bulbar motor neurons causing bulbar, facial and limb weakness. Although the precise disease pathophysiology is largely unknown, it appears to be related to abnormal accumulation of the pathogenic androgen receptor protein within the nucleus, leading to disruption of cellular processes. Using a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy that exhibits many of the characteristic features of the human disease, in vivo physiological assessment of muscle function revealed that mice with the pathogenic expansion of the androgen receptor develop a motor deficit characterized by a reduction in muscle force, abnormal muscle contractile characteristics, loss of functional motor units and motor neuron degeneration. We have previously shown that treatment with arimoclomol, a co-inducer of the heat shock stress response, delays disease progression in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a fatal motor neuron disease. We therefore evaluated the therapeutic potential of arimoclomol in mice with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Arimoclomol was administered orally, in drinking water, from symptom onset and the effects established at 18 months of age, a late stage of disease. Arimoclomol significantly improved hindlimb muscle force and contractile characteristics, rescued motor units and, importantly, improved motor neuron survival and upregulated the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor which possess neurotrophic activity. These results provide evidence that upregulation of the heat shock response by treatment with arimoclomol may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and may also

  5. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2015-12-17

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after one hour of exposure to 40 ºC and UV light. All three genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Coogan, Jeffrey S; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2011-10-01

    Diatoms are primary colonizers of both antifouling and fouling-release ship hull coatings. There are few published studies which report on diatom community development on modern ship hull coatings. This study reports diatom communities on eight commercial marine ship hull coatings exposed at three static immersion sites along the east coast of Florida, viz. Daytona, Sebastian, and Miami. The coatings tested were three ablative copper systems (Ameron ABC-3, International BRA-640, and Hempel Olympic 76600), two copper-free biocidal systems (E-Paint SN-1, Sherwin Williams HMF), and three fouling-release (FR) systems (International Intersleek 700, International Intersleek 900, and Hempel Hempasil). One hundred and twenty-seven species comprising 44 genera were identified, including some of the more commonly known foulers, viz. Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis, Licmophora, Melosira, Navicula, Nitzschia, Synedra, and Toxarium. A significant difference was seen among sites, with the more estuarine site, Sebastian, having lower overall diatom abundance and higher diversity than Daytona and Miami. Copper coatings were primarily fouled by Amphora delicatissima and Entomoneis pseudoduplex. Copper-free coatings were fouled by Cyclophora tenuis, A. delicatissima, Achnanthes manifera, and Amphora bigibba. FR surfaces were typified by C. tenuis, and several species of Amphora. The presence of C. tenuis is new to the biofouling literature, but as new coatings are developed, this diatom may be one of many that prove to be problematic for static immersion. Results show coatings can be significantly influenced by geographical area, highlighting the need to test ship hull coatings in locations similar to where they will be utilized.

  7. LINEAR AND NONLINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF STIFFENED CYLINDRICAL SUBMARINE HULL

    OpenAIRE

    SREELATHA P.R; ALICE MATHAI

    2012-01-01

    Submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation under water. Use of submarines includes marine science, offshore industry underwater exploration etc. The pressure hull of submarine is constructed as combination of cylinders and domes. The shell is subjected to very high hydrostatic pressure, which creates large compressive stress resultants. Due to this the structure is susceptible to buckling. The introduction of stiffeners in both directions considerably increases the buckling st...

  8. Validation of Closed Loop Degaussing System for Double Hull Submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Demilier, Laurent; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Coulomb, Jean-Louis; Rouve, Laure-Line

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents last DCNS development on Closed Loop Degaussing System dedicated to high performance electromagnetic silent warship. This paper focuses on an evolution of the CLDG algorithm for degaussed warship. Developed in cooperation with Grenoble Electrical Engineering Lab, this genuine method allows to determine the hull unknown magnetization components, thus the predicted signature, based on real time magnetic measurements from sensors located very close to ...

  9. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  10. Prediction of propeller-induced hull-pressure fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wijngaarden, H.C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The cavitating propeller often forms the primary source of noise and vibration on board ships. The propeller induces hydroacoustic pressure fluctuations due to the passing blades and, more importantly, the dynamic activity of cavities in the propeller’s immediate vicinity. The accurate prediction of the resulting vibratory hull-excitation forces is indispensible in the ship design process, but is not always warranted. From this follows the main objective of the thesis, which is the developmen...

