WorldWideScience

Sample records for hull coating system

  1. Estimating Hull Coating Thickness Distributions Using the EM Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corriere, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The underwater hull coating system on surface ships is comprised anti-corrosive (AC) and anti-fouling (AF) paint The AF layers are designed to wear away, continuously leaching cuprous oxide to inhibit marine growth...

  2. In-Water Hull Cleaning & Filtration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Dan George R & D Mining Technology LinkedIn GRD Franmarine have received the following prestigious awards in 2014 for their research & development of an in-water hull cleaning and filtration system "The Envirocart: Golden Gecko Award for Environmental Excellence; WA Innovator of the Year - Growth Sector; Department of Fisheries - Excellence in Marine Biosecurity Award - Innovation Category; Lloyd's List Asia Awards - Environmental Award; The Australian Innovation Challenge - Environment, Agriculture and Food Category; and Australian Shipping and Maritime Industry Award - Environmental Transport Award. The Envirocart developed and patented by GRD Franmarine is a revolutionary new fully enclosed capture and containment in-water hull cleaning technology. The Envirocart enables soft Silicon based antifouling paints and coatings containing pesticides such as Copper Oxide to be cleaned in situ using a contactless cleaning method. This fully containerised system is now capable of being deployed to remote locations or directly onto a Dive Support Vessel and is rated to offshore specifications. This is the only known method of in-water hull cleaning that complies with the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) and Department of Fisheries WA (DoF) Guidelines. The primary underwater cleaning tool is a hydraulically powered hull cleaning unit fitted with rotating discs. The discs can be fitted with conventional brushes for glass or epoxy based coatings or a revolutionary new patented blade system which can remove marine biofouling without damaging the antifouling paint (silicone and copper oxide). Additionally there are a patented range of fully enclosed hand cleaning tools for difficult to access niche areas such as anodes and sea chests, providing an innovative total solution that enables in-water cleaning to be conducted in a manner that causes no biological risk to the environment. In full containment mode or when AIS are present, material is pumped

  3. 46 CFR 154.178 - Contiguous hull structure: Heating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. 154.178... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.178 Contiguous hull structure: Heating system. The heating system for transverse and longitudinal contiguous hull structure must: (a) Be shown by a heat load calculation to have...

  4. Effects of biofouling development on drag forces of hull coatings for ocean-going ships: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Olsen, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents a systematic overview of the literature and describes the experimental methods used to quantify the drag of hull coatings. It also summarizes the findings of hull coating's drag performance and identifies the main parameters impacting it. The advantages and disadvantages...... of the reported methods listed in this review provide an assessment of the most efficient methods to quantify the drag performance of hull coatings. This review determines that drag performance of hull coating technology varies depending on whether the coating condition is newly applied, after dynamic or static...... seawater exposure. The summarized data reveal that, while several methods have attempted to quantify drag performance of hull coatings, other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of hull coatings in conditions mimicking those that ship hulls encounter...

  5. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared in their......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...

  6. Drag Reduction trough Special paints Coated on the hull

    OpenAIRE

    Izaguirre Alza, Patricia; Pérez Rojas, Luis; Núñez Basáñez, José Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The economic recession, the environmental impact as well as the continuous fossil fuel consumption encourage actions that focus on saving energy. In the vessels sector, one of the main objectives has always been to reach a hydro-dynamically optimum hull which gave the desired speed with minimum power. Hydrodynamic drag is basically divided into two parts: a) the friction between the water and the hull, and b) the wave generation due to the free-surface air-water. Presented in this paper...

  7. A Fiber-Optic Tether for the Hull Search UUV System Documentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buescher, J. G

    2006-01-01

    ...) conducting ship hull inspection missions, defines the required specifications that will allow the integration and installation of a FO tether system on UUVs with ship hull inspection capability...

  8. Approximate convex hull of affine iterated function system attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkinis, Anton; Gentil, Christian; Lanquetin, Sandrine; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an iterative algorithm to approximate affine IFS attractor convex hull. ► Elimination of the interior points significantly reduces the complexity. ► To optimize calculations, we merge the convex hull images at each iteration. ► Approximation by ellipses increases speed of convergence to the exact convex hull. ► We present a method of the output convex hull simplification. - Abstract: In this paper, we present an algorithm to construct an approximate convex hull of the attractors of an affine iterated function system (IFS). We construct a sequence of convex hull approximations for any required precision using the self-similarity property of the attractor in order to optimize calculations. Due to the affine properties of IFS transformations, the number of points considered in the construction is reduced. The time complexity of our algorithm is a linear function of the number of iterations and the number of points in the output approximate convex hull. The number of iterations and the execution time increases logarithmically with increasing accuracy. In addition, we introduce a method to simplify the approximate convex hull without loss of accuracy.

  9. Hybrid Wireless Hull Monitoring System for Naval Combat Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Payload Data Acquisition System (SPDAS) is designed by the Technology Management Group, Inc. ( TMG ). In its design, the monitoring system is intended...monitoring system custom designed by TMG for the U.S. Navy. The Scientific Payload Data Acquisition System (SPDAS) is a wired hull monitoring system

  10. Development of hull compaction system for nuclear recycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manole, A.A.; Karkhanis, P.P.; Agarwal, Kailash; Basu, Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    India has adopted closed fuel cycle strategy for efficient management of available resources to meet long term energy requirements. Nuclear Recycle Facility (NRF) provides a vital link in three-stage Indian nuclear power programme. In a NRF for PHWR fuel cycle, reprocessing of spent fuel bundles from PHWRs is carried out using a chop-leach process where the spent fuel bundles are chopped into small pieces using a spent fuel chopper and the contents inside the zircaloy clad are dissolved using concentric nitric acid. This process generates empty zircaloy shells called 'hulls'. The present practice followed for management of hulls is to transfer them into SS drums and store these drums in underground RCC tile holes at a Waste Management Facility (WMF). This waste needs to be stored in an engineered WMF for at least 30-60 years before transferred to a final repository. The storage volumes required for this hull waste will keep increasing as the reprocessing capacity is being enhanced multi-folds. Compaction of hull waste has been employed internationally to reduce the volume required for storage. Hence indigenous development of hull compaction system was initiated by NRB to meet the future requirements. This is being achieved through a set of experiments and analysis with the available resources within the country. This paper describes the process of compaction, conceptualization of the system and benefits accrued from it. (author)

  11. Static vs dynamic settlement and adhesion of diatoms to ship hull coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargiel, Kelli A; Swain, Geoffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Many experiments utilize static immersion tests to evaluate the performance of ship hull coatings. These provide valuable data; however, they do not accurately represent the conditions both the hull and fouling organisms encounter while a ship is underway. This study investigated the effect of static and dynamic immersion on the adhesion and settlement of diatoms to one antifouling coating (BRA 640), four fouling-release coatings (Intersleek(®) 700, Intersleek(®) 900, Hempasil X3, and Dow Corning 3140) and one standard surface (Intergard(®) 240 Epoxy). Differences in community composition were observed between the static and dynamic treatments. Achnanthes longipes was present on all coatings under static immersion, but was not present under dynamic immersion. This was also found for diatoms in the genera Bacillaria and Gyrosigma. Melosira moniformis was the only diatom present under dynamic conditions, but not static conditions. Several common fouling diatom genera were present on panels regardless of treatment: Amphora, Cocconeis, Entomoneis Cylindrotheca, Licmophora, Navicula, Nitzschia, Plagiotropis, and Synedra. Biofilm adhesion, diatom abundance and diatom diversity were found to be significantly different between static and dynamic treatments; however, the difference was dependent on coating and sampling date. Several coatings (Epoxy, DC 3140 and IS 700) had significantly higher biofilm adhesion on dynamically treated panels on at least one of the four sampling dates, while all coatings had significantly higher diatom abundance on at least one sampling date. Diversity was significantly greater on static panels than dynamic panels for Epoxy, IS 700 and HX3 at least once during the sampling period. The results demonstrate how hydrodynamic stress will significantly influence the microfouling community. Dynamic immersion testing is required to fully understand how antifouling surfaces will respond to biofilm formation when subjected to the stresses experienced

  12. Drag resistance of ship hulls: Effects of surface roughness of newly applied fouling control coatings, coating water absorption, and welding seams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Andrés, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    selected, that a so-called fouling release (FR) coating caused approximately 5.6 % less skin friction (torque) over time than traditional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings at a tangential speed of 12 knots. Furthermore, results of immersion experiments and supporting “standard” water absorption......Fouling control coatings (FCCs) and irregularities (e.g. welding seams) on ship hull surfaces have significant effects on the overall drag performance of ships. In this work, skin frictions of four newly applied FCCs were compared using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Particular attention was given...

  13. Diatom community structure on in-service cruise ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, Kelli Zargiel; Koka, Abhishek; Lund, Geir; Swain, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    Diatoms are an important component of marine biofilms found on ship hulls. However, there are only a few published studies that describe the presence and abundance of diatoms on ships, and none that relate to modern ship hull coatings. This study investigated the diatom community structure on two in-service cruise ships with the same cruise cycles, one coated with an antifouling (AF) system (copper self-polishing copolymer) and the other coated with a silicone fouling-release (FR) system. Biofilm samples were collected during dry docking from representative areas of the ship and these provided information on the horizontal and vertical zonation of the hull, and intact and damaged coating and niche areas. Diatoms from the genera Achnanthes, Amphora and Navicula were the most common, regardless of horizontal ship zonation and coating type. Other genera were abundant, but their presence was more dependent on the ship zonation and coating type. Samples collected from damaged areas of the hull coating had a similar community composition to undamaged areas, but with higher diatom abundance. Diatom fouling on the niche areas differed from that of the surrounding ship hull and paralleled previous studies that investigated differences in diatom community structure on static and dynamically exposed coatings; niche areas were similar to static immersion and the hull to dynamic immersion. Additionally, diatom richness was greater on the ship with the FR coating, including the identification of several new genera to the biofouling literature, viz. Lampriscus and Thalassiophysa. These results are the first to describe diatom community composition on in-service ship hulls coated with a FR system. This class of coatings appears to have a larger diatom community compared to copper-based AF systems, with new diatom genera that have the ability to stick to ship hulls and withstand hydrodynamic forces, thus creating the potential for new problematic species in the biofilm.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    The shaft grounding systems used on board HMC ships have substantially reduced the shaft-to-hull resistance and, thus, improved the performance of the shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) system...

  15. Metallurgical coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, L.C.; Whittaker, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel metallurgical coating system which provides corrosion resistance and non-stick properties to metallic components which are subjected to unusually severe operating conditions. The coating system comprises a first layer comprising tantalum which is deposited upon a substrate and a second layer comprising molybdenum disilicide which is deposited upon the first layer

  16. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarełko Wiesła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  17. Coefficients of Propeller-hull Interaction in Propulsion System of Inland Waterway Vessels with Stern Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kulczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Propeller-hull interaction coefficients - the wake fraction and the thrust deduction factor - play significant role in design of propulsion system of a ship. In the case of inland waterway vessels the reliable method of predicting these coefficients in early design stage is missing. Based on the outcomes from model tests and from numerical computations the present authors show that it is difficult to determine uniquely the trends in change of wake fraction and thrust deduction factor resulting from the changes of hull form or operating conditions. Nowadays the resistance and propulsion model tests of inland waterway vessels are carried out rarely because of relatively high costs. On the other hand, the degree of development of computational methods enables’ to estimate the reliable values o interaction coefficients. The computations referred to in the present paper were carried out using the authors’ own software HPSDKS and the commercial software Ansys Fluent.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Galvanic Corrosion Caused by Shaft Grounding Systems in Steel Ship Hulls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Y

    2005-01-01

    .... This led to the accelerated corrosion of the exposed steel ship hull on paint holidays because of the substantial difference of the electric potentials between the steel ship hull and the nickel...

  19. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  20. 46 CFR 154.174 - Transverse contiguous hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transverse contiguous hull structure. 154.174 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.174 Transverse contiguous hull structure. (a) The transverse contiguous hull...) The transverse contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems with secondary...

  1. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  2. Effective Hull IMMR plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Mireille

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the Hull Inspection, Maintenance and Repair Plan is to ensure the total integrity of the Floating Production Unit. To be efficient, the Monitoring has to be part of the Hull Inspection, Monitoring, Maintenance and Repair Plan (IMMR). The IMMR Plan should be developed during the design and project phases and take into account the interfaces between the different systems and teams' tasks in operation. The IMMR is multidisciplinary and form part of the hand-over to ensure an efficient and early implementation. Implementation of such a complex plan requires: - Cross-functionality: take advantage of the synergies - Boldness: break the mould and think outside the box - Listening: be attentive, be available, - Mutual support: during good and bad times. This paper presents the way Total believe the Hull IMMR Plan shall be developed, implemented and followed up. (Author)

  3. 46 CFR 154.176 - Longitudinal contiguous hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. 154.176 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.176 Longitudinal contiguous hull structure. (a) The longitudinal contiguous hull structure of a vessel having cargo containment systems without secondary barriers must meet the...

  4. Systems design of transformation toughened blast-resistant naval hull steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arup

    A systems approach to computational materials design has demonstrated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (Cv > 85 ft-lbs (115 J) corresponding to KId > 200 ksi.in1/2 (220 MPa.m1/2)) at strength levels of 150--180 ksi (1034--1241 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A theoretical design concept was explored integrating the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability. Hardness and tensile tests conducted on the designed prototype confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness-strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 60% in Charpy

  5. Alpha-Concave Hull, a Generalization of Convex Hull

    OpenAIRE

    Asaeedi, Saeed; Didehvar, Farzad; Mohades, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bounding hull, such as convex hull, concave hull, alpha shapes etc. has vast applications in different areas especially in computational geometry. Alpha shape and concave hull are generalizations of convex hull. Unlike the convex hull, they construct non-convex enclosure on a set of points. In this paper, we introduce another generalization of convex hull, named alpha-concave hull, and compare this concept with convex hull and alpha shape. We show that the alpha-concave hull is also a general...

  6. Active coatings technologies for tailorable military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, J. L., III

    2007-04-01

    The main objective of the U.S. Army's Active Coatings Technologies Program is to develop technologies that can be used in combination to tailor coatings for utilization on Army Materiel. The Active Coatings Technologies Program, ACT, is divided into several thrusts, including the Smart Coatings Materiel Program, Munitions Coatings Technologies, Active Sensor packages, Systems Health Monitoring, Novel Technology Development, as well as other advanced technologies. The goal of the ACT Program is to conduct research leading to the development of multiple coatings systems for use on various military platforms, incorporating unique properties such as self repair, selective removal, corrosion resistance, sensing, ability to modify coatings' physical properties, colorizing, and alerting logistics staff when tanks or weaponry require more extensive repair. A partnership between the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ along with researchers at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ, Clemson University, SC, University of New Hampshire, NH, and University of Massachusetts (Lowell), MA, are developing the next generation of Smart Coatings Materiel via novel technologies such as nanotechnology, Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS), meta-materials, flexible electronics, electrochromics, electroluminescence, etc. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Active Coatings Technologies Program, including an update of the on-going Smart Coatings Materiel Program, its progress thus far, description of the prototype Smart Coatings Systems and research tasks as well as future nanotechnology concepts, and applications for the Department of Defense.

  7. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  8. 46 CFR 111.05-11 - Hull return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull return. 111.05-11 Section 111.05-11 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-11 Hull return. (a) A vessel's hull must not carry current as a conductor except for the following systems: (1) Impressed current...

  9. Degradation Mechanisms of Military Coating Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keene, L. T; Halada, G. P; Clayton, C. R; Kosik, W. E; McKnight, S. H

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the development and application of specialized characterization techniques used to study the environmental degradation mechanisms of organic coating systems employed by the United...

  10. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...

  11. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  12. 46 CFR 71.50-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 71.50-1... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used in this part— Adequate hull protection system means a method of protecting the vessel's hull from corrosion. It...

  13. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  14. Performance evaluation of one coat systems for new steel bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    In an effort to address cost issues associated with shop application of conventional three-coat systems, the Federal : Highway Administration completed a study to investigate the performance of eight one-coat systems and two control : coatings for co...

  15. The Evaluation of Cone Capsule as an Alternative Hull form for Portable Tsunami Lifeboat to Support Evacuation System in the Coastal Regions and Small Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzan Zakki, Ahmad; Suharto; Windyandari, Aulia

    2018-03-01

    Several attempts have been made to reduce the risk of tsunami disasters such as the development of early warning systems, evacuation procedures training, coastal protection and coastal spatial planning. Although many efforts to mitigate the impact of the tsunami in Indonesia was made, no one has developed a portable disaster rescue vehicle/shelter as well as a lifeboat on ships and offshore building, which is always available when a disaster occurs. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the performance of cone capsule shaped hull form that would be used for the portable tsunami lifeboat. The investigation of the boat resistance, intact stability, and seakeeping characteristics was made. The numerical analysis results indicate that the cone capsule is reliable as an alternative hull form for the portable tsunami lifeboat.

  16. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  17. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  18. 46 CFR 176.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... if— (1) It is constructed of steel or aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3...

  19. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d......In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  20. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  1. 14 CFR 23.755 - Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 23.755 Section 23.755 Aeronautics... Hulls § 23.755 Hulls. (a) The hull of a hull seaplane or amphibian of 1,500 pounds or more maximum weight must have watertight compartments designed and arranged so that the hull auxiliary floats, and...

  2. Corrosion behaviour of Arc-PVD coatings and hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, K.

    1992-01-01

    To achieve a comprehensive protective effect against corrosion and wear stresses, coating systems are increasingly being developed, in which there is a separation of the tasks of the coating materials regarding the protective effect. On the one hand, pure PVD coating systems are used, on the other hand hybrid coatings are examined, where galvanic processes are combined with PVD technique. The results of experiments introduced in this article were determined on Arc-PVD coatings. By this process, titanium nitride and chromium nitride coatings are both deposited directly on the basic material and are also deposited as combination coatings of Ti/TiN and chemical nickel/TiN. (orig.) [de

  3. A chromia forming thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.P.; Evans, H.E. [Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Gray, S.; Nicholls, J.R. [Surface Science and Engineering Centre, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of an insulating ceramic topcoat, a bond coat for oxidation protection and the underlying superalloy designed to combat the oxidising conditions in aero- and land-based gas turbines. Under high-temperature oxidation, the use of an alumina forming bond coat is warranted, thus all current TBC systems are optimised for the early formation of a dense, protective thermally grown oxide (TGO) of alumina. This also offers protection against Type I hot corrosion but a chromia layer gives better protection against Type II corrosion and intermediate temperatures, the conditions found in land-based gas turbines. In this paper the authors present the first known results for a chromia forming TBC system. Tests have been performed under oxidising conditions, up to 1000 h, at temperatures between 750 C and 900 C, and under Type I (900 C) and Type II (700 C) hot corrosion conditions up to 500 h. Under all these conditions no cracking, spallation or degradation was observed. Examination showed the formation of an adherent, dense chromia TGO at the bond coat / topcoat interface. These initial results are very encouraging and the TGO thicknesses agree well with comparable results reported in the literature. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Multi-purpose hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.C.; Horgan, J.B.G.; Downie, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    An 18 sided hull approximately 4 metres in diameter formed in prefabricated watertight sections from GRP has been designed for burying underground to withstand an overpressure of 12P.S.I above normal atmospheric pressure for human protection against a nuclear explosion and resultant radioactivity. The pre-fabricated sections are so designed to be stacked together prior to assembling and the assembled hulls can also be stacked together both vertically and horizontally in a honeycomb formation to form a multiple chamber. (author)

  5. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  6. Acoustical characteristic predictions of a multi-layer system of a submerged vehicle hull mounted sonar simplified to an infinite planar model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hee Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull Mounted Sonar (HMS is a long range submerged vehicle's hull-mounted passive sonar system which detects low-frequency noise caused by machineries of enemy ships or submerged vehicles. The HMS needs a sound absorption /insulation multi-layer structure to shut out the self-noise from own machineries and to amplify signals from outside. Therefore, acoustic analysis of the multi-layer system should be performed when the HMS is designed. This paper simplified the HMS multi-layer system to be an infinite planar multi-layer model. Also, main excitations that influence the HMS were classified into mechanical, plane wave and turbulent flow excitation, and the investigations for each excitation were performed for various models. Stiffened multi-layer analysis for mechanical excitation and general multi-layer analysis for turbulent flow excitation were developed. The infinite planar multi-layer analysis was expected to be more useful for preliminary design stage of HMS system than the infinite cylindrical model because of short analysis time and easiness of parameter study.

  7. Demonstration and Validation of Two Coat High Performance Coating System for Steel Structures in Corrosive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Many of these steel buildings and equipment are tradi- tionally painted with an alkyd enamel or waterborne coating for a top coat. These paint systems...bridging minor cracks or for surfaces that have vi- bration and/or movement. These qualities are necessary in a barrier coat- ing primer for it to remain

  8. Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.

  9. 33 CFR Appendix G to Part 157 - Timetables for Application of Double Hull Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Double Hull Requirements G Appendix G to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Application of Double Hull Requirements 1. Source. These timetables conform to 46 U.S.C. 3703a(c). 2... double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Coast Guard to be as effective as a...

  10. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  11. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedwill, M.A.; Glasgow, T.K.; Levine, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures

  12. Overlay metallic-cermet alloy coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Levine, S. R.; Glasgow, T. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A substrate, such as a turbine blade, vane, or the like, which is subjected to high temperature use is coated with a base coating of an oxide dispersed, metallic alloy (cermet). A top coating of an oxidation, hot corrosion, erosion resistant alloy of nickel, cobalt, or iron is then deposited on the base coating. A heat treatment is used to improve the bonding. The base coating serves as an inhibitor to interdiffusion between the protective top coating and the substrate. Otherwise, the protective top coating would rapidly interact detrimentally with the substrate and degrade by spalling of the protective oxides formed on the outer surface at elevated temperatures.

  13. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, M. W.; Fabian, P. E.; Stewart, M. W.; Grandlienard, S. D.; Kano, K. S.

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass

  14. Magnetron co-sputtering system for coating ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, E.J.; Meyer, S.F.; Halsey, W.G.; Jameson, G.T.; Wittmayer, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fabrication of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets requires deposition of various types of coatings on microspheres. The mechanical strength, and surface finish of the coatings are of concern in ICF experiments. The tensile strength of coatings can be controlled through grain refinement, selective doping and alloy formation. We have constructed a magnetron co-sputtering system to produce variable density profile coatings with high tensile strength on microspheres

  15. Thermophysical and Thermomechanical Properties of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings have been developed for advanced gas turbine and diesel engine applications to improve engine reliability and fuel efficiency. However, the issue of coating durability under high temperature cyclic conditions is still of major concern. The coating failure is closely related to thermal stresses and oxidation in the coating systems. Coating shrinkage cracking resulting from ceramic sintering and creep at high temperatures can further accelerate the coating failure process. The purpose of this paper is to address critical issues such as ceramic sintering and creep, thermal fatigue and their relevance to coating life prediction. Novel test approaches have been established to obtain critical thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the coating systems under near-realistic temperature and stress gradients encountered in advanced engine systems. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic changes of the coating thermal conductivity and elastic modulus, fatigue and creep interactions, and resulting failure mechanisms during the simulated engine tests. Detailed experimental and modeling results describing processes occurring in the thermal barrier coating systems provide a framework for developing strategies to manage ceramic coating architecture, microstructure and properties.

  16. The effect of microstructure at interface between coating and substrate on damping capacity of coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xueqin; Pei, Yanling; Ma, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Samples with various interface microstructures between the coating and the substrate were designed and fabricated in this paper. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was utilized to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of the samples and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the interface microstructure between the substrate and coating. The effect of the interface microstructure on damping was studied, and results indicated that the larger the coating/substrate interface thickness was and the more interface defects were, the higher interface system damping was. When the micro-hardness ratio of substrate to coating was increased, the damping of coating system was enhanced. The effect of the APS and EB-PVD coating on damping capacity was investigated. There was a dramatic increase in the damping value of the APS coating when the strain was higher than 20 ppm, while the damping amplitude effect of the EB-PVD coating was not so obvious, which could mainly be caused by the different energy dissipation mechanisms of the two coatings.

  17. Calculation for Hull Strength Construction in Offshore Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... of hull plating, reinforcing stiffeners, girders, and other structures. This paper therefore used the .... From these equations we derive that. Safety of. Factor. Stress ..... machineries, systems etc. of the ships or barge under design.

  18. Characteristics of plutonium, curium and uranium in hulls of FUGEN MOX spent fuel by destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Shizuka; Goto, Yuichi; Samoto, Hirotaka; Shichi, Ryo; Shimizu, Takenori

    2011-01-01

    We have been developing a non-destructive assay system called hulls monitor for nuclear fuel materials retained in hulls at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The hulls monitor is based on a passive neutron measurement method, so its applicability should be evaluated by a destructive analysis of hulls that are recovered from the reprocessing process. In this study, hulls came from the Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR) FUGEN were taken from the dissolution process of TRP and destructively analyzed. Two kinds of hulls from ATR-MOX spent fuel assemblies and from ATR-UO 2 spent fuel assemblies were taken and soaked with nitric acid then fused with ammonium hydrogen sulfate, followed by Pu, 244 Cm, U mass determination by alpha spectrometry and ICP-AES. The characteristics of hulls came from MOX spent fuel assemblies were revealed by comparison of ATR-MOX spent fuel with ATR-UO 2 spent fuel. (author)

  19. Iodine-infused aeration for hull fouling prevention: a vessel-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Natasha C; Krumholz, Jason S; Hunsucker, Kelli Z; Radicone, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Biofouling is a significant economic and ecological problem, causing reduced vessel performance and increases in fuel consumption and emissions. Previous research has shown iodine vapor (I 2 )-infused aeration to be an environmentally friendly method for deterring the settlement of fouling organisms. An aeration system was deployed on a vessel with hull sections coated with two types of antifoulant coatings, Intersleek ® 1100 (fouling-release) and Interspeed ® BRA-640 (ablative copper biocide), as well as an inert epoxy barrier coating, to assess the effectiveness of aeration in conjunction with common marine coatings. I 2 -infused aeration resulted in consistent reductions of 80-90% in hard fouling across all three coatings. Additionally, aeration reduced the soft fouling rate by 45-70% when used in conjunction with both Intersleek ® and Interspeed ® BRA versus those coatings alone. The results of this study highlight the contribution of I 2 -infused aeration as a standalone mechanism for fouling prevention or as a complement to traditional antifouling coatings.

  20. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  1. On the interfacial degradation mechanisms of thermal barrier coating systems: Effects of bond coat composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R.T., E-mail: WU.Rudder@nims.go.jp [International Center for Young Scientists, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); Wang, X.; Atkinson, A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems based on an electron beam physical vapour deposited, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coat and a substrate material of CMSX-4 superalloy were identically prepared to systematically study the behaviour of different bond coats. The three bond coat systems investigated included two {beta}-structured Pt-Al types and a {gamma}-{gamma}' type produced by Pt diffusion without aluminizing. Progressive evolution of stress in the thermally grown aluminium oxide (TGO) upon thermal cycling, and its relief by plastic deformation and fracture, were studied using luminescence spectroscopy. The TBCs with the LT Pt-Al bond coat failed by a rumpling mechanism that generated isolated cracks at the interface between the TGO and the YSZ. This reduced adhesion at this interface and the TBC delaminated when it could no longer resist the release of the stored elastic energy of the YSZ, which stiffened with time due to sintering. In contrast, the TBCs with Pt diffusion bond coats did not rumple, and the adhesion of interfaces in the coating did not obviously degrade. It is shown that the different failure mechanisms are strongly associated with differences in the high-temperature mechanical properties of the bond coats.

  2. 14 CFR 25.755 - Hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hulls. 25.755 Section 25.755 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.755 Hulls. (a) Each hull must have enough watertight compartments so that, with any two adjacent compartments flooded, the...

  3. 14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have enough...

  4. Fuel efficiency and fouling control coatings in maritime transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholdt, Asger

    . As a result, it was determined that other methods must be explored in order to accurately measure the long-term drag performance of FCCs in conditions that mimic those encountered by ships’ hulls during actual voyages. In an experimental study, five commercial FCC systems were applied to smooth disks......, compared to the two SPC coatings. Furthermore, the drag performances of two different FCC systems with varying substrate roughness values (i.e., the roughness below the coating system) were measured in the newly applied condition.An increase in the substrate roughness led to increased drag for both FCC......’s hull, and a second, laboratory part measured the torque (drag) of coated cylinders in a rotary setup. Four commercial FCCs were exposed for 53 weeks in Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, i.e., in relatively cold seawater (salinity of 1.2 wt%), from the spring of 2013 to the autumn of 2014. The in situ immersion...

  5. 46 CFR 71.50-27 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options...-27 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program options: Divers or underwater remotely operated vehicle... operations; (2) Provide permanent hull markings, a temporary grid system of wires or cables spaced not more...

  6. 46 CFR 71.50-17 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull...-17 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger... aluminum; (2) It has an effective hull protection system; (3) It has operated exclusively in fresh water...

  7. Process engineering of ceramic composite coatings for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G.; Kim, H.; Chen, M.; Yang, Q.; Troczynski, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Researchers at UBCeram at the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering at the University of British Columbia have developed a technology to chemically bond composite sol-gel (CB-CSG) coating onto metallic surfaces of complex or concave shapes. The process has been optimized for electrically resistive coatings and corrosion-resistant coatings. The CSG is sprayed onto metallic surfaces and is heat-treated at 300 degrees C to partially dehydrate the hydroxides. The CSG film is then chemically bonded through reaction of active alumina with metal phosphates, such as aluminium phosphate. A new chromate-free process is being developed to address the issue of coatings porosity. The electrodeposition technique involves polymer particles mixed with suspended fine alumina particles which are co-deposited by electrophoretic means or by electrocoagulation. The composite e-coatings have excellent mechanical properties and are being considered as a protective coating for various components of fuel cell systems. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  9. Engineering Hydrodynamic AUV Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.

    2016-12-01

    AUV stands for autonomous underwater vehicle. AUVs are used in oceanography and are similar to gliders. MBARIs AUVs as well as other AUVs map the ocean floor which is very important. They also measure physical characteristics of the water, such as temperature and salinity. My science fair project for 4th grade was a STEM activity in which I built and tested 3 different AUV bodies. I wanted to find out which design was the most hydrodynamic. I tested three different lengths of AUV hulls to see which AUV would glide the farthest. The first was 6 inches. The second was 12 inches and the third was 18 inches. I used clay for the nosecone and cut a ruler into two and made it the fin. Each AUV used the same nosecone and fin. I tested all three designs in a pool. I used biomimicry to create my hypothesis. When I was researching I found that long slim animals swim fastest. So, my hypothesis is the longer AUV will glide farthest. In the end I was right. The longer AUV did glide the farthest.

  10. Failure mechanism for thermal fatigue of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giolli, C.; Scrivani, A.; Rizzi, G. [Turbocoating S.p.A., Rubbiano di Solignano (Italy); Borgioli, F. [Firenze Univ., Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bolelli, G.; Lusvarghi, L. [Univ. di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    High temperature thermal fatigue causes the failure of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) systems. Due to the difference in thickness and microstructure between thick TBCs and traditional thin TBCs, they cannot be assumed a-priori to possess the same failure mechanisms. Thick TBCs, consisting of a CoNiCrAlY bond coat and Yttria Partially Stabilised Zirconia top coat with different values of porosity, were produced by Air Plasma Spray. Thermal fatigue resistance limit of TBCs was tested by Furnace Cycling Tests (FCT) according to the specifications of an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). TBC systems were analyzed before and after FCT. The morphological and chemical evolution of CoNiCrAlY/TGO microstructure was studied. Sintering effect, residual stress, phase transformation and fracture toughness were evaluated in the ceramic Top Coat. All the tested samples passed FCT according to the specification of an important OEM. Thermal fatigue resistance increases with the amount of porosity in the top coat. The compressive in-plane stresses increase in the TBC systems after thermal cycling, nevertheless the increasing rate has a trend contrary to the porosity level of top coat. The data suggest that the spallation happens at the TGO/Top Coat interface. The failure mechanism of thick TBCs subjected to thermal fatigue was eventually found to be similar to the failure mechanism of thin TBC systems made by APS. (orig.)

  11. Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Srinivasa, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl 3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl 2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al (i) + AlCl 3(g) AlCl 2(s) + AlCl 2 (g) . XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl 2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

  12. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  13. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  14. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance

  15. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  16. Physicochemical characterization and failure analysis of military coating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Lionel Thomas

    Modern military coating systems, as fielded by all branches of the U.S. military, generally consist of a diverse array of organic and inorganic components that can complicate their physicochemical analysis. These coating systems consist of VOC-solvent/waterborne automotive grade polyurethane matrix containing a variety of inorganic pigments and flattening agents. The research presented here was designed to overcome the practical difficulties regarding the study of such systems through the combined application of several cross-disciplinary techniques, including vibrational spectroscopy, electron microscopy, microtomy, ultra-fast laser ablation and optical interferometry. The goal of this research has been to determine the degree and spatial progression of weathering-induced alteration of military coating systems as a whole, as well as to determine the failure modes involved, and characterizing the impact of these failures on the physical barrier performance of the coatings. Transmission-mode Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been applied to cross-sections of both baseline and artificially weathered samples to elucidate weathering-induced spatial gradients to the baseline chemistry of the coatings. A large discrepancy in physical durability (as indicated by the spatial progression of these gradients) has been found between older and newer generation coatings. Data will be shown implicating silica fillers (previously considered inert) as the probable cause for this behavioral divergence. A case study is presented wherein the application of the aforementioned FTIR technique fails to predict the durability of the coating system as a whole. The exploitation of the ultra-fast optical phenomenon of femtosecond (10-15S) laser ablation is studied as a potential tool to facilitate spectroscopic depth profiling of composite materials. Finally, the interferometric technique of Phase Shifting was evaluated as a potential high-sensitivity technique applied to the

  17. Advanced Powder Coating Systems for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    UVCPC • Conclusions • DoD spends billions of dollars annually on protective organic coatings – Hexavalent chrome primer use still widespread – Contains...Elimination of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) • Reduction/Elimination of ESOH Concerns – Elimination of hexavalent chromium – Elimination of free...production and release; hexavalent chromium; free isocyanates; up to 72 hrs “dry to fly” time Longer cure times than traditional primers and

  18. Absorption in multiple scattering systems of coated spheres: design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, Brian; Andraud, Christine; Stout, Sophie; Lafait, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of some recently derived transfer matrix methods for electromagnetic scattering calculations in systems composed of coated spherical scatterers. Any of the spherical coatings, cores, or host media may be composed of absorbing materials. Our formulae permit the calculation of local absorption in either orientation fixed or orientation averaged situations. We introduce methods for estimating the macroscopic transport properties of such media, and show how our scattering calculations can permit 'design' optimization of macroscopic properties

  19. 46 CFR 115.802 - Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 115.802 Section 115.802 Shipping COAST GUARD....802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification of a vessel, the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to conduct tests and have the vessel ready for inspections of the hull...

