WorldWideScience

Sample records for hulka tnu edule

  1. Eestlased viie rikkaima rahva hulka / Paul Tammert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammert, Paul, 1956-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 8. aug. lk. 2, Võrumaa Teataja 28. aug. lk. 2. Autori väitel on Eesti praeguse liberaalsete ringkondade poolt valitud majandusmudeliga läbinud uskumatu arengu ja hiiglasliku hüppe heaolutasemes. Seeläbi oleme jõudnud kaasaja arenenud ühiskondade hulka ja saavutanud tunnustuse kogu maailmas. Kuid see tee ei vii Eestit Euroopa viie rikkaima riigi hulka, sest meie poolt loodud rikkus voolab nüüd ja tulevikus välisinvestorite kasumina riigist välja

  2. Eestlaste IT-firma valiti saja innovaatilisema hulka / Ilmar Kahro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kahro, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    Tehnoloogiaajakiri Red Herring järjestas maailma kõige innovaatilisemad ettevõtted, esimese saja hulka jõudis Märt Saarepera ja Ahto Buldase asutatud GuardTime. Firma arendatava tehnoloogia abil on võimalik kindlaks teha, millal fail on tegelikult loodud

  3. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  4. Conservación in vitro de chayote (Sechium edule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alvarenga-Venutolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservación in vitro de chayote (Sechium edule. La técnica de conservación in vitro a mediano plazo fue examinada en chayote. Para ello se determinó la supervivencia de los brotes después de la adición de altas concentraciones de sacarosa (0, 30, 50, 60, 70 y 80 g/l y ácido acetil salicílico (10-9, 10-6 y 10-3 M al medio de cultivo, de disminuciones en la temperatura de crecimiento (16, 18, 20, 22 y 25ºC y combinaciones de estos factores, en Costa Rica, en 1997. Se encontró que los brotes mantuvieron altos porcentajes de viabilidad después de ser conservados durante seis meses en los tratamientos evaluados. Debido a la apariencia más vigorosa y a la coloración más verde que presentaron las plántulas, se consideró que el mejor tratamiento fue la adición de 60 g/l de sacarosa al medio de cultivo combinado con la incubación a 16ºC.

  5. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and deposit-feeding species (e.g., the bivalve Macoma balthica, the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae or the amphipod Corophium volutator) may...

  6. Assessment of a fruit extract ( Sechium edule ) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products have been widely used by human beings. However, sometimes the biological effects of these products are not fully known. Chayotte (Sechium edule) is a vegetable used in the folk medicine. Red blood cells (RBC) labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have several clinical applications. The aim of this ...

  7. Selective ingestion of pelagic versus benthic algae by the cockle Cerastoderma edule (Linne, 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, J.L.; Smaal, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The pre-ingestive selection of microphytobenthic algae by the cockle Cerastoderma edule was studied in comparison with diets containing the pelagic diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Treatments with the different diets covered a range of seston concentrations and organic content similar to field

  8. A growth model of the cockle (Cerastoderma edule L.) tested in the Ooosterschelde estuary (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, J.; Smaal, A.C.; Scholten, H.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present an ecophysiological model of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule that simulates individual growth and reproduction under ambient conditions in temperature and food availability in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. The model contains feedback loops in the uptake and metabolism

  9. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  10. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  11. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T. J.; Lanuru, M.; van Bernem, C.; Pejrup, M.; Riethmueller, R.

    2010-04-01

    Sediment erodibility and a range of physical and biological parameters were measured at an intertidal site in the German Wadden Sea area in June, September and November 2002 and February and April 2003 in order to examine the influence of macrozoobenthos and microphytobenthos on sediment erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass). The erodibility of the sediment showed strong temporal variation with high erosion thresholds in spring and late summer and significantly lower thresholds during the rest of the study period. The erosion thresholds were strongly dependent on the contents of chlorophyll a (chl a) and colloidal carbohydrates, both indicators of the content of microphytobenthos, in this environment primarily benthic diatoms. The content of microphytobenthos was high in September 2002 and April 2003, and regression analysis indicated that this was the only likely reason for the low erodibility found at these times. A biostabilisation index of about 4.5 was found for a situation with both abundant biofilms and cockles. A direct influence of Cerastoderma edule on erodibility was not observed, in contrast to other recent studies. The presence of C. edule at the site results in biodeposition of fine-grained material and the presence of C. edule will therefore probably increase the content of fine-grained sediments at the surface compared to an abiotic situation. Increasing the amount of fine-grained material in mixed sediments has previously been shown to reduce the erodibility of the sediments and C. edule will therefore in this way indirectly stabilize the bed. However, although C. edule may constitute the main part of the biomass at some intertidal sites, other and more vigorous bioturbators and

  12. Polinización del chayote Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, Alvaro; Orozco, Enrique; Raabe, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pollinating insects of Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae) were classified into primary and secondary according to their abundance and effectiveness as pollen collectors. Among the total of 55 insect species found in Costa Rica pollinating the plant, 28 were identified as primary meliponid bees of the genus Trigona (Apidae), the rest were secondary pollinators: 15 species of wasps (Vespidae); 5 species of bees of the family Halictidae, 3 species of Anthophori da e and 4 species of Apidae. The plant...

  13. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA REMOCIÓN DE VERDE DE BROMOCRESOL Y ROJO CONGO ENTRE Sechium edule Y Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Cano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio comparativo entre las capacidades de remoción de T. versicolor , desarrolla do en medio líquido y la biomasa vegetal de Se c hium edule con espinas. A mbas biomasas fueron deshidratadas y molidas . L os bioensayo s se realizaron a tempe r atura ambiente y a pH controlados. Los porcentajes de remoción del rojo congo fue ron 78.83 y 75.35 % para S. edule y T. versicolor respectivamente . P ara el verde de bromocresol los porcentaje s de remoción fue ron de 86.34 % con Sechi um edule y 72 % con T . versicolor . En ambos casos, se observó que la biomasa de S. edule tuvo mayor potencial para remo ver tanto al rojo congo sin control de pH y al verde de bromocresol a pH de 4 .0 . Esto implica una ventaja de Sechium edule frente a la pr oducción de hongos ligninolíticos que últimamente han sido estudiados para la degradación de colorantes ; cuya desventaja principal es su cultivo bajo condiciones controladas.

  14. Effects of metal contamination on the gene expression profile of two benthic species: Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigues, Raquel

    2017-08-14

    This study aimed to identify new biomarkers for metal exposure in two bivalve species. Suppressive Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was employed to evaluate the transcriptomic response of Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum to metal pollution. Protein synthesis and catalytic activity were the most affected metabolic processes in C. edule and R. philippinarum, respectively. Also, different genes responded to the effect of contamination in each species. The different response observed in both species reinforces the importance of including more than one bioindicator species in risk assessment studies. These results provide the basis for new studies, which are necessary for further validation of the use of the identified genes as molecular biomarkers for metal exposure.

  15. Health concerns of consuming cockles (Cerastoderma edule L.) from a low contaminated coastal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Lima, Ana; Branco, Diana; Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa

    2011-07-01

    Commercial and recreational harvesting of shellfish within the coastal systems is usually very extensive. Since these ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination, namely from agricultural, urban and industrial activities, and shellfish generally display a high capacity to bioaccumulate metals, populations may be at risk in terms of toxic metal exposure as a consequence of the harvesting and ingestion of near shore coastal marine organisms. Shellfish is regularly tested for concentrations of metals and other contaminants by legal authorities for commercial purposes, but although health officials use total metal as standards of food safety, only a part of the metal accumulated in shellfish is available to be assimilated and to cause toxic effect. In order to elucidate these issues an investigation on cockles inhabiting the Aveiro estuary was conducted. Element levels in sediments and wild Cerastoderma edule from sampling areas with different levels of contamination were measured; total element burden of cockles was related to accessible fraction for assimilation (TAM); element concentrations in wild C. edule were compared to EFSA (European Food Safe Authorities), USFDA (United States Food and Drug Administration) and FSANZ (Food Standards Australia and New Zealand) maximum levels (MLs); and the amount of cockle flesh needed to be consumed to exceed provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was determined. The present work showed that although sediment metal and metalloid contamination in Aveiro estuary is low the concentration of elements in C. edule does not reflect the contamination of the sediment. Aluminium (Al) and mercury (Hg) were the less and nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) were the most bioaccumulated metals by cockles. Comparison of MLs from international organisations with the concentration of elements in C. edule showed that arsenic (As) and Pb exceeded standard levels. The ingestion of less than 1 kg for As and 1.5 kg for Pb

  16. Molecular modelling, dynamics simulation and characterization of antifungal chitinase from Sechium edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Bipasha; Pathaw, Neeta; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Bhattacharjee, Atanu

    2017-03-30

    Chitinases are varied sized proteins which have the ability to degrade chitin and are present in a huge range of organisms like fungi, yeasts, arthropods, humans etc. and have been getting increased attention due to their biocontrol properties. In silico analysis sheds light on the extensive properties of this plant protein. In this paper, a particular antifungal protein Chitinase sourced from Sechium edule from East Khasi Hills, Meghalaya was characterized using an array of bioinformatics tools. The modelled protein showed conserved domains characteristic to glycosyl hydrolase, family 18 superfamily. Likewise, a part of the conserved domain area fits in with xylanase inhibitor Xip-1 and the class ΙΙΙ plant chitinases, for example, concanavalin B, hevamine, which have a GH18 area. The modelled wild type protein exhibited secondary characteristics comprising of 48.8% helix, 62.2% sheets and 13.8% turns, displaying an aliphatic index of 80.53 and instability index of 48.88 inferring upon the fact that the protein is relatively unstable without its appropriate environment. The paper functions as the first attempt to portray molecular dynamics simulation of Chitinase from Sechium edule reinforced by modelling and thorough characteristic analysis of the protein by employing parameters like Ramachandran Plot, Chou and Fasman Secondary Structure prediction, ProtParam etc. Further approaches like protein engineering and activity analysis suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of high pCO2 on shell structure of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R; Wang, Schunfeng; Müller, Werner E

    2016-08-01

    Raised atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) result in an increased ocean pCO2 level and decreased carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification potentially represents a major threat to calcifying organisms, specifically mollusks. The present study focuses on the impact of elevated pCO2 on shell microstructural and mechanical properties of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. The mollusks were collected from the Baltic Sea and kept in flow-through systems at six different pCO2 levels from 900 μatm (control) to 24,400 μatm. Extreme pCO2 levels were used to determine the effects of potential leaks from the carbon capture and sequestration sites where CO2 is stored in sub-seabed geological formations. Two approaches were combined to determine the effects of the acidified conditions: (1) Shell microstructures and dissolution damage were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (2) shell hardness was tested using nanoindentation. Microstructures of specimens reared at different pCO2 levels do not show significant changes in their size and shape. Likewise, the increase of pCO2 does not affect shell hardness. However, dissolution of ontogenetically younger portions of the shell becomes more severe with the increase of pCO2. Irrespective of pCO2, strong negative correlations exist between microstructure size and shell mechanics. An additional sample from the North Sea revealed the same microstructural-mechanical interdependency as the shells from the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the skeletal structure of C. edule is not intensely influenced by pCO2 variations. Furthermore, our study indicates that naturally occurring shell mechanical property depends on the shell architecture at μm-scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile Cerastoderma edule (L.) fed live microalgae diets with different fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.; Kamermans, P.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dietary 20:5n-3 (EPA), 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 20:4n-6 (ARA) for growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile cockles (Cerastoderma edule) was investigated. Cockles of 6.24 ± 0.04 mm and 66.14 ± 0.34 mg (live weight) were distributed into three treatments where live microalgae

  19. Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

    2010-10-01

    Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (food source for bivalves.

  20. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  1. Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, a New Cultivar with Antiproliferative Potential in a Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Salazar-Aguilar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sechium edule Perla Negra cultivar is a recently-obtained biological material whose progenitors are S. edule var. nigrum minor and S. edule var. amarus silvestrys, the latter of which has been reported to have antiproliferative activity against the HeLa P-388 and L-929 cancer cell lines. The present study aimed to determine if the methanolic extract of the fruit of the Perla Negra cultivar had the same biological activity. The methanolic extract was phytochemically characterized by thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC, identifying the terpenes and flavonoids. The compounds identified via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were Cucurbitacins B, D, E, and I for the terpene fractions, and Rutin, Phlorizidin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Naringenin, Phloretin, Apigenin, and Galangin for the flavonoid fractions. Biological activity was evaluated with different concentrations of the methanolic extract in the HeLa cell line and normal lymphocytes. The methanolic extract inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells (IC50 1.85 µg·mL−1, but the lymphocytes were affected by the extract (IC50 30.04 µg·mL−1. Some fractions, and the pool of all of them, showed inhibition higher than 80% at a concentration of 2.11 µg·mL−1. Therefore, the biological effect shown by the methanolic extract of the Perla Negra has some specificity in inhibiting tumor cells and not normal cells; an unusual feature among molecules investigated as potential biomedical agents.

  2. Trace element fingerprinting of cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells can reveal harvesting location in adjacent areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Génio, Luciana; Costa Leal, Miguel; Albuquerque, Rui; Queiroga, Henrique; Rosa, Rui; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-07-07

    Determining seafood geographic origin is critical for controlling its quality and safeguarding the interest of consumers. Here, we use trace element fingerprinting (TEF) of bivalve shells to discriminate the geographic origin of specimens. Barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) were quantified in cockle shells (Cerastoderma edule) captured with two fishing methods (by hand and by hand-raking) and from five adjacent fishing locations within an estuarine system (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Results suggest no differences in TEF of cockle shells captured by hand or by hand-raking, thus confirming that metal rakes do not act as a potential source of metal contamination that could somehow bias TEF results. In contrast, significant differences were recorded among locations for all trace elements analysed. A Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP) revealed that 92% of the samples could be successfully classified according to their fishing location using TEF. We show that TEF can be an accurate, fast and reliable method to determine the geographic origin of bivalves, even among locations separated less than 1 km apart within the same estuarine system. Nonetheless, follow up studies are needed to determine if TEF can reliably discriminate between bivalves originating from different ecosystems.

  3. Physiological responses to ocean acidification and warming synergistically reduce condition of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, E Z; Briffa, M; Moens, T; Van Colen, C

    2017-09-01

    The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was investigated in a fully crossed laboratory experiment. Survival of the examined adult organisms remained high and was not affected by elevated temperature (+3 °C) or lowered pH (-0.3 units). However, the morphometric condition index of the cockles incubated under high pCO 2 conditions (i.e. combined warming and acidification) was significantly reduced after six weeks of incubation. Respiration rates increased significantly under low pH, with highest rates measured under combined warm and low pH conditions. Calcification decreased significantly under low pH while clearance rates increased significantly under warm conditions and were generally lower in low pH treatments. The observed physiological responses suggest that the reduced food intake under hypercapnia is insufficient to support the higher energy requirements to compensate for the higher costs for basal maintenance and growth in future high pCO 2 waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Minchinia mercenariae-like parasite infects cockles Cerastoderma edule in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, A; Abollo, E; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2018-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery has traditionally been the most important shellfish species in terms of biomass in Galicia (NW Spain). In the course of a survey of the histopathological conditions affecting this species in the Ria of Arousa, a haplosporidan parasite that had not been observed in Galicia was detected in one of the most productive cockle beds of Galicia. Uni- and binucleate cells and multinucleate plasmodia were observed in the connective tissue mainly in the digestive area, gills and gonad. The parasite showed low prevalence, and it was not associated with abnormal cockle mortality. Molecular identification showed that this parasite was closely related to the haplosporidan Minchinia mercenariae that had been reported infecting hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria from the Atlantic coast of the United States. The molecular characterization of its SSU rDNA region allowed obtaining a fragment of 1,796 bp showing 98% homology with M. mercenariae parasite. Phylogenetic analysis supported this identification as this parasite was clustered in the same clade as M. mercenariae from the United States and other M. mercenariae-like sequences from the UK, with bootstrap value of 99%. The occurrence of M. mercenariae-like parasites infecting molluscs outside the United States is confirmed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  6. Propensity to metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses of two benthic species (Cerastoderma edule and Nephtys hombergii): are tolerance processes limiting their responsiveness?