  11. Metalclad Airship Hull Study. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    functipning .in, harmony with elastic deformations of the skiA and are h’ghly.. red •,ndant both, in loading (since they are continuoas.,qircular beams) as... perimetral stations, the apex cornice will not require reinforcement. The frame can be reduced in height all along its perimeter from its present structural...sealed off by thin flat sheet, spot welded to corrugations. The inner perimetral corridor within each main frame is gas tight and contains air under hull

  12. Lower Bound for Convex Hull Area and Universal Cover Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a lower bound for an area of the convex hull of points and a rectangle in a plane. We then apply this estimate to establish a lower bound for a universal cover problem. We showed that a convex universal cover for a unit length curve has area at least 0.232239. In addition, we show that a convex universal cover for a unit closed curve has area at least 0.0879873.

  13. Shocking action: Facilitative effects of punishing electric shocks on action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Andreas B; Dignath, David; Erle, Thorsten M; Wiemer, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Four experiments examined motivational effects of response-contingent electric shocks on action initiation. Although the shock was unambiguously aversive for the individual in line with subjective and functional criteria, results showed that the shock-producing action was initiated faster relative to a response producing no shock. However, no facilitation effect was found when strong shocks were delivered, ruling out increased emotional arousal as an explanation. The action was initiated faster even when the response discontinued to generate a shock. Furthermore, a control experiment with affectively neutral vibrotactile stimulations at homologous sites showed an analogous response facilitation effect. Overall, the results contradict the widespread belief that a contingency with a punishing response effect is sufficient for a response suppression. Instead, the results suggest that punishing action effects can facilitate action initiation via anticipatory feedback processes. Implications for theories and applications of punishment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Analysis of the hull girder vibration by dynamic stiffness matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping; ZHAO De-you

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic stiffness matrix method is applied to compute vibration of hull girder in this paper.This method can not only simplify the computational model, but also get much higher frequencies and responses accurately. The analytical expressions of dynamic stiffness matrix of a Timoshenko beam for transverse vibration are presented in this paper. All effects of rotatory inertia and shear deformation are taken into account in the formulation. The resulting dynamic stiffness matrix combined with the Wittrick-Williams algorithm is used to compute natural frequencies and mode shapes of the 299,500 DWT VLCC, and then the vibrational responses are solved by the mode superposition method. The computational results are compared with those obtained from other approximate methods and experiment,and it indicates that the method is accurate and efficient.

  15. Brush development for underwater ship hull coating maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribou, Melissa Eileen

    Ship hull grooming has been proposed as an environmentally friendly method of maintaining ship hull coatings in a fouling-free condition. It is defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating to prevent the establishment of fouling. This research investigated the grooming tool properties and operational requirements needed to implement the method. The grooming tool needs to provide sufficient force to remove incipient fouling without damaging the surface and consume minimal energy. Research showed that a vertical rotating brush design containing brushes filled with angled polypropylene bristles provided an effective method. This brush system was able to successfully prevent incipient fouling from becoming established on a copper ablative and two silicone fouling release coatings when groomed on a weekly basis; however, biofilm was not completely controlled. Brush design and operational parameters in relation to brush normal forces were investigated and models were developed to understand the relationship between bristle stiffness, dimensions, and angular velocity. A preliminary look at wear found that bristle stiffness has an effect on the degree of marring of the surface of a silicone fouling release coating. The knowledge gained by this research may be used to optimize grooming brush design and operational parameters that can be applied to the design and deployment of low power autonomous underwater vehicles that will groom the ship while in port.

  16. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, A.; Pacuraru, F.

    2010-08-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  17. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lungu, A; Pacuraru, F, E-mail: adrian.lungu@ugal.r [Department of Ship Hydrodynamics, ' Dunarea de Jos' University of Galati 47 Domneasca Street, Galati 800008 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  18. HULL GESTURE AND RESISTANCE PREDICTION OF HIGH-SPEED VESSELS*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Chong-ben; ZHU Ren-chuan; MIAO Guo-ping; FAN Ju

    2011-01-01

    Since trim and sinkage are significant while vessels are advancing forward with high speed, the predicted vessel resistance based on restrained model theory or experiment may not be real resistance of vessels during voyage. It is necessary to take the influence of hull gesture into account for oredicting the resistance of high-speed ship. In the present work the resistance problem of high speed ship is treated with the viscous flow theory, and the dynamic mesh technique is adopted to coincide with variation of hull gesture of high speed vessel on voyage. The simulation of the models of S60 ship and a trimaran moving in towing tank with high speed are conducted by using the above theory and technique. The corresponding numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It indicates that the resistance prediction for high speed vessels should take hull gesture into consideration and the dynamic mesh method proposed here is effective in calculating the resistance of high speed vessels.

  19. Culture Shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文玲

    2004-01-01

    Specialists say that it is not easy to get used to life in a new culture.“Culture shock”is the term these specialists use when talking about the feelings that people have in a new environment.There are three stages of culture shock,say the specialists.In the first stage,the newcomers like their new environment,Then when the fresh experience

  20. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.