  20. 46 CFR 176.802 - Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 176.802 Section 176.802 Shipping COAST GUARD... CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.802 Hull. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for... ready for inspections of the hull structure and its appurtenances, including the following: (1...

  1. 46 CFR 169.239 - Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull. 169.239 Section 169.239 Shipping COAST GUARD... Certification Inspections § 169.239 Hull. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the vessel must be afloat and ready for the following tests and inspections of the hull structure and its...

  2. STUDI KOMPARASI KINERJA HULL FORM METODE SCHELTEMA DENGAN HULL FORM KAPAL IKAN TRADISIONAL TIPE DAERAH BATANG

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Zakki; Parlindungan Manik

    2012-01-01

    This study comparation of hull form performance was analysed becaused there was suggestion that a ship was built by hull form scheming this time (Scheltema, Formdata, NPL Series) is better than a ship that was built traditionally because there is no basic erudite calculation in hull form design. So hull form design was result of natural adaptation. Such performance are ship’s resistance, stability, and ship’s navigation.This research about hull form performance is expected can giv...

  3. 33 CFR 187.321 - What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions? 187.321 Section 187.321 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Vessel Titling Systems § 187.321 What are the hull identification number (HIN) provisions? A State must...

  4. Onboard monitoring of fatigue damage rates in the hull girder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2011-01-01

    Most new advanced ships have extensive data collection systems to be used for continuous monitoring of engine and hull performance, for voyage performance evaluation etc. Such systems could be expanded to include also procedures for stress monitoring and for decision support, where the most...... critical wave-induced ship extreme responses and fatigue damage accumulation can be estimated for hypothetical changes in ship course and speed in the automatically estimated wave environment.The aim of this paper is to outline a calculation procedure for fatigue damage rate prediction in hull girders...... taking into account whipping stresses. It is conceptually shown how such a method, which integrates onboard estimation of sea states, can be used to deduce decision support with respect to the accumulated fatigue damage in the hull girder.The paper firstly presents a set of measured full-scale wave...

  5. Slurry Coating System Statement of Work and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The Slurry Coating System will be used to coat crystals with a polymer to support Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS) research and development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The crystals will be suspended in water in a kettle. A polymer solution is added, temperature of the kettle is raised and aggregates of the crystals and polymer form. The slurry is heated under vacuum to drive off the solvents and slowly cooled while mixing to room temperature. The resulting aggregates are then filtered and dried. The performance characteristics and fielding constraints define a unique set of requirements for a new system. This document presents the specifications and requirements for the system.

  6. Automated Visual Inspection of Ship Hull Surfaces Using the Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández-Isla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new online visual inspection technique is proposed, based on a wavelet reconstruction scheme over images obtained from the hull. This type of visual inspection to detect defects in hull surfaces is commonly carried out at shipyards by human inspectors before the hull repair task starts. We propose the use of Shannon entropy for automatic selection of the band for image reconstruction which provides a low decomposition level, thus avoiding excessive degradation of the image, allowing more precise defect segmentation. The proposed method here is capable of on-line assisting to a robotic system to perform grit blasting operations over damage areas of ship hulls. This solution allows a reliable and cost-effective operation for hull grit spot blasting. A prototype of the automated blasting system has been developed and tested in the Spanish NAVANTIA shipyards.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Polyester-Based Nanocomposite Gel Coat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jawahar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite gel coat system is prepared using unsaturated polyester resin with aerosil powder, CaCO3, and organoclay. The influence of organoclay addition on mechanical and water barrier properties of gel coat system is studied for different amount (1, 2, and 3 wt % of organoclay. The nanolevel incorporation of organoclay improves the mechanical and water barrier properties of nanocomposite gel coat system. The nanocomposite gel coat system exhibits 55% improvement in tensile modulus and 25% improvement in flexural modulus. There is a 30% improvement in impact property of nanocomposite gel coat system. The dynamic mechanical analysis shows a slight increase in glass transition temperature for nanocomposite gel coat system.

  8. The role of Bh4 in parallel evolution of hull colour in domesticated and weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigueira, C C; Li, W; Olsen, K M

    2013-08-01

    The two independent domestication events in the genus Oryza that led to African and Asian rice offer an extremely useful system for studying the genetic basis of parallel evolution. This system is also characterized by parallel de-domestication events, with two genetically distinct weedy rice biotypes in the US derived from the Asian domesticate. One important trait that has been altered by rice domestication and de-domestication is hull colour. The wild progenitors of the two cultivated rice species have predominantly black-coloured hulls, as does one of the two U.S. weed biotypes; both cultivated species and one of the US weedy biotypes are characterized by straw-coloured hulls. Using Black hull 4 (Bh4) as a hull colour candidate gene, we examined DNA sequence variation at this locus to study the parallel evolution of hull colour variation in the domesticated and weedy rice system. We find that independent Bh4-coding mutations have arisen in African and Asian rice that are correlated with the straw hull phenotype, suggesting that the same gene is responsible for parallel trait evolution. For the U.S. weeds, Bh4 haplotype sequences support current hypotheses on the phylogenetic relationship between the two biotypes and domesticated Asian rice; straw hull weeds are most similar to indica crops, and black hull weeds are most similar to aus crops. Tests for selection indicate that Asian crops and straw hull weeds deviate from neutrality at this gene, suggesting possible selection on Bh4 during both rice domestication and de-domestication. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Non-destructive assay of leached hulls in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Henderson, B.C.; Gray, J.H.; Huff, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The hull monitor at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) will be a remotely controlled, fully automated system designed to quantitatively assay leached hulls for undissolved U and Pu. The hull monitor will assay the hulls from one metric ton of fuel per dissolver basket with the design goal of detecting 0.1% undissolved fuel and yet remain within the framework of the BNFP materials flow of five hull baskets per day. The non-destructive assay will be accomplished using a computer-based gamma-ray pulse height analysis system employing a 5 x 5 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The intense radiations from the fission product isotopes and the activation product isotopes produced in the reactor prevent direct assay of the undissolved fuel left in the hulls. The measurement will be made indirectly by demonstrating a correlation between the amount of 144 Ce undissolved and the remaining U. The isotope 144 Ce is a direct fission product with high cumulative yield. The daughter isotope 144 Pr has a gamma ray at 2.18 MeV well above other predominant radiations in the spectrum from the major interferences 60 Co, 58 Co, 95 Zr( 95 Nb), 137 Cs and 106 Ru( 106 Rh). Segmented scanning operation of the hull monitor is accomplished by rotation and vertical transversal of the hulls container past the detector station. Proper collimation and absorbers are required to maximize the 144 Ce( 144 Pr) to background ratio. A basket indexer is provided which monitors the scanning rate and ensures repositioning. The leached hull monitor system will be interfaced to a computer-based multichannel analyzer for ease of operation and data handling. A calibration basket has been fabricated to accomodate radioactive sources and inactive Zircaloy hulls

  10. 46 CFR 45.129 - Hull fittings: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull fittings: General. 45.129 Section 45.129 Shipping... Assignment § 45.129 Hull fittings: General. Hull fittings must be securely mounted in the hull so as to avoid increases in hull stresses and must be protected from local damage caused by movement of equipment or cargo. ...

  11. 46 CFR 115.645 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Procedure. 115.645... AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.645 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... underwater hull plating and a detailed examination of all hull welds, propellers, tailshafts, rudders, and...

  12. Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dongming; Miller, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N* HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 μm/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 μm/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N* HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

  13. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  14. Mechanical degradation of coating systems in high-temperature cyclic oxidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pennefather, RC

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic oxidation tests were performed on a large variety of commercially available overlay coatings. The results confirmed that the composition of the coating as well as the processing method of the coating can affect the life of the system. Coating...

  15. Mechanical degradation of coating systems in high-temperature cyclic oxidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pennefather, RC

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic oxidation tests were performed on a large variety of commercially available overlay coatings. The results confirmed that the composition of the coating as well as the processing method of the coating can affect the life of the system. Coating...

  16. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of this...

  17. Double hull oil tankers - how effective are they?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, V.F.

    1993-01-01

    The groundings of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, spilling more than 10 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, and the American Trader off Huntington Beach, spilling almost 400,000 gallons of Alaska North Slope crude, suggest that the construction of oil tankers be re-examined with respect to a design which could reduce both the number and magnitude of oil spills. This paper discusses state-of-the-art tanker technology with respect to spill prevention, effectiveness, and cost. The design features include double hulls, centralized bunker tankers, vacuum-retaining valves, cargo control systems, auxiliary thrusters, electronic charting, and the retransmission of the ship's position. Double hulls provide the highest probability of surviving damage, either from a collision or grounding, with no loss of cargo. Use of double hulls can reduce oil spill incidence by 90 percent in grounding situations and by 75 percent in collisions. The oil spill from the AmericanTrader could have been completely avoided by double hull construction. The arrangement provides spaces below the cargo tanks and on the vessel's sides solely for the carriage of ballast water when the tanker is in ballast condition. These tanks are empty when the tanker is loaded and then also act as the first line of defense in the event of structural damage to the cargo tanks. Tanker design is integrated with port safety measures, including vessel monitoring systems, in this total spill prevention analysis. All aspects of the tanker transportation system are considered

  18. Advanced materials and coatings for energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Pierre, George R. [Ohio State Univ., Materials Science and Engineering Dept., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Following an historical review of the development of high-temperature alloys for energy conversion systems including turbine engines, some of the current advances in single crystal materials, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites are discussed. Particular attention is directed at creep phenomena, fatigue properties and oxidation resistance. Included within the discussions is the current status of carbon/carbon composites as potential high-temperature engineering materials and the development of coating systems for thermal barrier and oxidation protection. The specific influences of combustion gas compositions, i.e., oxidation potential, sulfur, halides, etc. are discussed. A current list of eligible advanced materials and coatings systems is presented and assessed. Finally, the critical failure mechanism and life-prediction parameters for some of the new classes of advanced structural materials are elaborated with the view to achieving affordability and extended life with a high degree of reliability. Examples are drawn from a variety of energy conversion systems. (Author)

  19. High performance coated board inspection system based on commercial components

    CERN Document Server

    Barjaktarovic, M; Radunovic, J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a vision system for defect (fault) detection on a coated board developed using three industrial firewire cameras and a PC. Application for image processing and system control was realized with the LabView software package. Software for defect detection is based on a variation of the image segmentation algorithm. Standard steps in image segmentation are modified to match the characteristics of defects. Software optimization was accomplished using SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) technology available in the Intel Pentium 4 processors that provided real time inspection capability. System provides benefits such as: improvement in production process, higher quality of delivered coated board and reduction of waste. This was proven during successful exploitation of the system for more than a year.

  20. 33 CFR 110.31 - Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at Hull, Mass. 110.31 Section 110.31 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.31 Hull Bay and Allerton Harbor at...

  1. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign, and VAC-PAC reg-sign. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER reg-sign uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC reg-sign vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  2. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  3. Development of a Novel Erosion Resistant Coating System for Use on Rotorcraft Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and Sikorsky utilizes a two part metal/ cermet coating system on the leading edge of the blades to provide unmatched...ARL, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and Sikorsky utilizes a two part metal/ cermet coating system on the leading edge of the blades to...Rotor Blade Tip Fairing A study by Ely et.al. evaluated dozens of coating technologies and down-selected a two-part metal/ceramic coating system on

  4. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  5. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  6. Hull Girder Fatigue Damage Estimations of a Large Container Vessel by Spectral Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with fatigue damage estimation from the analysis of full-scale stress measurements in the hull of a large container vessel (9,400 TEU) covering several months of operation. For onboard decision support and hull monitoring sys-tems, there is a need for a fast reliable method...... for esti-mation of fatigue damage in the ship hull. The objective of the study is to investigate whether the higher frequency contributions from the hydroelastic responses (springing and whipping) can satisfactory be included in the fatigue damage estimation by only a few parameters derived from the stress...

  7. Development of control system of coating of rod hydraulic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizhambaeva, S. Zh; Maximova, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, requirements to materials of hydraulic cylinders and methods of eliminating the main factors affecting the quality of the applied coatings rod hydraulic cylinders. The chromium plating process - one of ways of increase of anti-friction properties of coatings rods, stability to the wear and corrosion. The article gives description of differences of the stand-speed chromium plating process from other types of chromium plating that determines a conclusion about cutting time of chromium plating process. Conducting the analysis of technological equipment suggested addressing the modernization of high-speed chromium plating processes by automation and mechanization. Control system developed by design of schematic block diagram of a modernized and stand-speed chromium plating process.

  8. New Bond Coat Materials for Thermal Barrier Coating Systems Processed Via Different Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, A.; Csaki, I.; Sohaciu, M.; Oprea, C.; Soare, S.; Costina, I.; Petrescu, M. I.

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at describing the development of new Ru-based Bond Coats (BC) as part of Thermal Barrier Coatings. The challenge of this research was to obtain an adherent and uniform layer of alumina protective layer after high temperature exposure. We have prepared a RuAl 50/50 at% alloy in an induction furnace which was subsequently subjected to oxidation in an electric furnace, in air, at 1100C, for 10h and 100h. Mechanical alloying of Ru and Al powders was another processing route used in an attempt to obtain a stoichiometric RuAl. The alloy was sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) and then oxidized at 1100C for 1 and10h. The alloys obtained as such were analysed before and after oxidation using advanced microscopy techniques (SEM and TEM). The encouraging results in case of RuAl alloys prepared by induction melting reveal that we obtained an adherent and uniform layer of alumina, free of delta-Ru. The results for the samples processed by powder metallurgy were positive but need to be further investigated. We should note here the novelty of this method for this particular type of application - as a BC part of a TBC system.

  9. 46 CFR 45.153 - Through-hull piping: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Through-hull piping: General. 45.153 Section 45.153... Conditions of Assignment § 45.153 Through-hull piping: General. (a) All through-hull pipes required by this subpart must be made of steel or material equivalent to the hull in strength and fatigue resistance. (b...

  10. 46 CFR 154.180 - Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. 154.180... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.180 Contiguous hull structure: Welding procedure. Welding procedure tests for contiguous hull structure designed for a temperature colder than −18 °C (0 °F) must meet § 54.05-15 and...

  11. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  12. 46 CFR 151.10-20 - Hull construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull construction. 151.10-20 Section 151.10-20 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-20 Hull construction. (a) Construction features. (1) Each barge hull shall be constructed with a suitable bow form...

  13. 46 CFR 151.10-1 - Barge hull classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications. 151.10-1 Section 151.10-1... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Barge Hull Construction Requirements § 151.10-1 Barge hull classifications. (a) Each barge constructed or converted in conformance with this subpart shall be assigned a hull...

  14. 46 CFR 115.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 115.655 Section 115.655... CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.655 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer...

  15. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull...

  16. 46 CFR 176.655 - Hull examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 176.655 Section 176.655... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.655 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE...

  17. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at a...

  18. Global Loads on FRP Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) composites used for high-speed vessels have lower modulus of elasticity than the conventionally used steels.Therefore, for large fast ships the lowest natural frequencies of the global hull modes can be relatively low compared to the frequency of waveencounter....... As part of the NoKoS project it was decided to investigate the effect of hull flexibility on the wave-induced as well as accidental structural loads on high-speed ships.Especially it was decided to determine whether there is an upper size of FRP and aluminium mono-hulls caused by continuous wave action...

  19. Design and performance of differential pumping system of coating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, P; Maiti, N; Bapat, A V

    2008-01-01

    A box type coating unit has been developed in view of dual purpose of optical and reactive coating. The system is divided in two parts namely, substrate chamber (800mm x 800 mm x 100 mm) and gun chamber (800mm x 800 mm x 100 mm). Coating material is evaporated in the substrate chamber by traverse (270 deg.) electron beams. Reactive gas is injected in the substrate chamber by up-stream pressure controller to reach set pressures in the range of 1x10 -3 mbar to 1x10 -4 mbar for gas flow rate in the range of 0-30 sccm. Traverse EB guns (10 kV, 15 kW, 2 No) are mounted inside gun chamber. The gun chamber vacuum should be better than 1x10 -5 mbar for the operation of EB guns. Both these chambers are connected by the apertures provided on the intermediate bifurcation plate for the passage of electron beams. Through the apertures the reactive gas leaks from the substrate chamber to the gun chamber due to differential pressure. The differential pumping system consists of individual pumping modules for the substrate chamber and the gun chamber. The paper focuses upon the design of differential pumping system in view of determination of steady state differential pressures for different flow rates of reactive gas. It has been noticed that on introduction of reactive gas in the substrate chamber, the pressures in the substrate chamber and the gun chamber oscillates before converging to steady state values. Theoretically calculated values have been compared with the experimental values as design validation

  20. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  1. Corrosion Degradation of Coated Aluminum Alloy Systems through Galvanic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Corrosion  Degradation  of  Coated  Aluminum  Alloy  Systems  through  Galvanic...their  low  density  and  relatively  high  strength.   While  exhibiting  significant  general   corrosion  resistance,  these

  2. Corrosion characteristics of several thermal spray cermet-coating/alloy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashary, A.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of a thermal spray multiphase cermet coating can be quite complex. Factors such as porosity and galvanic effects between different phases in the coating and the substrate, as well as the inherent general and localized corrosion resistance of each phase, can play an important role. The present paper describes the corrosion of several cermet-coating/alloy systems as studied by a potentiodynamic cyclic polarization technique. The corrosion of these coating systems was found to be most often dominated by corrosion of the metallic phases in the coating or of the substrate alloy. (orig.)

  3. Hull's Diploma in Teaching of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styler, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    A diploma in the Teaching of Adults for part-time students was introduced in the University of Hull in 1966 as a fully recognized university diploma. Article discusses the three major parts of the course, examinations, and requirements. (RB)

  4. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy F.; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J.

    2013-11-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations).

  5. Morphing hull implementation for unmanned underwater vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Timothy F; Gandhi, Farhan; Rufino, Russell J

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest and work in the area of morphing aircraft since the 1980s. Morphing could also potentially benefit unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). The current paper envisions a UUV with an interior pressure hull and a variable diameter outer flexible hull with fuel stored in the annulus between, and presents a mechanism to realize diameter change of the outer hull. The outer hull diameter of UUVs designed for very long endurance/range could be progressively reduced as fuel was consumed, thereby reducing drag and further increasing endurance and range capability. Diameter morphing could also be advantageous for compact storage of UUVs. A prototype is fabricated to represent an axial section of such a morphing diameter UUV. Diameter change is achieved using eight morphing trusses arranged equidistant around the circumference of the representative interior rigid hull. Each morphing truss has a lower rail (attached to the rigid hull) and an upper rail with V-linkages between, at either ends of the rail. Horizontal motion of the feet of the V-linkages (sliding in the lower rail) results in vertical motion of the upper rail which in turn produces diameter change of the outer hull. For the prototype built and tested, a 63% increase in outer diameter from 12.75″ to 20.75″ was achieved. The introduction of a stretched latex representative flexible skin around the outer rails increased actuation force requirement and led to a propensity for the wheel-in-track sliders in the morphing truss to bind. It is anticipated that this could be overcome with higher precision manufacturing. In addition to symmetric actuation of the morphing trusses resulting in diameter change, the paper also shows that with asymmetric actuation the hull cross-section shape can be changed (for example, from a circular section for underwater operation to a V-section for surface operations). (paper)

  6. Inspecting the inside of underwater hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin

    2009-05-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibility of identifying the material within ship's underwater hull, sunken ships and other objects on the sea floor tests with the 14 MeV sealed tube neutron generator incorporated inside a small submarine submerged in the test basin filled with sea water have been performed. Results obtained for inspection of diesel fuel and explosive presence behind single and double hull constructions are presented.

  7. Surface analysis of DLC coating on cam-tappet system

    OpenAIRE

    FOUVRY, Siegfried; PAGNOUX, Geoffrey; PEIGNEY, Michael; DELATTRE, Benoit; MERMAT-ROLLET, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Tribomechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings make them particularly interesting for numerous applications, like automotive ones. But although DLC coatings show a generally high wear resistance, they sometimes can exhibit severe multiple wear. In this study, a surface analysis of worn coated tappets is performed, leading to a complete coupled wear scenario.

  8. Influence of viscoelastic property on laser-generated surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongxiang; Zhang Shuyi; Xu Baiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the viscoelasticity of materials, the pulsed laser generation of surface acoustic waves in coating-substrate systems has been investigated quantitatively by using the finite element method. The displacement spectra of the surface acoustic waves have been calculated in frequency domain for different coating-substrate systems, in which the viscoelastic properties of the coatings and substrates are considered separately. Meanwhile, the temporal displacement waveforms have been obtained by applying inverse fast Fourier transforms. The numerical results of the normal surface displacements are presented for different configurations: a single plate, a slow coating on a fast substrate, and a fast coating on a slow substrate. The influences of the viscoelastic properties of the coating and the substrate on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves have been studied. In addition, the influence of the coating thickness on the attenuation of the surface acoustic waves has been also investigated in detail.

  9. Formation of hydrotalcite coating on the aluminum alloy 6060 in spray system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Roefzaad, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Coatings with the composition of Li-Al-NO3 hydrotalcite were formed on the Al alloy 6060 using a spray system. The coatings consist of crystals with a typical hydrotalcite structure. Dense, uniform and blade-like flakes cover completely the surface of the Al substrate. The coatings display a multi......-layer structure with average thickness of ∼1000 nm. The hydrotalcite-coated samples performed better than those without coatings in salt-spray and filiform-corrosion tests, and further treatment involving sealing with a Mg acetate solution and dipping in a H2O2 + Ce-based solution improved the corrosion...

  10. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...

  11. Passive non destructive assay of hull waste by gross neutron counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andola, Sanjay; Sur, Amit; Rawool, A.M.; Sharma, B.; Kaushik, T.C.; Gupta, S.C.; Basu, Sekhar; Raman Kumar; Agarwal, K.

    2014-01-01

    The special nuclear material accounting (SNMA) is an important and necessary issue now in nuclear waste management. The hull waste generated from dissolution of spent fuel contains small amounts of Uranium and Plutonium and other actinides due to undissolved trapped material inside zircoalloy tubes. We report here on the development of a Passive Hull monitoring system using gross neutron counting technique and its implementation with semiautomatic instrumentation. The overall sensitivity of the 3 He detector banks placed at 75 cm from the centre of loaded hull cask comes out to 5.2 x 10 -3 counts per neutron (c/n) while with standard Pu-Be source placed in same position it comes out to be 3.1 x 10 3 c/n. The difference in the efficiency is mainly because of the differences in the geometry and size of hull cask as well as difference in the energy spectrum of hull waste and Pu-Be source. This is accounted through Monte Carlo computations. The Pu mass in solid waste comes out as expected and varies with the surface dose rate of drum in almost a proportional manner. Being simple and less time consuming, this setup has been installed for routine assay of solid Hull waste at NRB, Tarapur

  12. Pipeline protection with multi component liquid polyurethane coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprion, Rainer; Hornig, Maja [TIB Chemicals Ag, Mannheim (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Protective coating systems are one of the major defence mechanisms against corrosion for transmission pipelines, pipes within a refinery or petrochemical processing facilities. More and more pipelines are being constructed for the supply and transmission of gas and oil, each year but, in addition many existing pipelines are approaching an age where inspection reveals the necessity to consider complete refurbishment. However, the number of rehabilitation projects each year is still relatively small. Therefore, in the coming years, a rising need and necessity can be expected, for the owners and operating companies to be faced with the option of either replacing the pipeline or refurbishing of the existing pipeline. If the pipeline is known to have external corrosion, then safe and economic operation should be assured. Rehabilitation should be done before it is too late in order to ensure its future integrity and operational life. Rehabilitation of pipelines has been both the economic solution and, more significantly, the ecological solution and in many of those cases the coatings selected for the external protection has been multi component liquids based on 100% solids polyurethanes. (author)

  13. Effect of stern hull shape on turning circle of ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswar, Maimun, A.; Wahid, M. A.; Priyanto, A.; Zamani, Pauzi, Saman

    2012-06-01

    Many factors such as: stern hull shape, length, draught, trim, propulsion system and external forces affecting the drift angle influence rate of turn and size of turning circle of ships. This paper discusses turning circle characteristics of U and V stern hull shape of Very Large Crude Oil Carrier (VLCC) ships. The ships have same principal dimension such as length, beam, and draught. The turning circle characteristics of the VLCC ships are simulated at 35 degree of rudder angle. In the analysis, firstly, turning circle performance of U-type VLCC ship is simulated. In the simulation, initial ship speed is determined using given power and rpm. Hydrodynamic derivatives coefficients are determined by including effect of fullness of aft run. Using the obtained, speed and hydrodynamic coefficients, force and moment acting on hull, force and moment induced by propeller, force and moment induced by rudder are determined. Finally, ship trajectory, ratio of speed, yaw angle and drift angle are determined. Results of simulation results of the VLCC ship are compared with the experimental one as validation. Using the same method, V-type VLCC is simulated and the simulation results are compared with U-type VLCC ship. Results shows the turning circle of U-type is larger than V-type due to effect stern hul results of simulation are.

  14. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel; Kuester, Falko

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual

  15. Design and development on automated control system of coated fuel particle fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Shao Youlin; Liu Bing

    2013-01-01

    With the development trend of the large-scale production of the HTR coated fuel particles, the original manual control system can not meet the requirement and the automation control system of coated fuel particle fabrication in modern industrial grade is needed to develop. The comprehensive analysis aiming at successive 4-layer coating process of TRISO type coated fuel particles was carried out. It was found that the coating process could be divided into five subsystems and nine operating states. The establishment of DCS-type (distributed control system) of automation control system was proposed. According to the rigorous requirements of preparation process for coated particles, the design considerations of DCS were proposed, including the principle of coordinated control, safety and reliability, integration specification, practical and easy to use, and open and easy to update. A complete set of automation control system for coated fuel particle preparation process was manufactured based on fulfilling the requirements of these principles in manufacture practice. The automated control system was put into operation in the production of irradiated samples for HTRPM demonstration project. The experimental results prove that the system can achieve better control of coated fuel particle preparation process and meet the requirements of factory-scale production. (authors)

  16. Demonstration Of A Nanomaterial-Modified Primer For Use In Corrosion-Inhibiting Coating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    resin packages/binders, can cause a high-build coating thickness that can be prone to chipping and “mud cracking ” if not properly applied. The...for all non-magnetic coatings on a ferrous (magnetic) substrate, e.g. paint, plastic, enamel , powder, rubber, ceramic, galvanising, zinc, sprayed... cracking during the scribing process due to the brittle coating system on the intermediate primer coupons (16 and 22) as well as coupon 11. Mildew

  17. A systemic study on key parameters affecting nanocomposite coatings on magnesium substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ian; Wang, Sebo Michelle; Silken, Christine; Liu, Huinan

    2016-05-01

    . This study elucidated the key parameters for optimizing nanocomposite coatings on Mg-based substrates for skeletal implant applications, and provided rational design guidelines for the nanocomposite coatings on Mg alloys for potential clinical translation of biodegradable Mg-based implants. This manuscript describes the systemic optimization of nanocomposite coatings to control the degradation and bioactivity of magnesium for skeletal implant applications. The key parameters influencing the integrity and functions of the nanocomposite coatings on magnesium were identified, guidelines for the optimization of the coatings were established, and the benefits of coating optimization were demonstrated through reduced magnesium degradation and increased bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) adhesion in vitro. The guidelines developed in this manuscript are valuable for the biometal field to improve the design of bioresorbable implants and devices, which will advance the clinical translation of magnesium-based implants. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of thiolterminated prepolymers for electron beam curing coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Kenji; Isozaki, Osamu; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1988-01-01

    It has been known that the mixture of an unsaturated prepolymer and a thiolated prepolymer can be cured by the relatively low dose of electron beam irradiation. As a thiolated prepolymer, polyether-polythiol prepolymer has been in the market. However, the coating films derived from the composition comprising the thiolated prepolymer do not have enough mechanical strength for practical use. In this study, the synthesis of thiolterminated urethane prepolymer and the coating composition comprising this prepolymer for obtaining the coating films having good mechanical properties were investigated. The raw materials used for the synthesis of thiolterminated urethane prepolymer are shown. Its synthesis and the measurement of thiol content, coating formation, the electron beam curing of the coatings and the testing method of coated film performance are explained. The results of the synthesis of the thiolterminated urethane prepolymer, the thermal stability, curability, physical properties and adhesion strength of the coatings are reported. The coatings can be applied to steel and PVC films, and used as the adhesive for steel-PVC film laminates. (Kako, I.)

  19. Refractory metal carbide coatings for LMFBR applications: a systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotschall, H.L.; Ople, F.S.; Riccardella, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The selection, testing and improvement of high density, tightly bonded plasma and detonation gun coatings designed to meet LMFBR core component criteria are described. The process descriptions include a review of the important developments in substrate surface preparation which were required to ensure strong bonding and to minimize interface contamination. Coating finishing techniques which were developed to optimize friction behavior are also described

  20. Continuous fiber reinforced mesh bond coat for environmental barrier coating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, James; Das, Rupak; Roberts III, Herbert Chidsey; Delvaux, John McConnell

    2017-09-26

    A gas turbine blade may have a bond coat applied to its surface. A porous substrate may be applied to the bond layer and one or more protective layers may be applied to the bond layer such that the fiber mesh is embedded between the bond layer and the protective layer to prevent creep.

  1. Management of cladding hulls and fuel hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent fuel from power reactors based on chop-leach technology produces a solid waste product of cladding hulls and other metallic residues. This report describes the current situation in the management of fuel cladding hulls and hardware. Information is presented on the material composition of such waste together with the heating effects due to neutron-induced activation products and fuel contamination. As no country has established a final disposal route and the corresponding repository, this report also discusses possible disposal routes and various disposal options under consideration at present

  2. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  3. 46 CFR 91.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 91.25-25 Section 91.25-25 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection, the inspectors shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull...

  4. 46 CFR 169.231 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 169.231... hull examinations. As used in the part— (a) Drydock examination means hauling out a vessel or placing a... and all through-hull fittings, sea chests, sea valves, sea strainers, and valves for the emergency...

  5. 33 CFR 181.25 - Hull identification number format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number format... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.25 Hull identification number format. Each of the hull identification numbers required by § 181.23 must consist of twelve...

  6. 46 CFR 45.107 - Strength of hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength of hull. 45.107 Section 45.107 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.107 Strength of hull. The general structural strength of the hull must be sufficient for the...

  7. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the...

  8. 33 CFR 181.29 - Hull identification number display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification number... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.29 Hull identification number display. Two identical hull identification numbers are required to be displayed on each...

  9. 46 CFR 71.50-29 - Hull examination reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull examination reports. 71.50-29 Section 71.50-29... CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-29 Hull examination reports. (a) If you use only divers for the underwater survey portion of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE), you must provide the Officer in Charge, Marine...

  10. 46 CFR 154.172 - Contiguous steel hull structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous steel hull structure. 154.172 Section 154.172... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Hull Structure § 154.172 Contiguous steel hull structure. (a) Except as allowed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this...

  11. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general average...

  12. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 189.25-25 Section 189.25-25 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull...

  13. 33 CFR 181.23 - Hull identification numbers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull identification numbers... SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY MANUFACTURER REQUIREMENTS Identification of Boats § 181.23 Hull... identify each boat produced or imported with two hull identification numbers that meet the requirements of...

  14. 46 CFR 71.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull equipment. 71.25-25 Section 71.25-25 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-25 Hull equipment. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall conduct the following tests and inspections of hull equipment: (1) All subdivision bulkheads shall be examined to...

  15. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form MA-240...

  16. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery...

  17. Structural characteristics of porous hydroxyapatite coating on CaO-SiO{sub 2} system glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hongquan; Yan Yuhua; Li Shipu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology (China). Biomedical and Engineering Research Center

    2001-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite(HA) coated CaO-SiO{sub 2} system glass composites were prepared successfully by the hydrothermal coating method at the temperature of 250 to 350 C and at pH of 7 to 9. The microstructure and phase composition were identified by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, EPMA and TEM. It is shown that HA coating possessed a porous gradient construction in the interface; HA coating and glass substrate were tightly bonded by an obvious transition. HA coating had a well-distributed porous construction on the surface layer. The interface structure, phase composition and the stability of HA coated glass composites were related with its forming process. These kinds of structure will benefit to the interface bonging strength and bone bonding strength. (orig.)

  18. Static analysis of the hull plate using the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims at presenting the static analysis for two levels of a container ship's construction as follows: the first level is at the girder / hull plate and the second level is conducted at the entire strength hull of the vessel. This article will describe the work for the static analysis of a hull plate. We shall use the software package ANSYS Mechanical 14.5. The program is run on a computer with four Intel Xeon X5260 CPU processors at 3.33 GHz, 32 GB memory installed. In terms of software, the shared memory parallel version of ANSYS refers to running ANSYS across multiple cores on a SMP system. The distributed memory parallel version of ANSYS (Distributed ANSYS) refers to running ANSYS across multiple processors on SMP systems or DMP systems.

  19. Approaches to investigate delamination and interfacial toughness in coated systems: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinju; Bull, S J

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental property which often dictates the performance of a coating is its adhesion to the substrate and thus there are many techniques to measure adhesion. The choice of methods is dependent on many factors such as the mechanical properties of the coating and substrate, the interface properties, the microstructure of the coating/substrate system, residual stress, coating thickness and the intended application. Most tests aim to introduce a stable interfacial crack and make it propagate under controlled conditions and model this process to determine adhesion. The corresponding models are either stress analysis-based or energy-based. With the advent of miniature systems and very thin functional coatings, there is a need for characterization of adhesion at small length scales and some specific tests have been developed which are not appropriate for thicker coatings. Among these, indentation and scratch methods have the widest range of applicability but it is necessary to analyse the failure mechanisms before choosing an appropriate model to extract adhesion parameters. This paper reviews the main quantitative adhesion tests for coatings and highlights the tests which can be used to assess submicrometre coatings and thin films. The paper also highlights the modelling and analysis methods necessary to extract reliable adhesion properties illustrating this with examples for submicrometre coatings on silicon and architectural glass.