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Ana

    2016-02-24

    The chronic exposure of benthic organisms to metals in sediments can lead to the development of tolerance mechanisms, thus diminishing their responsiveness. This study aims to evaluate the accumulation profiles of V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and antioxidant system responses of two benthic organisms (Cerastoderma edule, Bivalvia; Nephtys hombergii, Polychaeta). This approach will provide clarifications about the ability of each species to signalise metal contamination. Organisms of both species were collected at the Tagus estuary, in two sites with distinct contamination degrees (ALC, slightly contaminated; BAR, highly contaminated). Accordingly, C. edule accumulated higher concentrations of As, Pb and Hg at BAR compared to ALC. However, antioxidant responses of C. edule were almost unaltered at BAR and no peroxidative damage occurred, suggesting adjustment mechanisms to the presence of metals. In contrast, N. hombergii showed a minor propensity to metal accumulation, only signalising spatial differences for As and Pb and accumulating lower concentrations of metals than C. edule. The differences in metal accumulation observed between species might be due to their distinctive foraging behaviour and/or the ability of N. hombergii to minimise the metal uptake. Despite that, the accumulation of As and Pb was on the basis of the polychaete antioxidant defences inhibition at BAR, including CAT, SOD, GR and GPx. The integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) confirmed that N. hombergii was more affected by metal exposure than C. edule. In the light of current findings, in field-based studies, the information of C. edule as a bioindicator should be complemented by that provided by another benthic species, since tolerance mechanisms to metals can hinder a correct diagnosis of sediment contamination and of the system’s health. Overall, the present study contributed to improve the lack of fundamental knowledge of two widespread and common estuarine species, providing

  7. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Sergio Espíndola; Cervantes, Carlos Alberto Matías; Zenteno, Edgar; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Alpuche, Juan; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Canseco, Maria del Socorro Pina; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Rubio, Manuel Sánchez; Mayoral, Laura Pérez-Campos; Martínez-Cruz, Margarito

    2015-10-23

    β-Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) is a prominent member of the GH1 family of glycoside hydrolases. The properties of this β-glucosidase appear to include resistance to temperature, urea, and iodoacetamide, and it is activated by 2-ME, similar to other members. β-Glucosidase from chayote (Sechium edule) was purified by ionic-interchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Peptides detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS were compared with other β-glucosidases using the BLAST program. This enzyme is a 116 kDa protein composed of two sub-units of 58 kDa and shows homology with Cucumis sativus β-glucosidase (NCBI reference sequence XP_004154617.1), in which seven peptides were found with relative masses ranging from 874.3643 to 1587.8297. The stability of β-glucosidase depends on an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/mL of protein at pH 5.0 which decreases by 33% in a period of 30 h, and then stabilizes and is active for the next 5 days (pH 4.0 gives similar results). One hundred μg/mL β-D-glucose inhibited β-glucosidase activity by more than 50%. The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min(-1). The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C.

  8. Micropropagación de chayote (sechium edule jacq. Sw. a partir de brotes vegetativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Abdelnour

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El chayote (Sechium edule es una importante fuente de divisas para los países exportadores, entre los que Costa Rica mantiene el liderazgo mundial. Entre los factores más limitantes para su producci ón se encuentra el material de siembra, tradicionalmente la semilla, que por su naturaleza no permite la obtención de una producción morfológicamente homogénea de frutos (color, forma y textura de la epidermis motivo de los altos porcentajes de rechazo en las plantas empacadoras. El establecimiento de una metodología de propagación vegetativa de la especie ayudaría a resolver los problemas de heterogeneidad. Por lo anterior, la presente investigación se dirigió a desarrollar un método de micropropagación a partir de brotes vegetativos. Se evaluó el efecto de varios desinfectantes y concentraciones de reguladores de crecimiento en las etapas de establecimiento, multiplicación y enraizamiento de dos cultivares comerciales. Se observó que una desinfección con hipoclorito de calcio al 4% permitió el mayor porcentaje de explantes establecidos asépticamente bajo condiciones in vitro (49%. También se observó que durante las etapas posteriores de la micropropagación, los requerimientos de reguladores de crecimiento fueron muy bajos (0,1 mgL-1 de BA en la etapa de brotación de yemas y de 0,1 a 0,2 mgL-1 de AIB durante el enraizamiento o no se requirieron (etapa de multiplicaci ón de microestacas.

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Espíndola Mateos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available β-Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21 is a prominent member of the GH1 family of glycoside hydrolases. The properties of this β-glucosidase appear to include resistance to temperature, urea, and iodoacetamide, and it is activated by 2-ME, similar to other members. β-Glucosidase from chayote (Sechium edule was purified by ionic-interchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Peptides detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS were compared with other β-glucosidases using the BLAST program. This enzyme is a 116 kDa protein composed of two sub-units of 58 kDa and shows homology with Cucumis sativus β-glucosidase (NCBI reference sequence XP_004154617.1, in which seven peptides were found with relative masses ranging from 874.3643 to 1587.8297. The stability of β-glucosidase depends on an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/mL of protein at pH 5.0 which decreases by 33% in a period of 30 h, and then stabilizes and is active for the next 5 days (pH 4.0 gives similar results. One hundred μg/mL β-D-glucose inhibited β-glucosidase activity by more than 50%. The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min−1. The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C.

  10. Dredging for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule) on intertidal flats : short-term consequences of fisher patch-choice decisions for target and non-target benthic fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Casper; Piersma, Theunis; Dekinga, Anne; Koolhaas, Anita; van der Meer, Jaap

    2007-01-01

    Intertidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea are protected by national and international treaties. Still, mechanical dredging for edible cockles Cerastoderma edule was allowed in 74% of 1200 km(2) of interticlal flats. Cumulatively, between 1992 and 2001, 19% of the intertidal area was affected by

  11. HONGOS CAUSANTES DE ENFERMEDADES POSTCOSECHA EN CHAYOTE (Sechium edule (Jacq. SW. Y SU CONTROL IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero-Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusarium sp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  12. Chemical composition profiling and antifungal activity of the essential oil and plant extracts of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Beauty Etinosa; Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Bradley, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Essential oil from Mesembryanthemum edule leaves have been used by the Eastern Cape traditional healers for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis and vaginal infections. The investigation of bioactive compounds in the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the efficacy of the plant in the management or treatment of these illnesses. Various concentrations of the hydro-distilled essential oil, ranging from 0.005-5 mg/ml, were tested against some fungal strains, using the micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory activity was compared with four other different crude extracts of hexane, acetone, ethanol and aqueous samples from the same plant. The chemical composition of the essential oil, hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts was determined using GC-MS. GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds, representing 99.99% of the total oil. Phytoconstituents of hexane, acetone and ethanol extracts yielded a total peak chromatogram of fifty nine compounds. A total amount of 10.6% and 36.61% of the constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) were relatively low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes (9.28%), while the major concentrated diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes were 1.43% and 19.24 %, respectively and phytol 12.41%. Total amount of fatty acids and their methyl esters content, present in the oil extract, were found to be 19.25 %. Antifungal activity of the oil extract and four solvent extracts were tested against five pathogenic fungal strains. The oil extract showed antifungal activity against Candida albican, Candida krusei, Candida rugosa, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC ranges of 0.02 0.31 mg/ml. Hexane extract was active against the five fungal strains with MICs ranging between 0.02-1.25 mg/ml. Acetone extracts were active against C. krusei only at 0.04mg/ml. No

  13. Population structure and growth rates at biogeographic extremes: a case study of the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L.) in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genelt-Yanovskiy, Evgeny; Poloskin, Alexey; Granovitch, Andrei; Nazarova, Sophia; Strelkov, Petr

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive study of population structure, growth rates and shell morphometry was conducted on nine intertidal populations of the infaunal bivalve Cerastoderma edule in the Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea. Year-to-year population dynamics was analyzed during 2002-2006 on a tidal flat Dalniy Plaj (eastern Murmansk coast). The region constitutes the northern extremes of C. edule range where populations occupied the middle to low intertidal zone and were characterized by low densities. The distribution of age groups and unstable age structure across years in the cockle populations suggest irregular recruitment. Growth rates and shell morphometry showed little variation across the populations studied, and there were no gradient changes from the west to the east parts of Murmansk coast. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efecto de la interacción de Ascochyta phaseolorum y Pseudomonas sp. sobre la morfología de los frutos de Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Nelly; Flores, Eugenia M.; Vargas, E.

    2016-01-01

    Ascochyta phaseolorum and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated from infected Sechium edule fruits collected in the Valley of Ujarrás, Costa Rica. Young and mature healthy fruits were inoculated with suspensions of fungus spores or bacteria and placed in humid chambers in the laboratory or in the greenhouse. Only the young fruits from the laboratory developed lesions. The lesions produced by the fungus are characterized by rupture and lysis of the epidermal cell walls, with posterior invasion of the ...

  15. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells and its relevance for tracing geographic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Génio, Luciana; Calado, Ricardo

    2017-06-14

    Understanding spatio-temporal variability of trace elements fingerprints (TEF) in bivalve shells is paramount to determine the discrimination power of this analytical approach and secure traceability along supply chains. Spatio-temporal variability of TEF was assessed in cockle (Cerastoderma edule) shells using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Four elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca) were measured from the shells of specimens originating from eight different ecosystems along the Portuguese coast, as well as from four different areas, within one of them, over two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). TEF varied significantly in the shells of bivalves originating from the eight ecosystems surveyed in the present study. Linear discriminant function analyses assigned sampled cockles to each of the eight ecosystems with an average accuracy of 90%. Elemental ratios also displayed significant differences between the two consecutive years in the four areas monitored in the same ecosystem. Overall, while TEF displayed by cockle shells can be successfully used to trace their geographic origin, a periodical verification of TEF (>6 months and <1 year) is required to control for temporal variability whenever comparing specimens originating from the same area collected more than six months apart.

  17. Effects of IAA and IBA on the in vitro rooting of stem cuttings of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José García García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the objective of evaluating the response of shoots of chayote [S. edule (Jacq. Sw.] to the application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on the in vitro rooting phase. The effect of three culture media, modified from the proposed of Murashige and Skoog (MS was studied: 1- 65% MS salt base, 2- 65% MS salt base + 0.05 mg l-1 of indolebutyric acid (AIB and 3- 65% MS salt base + 3.0 mg l-1-3-indole acetic acid (IAA. The variables evaluated were: number of roots, length and number of shoots per in vitro seedling. The best result were obtained when using 65% MS salt base with 3.0 mg l-1 of IAA. Significant differences (P<0.05 among treatments containing growth regulators was obtained for the variables number of roots and length of in vitro plantlets. In the UNA-730 accession root induction was obtained in a 65% MS salt base culture medium without growth regulators; however, when IAA and IBA was added the induction was 100%. The differences identified in this work with regards to the root induction were probably the combined result of genotype and specific culture conditions. Key words: auxins, chayote, growth regulators, in vitro culture

  18. Uptake of curium (/sup 244/Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miramand, P.; Germain, P.; Arzur, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Curium (/sup 244/Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium.

  19. Influence of disseminated neoplasia, trematode infections and gametogenesis on surfacing and mortality in the cockle Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E; O'Riordan, R M; Kelly, T C; Culloty, S C

    2012-02-17

    Cerastoderma edule is a widely distributed bivalve mollusc, commercially exploited throughout Europe and is also an important food source for birds and crustaceans. Recently, mass surfacing and mortalities of cockles have been observed and reported at sites in Ireland and elsewhere, particularly in the summer months. One such site is Flaxfort Strand, Courtmacsherry Bay, County Cork, Ireland, an important feeding area used by many seabirds during the summer months. For the past few years large numbers of surfaced cockles have been observed at the site in a moribund condition. Samples of cockles from this area were collected over the summer months and their health status assessed. Cockles that had surfaced (moribund) and those still buried in the sediment were quantified and screened: sex, gonadal maturity and size class of cockles were also determined. Disseminated neoplasia and trematodes were observed in screened cockles. The most significant finding during the study was that mortalities and surfacing of cockles was related to a greater incidence of disseminated neoplasia. No neoplasia was observed in the smallest and largest size classes. There was a significantly higher prevalence of neoplasia in moribund cockles than in buried cockles, whereas in both groups a similar concentration of trematode metacercariae was observed in the screened tissues. Also, most of the cockles that had surfaced were either in the process of spawning or were spent. Overall a much larger percentage of moribund cockles exhibited both trematode infections plus neoplasia compared with buried cockles. A combination of the presence of neoplasia and trematodes, along with stress related to spawning, may immunocompromise the cockless, causing the animals to surface and become moribund.

  20. Hongos causantes de enfermedades postcosecha en chayote (Sechium edule(Jacq. SW. y su control in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul D. Romero Velazquez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El fruto de chayote (Sechium edule (Jaqc. Sw. es una hortaliza de exportación de importancia para México y Costa Rica. El proceso comercial exige cumplir con estándares de calidad, que implican frutos sanos y libres de defectos. Sin embargo, debido a las condiciones de alta humedad que se desarrollan en los frutos empacados en películas plásticas, se han presentado rechazos en el mercado de exportación, por la presencia de enfermedades fungosas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar morfológica (microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido y molecularmente (PCR: Polimerase Chain Reaction las especies de hongos causales de las principales enfermedades postcosecha de chayote en frutos infectados procedentes de huertas comerciales para exportación, así como probar in vitro la efectividad de diversos productos comerciales en la inhibición del crecimiento de dichos hongos. Los resultados mostraron a Didymella bryoniae como el causante de “gomosis de las cucurbitáceas” y a Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani como causales de fusariosis o ahogamiento de guías; estos patógenos dañan la parte basal y media de frutos comerciales, además de Chaetomium globosum, un asociado al proceso infeccioso de Fusariumsp., como saprófito no patógeno. La inoculación con Bacillus subtilis presentó una inhibición efectiva (0,01 mg.l-1 i.a en las pruebas in vitro contra Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum y F. solani; el fungicida más efectivo contra los 2 primeros fue Tebuconazole-trifloxystrobin, con una DL50 de 0,0116 y 0,0106 mg.l-1 respectivamente; no así contra F. solani, cuyo mayor control fue registrado con procloraz, con DL50 de 0,0042 mg.l-1. Estos resultados contribuyen al reconocimiento de las enfermedades fungosas más importantes en chayote y su perspectiva de control durante el manejo postcosecha de frutos para exportación.