  20. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  1. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jun Paik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT. The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  2. Measurement of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coating systems by a barb pullout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.Q.; Mumm, D.R.; Karlsson, A.M.; Kagawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A test technique has been developed to facilitate evaluation of the fracture characteristics of coatings and interfaces in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The methodology has particular application in analyzing delamination crack growth, where crack propagation occurs under predominantly mode II loading. The technique has been demonstrated by quantitatively measuring the effective delamination fracture resistance of an electron-beam physical vapor deposition TBC

  3. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  4. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  5. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  6. "Keisri hull" on viimast korda laval

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Neli hooaega Ugala repertuaaris olnud Jaan Krossi romaani põhjal lavastatud draama "Keisri hull" etendub viimast korda 10. veebruaril. Viimane etendus on pühendatud Jaan Krossi 90. sünniaastapäevale, mis on 19. veebruaril. Lavastajad Peeter Tammearu ja Jaak Allik. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  7. Committee VI.1. Extreme Hull Girder Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    Committee Mandate. Evaluate and develop direct calculation procedures for extreme wawe loads on ship hull girders. Due consideration shall be given to stochastic and non-linear effects. The procedures shall be assessed by comparison with in-service experiences, model tests and more refined...

  8. Convex Hull Aided Registration Method (CHARM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jingfan; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Yitian; Ai, Danni; Liu, Yonghuai; Wang, Ge; Wang, Yongtian

    2017-09-01

    Non-rigid registration finds many applications such as photogrammetry, motion tracking, model retrieval, and object recognition. In this paper we propose a novel convex hull aided registration method (CHARM) to match two point sets subject to a non-rigid transformation. First, two convex hulls are extracted from the source and target respectively. Then, all points of the point sets are projected onto the reference plane through each triangular facet of the hulls. From these projections, invariant features are extracted and matched optimally. The matched feature point pairs are mapped back onto the triangular facets of the convex hulls to remove outliers that are outside any relevant triangular facet. The rigid transformation from the source to the target is robustly estimated by the random sample consensus (RANSAC) scheme through minimizing the distance between the matched feature point pairs. Finally, these feature points are utilized as the control points to achieve non-rigid deformation in the form of thin-plate spline of the entire source point set towards the target one. The experimental results based on both synthetic and real data show that the proposed algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art ones with respect to sampling, rotational angle, and data noise. In addition, the proposed CHARM algorithm also shows higher computational efficiency compared to these methods.

  9. Estimation of penetration depth of fission products in cladding Hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Moon; Jung, Yang Hong; Yoo, Byong Ok; Choo, Yong Sun; Hong, Kwon Pyo

    2005-01-01

    A disposal and a reprocessing for spent fuel rod with high burnup need de-cladding procedure. Pellet in this rod has been separated from a cladding hull to reduce a radioactivity of hull by chemical and mechanical methods. But fission products and actinides(U,Pu) still remain inside of cladding hull by chemical bonding and fission spike, which is called as 'contamination'. More specific removal of this contamination would have been considered. In this study, the sorts of fission products and penetration depth in hull were observed by EPMA test. To analyze this behavior, SRIM 2000 code was also used as energies of fission products and an oxide thickness of hull

  10. Implementing New Non-Chromate Coatings Systems (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    Initiate Cr6+ authorization process for continued Cr6+ use using the form, Authorization to Use Hexavalent Chromium. YES NO • Approval of...Aluminum and magnesium anodizing • Hard Chrome Plating • Type II conversion coating on aluminum alloys under chromated primer • Type II conversion coating...Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium 80% 5% 14% 1% Type II Type III Type IC Type IC Fatigue Critical 50% 50% Type II Type IC FRC-SE (JAX) Fully Integrated FRC

  11. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Charles H.; Hosking, F. Michael

    2003-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  12. Motions and Hull-Induced Bridging-Structure Loads for a Small Waterplane Area, Twin-Hulled, Attack Aircraft Carrier in Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Harry D; Gerzina, David M

    1973-01-01

    ... small waterplane area, twin-hulled, attack aircraft carrier in waves. Motions of the model were measured, together with the forces and moments induced by the hulls on the cross structure spanning the two hulls...

  13. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  14. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-01-01

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO 2 layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH 4 F)/ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO 2 layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH 4 ) 2 ZrF 6 ) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination process by obstructing the removal of

  15. Active vibration control of smart hull structure using piezoelectric composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Chul-Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, active vibration control performance of the smart hull structure with macro-fiber composite (MFC) is evaluated. MFC is an advanced piezoelectric composite which has great flexibility and increased actuating performance compared to a monolithic piezoelectric ceramic patch. The governing equations of motion of the hull structure with MFC actuators are derived based on the classical Donnell–Mushtari shell theory. The actuating model for the interaction between hull structure and MFC is included in the governing equations. Subsequently, modal characteristics are investigated and compared with the results obtained from experiment. The governing equations of the vibration control system are then established and expressed in the state space form. A linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control algorithm is designed in order to effectively and actively control the imposed vibration. The controller is experimentally realized and vibration control performances are evaluated

  16. Study on the natural pigments present in the Hulls of Garcinia Mangostana Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Dar Aung; Aye Aye Tun; San San Aye; Maung Maung Htay

    2005-09-01

    Garcinia mangostana Linn,(Family; Guttiferae) is known to be a rich source of bioactive molecules including flavonoids, benzophenones and lactones. A variety of xanthones have been isolated from mangosteen plants and fruits include the hull, rind heartwood and flesh. The fruit hull is used as an astringent and also used against cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea in traditional medicinal system. Petroleum ether extraction of the dried and powered fruit hulls followed by column chromatographic separation afforded two compounds, namely, gartanin (1) (0.48% in yield, mp 146-152 ) and mangostin (2) (0.97% in yield, mp (179-180). The structures of these two compounds have been identified by UV, FT-IR, NMR and EIMS. These identifications were confirmed by comparison of melting point values with reported data in the literature

  17. Structural Health Monitoring of Tall Buildings with Numerical Integrator and Convex-Concave Hull Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thenozhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective of health monitoring systems for tall buildings is to diagnose the state of the building and to evaluate its possible damage. In this paper, we use our prototype to evaluate our data-mining approach for the fault monitoring. The offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques are combined effectively to solve common problems in numerical integration of acceleration signals in real-time applications. The integration accuracy is improved compared with other numerical integrators. Then we introduce a novel method for support vector machine (SVM classification, called convex-concave hull. We use the Jarvis march method to decide the concave (nonconvex hull for the inseparable points. Finally the vertices of the convex-concave hull are applied for SVM training.

  18. Spore coat protein synthesis in cell-free systems from sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Munoz, L E; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-09-01

    Cell-free systems for protein synthesis were prepared from Bacillus subtilis 168 cells at several stages of sporulation. Immunological methods were used to determine whether spore coat protein could be synthesized in the cell-free systems prepared from sporulating cells. Spore coat protein synthesis first occurred in extracts from stage t2 cells. The proportion of spore coat protein to total proteins synthesized in the cell-free systems was 2.4 and 3.9% at stages t2 and t4, respectively. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of immunoprecipitates from the cell-free systems showed the complete synthesis of an apparent spore coat protein precursor (molecular weight, 25,000). A polypeptide of this weight was previously identified in studies in vivo (L.E. Munoz, Y. Sadaie, and R.H. Doi, J. Biol. Chem., in press). The synthesis in vitro of polysome-associated nascent spore coat polypeptides with varying molecular weights up to 23,000 was also detected. These results indicate that the spore coat protein may be synthesized as a precursor protein. The removal of proteases in the crude extracts by treatment with hemoglobin-Sepharose affinity techniques may be preventing the conversion of the large 25,000-dalton precursor to the 12,500-dalton mature spore coat protein.

  19. Design of broadband multilayer dichroic coating for a high-efficiency solar energy harvesting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiachen, Wang; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2015-05-20

    We report on the design and performance of a broadband dichroic coating for a solar energy conversion system. As a spectral beam splitter, the coating facilitates a hybrid system that combines a photovoltaic cell with a thermal collector. When positioned at a 45° angle with respect to incident light, the coating provides high reflectance in the 40-1100 nm and high transmission in the 1200-2000 nm ranges for a photovoltaic cell and a thermal collector, respectively. Numerical simulations show that our design leads to a sharp transition between the reflection and transmission bands, low ripples in both bands, and slight polarization dependence.

  20. Evaluation of Galvanized and Galvalume/Paint Duplex Coating Systems for Steel Building Panels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Race, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    ...) or silicone modified polyester (SMP). Specimens having these coating systems were subjected to ASTM B 117, conventional salt spray exposure testing and ASTM D 5894 Testing in the laboratory, which combines the environmental effects...

  1. In vitro antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of green hull of Juglans regia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements from plants are vital to count the oxidative damage in cells. We assessed the antioxidants and antibacterial activity of green hull of Juglans regia in this study. According to our results the maximum antibacterial activity was observed in ethanolic extract when compared to other extract. So, the ethanolic extract was studied for antioxidant activity which exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, hydroxyl, and nitric oxide radicals. In conclusion, green hull of J. regia showed strong reducing power activity and total antioxidant capacity. The results justify the therapeutic application of plant in the indigenous system of medicine. Keywords: Juglans regia, Ethanolic extract, Antioxidants, DPPH, Antibacterial activity

  2. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  3. Fracture toughness of esthetic dental coating systems by nanoindentation and FIB sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecnik, Christina Martina; Courty, Diana; Muff, Daniel; Spolenak, Ralph

    2015-07-01

    Improving the esthetics of Ti-based dental implants is the last challenge remaining in the optimization process. The optical issues were recently solved by the application of highly and selectively reflective coatings on Ti implants. This work focuses on the mechanical durability of these esthetic ceramic based coating systems (with and without adhesion layers). The coating systems (Ti-ZrO2, Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2, Ti-Bragg and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) were subjected to nanoindentation experiments and examined using scanning electron microscopy and focused ion beam cross sectional analysis. Three coating systems contained adhesion layers (10nm of Ti or 60nm of TiO2 layers). The fracture toughness of selected samples was assessed applying two different models from literature, a classical for bulk materials and an energy-based model, which was further developed and adjusted. The ZrO2 based coating systems (total film thickness<200nm) followed a circumferential cracking behavior in contrast to Bragg coated samples (total film thickness around 1.5μm), which showed radial cracking emanating from the indent corners. For Ti-ZrO2 samples, a fracture toughness between 2.70 and 3.70MPam(1/2) was calculated using an energy-based model. The classical model was applied to Bragg coated samples and their fracture toughness ranged between 0.70 and 0.80MPam(1/2). Furthermore, coating systems containing an additional layer (Ti-Ti-Al-ZrO2, Ti-Ti-Ag-ZrO2 and Ti-TiO2-Bragg) showed an improved adhesion between the substrate and the coating. The addition of a Ti or TiO2 layer improved the adhesion between substrate and coating. The validity of the models for the assessment of the fracture toughness depended on the layer structure and fracture profile of the samples investigated here (classical model for thick coatings and energy-based model for thin coatings). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. European single-hull regulation in force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The European Union (EU)has decided that from 21 October 2003 no single-hull tanker carrying heavy grades of oil will be permitted to enter or leave ports or offshore installations or anchor in areas under the jurisdiction of the EU member states. Some of the provisions of the EU regulation will not be in force until 2010. The article looks back on what has led up to to the current regulations, beginning with the Titanic disaster of 1914.

  5. The Causes of Boat Hull Blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    blistering. The report is divided into the following sections: Introduction; How Blisters Form; the Hull Material; Manufacturing Processes; Water Diffusion...Term Effects of Water Up-Takeo " The much more detailed and highly technical report of thia-Vsrk is entitled "The Causes of Blistering in Boat Building...Chemical Engineering, ably assisted by several graduate students, and was completed in the fall of 1986. The report itself, d List-ribution/_ Availabilit

  6. 46 CFR 32.75-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.75-5 Section 32.75..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship, and the...

  7. 46 CFR 32.70-5 - Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull requirements; general-TB/ALL. 32.70-5 Section 32.70..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Steel Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.70-5 Hull requirements; general—TB/ALL. The scantlings, material, and workmanship, the...

  8. Wave induced extreme hull girder loads on containerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Shi, Bill

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides simple but rational procedures for prediction of extreme wave – induced sectional hull girder forces with reasonable engineering accuracy. The procedures take into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient......, forward speed and hull flexibility. The vertical hull girder loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Firstly a quadratic strip theory is presented which can give separate predictions for the hogging and sagging bending moments and shear forces and for hull girder loads. Then this procedure...... is based on rational methods it can be applied for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies or to account for specific operational profiles....

  9. Compatibility studies on Mo-coating systems for nuclear fuel cladding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Huan Chin; Hosemann, Peter; Glaeser, Andreas M.; Cionea, Cristian

    2017-12-01

    To improve the safety factor of nuclear power plants in accident scenarios, molybdenum (Mo), with its high-temperature strength, is proposed as a potential fuel-cladding candidate. However, Mo undergoes rapid oxidation and sublimation at elevated temperatures in oxygen-rich environments. Thus, it is necessary to coat Mo with a protective layer. The diffusional interactions in two systems, namely, Zircaloy-2 (Zr2) on a Mo tube, and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) on a Mo rod, were studied by aging coated Mo substrates in high vacuum at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 1000° for 1000 h. The specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and nanoindentation. In both systems, pores in the coating increased in size and number with increasing temperature over time, and cracks were also observed; intermetallic phases formed between the Mo and its coatings.

  10. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  11. Wide spectrum antireflective coating for laser fusion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoldas, B.E; Partlow, D.P.; Smith, H.D.; Mattox, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of depositing a laser damage resistant, wide-spectrum antireflective coating on fused silica has been developed. This work was sponsored under a subcontract with the University of California, with technical direction from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The coating is applied from a specific silanol polymer solution and converted to a porous SiO 2 film. The pore size of the film is first reduced by a heat treatment to prevent uv scattering. Then gradation of the pore volume is achieved by a mild etching to a sufficient depth to prevent a smoother index transition from air to the substrate glass. The resulting antireflectivity covers the entire transmission range of silica and may be extended to a wavelength as short as 250 nm. Laser damage thresholds as high as 9 j/cm 2 have been demonstrated on processed samples

  12. Evaluation of Composite-Hull Ships Operating in Arctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    COMPOSITE- HULL SHIPS OPERATING IN ARCTIC ICE by Ryan M. Tran June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Young W. Kwon Co-Advisor: Jarema M. Didoszak THIS...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE- HULL SHIPS OPERATING IN ARCTIC ICE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR Ryan M. Tran 7...melting ice caps. Extensive research is thus being conducted to determine the interaction between ice and steel- hulls in anticipation of opening sea

  13. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...pure yaw angles of 0 ◦, 10 ◦ and 18 ◦. The model is used to develop equations for sway-force and yaw-moment coefficients which relate to the hull - form

  14. Coating-Substrate Systems for Thermomechanically Durable Turbine Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    vapor phase NiA ! aluminide and NiAI(Cr.Zr) coated Rene N5 samples cycled at 1093°C with Ae, = 0.35%. PtAI VPA NiAI(Cr,Zr) EQ Y-Y’ 10000.0... 505 (2001). 2. T.M. Pollock and S. Tin, AIAA J. Propulsion and Power, 22, 2, (2006), pp. 361 - 374. 3. A.G. Evans, D.R. Clarke and C.G. Lev

  15. Ring retroreflector system consisting of cube-corner reflectors with special coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistrov, V B; Sadovnikov, M A; Sokolov, A L; Shargorodskiy, V D

    2013-01-01

    The ring retroreflector system (RS) consisting of cubecorner reflectors (CCRs) with a special coating of reflecting surfaces, intended for uniaxially Earth-oriented navigation satellites, is considered. The error of distance measurement caused by both the laser pulse delay in the CCR and its spatial position (CCR configuration) is studied. It is shown that the ring RS, formed by the CCR with a double-spot radiation pattern, allows the distance measurement error to be essentially reduced. (nanogradient dielectric coatings and metamaterials)

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, Roger [Energy Focus, Inc., Solon, OH (United States); Jenson, Chris [Energy Focus, Inc., Solon, OH (United States); Kazenski, Keith [Energy Focus, Inc., Solon, OH (United States)

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI's coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  17. Effects of Geometry on the Steady Performance of Planing Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, M. K.; Andersen, Poul

    2003-01-01

    A vortex-lattice method is applied to planing hull forms. The geometry of the jet surfaces next to the wetted hull is estimated on the basis of the hull geometry while its sidewise extent has been found numerically applying a non-linear free-surface pressure condition in the jet region. The method...... is applied to practical hull forms with chines spray rails and with varying deadrise over the length of the boat. The deadrise variation has a large influence on lift and drag. For a design situation, where the total lift and centre of effort is given, the influence on the total drag is less due to change...

  18. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  19. Estimation of gamma dose rate from hulls and shield design for the hull transport cask of Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, S.; Rajagopal, V.; Jose, M.T.; Venkatraman, B.

    2012-01-01

    In Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP), un-dissolved clad of fuel pins known as hulls are the major sources of high level solid waste. Safe handling, transport and disposal require the estimation of radioactivity as a consequent of gamma dose rate from hulls in fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant in comparison with thermal reactor fuel. Due to long irradiation time and low cooling of spent fuel, the evolution of activation products 51 Cr, 58 Co, 54 Mn and 59 Fe present as impurities in the fuel clad are the major sources of gamma radiation. Gamma dose rate from hull container with hulls from Fuel Sub Assembly (FSA) and Radial Sub Assembly (RSA) of Fuel Reprocessing Plant (FRP) was estimated in order to design the hull transport cask. Shielding computations were done using point kernel code, IGSHIELD. This paper describes the details of source terms, estimation of dose rate and shielding design of hull transport cask in detail. (author)

  20. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  1. Technical note: In situ ruminal starch disappearance kinetics of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Yang, Y; Teets, C L; Brooks, W S; Griffey, C A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ruminal starch disappearance rates of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains. Five different genotypes were used for each of the 2 barley types. In addition, each of these genotypes was grown in 2 different locations and years, resulting 10 independent barley samples for each of the 2 barley grain types. Five different genotypes of corn grain were obtained from a commercial seed company. After being ground to pass through a 4-mm screen of a cutter mill, 3.6 g of each grain was placed into a porous bag, which was then incubated in the rumen of 2 ruminally cannulated cows for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Corn grains had greater instant ruminal starch disappearances than barley grains (22.4 and 8.2%, respectively). Instant ruminal starch disappearances did not differ between hulled and hull-less barley grains. Ruminal starch fractional disappearance rates were greatest for hulled barley grains, moderate for hull-less barley grains, and lowest for corn grains (15.3, 13.9, and 7.1%/h, respectively). Ruminal starch half-life was shortest for hulled and hull-less barley grains (4.4 h) and longest for corn grains (6.6 h). Ruminal starch half-life did not differ between hulled barley and hull-less barley grains. In conclusion, using a holistic experimental design and statistical analysis, this study showed that starch from hull-less barley grains has a ruminal half-life similar to that of hulled barley grains and shorter than that of corn grains. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermodynamic aspects of the coating formation through mechanochemical synthesis in vibration technology systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyn, S. U.; Lebedev, V. A.; Gorlenko, A. O.

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of thermodynamic concepts of the process, we proposed an energy model that reflects the mechanochemical essence of coating forming in terms of vibration technology systems, which takes into account the contribution to the formation of the coating, the increase of unavailable energy due to the growth of entropy, the increase in the energy of elastic-plastic crystal lattice distortion as a result of the mechanical influence of working environment indenters, surface layer internal energy change which occurs as a result of chemical interaction of the contacting media. We proposed adhesion strength of the local volume modified through processing as a criterion of the energy condition of the formed coating. We established analytical dependence which helps to obtain the coating strength of the material required by operating conditions.

  3. THE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF COATING-SUBSTRATE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga CHRONOWSKA-PRZYWARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research techniques for the analysis of both mechanical and tribological properties of thin coatings applied on highly loaded machine elements. In the Institute of Machine Design and Exploitation, AGH University of Science and Technology students of the second level of Mechanical Engineering study tribology attending laboratory class. Students learn on techniques for mechanical and tribological testing of thin, hard coatings deposited by PVD and CVD technologies. The program of laboratories contains micro-, nanohardness and Young's modulus measurements by instrumental indentations and analysys of coating to substrate adhesion by scratch testing. The tribological properties of the coating-substrate systems are studied using various techniques, mainly in point contact load conditions with ball-on-disc and block-on-ring tribomiters as well as using ball cratering method in strongly abrasive suspensions.

  4. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  5. Reducing Friction and Wear of Tribological Systems through Hybrid Tribofilm Consisting of Coating and Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yazawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of surface protective additives becomes vital when operating conditions become severe and moving components operate in a boundary lubrication regime. After protecting film is slowly removed by rubbing, it can regenerate through the tribochemical reaction of the additives at the contact. However, there are limitations about the regeneration of the protecting film when additives are totally consumed. On the other hand, there are a lot of hard coatings to protect the steel surface from wear. These can enable the functioning of tribological systems, even in adverse lubrication conditions. However, hard coatings usually make the friction coefficient higher, because of their high interfacial shear strength. Amongst hard coatings, diamond-like carbon (DLC is widely used, because of its relatively low friction and superior wear resistance. In practice, conventional lubricants that are essentially formulated for a steel/steel surface are still used for lubricating machine component surfaces provided with protective coatings, such as DLCs, despite the fact that the surface properties of coatings are quite different from those of steel. It is therefore important that the design of additive molecules and their interaction with coatings should be re-considered. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the DLC and the additive combination that enable tribofilm formation and effective lubrication of tribological systems.

  6. Sensory and Physical Effects of Sugar Reduction in a Caramel Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily J; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2017-08-01

    Sugar reduction in processed foods is a pressing and complex problem, as sugars contribute important sensory and physical properties to foods. Composed of sugars and lipids, caramel coating systems, like the coating in caramel popcorns, exemplify this challenge. In order to probe the feasibility and consequences of sugar reduction, both sensory and physical properties were measured for 3 types of caramel coating systems. Four commonly used sugar alcohols, isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, with different thermal properties and relative sweetness values were chosen to replace sugar in the caramel coating systems at 25% and 50% sugar reduction levels. Full sugar (control) and reduced sugar caramel coating samples were prepared in duplicate. Ten trained panelists participated in a 6-wk descriptive analysis panel to define and quantify the intensity of important sensory characteristics. All 24 sensory terms generated by the panel differed significantly across caramel type and sugar replacer. Thermal properties were measured through differential scanning calorimetry, and textural properties were measured through texture profile analysis. Replacement of sugar with sugar alcohols was found to decrease the glass transition temperature and systematically alter the hardness and resilience of caramel samples. Principal component analysis of sensory and physical data revealed that caramel coating type dictates caramel aroma, aroma by mouth, taste, and aftertaste, while sugar replacer and replacement level dictate texture. This research represents the first comprehensive study of the effects of sugar reduction in a caramel coating system and suggests successful strategies for sugar reduction and key parameters to control in reduced sugar systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. A Hull cell study of a NiW electrolyte and evaluation of its properties; Estudio en celula Hull de un bano electrolitico de NiW y evaluacion de sus propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Urrutia, I.; Diez, J. A.; Muller, C.; Calvillo, P.

    2009-07-01

    Interest in NiW coatings has grown in recent years due to its favourable properties such as hardness, and resistance to both wear and corrosion, making it one of the actual alternatives to hard chromium coatings. In this work, we have undertaken a Hull cell study, investigating the influence of the metal concentration, temperature, pH and current density on the composition of the alloy formed and its thickness. We have also studied the most important properties of the NiW deposits, including morphology, hardness, and resistance to abrasion and corrosion. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. High temperature oxidation behavior of hafnium modified NiAl bond coat in EB-PVD thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Hongbo; Sun Lidong; Li Hefei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Gong Shengkai [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: gongsk@buaa.edu.cn

    2008-06-30

    NiAl coatings doped with 0.5 at.% and 1.5 at.% Hf were produced by co-evaporation of NiAl and Hf ingots by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The addition of 0.5 at.% Hf significantly improved the cyclic oxidation resistance of the NiAl coating. The TGO layer in the 1.5 at.% Hf doped NiAl coating is straight; while that in the 0.5 at.% Hf doped coating became undulated after thermal cycling. The doped NiAl thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) revealed improved thermal cycling lifetimes at 1423 K, compared to the undoped TBC. Failure of the 0.5 at.% Hf doped TBC occurred by cracking at the interface between YSZ topcoat and bond coat, while the 1.5 at.% Hf doped TBC cracked at the interface between bond coat and substrate.

  9. A brief review of environmentally benign antifouling and foul-release coatings for marine applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, P.J.P.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Rentrop, C.H.A.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Antifouling coatings for ship hulls are a very important topic in coating research. They are essential with respect to fuel consumption of ships: without antifouling coating, biological species start to adhere to the ship's exterior, leading to a gradual increase in fuel consumption. To date, the

  10. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  11. The Development of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Environment Effects on the Creep and Fatigue Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Topics covered include: Environmental barrier coating system development: needs, challenges and limitations; Advanced environmental barrier coating systems (EBCs) for CMC airfoils and combustors; NASA EBC systems and material system evolutions, Current turbine and combustor EBC coating emphases, Advanced development, processing, testing and modeling, EBC and EBC bond coats: recent advances; Design tool and life prediction of coated CMC components; Advanced CMC-EBC rig demonstrations; Summary and future directions.

  12. A smart ROV solution for ship hull and harbor inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Scott; Wood, Jon; Vazquez, Jose; Mignotte, Pierre-Yves; Privat, Benjamin

    2010-04-01

    Hull and harbor infrastructure inspections are frequently performed manually and involve quite a bit of risk and human and monetary resources. In any kind of threat and resource constrained environment, this involves unacceptable levels of risk and cost. Modern Remotely Operated Vehicles are highly refined machines that provide features and capabilities previously unavailable. Operations once carried out by divers can now be carried out more quickly, efficiently and safely by smart enabled ROVs. ROVs are rapidly deployable and capable of continuous, reliable operations in adverse conditions. They also provide a stable platform on which multiple sensors may be mounted and utilized to meet the harbor inspection problem. Automated Control software provides ROV's and their pilots with the capability to inspect complex, constrained environments such as those found in a harbor region. This application and the user interface allow the ROV to automatically conduct complex maneuvers relative to the area being inspected and relieves the training requirements and work load for the pilot, allowing he or she to focus on the primary task of survey, inspection and looking for possible threats (such as IEDs, Limpet Mines, signs of sabotage, etc). Real-time sensor processing tools can be integrated into the smart ROV solution to assist the operator. Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithms are used to search through the sensor data collected by the ROV in real time. These algorithms provide immediate feedback on possible threats and notify the operator of regions that may require manual verification. Sensor data (sonar or video) is also mosaiced, providing the operator with real-time situational awareness and a coverage map of the hull or seafloor. Detected objects may also be placed in the context of the large scale characteristics of the hull (or bottom or pilings) and localized. Within the complex areas such as the harbor pier pilings and the running gear of the ship, real

  13. Studies on Mathematical Models of Wet Adhesion and Lifetime Prediction of Organic Coating/Steel by Grey System Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fandi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-06-28

    A rapid degradation of wet adhesion is the key factor controlling coating lifetime, for the organic coatings under marine hydrostatic pressure. The mathematical models of wet adhesion have been studied by Grey System Theory (GST). Grey models (GM) (1, 1) of epoxy varnish (EV) coating/steel and epoxy glass flake (EGF) coating/steel have been established, and a lifetime prediction formula has been proposed on the basis of these models. The precision assessments indicate that the established models are accurate, and the prediction formula is capable of making precise lifetime forecasting of the coatings.

  14. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; hide

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  15. Conditioning and storage of spent fuel cladding hulls by rolling and embedding in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spenk, G.; Frotscher, H.; Graebner, H.; Kapulla, H.

    1981-01-01

    Under a contract with the European Atomic Energy Community the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, KfK, developed a conditioning process for LWR cladding waste. After compaction of the hulls by rolling they are embedded in a concrete matrix. In addition to basic data of the cladding waste, the compaction process, consisting of a dosage system and a rolling mill, is described. Several embedding techniques are possible, but a final selection has still to be made. Best results will probably be achieved by a vacuum technique. To characterize the waste product, leach tests have been started. The compression strength of compacted hulls embedded in concrete was determined to 2300 N.cm -2 . Hydrogen release due to radiolyses lies around 3 μl.g -1 sub(concrete).Mrad -1 which corresponds to the values expected on account of the water content of the samples. Less hydrogen was determined in samples with Zircaloy added. The tritium release of tritiated Zircaloy hulls embedded in concrete is greatly dependent on temperature and irradiation. At 100 0 C and with γ-irradiation the tritium release is about two orders of magnitude higher compared with experiments without irradiation. The thermal conductivity of samples of Zircaloy hulls embedded in concrete was determined to be 1.4W.m -1 .K -1 . (author)

  16. Application of a radiotelemetric system to evaluate the performance of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C Y; Oberle, R; Fleisher, D; Amidon, G L

    1986-05-01

    The bioavailability of enteric coated and plain aspirin tablets was studied in four beagle dogs. Blood sampling for enteric coated tablets was planned with the aid of a radiotelemetric system. The release of aspirin from its dosage form was detected by monitoring the change in intestinal pH. Aspirin and salicylic acid levels in plasma obtained from the enteric coated dosage form exhibited familiar concentration versus time absorption profiles. Variation in the plasma concentrations of these two compounds within each dog studied (four runs each) was relatively small when time zero was adjusted to the commencement of tablet dissolution. The plasma levels obtained from plain aspirin (three runs each), however, show atypical absorption. The estimated absolute bioavailability was 0.432 +/- 0.0213 and 0.527 +/- 0.0260 for enteric coated and plain aspirin, respectively. Other pharmacokinetic parameters for these two dosage forms such as the highest observed plasma concentration (Cmax) (10.9 +/- 0.535 microgram/mL versus 13.6 +/- 1.88 micrograms/mL) and the time to reach Cmax (tmax) (26.6 +/- 1.94 min versus 31.0 +/- 7.04 min) agree well. The mean values for gastric emptying time, in vivo coating dissolution time, and in vivo disintegration/dissolution time of the tablet core for enteric coated aspirin are 48.7 +/- 7.23 min, 44.3 +/- 3.80 min, and 34.7 +/- 2.04 min, respectively.

  17. Mechanistic modelling of drug release from polymer-coated and swelling and dissolving polymer matrix systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaunisto, Erik; Marucci, Mariagrazia; Borgquist, Per; Axelsson, Anders

    2011-10-10

    The time required for the design of a new delivery device can be sensibly reduced if the release mechanism is understood and an appropriate mathematical model is used to characterize the system. Once all the model parameters are obtained, in silico experiments can be performed, to provide estimates of the release from devices with different geometries and compositions. In this review coated and matrix systems are considered. For coated formulations, models describing the diffusional drug release, the osmotic pumping drug release, and the lag phase of pellets undergoing cracking in the coating due to the build-up of a hydrostatic pressure are reviewed. For matrix systems, models describing pure polymer dissolution, diffusion in the polymer and drug release from swelling and eroding polymer matrix formulations are reviewed. Importantly, the experiments used to characterize the processes occurring during the release and to validate the models are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Arc-discharge system for nondestructive detection of flaws in thin ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, G.W.; Davis, E.V.

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of nondestructively detecting small cracks or holes in plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings with an electric arc-discharge system was studied. We inspected ZrO 2 coatings 0.46 mm (0.018 in.) thick on Incoloy alloy 800 substrates. Cracks were artificially induced in controlled areas of the specimens by straining the substrates in tension. We designed and built a system to scan the specimen's surface at approximately 50 μm (0.002 in.) clearance with a sharp-pointed metal-tipped probe at high dc potential. The system measures the arc currents occurring at flaws, or plots a map of the scanned area showing points where the arc current exceeds a preset threshold. A theoretical model of the probe-specimen circuit shows constant dc potential to be the best choice for arc-discharge inspection of insulating coatings. Experimental observations and analysis of the data disclosed some potential for flaw description

  19. 46 CFR 45.143 - Hull openings above freeboard deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings above freeboard deck. 45.143 Section 45.143 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.143 Hull openings above freeboard deck. Closures for openings above...

  20. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. [CGD 72...

  1. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter...

  2. Iron-59 absorption from soy hulls: intrinsic vs extrinsic labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykken, G.I.; Mahalko, J.R.; Nielsen, E.J.; Dintzis, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the validity of the extrinsic labeling technique for measuring iron absorption, absorption from soy hulls extrinsically labeled ( 59 Fe added to bread dough) was compared with that from soy hulls intrinsically labeled ( 59 Fe incorporated into the soy plant during growth). Century soybeans were grown in a greenhouse. After pods had formed and were filling, each plant was stem injected twice, at 3 day intervals, with 22 μCi 59 Fe as FeCl 2 in 25 μl of 0.5 M HCl solution. After the plants had senesced, the soybeans were harvested, dried, shelled and the hulls removed. Standard meals containing 3.5 mg Fe/meal and up to 0.06 μCi 59 Fe in a soy hull bun were fed on 2 consecutive days to free-living volunteers in a crossover design. Absorption of 59 Fe was greater from intrinsically labeled soy hulls than from extrinsically labeled soy hulls, 20 +/- 20% vs 15 +/- 11% (n=14, p > 0.05 by paired t-test). Apparent absorption ranged from 1.3% to 77% from intrinsically labeled soy hulls and .5% to 29% from extrinsically labeled soy hulls with the highest absorption occurring in persons with low serum ferritin (S.F. < 8 ng/ml). These findings provide additional evidence that the extrinsic labeling method is a valid measure of iron bioavailability to humans

  3. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this...

  4. 46 CFR 174.225 - Hull penetrations and shell connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull penetrations and shell connections. 174.225 Section 174.225 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... § 174.225 Hull penetrations and shell connections. Each overboard discharge and shell connection except...

  5. 76 FR 7757 - Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 181 [Docket No. USCG-2007-29236] Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Follow-up to request for... expanded hull identification number (HIN). The Coast Guard's decision-making process included consideration...

  6. 77 FR 59575 - Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 181 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0843] Hull Identification Numbers for Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for public comments... requirement to indicate a boat's model year as part of the 12-character Hull Identification Number (HIN...

  7. Determination of digestibility of almond hull in sheep | Yalchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical compositions of almond hull and alfalfa hay were determined. The crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of almond hull were lower than those of alfalfa hay but the non fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was more than that of alfalfa hay (3.5 times) (P < 0.01). The dry matter ...