  1. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  2. Seasonal variation in body weight of the bivalves Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderman edule in the Dutch Wadden sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, Leo

    The paper deals with the seasonal and annual variations in the weight of the soft parts of four bivalve species, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma edule from tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea. The paper reviews methodology and points to error sources. The variation in ash-free dry weight between individuals of the same size collected at the same time and place could be attributed to age, parasitic infestation, gametogenesis, burying depth and siphon size. The allometric relations between weight of soft parts and size are given in equations, averaged per month. The body weight of all four bivalve species peaked in May and June at a level approximately twice the lowest value, which occurred in November to March. The extent of this seasonal fluctuation varied, however, from year to year. The presence of gametes explained a part of the peak weight in summer. Winter losses of body weight were less at low temperatures, due to reduced energy expenditure when the animals are inactive. No large differences were found between the seasonal changes in body weight in the Wadden Sea and elsewhere in the temperate zone.

  3. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  4. VALORACIÓN DE LA CIDRA PAPA (Sechium edule COMO ALTERNATIVA DE ALIMENTACIÓN Y RECUPERACIÓN DE VÍNCULOS CON EL CAMPO VALORAÇÃO DA Sechium edule COMO ALTERNATIVA DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E RECUPERAÇÃO DOS VINCULOS COM O CAMPO VALUATION OF Sechium edule AS AN ALIMENTARY ALTERNATIVE AND RECUPERATION OF BONDS TO THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSUELO MONTES R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación, fue valorar la cidra papa (Sechium edule como alternativa de alimentación para familias en desplazamiento que viven en asentamientos urbano marginales de Popayán, con el fin de contribuir a la recuperación del conocimiento tradicional asociado al uso y manejo, identificar ecotipos, identificar el significado sociocultural como alternativa para mantener los vínculos con el campo, evaluar productividad y posibilidades de manejo en espacios urbano marginales. El proceso se desarrolló mediante 'investigación participativa', donde los actores participaron en dinámicas recreativas, talleres de sensibilización y socialización, giras de intercambio de saberes, de semillas y generación de conocimientos, lo que permitió obtener información, y la apropiación del proceso. Se definieron como áreas de estudio 3 comunas de Popayán, se seleccionaron 4 asentamientos, se aplicaron 116 encuestas, se realizaron visitas mensuales por asentamiento, entablando diálogos informales con las familias participantes. Se conocieron las posibilidades de manejo de la planta, se incentivó la siembra de la misma aplicando el concepto de agricultura urbana donde se asoció la planta con otras hortalizas. Se pudo constatar que plantas como la cidra se adaptan a las condiciones que ofrecen los asentamientos y que son fuente alternativa para la alimentación de estas poblaciones, se fomentó el consumo de especies sub utilizadas, se hizo intercambio de saberes y se generaron espacios para motivar la conservación de ecotipos y especies de plantas como la cidra, que pueden resistir a las condiciones de marginalidad.0 objetivo da pesquisa, foi avaliar a cidra papa (Sechium edule como alternativa de alimentação para familias deslocadas que moram nos perímetros da cidade de Popayán, com o proposito de contribuir na recuperação do conhecimento tradicional relacionado com a utilização e manejo, identificação de ecotipos e o

  5. Cockle Cerastoderma edule fishery collapse in the Ría de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain) associated with the protistan parasite Marteilia cochillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Antonio; Iglesias, David; Ramilo, Andrea; Darriba, Susana; Parada, José M; No, Edgar; Abollo, Elvira; Molares, José; Carballal, María J

    2014-04-23

    The highest shellfishery catch in Galicia (NW Spain) has traditionally been cockle Cerastoderma edule. The shellfish bed located in Lombos do Ulla (Ría de Arousa) used to be among those with the highest cockle production; however, cockle mortality rate increased sharply in this bed in April 2012, reaching 100% in May 2012. Salinity and temperature were discounted as potential causes of the mortality. Marteiliosis, which was first detected in February 2012 and reached 100% prevalence in April 2012, was identified as the most probable cause. Marteiliosis had never been detected in Galician cockles, but extensive surveillance of the Galician coast in May to July 2012 detected marteiliosis in most cockle beds of the Ría de Arousa, whereas it was not found in other rías; 2 mo later, the cockle catch in the Ría de Arousa became negligible. Examination of the aetiological agent of marteiliosis with light and transmission electron microscopy supported its assignation to the genus Marteilia; morphological features showed similarity, but not complete identity, with the recently described species M. cochillia Carrasco et al., 2013. Regarding its molecular characterisation, a consensus sequence of 4433 bp containing a partial sequence of the intergenic spacer region, the complete 18S rRNA gene and a partial sequence of the first internal transcribed spacer region was obtained. The obtained sequences were compared with those available for Marteilia spp. and other Paramyxida. Molecular data support that this parasite corresponds to the species M. cochillia, and a PCR assay was designed for its specific diagnosis. The association of huge cockle mortality with M. cochillia infection urges extreme caution to avoid spreading this disease.

  6. Hewlett-Packard tulemas rahva hulka / Tõnis Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Tõnis, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Maailma suurima arvutitootja Hewlett-Packard tegevjuht Mark Hurd on otsustanud printerite läbimüügi suurendamiseks reorganiseerida printerite divisjoni kolmeks üksuseks, senisest enam hakkab ettevõte tähelepanu pöörama eraisikutest tarbijatele. Graafik: Aktsia hind on kolme aastaga kahekordistunud. Tabel: Kasum kasvanud võimsalt: Lisad: Mis on mis; Tasub teada

  7. Õpetajaamet kolme populaarsema hulka / Tõnis Lukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Tõnis, 1962-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Eesti Eest = Za Estoniju : Izdanije objedinenija "Sojuz Otetshestva i Res Publica" 16. okt. 2008, lk. 7. Haridusminister kirjutab meetmetest, mis aitavad kaasa õpetajatöö populariseerimisele: haridusministeeriumi ja Tartu Ülikooli koostöös taastati Eesti esimese haridusministri Peeter Põllu nimeline stipendium tudengitele, kes valmistuvad õpetajaks saama, alates käesolevast aastast rakendub stipendiumiprogramm õpetajakoolituse saajatele ja õpetajate sülearvutitega varustamise programm, noortele õpetajatele makstakse lähtetoetust

  8. Minute co-variations of Sr/Ca ratios and microstructures in the aragonitic shell of Cerastoderma edule (Bivalvia) - Are geochemical variations at the ultra-scale masking potential environmental signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllenbach, Christoph S.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Shirai, Kotaro; Takahata, Naoto; Ishida, Akizumi; Sano, Yuji

    2017-05-01

    It remains a challenging task to reconstruct water temperatures from Sr/Ca ratios of bivalve shells. Although in many aragonitic species, Sr/Ca is negatively correlated to temperature - which is expected based on abiogenic precipitation experiments, the incorporation of Sr into the shell of bivalves is strongly controlled by physiological processes and occurs away from the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium. Strontium-to-calcium ratios of aragonitic shells remain far below that of the ambient water. Moreover, Sr concentrations vary considerably among shell portions consisting of different microstructures and/or organic content. Values observed at annual growth lines and within the intervening shell portions (= annual growth increments) deviate much stronger from each other than expected from a change in temperature or Sr/Cawater. As demonstrated here by ultra-high-resolution chemical analysis (EPMA, NanoSIMS) of a Cerastoderma edule shell, Sr concentrations are also heterogeneously distributed at approximately micrometer resolution. For example, in the outer portion of the outer shell layer, Sr/Ca ratios were statistically significantly (t-, u-tests) higher at circatidal growth lines (irregular simple prismatic structure; arithmetic mean ± 1 standard deviation = 2.86 ± 0.38 mmol/mol; n = 53) than within circatidal increments (nondenticular prismatic structure; 2.42 ± 0.25 mmol/mol; n = 51). S/Cashell, a representative of the concentration of organics, showed the opposite pattern, i.e., significantly higher values in circatidal increments (2.37 ± 0.29 mmol/mol; n = 51) than at circatidal growth lines (2.13 ± 0.47 mmol/mol; n = 53). Overall highest values of Sr/Cashell (3.47 ± 0.65 mmol/mol; n = 3) and S/Cashell (3.98 ± 0.65 mmol/mol; n = 3), however, were typically associated with annual growth lines and larger biomineral units. The intimate link between Sr/Cashell, S/Cashell and shell architecture may indicate that microstructures or the processes

  9. Viie jõukama riigi asemel viie ebavõrdsema hulka / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 24. aug. 2007, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 25. aug. 2007, lk. 4; Lääne Elu, 28. aug. 2007, lk. 2; Oma Saar, 28. aug. 2007, lk. 5; Nädaline, 28. aug. 28. aug. 2007, lk. 5; Molodjozh Estonii, 13. sept. 2007, lk. 4. Parlamendiliikme, keskerakondlase kriitika peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja Reformierakonna aadressil

  10. Võrtsjärv ja Peipsi said elavate järvede hulka / Vilja Kohler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kohler, Vilja, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    Võrtsjärve sihtasutusest ning Peipsi Koostöö Keskusest said kogu maailmas järvede, märgalade ja mageveevarude kaitsmise eest seisva rahvusvahelise võrgustiku Living Lakes (Elavad Järved) täisliikmed

  11. Elise koor pääses parimate hulka / Kai-Tõe Ellermaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellermaa, Kai-Tõe

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu Eliisabeti kiriku tütarlastekoor Elise käis 24.-27. aprillil koorifestivalil "Slovakia Cantat 2008", kus saavutas oma kategoorias III koha, hõbemedali pälvisid Pärnu lastekoor Pöial-Liisi ja noorte kammerkoor Vox Populi Tallinnast

  12. Pengawetan Ikan Segar Menggunakan Biji Picung (Pangium edule reinw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Heruwati

    2014-05-01

    campuran garam dan picung. Parameter yang digunakan untuk menentukan kesegaran ikan adalah nilai organoleptik, TVB, jumlah bakteri penghasil H2S, dan Enterobacteriaceae sedangkan parameter pendukung adalah kadar air, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara organoleptik, pada perlakuan dengan biji picung pada kadar 4% dari bobot ikan, yang dikombinasikan dengan garam 2% atau 3%, mutu ikan masih dapat diterima panelis hingga 6 hari pada penyimpanan suhu kamar. Meskipun demikian, dilihat dari perkembangan TVB, hanya penggunaan biji picung dengan kadar 6% yang mampu menahan perkembangan kadar TVB hingga hari ke-6, sedangkan pada perlakuan di bawah 6%, nilai batas ambang TVB 30 mgN% telah dilewati pada hari ke-3. Sementara itu perkembangan bakteri pembentuk H2S maupun Enterobacteriaceae terus meningkat selama penyimpanan dan tidak dipengaruhi oleh kadar biji picung yang ditambahkan. Garam hanya dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pembentuk H2S, tetapi tidak menghambat pertumbuhan Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. A preliminary threshold model of parasitism in the Cockle Cerastoderma edule using delayed exchange of stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, E. A.; Culloty, S. C.; Kelly, T. C.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Rachinskii, D.

    2015-02-01

    Thresholds occur, and play an important role, in the dynamics of many biological communities. In this paper, we model a persistence type threshold which has been shown experimentally to exist in hyperparasitised flukes in the cockle, a shellfish. Our model consists of a periodically driven slow-fast host-parasite system of equations for a slow flukes population (host) and a fast Unikaryon hyperparasite population (parasite). The model exhibits two branches of the critical curve crossing in a transcritical bifurcation scenario. We discuss two thresholds due to immediate and delayed exchange of stability effects; and we derive algebraic relationships for parameters of the periodic solution in the limit of the infinite ratio of the time scales. Flukes, which are the host species in our model, parasitise cockles and in turn are hyperparasitised by the microsporidian Unikaryon legeri; the life cycle of flukes includes several life stages and a number of different hosts. That is, the flukes-hyperparasite system in a cockle is, naturally, part of a larger estuarine ecosystem of interacting species involving parasites, shellfish and birds which prey on shellfish. A population dynamics model which accounts for one system of such multi-species interactions and includes the fluke-hyperparasite model in a cockle as a subsystem is presented. We provide evidence that the threshold effect we observed in the flukes-hyperparasite subsystem remains apparent in the multi-species system. Assuming that flukes damage cockles, and taking into account that the hyperparasite is detrimental to flukes, it is natural to suggest that the hyperparasitism may support the abundance of cockles and, thereby, the persistence of the estuarine ecosystem, including shellfish and birds. We confirm the possibility of the existence of this scenario in our model, at least partially, by removing the hyperparasite and demonstrating that this may result in a substantial drop in cockle numbers. The result indicates a possible significant role for the microparasite in this estuarine ecosystem.

  14. Koos ühisele edule! = Together towards success / Jüri Järviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järviste, Jüri

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul vaid ettevõtjate endi aktiivne suhtumine ettevõtlust puudutavatesse küsimustesse ja probleemidesse tagab nende kiirema lahendamise. EVEA kui väike- ja keskmise suurusega ettevõtteid ühendav organisatsioon aitab ühenduse liikmetel olla teadlikum oma õigustest ja võimalustest

  15. Assessment of a fruit extract ( Sechium edule ) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of chayote was incubated in various concentrations for 1hour with blood which was withdrawn from Wistar rats. After that SnCl2 was added and the incubation continued for more 1 h. Elapsed this time 99mTc as sodium pertechnetate (NaTcO4) was toted. The blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and RBC were ...

  16. Assessment of a fruit extract (Sechium edule) on the labeling of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and Rabito, 1990) and calcium channels (Gutfilen et al.,. 1992) may be the means by .... distribution of the radioactivity on the red blood cells and in the plasma. The analysis of .... direct cause and effect relationship has not been unequivocally ...

  17. Microalgae diets for landbased aquaculture of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: impacts of dietary fatty acids on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based shellfish culture as a part of a multi-trophic aquaculture systems has yet to be implemented in Europe. Recently the pilot project Zeeuwse Tong (The Netherlands) evaluated the feasibility of a system of fish (Dover sole), ragworms, phytoplankton and bivalves. This thesis focused on the

  18. Digenean trematode species in the cockle Cerastodema edule: identification key and distribution along the north-eastern Atlantic shoreline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montaudouin, Xavier De; Thieltges, David W.; Gam, Mériame

    2009-01-01

    -scale distributional patterns of digenean species of the common cockle. At least sixteen digenean species, belonging to seven families, use cockles as intermediate host. Among these species two utilize cockles as first intermediate host only, whereas two species utilize cockles as both first and second intermediate...... host. The remaining eleven species have cockles as their second intermediate host. Water birds and fish are the definitive hosts to twelve and four species, respectively. Cockles are infected with digeneans along the latitudinal gradient from southern Morocco to the western region of the Barents Sea...... often with high infection levels. Whereas some of these digenean species occur along most of the latitudinal gradient others show a more restricted northern or southern distribution mostly caused by an underlying latitudinal gradient of host species. Knowledge of digenean species and their large...

  19. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Biji Picung (Pangium edule Reinw. Beku terhadap Aktivitasnya dalam Mengawetkan Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novalia Rachmawati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama penyimpanan biji picung beku terhadap kemampuannya dalam mengawetkan ikan. Biji picung cacah disimpan dalam kondisi beku (-18° selama 4 bulan. Setiap bulan biji picung beku diambil dan diaplikasikan pada ikan nila segar dengan perbandingan 3% (b/b dengan dan tanpa penambahan garam 2% (b/b. Ikan nila disimpan pada suhu ruang dan dilakukan pengamatan terhadap parameter mikrobiologi (Angka Lempeng Total dan antibakteri, kimiawi (TVB dan kadar air serta organoleptik. Uji aktivitas antibakteri dari biji picung beku dilakukan terhadap bakteri Eschericia colidan Staphylococcus aureus. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdas arkan parameter mikrobiologi, kimia dan organoleptik, biji picung beku yang disimpan hingga 1 bulan mampu mempertahankan kesegaran ikan hingga penyimpanan hari ke-2. Sedangkan dari hasil uji aktivitas antibakteri, biji pic ung beku dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri E. colidan S. aureusdengan kategori aktivitas sangat kuat.

  20. Investigations of water bounded in clam mussels (Mytilius edulis) by nuclear magnetic relaxation for protons; Badanie wody zwiazanej w muszlach omulka (Mytillus edulls) metoda magnetycznej relaksacji dla protonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Niziol, J. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Falniowski, A. [Inst. Zoologii, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The process of water bounding in clam shells has been investigated by nuclear magnetic relaxation of protons measurements. Decomposition of measured relaxation functions have been done using the specially constructed computer program. 4 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule , in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; Duren, L.A.; Wolff, W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  2. Feeding current characteristics of three morphologically different bivalve suspension feeders, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule, in relation to food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, K.; Stamhuis, E.J.; van Duren, L.A; Wolff, W.J.

    Introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have shown rapid expansion in the Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly or remained stable. This indicates that they might have an advantage over native bivalve filter feeders. Hence, at the scale of individual

  3. Ministr obrazovanija : Russkomu obrazovaniju nitshto ne ugrazhajet / Tõnis Lukas ; interv. Jana Litvinova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Tõnis, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Tõnis Lukas vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad hariduse finantseerimist, õpetajate kvalifikatsiooni, vene koolide reforme ja kohustusliku kirjanduse hulka mittesobivaid raamatuid

  4. "Salvadorskii stsenarii" / Michael Hirsh, John Barry

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hirsh, Michael

    2005-01-01

    USA kaitseministeerium on asunud otsima lahendusi Iraagi vastupanuvõitlejate mahasurumiseks. Pentagonis on arutlusel plaan, mis kuulus Ronald Reagani administratsiooni salastrateegia hulka võitluses partisanide vastu Salvadoris

  5. Multitalent Google astub Facebookile-Elionile kandadele / Ann-Marii Nergi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nergi, Ann-Marii

    2011-01-01

    Google avalikustas oma katse vallutada ka sotsiaalvõrgustike keskkond, mida praegu valitsevad Facebook ja Twitter. Ekspertide hinnangul oskab Google kasumit teenida ja tema kasutajate hulka prognoositakse kasvavat

  6. Uudised : "Sõprus" Europa Cinema nominent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa ja Vahemere regiooni kinopidajaid ühendav organisatsioon tunnustab igal aastal kinosid kolmes kategoorias. Sõpruse kino on valitud viie nominendi hulka noorsooürituste korraldamise kategoorias

  7. "Kontsert porgandipirukale" kandideerib Cartoon d'Or'i auhinnale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Heiki Ernitsa ja Janno Põldma "Kontsert porgandipirukale" valiti Santiago de Compostelas (Hispaania) üleantava animafilmi auhinna Cartoon d'Or viie nominendi hulka. Loetletud ka konkureerivad filmid

  8. Folkloristi pilk ühele piirilõigule : vepsa ja komi rahvaluule ühisjoontest ja nende kujunemise võimalikest teedest / Kristi Salve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salve, Kristi, 1942-

    2003-01-01

    Jälgitakse, kuidas läänemeresoome rahvaste hulka kuuluvate vepslaste ja permi rahvaste hulka kuuluvate komide lähestikkuseid asualasid ja ajaloolisi kokkupuuteid kajastab nende suuline pärimus. Kokkuvõte võru murdes lk. 165-167

  9. Print Best jahib trükiteenuste turul liidrirolli / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Konkursil Ettevõtluse auhind 2004 piirkonna edendaja nominentide hulka kuuluv Print Best on tõusnud viimase aastaga mahtudelt viie suurema poogentrükikoja hulka Eestis. Firma prioriteediks on Venemaa, mõeldud on müügiüksuse loomisele Moskvas. Lisa: Print Best Trükikoda

  10. Tähelepanu, lätlased tulevad...! / Peeter Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvelaid, Peeter, 1957-

    1991-01-01

    Arvustus: Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna lõpetanute ja õigusteadust õpetanute nimekiri 1919-1989. Tartu, 1989 ; Latvijas Universitātes Tiesību Zinātnu Nodalas absolventu saraksts 1920-1940. Hamburg, 1990. - Sisaldab andmeid ka prof. Dietrich André Loeberi kohta

  11. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  12. Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Indexing the etymological lexicographic systems The main problems and directions for the development of the etymological lexicographic systems in the digital environment are studied. The formal conceptual model of the lexicographic system for fundamental academic Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language (EDUL is developed. The lexicographic structure of the EDUL individual elements are developed and described. The EDUL metalanguage was studied and described. The formal model and technology of the EDUL parsing are worked out. That made it possible to convert automatically the EDUL text into the lexicographic database, which corresponds to the conceptual model of the lexicographic system. The conceptual foundations of instrumental tool to form the etymological dictionaries are developed to create the Virtual Lexicographic Laboratory «Etymological Dictionary of the Ukrainian Language», which was implemented with a modern approach to the real lexicographic array of the EDUL. That allowed to form the database of the EDUL multilingual index (about 250 languages in the automatic mode. This index is a basis of the seventh (final volume of the EDUL. The possibility of applying the developed models to other etymological dictionaries are studied. The conceptual foundations for integration of the etymological lexicographic systems are discussed.

  13. Maailma ühe parima loodusfoto tegi eestlane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti fotograaf Sven Začek on jõudnud loodusfotode võistlusel "Veolia Environnement Wildlife Photographer of the Year" kategoorias "Loovalt loodusest" esiletõstetud fotode autorite hulka. Võistlust korraldavad BBC Wildlife Magazine ja Briti loodusmuuseum

  14. Paint-ball Moskvas / Eerik-Niiles Kross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kross, Eerik-Niiles, 1967-

    2002-01-01

    Rünnakutest Eesti saatkonna vastu Moskvas. Autori sõnul on ametliku Moskva ebaametlike diplomaatiliste meetodite hulka ammustest aegadest kuulunud saatkondade vastaste nn. pehmete rünnete kasutamine

  15. Karja kirikuaia vanimad hauaplaadid varju all / Mari Loit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loit, Mari

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. valmis Muinsuskaitseameti tellimusel OÜ Rändmeister poolt projekteeritud ning rajatud varikatus Eesti vanimate hauaplaatide hulka kuuluvale kolmele trapetsiaalsele hauakivile Karja kirikuaias. 1920-ndatel uuris neid hauakive ja joonistas üles rootsi kunstiajaloolane Tor Helge Kjellin

  16. Mida su lõunasöök sinu kohta räägib / Daniel Stone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Toidu kaudu on võimalik uurida ühiskonnast kõrvale heidetud inimeste etnilist identiteeti, milliseid toitumisharjumusi tuleb teiste hulka sobitumiseks muuta. National Geographicu uurija Elizabeth Unger uuris, mis juhtub toiduga kahe kultuuri põrkumisel

  17. Terves kehas terve vaim - a sound mind in a sound body / Ene Kelder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelder, Ene

    2012-01-01

    Pühajärve Haridusseltsi täiskasvanutele suunatud projektist, mille eesmärgiks oli suurendada täiskasvanud õppijate hulka piirkonnas ning praktiseerida aktiivset eluhoiakut ja tervislikke eluviise

  18. Pasjans avangarda / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2005-01-01

    Vene avangardikunsti ajaloost. Rühmitusest "Ruutusoldat" ("Bubnovõi Valet"), tuumikuks Pjotr Kontshalovski, Ilja Mashkov, Aristarh Lentulov, Mihhail Larionov ja Natalja Gontsharova. Liikmete hulka kuulusid ka Kazimir Malevitsh ja Vladimir Tatlin. Mihhail Larionovi saatusest

  19. Süüdistus Norrast : Veerpalu veri olevat vale. Tere, talv! / Nele Lond, Jaan Martinson, Gunnar Press

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lond, Nele

    2002-01-01

    Norra meedia andmetel kuulus Andrus Veerpalu 2001. aastal Lahti maailmameistrivõistlustel uuritud kaheteistkümne medaliomaniku hulka, kelle verepilt erines tugevasti tavapärasest. Lisa: Lahti MMi 12 "kahtlast" nime

  20. Miljardär asub võitlema kliimasoojenemise vastu / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Lennukompanii Virgin Atlantic omanik Briti ärimees Richard Branson üritab saavutada kokkulepet teiste Briti lennufirmadega, et vähendada õhku paisatavate süsinikuühendite hulka 150 miljoni tonni võrra aastas

  1. Zabota o narode

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Valitsus ei toetanud Res Publica ettepanekut kodakondsusseaduse paranduseks, mis ei nõuaks vähemusrahvuste hulka kuuluvatelt kodakondsust taotlevatelt õpilastelt põhiseaduse tundmise eksamit, seda asendaks hinne ühiskonnateaduses

  2. Hispaanias viidi lõpule ainulaadne projekt / Sergei Stepanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stepanov, Sergei

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Narvskaja Gazeta 10. märts lk. 6. Narvas asuv, Miroslaw Pienkowski ettevõtete hulka kuuluv firma TMT-Fasteners lõpetas Hispaanias projekti, mille tulemusena valmis titaanist välisviimistlusega kliinik

  3. Walter van der Cruijsen / Walter van der Cruijsen ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cruijsen, Walter van der

    2006-01-01

    1997. a. Berliinis tehtud intervjuu hollandi maali, võrgu- ja installatsioonikunstniku Walter van der Cruijseniga (sünd. 1958), kes kuulub Euroopa ühe edukama 1990-ndatel loodud võrguprojekti De Digitale Stad Amsterdam loojate hulka

  4. "Porgandipirukas" ei võitnud Cartoon d'Ori

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Heiki Ernitsa ja Janno Põldma "Kontsert porgandipirukale" valiti Santiago de Compostelas (Hispaania) üleantava animafilmi auhinna Cartoon d'Or viie nominendi hulka. Auhinna sai siiski Virgil Widrichi lühifilm "Kiire film" ("Fast Film") : Austria - Luksemburg 2003

  5. ONPE

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    7 aastat tegutsenud EÜRP ümarlaud arutas edasisi plaane. Väljavõtted erakonna juhtide hulka kuuluvate V. Andrejevi, A. Jegorovi, V. Drozdovi, H. Barabaneri ja G. Bõstrovi kõnedest. Parlamendisaadik (V. Andrejev)

  6. Fahle maja pürib maailma arhitektuurieliiti / Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eslas, Urve

    2008-01-01

    KOKO Arhitektuuribüroo arhitektide Andrus Kõresaare ja Raivo Kotovi Fahle maja Tallinnas valiti maailma üheteistkümne parima ehitise ja saja parima disainiobjekti hulka. Hoones asus enne Erich Jacoby projekti järgi ehitatud tselluloosivabrik

  7. Muuseumiroti rõõmud / Jüri Kuuskemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuuskemaa, Jüri, 1942-

    2008-01-01

    Kadrioru Kunstimuuseumi varade hulka jõudnud huvitavatest eksponaatidest ja ootamatutest leidudest - August Käbi kunstikogust varaklassitsistlikud kaminakellad ja maalid "Püha Eliisabeti ilmutus" ning "Achilleuse äratundmine" ja Konstantin Toominga rikkalik miniatuuride ja siluettide kollektsioon

  8. Eesti võib saada rahvusvahelise luuleauhinna / Kätlin Kaldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Kätlin, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Kristiina esimene ingliskeelne luulekogu "The drums of silence" (Oleander Press, 2007) on jõudnud Suurbritannia maineka luuletõlkepreemia Corneliu M. Popescu tõlkeauhinna (The Corneliu M. Popescu Prize for European Poetry Translation) nominentide hulka

  9. TÜ jätkab tõusu maailma juhtivate teadusülikoolide edetabelites

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eluteaduste valdkonnas (life sciences: bioloogia, meditsiin, psühholoogia) on TÜ enam kui 15 tuhande ülikooli seas 301.-350. kohal. Sellel aastal jõuti esmakordselt 1% mõjukamate institutsioonide hulka ka geoteadustes

  10. Arthur von Oettingen ja tema orthtonophonium oma aja kontekstis / Karl Traugott Goldbach ; tõlkinud Anu Sõõro ; toimetanud Mart Humal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldbach, Karl Traugott, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Arthur von Oettingen kuulus nende arvukate 19. sajandi lõpu õpetlaste hulka, kes otsisid muusikateooriale eksperimentaalset tuge. Oluliseks instrumendiks olid siin puhta häälestusega harmooniumid.

  11. Uku ja Eha Masing - õiglased rahvaste hulgas / Hele Israel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Israel, Hele

    2009-01-01

    Holokausti keskuses Yad Vashem on juute aidanud inimestele pühendatud mälestustahvlid. Inimesi, kes holokausti käigus aitasid juute, nimetatakse õiglased rahvaste hulgas, kelle hulka kuuluvad ka Uku ja Eha Masing

  12. Tulevikudisain: prindi endale ise riided / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    EKA tootedisaini tudengi Karolin Kõrge garderoobikontseptsioon Zero Vaste, mis lubab vanu riideid toormena kasutades endale kodus uued rõivad printida. Töö pääses Electrolux Design Labi konkursil 35 parima hulka

  13. Kalvitis targets banks' dirty money / Aaron Eglitis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eglitis, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Läti pangad on maailmas tuntud rahapesu juhtude rohkuse poolest, seal on pestud maailma suuruselt neljandat USA dollarite hulka. Märtsis 2004 liitis USA Välisministeerium Läti oma rahapesu riikide tähelepanulisti.

  14. Eurosib tuleb Eestisse laia teenustehulgaga / Jüri Ader

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ader, Jüri

    2005-01-01

    Venemaa viie juhtiva logistikafirma hulka kuuluva Eurosib SPb-TS-i Tallinna esinduse juhataja Jüri Ader vahendab peakorteri vastuseid küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eurosibi plaane ja teenuseid Eestis. Lisa: Eurosib leiab rakenduse 9000 raudteevagunile

  15. Nagrada za nadjozhnost i bezopasnost

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Moskvas toimus rahvusvahelise konkursi "Naftaterminal 2006" kokkuvõtete tegemine ning võitjate ja finalistide autasustamine, kelle hulka jõudsid ka kolm Eesti operaatorit - Pakterminal, Eurodek ja Milstrand Oil Terminal. Parimate väljaselgitamise kriteeriumid

  16. Freedom House : Venemaa ei ole enam isegi osaliselt vaba riik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni Freedom House raporti kohaselt on Venemaa osaliselt vabade riikide seast langenud mittevabade hulka, selle põhjus on autorite hinnangul mõjukate opositsiooniparteide sisuline hävitamine ning täitevvõimu tsentraliseerimine

  17. Lastel puudub ka edukates riikides kindlus tuleviku ees / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    ÜRO lasteorganisatsiooni UNICEF koostatud uurimus püüab anda hinnangut laste heaolule riikides, millest enamik kuulub maailma rikkaimate hulka. Neli parema tulemuse saanud riiki olid Holland, Rootsi, Taani ja Soome

  18. Sakslastele kuuluv meditsiinitehas värbab uusi töötajaid / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Saksa perekonnale kuuluv rahvusvahelise optiliste sondide ehk endoskoopide tootja Karl Stroz Video Endoscopy Tallinna ettevõte areneb jõudsalt ja kavatseb suurendada töötajate hulka sel aastal kolmandiku võrra

  19. Muru & Pere rahvusvahelisele tippkonkursile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline Intellektuaalomandi Organisatsioon (World Intellectual Property Organization) mis korraldab oma Genfis asuva peamaja laiendamiseks rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi, valis 6.-8. IX arhitektuuribüroo Muru & Pere OÜ 28 finalisti hulka. Konkursiprojekt peab valmima 31. jaanuariks 2000.