  8. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  9. Morphologically intelligent underactuated robot for underwater hull cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Daniel; Faina, Andres; López-Peña, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new type of robot for underwater hull cleaning on ships with non-magnetic hulls. This robot is based on the concept that cleaning hulls regularly, without waiting to take them out of the water, will improve the efficiency of the ships and will permit a reduction...... in the use of the chemicals that are usually employed to prevent the growth of marine life on the hull and which are generally harmful to the environment. The robot described in this paper is an underactuated morphologically adapted robot that through an appropriate morphology and making use of the forces...... and constraints of the environment solves the most difficult problems that arise when moving along hulls. Some of these are changing planes, negotiating appendices, avoiding portholes, passing corners, and other elements. This greatly simplifies the control mechanisms that are required for its operation making...

  10. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... main setups were used during the tests, corresponding to the hulls being connected to an offshore windmill and being free floating. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: • The Response Amplitude Operators of the hulls in two different configurations and with waves coming from 3...... different directions. • The connection forces between the hulls and the wind turbine pile. • The natural frequency of oscillation. For the study, realistic scale models of the hulls of the crew boats were supplied by the client, Hauschildt Marine. The laboratory tests were performed by Arthur Pecher under...

  11. Characterisation of the activities associated with fast reactor cladding hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four batches of hulls from the reprocessing of fuel from the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay have been examined visually and photographically. The appearance of the hulls (shiny or black) depended on the original location in the fuel pin. The total fissile activities measured corresponded to less than 0.1% or the original fuel. The α-emitter, fission product and activation product activities have been determined from dissolution studies. Profile diagrams have been constructed for the distribution of the principal activities along lengths of seventeen hulls. The evidence obtained suggested that much of the activity on the hulls arose through deposition from the dissolver liquors. The deposits included insoluble particulate material which was thought to be responsible for the wide variations in activity across short lengths of some of the hulls. (orig.)

  12. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System For Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; Curran, Jerome; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem facing Kennedy Space Center (KSC), other Government Agencies, and the general public. These problems include KSC launch support structures, highway bridge infrastructure, and building structures such as condominium balconies. Due to these problems, the development of a Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System would be a breakthrough technology having great commercial value for the following industries: Transportation, Infrastructure, Marine Infrastructure, Civil Engineering, and the Construction Industry. This sacrificial coating system consists of a paint matrix that may include metallic components, conducting agents, and moisture attractors. Similar systems have been used in the past with varying degrees of success. These systems have no proven history of effectiveness over the long term. In addition, these types of systems have had limited success overcoming the initial resistance between the concrete/coating interface. The coating developed at KSC incorporates methods proven to overcome the barriers that previous systems could not achieve. Successful development and continued optimization of this breakthrough system would produce great interest in NASA/KSC for corrosion engineering technology and problem solutions. Commercial patents on this technology would enhance KSC's ability to attract industry partners for similar corrosion control applications.

  13. Immobilization of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in Rice Hulls for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Martini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The whole cell immobilization in ethanol fermentation can be done by using natural carriers or through synthetic carriers. All of these methods have the same purpose of retaining high cell concentrations within a certain defined region of space which leads to higher ethanol productivity. Lignocellulosic plant substance represents one of highly potential sources in ethanol production. Some studies have found that cellulosic substances substances can also be used as a natural carrier in cell immobilization by re-circulating pre-culture medium into a reactor. In this experiment, rice hulls without any treatment were used to immobilize Saccharomyces cerevisiae through semi solid state incubation combined with re-circulating pre-culture medium. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM pictures of the carrier show that the yeast cells are absorbed and embedded to the rice hull pore. In liquid batch fermentation system with an initial sugar concentration of 50 g/L, nearly 100% total sugar was consumed after 48 hours. This resulted in an ethanol yield of 0.32 g ethanol/g glucose, which is 62.7% of the theoretical value. Ethanol productivity of 0.59 g/(L.h is 2.3 fold higher than that of free cells which is 0.26 g/(L.h. An effort to reuse the immobilized cells in liquid fermentation system showed poor results due to cell desorption in the first batch which led to high sugar concentration inhibitory effect in the second batch fermentation. This might be solved by using semi solid fermentation process in the future work.

  14. On the compatibility of single crystal superalloys with a thermal barrier coating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R.T. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Reed, R.C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.reed@birmingham.ac.uk

    2008-02-15

    The compatibility of three Co-containing prototype single crystal nickel-based superalloys with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is examined. These contain 2.1, 8.4 and 12.6 at.% Co; the concentrations of Al, Cr, Ta, W, Re, Hf are identical and chosen to be representative of advanced grades of these alloys. The TBC consists of an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layer formed by electron beam physical vapour deposition (EB-PVD) and a bond coat made by electrodeposited platinum with a subsequent interdiffusion heat treatment - a so-called 'platinum-diffused' bond coat. The resistance to spallation of the TBC system is degraded as the Co content of the substrate increases. Wavelength-dispersive X-ray analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry indicate that quantities of Co are present in the thermally grown oxide (TGO) by the time that failure occurs, this effect being most pronounced when the Co content of the substrate is high; the TGO is then more wavy and convoluted. The bond coat consists exclusively of the {gamma} and {gamma}' phases, with the balance shifting towards {gamma} with increasing thermal exposure; the loss of Al from the bond coat due to TGO formation means that the TGO is eventually in contact with the {gamma} phase solely, which is enriched in Co.

  15. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  16. Creep Behavior of Hafnia and Ytterbium Silicate Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Harder, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability and stability of SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components, thus improving the engine performance. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for engine components, appropriate test approaches simulating operating temperature gradient and stress environments for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, thermal gradient mechanical testing approaches for evaluating creep and fatigue behavior of environmental barrier coated SiC/SiC CMC systems will be described. The creep and fatigue behavior of Hafnia and ytterbium silicate environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC CMC systems will be reported in simulated environmental exposure conditions. The coating failure mechanisms will also be discussed under the heat flux and stress conditions.

  17. Optimization of a Wcl6 CVD System to Coat UO2 Powder with Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belancik, Grace A.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Mireles, Omar; Hickman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve deep space exploration via Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements, with focus on fabrication, testing, and process optimization. A risk of fuel loss is present due to the CTE mismatch between tungsten and UO2 in the W-60vol%UO2 fuel element, leading to high thermal stresses. This fuel loss can be reduced by coating the spherical UO2 particles with tungsten via H2/WCl6 reduction in a fluidized bed CVD system. Since the latest incarnation of the inverted reactor was completed, various minor modifications to the system design were completed, including an inverted frit sublimer. In order to optimize the parameters to achieve the desired tungsten coating thickness, a number of trials using surrogate HfO2 powder were performed. The furnace temperature was varied between 930 C and 1000degC, and the sublimer temperature was varied between 140 C and 200 C. Each trial lasted 73-82 minutes, with one lasting 205 minutes. A total of 13 trials were performed over the course of three months, two of which were re-coatings of previous trials. The powder samples were weighed before and after coating to roughly determine mass gain, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data was also obtained. Initial mass results indicated that the rate of layer deposition was lower than desired in all of the trials. SEM confirmed that while a uniform coating was obtained, the average coating thickness was 9.1% of the goal. The two re-coating trials did increase the thickness of the tungsten layer, but only to an average 14.3% of the goal. Therefore, the number of CVD runs required to fully coat one batch of material with the current configuration is not feasible for high production rates. Therefore, the system will be modified to operate with a negative pressure environment. This will allow for better gas mixing and more efficient heating of the substrate material, yielding greater tungsten coating per trial.

  18. Identification of a novel SPLIT-HULL (SPH) gene associated with hull splitting in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gileung; Lee, Kang-Ie; Lee, Yunjoo; Kim, Backki; Lee, Dongryung; Seo, Jeonghwan; Jang, Su; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2018-07-01

    The split-hull phenotype caused by reduced lemma width and low lignin content is under control of SPH encoding a type-2 13-lipoxygenase and contributes to high dehulling efficiency. Rice hulls consist of two bract-like structures, the lemma and palea. The hull is an important organ that helps to protect seeds from environmental stress, determines seed shape, and ensures grain filling. Achieving optimal hull size and morphology is beneficial for seed development. We characterized the split-hull (sph) mutant in rice, which exhibits hull splitting in the interlocking part between lemma and palea and/or the folded part of the lemma during the grain filling stage. Morphological and chemical analysis revealed that reduction in the width of the lemma and lignin content of the hull in the sph mutant might be the cause of hull splitting. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant phenotype was controlled by a single recessive gene, sph (Os04g0447100), which encodes a type-2 13-lipoxygenase. SPH knockout and knockdown transgenic plants displayed the same split-hull phenotype as in the mutant. The sph mutant showed significantly higher linoleic and linolenic acid (substrates of lipoxygenase) contents in spikelets compared to the wild type. It is probably due to the genetic defect of SPH and subsequent decrease in lipoxygenase activity. In dehulling experiment, the sph mutant showed high dehulling efficiency even by a weak tearing force in a dehulling machine. Collectively, the results provide a basis for understanding of the functional role of lipoxygenase in structure and maintenance of hulls, and would facilitate breeding of easy-dehulling rice.

  19. Enhanced colonic delivery of ciclosporin A self-emulsifying drug delivery system encapsulated in coated minispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Griffin, Brendan T

    2016-01-01

    Investigate the potential of coated minispheres (SmPill®) to enhance localized Ciclosporin A (CsA) delivery to the colon. CsA self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) were encapsulated into SmPill® minispheres. Varying degrees of coating thickness (low, medium and high) were applied using ethylcellulose and pectin (E:P) polymers. In vitro CsA release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Bioavailability of CsA in vivo following oral administration to pigs of SmPill® minispheres was compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv in a pig model. CsA concentrations in blood and intestinal tissue were determined by HPLC-UV. In vitro CsA release from coated minispheres decreased with increasing coating thickness. A linear relationship was observed between in vitro CsA release and in vivo bioavailability (r(2) = 0.98). CsA concentrations in the proximal, transverse and distal colon were significantly higher following administration of SmPill®, compared to Neoral® po and Sandimmun® iv (p < 0.05). Analysis of transverse colon tissue subsections also revealed significantly higher CsA concentrations in the mucosa and submucosa using SmPill® minispheres (p < 0.05). Modulating E:P coating thickness controls release of CsA from SmPill® minispheres. Coated minispheres limited CsA release in the small intestine and enhanced delivery and uptake in the colon. These findings demonstrate clinical advantages of an oral coated minisphere-enabled CsA formulation in the treatment of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine.

  20. Effect of Silver or Copper Nanoparticles-Dispersed Silane Coatings on Biofilm Formation in Cooling Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akiko; Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Sano, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Ishida, Kunimitsu; Beech, Iwona B.; Suzuki, Osamu; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling often occurs in cooling water systems, resulting in the reduction of heat exchange efficiency and corrosion of the cooling pipes, which raises the running costs. Therefore, controlling biofouling is very important. To regulate biofouling, we focus on the formation of biofilm, which is the early step of biofouling. In this study, we investigated whether silver or copper nanoparticles-dispersed silane coatings inhibited biofilm formation in cooling systems. We developed a closed laboratory biofilm reactor as a model of a cooling pipe and used seawater as a model for cooling water. Silver or copper nanoparticles-dispersed silane coating (Ag coating and Cu coating) coupons were soaked in seawater, and the seawater was circulated in the laboratory biofilm reactor for several days to create biofilms. Three-dimensional images of the surface showed that sea-island-like structures were formed on silane coatings and low concentration Cu coating, whereas nothing was formed on high concentration Cu coatings and low concentration Ag coating. The sea-island-like structures were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy to estimate the components of the biofilm. We found that both the Cu coating and Ag coating were effective methods to inhibit biofilm formation in cooling pipes. PMID:28773758

  1. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  2. New cermet coatings for mid-temperature applications for solar concentrated combine heat and power system

    OpenAIRE

    Wäckelgård, Ewa; Bartali, Ruben; Gerosa, Riccardo; Laidani, Nadhira; Mattsson, Andreas; Micheli, Victor; Rivolta, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    New cermet (ceramic-metal) composite coatings have been developed for solar absorbers in a solar concentrating system for combined heat and power operating in a mid-temperature range between 250 to 350 degrees C. The coatings were applied on stainless steel substrates. Two types of cermet with expected good duration properties were chosen: Nb-TiO2 and W-SiO2. The basic layer-structure concept consisted of four sub-layers, counted from the substrate: molybdenum infrared reflector, high metal c...

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  4. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ren [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Department of Biology, College of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lin Changjian, E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, CNRS Laboratoire International Associe XiamENS, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol{sup -1} was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  5. Electrochemical deposition mechanism of calcium phosphate coating in dilute Ca-P electrolyte system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Ren; Lin Changjian; Shi Haiyan; Wang Hui

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the electrochemical deposition behavior of calcium phosphate coating from an aqueous electrolyte containing very dilute calcium and phosphorus species (Ca-P) was studied. The effects of three process parameters, i.e. temperature, current density and duration, were systematically investigated and the underlying mechanism was thoroughly analyzed. It was observed that the coating is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) in a wide range of temperature and current densities. The temperature had a significant effect on the deposition velocity. An apparent activation energy of 174.9 kJ mol -1 was subsequently derived, indicating the mass-transfer control mechanism for the coating formation. The current density was identified to be an important parameter for structure controllability. The results of DR-FTIR/Raman spectroscopic studies of the initial deposition phase strongly suggested that the HA coating was instantaneously and directly precipitated on the substrate; neither induction period nor precursor was detected in this dilute Ca-P electrolyte system. Finally, a phase diagram of the Ca-P electrolyte system was constructed, which offered a thermodynamic reason for the direct single-phase HA precipitation observed only in this system, but not in conventional concentrated systems.

  6. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%.

  7. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  8. Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System for Protection of Embedded Steel Surfaces from Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Joseph; MacDowell, Louis; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is an insidious problem for the Kennedy Space Center, government agencies, and the general public. Existing corrosion protection systems on the market are costly, complex, and time-consuming to install, require continuous maintenance and monitoring, and require specialized skills for installation. NASA's galvanic liquid-applied coating offers companies the ability to conveniently protect embedded steel rebar surfaces from corrosion. Liquid-applied inorganic galvanic coating contains one ore more of the following metallic particles: magnesium, zinc, or indium and may contain moisture attracting compounds that facilitate the protection process. The coating is applied to the outer surface of reinforced concrete so that electrical current is established between metallic particles and surfaces of embedded steel rebar; and electric (ionic) current is responsible for providing the necessary cathodic protection for embedded rebar surfaces.

  9. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  10. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate of...

  11. 14 CFR 23.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 23... Water Loads § 23.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float....00213; K2=hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix I of this part; VS1...

  12. 46 CFR 32.63-5 - Barge hull classifications-B/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barge hull classifications-B/ALL. 32.63-5 Section 32.63..., AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964, and Carrying Certain Dangerous Bulk Cargoes § 32.63-5 Barge hull classifications—B...

  13. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PROTECTION OF VESSEL HULL DESIGNS § 212.5 Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  14. 14 CFR 29.519 - Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and... § 29.519 Hull type rotorcraft: Water-based and amphibian. (a) General. For hull type rotorcraft, the... along and among the hull and auxiliary floats, if used, in a rational and conservative manner, assuming...

  15. 46 CFR 115.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.630 The Alternative Hull... hull examination date to the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection (OCMI) who will oversee the survey...

  16. Preparation and characterization of rice hull silica products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirit, Leni L.; Llaguno, Elma C.; Pagdanganan, Fernando C.; Hernandez, Karen N.

    2008-01-01

    Rice hull is an abundant agricultural waste material which could be a renewable energy source when combusted. The combustion residue (called rice hull ash or RHA) contains a significant amount (20% of the hull) of potentially high grade silica. Silica gels prepared from rice hull were found to have properties comparable to two commercial desiccant silica gels (Blue Merck and FNG-A) in terms of chemical and amorphous structure, surface area, desiccant characteristics, microstructure and heats of adsorption. These properties were determined from water vapor adsorption measurements, electron microscopy, and from infrared and x-ray diffraction spectra. The acid treated rice hull gels were found to have fewer elemental impurities detected by qualitative x-ray fluorescence, compared to the commercial gels. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data showed that this technique can also be used to indirectly compare impurity levels in the samples, in terms of the amorphous to crystalline phase transition. Using an improved acid treatment method, a silica gel sample was prepared from rice hull and compared to three commercial chromatographic silica gels using quantitative elemental x-ray fluorescence analysis. Elemental levels in the rice hull gel were within the range of levels or close to the detection limits of corresponding elements in the chromatographic gels. Water vapor adsorption, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed that the rice hull gel was similar to the commercial chromatographic silica gel Davison 12. Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates used as molecular sieves for purification and catalytic purposes. Zeolites X and Y were synthesized from rice hull silica gel and aluminum hydroxide. For comparison, controls were synthesized from commercial silica gel. The samples and controls exhibited characteristics infrared peaks corresponding to the vibrations of the TO 4 (T=Si, Al) of the zeolite framework. The x

  17. The study on radioactivity reduction of spent PWR cladding hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, I. H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C. J.; Jung, Y. H.; Song, K. C.; Lee, J. W.; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Hull arising from the spent PWR fuel elements is classified as a high-level radioactive waste. This report describes the radio-chemical characteristics of the hull-from PWR spent fuel of 32,000MWd/tU burn-up and 15 years cooling, discharged from Gori Unit I cycled 4-7-by examination and literature survey. On the basis of the results, a method of degradation to middle and low-level radioactive waste was proposed by dry process such as laser or plasma technique with removing the nuclides deposited on the surface of the hull

  18. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  19. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  20. A wideband optical monitor for a planetary-rotation coating-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, M.B.; Smith, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A substrate-specific, through-planet, wideband optical coating monitor is being developed to increase production yield and the understanding of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings fabricated in the Optical Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. In-situ wideband optical monitoring of planetary rotation systems allows direct monitoring of large, expensive substrates with complex layering schemes. The optical monitor discussed here is under development for coating several large (e.g., 80.7 x 41.7 x 9.0 cm) polarizers for the National Ignition Facility. Wideband optical monitoring of the production substrates is used in concert with an array of crystal monitors for process control, film parameter evaluation, and error detection with associated design reoptimization. The geometry of a planetary rotation system, which produces good uniformity across large substrates, makes optical monitoring more difficult. Triggering and timing techniques for data acquisition become key to the process because the optical coating is available only intermittently for monitoring. Failure to properly consider the effects of the system dynamics during data retrieval and processing may result in significant decreases in the spectral data's reliability. Improved data accuracy allows better determination of film thicknesses, indices, and inhomogeneities and enables in-situ error detection for design reoptimization

  1. Development of Novel Fe-Based Coating Systems for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Königstein, T.; Dröder, K.; Hoffmeister, H.-W.; Mahlfeld, G.; Schläfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, combustion engines are the most common way to power vehicles. Thereby, losses occur due to cooling, exhaust gas and friction. With regard to frictional losses, highest potentials for optimization can be found in the tribological system of the inner surface of combustion chamber and piston ring. Besides friction, corrosive stress increases, e.g., due to utilization of exhaust gas recovery. In order to save energy, reduce emissions and enhance the life span of combustion engines, the demand for innovative coating material systems, especially for the inner surface of combustion chamber, increases. This study focuses on the development of innovative iron-based coating materials for the combustion chamber. As a first step, the plasma transferred wire arc and rotating single wire arc (RSW) technologies were compared using 0.8% C-steel as a reference. Subsequently, RSW was used for coating deposition using an innovative iron-based feedstock material. In order to improve wear and corrosion resistance, boron and chromium were added to the feedstock material. After deposition, different honing topographies were manufactured and compared under tribological load. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion tests were conducted using an electrolyte simulating the exhaust gas concentrate. Especially with regard to corrosion, the novel coating system FeCrBMn showed promising results.

  2. Analysis and Alternate Selection of Nanopowder Modifiers to Improve a Special Protective Coating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Bardakhanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for rational choice of silica nanopowders as modifiers to control and improve the performance of protective coating systems operating in harsh environmental conditions. The approach is based on the multiparameter analysis of nanoparticle reactivity of similar silica synthesized by using chemical and physical methods. The analysis indicates distinct adsorption centers due to the differences in the particles formation; the features of the formation and adsorption mechanisms lead to higher diffusion capacity of the nanoparticles, synthesized by physical methods, into a paint material and finally result in stronger chemical bonds between the system elements. The approach allows reducing the consumption of paint materials by 30% or more, at least 2-3 times increasing of the coating adhesion and hence the system life. Validity of the approach is illustrated through the data obtained from comparative modeling, factory testing, and practical use of modified systems.

  3. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Hull Girder Vibrations and Bow Impact of a Large Ship Sailing in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to evaluate the hull structural vibrations response of large ships in extreme seas. Studies of hydroelastic response of an ultra large ship have been conducted with comparative verification between experimental and numerical methods in order to estimate the wave loads response considering hull vibration and water impact. A segmented self-propelling model with steel backbone system was elaborately designed and the experiments were performed in a tank. Time domain numerical simulations of the ship were carried out by using three-dimensional nonlinear hydroelasticity theory. The results from the computational analyses have been correlated with those from model tests.

  5. "Keisri hull" kui müstiline fantasy / Siimon Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prii, Siimon

    2006-01-01

    30. sept. Ugalas esietendunud Jaan Krossi "Keisri hull" (autoridramatiseering), lavastajad Jaak Allik ja Peeter Tammearu. Kunstnik on Jaanus Laagriküll ja muusikaline kujundaja Peeter Konovalov. Peaosas Peeter Tammearu

  6. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-01-01

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation

  7. Fluid-Structure Interaction Effects Resulting from Hull Appendage Coupling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avcu, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    In previous work conducted in the modeling and simulation of ships subjected to underwater explosions, there has been some debate over the influence that hull appendages have upon the dynamic response...

  8. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...... investigation of the energy absorption capability characteristics of a collided double hull VLCC side structure in collision, and (vi) development of a new modified Minorsky method for double hull tanker side structures. The tools developed and the results and insights obtained by the present study should...

  9. Hull-Propeller Interaction and Its Effect on Propeller Cavitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regener, Pelle Bo

    In order to predict the required propulsion power for a ship reliably and accurately, it is not sufficient to only evaluate the resistance of the hull and the propeller performance in open water alone. Interaction effects between hull and propeller can even be a decisive factor in ship powering...... prediction and design optimization. The hull-propeller interaction coefficients of effective wake fraction, thrust deduction factor, and relative rotative efficiency are traditionally determined by model tests. Self-propulsion model tests consistently show an increase in effective wake fractions when using...... velocities. This offers an opportunity for additional insight into hull-propeller interaction and the propeller’s actual operating condition behind the ship, as the actual (effective) inflow is computed. Self-propulsion simulations at model and full scale were carried out for a bulk carrier, once...

  10. Opvoeders se persepsies van hulle werkmotivering: 'n kwalitatiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Individue voel dat hulle self geen beheer oor die proses het nie en dat die verandering van buite ...... treatment has a negative influence on their self-esteem and moti- vation. ... tion, especially since the abolishment of corporal punishment.

  11. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  12. Investigation on the Interface Characteristics of the Thermal Barrier Coating System through Flat Cylindrical Indenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coating (TBC systems are highly advanced material systems and usually applied to insulate components from large and prolonged heat loads by utilizing thermally insulating materials. In this study, the characteristics of the interface of thermal barrier coating systems have been simulated by the finite-element method (FEM. The emphasis was put on the stress distribution at the interface which is beneath the indenter. The effect of the interface roughness, the thermally grown oxide (TGO layer's thickness, and the modulus ratio (η of the thin film with the substrate has been considered. Finite-element results showed that the influences of the interface roughness and the TGO layer's thickness on stress distribution were important. At the same time, the residual stress distribution has been investigated in detail.

  13. Ship with a double hull used to transport liquefied gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-07-18

    A ship with a double hull is described which is used to transport liquefied gases in reservoirs which are held inside the inner hull by a glide support and surrounded by insulation. Troughs are situated at the bottom and along the adjacent ends of the side walls to catch leakage from the reservoirs. These catchers are made of a material which is tough when chilled. The catchers have a suction installation to remove the leaked fluid. (5 claims)

  14. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  15. Use of Jatropha curcas hull biomass for bioactive compost production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, A.K.; Lata [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2009-01-15

    The paper deals with utilization of biomass of Jatropha hulls for production of bioactive compost. In the process of Jatropha oil extraction, a large amount of hull waste is generated. It has been found that the direct incorporation of hull into soil is considerably inefficient in providing value addition to soil due to its unfavorable physicochemical characteristics (high pH, EC and phenolic content). An alternative to this problem is the bioconversion of Jatropha hulls using effective lignocellulolytic fungal consortium, which can reduce the phytotoxicity of the degraded material. Inoculation with the fungal consortium resulted in better compost of jatropha hulls within 1 month, but it takes nearly 4 months for complete compost maturation as evident from the results of phytotoxicity test. Such compost can be applied to the acidic soil as a remedial organic manure to help maintaining sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. Likewise, high levels of cellulolytic enzymes observed during bioconversion indicate possible use of fungi for ethanol production from fermentation of hulls. (author)

  16. Preconditioning 2D Integer Data for Fast Convex Hull Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenas, José Oswaldo; Megson, Graham M; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L

    2016-01-01

    In order to accelerate computing the convex hull on a set of n points, a heuristic procedure is often applied to reduce the number of points to a set of s points, s ≤ n, which also contains the same hull. We present an algorithm to precondition 2D data with integer coordinates bounded by a box of size p × q before building a 2D convex hull, with three distinct advantages. First, we prove that under the condition min(p, q) ≤ n the algorithm executes in time within O(n); second, no explicit sorting of data is required; and third, the reduced set of s points forms a simple polygonal chain and thus can be directly pipelined into an O(n) time convex hull algorithm. This paper empirically evaluates and quantifies the speed up gained by preconditioning a set of points by a method based on the proposed algorithm before using common convex hull algorithms to build the final hull. A speedup factor of at least four is consistently found from experiments on various datasets when the condition min(p, q) ≤ n holds; the smaller the ratio min(p, q)/n is in the dataset, the greater the speedup factor achieved.

  17. Grene and Hull on types and typological thinking in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honenberger, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    Marjorie Grene (1910-2009) and David Hull (1935-2010) were among the most influential voices in late twentieth-century philosophy of biology. But, as Grene and Hull pointed out in published discussions of one another's work over the course of nearly forty years, they disagreed strongly on fundamental issues. Among these contested issues is the role of what is sometimes called "typology" and "typological thinking" in biology. In regard to taxonomy and the species problem, Hull joined Ernst Mayr's construal of typological thinking as a backward relic of pre-Darwinian science that should be overcome. Grene, however, treated the suspicion of typological thinking that characterized Hull's views, as well as those of other architects of the New Evolutionary Synthesis, as itself suspicious and even unsustainable. In this paper I review three debates between Grene and Hull bearing on the question of the validity of so-called typological thinking in biology: (1) a debate about the dispensability of concepts of "type" within evolutionary theory, paleontology, and taxonomy; (2) a debate about whether species can be adequately understood as individuals, and thereby independently of those forms of thinking Hull and Mayr had construed as "typological"; and (3) a debate about the prospects of a biologically informed theory of human nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of zircaloy cladding hulls by isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegman, R.; Burstroem, M.

    1984-12-01

    A method for the treatment of Zircaloy fuel hulls is proposed. It involves hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for making large, completely densified metallic bodies of the waste. The hulls are packed into a bellows-shaped container of steel. On packing the fuel hulls give a filling factor of only 14%, which is too low for non-deformable compaction in a normal container, but by using a belloped container, a non-deformable compaction can be obtained without any pretreatment of the hulls. Fully dense and mechanically strong blocks of Zircaloy can be fabricated by holding them at temperatures of around 1000 degrees C for three hours. It is also feasible to incorporate the other metallic parts of the fuel bundle, such as top and bottom tie plates and spacers, in the pressing. The HIP-densified hulls provide an effective means of self-containment of radioactive waste due to the excellent corrosion resistance of Zircaloy. A waste loading factor of close to 100% can be realized. Futher, a volume reduction factor of 7 and a surface reduction factor of aout 250 for a 1-ton canister can be achieved. Equilibrium calculations have shown that tritium present in the hulls can quantitatively be contained in the HIPed block. A study has been made of a possible process for industrilscale use. (Author)

  19. Plasma coatings of nitrogen polymers on metal prostheses of the circulatory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez J, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work has a study about the synthesis of poly aniline, poly allylamine and poly pyrrole doped with iodine onto metallic surfaces similar to stents for the circulatory system. Ar, water and hydrogen peroxide plasmas were used for eroding, conditioning and synthesizing polymers that potentially reduce some rejection reactions when stents are implanted in the human body. Stents are small metallic meshes that applied inside collapsed arteries or veins enlarge the diameter and restore the blood flow, however the metallic surfaces usually cause rejection reactions that obstruct the veins again. To give solutions to this problem, in this work is studied the synthesis of biocompatible polymer coatings on the stents that resist the blood flow forming a biocompatible interface between metal and blood. The metallic substrates were eroded and chemically prepared with Ar, H_2O and/or H_2O_2 glow discharges on which the polymers were synthesized by plasma. The coatings were morphologically characterized by optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, the chemical structure was studied by infrared and photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy. The hydrophilicity was studied measuring the advance static contact angle and the adhesion was evaluated indirectly with scanning electron microscopy after two months submerged in buffered phosphate solutions. The results indicate that the polymers grew following the superficial morphology; that the conditioning with Ar ions erode the substrates and that the conditioning with H_2O or H_2O_2 erodes and activates the surface generating oxygen bridges which help in the polymer-metal adhesion. The chemical structure of the polymeric coatings contain crosslinked structures that correspond to links between monomers with the participation of all atoms, states that suggest monomer fragmentation and oxidation and states that indicate oxygen bridges in the polymers. The coatings had contact angles close to 90 degrees where is located the line

  20. Transparent Si–DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeyama, Masami, E-mail: ikeyama3@aist.go.jp; Sonoda, Tsutomu, E-mail: tsutomu.sonoda@aist.go.jp

    2013-07-15

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si–DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si–DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si–DLC coating’s thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si–DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si–DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si–DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si–DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  1. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Efficient TEA CO2 laser based... by keeping energy density below the damage threshold. The advantage of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser system is that a laser frequency and temporal profile can be chosen to maximize paint removal and concurrently minimize substrate damage. To achieve...

  2. Characterization of Coated Sand Cores from Two Different Binder Systems for Grey Iron Castings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Poulsen, Thomas

    or veining and metal penetration defects. The use of refractory coatings on cores is fundamental to obtaining acceptable casting surface quality and is used on resin bonded cores in production foundries. In this study new sol gel-coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated......Expansion defects on the surface of the castings include sand burn-in, metal penetration and/or veining, finning or scab. Veining or finning and metal penetration are of interest. These defects are associated with silica sand and result from the penetration of liquid metal into cracks formed during...... differential expansion of the core during heating. The rapid expansion of silica sand up to 600 oC and especially at 573 oC, where the α – β phase transformation occurs, is the cause of stresses in the core system. These stresses cause crack formation and metal melt flows into these cracks causing finning...

  3. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  4. Comparison of the degradation behaviour of fusion-bonded epoxy powder coating systems under flowing and static immersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.H.; Zhang, L.X.; Ke, W.

    2006-01-01

    The degradation of three different fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) powder coating systems under flowing and static immersion condition has been monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) when exposed to 3% NaCl aqueous solution at 60 o C. The aim of this project was to determine the impact of flowing condition on the degradation of the protective properties of polymer coatings during exposure to corrosive medium. Using a rotating cylinder apparatus, the immersion tests under the flowing condition were performed. The relative permittivity of coating, ε r =C c δε 0 A, where the coating capacitance C c was calculated from the high frequency data of impedance spectrum, was selected as the index to monitor property variation with immersion time. Experimental results showed that the flowing condition aggravated the deterioration of coatings. The results were interpreted in terms of a model in which flowing condition changes coating/solution interface state and then accelerates the ions to diffuse through the coating. The electrochemical results were in agreement with the final visual observation. The present investigation suggests that flowing test provides an effective accelerating way to evaluate the degradation of coating system

  5. Pyrolysis kinetics of raw and hydrothermally carbonized Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-03-01

    The pyrolysis of karanj fruit hulls (KFH) and karanj fruit hull hydrothermal carbonization (KFH-HTC) hydrochar was thermogravimetrically investigated under a nitrogen environment at 5 °C/min, 10 °C/min, and 20 °C/min. The pyrolysis decomposition of KFH biomass was faster than that of KFH-HTC hydrochar because of the high volatility and fixed carbon of KFH biomass. Weight loss percentage was also affected by the heating rates. The kinetic data were evaluated with the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. The activation energy values obtained with these two methods were 61.06 and 68.53 kJ/mol for KFH biomass and 130.49 and 135.87 kJ/mol for KFH-HTC hydrochar, respectively. The analysis of kinetic process mechanisms was verified with the Coats-Redfern method. KFH-HTC hydrochar may play a potential role in transforming biomass to energy-rich feedstock for thermochemical applications because of its high heating value, high fixed carbon, and low ash and sulfur contents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Yoshihiro [NKK Corp., Tsu, Mie (Japan); Shoji, Norio [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Namioka, Toshiyuki [Nippon Kokan Koji Corp., Osaka (Japan); Komura, Minoru [Nitto Denko Corp., Fukaya, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Evans, Laura J.; McCue, Terry R.; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coated SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced HfO2 and rare earth silicate environmental barrier coatings (EBCs), along with multicomponent hafnium and rare earth silicide EBC bond coats have been developed. The coating degradation mechanisms in the laboratory simulated engine thermal cycling, and fatigue-creep operating environments are also being investigated. This paper will focus on the microstructural and compositional evolutions of an advanced environmental barrier coating system on a SiC-SiC CMC substrate during the high temperature simulated durability tests, by using a Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS). The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will also be discussed. The detailed analysis results help understand the EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements to achieve more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings.