  20. Park asendas Manhattanil logistika / Rivo Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Rivo, 1981-

    2010-01-01

    New Yorgis Manhattani edelaosas rajati vanale raudteele, kümne meetri kõrgusele tänava kohale High Line Park. Arhitektid: Diller Scotidio + Renfro. New York Times valis pargi 2009. aasta arhitektuurialaste triumfide hulka New York Citys

  1. Rahvusülikooli asutamine / Rein Veidemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veidemann, Rein, 1946-

    2017-01-01

    Eesti riigi asutajate hulka kuuluva, Ajutise Maanõukogu ja Asutava Kogu liikme, hilisema Eesti esimese pedagoogikaprofessori Peeter Põllu peakõnest 1. detsembril 1919. aastal ülikooli aulas rahvusliku ülikooli avaaktusel

  2. Nordea tahab tõusta pensioniturul tippu / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Nordea tahab jõuda uute toodetega pensionifondide turul Eestis kolme tipptegija hulka, selleks tuleb tal konkurentide arvates välja tulla uute ja unikaalsete toodetega. Lisa: Nordea Life & Pensions; Hansa Investeerimisfondid valitsevad pensioniturgu

  3. Tiit Land : Anname panuse Alzheimeri tõve võimalikuks raviks / Kristel Toom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toom, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    Matemaatika ja loodusteaduste instituudis töötab uurimisrühm, kes tegeleb organismis toimuva raua ainevahetuse ning selle häirete tagajärjel ilmnevate haiguslike protsessidega, mille hulka kuulub ka Alzheimeri tõbi

  4. Eestlaste suur jalajälg / Tõnu Lehtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtla, Tõnu, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Eestlaste "ökoloogiline jalajälg", mis mõõdab inimese tarbitud loodusvarade hulka nende taastumisega võrreldes, on üks Euroopa suuremaid. Paljuski tuleneb see meie energiakasutuse madalast efektiivsusest

  5. Kriisi võimalikud tagajärjed / Urmas Kiil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiil, Urmas

    2009-01-01

    Briti majandusajakirja The Economist tütarkompanii Economist Intelligence Unit hindas poliitilise ebastabiilsuse tekke võimalusi maailma riikides. Eesti kuulub analüütikute arvates kõrge riskiga riikide hulka

  6. Rolexi tantsuauhinna nominent näitab oma lavastust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    R. Valme tantsulavastust "Mesta" saab taas näha 26. nov. Kanuti Gildi saalis. R. Valme valiti hiljuti 25 noore koreograafist nominendi hulka prestiizhikas projektis Rolex Mentor & Protégé Arts Initiative

  7. Annual Knowledge-Based Software Assistant Conference (2nd) Held on 18-20 August 1987 in Utica, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    tnu:~tonbrowser sim~ilar in (lesigii to \\(o iwi i’l %%’!! 1- rinit i nivei, user of the B:ouhaws to Find :1 dfescri-JptioIll i c: t e in rl ’ eaIilv...kbsa PEI- FOOD : (6) 8 3i Wro((SATIC TYPE POSITIOn, STATIC TYPE REGION, 9 &0W tc-d&%*.qist 3kbs. PET- FOOD :)) eIUnda1 STOP-SP-STARTt Figure 1-1: Structure

  8. Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic transformation of three methyl benzenes (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene) has been investigated over ZSM-5, TNU-9, mordenite and SSZ-33 catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. Catalytic experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300-400 °C to understand the transformation of these alkyl benzenes over large pore (mordenite and SSZ-33) in contrast to medium-pore (ZSM-5 and TNU-9) zeolite-based catalysts. The effect of reaction conditions on the isomerization to disproportionation product ratio, distribution of trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers, and p-xylene/o-xylene ratios are reported. The sequence of reactivity of the three alkyl benzenes depends upon the pore structure of zeolites. The zeolite structure controls primarily the diffusion of reactants and products while the acidity of these zeolites is of a secondary importance. In the case of medium pore zeolites, the order of conversion was m-xylene > 1,2,4-TMB > toluene. Over large pore zeolites the order of reactivity was 1,2,4-TMB > m-xylene > toluene for SSZ-33 catalyst, and m-xylene ∼ 1,2,4-TMB > toluene over mordenite. Significant effect of pore size between ZSM-5 and TNU-9 was observed; although TNU-9 is also 3D 10-ring channel system, its slightly larger pores compared with ZSM-5 provide sufficient reaction space to behave like large-pore zeolites in transformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. We have also carried out kinetic studies for these reactions and activation energies for all three reactants over all zeolite catalysts under study have been calculated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, T.A.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Saraiva, S.; Freitas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions

  10. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escobar Hernández, Alejandro; Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio; Restrepo Flores, Claudia Estela; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés; Patiño Gómez, Jairo Humberto

    2014-01-01

    ... mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica), coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), apio (Apium graveolens), zanahoria (Daucus carota) y chayote (Sechium edule...

  11. Macrobenthos recruitment success in a tidal flat: Feeding trait dependent effects of disturbance history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colen, van C.; Montserrat, F.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ysebaert, T.; Degraer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile growth rate and production of the bivalves Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor were investigated on two contrasting tidal flat sediments that represented different recovery stages following disturbance. Juvenile M. balthica and N. diversicolor grew

  12. The influence of four macrozoobenthic species on the abundance of the amphipod Corophium volutator on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    On the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a zonation pattern can be found with Corophium volutator and Nereis diversicolor as the dominating species of the upper intertidal zone and Arenicola marina and Cerastoderma edule as the dominating species of the lower zone. As C. volutator can live under a great variety of physical conditions, its restriction to higher areas might result from biotic interactions. This was investigated by field experiments on a tidal flat in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Within large depopulated areas, small plots were recolonized with different densities of N. diversicolor, A. marina, C. edule and Macoma balthica and the subsequent settlement and dynamics of C. volutator were studied. In addition, A. marina and/or C. edule were added to or removed from small plots within a natural benthic community. Neither the presence of M. balthica not that of N. diversicolor significantly affected the abundance of C. volutator. A strongly negative effect was found of C. edule when present in high densities, whereas A. marina negatively affected C. volutator abundance already at relatively low densities. Local removals of A. marina and C. edule from their own zone resulted in increases of Corophium numbers at these locations and local additions of these species within the Corophium zone resulted in decreases of Corophium numbers at these locations. It is suggested that the major species to restrict C. volutator effectively to the upper tidal zone is A. marina.

  13. Electron density variability of nighttime D region ionosphere in Vietnamese and Japanese sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Le Minh; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Thu, Nguyen Ngoc; Ha, Tran Quoc

    2017-06-01

    Recording tweek atmospherics on geomagnetically quiet days in 2014 at Tay Nguyen University (TNU) (12.65°N, 108.02°E), Vietnam, and at Kagoshima (KAG) (31.48°N, 130.72°E), Japan, we investigated the nighttime electron density variability of the D region ionosphere between the equatorial-low-latitude Vietnamese and the low- to middle-latitude Japanese sectors. We estimated the reflection height and electron density of the D region ionosphere using the first-order mode cutoff frequency of tweek atmospherics. The results observed at both stations show that the mean electron density at the reflection height during winter season was higher than that during summer and equinox seasons. The electron density observed at TNU gradually decreased from 20:15 to 4:15 LT from winter to equinox and to summer. The electron density observed at KAG increased from 20:20 to 4:20 LT during summer and winter seasons. The mean electron density during 2014 observed at TNU (25.0 cm-3) was higher by 2.1 cm-3 than that observed at KAG (22.9 cm-3). During 2014, the nighttime electron density variations show a moderate positive correlation with the sunspot number but show weak to no correlation with the galactic cosmic rays. We suggest that the seasonal variations in the nighttime electron density could be significantly caused by the enhancement of geocoronal hydrogen Lyman α intensity and seasonal variation of nitric oxide density in the lower ionosphere.

  14. Riigikontrolli audit paljastab Natura-alade segaduse / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Riigikontrolli audit näitab, et Natura 2000 kaitsealade hulka on arvatud ka väheväärtuslikke metsaalasid, samas on välja jäetud kaitset väärivaid elupaiku. Keskkonnaministeeriumi nõuniku Hanno Zingeli selgitusi. Lisa: Paljud taluvad asjata piiranguid

  15. Grozit li Estonii energetitsheskii krizis? / Jevgenija Garanzha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Garanža, Jevgenija, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Euroopani ulatunud Venemaa gaasitüli Ukraina ja Gruusiaga paneb mõtlema ka Eesti energeetilise julgeoleku üle. Euroopa Liidus kuulub Eesti imporditavatest energiakandjatest kõige vähem sõltuvate riikide hulka. Diagramm: Eesti põhilised energeetilised ressursid

  16. Kurvitz kodutute kaitsjana / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid

    1999-01-01

    27. aug.-st Tallinna Kunstihoones ning Kunstihoone galeriis Raoul Kurvitza isiknäitus "Sümfoonia Si-bemoll minoor ئ Postapokalüptika", mille hulka kuulub ka mahuline rajatis "Katedraal" (vanadest akendest koosnev ehitus avati 31. VIII). Näitus võtab kokku autori loominguprintsiibid ajavahemikus 1986-1999. Audioelementide autor Ariel Lagle. Kommentaar: R. V

  17. Scanforesti Purila saetööstus müüdi eksjuhile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Pankrotistunud puidutööstuse Scanforest Purila saetööstus müüdi Marek Krippeli firmale OÜ Johanna Grupp, Scanforesti vara hulka kuuluv Näpi sae- ja höövlitööstus on aga seni müümata. Nõudeid Scanforesti vastu on 81,5 miljoni krooni eest

  18. Maailma tippkonsultant: ka miljardär alustab praegu nullist / Marshall Goldsmith ; intervjueerinud Kristjan Otsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldsmith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Maailma juhtivate ärinõustajate hulka kuuluv Marshall Goldsmith vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad majanduskriisi põhjuseid, muutusi nende juhtide käitumises, kes on harjunud olema võitjad, juhtide käitumist muutunud maailmas ning majanduslanguse kestvust

  19. Lotte vallutab maailma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikk animafilm "Leiutajateküla Lotte", autoriteks Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk, on kohe valmimas. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon, projekti produtsent on Riina Sildos

  20. Lotte maandub Cannes'is / Janno Põldma, Heiki Ernits ; interv. Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldma, Janno, 1950-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikk animafilm "Leiutajateküla Lotte", autoriteks Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk on valmis. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon, projekti produtsent on Riina Sildos

  1. Eesti joonisfilmi "Leiutajateküla Lotte" sai 3,13 miljonit krooni toetust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu juures tegutsev Eurimages'i fond määras toetuse Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikale filmile, autoriteks Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon. Sama ka Linnaleht (Pärnu, Tartu) nr. 8

  2. Награды за русскую культуру - эстонским школьникам / Юлия Тоцкая

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Тоцкая, Юлия

    2009-01-01

    Peterburis toimunud rahvusvahelisel noorte teaduskonverentsil "Peterburi, Puškin, Gogol ja maailmakultuur" jõudsid oma ettekannetega parimate hulka Narva Paju kooli õpilane Anna Vasiljako, Narva Pähklimäe gümnaasiumi õpilane Vladislav Lušin ja Sillamäe Astangu kooli õpilane Jevgenija Volkova

  3. Erik Dahlbergi Narva bastionide projektist ja selle võimalikest eeskujudest / Ragnar Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Narva kuulus Karl XI ja Dahlbergi poolt välja valitud väikese arvu kõige olulisemat kindluslinnade hulka, mille kaitseehitisi tuli tugevdada esimese järjekorras. Narva kindlustuste omapärast. Seoses Põhjasõja algusega jäi Narva kindluse ehitamine pooleli

  4. Poliitilised anekdoodid postsotsialistlikus Eestis (Delfi Naljalehe näitel) / Liisi Laineste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laineste, Liisi

    2007-01-01

    Antakse ülevaade poliitilistest naljadest Internetis aastatel 2000-2006 ning analüüsitakse, kuidas poliitilised sündmused mõjutavad naljade sisu ja hulka, kuidas poliitilised anekdoodid muudest naljadest eristuvad ning millele täpsemalt naljad on suunatud

  5. Kaberla kalmistu 12.-13. sajandi klaashelmed / Irita Kallis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kallis, Irita

    2010-01-01

    Kaberla kalmistult leitud klaashelmestest, põhitähelepanu on 12.-13. saj. matuste inventari hulka kuulunud leiumaterjalil. Ülevaade helmeste esimemisvariatsioonidest helmekeedes, võimalikust tähendusest ja väärtusest ning samatüübiliste helmeste dateeringutest naaberaladel

  6. Margiskandaal Inglismaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Briti Kuninglik Post andis välja Peter Blake'i loodud millenniumile pühendatud postmargi, mis kujutab Queeni lauljat Freddie Mercuryt ja trummarit Roger Taylorit. Mark on saanud kriitika osaliseks, kuna seni on kehtinud reegel, et oma eluajal võib margil kujutada vaid kuningliku perekonna liikmeid, kelle hulka Taylor ei kuulu

  7. ETV ekraanigraafika on Euroopa parimate seas / René Vilbre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilbre, René, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa avalik-õiguslikle telejaamade konkurentsis valiti ETV ekraanigraafika viie parima hulka. Finaali pääses ETV kahes kategoorias - "Best design package" ja "Best use of audio". Intervjuu vaheklippide autori René Vilbrega. Võttemeeskonda kuulusid veel toimetaja Anu Välba, operaatorid Kristjan-Jaak Nuudi ja Ergo Treier

  8. Eestis tegutseb üks Euroopa parimaid tööandjaid / Agne Narusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Narusk, Agne, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Kiirtransporditeenust pakkuv TNT Express Worldwide Eesti AS võitis mullu Euroopa parima tööandja tiitli. Tänavu jõudis ettevõte Euroopa kvaliteediauhinna konkursil kolme parema hulka väikeste ja keskmiste ettevõtete kategoorias. Lisa: Mahukas raport. Eri tasemed

  9. Sensei Vladimir Tarassov / Vladimir Tarassov ; interv. Viktoria Korpan, Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarassov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Venemaal hinnatud ja Tallinnas elav juhtimiskoolitaja iseloomustab oma ametit, selgitab töötamist Venemaal, tutvustab kasutusel olevat metoodikat ning annab üldisi soovitusi algajale ärimehele äris edu saavutamiseks. Vt. samas: Eestimaa mees Vladimir Tarassov kuulub Venemaa kuulsamate koolitajate hulka; Sensei Vladimir Tarassov; CV

  10. Alam-Pedja sai sõsara / Martin Pau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pau, Martin, 1975-

    2007-01-01

    Laeva, Tähtvere ja Tartu valla maadel sündis ligi 18 ruutkilomeetri suurune Kärevere looduskaitseala, mille põhiväärtuste hulka kuuluvad näiteks väike-konnakotkad ja mitmed teised ohustatud liigid. Lisaks kaart: Kärevere ja Alam-Pedja looduskaitseala

  11. Re?bus disainivõistlus ehk noored innovaatorid bussirevolutsiooni otsinguil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    2005. a. algul agentuuri APCI (Agence pour la Promotion de la Creation Industrielle) poolt korraldatud disainivõistlusest Re?bus. Eestist valiti 30 finalisti hulka büroo ZiZi & YoYo töö. Edukamad võistlustööd olid juuni algul väljas rahvusvahelise ühistranspordi assotsiatsiooni (UITP) 56. kongressil Roomas

  12. Central Bank's tools for tackling financial instability : feasibility to implement emergency lending facility in Estonia / Jana Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Keskpanga ülesandeks finantssüsteemi stabiilsuse eest seismisel on hoolitseda, et finantsvahendus riigis toimiks efektiivselt ja tõrgeteta. Krediidiasutuste ajutiste likviidsusprobleemide lahendamiseks kuulub keskpanga raha- ja finantspoliitika töövahendite hulka ka erakorralise likviidsuslaenu (ELA - emergency liquidity assistance) instrument. Tabelid, diagrammid

  13. Pankrotivara moodustamine : [bakalaureusetöö] / Katrin Hagel ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Malle Seppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hagel, Katrin

    1997-01-01

    Pankrotivara mõiste ja pankrotihalduri kohustused pankrotivara moodustamisel, tagasivõitmise olemus ja ese, tagasivõitmise üldised alused (erinevused Eesti, Rootsi ja Saksa pankrotiseadustes), tagasivõitmise erialused, muul viisil pankrotivara hulka lisanduv vara, vara välistamine pankrotivarast

  14. Eesti tantsuteos jäi Portugalis sõelale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    O. Titova ja T. Janseni tantsulavastus "The Last Hairy" on saanud suure edu osaliseks Aerowavesi võrgustiku kokkusaamisel Portugalis. Enam kui 350 Euroopa noore koreograafi töö hulgast valiti see 10 parema hulka ja kutsuti esinema Londoni The Place'i teatrisse

  15. Lorena reeglid / Lorena Rojas ; interv. Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rojas, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    Mehhiko telenovelade staar, kes mängib ka sel hooajal TV3s jooksvas seriaalis "Teine võimalus" ("El cuerpo del deseo"), valiti ajak. People poolt 2006.a. maailma 100 ilusama naise hulka. Sama : Teleleht nr. 3, lk. 38 : ill

  16. Tudengiprojekt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini üliõpilase Siim Westi töö"Sõidukite arvutikontrolli süsteem". Nahakunsti üliõpilase Karen Milistveri helkur-kott "Morpho Peleides", mis jõudis 2008. a. Jaapanis toimunud rahvusvahelisel disainivõistlusel "Design for Happiness" auhinnanominentide hulka

  17. Kuressaare Gümnaasiumi e-töövihik pälvis üle-euroopalise tunnustuse / Monika Puutsa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puutsa, Monika

    2005-01-01

    Kuressaare Gümnaasiumi õppealajuhataja Maidu Variku koostatud ja arvutiõpetaja Gert Lutteri kujundatud elektrooniline ühiskonnaõpetuse töövihik valiti Euroopa e-õppe projektide konkursil eLearning Awards in 2005 saja parima hulka

  18. Tarkvaratootjad nõuavad STV-lt hiigelkahjutasu / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2007-01-01

    Maailma suuremate tarkvaratootjate hulka kuuluvad Microsoft ja Adobe Systems nõuavad kohtus kaabellevifirmalt STV ja selle juhilt Igor Laevalt 448 000 kroonist kahjutasu 75 piraatprogrammi eest, mis leiti firma arvutitest 2004. aastal toimunud reidi käigus. Lisa: Varastatud programmid

  19. Riskikapitalist : "Uus Euroopa on meie Hiina ja India" / Danny Rimer ; interv. Kristjan Otsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rimer, Danny

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa suurimate riskikapitalide hulka kuuluva Index Venturesi partner Danny Rimer otsib kõikjalt Euroopast, ka Eestist, ettevõtteid, mis suudavad luua uut läbilöögivõimelist tehnoloogiat. Kuumad teemad riskikapitali maailmas, ettevõtete valik, kuhu investeerida. Lisa: Index Ventures

  20. Viljandi kasiinohoone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Viljandi puitklassitsismi stiilseimate näidete hulka kuuluval hoonel (1843) puhastati 2005. a. fassaad vanadest värvikihtidest ja värviti linaõlivärviga ning hoone sai ajastutruud puitaknad. Projekt: Proffprojekt, Sven Reiss. Teostus: Proffprojekt. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Sven Reiss

  1. Estonija mozhet ostatsja bez uzkoi kolei / Jelizaveta Gavrilova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gavrilova, Jelizaveta

    2005-01-01

    Poola-Leedu-Läti-Eesti raudteeprojekt Rail Baltica on lülitatud Euroopa Komisjoni transpordi prioriteetide hulka. Eesti probleemiks on kujunenud madal koostöövõime infrastruktuuride valduse küsimuses riigi ja erafirma Eesti Raudtee vahel

  2. Bogatõje i bednõje v Estonii dva mira - dve morali? / Iris Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Iris, 1947-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii 27. apr. lk. 8. Eestis valitsevast ebavõrdsusest ja sellest, et vaatamata kehtivale varakapitalistlikule illusioonile, et igaüks on oma õnne sepp, on vaesesse peresse sündinud lapse jõudmine rikaste ja edukate hulka väga ebatõenäoline

  3. Vähi nutab vales leinamajas / Kaarel Tarand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tarand, Kaarel, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Vastukaja 9. oktoobril Maalehes ilmunud Tiit Vähi intervjuule. Autor märgib, et kui kellegi äri parasjagu ei õitse, siis on tegu ettevõtja valesti võetud riskiga, mitte valitsuse süüga. Eestis on aastaid kehtinud teadmistepõhise majanduse arengukavad, toorainetransiit ei mahu riigi majanduspoliitiliste eelistuste hulka, ütleb autor

  4. "Armastuse retsepti" tippkokk Zeta Jones ei oska muna keeta / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Scott Hicksi romantiline komöödiafilm "Armastuse retsept" ("No Reservations"), mille peaosas Walesist pärit näitlejanna Catherine Zeta Jones. Näitlejanna muljeid oma rolliks ettevalmistustest, mille hulka käis ka praktika pärisrestoranis

  5. Maalingud Voltveti mõisas / Hilkka Hiiop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiiop, Hilkka, 1974-

    2012-01-01

    1984. aastal avastati mõisa ballisaali ja vestibüülitaguse ruumi seintel kolmes kihis maalingud. Maalinguid leiti ka kõrvaltubadest. Voltveti mõisas leitud maalingud on nii oma säilivuse kui teostuse poolest Eesti puritaanliku dekoratiivkunsti kontekstis sensatsiooniliseks leiuks. Nende plaanitav avamine tõstaks Voltveti mõisaarhitektuuri pärlite hulka

  6. Saldome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    2005. a. augustis Šveitsis Riburgis valminud soolalaost Saldome, mis valiti 2005. a. maailmanäitusel Aichis (Jaapanis) ülemaailmse ökotehnilise auhinna saajate hulka. Kuppelhoone kuppel on peaaegu täielikult valmistatud puidust. Projekteerija: Šveitsi perefirma Häring AG. 5 värv. ill

  7. Steve Forbes näeb Eestit rikkaimate riikide hulgas / Steve Forbes ; interv. Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Forbes, Steve, 1947-

    2008-01-01

    Meediamagnaat Steve Forbes ütleb intervjuus Äripäevale, et Eesti jõuab rikkaimate riikide hulka, kuid peab edu jätkumiseks äärmiselt oluliseks haridust ning Eesti vajab tema hinnangul selles osas pikaajalist plaani. Vt. samas: Steve Forbes; Ansip: Forbes tõstab Eesti tuntust maailmas

  8. Отношения Китая и Японии обострились / Юрген Тамме

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Тамме, Юрген

    2010-01-01

    Hiina ja Jaapani suhete teravnemisest seoses Hiina traaleri ja kahe Jaapani patrull-laeva kokkupõrkega 8. septembril 2010. a. Ida-Hiina meres asustamata saarestiku lähistel. Puhkenud tülis nähakse ka Hiina väljakutset Ameerika Ühendriikidele, kelle liitlaste hulka kuulub ka Jaapan

  9. Suur maksukoormus kasvule kasuks ei tule / Andrus Säälik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Säälik, Andrus

    2003-01-01

    Autor teeb ülevaate Eestis toimunud ja plaanisolevatest maksumuudatustest ja tõdeb, et tänu suunale maksukoormuse vähendamiseks kuulub Eesti rahvusvahelises võrdluses madalama maksukoormusega riikide hulka. Autor analüüsib maksude positiivset ja pärssivat mõju majandusele. Lisa: 45% maksukoormus pärsib majanduskasvu

  10. Põllumajandus on Järvamaa tugevus / Jaanus Marrandi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Marrandi, Jaanus, 1963-

    2007-01-01

    Ülevaade Järvamaa põllumajanduse hetkeseisust, Vt. samas: Lii Sammler. Kannult platsile; Ale talu kuulub Türi kandi suuremate taimekasvatustalude hulka. Järg. 2007 august: Lii Sammler. Türi TMK jäi konkurentsis ellu; Metsataguse Agrot juhib töökas peremees; Heiki Raudla. Talu, millel on nii tegu kui nägu

  11. Häda protokolli pärast = The trouble with the protocol / Indrek Rünkla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rünkla, Indrek, 1971-

    2015-01-01

    Artiklis on käsitletud arhitektidele 21. sajandil esitatud nõudeid. Ta peab valdama ja praktiseerima teatud hulka tegevusi, mida ühiskond temalt tellib. Arhitekti tegevus on reguleeritud normatiivide ja protokollidega. Kuigi normid ja seadused on ühiskonnale vajalikud, siis nendega liialdamine hakkab süsteemi koormama, selle asemel et seda toetada ja arendada

  12. Savinõude vormimismass : Keraamika uurimise võimalikkusest III / Aivar Kriiska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kriiska, Aivar

    2008-01-01

    Savinõude vormimise massi moodustavad savi ja sellesse segatav lisand. Keraamika uurimise üldisematest lähtekohtadest ja terminitest, savidest, lisanditest. Eestis on esiajaloolisel ja ajaloolisel ajal keraamikat valmistatud kohalikest kergesti kaevandatavatest savidest ja savimoreenidest, mille hulka on segatud teokarbipudru, taimeosakesi, kivipudru, liiva ja ̧amotti.

  13. Linnar Viik kaotas lahingu IKEA omanikule / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    Linnar Viik valiti 50 kõige mõjukama eurooplase hulka ning kandideeris Euroopa aasta ärijuhi tiitlile, tiitli pälvis IKEA asutaja Ingvar Kamprad. Kõige edukama eurooplase tiitli sai Türgi peaminister Recep Tayyip Erdogan

  14. Münchenis esitletakse Eesti juveelikunsti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Münchenis toimuval üritusel Schmuckzene esitletakse raamatut "Just Must", mis ilmus 2008. aastal Tallinnas samanimelise ehtekunstinäituse raames. Koostaja Kadri Mälk, kujundaja Aadam Kaarma, fotod Tanel Veenre. Kirjastus Arnoldsche Art Publishers arvas raamatu aasta viie parema ehtekunstiraamatu hulka

  15. Toll avastas lemmikloomapoest 700 kilo kaitsealuseid koralle / Triin Olvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olvet, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. aug. lk. 2 Maksu- ja tolliameti töötajad avastasid Põhja-Tallinna lemmikloomapoest pea 300 ohustatud liikide hulka kuuluvat kivikoralli, mis olid toodud Indoneesiast. Vt. samas: Toll võtab ära nii kaaviari kui ka topised

  16. The end of the honeymoon: The increasing differentiation of (long-term) unemployment risks in Europe / Martin Heidenreich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heidenreich, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel analüüsib, millistel sotsiaalsetel gruppidel on suurem tõenäosus sattuda töötute hulka praeguse majandus- ja finantskriisi ajal, kusjuures eristatakse lühi- ja pikaajalist töötust. Aluseks EU-SILC andmed 24 Euroopa riigi (sh Eesti) kohta aastatest 2005-2012

  17. Ring-wall enclosure of Lipa in Prehistoric Southern Harjumaa / Marge Konsa, Valter Lang, Karin Vimberg...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Lipa vallsulendik kuulub Eestis väikesearvuliste muististe hulka, mille iseloomulikuks tunuseks on tasasele maale ehitatud kividest või mullast madal vall, mis ringikujuliselt piirab õueala. Leitud keraamika järgi võiks asulakiht kuuluda ajavahemikku eelrooma rauaaja lõpust kuni rooma rauaaja lõpuni

  18. Aga miks mitte panustada teraviljale? / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2007-01-01

    Üha populaarsust koguvate ETFide ehk börsil kaubeldavate fondide hulka on lisandunud ka viimaste variatsioonid ETCd ehk börsil kaubeldavad toorained, nende perspektiivikust tõstab tarbimise kasv maailmas. Tabel: Millistel börsidel tehakse tehinguid ETF-idega

  19. Pankrotivara moodustamine : [bakalaureusetöö] / Margus Lentsius ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Paul Varul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lentsius, Margus, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Pankrotivara mõiste ja moodustamise viisid, tagasivõitmise mõiste ja üldiseloomustus ning võlgniku lähikondsed, tagasivõitmise alused, muul viisil pankrotivara hulka lisanduv vara, vara välistamine pankrotivarast

  20. Eesti raamat valiti Balti riikide kauneimaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Vilniuses toimunud konkursil "Baltic Book Art Competition" sai esikoha Tiia Toometi raamat "Unustatud mänguasjad. Vapper sõdur Peeter Pons, kuldpaberist kingadega tantsijatar ja teised. Eesti keeles ilmunud lastelugusid 20. sajandi algupoolelt". Nelja ilusama raamatu hulka valiti Karin Hallas-Murula "Suurlinn Tallinn: Eliel Saarineni "Suur Tallinna" projekt, 1913"

  1. Tiit Land: Anname panuse Alzheimeri tõve võimalikuks raviks / Kristel Toom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toom, Kristel

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Matemaatika ja Loodusteaduste Instituudis töötab uurimisrühm, kelle huvi on seotud organismis toimuva raua ainevahetuse ning selle häirete tagajärjel ilmnevate haiguslike protsessidega, mille hulka kuulub ka Alzheimeri tõbi. Teadusprojekte juhivad Tiit Land ja Sandra Zetterström Fernaeus

  2. Archaeological investigations on the hill of Salumägi at Saluvere / Helena Kaldre, Kristel Kivi, Liia Vijand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldre, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Saluvere arheoloogiline kompleks koosneb muistsete põldude jäänustest, linnusevallist, asulakohast ja paarist kalmest. Saluvere põllud liigituvad kamberpõldude hulka. Põldude, linnusevalli, kalmete ja asula täpsema seose selgitamiseks on vajalik uuringute jätkamine