  8. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  9. Fluid dynamic interface between hull and hydrofoil; Sentai to suichuyoku no ryutai rikigakuteki kansho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K; Ando, J; Nakatake, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    For the high-speed ship with hydrofoil, it is important to grasp the mutual interference between its hydrofoil and hull. In this study, effects of the state of hydrofoils and velocity on the hull were fluid-dynamically investigated through the numerical calculation by means of Rankine source method using a Wigley model with two hydrofoils. Before considering the model with hydrofoils, the attitude change of a hull without hydrofoils during traveling in high-speed was examined. For the high-speed ship, various measuring systems have been conceived due to the large change in its attitude. The Wigley model has been used for the numerical calculation when considering the attitude change in the medium- and low-speed regions. In this study, resistance tests without constraining the sinkage and trim were conducted using a Wigley model in the high-speed region around Fn=1.0, which have not been usually conducted. The attitude changes were compared with the numerical calculation results by the Rankine source method. The wave making resistance and attitude change of the Wigley model with hydrofoils were also calculated. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Mathematical model of small water-plane area twin-hull and application in marine simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Lyu, Zhenwang; Yin, Yong; Jin, Yicheng

    2013-09-01

    Small water-plane area twin-hull (SWATH) has drawn the attention of many researchers due to its good sea-keeping ability. In this paper, MMG's idea of separation was used to perform SWATH movement modeling and simulation; respectively the forces and moment of SWATH were divided into bare hull, propeller, rudder at the fluid hydrodynamics, etc. Wake coefficient at the propellers which reduces thrust coefficient, and rudder mutual interference forces among the hull and propeller, for the calculation of SWATH, were all considered. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method of integration was used by solving differential equations, in order to get SWATH's movement states. As an example, a turning test at full speed and full starboard rudder of `Seagull' craft is shown. The simulation results show the SWATH's regular pattern and trend of motion. It verifies the correctness of the mathematical model of the turning movement. The SWATH's mathematical model is applied to marine simulator in order to train the pilots or seamen, or safety assessment for ocean engineering project. Lastly, the full mission navigation simulating system (FMNSS) was determined to be a successful virtual reality technology application sample in the field of navigation simulation.

  11. Experiments with polymer coated microspheres irradiated by the Shiva laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Manes, K.R.; Matthews, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Polymer coated spherical targets have been irradiated by the Shiva laser system in an effort to compress the contained 10 mg/cc DT fuel to super liquid densities. Glass microspheres of 140 μm ID and 5 μm wall thickness with polymer coatings 15 μm to 100 μm thick have been irradiated with laser pulses of 4 kilojoules in 200 psec FWHM. Target performance was diagnosed with neutron yield measurements, radiochemistry, Argon line imaging, and x-ray imaging techniques. Ball in plate targets achieved greater implosion symmetry than free-standing ball targets. With yields of 10 7 to 10 8 neutrons, targets reached DT fuel compressions of several times liquid density

  12. Positioning system of a torch used in thermal spray coatings applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Absalón Torres-Barahona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, construction and performance evaluation of a positioning system used for the deposition of coatings with molten particles, by using a torch CastoDyn Ds 8000 thermal spray with oxyacetylene combustion. The design has been done with parameters obtained in the laboratory of materials of the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, and the information determined from the evaluation of the device, allows to control the main process variables as the projection distance, flow powder, torch speed and rotation speed of the sample holder; this has been seen in coatings made in application tests zirconia / nickel on a carbon steel substrate and analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy - SEM.

  13. Biofibres from biofuel industrial byproduct-Pongamia pinnata seed hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Puttaswamy; Srinikethan, Govindan; Shetty, K Vidya

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel production using Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) seeds results in large amount of unused seed hull. These seed hulls serve as a potential source for cellulose fibres which can be exploited as reinforcement in composites. These seed hulls were processed using chlorination and alkaline extraction process in order to isolate cellulose fibres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) analysis demonstrated the morphological changes in the fibre structure. Cellulose microfibres of diameter 6-8 µm, hydrodynamic diameter of 58.4 nm and length of 535 nm were isolated. Thermal stability was enhanced by 70 °C and crystallinity index (CI) by 19.8% ensuring isolation of crystalline cellulose fibres. The sequential chlorination and alkaline treatment stemmed to the isolation of cellulose fibres from P. pinnata seed hull. The isolated cellulose fibres possessed enhanced morphological, thermal, and crystalline properties in comparison with P. pinnata seed hull. These cellulose microfibres may potentially find application as biofillers in biodegradable composites by augmenting their properties.

  14. Region-of-interest volumetric visual hull refinement

    KAUST Repository

    Knoblauch, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a region-of-interest visual hull refinement technique, based on flexible voxel grids for volumetric visual hull reconstructions. Region-of-interest refinement is based on a multipass process, beginning with a focussed visual hull reconstruction, resulting in a first 3D approximation of the target, followed by a region-of-interest estimation, tasked with identifying features of interest, which in turn are used to locally refine the voxel grid and extract a higher-resolution surface representation for those regions. This approach is illustrated for the reconstruction of avatars for use in tele-immersion environments, where head and hand regions are of higher interest. To allow reproducability and direct comparison a publicly available data set for human visual hull reconstruction is used. This paper shows that region-of-interest reconstruction of the target is faster and visually comparable to higher resolution focused visual hull reconstructions. This approach reduces the amount of data generated through the reconstruction, allowing faster post processing, as rendering or networking of the surface voxels. Reconstruction speeds support smooth interactions between the avatar and the virtual environment, while the improved resolution of its facial region and hands creates a higher-degree of immersion and potentially impacts the perception of body language, facial expressions and eye-to-eye contact. Copyright © 2010 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  15. Cathode characterization system: preliminary results with (Ba,Sr,Ca) O coated cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nono, M.C.A.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Barroso, J.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Spassovsky, I.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a cathode characterization system for studying the emission parameters of thermal electron emitters is reported. The system consists of vacuum chamber, power supplies and equipment for measuring and control. Measurements have been taken of the emission current as function of cathode temperature and anode voltage. Several (Ba, Sr) O coated cathodes were tested and the results have shown good agreement with Child's and Richardson's laws. The experimental work function is between 1.0 and 2.0 e V. All emission parameters measured are consistent with international literature data. (author)

  16. Zeolite and wollastonite synthesis from rice hull ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Alberto de Andrade

    2006-01-01

    Rice hull ash (RHA) is a industry scrap rich in amorphous silica. A simple and low-energy cost method for the extraction of this silica was researched. A low level of impurity and high reactivity material was produced, which is appropriate for the synthesis of zeolites and wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ). The synthetic zeolites has not similar structures in nature, and they have been more and more valued in the market due to their purity and efficiency in specific applications like ion exchange, molecular sieve and catalysis areas. High purity wollastonite has many applications in manufacturing and agriculture. The mineral wollastonite can be formed in nature in different ways; it is generally accepted two forming processes, both encompassing limestone metamorphism (heat and pressure). In this work, a new process for the synthesis of zeolites and wollastonite from RHA colloidal silica was developed. Moreover, the process is aimed at lower energy costs, fewer stages and fewer reactants consume. In this work, zeolite A used in detergent and zeolite ZSM-5, employed in the petrochemical industry due to its high selectivity in catalytic reactions and its high thermo and acid stability, were synthesized. The first step of the wollastonite synthesis was studied, with the purpose of obtaining calcium hydrosilicate. Eleven different hydrosilicates occur in the system Ca(OH) 2 -SiO 2 -H 2 O, in the second step it was annealed to form the wollastonite phase. (author)

  17. Sustainable design and manufacturing of multifunctional polymer nanocomposite coatings: A multiscale systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie

    Polymer nanocomposites have a great potential to be a dominant coating material in a wide range of applications in the automotive, aerospace, ship-making, construction, and pharmaceutical industries. However, how to realize design sustainability of this type of nanostructured materials and how to ensure the true optimality of the product quality and process performance in coating manufacturing remain as a mountaintop area. The major challenges arise from the intrinsic multiscale nature of the material-process-product system and the need to manipulate the high levels of complexity and uncertainty in design and manufacturing processes. This research centers on the development of a comprehensive multiscale computational methodology and a computer-aided tool set that can facilitate multifunctional nanocoating design and application from novel function envisioning and idea refinement, to knowledge discovery and design solution derivation, and further to performance testing in industrial applications and life cycle analysis. The principal idea is to achieve exceptional system performance through concurrent characterization and optimization of materials, product and associated manufacturing processes covering a wide range of length and time scales. Multiscale modeling and simulation techniques ranging from microscopic molecular modeling to classical continuum modeling are seamlessly coupled. The tight integration of different methods and theories at individual scales allows the prediction of macroscopic coating performance from the fundamental molecular behavior. Goal-oriented design is also pursued by integrating additional methods for bio-inspired dynamic optimization and computational task management that can be implemented in a hierarchical computing architecture. Furthermore, multiscale systems methodologies are developed to achieve the best possible material application towards sustainable manufacturing. Automotive coating manufacturing, that involves paint spay and

  18. Antifriction coating of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system for plain bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkov, Pavel; Kontsevoi, Yurii; Mejlakh, Anna; Pastukhov, Eduard; Shubin, Alexey; Goyda, Eduard; Sipatov, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Aluminium, copper and their compounds are used in common as basis for antifriction coatings of plain bearings. Antifriction testing of plain bearings (based on Al and Cu) made by leading automotive manufacturers from Germany, Japan, USA, United Kingdom and Russia were carried out to make judicious selection of basis for development of new antifriction material. Testing was carried out using friction machine. It was defined that materials based on Cu provide better durability and robustness of plain bearings in comparison with Al based ones. The new antifriction composite coatings based on copper were developed taking into account the requirements specified for plain bearings of internal-combustion engine. Pilot samples of plain bearings with antifriction coatings of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system were produced. The antifriction composite having Cu-5Fe-5Al5Fe2-10Pb (mass %) composition has demonstrated low friction factor and high wear-resistance. Metallographic analysis of pilot samples was carried out by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Health implications of PAH release from coated cast iron drinking water distribution systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokker, E J Mirjam; van de Ven, Bianca M; de Jongh, Cindy M; Slaats, P G G Nellie

    2013-05-01

    Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations.

  20. The effect of solvents and hydrophilic additive on stable coating and controllable sirolimus release system for drug-eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Min; Park, Sung-Bin; Bedair, Tarek M; Kim, Man-Ho; Park, Bang Ju; Joung, Yoon Ki; Han, Dong Keun

    2017-09-01

    Various drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been developed to prevent restenosis after stent implantation. However, DES still needs to improve the drug-in-polymer coating stability and control of drug release for effective clinical treatment. In this study, the cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy surface was coated with biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) and sirolimus (SRL) mixed with hydrophilic Pluronic F127 additive by using ultrasonic spray coating system in order to achieve a stable coating surface and control SRL release. The degradation of PDLLA/SRL coating was studied under physiological solution. It was found that adding F127 reduced the degradation of PDLLA and improved the coating stability during 60days. The effects of organic solvent such as chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) on the coating uniformity were also examined. It was revealed that THF produced a very smooth and uniform coating compared to chloroform. The patterns of in vitro drug release according to the type of organic solvent and hydrophilic additive proposed the possibility of controllable drug release design in DES. It was found that using F127 the drug release was sustained regardless of the organic solvent used. In addition, THF was able to get faster and controlled release profile when compared to chloroform. The structure of SRL molecules in different organic solvents was investigated using ultra-small angle neutron scattering. Furthermore, the structure of SRL is concentration-dependent in chloroform with tight nature under high concentration, but concentration-independent in THF. These results strongly demonstrated that coating stability and drug release patterns can be changed by physicochemical properties of various parameters such as organic solvents, additive, and coating strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Deposition of titanium coating on SiC fiber by chemical vapor deposition with Ti-I{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian, E-mail: luo_shenfan@hotmail.com; Wu, Shuai; Yang, Yan-qing; Jin, Na; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transformation paths of (Ti + I{sub 2}) powder to Ti coating is: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. • Uniform coating was obtained on SiC fiber, but it contained Si and C elements. • Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. • Deposition thickness increased with time and achieved the maximum at 90 min. - Abstract: Titanium coating was prepared on SiC fiber using titanium-iodine (Ti-I{sub 2}) mixture by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental observation were carried out in this work. The thermodynamic analysis of the reactions in the Ti-I{sub 2} system indicates that Ti and I{sub 2} raw powder materials transform to titanium coating as follows: Ti + I{sub 2} → (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}), and (TiI{sub 2}, TiI{sub 3}) → Ti. In theory, the conversions of TiI{sub 3} and TiI{sub 2} reach the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} is 1:1.5, while in actual experiment that reached the maximum when Ti:I{sub 2} was 1:2, as there existed the waste of I{sub 2} due to sublimation. Typical deposited coating is relatively flat and uniform. However, as SiC is prone to react with Ti at high temperatures, the obtained coating contained some Si and C elements except for Ti. So the coating was not a pure Ti coating but contained some carbides and silicides. Deposition rate of the coating increased with the increase of temperature. The deposited thickness increased with the increase of heat preservation time, and achieved the maximum thickness at 90 min.

  2. Silica-coated flexible liposomes as a nanohybrid delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li, Yan Zhang, Tingting Su, Lianlian Feng, Yingying Long, Zhangbao ChenKey Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, ChinaAbstract: We investigated flexible liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system. However, enhanced membrane fluidity and structural deformability may necessitate liposomal surface modification when facing the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, silica-coated flexible liposomes loaded with curcumin (CUR-SLs having poor water solubility as a model drug were prepared by a thin-film method with homogenization, followed by the formation of a silica shell by the sol-gel process. We systematically investigated the physical properties, drug release behavior, pharmacodynamics, and bioavailability of CUR-SLs. CUR-SLs had a mean diameter of 157 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.14, while the apparent entrapment efficiency was 90.62%. Compared with curcumin-loaded flexible liposomes (CUR-FLs without silica-coatings, CUR-SLs had significantly higher stability against artificial gastric fluid and showed more sustained drug release in artificial intestinal fluid as determined by in vitro release assays. The bioavailability of CUR-SLs and CUR-FLs was 7.76- and 2.35-fold higher, respectively, than that of curcumin suspensions. Silica coating markedly improved the stability of flexible liposomes, and CUR-SLs exhibited a 3.31-fold increase in bioavailability compared with CUR-FLs, indicating that silica-coated flexible liposomes may be employed as a potential carrier to deliver drugs with poor water solubility via the oral route with improved bioavailability.Keywords: silica, flexible liposome, oral bioavailability, curcumin

  3. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of 201Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto

    1986-01-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by 201 Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of 201 Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in 201 Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of 201 Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized. (author)

  4. The role of hull in germination and salinity tolerance in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hulled and dehulled) of sunflower seeds of Opal, Shelly (Confectionary) and Pactol (Oily) were tested to determine the effects of the hull on salinity tolerance during germination. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (day), root and ...

  5. Determining Representative Elementary Volume For Multiple Petrophysical Parameters using a Convex Hull Analysis of Digital Rock Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S.; Gray, F.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in 3D pore-scale imaging and computational methods have allowed an exceptionally detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of the fluid flow in complex porous media. A fundamental problem in pore-scale imaging and modelling is how to represent and model the range of scales encountered in porous media, starting from the smallest pore spaces. In this study, a novel method is presented for determining the representative elementary volume (REV) of a rock for several parameters simultaneously. We calculate the two main macroscopic petrophysical parameters, porosity and single-phase permeability, using micro CT imaging and Lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations for 14 different porous media, including sandpacks, sandstones and carbonates. The concept of the `Convex Hull' is then applied to calculate the REV for both parameters simultaneously using a plot of the area of the convex hull as a function of the sub-volume, capturing the different scales of heterogeneity from the pore-scale imaging. The results also show that the area of the convex hull (for well-chosen parameters such as the log of the permeability and the porosity) decays exponentially with sub-sample size suggesting a computationally efficient way to determine the system size needed to calculate the parameters to high accuracy (small convex hull area). Finally we propose using a characteristic length such as the pore size to choose an efficient absolute voxel size for the numerical rock.

  6. Wave-induced Ship Hull Vibrations in Stochastic Seaways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Dogliani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical Study is undertaken on the determination of wave-induced loads in flexible ship hulls. The calculations are performed within the framework of a non-linear, quadratic strip theory formulated in the frequency domain. Included are non-linear effects due to changes in added mass......, hydrodynamic damping and water line breadth with sectional immersion in waves. The study is limited to continuous excitations from the waves and thus transient so-called whipping vibrations due to slamming loads are not considered.Because of the non-linearities the ship hull responses become non...... to the large separation between dominating wave frequencies and the lowest two-node frequency of the hull beam. Both extreme value predictions and fatigue damage are considered.For a fast container ship the rigid body and two-node (springing) vertical wave-induced bending moments amidship are calculated...

  7. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  8. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE FROM OAT HULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Paschoal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.

  10. Yeast hulls: effect on spontaneous fermentation in different vinification conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa López

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of yeast hulls in vinification was investigated during three consecutive years. The study was carried out in the experimental winery of C.I.D.A in La Rioja (Spain with free running white grape juice of the Viura variety. Four different vinifications were studied. In two of these vinifications, stuck fermentations were detected. In all the studies, the addition of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts improved the fermentation kinetics, increasing the number of viable yeasts at the end of the exponential stage and decreasing the final content of reducing sugars. This work revealed a new effect of yeast hull addition which had not been identified previously; their selection effect on the wild yeast strain in spontaneous fermentation.

  11. The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard

    2010-05-01

    The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account

  12. A Bone Graft Substitutes Hydroxyapatite Coated Gentamycin (Bonigent) As Drug Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnah Mustaffa; Fauziah Othman; Asmah Rahmat; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Shaaban Kasim; Narimah Abu Baka; Nasani Nasrul

    2014-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite coated with antibiotic gentamycin for drug delivery system is namely Bonigent. In this product, antibiotic (gentamycin) is coated into the scaffolds HA porous and Would then be released slowly into the bone tissue upon implantation, this way would increase drug penetration, thus avoiding systemic infection, preventing the formation of biofilm and improved healing. When a foreign material (implants or scaffolds of bone graft substitutes) is introduced into the body, there would be normally formation of biofilm that can lead to systemic infection and cause device failure. Surgeon will use antibiotic such as gentamycin to avoid these effects. The purpose of this project is to investigate the feasibility of fabricating a drug delivery system (DDS) that serves dual functions, to combating biofilms and to enhance bone in growths. We also successfully producing a scaffold HA bone graft substitutes incorporated with antibiotic gentamycin to combating bio-film and prevent the failure medical device implant for healthy and human nation. Bone graft substitutes into porous scaffolds suitable for drug delivery; loading the scaffolds with gentamycin; and study release rate in vivo were studied. Porous bone grafts substitutes are coated with antibiotic gentamycin by immerse technique. In order to limit biofilm formation, biomaterials loaded with suitable antibiotics can be used as a preventative measure. The biomaterials hydroxyapatite (HA) is an osteoconductive space filler and is produced locally by Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Porous HA and HA/ TCP has the potential to be used as synthetic bone graft materials because it is bioactive and biocompatible with bone tissues. Development of a product as bone graft substitute (BGS) with special ability of delivering drug (gentamycin) to bone tissue for better and more effective healing process. Characterization of the physical analysis, porosity, surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis (SEM) and

  13. A multi-step approach for testing non-toxic amphiphilic antifouling coatings against marine microfouling at different levels of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Aitha, Vishwa Prasad; Heuer, Kirsten; Ahlers, Herbert; Roland, Katrin; Fiedel, Michael; Philipp, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    Marine biofouling on artificial surfaces such as ship hulls or fish farming nets causes enormous economic damage. The time for the developmental process of antifouling coatings can be shortened by reliable laboratory assays. For designing such test systems, it is important that toxic effects can be excluded, that multiple parameters can be addressed simultaneously and that mechanistic aspects can be included. In this study, a multi-step approach for testing antifouling coatings was established employing photoautotrophic biofilm formation of marine microorganisms in micro- and mesoscoms. Degree and pattern of biofilm formation was determined by quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence. For the microcosms, co-cultures of diatoms and a heterotrophic bacterium were exposed to fouling-release coatings. For the mesocosms, a novel device was developed that permits parallel quantification of a multitude of coatings under defined conditions with varying degrees of shear stress. Additionally, the antifouling coatings were tested for leaching of potential compounds and finally tested in sea trials. This multistep-approach revealed that the individual steps led to consistent results regarding antifouling activity of the coatings. Furthermore, the novel mesocosm system can be employed for advanced antifouling analysis including metagenomic approaches for determination of microbial diversity attaching to different coatings under changing shear forces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined Thermomechanical and Environmental Durability of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the EBC-CMC system durability, ensuring the successful implementations of the high temperature and lightweight engine component technologies for engine applications.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating and CMC developments for SiC/SiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions and processing methods. The emphasis has been particularly placed on thermomechanical and environment durability evaluations of EBC-CMC systems. We have also addressed the integration of the EBCs with advanced SiC/SiC CMCs, and studied the effects of combustion environments and Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) deposits on the durability of the EBC-CMC systems under thermal gradient and mechanical loading conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including multicomponent rare earth silicate EBCs and HfO2-Si based bond coats, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  15. Construction of a novel pH-sensitive drug release system from mesoporous silica tablets coated with Eudragit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingpu; Qu, Fengyu; Wang, Yu; Lin, Huiming; Wu, Xiang; Jin, Yingxue

    2011-03-01

    A novel pH-sensitive drug release system has been established by coating Eudragit (Eud) on drug-loaded mesoporous silica (MS) tablets. The release rate of ibuprofen (IBU) from the MS was retarded by coating with Eudragit S-100, and the higher retardation was due to the increase of coating concentration and the coating layers. The target position of the release depended on the pH of the release medium, which was confirmed by the drug release from IBU/MS/Eud increasing rapidly with the change of medium pH from 1.2 to 7.4. This drug delivery system could prohibit irritant drug from leaking in the stomach and make it only release in the intestine. The loaded and unloaded drug samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), N 2 adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  16. 46 CFR 154.182 - Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. 154.182... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.182 Contiguous hull structure: Production weld test. If a portion of the contiguous hull structure is designed for a temperature colder than −34 °C (−30 °F) and is not part of the...

  17. Fracture of a Brittle-Particle Ductile Matrix Composite with Applications to a Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianculli, Steven J.

    In material systems consisting of hard second phase particles in a ductile matrix, failure initiating from cracking of the second phase particles is an important failure mechanism. This dissertation applies the principles of fracture mechanics to consider this problem, first from the standpoint of fracture of the particles, and then the onset of crack propagation from fractured particles. This research was inspired by the observation of the failure mechanism of a commercial zinc-based anti-corrosion coating and the analysis was initially approached as coatings problem. As the work progressed it became evident that failure mechanism was relevant to a broad range of composite material systems and research approach was generalized to consider failure of a system consisting of ellipsoidal second phase particles in a ductile matrix. The starting point for the analysis is the classical Eshelby Problem, which considered stress transfer from the matrix to an ellipsoidal inclusion. The particle fracture problem is approached by considering cracks within particles and how they are affected by the particle/matrix interface, the difference in properties between the particle and matrix, and by particle shape. These effects are mapped out for a wide range of material combinations. The trends developed show that, although the particle fracture problem is very complex, the potential for fracture among a range of particle shapes can, for certain ranges in particle shape, be considered easily on the basis of the Eshelby Stress alone. Additionally, the evaluation of cracks near the curved particle/matrix interface adds to the existing body of work of cracks approaching bi-material interfaces in layered material systems. The onset of crack propagation from fractured particles is then considered as a function of particle shape and mismatch in material properties between the particle and matrix. This behavior is mapped out for a wide range of material combinations. The final section of

  18. Convex Hull Abstraction in Specialisation of CLP Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peralta, J.C.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We introduce an abstract domain consisting of atomic formulas constrained by linear arithmetic constraints (or convex hulls). This domain is used in an algorithm for specialization of constraint logic programs. The algorithm incorporates in a single phase both top-down goal directed propagation...... and bottom-up answer propagation, and uses a widening on the convex hull domain to ensure termination. We give examples to show the precision gained by this approach over other methods in the literature for specializing constraint logic programs. The specialization method can also be used for ordinary logic...

  19. Coatings for laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Optical coatings are used in lasers systems for fusion research to control beam propagation and reduce surface reflection losses. The performance of coatings is important in the design, reliability, energy output, and cost of the laser systems. Significant developments in coating technology are required for future lasers for fusion research and eventual power reactors

  20. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification referring...

  1. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  2. 14 CFR 25.533 - Hull and main float bottom pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float bottom pressures. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.533 Hull and main float bottom pressures. (a) General. The hull and main float structure, including frames and bulkheads...

  3. 46 CFR 32.63-20 - Hull structure-B/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull structure-B/ALL. 32.63-20 Section 32.63-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull and Cargo Tank Requirements for Tank Barges Constructed or Converted On or After July 1, 1964...

  4. 46 CFR 115.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To continue to participate in...

  5. 46 CFR 71.50-31 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) program. (a) To continue to participate in the AHE Program, vessel operators must conduct an annual hull condition assessment. At a minimum, vessel operators must...

  6. 46 CFR 176.660 - Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued participation in the Alternative Hull... (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.660 Continued participation in the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program. (a) To...

  7. 46 CFR 45.135 - Hull openings at or below freeboard deck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. 45.135 Section 45.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.135 Hull openings at or below freeboard deck. Closures for hull...

  8. 14 CFR 23.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float landing conditions. 23... Water Loads § 23.529 Hull and main float landing conditions. (a) Symmetrical step, bow, and stern... directed perpendicularly to the keel line. (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes...

  9. 14 CFR 23.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float takeoff condition. 23.531 Section 23.531 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Water Loads § 23.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull...

  10. Of Curriculum Conceptions, Orientations, and Cultures: A Rejoinder to John E. Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Brummelen, Harro

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a rejoinder to John E. Hull. Van Brummelen first states his appreciation of John Hull's thoughtful evaluation of his views of curriculum, views in which many Christian educators have played a part. It has been several decades since the author spelled out what Hull calls an "education for discipleship"…

  11. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. (a... the east coast of Massachusetts from the easternmost radio tower at Hull, charted in approximate...

  12. 14 CFR 25.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 25.527... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.527 Hull and main... 1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure 2 of appendix B. (7) r x=ratio...

  13. 46 CFR 42.09-30 - Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels...-30 Additional survey requirements for steel-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42...) When the vessel is in drydock, the hull plating, etc., shall be examined. (c) The holds, 'tween decks...

  14. 46 CFR 31.10-20 - Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations-T/B ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-20 Definitions relating to hull examinations—T/B ALL. As used in this part— (a... examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull fittings. (b...

  15. 14 CFR 23.527 - Hull and main float load factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float load factors. 23.527... Water Loads § 23.527 Hull and main float load factors. (a) Water reaction load factors nw must be...=seaplane landing weight in pounds. (6) K1=empirical hull station weighing factor, in accordance with figure...

  16. 33 CFR 181.27 - Information displayed near hull identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information displayed near hull... displayed near hull identification number. With the exception of the characters “US-”, which constitute the... the 12-character hull identification number (HIN), that information must be separated from the HIN by...

  17. 46 CFR 176.630 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.630 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application. If your vessel meets the eligibility...

  18. 46 CFR 91.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 91.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 91.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat or...

  19. 46 CFR 71.50-25 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. 71.50-25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-25 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) procedure. (a) To complete the underwater survey you must— (1) Perform a general examination of the underwater hull plating...

  20. 46 CFR 176.650 - Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or...) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.650 Alternative Hull Examination Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.529 - Hull and main float landing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float landing conditions. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.529 Hull and main.... (b) Unsymmetrical landing for hull and single float seaplanes. Unsymmetrical step, bow, and stern...

  2. 78 FR 50335 - Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...-AB96 Double Hull Tanker Escorts on the Waters of Prince William Sound, Alaska AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... mandates two tug escorts for double hull tankers over 5,000 gross tons transporting oil in bulk in PWS. The... tug escort requirements apply to certain double hull tankers. DATES: This interim rule is effective...

  3. 46 CFR 108.133 - Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. 108.133 Section 108.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A... Protection § 108.133 Hull superstructure, structural bulkheads, decks, and deckhouses. Each hull...

  4. 46 CFR 71.50-19 - The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program...) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 71.50-19 The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... apply to the AHE Program. You must submit an application at least 90 days before the requested hull...

  5. 46 CFR 189.40-1 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 189.40-1... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Drydocking § 189.40-1 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As...-hull fittings. (b) Internal structural examination means an examination of the vessel while afloat or...

  6. 46 CFR 115.650 - Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options... MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.650 Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program options: Divers or underwater ROV. To complete your underwater...

  7. 14 CFR 25.531 - Hull and main float takeoff condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and main float takeoff condition. 25... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 25.531 Hull and main float takeoff condition. For the wing and its attachment to the hull or main float— (a) The aerodynamic...

  8. 77 FR 29251 - Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the navigable waters off of Nantasket Beach in the vicinity of Hull, MA for a Carnival... spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. Discussion of Proposed Rule Hull...

  9. 46 CFR 167.15-27 - Definitions relating to hull examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions relating to hull examinations. 167.15-27... PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-27 Definitions relating to hull examinations. As used... slipway for an examination of all accessible parts of the vessel's underwater body and all through-hull...

  10. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be...

  11. Management of waste cladding hulls. Part II. An assessment of zirconium pyrophoricity and recommendations for handling waste hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullen, B.J.; Levitz, N.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1977-11-01

    This report reviews experience and research related to the pyrophoricity of zirconium and zirconium alloys. The results of recent investigations of the behavior of Zircaloy and some observations of industrial handling and treatment of Zircaloy tubing and scrap are also discussed. A model for the management of waste Zircaloy cladding hulls from light water reactor fuel reprocessing is offered, based on an evaluation of the reviewed information. It is concluded that waste Zircaloy cladding hulls do not constitute a pyrophoric hazard if, following the model flow sheet, finely divided metal is oxidized during the management procedure. Steps alternative to the model are described which yield zirconium in deactivated form and also accomplish varying degrees of transuranic decontamination. Information collected into appendixes is (1) a collation of zirconium pyrophoricity data from the literature, (2) calculated radioactivity contents in Zircaloy cladding hulls from spent LWR fuels, and (3) results of a laboratory study on volatilization of zirconium from Zircaloy using HCl or Cl 2

  12. Durability and CMAS Resistance of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper will emphasize advanced environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, by using advanced coating compositions and processing, in conjunction with mechanical and environment testing and durability validations. The coating-CMC degradations and durability in the laboratory simulated engine fatigue-creep and complex operating environments are being addressed. The effects of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the degradation mechanisms of the environmental barrier coating systems will be discussed. The results help understand the advanced EBC-CMC system performance, aiming at the durability improvements of more robust, prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings for successful applications of the component technologies and lifing methodologies.

  13. A study on antifouling technique through seawater electrolyzing reaction on ship hull surface 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi; Saito, Kimio; Usami, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The antifouling technique through seawater electrolysis for ship hulls may be realized by an antifoul-ing system consisting of a power unit and the electro-conductive film. In the electric field formed bysuch an antifouling system, besides that both the electro-conductive film layer sub-region and the sea-water sub-region are included, polarization occurs on the interface between electro-conductive film layerand seawater. Therefore, based on the Interface Electro-Double Layer theory, a numeri...

  14. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  15. Method for hull-less barley transformation and manipulation of grain mixed-linkage beta-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Li; Collins, Helen M; Singh, Rohan R; Kibble, Natalie A J; Yap, Kuok; Taylor, Jillian; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Burton, Rachel A

    2018-05-01

    Hull-less barley is increasingly offering scope for breeding grains with improved characteristics for human nutrition; however, recalcitrance of hull-less cultivars to transformation has limited the use of these varieties. To overcome this limitation, we sought to develop an effective transformation system for hull-less barley using the cultivar Torrens. Torrens yielded a transformation efficiency of 1.8%, using a modified Agrobacterium transformation method. This method was used to over-express genes encoding synthases for the important dietary fiber component, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan (mixed-linkage glucan), primarily present in starchy endosperm cell walls. Over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, driven by an endosperm-specific promoter, produced lines where mixed-linkage glucan content increased on average by 45%, peaking at 70% in some lines, with smaller increases in transgenic HvCslH1 grain. Transgenic HvCslF6 lines displayed alterations where grain had a darker color, were more easily crushed than wild type and were smaller. This was associated with an enlarged cavity in the central endosperm and changes in cell morphology, including aleurone and sub-aleurone cells. This work provides proof-of-concept evidence that mixed-linkage glucan content in hull-less barley grain can be increased by over-expression of the HvCslF6 gene, but also indicates that hull-less cultivars may be more sensitive to attempts to modify cell wall composition. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA): an integrated system for HTGR coated particle fuel performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, M.J.; Valentine, K.H.

    1980-02-01

    The Irradiated-Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) System, designed and built at ORNL, provides the capability of making statistically accurate failure fraction measurements on irradiated HTGR coated particle fuel. The IMGA records the gamma-ray energy spectra from fuel particles and performs quantitative analyses on these spectra; then, using chemical and physical properties of the gamma emitters it makes a failed-nonfailed decision concerning the ability of the coatings to retain fission products. Actual retention characteristics for the coatings are determined by measuring activity ratios for certain gamma emitters such as 137 Cs/ 95 Zr and 144 Ce/ 95 Zr for metallic fission product retention and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs for an indirect measure of gaseous fission product retention. Data from IMGA (which can be put in the form of n failures observed in N examinations) can be accurately described by the binomial probability distribution model. Using this model, a mathematical relationship between IMGA data (n,N), failure fraction, and confidence level was developed. To determine failure fractions of less than or equal to 1% at confidence levels near 95%, this model dictates that from several hundred to several thousand particles must be examined. The automated particle handler of the IMGA system provides this capability. As a demonstration of failure fraction determination, fuel rod C-3-1 from the OF-2 irradiation capsule was analyzed and failure fraction statistics were applied. Results showed that at the 1% failure fraction level, with a 95% confidence level, the fissile particle batch could not meet requirements; however, the fertile particle exceeded these requirements for the given irradiation temperature and burnup

  17. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na2WO4–WO3 molten salt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ning-bo; Zhang, Ying-chun; Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting; Xia, Min

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na 2 WO 4 –WO 3 molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm −2 to 120 mA cm −2 an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%

  18. The Study of Deposition Parameters, Properties for PVD TixN and CrxN Coatings Using a Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Sun; Susan Field; Jian Chen; Dennis. G. Teer

    2004-01-01

    Closed Field Unbalanced Magnetron Sputter Ion Plating (CFUBMSIP) systems have been used increasingly for PVD coating in recent years. TiN and CrN coatings, commonly used as the basic coating for a number of different hard coatings, have been chosen to study the coating process parameters for the CFUBMSIP system. In this paper, the process parameters, such as substrate temperature, substrate bias and OEM control, have been carefully examined to achieve hard and wear-resistance coatings with good adhesion. The coating structure and orientation were found to change according to the coating parameters. The Rockwell test and Scratch test were carried out to examine the coating adhesion; pin-on-disc testing was used to estimate the wear-resistant; micro-hardness was also used to determine coating hardness. HSS drill testing has been carried out to study the general properties of the coating for cutting tool application. A combination of process parameters can be selected to achieve good performance for the TiN and CrN coatings.