  3. When disruption was taboo / Tiit Hennoste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hennoste, Tiit, 1953-

    2010-01-01

    Väliseesti kultuurist, mil määral oli väliseesti kultuur 1930. aastate eesti kultuuri jätk ja mil määral katkestus. Väliseesti kunsti ja kirjanduse uurimisest, tasemest, pagulaste rollist eesti professionaalse kultuuri arengus, pagulaskunsti ja -kirjanduse kuulumisest eesti kultuuri hulka

  4. Stan liderom dlja samogo sebja / Mihkel Pärjamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärjamäe, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Liidriks olemise eri vormidest tänapäeval. Inimeste jagunemisest liidriteks ja mitteliidriteks. Mitteliidritest kui probleemist ühiskonnas. Domineerimisest kui omadusest, mis ei kuulu liidriomaduste hulka. Liidriomaduste arendamisest. Esimene samm liidriks olemise poole: hakata liidriks iseenda jaoks, st. kujundada visioon omaenda tulevikust, töötada välja strateegia ja hakata seda järjekindlalt ellu viima

  5. Introducing Leo LT - the "three-headed lion"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Leedu valitsus kiitis heaks seaduseparandused, mille tulemusena saab võtta tuumajaama ehitaja, investeerimis- ja energiafirma Leo LT strateegilise tähtsusega firmade hulka. Kui parlament valitsuse ettepanekud heaks kiidab, saab riik 61,7% Leo LT ja 38,3% NDX Energija aktsiatest

  6. Eurovisiooni vaheklipid tõid ETV-le Aumuna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Mulluse Eurovisiooni lauluvõistluse Tallinna kontserdi vaheklipid said Eesti reklaamiauhindade Kuldmuna jagamisel Aumuna. Üks vaheklippidest "Saabastega kass", mille režissöörid on René Vilbre ja Meelis Arulepp, valiti maineka Annecy animafilmifestivali nominentide hulka. 2 klippi valiti Norras Fredrikstadis toimuva animafestivali programmi. Praegu teeb Rene Vilbre koos võttegrupiga Euroopa Liidu referendumi teemalisi klippe

  7. Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi tõusis teadusajakirjade nomenklatuuris / Virve Sarapik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarapik, Virve, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Thomson Reutersi Web of Science koostab ka humanitaarajakirjade andmebaase Arts & Humanities Citation Index ja Current Contents. Web of Science indeksitesse jõudnud Eestis väljaantavaid humanitaariaväljaandeid, millede hulka 2011. a. suvel lisandus Eesti Kunstiteadlaste Ühingu poolt väljaantav Kunstiteaduslikke Uurimusi. Suhteliselt algstaadiumis olevast Euroopa-kesksest humanitaarajakirjade andmebaasist ERIH

  8. Oktoober oli kasumiteenimise kuu / Fredy-Edwin Esse ; kommenteerinud Kristjan Hänni

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Nii Tallinna kui ka Vilniuse börs kuulusid oktoobris maailma kümne enim tõusnud aktsiaturu hulka, Tallinna börs on viimase nelja kuu jooksul kasvanud 26,9%. Kõige rohkem tõusis oktoobris Shanghai börs. Kallinemisest toorainete turul

  9. Kitai ostudil põl entuziastov ShOS

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Moskvas toimunud Shanghai koostöö organisatsiooni liikmete kohtumisel avaldasid nii Pakistan kui India soovi saada organisatsiooni täieõiguslikuks liikmeks. Praegu kuuluvad organisatsiooni liikmete hulka Venemaa, Hiina ning endised Kesk-Aasia liiduvabariigid Kasahstan, Kirgiisia, Tadžikistan ja Usbekistan

  10. Riigi arengust uue eelarve valguses! / Endel Susi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Susi, Endel-Haljand, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa 1. nov. lk. 2. Rahvaliidu Läänemaa piirkonna esimees kaitseb Rahvaliitu süüdistuste eest liigses pragmaatilisuses ja peab utoopiliseks lubadust jõuda 15 aastaga viie rikkama Euroopa riigi hulka, samuti hoiatab ta Eesti majandust ülekuumnenemise eest suurte laenukoormuste tõttu

  11. Kõrge rahvusvaheline tunnustus Kumu Kunstimuuseumile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseum sai arhitektuuri ja sisulise tegevuse ühendamise eest Dedalo Minose auhinna, mida annab välja Arhitektide ja Inseneride Rahvusvahelise Ühendus (ALA), muuseum valiti 500 maailma silmapaistva arhitektuurse objekti hulka ja pälvis lisaks ka Vicenza linnavalitsuse preemia. Nimetatud ka teisi preemiasaajaid

  12. Kumu pälvis Itaalias mitu kõrget auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseum sai arhitektuuri ja sisulise tegevuse ühendamise eest Dedalo Minose auhinna (väljaandja Arhitektide ja Inseneride Rahvusvahelise Ühendus (ALA)), muuseum valiti 500 maailma silmapaistva arhitektuurse objekti hulka ja pälvis Vicenza linnavalitsuse preemia

  13. Salmod tähistavad juubeleid / Ralf Mae

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mae, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    2008. a. tähistab Eesti suurimate kalastustarvete hulgimüüjate hulka kuuluv Salmo&Luts OÜ 10. tegevusaastat, selle Lätis asuv emafirma SIA Salmo aga 20. tegevusaastat. Ettevõtte arengust ja tulevikuplaanidest räägib Salmo&Luts OÜ juhataja Aleksei Antiptshik

  14. Startup'i majanduse kiirkursus Tarifa palmide all / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Eesti sotsiaalvõrgustikuprojekt Majakaja pääses nende hulka, kes said osaleda Hispaanias toimunud ärikiirendis Spanish Village. Majakaja on ühist kinnisvara omavate isikute võgustik. Selle asutajateks on Andrei Filimonov, Zahhar Kirillov ja Dmitri Semirenko

  15. Hesburger asub ründama, McDonalds teeb kaevikuid / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Hesburger tahab Eestis oma restoranide hulka kolmekordistada. McDonald's Eestis ei laiene, kuid kavatseb ettevõtte efektiivsust suurendada. Eesti hamburgerirestoranide kett Nehatu on konkurentsist välja langenud. Tabelid: Tulemused; Hamburgerirestoranid Eestis; Hamburger ja McDonald's maailmas. Lisad: Hakkas Hesburgeri partneriks; Hakka McDonald'si partneriks

  16. Kultuuriministeerium jättis parima harrastusteatri toetuseta / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando

    2003-01-01

    Kultuuriministeerium loobus toetamast harrastusteatri sõitu Ülemaailmsele amatöörteatrite festivalile Kanadas. Tegemist on Eestit Harrastusteatrite Liidu, Teoteatri, Tallinna Toomklubi ja Botaanikaaia ühisprojektiga - A. Alegria "Niagaara" (lavastaja Jaan Urvet), mille rahvusvaheline žürii valis 300 hulgast 14 parima hulka

  17. Majanduskriisist toibuvad firmad plaanivad luua sadu uusi töökohti / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2010-01-01

    Mitmed ettevõtted kavandavad värbamiskampaaniaid sobivate töötajate leidmiseks. IT-firma Complus Consulting tahab Eestis palgata 700 töötajat, bussifirma Sebe otsib uusi bussijuhte, töötajate hulka on suurendanud ka PKC Eesti

  18. Предприятия создадут новые рабочие места / Райго Неудорф

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Неудорф, Райго

    2010-01-01

    Mitmed ettevõtted kavandavad värbamiskampaaniaid sobivate töötajate leidmiseks. IT-firma Complus Consulting tahab Eestis palgata 700 töötajat, bussifirma Sebe otsib uusi bussijuhte, töötajate hulka on suurendanud ka PKC Eesti

  19. Mass customization and system development: case findings from the packaging industry / Andrus Kotri, Brent McKenzie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kotri, Andrus

    2010-01-01

    Masstootmise kohandamise süsteemi loomisest keskmise suurusega Eesti tootmisettevõtte näitel. Masstootmise kohandamine on süsteem, mis kasutab paindlikke protsesse, organisatsiooni struktuure ja infotehnoloogiat tootmaks suurt hulka tooteid ja teenuseid, mis vastaksid klientide erinevatele vajadustele. Skeemid, tabel

  20. Juhtimise juhiseid 11/9-järgsesse maailma : ettevaatusabinõud ja strateegia ebajärjekindluse ajastul / Ralph W Shrader, Mike McConnell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shrader, Ralph W

    2002-01-01

    Ettevõtete juhtide kohustuste hulka kuulub turvalisuse tagamine ja riskide juhtimine. See hõlmab töötajate ohutuse tagamist, firma põhitegevuse ning süsteemide kaitset. Diagrammid. Lisa: Juhend sõjamängude mõistmiseks: vahend haavatuse/töökatkestuste hindamiseks

  1. Quality of Care in Episodes of Common Respiratory Infections in a Disadvantaged Population,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    medications, vitamin preparations, and allergy and immunization injections, and procedures or tests such as Pap smears or glucose testing. These...comparing explicit versus implicit judgments, were deliberately not used. No Delphi technique was considered necessary (see, e.g., Romm and Hulka...hemoglobin, hemogram, heterophile, erythrocyte count, and peripheral smear ); urinalyses and urine cultures; throat and strep cultures; cultures from

  2. Aafrika 50 aastat: pool sajandit raisku lastud vabadust / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    50 aastat tagasi iseseisvus 17 Aafrika riiki. Autor käsitleb uute riikide tekkimist Aafrikas ning Aafrika tänapäeva: 9 Aafrika riiki on poliitiliselt vabad, 24 riiki osaliselt vabad ehk piiratud demokraatiaga, 20 riiki aga on libisenud despootlike hulka, uus ilming Aafrikas on tervete riikide kokkuvarisemine. Kaardid

  3. "Pärnu In Graafika" festival : Üks paras idealism / Reiu Tüür ; interv. Tiiu Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tüür, Reiu

    1998-01-01

    Intervjuu Pärnus toimuva Pärnu, Tartu ja Tallinna noorte graafikute loomingut kajastava kunstifestivali "In Graafika" (12. jaan. - 21. jaan.) korraldaja Reiu Tüüriga, teemaks festivali eesmärgid ja üritused, mille hulka kuuluvad peale näituste ka workshopid ja performance'id; DJna esineb Tarrvi, Laamann, ansambliga Mügarik Marko Mäetamm.

  4. Kuuldemäng "Palju õnne argipäevaks!" edukümnes

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Raadioteatri kuuldemäng "Palju õnne argipäevaks" jõudis Euroopa meediafestivalil Prix Europa kümne parema hulka. Näidendi lavastas raadio jaoks Andres Noormets. 1999. a. jõudis festivalil Prix Europa äramärkimiseni Ervin Õunapuu kuuldemäng "Õhtueine Emmauses"

  5. Võimalus osta Leonardo joonistus / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2001-01-01

    10. VII tuleb Londonis Christies'i oksjonil müügile Leonardo da Vinci etüüd ratsanikust, mis kuulub kunstniku poolelijäänud "Tarkade kummardamise" kompositsiooni ettevalmistavate etüüdide hulka. Müügihinnaks arvatakse kujunevat 3,5 miljonit naela.

  6. Kanada minister Van Loan on hobieestlane / Peter Van Loan ; interv. Marje Aksli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Van Loan, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Kanada konservatiivse valitsuse parlamendiasjade juht ja demokraatliku reformi minister vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad eestlaste hulka tema valimisringkonnas, kohtumist president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega, viisavabaduse andmist Eestile, samuti pronkssõdurit ja vene poliitikute väidet, et Eestis tõstab pead natsism

  7. Kristen Michal : Anname Eestile eesmärgi / Kristen Michal ; interv. Ilmar Palli, Peeter Ernits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michal, Kristen, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Reformierakonna peasekretär vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad läbiviidavaid reforme, võimukoalitsioonis olemist, erakonna ideoloogiat, rahvastikuprotsesse, vasakpoolseid parteisid, koostööd Keskerakonnaga, Reformierakonna eesmärki viia Eesti 15 aastaga Euroopa viie rikkama riigi hulka

  8. Rootslane teenib üsna pea eestlasega võrdselt / Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zirnask, Villu, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Maailma konkurentsivõime aastaraamatu koostaja Stephane Garelli sõnul jõuavad tavaliselt edukad riigid, mille hulka arvab ta ka Baltimaad, tööjõukuludelt suhteliselt kiiresti jõukamatele riikidele järele. Ta nimetab kuus tingimust, mille olemasolu võimaldab riigil tootmiskulude kasvades konkurentsivõime säilitada

  9. Kaneelikino avapidu / Krister Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Krister, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    1.detsembril avas Kaunases uksed kaubanduskeskus Mega ja selle teisel korrusel uus kobarkino Cinamon. Kinoketi, mis järgmiseks laieneb Klaipedasse, Tartusse ja Tallinna, direktor on Chris Lowe, omanike hulka kuulub BDG ja selle esindajatena olid kohal Peeter Rebane, Tõnis Haavel, Ilmar Kompus

  10. Comparative phylogeography of two sister (congeneric) species of cardiid bivalve: Strong influence of habitat, life history and post-glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Krakau, Manuela; Jacobsen, Sabine; Wołowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Sister (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic groups, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw

  11. 40 CFR 180.1 - Definitions and interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., lime, orange, tangelo, tangerine, citrus citron, kumquat, and hybrids of these. Garlic Garlic, great... okra); Momordica spp. (i.e., bitter melon, balsam pear, balsam apple, Chinese cucumber); Sechium edule... (mandarin or mandarin orange); tangelo, tangor, and other hybrids of tangerine with other citrus. Tomato...

  12. India hiilgav viletsus / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Hiinat nimetatakse maailma töökojaks, Indiat aga bürooks (back office), võrdlus põhineb India IT-firmade edul - kõik tegevused, mida saab teha arvutite abil, kipuvad kolima Indiasse. Tulevikuriik India on hädas keskaegsete tavadega

  13. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of extraction conditions assisted by ultrasound on the quality of extracts obtained from Mesembryanthemum edule shoots. Methods: The extraction procedure was carried out in an ultrasonic bath. The effect of two solvents (methanol and ethanol) and two extraction times (5 and 10 min) ...

  14. Long-term indirect effects of mechanical cockle-dredging on intertidal bivalve stocks in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Koolhaas, A; Dekinga, A; Beukema, JJ; Dekker, R.; Essink, K

    2001-01-01

    1. There is world-wide concern about the effects of bottom-dredging on benthic communities in soft sediments. In autumn 1988, almost a third of the 50-km(2) intertidal system around the island of Griend in the western Dutch Wadden Sea was suction-dredged for edible cockles Cerastoderma edule and

  15. The influence of sediment, food and organic ligands on the uptake of copper by sediment-dwelling bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.; Berntssen, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-dwelling bivalve Macoma balthica was exposed to dissolved copper ina flow-through system in long-term experiments. Unlike another sediment-dwelling bivalve, the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (cockle), M. balthica accumulated copper from the sediment, while the cockles did not.