  19. Boat Hull Blisters: Repair Techniques and Long Term Effects on Hull Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    X 12’ waxed glass mold. Orthophthalic Acid/ Neopentyl glycol based gel coat was used in the R, RA, RA and RD series. Isophthalic acid/keopentyl glycol ...a boat manufacturer. The gel coat was isophthalic acid and / neopentyl glycol based. The laminating resin used was isophthalic acid/propylene glycol ...something present in the resin itself. We have reported blistering vhen sorbitol is added to the resin. Pritchard has reported on the role of excess glycol

  20. Advanced knowledge system for coatings and the gas turbine MRO industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, P.E.; Hall, W.; Shadbolt, N.R.; Alani, H.; Szomszo, M. [Southampton Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The growth of data generated within thermal spraying is, for many, a daunting business. Yet, this growing resource represents a largely untapped and potentially valuable asset capable of providing 'knowledge' rather than just 'information'. Many companies already use a range of Web based tools. However, the Web itself is changing and the vision for the future, the 'Semantic Web', is set to revolutionise how business will be done. One important aspect of this Web 'future' is that web pages will be greatly enriched and data will have additional information (tags) which help to describe it and more significantly, put the data into a context. This will enable machine readability and the use of query languages to ask direct questions. Following on from ideas introduced at ITSC 2007, a proof of concept demonstrator has been built for thermal spray coatings used in the Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) of gas turbines. A system has been built which stores and manipulates a range of data including; aircraft deliveries, RSS feeds of aircraft sales, engine types, MRO business details, thermal spray coatings and market dynamics. This paper presents the development of this system and discusses its future potential. (orig.)

  1. Oleate coating of iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous systems: the role of temperature and surfactant concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Hans-Christian; Schwaminger, Sebastian; Fraga García, Paula; Ritscher, Jonathan; Berensmeier, Sonja, E-mail: s.berensmeier@tum.de [Technische Universität München, Bioseparation Engineering Group (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Coating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with sodium oleate (SO) is known to be an excellent method to create biocompatible, stable colloids with a narrow size distribution. However, the mechanism of oleate adsorption on the MNP surface in aqueous systems, as well as its influence on colloidal stability, is not yet fully understood. In this context, we present here a physico-chemical study to provide a deeper understanding of surfactant interaction mechanisms with nanoparticles. We examined the effect of temperature and the SO/MNP ratio (w/w) on the adsorption process in water and observed the existence of a maximum for the adsorbed oleate amount at lower temperatures, whereas at higher temperatures, the isotherm can be adapted to the Langmuir model with constant capacity after saturation. The oleate load on the MNP surface was quantified using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of samples in solution. The thermogravimetric analyses of the solid residues together with infrared spectroscopy analyses indicate a bilayer-similar structure at the MNP/water interface even for low oleate loads. The oleate interacts with the iron oxide surface through a bidentate coordination of the carboxyl group. Zeta potential measurements demonstrate the high stability of the coated system. The maximal oleate load per unit mass of MNPs reaches approximately 0.35 g{sub oleate} g{sub MNP}{sup −1}.Graphical abstract.

  2. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  3. "Keisri hull" pürib taas filmiks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Filmi Sihtasutus otsustas anda arendustoetust mängufilmidele "Keisri hull" (režissöör Peeter Simm, arendaja Lege Artis Film), "Rahad ette" (režissöör Jaak Kilmi, arendaja Eetriüksus), "Öölendurid" (režissöör Peeter Urbla, arendaja Exitfilm)

  4. Water Pressure Distribution on a Flying Boat Hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, F L

    1931-01-01

    This is the third in a series of investigations of the water pressures on seaplane floats and hulls, and completes the present program. It consisted of determining the water pressures and accelerations on a Curtiss H-16 flying boat during landing and taxiing maneuvers in smooth and rough water.

  5. Leaching behavior of water-soluble carbohydrates from almond hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 58% of the dry matter content of the hulls from the commercial almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) D.A. Webb) is soluble in warm water (50-70°C) extraction. The water-soluble extractables include useful amounts of fermentable sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), sugar alcohols (inositol and sorbito...

  6. PAUT-based defect detection method for submarine pressure hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jae Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine has a pressure hull that can withstand high hydraulic pressure and therefore, requires the use of highly advanced shipbuilding technology. When producing a pressure hull, periodic inspection, repair, and maintenance are conducted to maintain its soundness. Of the maintenance methods, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT is the most effective, because it does not damage the target but sustains its original form and function while inspecting internal and external defects. The NDT process to detect defects in the welded parts of the submarine is applied through Magnetic particle Testing (MT to detect surface defects and Ultrasonic Testing (UT and Radiography Testing (RT to detect internal defects. In comparison with RT, UT encounters difficulties in distinguishing the types of defects, can yield different results depending on the skills of the inspector, and stores no inspection record. At the same time, the use of RT gives rise to issues related to worker safety due to radiation exposure. RT is also difficult to apply from the perspectives of the manufacturing of the submarine and economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT method was applied to propose an inspection method that can address the above disadvantages by designing a probe to enhance the precision of detection of hull defects and the reliability of calculations of defect size. Keywords: Submarine pressure hull, Non-destructive testing, Phased array ultrasonic testing

  7. Production of furfural and ethyl alcohol from cottonseed hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobovnikov, B M; Tsirlin, Yu A; Chepigo, S V; Shpuntova, M E

    1957-01-01

    Cottonseed hulls (8.3 tons per digester) and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution at temperature of 100/sup 0/ were added to the digester simultaneously. The final H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration of the charge was approximately 0.7%. The pentosans were hydrolyzed at 133/sup 0/ and 2 atmosphere for 6 hours and 15 minutes, then the temperature was raised to 179/sup 0/ at the top and to 150/sup 0/ at the bottom of the digester for 5 hours and 30 minutes. The hydrolytic products of pentosan were separated, neutralized, and transferred to a dehydration tank. The hexosans were then hydrolyzed at 179 to 187/sup 0/. Dry hulls gave 19.4% of pentose reducing sugars, of which 81.4% were fermented. One ton of dry hulls gave 74 to 79 l. of ethanol. The optimum condition for dehydration was at 165 to 175/sup 0/ for no longer than 4 to 4.5 hours. 2-Furaldehyde was produced in the following steps: the pentosan hydrolyzate was dehydrated with steam, the vapor-furaldehyde mixture was then reheated and finally distilled in a continuous column. The yield of furaldehyde was 36 to 37% of incoming pentoses (7% of dry hulls).

  8. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, K

    2006-07-15

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  9. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  10. Performance study of desiccant coated heat exchanger air conditioning system in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, T.S.; Dai, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of desiccant coated heat exchanger AC system is predicted. • Effects of main operation parameters and climatic conditions are discussed. • Regeneration temperature of 30 °C is recommended under simulation condition. • Higher ambient humidity ratio results in increased humidity ratio of supply air. • Temperature of ambient air has neglectable effect on supply air. - Abstract: Conventional air source heat pump system faces several challenges when adopted in winter season. Solid desiccant air conditioning system can provide humidification and heating power simultaneously and can be driven by low grade thermal energy; it provides a good alternative for air source heat pump systems. However, conventional solid desiccant air conditioning system adopts desiccant wheel with high cost as core component, which hinders the development of such system. Recently, desiccant coated heat exchanger (DCHE) with low initial cost and high efficiency was developed and this paper aims to investigate performance of DCHE air conditioning system adopted in Shanghai winter season. Performance of the system is predicted by a developed mathematical model where supply air states, mass of humidification and coefficient of performance (COP) are adopted as performance indices to evaluate the feasibility and energy utilization ratio of the system. Effects of regeneration water temperature on system performance are analyzed. It is found that under the simulation condition, relatively low regeneration temperature (such as 20 °C) cannot meet the designed standard and relatively high regeneration temperature (such as 40 °C) provides too much extra heating power, thus moderate regeneration temperature around 30 °C is recommended. Meanwhile, switch time is a crucial operation parameter for the system to obtain satisfied supply air, switch time from 40 s to 80 s and from 70 s to 240 s are recommended for transient and average supply air states, respectively. Both

  11. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorniani, Dena; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Kura, Aminu Umar; Fakurazi, Sharida; Shaari, Abdul Halim; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2013-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are of considerable interest because of their use in magnetic recording tape, ferrofluid, magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, and treatment of cancer. The specific morphology of nanoparticles confers an ability to load, carry, and release different types of drugs. We synthesized superparamagnetic nanoparticles containing pure iron oxide with a cubic inverse spinal structure. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that these Fe3O4 nanoparticles could be successfully coated with active drug, and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses showed that the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine (FCMP) was markedly enhanced. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the FCMP nanocomposite were generally spherical, with an average diameter of 9 nm and 19 nm, respectively. The release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP nanocomposite was found to be sustained and governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. In order to improve drug loading and release behavior, we prepared a novel nanocomposite (FCMP-D), ie, Fe3O4 nanoparticles containing the same amounts of chitosan and 6-mercaptopurine but using a different solvent for the drug. The results for FCMP-D did not demonstrate "burst release" and the maximum percentage release of 6-mercaptopurine from the FCMP-D nanocomposite reached about 97.7% and 55.4% within approximately 2,500 and 6,300 minutes when exposed to pH 4.8 and pH 7.4 solutions, respectively. By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue.

  12. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  13. How does the dietary cottonseed hull affect the carcass characteristics and meat quality of young bulls finished in a high-concentrate diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Emanuel Eiras

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of diets composed by cottonseed hull and meat aging on carcass characteristics and meat quality from young bulls fed on a high-concentrate system. Thirty crossbred bulls were assigned in a complete randomized experimental factorial design with three diets (CH21: cottonseed hull 210 g kg-1on a DM basis, CH27: cottonseed hull 270 g kg-1on a DM basis and CH33: cottonseed hull 330 g kg-1on a DM basis and different aging times (24 hours and 3, 7 and 14 days. Meat from CH27 diets presented smaller LM moisture content (p < 0.05. Total lipids were smaller in CH33 diet (p <0.05. At 24 hours, CH21 diet presented smaller LM cooking loss than other diets. The increasing aging time reduced the shear force (p < 0.001 on the LM. Meat from CH27 diet presented the highest luminosity (p < 0.05 and yellowness values (p < 0.001. Three or seven aging days presented smaller values of LM luminosity. Likewise, the increasing aging time presented greater (p < 0.05 yellowness within the LM. Lipid oxidation was lower from CH21 diet (p < 0.001. The fatty acid composition on LM was similar among diets. The use of cottonseed hull could be useful strategies to improve the meat quality and lean beef production.

  14. The effect of vessel speed on the survivorship of biofouling organisms at different hull locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Piola, Richard F; Taylor, Michael D; Hewitt, Chad L; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2010-07-01

    This study used a specially designed MAGPLATE system to quantify the en route survivorship and post-voyage recovery of biofouling assemblages subjected to short voyages (biofouling organisms amongst hull locations, biofouling cover and richness were markedly reduced on faster vessels relative to slower craft. Therefore, the potential inoculum size of non-indigenous marine species and richness is likely to be reduced for vessels that travel at faster speeds (> 14 knots), which is likely to also reduce the chances of successful introductions. Despite this, the magnitude of introductions from biofouling on fast vessels can be considered minor, especially for species richness where 90% of source-port species were recorded at destinations.

  15. 46 CFR 176.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 176.620 Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels. The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program provides you with an...

  16. Measurement of dose rate and estimation of beta activity in zircaloy hull drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, J.P.N.; Kumar, Pankaj; Shinde, A.M.; Purohit, R.G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel Reprocessing Plant is designed for the processing of spent fuel from reactor for the recovery of plutonium and uranium as PuO 2 and U 3 O 8 respectively. Zircaloy is used as cladding material of natural uranium fuel pins used in the reactors. In reprocessing plants chop and leach method is used to remove the zircaloy clad from the fuel matrix during Head End Treatment. Initially spent fuel bundles are chopped into pieces and collected in perforated baskets kept in dissolvers. All chopped pieces are dissolved in HNO 3 in the dissolvers followed by heating and boiling. Dissolved solutions are transferred to Filtrate Tank (FT) leaving behind un-dissolved zircoloy hull pieces in the dissolver baskets. Un-dissolved and almost dry hull pieces are transferred in hull drum from the dissolver baskets using the Hull Tilting Facility. Hull drums are made of stainless steel having 500 litre capacity and two third of its volume is filled with zircoloy pieces. Hull drums filled with hull pieces are loaded in Hull Removal Cask (HRC) and transported to SWMF (Solid Waste Management Facility) site for interim storage/disposal in tile holes. Hull pieces are high active solid wastes which contain significant amount of fission products. Radiation levels on hull drums are in the range of few hundreds of mGy/h which has high potential of external hazards if not handled properly. Therefore hull drums are handled remotely in specially designed lead shielded cask

  17. Studies on portal systemic circulation by oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Norihisa; Nakajima, Kenichi; Watanabe, Naoto and others

    1986-03-01

    Thallium-201 enclosed enteric coated capsule was prepared and administered orally to evaluate portal systemic circulation in 11 control subjects and 31 patients with various liver diseases by investigating scintigraphic appearance and the heart-to-liver uptake ratio (H/L ratio). In 10 patients with liver cirrhosis and one with chronic hepatitis, the results of H/L ratio were compared to those obtained by /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration. 1. It was fundamentally confirmed that /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule was not broken down in the artificial gastric juice, but nearly completely melted 15 minutes after soaking in the artificial intestinal juice. 2. Clinical study was successfully completed in 36 out of 42 cases (86 %). Unsuccessful cases were found in 2 with capsule collapse in the stomach and 4 with its poor moving to the duodenum. 3. In control subjects the liver was clearly visualized and the mean value of H/L ratio was 0.32 which is lower than that of /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration previously reported. H/L ratio in patients with chronic and acute hepatitis was nearly equal to that in control subjects. H/L ratio in patients with liver cirrhosis was slightly higher than that in control subjects, but there was no significant difference between them. In cases with esophageal varices, H/L ratio was not so high compared to that in control subjects. Out of 7 patients showing high H/L ratio more than 0.8 in /sup 201/Tl per-rectal administration, only one showed similar high ratio (1.07) in oral administration of /sup 201/Tl enclosed enteric coated capsule. In this case the shunting from superior mesenteric vein to inferior vena cava connection was confirmed. From these results, it was considered that the shunting volume of superior mesenteric vein through esophageal varices is small. 4. A possibility of a new administration of radioisotope with enteric coated capsule was emphasized.

  18. Application of ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management Tools for Advanced Development of Hot Melt Coated Multiparticulate Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Elena; Becker, Karin; Hate, Siddhi; Hohl, Roland; Schiemenz, Wolfgang; Sacher, Stephan; Zimmer, Andreas; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to apply quality risk management based on the The International Conference on Harmonisation guideline Q9 for the early development stage of hot melt coated multiparticulate systems for oral administration. N-acetylcysteine crystals were coated with a formulation composing tripalmitin and polysorbate 65. The critical quality attributes (CQAs) were initially prioritized using failure mode and effects analysis. The CQAs of the coated material were defined as particle size, taste-masking efficiency, and immediate release profile. The hot melt coated process was characterized via a flowchart, based on the identified potential critical process parameters (CPPs) and their impact on the CQAs. These CPPs were prioritized using a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis and their critical impact on the CQAs was experimentally confirmed using a statistical design of experiments. Spray rate, atomization air pressure, and air flow rate were identified as CPPs. Coating amount and content of polysorbate 65 in the coating formulation were identified as critical material attributes. A hazard and critical control points analysis was applied to define control strategies at the critical process points. A fault tree analysis evaluated causes for potential process failures. We successfully demonstrated that a standardized quality risk management approach optimizes the product development sustainability and supports the regulatory aspects. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Fracturing and Adhesion Behavior of Hydroxapatite Coating Formed by Aminoacetic Acid-Sodium Aminoacetate Buffer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Aydın

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials utilized in implantation can be categorized into 4 main categories, as ceramics, polymers, metals and composites. Ceramic-based biomaterials are opted for, particularly in the field of orthopedics. These materials, also named as bioceramics, are usually employed by coating them onto the base material, inasmuch as they are far from the mechanical values of bone. In this study, a hydroxyapatite coating that is fully compatible with human blood plasma was applied on Ti6Al4V alloy through a biomimetic technique using aminoacetic acid-sodium aminoacetate buffer system for the first time in the literature, and examinations related thereto were carried out. The surface of the base material Ti6Al4V alloy was activated with various chemicals. Subsequent to activating the surface, a coating process whereby the base material was kept in simulated body fluid for 24, 48, 72, 96 h was carried out. Ultimate microhardness (indentation tests were performed to determine the average indentation depths in maximum load, vickers hardness and elasticity modulus of the coatings obtained by using the biomimetic method, while scratch tests were performed to measure the surface bonding strengths of the coating layers. Furthermore, the fracture toughness values of the coating were calculated. The results obtained through the study are evaluated and discussed.

  20. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  1. Manufacturing PDMS micro lens array using spin coating under a multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rongrong; Yang, Hanry; Rock, D Mitchell; Danaei, Roozbeh; Panat, Rahul; Kessler, Michael R; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The development of micro lens arrays has garnered much interest due to increased demand of miniaturized systems. Traditional methods for manufacturing micro lens arrays have several shortcomings. For example, they require expensive facilities and long lead time, and traditional lens materials (i.e. glass) are typically heavy, costly and difficult to manufacture. In this paper, we explore a method for manufacturing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro lens array using a simple spin coating technique. The micro lens array, formed under an interfacial tension dominated system, and the influence of material properties and process parameters on the fabricated lens shape are examined. The lenses fabricated using this method show comparable optical properties—including surface finish and image quality—with a reduced cost and manufacturing lead time. (paper)

  2. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  3. Action mechanism of hydrogen gas on deposition of HfC coating using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yalei, E-mail: yaleipm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Zehao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Xiaobin [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Zhaoke; Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • HfC coatings were deposited on C/C composites by LPCVD using HfCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system. • Action mechanism of H2 on structure and growth behavior of HfC coating was studied. • Increased H2 concentration leads to transformation in growth mechanism of coating. - Abstract: Hafnium carbide coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon composites by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system. The microstructure, mechanical and ablation resistance performance of HfC coatings deposited with various H{sub 2} concentrations were investigated. The effect of hydrogen gas on the deposition of HfC coating was also discussed. Results show that all of the deposited coatings are composed of single cubic HfC phase, the hydrogen gas acted as a crucial role in determining the preferred orientation, microstructure and growth behavior of HfC coatings. During the deposition process, the gas phase supersaturation of the reaction species can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen gas concentration. When deposited with low hydrogen gas concentration, the coating growth was dominated by the nucleation of HfC, which results in the particle-stacked structure of HfC coating. Otherwise, the coating growth was dominated by the crystal growth at high hydrogen gas concentration, which leads to the column-arranged structure of HfC coating. Under the ablation environment, the coating C2 exhibits better configurational stability and ablation resistance. The coating structure has a significant influence on the mechanical and ablation resistance properties of HfC coating.

  4. Development of Anti-Insect Microencapsulated Polypropylene Films Using a Large Scale Film Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Choi, Ha Young; Lee, Eun Song; Han, Jaejoon; Min, Sea C

    2018-04-01

    Films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed using a large-scale production system to protect against the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO at concentrations of 0%, 0.8%, or 1.7% (w/w ink mixture) was microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol. The microencapsulated CO emulsion was mixed with ink (47% or 59%, w/w) and thinner (20% or 25%, w/w) and coated on polypropylene (PP) films. The PP film was then laminated with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film on the coated side. The film with microencapsulated CO at 1.7% repelled P. interpunctella most effectively. Microencapsulation did not negatively affect insect repelling activity. The release rate of cinnamaldehyde, an active repellent, was lower when CO was microencapsulated than that in the absence of microencapsulation. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that microencapsulation prevented the volatilization of CO. The tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, elastic modulus, and water vapor permeability of the films indicated that microencapsulation did not affect the tensile and moisture barrier properties (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that effective films for the prevention of Indian meal moth invasion can be produced by the microencapsulation of CO using a large-scale film production system. Low-density polyethylene-laminated polypropylene films printed with ink incorporating microencapsulated cinnamon oil using a large-scale film production system effectively repelled Indian meal moth larvae. Without altering the tensile and moisture barrier properties of the film, microencapsulation resulted in the release of an active repellent for extended periods with a high thermal stability of cinnamon oil, enabling commercial film production at high temperatures. This anti-insect film system may have applications to other food-packaging films that use the same ink-printing platform. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Electrical and structural characterisation of nanostructured titania coatings deposited on interdigitated electrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, Marija; Stojanovic, Goran; Nikolic, Ljubica M.; Radovanovic, Milan; Skoric, Branko; Miletic, Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → La/TiO 2 and Nb/TiO 2 nanocrystalline coatings as interdigitated electrode system for sensors. → A method for the computation of conductivity and relative permittivity was proposed. → Nb causes an increase of electrical properties, while La has the opposite effect. - Abstract: This paper presents the electrical properties of La- and Nb-doped nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin coatings deposited on the alumina substrate with gold electrodes in the interdigitated form to obtain appropriate devices for sensor application. Electrical parameters such as conductivity σ and permittivity ε were calculated using measured values of phase angle θ m , capacitance C m and resistance R m . These values were measured using an HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer with a Z-probe in the frequency range from 10 3 Hz to 10 8 Hz. The measured results showed that with addition of 2, 4 or 6 at% of lanthanum, conductivity and permittivity of analysed samples are decreasing, whereas the addition of niobium in the same percentage follows the opposite trend.

  6. Pyrolytic carbon-coated stainless steel felt as a high-performance anode for bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Hidalgo, Diana; Tommasi, Tonia; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-07-01

    Scale up of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) requires highly conductive, biocompatible and stable electrodes. Here we present pyrolytic carbon-coated stainless steel felt (C-SS felt) as a high-performance and scalable anode. The electrode is created by generating a carbon layer on stainless steel felt (SS felt) via a multi-step deposition process involving α-d-glucose impregnation, caramelization, and pyrolysis. Physicochemical characterizations of the surface elucidate that a thin (20±5μm) and homogenous layer of polycrystalline graphitic carbon was obtained on SS felt surface after modification. The carbon coating significantly increases the biocompatibility, enabling robust electroactive biofilm formation. The C-SS felt electrodes reach current densities (jmax) of 3.65±0.14mA/cm(2) within 7days of operation, which is 11 times higher than plain SS felt electrodes (0.30±0.04mA/cm(2)). The excellent biocompatibility, high specific surface area, high conductivity, good mechanical strength, and low cost make C-SS felt a promising electrode for BESs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automated MALDI Matrix Coating System for Multiple Tissue Samples for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounfield, William P.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2012-03-01

    Uniform matrix deposition on tissue samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is key for reproducible analyte ion signals. Current methods often result in nonhomogenous matrix deposition, and take time and effort to produce acceptable ion signals. Here we describe a fully-automated method for matrix deposition using an enclosed spray chamber and spray nozzle for matrix solution delivery. A commercial air-atomizing spray nozzle was modified and combined with solenoid controlled valves and a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control and deliver the matrix solution. A spray chamber was employed to contain the nozzle, sample, and atomized matrix solution stream, and to prevent any interference from outside conditions as well as allow complete control of the sample environment. A gravity cup was filled with MALDI matrix solutions, including DHB in chloroform/methanol (50:50) at concentrations up to 60 mg/mL. Various samples (including rat brain tissue sections) were prepared using two deposition methods (spray chamber, inkjet). A linear ion trap equipped with an intermediate-pressure MALDI source was used for analyses. Optical microscopic examination showed a uniform coating of matrix crystals across the sample. Overall, the mass spectral images gathered from tissues coated using the spray chamber system were of better quality and more reproducible than from tissue specimens prepared by the inkjet deposition method.

  8. Development on the automatic separator of separation of residual powders from SF hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Kim, Young Hwang; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Byung Buk; Lee, Hyo Jik; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Hee Sung; Lee, Jong Kwang; Kim, Ho Dong

    2009-12-01

    At the previous process of auto hull separator, vol-oxidizer convert UO 2 pellets to U 3 O 8 powder, and in the next step, hulls and powders is collected into each part of two vessels. In order to enhance the recover rate, fine powders on the surface of hulls should be removed from hulls. Auto hulls separator for fine powders is a device which can separate fine powders from hulls. In order to design and manufacture this device, we analyzed fine powders which are remained on the surface of hulls for separation properties, and selected separation and operation methods. Also, the main mechanism is devised by using the design considerations. These main mechanism consists of rotation drum, parts feeder, hull conveyer, powders separator, air shower, and vessels. Design considerations for auto hulls separator as follows ; capacity : 100 kg HM/batch, rod-cut length : 50 mm, recovery rate for fine powders : 95 % and operation condition : over 12 hrs/batch. We considered connection methods of the vessel and high vacuum module which can join with the outlet of auto hulls separator. Also, by using the above results, we have manufactured auto hulls separator for fine powders, and conducted blank tests for operation condition. Here, hulls of 50 mm length for test are used with 20 kg HM/batch. We have conducted separation tests of 2 batches to collect fine powders with hulls of 10 kg HM/batch. Our goal of recovery rate was 95%, but in the test result, the recovery rate of fine powders on the surface of hulls was over 96 %

  9. Evaluation of long-term corrosion durability and self-healing ability of scratched coating systems on carbon steel in a marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Changwei; Xu, Weichen; Zhu, Qingjun; Ge, Chengyue; Hou, Baorong

    2017-09-01

    Defects in protective-coating systems on steel surfaces are inevitable in practical engineering applications. A composite coating system, including a primer, middle coat and topcoat, were used to protect carbon steel from corrosion in a marine environment. Two environmental additives, glass fibers and thiourea, were applied in the middle coat to modify the coating system. The long-term corrosion durability and self-healing ability of the scratched coating system were evaluated by multiple methods. Results of the electrochemical technologies indicated that the coating system that contained 0.5 wt.% fibers and 0.5 wt.% thiourea presented good corrosion protection and self-healing for carbon steel when immersed in 3.5% NaCl for 120 d. Evolution of localized corrosion factors with time, as obtained from the current distribution showed that fibers combined with thiourea could inhibit the occurrence of local corrosion in scratched coating systems and retarded the corrosion development significantly. Surface characterization suggested that adequate thiourea could be absorbed uniformly on fibers for a long time to play an important role in protecting the carbon steel. Finally, schematic models were established to demonstrate the action of fibers and thiourea on the exposed surface of the carbon steel and the scratched coating system in the entire deterioration process.

  10. Environmentally benign sol-gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detty, Michael R; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Bright, Frank V; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-02-18

    Biofouling on ships and boats, characterized by aquatic bacteria and small organisms attaching to the hull, is an important global issue, since over 80000 tons of antifouling paint is used annually. This biofilm, which can form in as little as 48 hours depending on water temperature, increases drag on watercraft, which greatly reduces their fuel efficiency. In addition, biofouling can lead to microbially induced corrosion (MIC) due to H2S formed by the bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the International Maritime Organization (IMO) international convention banned the use of effective but environmentally damaging coatings containing tributyl tin in 2008, the development of clean and effective antifouling systems became more important than ever. New nonbiocidal coatings are now in high demand. Scientists have developed new polymers, materials, and biocides, including new elastomeric coatings that they have obtained by improving the original silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) formulation patented in 1975. However, the high cost of silicones, especially of fluoropolymer-modified silicones, has generally prevented their large-scale diffusion. In 2009, traditional antifouling coatings using cuprous oxide formulated in copolymer paints still represented 95% of the global market volume of anti-fouling paints. The sol-gel nanochemistry approach to functional materials has emerged as an attractive candidate for creating low fouling surfaces due to the unique structure and properties of silica-based coatings and of hybrid inorganic-organic silicas in particular. Sol-gel formulations easily bind to all types of surfaces, such as steel, fiberglass, aluminum, and wood. In addition, they can cure at room temperature and form thin glassy coatings that are markedly different from thick silicone elastomeric foul-releasing coatings. Good to excellent performance against biofouling, low cure temperatures, enhanced and prolonged chemical and physical stability, ease of

  11. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  12. Study on practical application of a longitudinal hull strength theory considering camber in cross section; Yokodanmen no sori wo koryoshita sentai tate kyodo riron no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, M; Suzuki, K; Furuno, H [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Suzuki, K

    1997-10-01

    Discussions were given on practical application of a stress analyzing method for thin-wall deformed cross-sectional beam considering cross section camber in longitudinal bending. The non-static calculation method described in the previous report can be applied to a box-type cross section having multi-connected cells, bulk cargo transport vessels and container ships with dual hull structure, and oil tankers with dual hull structure of medium size. The calculation method was capable of achieving remarkable enhancement in efficiency over that of conventional calculation methods. The present study is intended to make the method applicable also to multi-connected cross section shapes having more than one longitudinal partitions as used in dual hull VLCC and ULCC. As a result, an expanded non-static calculation system was developed, which has introduced into the conception described in the previous report a new conception of triple point and independent start point members. As a result of applying the method to dual hull bulk cargo transport vessels, container ships, dual hull oil tankers of medium size, VLCC and ULCC, it was verified that the system operated properly. Remarkable efficiency improvement has been made possible as compared with conventional analysis methods applied to individual ships. The system is capable of automatic calculation, and makes possible the practical application of the hull strength theory considering cross section camber. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. An intelligent system for real time automatic defect inspection on specular coated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Parker, Johné M.; Hou, Zhen

    2005-07-01

    Product visual inspection is still performed manually or semi automatically in most industries from simple ceramic tile grading to complex automotive body panel paint defect and surface quality inspection. Moreover, specular surfaces present additional challenge to conventional vision systems due to specular reflections, which may mask the true location of objects and lead to incorrect measurements. There are some sophisticated visual inspection methods developed in recent years. Unfortunately, most of them are highly computational. Systems built on those methods are either inapplicable or very costly to achieve real time inspection. In this paper, we describe an integrated low-cost intelligent system developed to automatically capture, extract, and segment defects on specular surfaces with uniform color coatings. The system inspects and locates regular surface defects with lateral dimensions as small as a millimeter. The proposed system is implemented on a group of smart cameras using its on-board processing ability to achieve real time inspection. The experimental results on real test panels demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of proposed system.

  14. Growth Structure and Properties of Gradient Nanocrystalline Coatings of the Ti-Al-Si-Cu-N System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, S. V.; Pinzhin, Yu. P.

    2016-10-01

    Methods of electron microprobe analysis, X-ray structure analysis and electron microscopy were used to study the element composition and features of the structure-phase, elastic stress state of nanocrystalline coatings of the Ti- Al- Si- Cu- N system with gradient of copper concentration across their thickness. The authors established the effects of element composition modification, non-monotonous behavior of the lattice constant of alloyed nitride and rise in the bending-torsion value of the crystalline lattice in individual nanocrystals to values of around 400 degrees/μm with increase in copper concentration, whereas the sizes of alloyed nitride crystals remained practically unchanged. Mechanical (hardness), adhesion and tribological properties of coatings were examined. Comparative analysis demonstrates higher values of adhesion characteristics in the case of gradient coatings of the Ti- Al- Si- Cu- N system than in the case of single-layer (with constant element concentration) analogues.

  15. Development Status and Performance Comparisons of Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft turbine engine systems, because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. This paper presents current NASA EBC-CMC development emphases including: the coating composition and processing improvements, laser high heat flux-thermal gradient thermo-mechanical fatigue - environmental testing methodology development, and property evaluations for next generation EBC-CMC systems. EBCs processed with various deposition techniques including Plasma Spray, Electron Beam - Physical Vapor Deposition, and Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) will be particularly discussed. The testing results and demonstrations of advanced EBCs-CMCs in complex simulated engine thermal gradient cyclic fatigue, oxidizing-steam and CMAS environments will help provide insights into the coating development strategies to meet long-term engine component durability goals.

  16. On-Chip Bondwire Magnetics with Ferrite-Epoxy Glob Coating for Power Systems on Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Lu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of on-chip bondwire inductors and transformers with ferrite epoxy glob coating is proposed to offer a cost effective approach realizing power systems on chip (SOC. We have investigated the concept both experimentally and with finite element modeling. A Q factor of 30–40 is experimentally demonstrated for the bondwire inductors which represents an improvement by a factor of 3–30 over the state-of-the-art MEMS micromachined inductors. Transformer parameters including self- and mutual inductance and coupling factors are extracted from both modeled and measured S-parameters. More importantly, the bondwire magnetic components can be easily integrated into SOC manufacturing processes with minimal changes and open enormous possibilities for realizing cost-effective, high-current, high-efficiency power SOCs.

  17. Finite element simulation of stress evolution in thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, P.

    2007-07-01

    Gas turbine materials exposed to extreme high temperature require protective coatings. To design reliable components, a better understanding of the coating failure mechanisms is required. Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems (TBCs) is related to oxidation of the Bond Coat, sintering of the ceramic, thermal mismatch of the material constituents, complex shape of the BC/TGO/TBC interface, redistribution of stresses via creep and plastic deformation and crack resistance. In this work, experimental data of thermo-mechanical properties of CMSX-4, MCrAlY (Bond Coat) and APS-TBC (partially stabilized zirconia), were implemented into an FE-model in order to simulate the stress development at the metal/ceramic interface. The FE model reproduced the specimen geometry used in corresponding experiments. It comprises a periodic unit cell representing a slice of the cylindrical specimen, whereas the periodic length of the unit cell equals an idealized wavelength of the rough metal/ceramic interface. Experimental loading conditions in form of thermal cycling with a dwelltime at high temperature and consideration of continuous oxidation were simulated. By a stepwise consideration of various material properties and processes, a reference model was achieved which most realistically simulated the materials behavior. The influences of systematic parameter variations on the stress development and critical sites with respect to possible crack paths were shown. Additionally, crack initiation and propagation at the peak of asperity at BC/TGO interface was calculated. It can be concluded that a realistic modeling of stress development in TBCs requires at least reliable data of i) BC and TGO plasticity, ii) BC and TBC creep, iii) continuous oxidation including in particular lateral oxidation, and iv) critical energy release rate for interfaces (BC/TGO, TGO/TBC) and for each layer. The main results from the performed parametric studies of material property variations suggest that

  18. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Film Coated Silver Nanorods: An Effective Carrier System for Externally Activated Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, Gokul; Sharma, Varsha; Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticle anisotropy offers unique functions and features in comparison with spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and makes anisotropic nanoparticles (ANPs) promising candidates in applications like drug delivery, imaging, biosensing and theranostics. Presence of surface active groups (e.g. amine, and carboxylate groups) on their surface provides binding sites for ligands or other biomolecules, and hence, this could be targeted for specific part or cells in our body. In the quest of such surface modification, functionalization of ANPs along Layer-by-Layer (LbL) coating of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes (PE) reduces cellular toxicity and promotes easy encapsulation of drugs. In this work, we report the silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesis by adsorbate directed synthetic approach using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The formed ANPs is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy revealing the shaping of AgNRs of 3-16 nm aspect ratio with some presence of triangles. These NRs were further coated with bio polymers of chitosan (CH) and dextran sulphate (DS) through LbL approach and used for encapsulation of water soluble anti-bacterial drugs like ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CFH). The encapsulation of drugs and profiles of drug release were investigated and compared to that of spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The added advantages of the proposed drug delivery system (DDS) can be externally activated to release the loaded drug and used as contrast agents for biological imaging under exposure to NIR light. Such system shows unique and attractive characteristics required for drug delivery and bioimaging thus offering the scope for further development as theranostic material.

  19. Characterization of fly ash, slag and glass hull for the obtaining of vitreous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Valderrama, D. M.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents the structural and thermal characterization of fly ash, the waste from blast furnace slag and the glass hull, generated as common residues in industry, which cannot be recycled easily or destroyed in a simple and fast way. In the particular case of fly ash, at present are being used as a lightweight aggregate in the production of cement, concrete and additive in the production of glass and glass ceramics. As far as the slag and hull, are being used as additives for the asphalt and concretes, however its use still is restricted, reason why its use in alternative ways are necessary. Initially the chemical composition of residues was established, determining that the fly ashes contains SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides; 90% of the total composition, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. As minor constituents, small percentages of Mg, P, S, K, Na and Ti were found. For the slag case, the phases of Fe3O4, Ca3Mg (SiO2)4 and Ca(MgAl)(Si,Al)2O6 were identified, observing the presence of amorphous phase higher than 94% of the total phase of the system. Meanwhile, the glass hull sample showed a higher percentage of 95% amorphicity, mainly identifying a weak signal associated with silicon oxide SiO2. The thermal analyses of the samples, exhibit a decrease in mass for samples between 25-1000°C was observed, which can be attributed to different physical-chemical events that occur in the materials. The heat flow for each sample is related with the removal of the water retained by the physisorption processes around 92-110°C in all cases. With this previous characterization of the precursors, a sample was composed using 70% fly ash, 10% slag and 20% of glass hull was composed and treated at 1200°C/1.5 hours, obtaining a dense black glassy material for potential applications in field of the glass ceramics.

  20. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Generator as Electrical Source of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection for Ship Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP is a method to protect metallic material such as ship hull from corrosion by using electric current. In this research, a prototype of thermoelectric generator is developed in order to supply the ICCP system. This thermoelectric generator is planned to utilize the exhaust gas from main engine of the ship. Method carried in this research is assembling the prototype of thermoelectric generator followed by conducted experiment to observe the potential energy of the prototype. After that, the required number of thermoelectric generator is calculated to supply the ICCP system to protect the ship from corrosion. The object in this research is live fish carrier “Wellboat” which has 396.08 m2 wetted area. The required voltage and current to protect the ship from corrosion for three years are 16.67 Volt and 2.66 Ampere. Based on the experiment, a prototype of thermoelectric generator can generate 0.34 Ampere and 4.43 Volt, causing the need of 8 series and 4 parallels connection. It can be concluded that the corrosion rate on the ship hull can be decelerated by using impressed current cathodic protection method without needing additional cost or fuel consumption to produce electric energy.  

  1. Analysis of the Almond Harvesting and Hulling Mechanization Process: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the analysis of the almond harvesting system with a very high level of mechanization frequently used in Apulia for the almond harvesting and hulling process. Several tests were carried out to assess the technical aspects related to the machinery and to the mechanized harvesting system used itself, highlighting their usefulness, limits, and compatibility within the almond cultivation sector. Almonds were very easily separated from the tree, and this circumstance considerably improved the mechanical harvesting operation efficiency even if the total time was mainly affected by the time required to manoeuvre the machine and by the following manual tree beating. The mechanical pick-up from the ground was not effective, with only 30% of the dropped almond collected, which mainly was caused by both the pick-up reel of the machine being unable to approach the almonds dropped near the base of the trunk and the surface condition of the soil being unsuitably arranged for a mechanized pick-up operation. The work times concerning the hulling and screening processes, carried out at the farm, were heavily affected by several manual operations before, during, and after the executed process; nevertheless, the plant work capability varied from 170 to 200 kg/h with two operators.

  2. Characterization of spent fuel hulls and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Andriessen, H.

    1985-04-01

    The main results obtained within the framework of CEC programmes, by KFK, UKAEA and CEA, are reviewed concerning the characterization of dissolution wastes. The contents were determined of the main radioactive emitters contained in the hulls originating in a whole fuel assembly sampled at the La Hague plant, or from Dounreay PFR fuels. Radiochemical characterizations were carried out by different methods including neutron emission measurement, alpha and beta-gamma spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Decontamination of the hulls by using rinsings and supplementary treatment were also dealt with. The ignition and explosion risks associated with the zircaloy fines formed during the shearing of LWR fuels were examined, and the ignition properties of irradiated and unirradiated zircaloy powders were determined and compared. The physical properties and compositions of the dissolution residues of PFR fuels were defined, in order to conduct tests on the immobilization of these wastes in cement

  3. Cold-crucible melting of hulls and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Puyou, M.; Piccinato, R.

    1990-01-01

    The method currently implemented at the La Hague UP3 reprocessing plant for conditioning of PWR zircaloy hulls is cement embedding. Another promising method, mainly for reducing the waste volume and the available exchange surface area, is melting. A cold-crucible melting process has therefore been developed by the CEA at Marcoule (France) over the last decade. Development work first concentrated on cladding hulls from fast breeder reactors, then from pressurized water reactors. The process can be used for both types of cladding wastes. Subassembly head and foot end-caps are sheared off and should be suitable for surface storage after α decontamination by successive rinsing. If necessary because of their α activity, they could be melted in a larger furnace

  4. Preparation and characterization of 6-mercaptopurine-coated magnetite nanoparticles as a drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorniani D

    2013-09-01

    . By MTT assay, the FCMP nanocomposite was shown not to be toxic to a normal mouse fibroblast cell line. Conclusion: Iron oxide coated with chitosan containing 6-mercaptopurine prepared using a coprecipitation method has the potential to be used as a controlled-release formulation. These nanoparticles may serve as an alternative drug delivery system for the treatment of cancer, with the added advantage of sparing healthy surrounding cells and tissue. Keywords: superparamagnetic nanoparticles, 6-mercaptopurine, controlled release, cytotoxicity, drug delivery

  5. Biofouling and Design of a Biomimetic Hull-Grooming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-14

    have barred the use of organotin compounds such as tributyltin ( TBT ) and copper-based paints, which are currently used by the Navy and have become...copper into the water, killing the fouling organisms. There is new research in biomimetic polymers that deter fouling, but are non- toxic . These polymers...is new research in biomimetic polymers that deter fouling, but are non- toxic . These polymers are rigidly attached to the hull surface extending

  6. Hulls and structural material waste conditioning by high pressure compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frotscher, H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1986 KfK is developing a conditioning process. Main subjects of the investigations were the development of the production technique and the planning of the most important equipments of the process under remote conditions. The process is based on an extensive program of experiments. Inactive bulks of hulls and structural material components were compacted using maximum axial pressure load of about 300 MPa. The product density as function of press force was experimentally determinated. The mechanical loads of the press and tools were estimated for the design of these equipments. The hydraulic press consists a horizontal four-cylinder press. The maximum force of the press is 25 MN. The main advantage is the modular design of the press which is open on all sides. Especially the free accessibility from top is ensured. The report also represents relevant radiological data of the alternative product. Co-60 is the dominating activity of the product due to the effects of the heat production. An amount of 10 kg hull waste or 25 kg top and bottom pieces of the spent fuel assemblies per package is already beyond the Co-60 limit of the KONRAD regulations. The nuclear thermal power of a filled container is approximately sixty times lower compared with a vitrified HLW-container. Since the product shows thermal stability beyond 200 0 C, this it is suited for a combined disposal together with vitrified HLW-containers in salt bore holes of a geological disposal. The preliminary cost evaluation is based on a reprocessing throughput of 500 t HM per year and volume reduction factor of 5.3. Accordingly there are produced 300 waste packages with hulls only or 625 units with hulls and top and bottom pieces which require 1.6 or 2.3 millions DM respectively

  7. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 ) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Quality of buffy-coat-derived platelet concentrates prepared using automated system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Agnieszka; Lipska, Alina; Rogowska, Anna; Bujno, Magdalena; Nedzi, Marta; Radziwon, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    Platelet recovery, and viability, and function is strongly dependent on the method of the preparation of platelet concentrate (PC). The glucose consumption, decrease of pH, release of alpha granules during storage in platelet concentrate impair their clinical effectiveness. To compare of the quality of buffy-coat-derieved platelet concentrates prepared using automatic system terumo automated centrifuge and separator integration (TACSI) and stored over 7 days. PCs were prepared from buffy coats using manual method (group I), or automatic system TACSI (group II). Fifteen PCs prepared from the 5 buffy coats each were stored over 7 days in 22-24 degrees C and tested. Samples were taken from the PCs container on days 1 and 7. The following laboratory tests were performed: number of platelets, platelets derived microparticles, CD62P expression, platelet adhesion, pH, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase activity. We have observed higher expression of CD62P in PCs prepared using manual method compared to the PCs produced automatically Platelet recovery was significantly higher in PCs prepared using automatic systems compare to manual method. Compared to manual methods, automatic system for preparation of buffy coats, is more efficient and enable production of platelets concentrates of higher quality.

  9. Standard practice for design and use of safety alert system for hazardous work locations in the coatings and lining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This practice covers a safety alert system for hazardous work locations and materials for the coatings and lining application industry. This practice is designed for multi-employer work sites. Limitations--This practice does not identify specific hazardous materials or work locations but provides a means for rating each. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

  10. Free-surface flow around an appended hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, A; Pacuraru, F

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.

  11. Treatment of stainless steels and zircaloy cladding hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, I.L.; Taylor, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported on the fissile material content and the distribution of alpha and beta-gamma emitters in both types of cladding. Apart from very small amounts of residual fuel, fissile material is present as a deposit formed during the dissolution of fuel and also as material driven into the cladding by fission recoil. Alpha-emitters penetrate to depths of 1-2 μm into both S.S. and Zircaloy claddings. The surface deposits on individual hulls can be effectively removed by refluxing with nitric acid or by cleaning with nitric acid in an ultrasonic bath. The physical structural and handling behavior of hull assemblies are examined as being of key importance to the establishment of an efficient cleaning process. The reference leaching target is to extract residual fuel fragments and to remove surface deposits. Preferred routes for compaction, drumming, and encapsulation are briefly reviewed with regard to achieving a final package volume half that of the original hulls with associated hardware

  12. On the Influence of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, Sopheak; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions and model test results of the wave induced bending moments in a 9,400 TEU post-Panamax container vessel are presented for two regular wave scenarios. Different numerical procedures have been applied: a linear and non-linear time-domain strip theory and a direct calculation (...... (CFD) solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the free surface captured by a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. In all procedures the flexibility of the hull girder is modelled as a non-uniform Timoshenko beam. It is observed that the non-linear models agree well with the model tests...... and as there is no occurrence of severe slamming in the cases considered, the inexpensive non-linear strip theory is as accurate as the direct CFD calculation method. In a comparison with the results using the rigid body assumption, the increase in the vertical bending moment (VBM) amidships due to the flexibility of the hull...... girder is found to be approximately 7% (peak-to-peak amplitude) in general. The non-linear responses, however, contain over-harmonic frequencies which may coincide with the natural frequency of the two-node vertical bending mode inducing resonance. In that case the hull girder flexibility causes...

  13. Treatment of cladding hulls by the HIPOW process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larker, H.T.; Tegman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The conditions for densifying and bonding Zircaloy cladding hulls from spent LWR fuel to blocks by the HIPOW (hot isostatic pressing of waste) process have been studied. Fully dense and mechanically strong blocks of Zircaloy can be made without additives at temperatures around 1000 0 C. A volume reduction of about seven times and surface area reduction of more than 300 times, compared to typical loose-filled cladding hulls remaining after the chop-leach operations in a reprocessing plant, can be obtained. A study of a possible process for industrial scale has been made. Handling under water can prevent any fire hazard in the preparation sequence. The use of a special hermetically sealed double-wall metal container encasing the hulls during the densification in the hot isostatic press virtually eliminates the problem of lasting contamination of this equipment, thus greatly simplifying service and maintenance. One hot isostatic press can serve a reprocessing line with an LWR fuel capacity of 800 tons/year. Fines (residues) from fuel dissolution and alpha-contaminated ashes from incinerated organic materials in the plant may also be incorporated in the Zircaloy blocks. Tritium can quantitatively be contained in these blocks

  14. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  15. Fabrication of renewable biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Malaya Ranjan

    This is an investigation for fabrication of biocomposites from soy hull and bioplastics like polylactide (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co- valerate (PHBV). The study was divided into three parts; the first was the development of a suitable PHBV/PLA blend. The second part involved the fabrication of composites from soy hull and PHBV/PLA blend and its comparison with polypropylene (PP)/soy hull composites. The third part was the effect of compatibilizer on the performance of the composites. From tensile study, the elongation of an optimized blend was found to be improved by 148 and 250% over the virgin polymers PHBV and PLA respectively. Scanning electron microscope revealed a stronger fiber-matrix interaction in PHBV/PLA composites over PP composites. Furthermore, the compatibilizer improved the impact and flexural strength by 56 and 32% respectively over the un-compatibilized counterpart; more significantly the resulting compatibilized composites showed improved hydrophobicity by more than 22% over un-compatibilized counterpart.

  16. Effect of storage time, thermocycling and resin coating on durability of dentin bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mostafa Mousavinasab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Along with development of different dental adhesives, concerns about hydrolytic deg-radation of the adhesive components have arisen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-vitro influence of thermocycling, water storage and resin coating on the microshear bond strength of total etch and self etch adhesive systems to dentin. Methods:The superficial coronal dentin of eighty intact third molars were exposed and divided into 5 equal groups. Dental adhesives including Scotch Bond Multi Purpose (SBMP, Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Prompt L-Pop (PLP, and Prompt L-Pop plus Margin bond (PLPM were applied according to the manufacturers′ instructions on prepared surfaces in the study groups, respectively. Then composite cylinders were bonded and specimens were divided into two subgroups. One subgroup was stored in water for 24 hours. The second subgroup was subjected to 3000 thermocycle shocks and then was stored in 37°C water for 3 months. Finally, all teeth were subjected to the mi-croshear bond strength test. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen similar to each subgroup was also prepared for SEM evaluation. Results:After one-day storage, the SBMP showed the highest bond strength followed by CSE, PLPM, SB and PLP. After three months storage, the highest bond strength was observed in SBMP followed by PLPM, CSE, SB, and PLP. Conclusion: SBMP showed the best bond strength while CSE represented acceptable bond durabil-ity. Resin coating on PLP improved bond strength and durability.

  17. A Chromium-Free Coating System for DoD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    brushing • The coating is translucent allowing direct inspection of both the film and substrate 60 • The coating is thermally stable to at least 250˚C for...for steel in concrete it is preferable to re-establish passivity. In sacrificial anode cathodic protection, a galvanic cell is set up by connecting

  18. Effect of coating systems on the vaporization of pentachlorophenol from treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Ingram; G. D. McGinnis; P. M. Pope; W. C. Feist

    1983-01-01

    Specimens of southern pine treated with pentachlorophenol (penta) in mineral spirits (dip treatment), penta in P9 type A oil and penta in methylene chloride (pressure treatments) were used to evaluate the efficacy of different types of coatings in suppressing the vaporization of penta from treated wood. The clear film-forming coatings, such as polyurethane and alkyds,...

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesives Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating s...

  20. Silica Nanoparticles Functionalized with Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Siloxane for Application as a Versatile Antifouling Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Brianna R; Wagner, Pawel; Maclaughlin, Shane; Higgins, Michael J; Molino, Paul J

    2017-06-07

    The growing need to develop surfaces able to effectively resist biological fouling has resulted in the widespread investigation of nanomaterials with potential antifouling properties. However, the preparation of effective antifouling coatings is limited by the availability of reactive surface functional groups and our ability to carefully control and organize chemistries at a materials' interface. Here, we present two methods of preparing hydrophilic low-fouling surface coatings through reaction of silica-nanoparticle suspensions and predeposited silica-nanoparticle films with zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB). Silica-nanoparticle suspensions were functionalized with SB across three pH conditions and deposited as thin films via a simple spin-coating process to generate hydrophilic antifouling coatings. In addition, coatings of predeposited silica nanoparticles were surface functionalized via exposure to zwitterionic solutions. Quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring was employed as a high throughput technique for monitoring and optimizing reaction to the silica-nanoparticle surfaces. Functionalization of nanoparticle films was rapid and could be achieved over a wide pH range and at low zwitterion concentrations. All functionalized particle surfaces presented a high degree of wettability and resulted in large reductions in adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein. Particle coatings also showed a reduction in adhesion of fungal spores (Epicoccum nigrum) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) by up to 87 and 96%, respectively. These results indicate the potential for functionalized nanosilicas to be further developed as versatile fouling-resistant coatings for widespread coating applications.

  1. Sputter deposition of wear-resistant coatings within the system Zr-B-N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitterer, C; Uebleis, A; Ebner, R [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Werkstoffpruefung, Montanuniv., Leoben (Austria)

    1991-07-07

    Wear-resistant coatings of zirconium boride and zirconium boron nitride were deposited on steel and molybdenum substrates employing non-reactive as well as reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering using zirconium diboride targets. The characterization of the coatings was done by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results are discussed in connection with measured mechanical coating properties such as microhardness and adhesion. The optical properties of the coatings were determined using a CIE-L{sup *}a{sup *}b{sup *} colorimeter and specialized corrosion and abrasion tests. Non-reactive sputtering using ZrB{sub 2} targets results in the formation of coatings with a columnar structure and predominantly (001)-orientated ZrB{sub 2} crystals. Coatings deposited at low nitrogen flow rates exhibit very fine-grained or even fracture amorphous structures with a hexagonal Zr-B-N phase derived from the ZrB{sub 2} lattice. A further increase of the nitrogen flow leads to an amorphous film growth. The maximum Vickers microhardness of the coatings was found to be approximately 2300 HV 0.02. Zr-B and Zr-B-N coatings offer a wide range of interesting colours as well as good corrosion and wear resistance. (orig.).

  2. Application of nano-structured coatings to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion in secondary pipe systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jong Jin; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Carbon steel is widely used as a structural material in secondary pipe systems. However, the passivity of carbon steel is not sufficient for protection in secondary water chemistry with a very fast-flowing fluid because of the dissolution of ferrous and magnetite ions and surface friction at the interface of the coolant and pipe surface. There have been many efforts to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion through adoption of advanced water chemistries such as optimized dissolve oxygen (DO) concentration and temperature, as well as usage of new additives such as monoethanol amine (ETA) to adjust pH. However, these mitigation techniques pose certain challenges relating to the compatibility of new water chemistries with the steam generator, the thermal efficiency of the secondary side, etc. In this study, to improve the passivity of carbon steel, nanostructured coatings especially nanoparticle-enhanced surface coatings were adopted to improve resistance to corrosion and wear. Nanoparticles in the coating matrix help decrease the electrochemical potential compared coatings without nanoparticles, and thus help improve the mechanical properties, especially hardness, through precipitation. In other words, nanoparticle-enhanced surface coatings have the potential to mitigate flow-accelerated corrosion in secondary pipe systems. As candidate coatings, TiO 2 - and SiC-enhanced electrolytic and electroless nickel plating and Fe-Cr-W amorphous metallic coatings (AMC) were selected by acquiring the Pourbaix diagram with thermodynamic calculations. Both TiO 2 and SiC show a stable state in secondary water chemistry, and it is estimated that Fe-Cr-W can be applied to secondary water chemistry because it has a similar chemical composition to carbon steel. Electron microscopic analysis results with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) show the distribution of TiO 2 nanoparticles in the nickel matrix coating layer, whereas the SiC nanoparticles

  3. Functionally gradient materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovic, S.W.; Barmak, K.; Chan, H.M. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    New designs for advanced gas turbine engines for power production are required to have higher operating temperatures in order to increase efficiency. However, elevated temperatures will increase the magnitude and severity of environmental degradation of critical turbine components (e.g. combustor parts, turbine blades, etc{hor_ellipsis}). To offset this problem, the usage of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) has become popular by allowing an increase in maximum inlet temperatures for an operating engine. Although thermal barrier technology is over thirty years old, the principle failure mechanism is the spallation of the ceramic coating at or near the ceramic/bond coat interface. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a coating that combines the thermal barrier qualities of the ceramic layer and the corrosion protection by the metallic bond coat without the detrimental effects associated with the localization of the ceramic/metal interface to a single plane.

  4. Solventless dry powder coating for sustained drug release using mechanochemical treatment based on the tri-component system of acetaminophen, carnauba wax and glidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-02-01

    Solventless dry powder coating methods have many advantages compared to solvent-based methods: they are more economical, simpler, safer, more environmentally friendly and easier to scale up. The purpose of this study was to investigate a highly effective dry powder coating method using the mechanofusion system, a mechanochemical treatment equipped with high compressive and shearing force. Acetaminophen (AAP) and carnauba wax (CW) were selected as core particles of the model drug and coating material, respectively. Mixtures of AAP and CW with and without talc were processed using the mechanofusion system. Sustained AAP release was observed by selecting appropriate processing conditions for the rotation speed and the slit size. The dissolution rate of AAP processed with CW substantially decreased with an increase in talc content up to 40% of the amount of CW loaded. Increasing the coating amount by two-step addition of CW led to more effective coating and extended drug release. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that CW adhered and showed satisfactory coverage of the surface of AAP particles. Effective CW coating onto the AAP surface was successfully achieved by strictly controlling the processing conditions and the composition of core particles, coating material and glidant. Our mechanochemical dry powder coating method using the mechanofusion system is a simple and promising means of solventless pharmaceutical coating.

  5. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Camellia oleifera Fruit Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundant fruit hulls of tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera are still underutilized and wastefully discaded to pollute the environment. In order to solve this problem and better utilize the fruit hulls of C. oleifera, a microwave-assisted extraction system was used to extract their polyphenols using water as the extraction solvent. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effects of three extraction processing parameters – liquid:solid ratio (mL/g, extraction time (min and extraction temperature (°C – on the polyphenol yield (%. The results showed that the optimal conditions were liquid:solid ratio of 15.33:1 (mL/g, extraction time of 35 min and extraction temperature of 76 °C. Validation tests indicated that under the optimized conditions the actual yield of polyphenols was 15.05 ± 0.04% with RSD = 0.21% (n = 5, which was in good agreement with the predicted yield. Phenolic compounds in the extracts were analysed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the predominant constituent. The total flavonoid content in the extracts was determined and high total flavonoid content was revealed (140.06 mg/g dry material.

  6. Genetic variability of hull-less barley accessions based on molecular and quantitative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses Sayd

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability of hull-less barley genotypes, for the selection of parents and identification of genotypes adapted to the irrigated production system in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eighteen hull-less barley accessions were evaluated, and three covered barley accessions served as reference. The characterization was based on 157 RAPD molecular markers and ten agronomic traits. Genetic distance matrices were obtained based on molecular markers and quantitative traits. Graphic grouping and dispersion analyses were performed. Genetic, molecular, and agronomic variability was high among genotypes. Ethiopian accessions were genetically more similar, and the Brazilian ones were genetically more distant. For agronomic traits, two more consistent groupings were obtained, one with the most two-rowed materials, and the other with six-rowed materials. The more diverging materials were the two-rowed CI 13453, CN Cerrado 5, CN Cerrado 1, and CN Cerrado 2. The PI 356466, CN Cerrado 1, PI 370799, and CI 13453 genotypes show agronomic traits of interest and, as genetically different genotypes, they are indicated for crossing, in breeding programs.

  7. Optimization of process parameters for a quasi-continuous tablet coating system using design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyadi, Christine; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chan, Lai Wah

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and optimize the critical process parameters of the newly developed Supercell quasi-continuous coater for optimal tablet coat quality. Design of experiments, aided by multivariate analysis techniques, was used to quantify the effects of various coating process conditions and their interactions on the quality of film-coated tablets. The process parameters varied included batch size, inlet temperature, atomizing pressure, plenum pressure, spray rate and coating level. An initial screening stage was carried out using a 2(6-1(IV)) fractional factorial design. Following these preliminary experiments, optimization study was carried out using the Box-Behnken design. Main response variables measured included drug-loading efficiency, coat thickness variation, and the extent of tablet damage. Apparent optimum conditions were determined by using response surface plots. The process parameters exerted various effects on the different response variables. Hence, trade-offs between individual optima were necessary to obtain the best compromised set of conditions. The adequacy of the optimized process conditions in meeting the combined goals for all responses was indicated by the composite desirability value. By using response surface methodology and optimization, coating conditions which produced coated tablets of high drug-loading efficiency, low incidences of tablet damage and low coat thickness variation were defined. Optimal conditions were found to vary over a large spectrum when different responses were considered. Changes in processing parameters across the design space did not result in drastic changes to coat quality, thereby demonstrating robustness in the Supercell coating process. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  8. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-16-D-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  9. Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColm, Thomas Dean

    The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant

  10. Precise Morphology Control and Continuous Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Cells Using Droplet-Controllable Electrospray Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung Chan; Lee, Gunhee; Ha, Kyungyeon; Yoon, Jungjin; Ahn, Namyoung; Cho, Woohyung; Park, Mincheol; Choi, Mansoo

    2017-03-08

    Herein, we developed a novel electrospray coating system for continuous fabrication of perovskite solar cells with high performance. Our system can systemically control the size of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 precursor droplets by modulating the applied electrical potential, shown to be a crucial factor for the formation of perovskite films. As a result, we have obtained pinhole-free and large grain-sized perovskite solar cells, yielding the best PCE of 13.27% with little photocurrent hysteresis. Furthermore, the average PCE through the continuous coating process was 11.56 ± 0.52%. Our system demonstrates not only the high reproducibility but also a new way to commercialize high-quality perovskite solar cells.

  11. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  12. Calculation of Flows Over Underwater Bodies with Hull, Sail and Appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoab, M.; Ayub, M.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive study has been made for the hydrodynamic analysis of the submarine DARPA 2. The analysis was first performed for hull, then hull with sail on top and then for the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. A comparison of tangential velocity and pressure distribution for hull is accomplished using CFD flow solvers and published data. Further, the pressure distribution over the hull with sail is also analyzed. Finally, pressure distribution, forces and moments were calculated over the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. Comparison 01 pressure distribution and tangential velocity for the hull show a good agreement with published data. Pressure coefficient comparison for the hull with sail shows the good CFD-CFD agreement. Comparison of Normal force and pitching moment of complete submarine having hull, sail and appendages shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental results of DARPA 2. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete submarine estimates the required design force and moment at different angles of attack and also demonstrate the flow visualization. (author)

  13. Grounding-Induced Sectional Forces and Residual Strength of Grounded Ship Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the sectional forces induced by ship grounding and also to assess the residual strength of groundedship hulls. An analytical approach is used to estimate the grounding-induced sectional forces of ships. The extent and location of structural damage due...... to grounding is defined based on the ABS Safe Hull guide. The residual strength of damaged hulls is calculated by using a simple analytical formula. The method is applied to residual strength assessment of a damaged double hull tanker of 38,400 dwt due to grounding....

  14. CFD investigation of pentamaran ship model with chine hull form on the resistance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuar; Sulistyawati, W.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of pentamaran hull form with chine hull form to the effects of outriggers position, asymmetry, and deadrise angles on the resistance characteristics. The investigation to the resistance characteristics by modelling pentamaran hull form using chine with symmetrical main hull and asymmetric outboard on the variation deadrise angles: 25°, 30°, 35° and Froude number 0,1 to 0,7. On calm water resistance characteristics of six pentamaran models with chine-hull form examined by variation of deadrise angles by using CFD. Comparation with Wigley hull form, the maximum resistance drag reduction of the chine hull form was reduced by 15.81% on deadrise 25°, 13.8% on deadrise 30°, and 20.38% on deadrise 35°. While the smallest value of total resistance coefficient was generated from chine 35° at R/L:1/14 and R/L:1/7. Optimum hull form for minimum resistance has been obtained, so it is interesting to continue with angle of entrance and stem angle of hull for further research.

  15. Genetic control of a transition from black to straw-white seed hull in rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Si, Lizhen; Wang, Zixuan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Jinjie; Shangguan, Yingying; Lu, Danfeng; Fan, Danlin; Li, Canyang; Lin, Hongxuan; Qian, Qian; Sang, Tao; Zhou, Bo; Minobe, Yuzo; Han, Bin

    2011-03-01

    The genetic mechanism involved in a transition from the black-colored seed hull of the ancestral wild rice (Oryza rufipogon and Oryza nivara) to the straw-white seed hull of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) during grain ripening remains unknown. We report that the black hull of O. rufipogon was controlled by the Black hull4 (Bh4) gene, which was fine-mapped to an 8.8-kb region on rice chromosome 4 using a cross between O. rufipogon W1943 (black hull) and O. sativa indica cv Guangluai 4 (straw-white hull). Bh4 encodes an amino acid transporter. A 22-bp deletion within exon 3 of the bh4 variant disrupted the Bh4 function, leading to the straw-white hull in cultivated rice. Transgenic study indicated that Bh4 could restore the black pigment on hulls in cv Guangluai 4 and Kasalath. Bh4 sequence alignment of all taxa with the outgroup Oryza barthii showed that the wild rice maintained comparable levels of nucleotide diversity that were about 70 times higher than those in the cultivated rice. The results from the maximum likelihood Hudson-Kreitman-Aguade test suggested that the significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in rice cultivars could be caused by artificial selection. We propose that the straw-white hull was selected as an important visual phenotype of nonshattered grains during rice domestication.

  16. Decontamination of fast reactor hulls and properties of immobilised waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Brown, P.E.; Rees, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The studies described in this Report have been carried out on five batches of stainless steel hulls resulting from the reprocessing of fuel from the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay. Direct immobilisation in cement and decontamination have been examined as possible routes for treating the hulls. A number of low temperature chemical techniques have been used to remove actinides and fission products from the hulls. The levels of α-activity could be reduced to less than 0.3 Ci/te of hulls. Thus decontamination might permit cheaper disposal than would be the case for undecontaminated hulls. 10mm sections of hulls have been immobilised in two cements in which either sand or blast furnace slag was used to extend the ordinary Portland cement. The level of Cs-137 leached from hulls immobilised in either of the cement compositions was about an order of magnitude lower than that leached from the bare hulls. For Sr-90, the BFS/OPC matrix gave a tenfold better retention than the sand/OPC. Ru-106 and Sb-125 were leached from the sand/OPC but not from the BFS/OPC samples. The preliminary studies suggested that cement was a satisfactory matrix for immobilising hulls and that the BFS/OPC was the better formulation. 30 refs, 26 tabs, 23 figs

  17. The structure and properties of single-layer and gradient-layered coatings of the Ti–Al–Si–Cr–Mo–S–N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, Stanislav, E-mail: ovm@spti.tsu.ru; Pinzhin, Yurii, E-mail: pinzhin@phys.tsu.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Using the method of microprobe analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the influence of obtaining conditions upon particular elemental composition and growth structure coatings of Ti–Al–Si–Mo–S–N system was studied. The possibility of formation and characteristics of the structural and elastic-stress state single-layer coatings with nanoscale columnar or equiaxed grains and gradient-layered, combining two types of selected structure, was defined. On the basis of hardness, tribological properties and coating hardness, a conclusion was made about the relative prospects of its use as wear-resistant coatings with a nanocrystalline structure.

  18. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  19. Bisphosphonate-coated BSA nanoparticles lack bone targeting after systemic administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guilin; Kucharski, Cezary; Lin, Xiaoyue; Uludağ, Hasan

    2010-09-01

    A polymeric conjugate of polyethyleneimine-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) and 2-(3-mercaptopropylsulfanyl)-ethyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (PEI-PEG-thiolBP) was prepared and used for surface coating of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) designed for bone-specific delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The NP coating was achieved with a dialysis and an evaporation method, and the obtained NPs were characterized by particle size, zeta-potential, morphology, and cytotoxicity in vitro. The particle size and surface charge of the NPs could be effectively tuned by the PEG and thiolBP substitution ratios of the conjugate, the coating method, and the polymer concentration used for coating. The PEG modification on PEI reduced the toxicity of PEI and the coated NPs, based on in vitro assessment with human C2C12 cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells. On the basis of an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction assay, the NP-encapsulated BMP-2 displayed full retention of its bioactivity, except for BMP-2 in PEI-coated NPs. By encapsulating (125)I-labeled BMP-2, the polymer-coated NPs were assessed for hydroxyapatite (HA) affinity; all NP-encapsulated BMP-2 showed significant affinity to HA as compared with free BMP-2 in vitro, and the PEI-PEG-thiolBP coated NPs improved the in vivo retention of BMP-2 compared with uncoated NPs. However, the biodistribution of NPs after intravenous injection in a rat model indicated no beneficial effects of thiolBP-coated NPs for bone targeting. Our results suggested that the BP-conjugated NPs are useful for localized delivery of BMP-2 in bone repair and regeneration, but they are not effective for bone targeting after intravenous administration.

  20. Preparation of tungsten coatings on graphite by electro-deposition via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning-bo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Ying-chun, E-mail: zycustb@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Fan; Lang, Shao-ting [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia, Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings on graphite were firstly obtained by electro-deposition method via Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system. • Uniform and dense tungsten coatings could be easily prepared in each face of the sample, especially the complex components. • The obtained tungsten coatings are with high purity, ultra-low oxygen content (about 0.022 wt%). • Modulate pulse parameters can get tungsten coatings with different thickness and hardness. - Abstract: Tungsten coating on graphite substrate is one of the most promising candidate materials as the ITER plasma facing components. In this paper, tungsten coatings on graphite substrates were fabricated by electro-deposition from Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}–WO{sub 3} molten salt system at 1173 K in atmosphere. Tungsten coatings with no impurities were successfully deposited on graphite substrates under various pulsed current densities in an hour. By increasing the current density from 60 mA cm{sup −2} to 120 mA cm{sup −2} an increase of the average size of tungsten grains, the thickness and the hardness of tungsten coatings occurs. The average size of tungsten grains can reach 7.13 μm, the thickness of tungsten coating was in the range of 28.8–51 μm, and the hardness of coating was higher than 400 HV. No cracks or voids were observed between tungsten coating and graphite substrate. The oxygen content of tungsten coating is about 0.022 wt%.

  1. Development and Property Evaluation of Selected HfO2-Silicon and Rare Earth-Silicon Based Bond Coats and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si and rare earth Si based EBC bond coat EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. High temperature properties of the advanced EBC systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep and oxidation resistance have been studied and summarized. The advanced NASA EBC systems showed some promise to achieve 1500C temperature capability, helping enable next generation turbine engines with significantly improved engine component temperature capability and durability.

  2. The system of quantum structures coated with the diamond-like carbon for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.P.; Abyzov, A.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Omarov, A.O.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2010-01-01

    The peculiarity of the process of amorphous diamond-like carbon coating deposition on the surface of Si photoelectric cell with quantum filaments, which was irradiated by the electrons and heavy multi-charge ions, have been investigated. The experimental results on the investigations of the optical characteristics of the nitrogen doped hydrogenated diamond-like carbon a-C:(H,N) coatings were presented. The parameters of the process of a-C:(H,N) coating deposition on the surfaces of disordered Si semiconductors structures were optimized for the purpose of minimizing optical reflection coefficient from the front surface of the crystal and supplying its mechanical durability.

  3. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Texas tier system for seal coat binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) instituted a change in their seal coat binder specification in 2010 which allowed districts to select multiple binders within specified traffic levels or tiers for the purposes of allowing contractors to...

  5. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing...

  6. REMR Management System - Coatings for Use on Wet or Damp Steel Surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beitelman, Alfred

    1997-01-01

    .... The surfaces of these structures normally can be blast cleaned to a white metal grade, but condensation and/or water leaking around seals immediately make the surfaces too wet for the application of many coatings...

  7. Research and development in the field of radiation curable coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demmler, K.; Goethlich, L.; Osterloh, R.; Zosel, A.

    1977-08-01

    Suitable monomers for radiation curable coatings are mono- and polyfunctional acrylates and N vinylcompounds like vinylpyrrolidone and divinylpropyleneurea. Methacrylates, vinylesters and vinylethers are less suited. The residual monomer content of two completely cured coatings (UP and epoxyacrylate resins) amounts to 0.01 to 0.05%. Electron beam cured UP/acrylate films are particularly soil resistant. Peroxide and electron beam cured UP resin coatings differ in their curing pattern. Development of radiation sources now allows for testing radiation curable coatings on laboratory units. Modern EB and UV radiators deliver comparable results. The patent literature on electron beam curing comprises more than 700 known applications. In the course of the work described herein 4 patents were applied for. (orig.) [de

  8. Life cycle assessment of façade coating systems containing manufactured nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hischier, Roland, E-mail: roland.hischier@empa.ch; Nowack, Bernd [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Gottschalk, Fadri [ETSS (Switzerland); Hincapie, Ingrid [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland); Steinfeldt, Michael [University of Bremen FB 4/FG 10 Technological Design and Development (Germany); Som, Claudia [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Technology and Society Lab (TSL) (Switzerland)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnologies are expected to hold considerable potential for the development of new materials in the construction sector. Up to now the environmental benefits and risks of products containing manufactured nanomaterials (MNM) have been quantified only to a limited extent. This study aims to assess the potential environmental, health and safety impacts of coatings containing MNM using Life-cycle assessment: Do paints containing MNM result in a better environmental performance than paints not containing MNM? The study shows that the results depend on a number of factors: (i) The MNM have to substitute an (active) ingredient of the initial paint composition and not simply be an additional ingredient. (ii) The new composition has to extend the lifetime of the paint for such a time period that the consumption of paint along the life cycle of a building is reduced. (iii) Releases of MNM have to be reduced to the lowest level possible (in particular by dumping unused paint together with the packaging). Only when all these boundary conditions are fulfilled, which is the case only for one of the three paint systems examined, is an improved environmental performance of the MNM-containing paint possible for the paint compositions examined in this study.

  9. Federal Highway Administration 100-year coating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Highway Administration 100-Year Coating Study was initiated in August 2009 to search for durable : coating systems at a reasonable cost. The objective of the study was to identify and evaluate coating materials that can : provide 100 year...

  10. Measurement of Turbulent Skin Friction Drag Coefficients Produced by Distributed Surface Roughness of Pristine Marine Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zafiryadis, Frederik; Meyer, Knud Erik; Gökhan Ergin, F.

    drag coefficients as well as roughness Reynolds numbers for the various marine coatings across the range of Rex by fitting of the van Driest profile. The results demonstrate sound agreement with the present ITTC method for determining skin friction coefficients for practically smooth surfaces at low...... Reynolds numbers compared to normal operation mode for the antifouling coatings. Thus, better estimates for skin friction of rough hulls can be realised using the proposed method to optimise preliminary vessel design....

  11. Advanced immobilization processes for fuel hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Boehme, G.; Findlay, J.R.; Sombret, C.

    1984-08-01

    Various research and development projects for the conditioning of cladding scraps and dissolver residues are pursued within the scope of the R and D programme on nuclear waste Management of the European Community. They include the characterization of the waste materials arising from industrial fuel reprocessing and the development of different waste immobilization techniques. These concern the embedment of scraps and residues into inert matrices like cement, metal alloys, compacted graphite and sintered ceramics as well as the treatment of the fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion. The conditioned waste forms are tested as to their relevant properties for activity enclosure

  12. Advanced immobilization processes for fuel hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.; Boehme, G.; Findlay, J.R.; Sombert, C.

    1984-01-01

    Various research and development projects for the conditioning of cladding scraps and dissolver residues are pursued within the scope of the R and D programme on nuclear waste Management of the European Community. They include the characterization of the waste materials arising from industrial fuel reprocessing and the development of different waste immobilization techniques. These concern the embedment of the scraps and residues into inert matrices like cement, metal alloys, compacted graphite and sintered ceramics as well as the treatment of the fuel hulls by melting or chemical conversion. The conditioned waste forms are tested as to their relevant properties for activity enclosure

  13. Study on the preparation of furfural from rice hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, M.F; Li, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Furfural (I) was prepared from rice hull by digestion with HCl, H/sub 2/SO4, or H/sub 3/PO4. I formation in the presence of 5N HCl (the optimum concentration) increased with increasing time of digestion up to 5 hours and then decreased. The optimum concentration and time with H/sub 2/SO4 were the same, but digestion with H/sub 3/PO4 was neither concentration nor time dependent. Under optimal conditions, I formation was highest in digestion with HCl.

  14. Design of conveyor utilization monitoring system: a case study of powder coating line in sheet metal fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Hoedi; Sugiarto, Yohanes; Nur Rosyidi, Cucuk

    2018-03-01

    Conveyor is a very useful equipment to replace manpower in transporting the goods. It highly influences the productivity, production capacity utilization and eventually the production cost. This paper proposes a system to monitor the utilization of conveyor at a low cost through a case study at powder coating process line in a sheet metal fabrication. Preliminary observation was conducted to identify the problems. The monitoring system was then built and executed. The system consists of two sub systems. First is sub system for collecting and transmitting the required data and the second is sub system for displaying the data. The system utilizes sensors, wireless data transfer and windows-based application. The test results showed that the whole system works properly. By this system, the productivity and status of the conveyor can be monitored in real time. This research enriches the development of conveyor monitoring system especially for implementation in small and medium enterprises.

  15. Protective coatings of hafnium dioxide by atomic layer deposition for microelectromechanical systems applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdova, Maria, E-mail: maria.berdova@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland); Wiemer, Claudia; Lamperti, Alessio; Tallarida, Grazia; Cianci, Elena [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Losa, Stefano; Rossini, Silvia; Somaschini, Roberto; Gioveni, Salvatore [STMicroelectronics, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio MDM, IMM CNR, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864, Agrate Brianza, MB (Italy); Università degli studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, 20126, Milano (Italy); Franssila, Sami, E-mail: sami.franssila@aalto.fi [Aalto University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 02150, Espoo (Finland)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me or Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and ozone for potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. • ALD HfO{sub 2} protects aluminum substrates from degradation in moist environment and at the same time retains good reflectance properties of the underlying material. • The resistance of hafnium dioxide to moist environment is independent of chosen precursors. - Abstract: This work presents the investigation of HfO{sub 2} deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from either HfD-CO4 or TEMAHf and ozone for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, in particular, for environmental protection of aluminum micromirrors. This work shows that HfO{sub 2} films successfully protect aluminum in moist environment and at the same time retain good reflectance properties of underlying material. In our experimental work, the chemical composition, crystal structure, electronic density and roughness of HfO{sub 2} films remained the same after one week of humidity treatment (relative humidity of 85%, 85 °C). The reflectance properties underwent only minor changes. The observed shift in reflectance was only from 80–90% to 76–85% in 400–800 nm spectral range when coated with ALD HfO{sub 2} films grown with Hf(NMeEt){sub 4} and no shift (remained in the range of 68–83%) for films grown from (CpMe){sub 2}Hf(OMe)Me.

  16. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-07-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) research and development is driven by the desirability of further increasing the maximum inlet temperature in a gas turbine engine. A number of new top coat ceramic materials have been proposed during the last decades due to limited temperature capability (1200 C) of the state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (7 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}, YSZ) at long term operation. Zirconate pyrochlores of the large lanthanides((Gd → La){sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) have been particularly attractive due to their higher temperature phase stability than that of the YSZ. Nonetheless, the issues related with the implementation of pyrochlores such as low fracture toughness and formation of deleterious interphases with thermally grown oxide (TGO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were reported. The implication was the requirement of an interlayer between the pyrochlores and TGO, which introduced double-layer systems to the TBC literature. Furthermore, processability issues of pyrochlores associated with the different evaporation rates of lanthanide oxides and zirconia resulting in unfavorable composition variations in the coatings were addressed in different studies. After all, although the material properties are available, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the properties of the coatings made of pyrochlores. From the processability point of view the most reported pyrochlore is La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate plasma-sprayed Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (GZO) coatings and YSZ/GZO double-layer TBC systems. Three main topics were examined based on processing, performance and properties: (i) the plasma spray processing of the GZO and its impact on the microstructural and compositional properties of the GZO coatings; (ii) the cycling lifetime of the YSZ/GZO double-layer systems under thermal gradient at a surface temperature of 1400 C; (iii) the properties of the GZO and YSZ coatings such as

  17. Yttria-stabilized zirkonia / gadolinium zirconate double-layer plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) research and development is driven by the desirability of further increasing the maximum inlet temperature in a gas turbine engine. A number of new top coat ceramic materials have been proposed during the last decades due to limited temperature capability (1200 C) of the state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (7 wt. % Y 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 , YSZ) at long term operation. Zirconate pyrochlores of the large lanthanides((Gd → La) 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) have been particularly attractive due to their higher temperature phase stability than that of the YSZ. Nonetheless, the issues related with the implementation of pyrochlores such as low fracture toughness and formation of deleterious interphases with thermally grown oxide (TGO, Al 2 O 3 ) were reported. The implication was the requirement of an interlayer between the pyrochlores and TGO, which introduced double-layer systems to the TBC literature. Furthermore, processability issues of pyrochlores associated with the different evaporation rates of lanthanide oxides and zirconia resulting in unfavorable composition variations in the coatings were addressed in different studies. After all, although the material properties are available, there is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the properties of the coatings made of pyrochlores. From the processability point of view the most reported pyrochlore is La 2 Zr 2 O 7 . Hence, the goal of this research was to investigate plasma-sprayed Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) coatings and YSZ/GZO double-layer TBC systems. Three main topics were examined based on processing, performance and properties: (i) the plasma spray processing of the GZO and its impact on the microstructural and compositional properties of the GZO coatings; (ii) the cycling lifetime of the YSZ/GZO double-layer systems under thermal gradient at a surface temperature of 1400 C; (iii) the properties of the GZO and YSZ coatings such as thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion as well

  18. Application of Corrosion- and Fire-Resistant Coating Systems on Buildings 227 and 299 at Rock Island Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    event of a fire. The mesh prevents cracking to the steel substrate, which would reduce the insulating properties of the char. The procedure is as...Top Coats: MPI #9, Exterior Alkyd Enamel , Gloss, MPI Gloss Level 6 (i.e., a semi-gloss) • System 2: o Primer: MPI #23, Surface Tolerant Metal...Metal Primer X X MPI Paint #9 Exterior Alkyd Enamel , Gloss X MPI Paint #94 Exterior Alkyd

  19. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines

  20. maar vandag in 2015 kan hulle gelees word as stories oor mense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... maar vandag in 2015 kan hulle gelees word as stories oor mense wat leef teen die agtergrond van politieke opstand en sosiale chaos binne 'n groter universele verband. Die verbeeldingspel wat geïn- spireer word deur die teater, bied in die dramatekste van Uys 'n legio visuele moontlikhede van hoe hulle ...

  1. Distributed Topological Convex Hull Estimation of Event Region in Wireless Sensor Networks without Location Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Cao, Jiannong; Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In critical event (e.g., fire or gas) monitoring applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), convex hull of the event region is an efficient tool in handling the usual tasks like event report, routes reconstruction and human motion planning. Existing works on estimating convex hull of event

  2. Effects of quinoa hull meal on piglet performance and intestinal epithelial physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Fernandez, J.A.; Poulsen, H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Saponin-containing feed additives have shown positive effects on pig performance. Quinoa hull has high saponin content and may be of interest as a feed additive. This study aimed to evaluate quinoa hull meal (QHM) as a feed additive in a pig diet. The effects of QHM were assessed for three dosages...

  3. 46 CFR 42.09-35 - Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. 42.09-35 Section 42.09-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... Additional survey requirements for wood-hull vessels. (a) In addition to the requirements in § 42.09-25, the...

  4. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r 2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: → we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. → We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. → Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. → Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  5. Effect of rice hull mulch on nutrient concentration of fertilized irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parboiled rice hulls are an effective mulch for controlling weeds in nursery containers. A layer of rice hulls between 1.25 and 2.5 cm deep has been shown to provide effective control of liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha), bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa), and creeping woodsorrel (Oxalis corniculata...

  6. Refined universal laws for hull volumes and perimeters in large planar maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We consider ensembles of planar maps with two marked vertices at distance k from each other, and look at the closed line separating these vertices and lying at distance d from the first one ( d   <   k ). This line divides the map into two components, the hull at distance d which corresponds to the part of the map lying on the same side as the first vertex and its complementary. The number of faces within the hull is called the hull volume, and the length of the separating line the hull perimeter. We study the statistics of the hull volume and perimeter for arbitrary d and k in the limit of infinitely large planar quadrangulations, triangulations and Eulerian triangulations. We consider more precisely situations where both d and k become large with the ratio d / k remaining finite. For infinitely large maps, two regimes may be encountered: either the hull has a finite volume and its complementary is infinitely large, or the hull itself has an infinite volume and its complementary is of finite size. We compute the probability for the map to be in either regime as a function of d / k as well as a number of universal statistical laws for the hull perimeter and volume when maps are conditioned to be in one regime or the other. (paper)

  7. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio (Pistachia vera) hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behgar, M [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, S; Naserian, A [Faculty of Agriculture, Excellence Center in Animal Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 917751163, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Borzoie, A; Fatollahi, H [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, P.O. Box 31485498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r{sup 2} (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content (P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants (P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content (P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull. - Highlights: > we investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on pistachio hull. > We examine changes in phenolics, antioxidant and digestion of pistachio hull. > Computerized radial diffusion method gives precise regression for standard curve. > Gamma irradiation will decrease tannin and antioxidants of pistachio hull extracts.

  8. 46 CFR 167.15-25 - Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-25 Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection standards for hulls, boilers and machinery... inspection. These rules may be purchased from the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), ABS Plaza, 16855...

  9. Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of a Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating System on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBCs and EBCs) will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components in harsh combustion environments. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for effective thermal and environmental protection of the engine components, appropriate test approaches for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, a laser high-heat-flux, thermal gradient approach for testing the coatings will be described. Thermal cyclic behavior of plasma-sprayed coating systems, consisting of ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier and NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program developed mullite+BSAS/Si type environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites, was investigated under thermal gradients using the laser heat-flux rig in conjunction with the furnace thermal cyclic tests in water-vapor environments. The coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after the tests. The coating failure mechanisms are discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering, creep, and thermal stress behavior under simulated engine temperature and heat flux conditions.

  10. Coated particle waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Chick, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    Coated particle waste forms have been developed as part of the multibarrier concept at Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the Alternative Waste Forms Program for the Department of Energy. Primary efforts were to coat simulated nuclear waste glass marbles and ceramic pellets with low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings via the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Fluidized bed (FB) coaters, screw agitated coaters (SAC), and rotating tube coaters were used. Coating temperatures were reduced by using catalysts and plasma activation. In general, the LT-PyC coatings did not provide the expected high leach resistance as previously measured for carbon alone. The coatings were friable and often spalled off the substrate. A totally different concept, thermal spray coating, was investigated at PNL as an alternative to CVD coating. Flame spray, wire gun, and plasma gun systems were evaluated using glass, ceramic, and metallic coating materials. Metal plasma spray coatings (Al, Sn, Zn, Pb) provided a two to three orders-of-magnitude increase in chemical durability. Because the aluminum coatings were porous, the superior leach resistance must be due to either a chemical interaction or to a pH buffer effect. Because they are complex, coated waste form processes rank low in process feasibility. Of all the possible coated particle processes, plasma sprayed marbles have the best rating. Carbon coating of pellets by CVD ranked ninth when compared with ten other processes. The plasma-spray-coated marble process ranked sixth out of eleven processes

  11. In vitro testing of curcumin based composites coatings as antitumoral systems against osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirca, I.; Mitran, V.; Marascu, V.; Brajnicov, S.; Ion, V.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Popovici, I. A.; Cimpean, A.; Dinca, V.; Dinescu, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we propose a new design for biodegradable composite coatings obtained by laser methods, which are aimed at evaluating the effects of active antitumoral elements on osteosarcoma cells. Our approach relies on embedding curcumin, which is a natural polyphenol having antitumoral properties, within biodegradable copolymer coatings (i.e. polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol - PVA-PEG) by using matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The structural and morphological characteristics of the coatings were tailored by using different solvents (water, ethanol, benzene, dimethylsufoxide) as deposition matrix. The morphological characteristics of the resulting films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereas their chemical composition was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These characteristics were correlated with the degradation behavior by using ellipsometry (SE) and AFM measurements data. The in vitro study of the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell behavior indicates that the developed hybrid coatings significantly decreased osteosarcoma cell viability and proliferation potential. The physico-chemical characteristics of the thin films, along with the preliminary in vitro analyses, suggest that our developed polymeric hybrid coatings represent an efficient way to tackle the design of antitumoral surfaces, with applications in biomedicine.

  12. Development and application of α-hull and Voronoi diagrams in the assessment of roundness error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiuming; Liu, Hongqi; Li, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Computational geometry has been used to select effective data points from the measured data points for evaluating the roundness error to improve the computational complexity. However, for precision parts most of the measured points are on the vertices of the convex hull; it cannot have any effect on improving the computational complexity with the Voronoi diagrams. In this paper the roundness error is evaluated with α-hull and the Voronoi diagram instead of convex hull. An approach for constructing α-hull with the minimum radius separation is presented to determine the vertices of the Voronoi diagram. The experimental results showed that the roundness error of the minimum zone circle could be solved efficiently with α-hull and the Voronoi diagram

  13. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( Ppistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( Ppistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  14. Water permeability of pigmented waterborne coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Huinink, H.P.; Erich, S.J.F.; Reuvers, N.J.W.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Coatings are used in a variety of applications. Last decades more and more coating systems are transforming from solvent to waterborne coating systems. In this study the influence of pigments on the water permeability of a waterborne coating system is studied, with special interest in the possible

  15. Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  16. Silica coatings on clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Marjan; Dmitrasinovic, Dorde; Planinsek, Odon; Salobir, Mateja; Srcic, Stane; Gaberscek, Miran; Jamnik, Janko

    2005-03-03

    Pre-crystallized clarithromycin (6-O-methylerythromycin A) particles were coated with silica from the tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-ethanol-aqueous ammonia system. The coatings had a typical thickness of 100-150 nm and presented about 15 wt.% of the silica-drug composite material. The properties of the coatings depended on reactant concentration, temperature and mixing rate and, in particular, on the presence of a cationic surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride). In the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride the silica coatings slightly decreased the rate of pure clarithromycin dissolution.

  17. 46 CFR 115.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.620 Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels. The Alternative...

  18. 46 CFR 71.50-15 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels. The Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program provides you with an alternative to a drydock examination by allowing...

  19. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam... wooden hulls must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five year...

  20. 46 CFR 115.625 - Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.625 Eligibility requirements for the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain...

  1. CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BUCKWHEAT HULL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Danihelová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buckwheat contains many prophylactic compounds that are concentrated mainly in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The aim of this study was to prepare buckwheat hull extracts. Ten buckwheat cultivars were screened for their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Total polyphenol content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant activity was established by the method of binding free radical DPPH. Cytotoxic properties were measured on human cervical cancer cells HeLa using mitochondrial cytotoxic test (MTT. Total polyphenol content ranged from 166.67 to 635.31 mg GAE/100 g DW. The highest content displayed tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.64% of hulls weight. Among common buckwheat the richest in polyphenols were cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2. The best free radical binding antioxidant activity was found for cultivars with highest polyphenol content. This relationship was not observed for cytotoxic action on human cervical cancer cells. The best growth inhibitory activity on HeLa cancer cells displayed common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 (up to 50%, extract concentration 100 µg/ml. This was not found for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska.

  2. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  3. Removal of Remazol brilliant violet textile dye by adsorption using rice hulls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Geyse Adriana Correa; Silva, Domingos Sergio Araujo; Santos, Clayane Carvalho dos; Bezerra, Cicero Wellington Brito; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi; Santana, Sirlane Aparecida Abreu, E-mail: cwb.bezerra@ufma.br [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, (UFMA), Sao Luis (Brazil); Vieira, Adriana Pires [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    The release of industrial effluents into the environment causes widespread contamination of aquatic systems. Adsorption is seen as one of the most promising treatment processes, and lignocellulosic materials have gained prominence as adsorbents. This study investigates the potential of rice hulls, either in natura or treated with nitric acid, as adsorbents for removal of the dye. The adsorbents were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, solid state {sup 13}C-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and pH at point of zero charge. The dye adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode, using different experimental conditions. The kinetic adsorption data could be fitted using the model of Elovich. The Freundlich model provided the best fit to the isothermal data. The thermodynamic parameters confirmed the spontaneity of the adsorption process. These adsorbents offer an alternative for dye removal, with advantages including biomass availability and low cost. (author)

  4. Removal of Remazol brilliant violet textile dye by adsorption using rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyse Adriana Corrêa Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract The release of industrial effluents into the environment causes widespread contamination of aquatic systems. Adsorption is seen as one of the most promising treatment processes, and lignocellulosic materials have gained prominence as adsorbents. This study investigates the potential of rice hulls, either in natura or treated with nitric acid, as adsorbents for removal of the dye. The adsorbents were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, solid state 13C-NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and pH at point of zero charge. The dye adsorption experiments were carried out in batch mode, using different experimental conditions. The kinetic adsorption data could be fitted using the model of Elovich. The Freundlich model provided the best fit to the isothermal data. The thermodynamic parameters confirmed the spontaneity of the adsorption process. These adsorbents offer an alternative for dye removal, with advantages including biomass availability and low cost.

  5. Investigation of an Intumescent Coating System in Pilot and Laboratory-scale Furnaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kristian Petersen

    was done against experimental char expansion rates and temperatures of the steel substrate and at intra-char positions. The model was solved in a discretized and non-discretized version and a good qualitative description of the temperature curves was found. An important learning was that temperatures......Steel is an incombustible substrate, but at elevated temperatures structural steel suffers from a drastic reduction in mechanical strength. In the event of a fire, the reduced strength may lead to collapse of the structure. A method to prolong the time before steel reaches the critical temperature...... (450 - 600 °C), at which the collapse may occur, is the use of a fire protective intumescent coating, which swells when exposed to temperatures above about 200 °C. The swelling of the intumescent coating happens according to a complex sequence of chemical reactions, whereby the coating forms a porous...

  6. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Bharathibai J.; Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  7. "Thunderstruck": Plasma-Polymer-Coated Porous Silicon Microparticles As a Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Steven J P; Michl, Thomas D; Delalat, Bahman; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Coad, Bryan R; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the release kinetics from a drug carrier is crucial to maintain a drug's therapeutic window. We report the use of biodegradable porous silicon microparticles (pSi MPs) loaded with the anticancer drug camphothecin, followed by a plasma polymer overcoating using a loudspeaker plasma reactor. Homogenous "Teflon-like" coatings were achieved by tumbling the particles by playing AC/DC's song "Thunderstruck". The overcoating resulted in a markedly slower release of the cytotoxic drug, and this effect correlated positively with the plasma polymer coating times, ranging from 2-fold up to more than 100-fold. Ultimately, upon characterizing and verifying pSi MP production, loading, and coating with analytical methods such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, water contact angle measurements, and fluorescence microscopy, human neuroblastoma cells were challenged with pSi MPs in an in vitro assay, revealing a significant time delay in cell death onset.

  8. Prototype evaluation of transformation toughened blast resistant naval hull steels: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Jung, J.; Olson, G. B.

    2007-07-01

    Application of a systems approach to computational materials design led to the theoretical design of a transformation toughened ultratough high-strength plate steel for blast-resistant naval hull applications. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (C v > 85 ft-lbs or 115 J corresponding to K Id≥ 200 ksi.in1/2 or 220 MPa.m1/2) at strength levels of 150 180 ksi (1,030 1,240 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A continuous casting process was simulated by slab casting the prototype alloy as a 1.75‧‧ (4.45 cm) plate. Consistent with predictions, compositional banding in the plate was limited to an amplitude of 6 7.5 wt% Ni and 3.5 5 wt% Cu. Examination of the oxide scale showed no evidence of hot shortness in the alloy during hot working. Isothermal transformation kinetics measurements demonstrated achievement of 50% bainite in 4 min at 360 °C. Hardness and tensile tests confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1,100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 65% in Charpy energy. Predicted Cu particle number densities and the heterogeneous nucleation of optimal stability high Ni 5 nm austenite on nanometer-scale copper precipitates in the multi-step tempered samples was confirmed using three-dimensional atom probe microanalysis. Charpy impact tests and fractography demonstrate ductile fracture with C v > 80 ft-lbs (108 J) down to -40 °C, with a substantial toughness peak at 25 °C consistent with designed transformation toughening behavior. The properties demonstrated in this first

  9. Development of TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiter system and initial results of the thermal testing in neutral beam heated JFT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Sengoku, Seio; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Seki, Masahiro; Kazawa, Minoru

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes the limiter drive system for TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiters and the thermal testing results of the TiC coated limiter in the JFT-2 tokamak using neutral beam injection (0.7 MW). To investigate the influence of TiC coated limiter on plasma behavior and adhesion property under tokamak plasma, a full scale limiter test has been performed in the JFT-2. Reproducible plasma was obtained after the plasma conditioning. Maximum heat flux to the limiter, measured by IR camera, was 1.5 -- 6.5 kW/cm 2 in 25 msec. Cracking, exfoliation and melting on TiC coated limiter were not observed, except for a number of arc tracks. Finally, the permissible heat fluxes of TiC coated molybdenum first wall are discussed. (author)

  10. Systems and methods for using a boehmite bond-coat with polyimide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, Kimberly Ann

    2013-03-05

    The subject matter disclosed herein relates to gas separation membranes and, more specifically, to polyimide gas separation membranes. In an embodiment, a gas separation membrane includes a porous substrate, a substantially continuous polyimide membrane layer, and one or more layers of boehmite nanoparticles disposed between the porous substrate and the polyimide membrane layer to form a bond-coat layer. The bond-coat layer is configured to improve the adhesion of the polyimide membrane layer to the porous substrate, and the polyimide membrane layer has a thickness approximately 100 nm or less.

  11. Ultra High Temperature and Multifunctional Ceramic Matrix Composite – Coating Systems for Light-Weight Space and Aero Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Revolutionary ultra-high temperature, high mechanical loading capable, oxidation resistant, durable ceramic coatings and light-weight fiber-reinforced Ceramic Matrix...

  12. Thermal transitions in Fe-Ti-Cr-C quaternary system used as precursor during laser in situ carbide coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anshul; Porter, Wallace D.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature range of thermal transitions within the quaternary system (Fe, Ti, Cr, and C) and the thermal stability of the evolved phases were studied with the help of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC studies indicated that the major exothermic reactions (formation of carbides) take place within 850-1150 deg. C. The evolved phases (TiC, M 7 C 3 , Fe-Cr, and Fe 3 C) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). This multicomponent powder mixture was used as a precursor for synthesizing a composite coating on the surface of steel via laser surface engineering (LSE). The intended wear applications of the coating made thermal stability investigations vital. Experimental evaluation of thermal stability of the phases formed was done

  13. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  14. Duplex aluminized coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedwill, M. A.; Grisaffe, S. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    The surface of a metallic base system is initially coated with a metallic alloy layer that is ductile and oxidation resistant. An aluminide coating is then applied to the metallic alloy layer. The chemistry of the metallic alloy layer is such that the oxidation resistance of the subsequently aluminized outermost layer is not seriously degraded.

  15. Variations in the microstructure of nickel-based alloy coatings with the metalloids boron and silicon as a function of deposition parameters in a dual beam ion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitz, J.K.G.

    1986-01-01

    We have deposited coatings using a dual beam ion source system with two different targets as sputtering sources; (i) a predominantly amorphous Ni/sub 63.5/Cr/sub 12.3/Fe/sub 3.5/Si/sub 7.9/B/sub 12.8/ foil and (ii) a crystalline Ni/sub 55.3/Cr/sub 16.9/Si/sub 7.2/B/sub 21.6/ slab from a casting. Amorphous coatings were produced by the foil for all conditions studied. The coatings that were deposited from the slab target that were less than 400 nm in thickness which were deposited at rates from 8--50 nm/min appeared to be amorphous. The thicker (>400 nm) coatings and the extremely low deposition rate (2 nm/min) coatings produced by the slab comprised both partially polycrystalline and amorphous material. All of the coatings studied exhibited inferior wear and erosion resistance properties compared to iron-based amorphous metal coatings containing Ti, C, or N, which have been studied by other groups. However, the corrosion resistance to 4 N HCl is good, ranging from less than 0.01 to 0.22 mm/yr as a function of deposition rate, concurrent ion bombardment conditions, and coating thickness

  16. The Development of HfO2-Rare Earth Based Oxide Materials and Barrier Coatings for Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan James

    2014-01-01

    Advanced hafnia-rare earth oxides, rare earth aluminates and silicates have been developed for thermal environmental barrier systems for aerospace propulsion engine and thermal protection applications. The high temperature stability, low thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance and mechanical properties of these oxide material systems make them attractive and potentially viable for thermal protection systems. This paper will focus on the development of the high performance and high temperature capable ZrO2HfO2-rare earth based alloy and compound oxide materials, processed as protective coating systems using state-or-the-art processing techniques. The emphasis has been in particular placed on assessing their temperature capability, stability and suitability for advanced space vehicle entry thermal protection systems. Fundamental thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the material systems have been investigated at high temperatures. Laser high-heat-flux testing has also been developed to validate the material systems, and demonstrating durability under space entry high heat flux conditions.

  17. Effect of Al-B2O3-TiO2 Exothermic System on Performances of Fly Ash Glass/Ceramic Composite Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass/ceramic composite coatings were prepared on 40Cr steel matrix by thermo-chemical reaction with fly ash and a small amount of SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and albite as main raw materials. On this basis, adding 10% Al-TiO2-B2O3 exothermic system, the morphology, phase, thermal shock resistance, and corrosion resistance of the coating were tested, and the influence of exothermic system on the structure and properties of the composite coating was studied. The experimental results show that the addition of exothermic system can promote the formation of NaB15, TiB2, Na2B4O7, Ca2Al2SiO7, and other new phases by thermo-chemical reaction; when compared to the composite coating without addition of exothermic system, combined with a good interface, higher compactness, and lower porosity. The highest micro hardness can be reached 725HV0.1. The number of thermal shock from 700 °C to room temperature can reach more than 50 times; acid, salt, oil immersion corrosion test, composite coating with exothermic system relative to the matrix increased by 27.40 times, 3.97 times, and 1.88 times, respectively. The overall performance is better than that of the composite coating without exothermic system.

  18. Vocational Education and Training: The Technicolour Coat of Australia's Education System. Research Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Georgina

    2011-01-01

    Is vocational education and training (VET) really a technicolour coat that can fulfil many dreams? Does it meet all the training needs of a very diverse group of Australian students, workers and industries? What does it contribute to the economy and society? These were some of the questions asked at the National Centre for Vocational Education…

  19. Load rate dependence of the mechanical properties of thermal barrier coating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotov, Nikolay; Eggeler, Gunther [Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Bartsch, Marion [Institut fuer Werkstoff-Forschung, DLR Koeln, 51147 Koeln (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC), composed of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic top coat (TC) and intermetallic NiCoCrAlY bond coat (BC) are commonly used as protective coatings of Ni-based high temperature gas engine components. Nanoindentation techniques are increasingly applied for determining the TBC mechanical properties on a nanometre scale. However, little is known about the load-rate dependence of the mechanical properties, which is important for better understanding of cyclic thermal fatigue experiments. Nanoindentations with different load rates omega were performed on polished cross-sections of TBC, deposited by EB-PVD on IN625 substrates (S), using a XP Nanoindenter (MTS) equipped with Berkovich diamond tip. The Young's modulus (E) of the TC is independent of omega, while E for the BC and the S decreases with omega. The hardness (H) of the TC and the BC increases, while H for the S decreases with omega. From the dependence of H on omega, creep power-law exponents c = 0.24(11) and c = 0.023(6) for the TC and the BC were determined. For all TBC components, a decrease with omega of the power-law exponents n and m, describing the loading and unloading nanoindentation curves, is observed.

  20. Advanced fiber information systems seed coat neps baseline response from diverse mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive literature search has revealed that no papers have been published regarding selectivity calculation of the AFIS seed coat neps (SCN) determination over interfering material in cotton. A prerequisite to selectivity measurements is to identify suitable fiber medium(s) that give baseline ...