  16. The effect of polluted sediment on the gonadal development and embryogenesis of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.M.H.; Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were kept on polluted sediment from the harbour of Rotterdam, and on clean sediment from the Wadden Sea (control). Their gametogenesis was then followed. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) experiments were carried out and larvae were cultured

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction: Effect of Extraction Time and Solvent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    activity by methanol and ethanol extracts of. Mesembryanthemum edule shoots after 5 and 10 min of sonication (n = 3, p< 0.05). DISCUSSION. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of plant extracts largely depend on extraction conditions and compositions [12]. Antioxidant molecules and capacities are influenced by.

  18. Eiders Somateria mollissima scavenging behind a lugworm boat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    The eider is one of the most important molluscivorous birds in the Wadden Sea, where it feeds mainly on blue mussels Mytilus edulis and edible cockles Cerastoderma edule. These prey species are within reach of the birds at all times. Other potential prey of suitable size that are abundantly present,

  19. Computing Environments for Data Analysis. Part 3. Programming Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-21

    interrupting a process, drawing a picture on a display. Each model is usually associated with a langu ~age. The language is a formal way of expressing ideas...Controaling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS . (01 thie report) UNCLASSIFIED 15a. DECLASSIFICATION, OONGRAOING SCH4EDULE * II. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (at tis Report

  20. Mööblifirmade trump a la carte-teenuses / Heli Lehtsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtsaar, Heli, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Mööblitootjad on muutuvas majandusolukorras hakanud seeriatootmise asemel pöörama rohkem tähelepanu eritellimustele. Vt. samas: Aktiivne müük ja likviidne käibevara aitavad madalseisu ajal elus püsida. Ain Alvela. Edule pürgiv mööblitootja peab moevooludega kaasa sörkima

  1. Hatchery cultivation of the common cockle (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, A.E.; Peene, F.; Donner, S.; Wijnhoven, S.; Geijsen, P.; Bossier, P.; Nevejan, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes for the first time the cultivation of Cerastoderma edule on a commercial scale. A protocol to grow F2 generation cockles was developed, which led to fine-tuning experiments for broodstock conditioning and spat growth.Broodstock animals were conditioned with

  2. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  3. RECONSTRUCTING DIET COMPOSITION ON THE BASIS OF FECES IN A MOLLUSK-EATING WADER, THE KNOT CALIDRIS-CANUTUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKINGA, A; PIERSMA, T

    Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.

  4. Reconstructing diet composition on the basis of faeces in a mollusc-eating wader, the Knot Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods are described to assess the molluscan diet of Knots feeding on intertidal flats in western Europe from their faecal output. The size distributions of two common bivalve prey, Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule, can be estimated from the heights of shell hinges retrieved from droppings.

  5. Estimation of density-dependent mortality of juvenile bivalves in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, H.; Strasser, M.; van der Meer, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship

  6. Estimation of Density-Dependent Mortality of Juvenile Bivalves in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andresen, H.; Strasser, M.; van der Meer, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin) and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle) in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship

  7. Interkultuurilised võimalused ja ohud turunduses / Kristel Kaljund

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljund, Kristel

    2002-01-01

    Kasut. kirj. lk. 27. - Kokkuvõte ingl. k. lk. 28. Artiklis põhjendatakse kultuuritausta mõju majanduslikule edule ning tuuakse ära kõige sagedasemad vigade põhjused ning pakutakse välja, kuidas Eesti majandusspetsialistidel oleks võimalik neid vigu vältida

  8. Interspecific variability of antioxidant activities and phenolic composition in Mesembryanthemum genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanen, Falleh; Riadh, Ksouri; Samia, Oueslati; Sylvain, Guyot; Christian, Magné; Chedly, Abdelly

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, shoot extracts from edible halophytic Mesembryanthemum species were evaluated for their effects against O(2)(-), DPPH, and ABTS radicals. The reducing power, chelating ability, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and of beta-carotene bleaching were also evaluated. Moreover, the total phenolic, flavonoid, and condensed tannin contents were determined. In vitro biotests showed a significant difference in the antioxidant capacities of the species studied. Mesembryanthemum edule was found to exhibit the higher antioxidant activity, except for the iron-chelating test where M. crystallinum showed the best activity with the lowest EC(50) value (2.13 mg ml(-1)). Accordingly, M. edule exhibited high phenolic levels, especially in total phenols (70mg of gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight), while no significant difference was found between M. crystallinum and M. nodiflorum (1.4 and 1.7 mg GAE g(-1)DW, respectively). Due to its strong antioxidant activities and high levels of phenols, M. edule was further studied for its phenolic constituents. HPLC analysis revealed 12 compounds, mainly flavonoids, with phloretin, quercitrin, and avicularin as the most abundant (1, 0.84 and 0.66 mg g(-1) DW, respectively). These results evidenced the great variability in antioxidant capacities of these halophytes and suggested that M. edule might be an important source of functional phenolic compounds.

  9. "Leiutajateküla Lotte" sai toetust Euroopa filmifondilt / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Nõukogu juures tegutsev Eurimages'i fond määras toetuse Eesti Joonisfilmi täispikale filmile, mille autoriteks on Heiki Ernits, Janno Põldma ja Andrus Kivirähk. Filmi tootjate hulka kuuluvad ka Läti stuudio Rija Films ja Eesti Televisioon. Kommentaariks vastavad küsimustele EFSA peadirektor Martin Aadamsoo, projekti produtsent Riina Sildos ja Eesti Televisiooni juht Ilmar Raag

  10. Elitaristlikud juhid rikuvad töö- ja meelerahu / Paul Tammert

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammert, Paul, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 13. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 13. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 13. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 2. nov. 2007, lk. 2. Autor põhjendab, miks tal ei ole usku, et Eesti aastaks 2021 EL-i viie rikkama riigi hulka jõuab

  11. Eesti Raadio 2006. aasta preemiaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Teiste hulgas pälvisid preemia ka Andres Noormets ja Külli Tüli Raadioteatri kuuldemängu "Palju õnne sünnipäevaks" eest, mis jõudis Euroopa meediafestivalil Prix Europa kümne parima hulka. Näidendi lavastaja Andres Noormets ja helirežissöör Külli Tüli

  12. Eesti elanike valimiskäitumise motiivid ja mehhanismid / Marti Taru, Rein Toomla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taru, Marti

    2003-01-01

    Uuringutest selgub, et sotsiaaldemograafilistest omadustest suurendavad valima mineku tõenäosust kõrgem haridustase ja elukoha paiknemine väikeasulas, valima mineku tõenäosust vähendavad kuulumine pensionäride, õppurite või ettevõtjate hulka. Diagrammid: Valima mittemineku ja mineku põhjused; Valimiskriteeriumid. Tabelid: Riigikogusse valitavate inimeste oluliseks peetavad omadused (%-des); Valijate tähelepanu erakonnale (%-des)

  13. Richard Wollheim 1923-2003 / Marek Volt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volt, Marek

    2004-01-01

    Järelehüüe anglo-ameerika filosoofile Richard Wollheimile (5. V 1923-4. XI 2003), kes huvitus maalist ja psühhoanalüüsist ning kuulub XX sajandi analüütilist kunstifilosoofiat enim kujundanud filosoofide hulka. Tema peamised tööd: "Art and Its Objects" (1968), "Painting As an Art" (1987), "On Painting and the Self" (1992). Ilmunud ka raamatus: Volt, Marek. Esteetikast. Tallinn : Sirp, 2006

  14. Effect of Swirl on an Unstable Single-Element Gas-Gas Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    combustion systems including gas turbines, rocket engines, and industrial furnaces. Swirl can have dramatic effects on the flowfield; these include jet growth...of the jet .16 In rocket engines, swirl injectors have several advantages over jet -type injectors; they are less sensitive to manufacturing defects...of Jet and Swirl Injectors,” Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers: Aspects of Modeling, Analysis, and Design, edited by V. Yang, M. Habiballah, J. Hulka

  15. Taimne linn - fantaasia saab tegelikkuseks / Kadri Kalle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalle, Kadri, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Belgia arhitektist Luc Schuitenist ja tema töödest Brüsselis 2009. a. suvel eksponeeritud näitusel "Vegetal City". Arhitekt pakub loovaid lähenemisi sellele, kuidas linnad võiksid rohkem sarnaneda looduslike elupaikadega. Juba 1970. aastatel ehitas ta maja, mis kasutab päikese- ja tuuleenergiat, tema ideekavandite hulka kuuluvad ka üllatava disainiga keskkonnasõbralikud sõidukid

  16. Zatlers addresses Harvard audience

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi Harvardi ülikoolis peetud kõnest, milles ta märgib, et üks tema jaoks tähtsamatest küsimustest on, kes võiks Läti uue peaministrina riigi praegust majanduskurssi jätkata, ja leiab, et Läti kuulub oma rahvaarvu arvestades Afganistani enam panustavate riikide hulka

  17. Jaan Pillesaar : Eesti vajab revolutsiooni / Urmas Vaino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaino, Urmas, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    1991. aastal startinud Helmes on tarkvaratootjana jõudnud Eesti tugevamate tegijate hulka. Firma käive ületab 100 miljonit krooni ning 30 miljoni ulatuses läheb tarkvara ekspordiks. Helmese juht Jaan Pillesaar spetsialistide puudusest, arengu piduriks olevast maksusüsteemist, riigi suhtumisest teabeärisse. Lisad: Mida Helmes teeb?; Helmese säravad tütred: MarkIT ja Now! Innovations

  18. Ne spugnut turista / Vjatsheslav Ivanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ivanov, Vjatsheslav

    2007-01-01

    Eesti turismiettevõtjad kardavad, et poliitilised sündmused võivad mõju avaldada meie turismiärile. Esialgse hinnangu võib teha juunikuu tulemuste järgi, kui selgub, kuivõrd sündmused seoses pronkssõduri teisaldamisega mõjutavad Venemaalt saabuvate turistide hulka, turismiäris kogenenumad on mõõdukalt optimistlikud

  19. Veevarustus hoiab Lähis-Ida konfliktiohus / Sergei Stadnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stadnikov, Sergei, 1956-

    2006-01-01

    Araabia maades suureneb demograafilise kasvu tõttu veevajadus. Mitmed Niiluse jõgikonnas asuvad riigid ei ole rahul oma veekvootidega, mis on sätestatud Egiptusega sõlmitud lepingus. Egiptus üritab autori väitel nurjata plaane ehitada Niilusele Etioopia ja Uganda alale tammid, mis vähendaks vee hulka. Vee küsimus on oluline ka Iisraelile

  20. Rein Lang: Eesti kõige väärtuslikum ressurss on mõistus / Rein Lang ; interv. Peep Lillemägi ; komment. Siim Kallas, Jüri Pihl, Väino Linde

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rein, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Justiitsminister Rein Lang vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Ameerika Ühendriike kui vabaduse kantsi, ettevõtlusvabadust Ameerika Ühendriikides ja Eestis, tööd justiitsministrina, varasemat karjääri, Eesti põhiseaduse loomist, Euroopa Liidu aluslepingu välja töötamist, avaliku võimu rolli tänapäeva maailmas ning Eesti jõudmist Euroopa rikkamate riikide hulka

  1. Kaukaasia surnud ring / Andrei Piontkovsky ; tõlkinud Villu Zirnask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piontkovski, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    Autor ütleb, et sõda separatismiga Põhja-Kaukaasias on kujunenud sõjaks islami fundamentalismiga. Süüdatud vägivallast Tšetšeenia sõdades, on terrorism selles piirkonnas laienenud sedamööda, kuidas Venemaa poliitika suurendab islamistide hulka. Ei Kreml ega tema Põhja-Kaukaasia liitlased ei ole valmis formaalseks lahkuminekuks, ka islamistid ei taha eraldumist

  2. Taxonomic diversity and structure of the molluscan fauna in Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, F; Zidane, H; Maanan, M; Tamsouri, M; Errhif, A

    2015-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the molluscan fauna of Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) was studied during winter 2013. Samples were collected from 43 stations over the whole of the lagoon. Twenty-eight taxa (19 species of gastropods, 7 species of bivalves, 1 species of polyplacophora, and 1 species of cephalopod) were listed, 21 of which are newly reported for Oualidia lagoon. Four taxa, Hydrobia sp. (78.29%), followed by Abra alba (13.99 ), Nassarius pfeifferi (5.07%), and Cerastoderma edule (1.32%), were accounted for 98% of the total abundance. A classification analysis used to characterize the lagoon on the basis of molluscs showed the existence of three main clusters from downstream to upstream: a Nassarius pfeifferi community, a Hydrobia sp.-Abra alba community and a Hydrobia sp.-Cerastoderma edule community.

  3. Reconstruction of Multidimensional Signals from Zero Crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    SCH.EDULE unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) Ga. NAME OP PERFORMING ORGANIZATION ~b. OFFICE...SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Research Laboratory of Electk orjepshcable, office of Naval Research Massachusetts Institute of Te hnology...most an exponential £ *The work presented in this chapter was performed in colaboration with S. Shitz and also ap- pears in reference [25]. I

  4. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Oxygen Uptake Rate of the Rabbit Cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation on the Oxygen Uptake Rate of the Rabbit Cornea 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lattimore, Morris R., Jr. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. TIME...for the blod 1975;22:117-23. ral". Amt J Optomn Arch Amt Aced Optom 19W946:561-72. 18. Grabrter G, Brerier W. Unh’eduled DNA repairin the human 3

  5. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin ...

  6. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    ,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2'-azino-bis (3...

  7. REMOCIÓN DE COLORANTES POR MEDIO DE CURCUBITACEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Barajas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una alternativa para la remoción de los colorantes rojo congo, índigo carmín y verde de bromocresol, por medio de Sechium edule en sus dos variedades con y sin espinas y Cucurbita ficifolia . Se trabajaron tres concentraciones de 10, 20 y 30 g/L para las dos variedades y para C. ficifolia en forma deshidratada en estufa a 45 °C. Se realizaron las cinéticas correspondientes para cada colorante. Con este f in se monitoreo a 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, y 24 h, la decoloración se determinó por medio de un espectrofotómetro UV - Vis, a la longitud de onda donde se obtuvo su máxima absorbancia. Los resultados muestran una total remoción de color a las 24 h para las v ariedades con y sin espinas del Sechium edule. Esto sugiere que el Schium edule puede ser empleado para la remoción y oxidación de colorantes de tipo textil.

  8. Design and quality control of a pharmaceutical formulation containing natural products with antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Adriana A L; Ordoñez, Roxana M; Zampini, Iris C; Isla, María I

    2009-08-13

    The aims of the present study were to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity as well as mutagenicity of Sechium edule fluid extract and to obtain a pharmaceutical formulation with them. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from clinical samples from two hospitals of Tucuman, Argentina. Non-toxicity and mutagenicity on both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA 100 strains until 100 microg/plate were observed. A hydrogel with carbopol acrylic acid polymer containing S. edule fluid extract as antibacterial, antimycotic and antioxidant agent was obtained. Microbiological, physical and functional stability of pharmaceutical formulation conserved at room temperature for 1 year were determined. Addition of antioxidant preservatives to store the pharmaceutical formulation was not necessary. The semisolid system showed antimicrobial activity against all gram positive and gram negative bacteria and fungi assayed. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranged from 20 to 800 microg/mL. Its activity was compared with a pharmaceutical formulation containing commercial antibiotic and antifungal. A pseudoplastic behavior and positive thixotropy were observed. Our current finding shows an antimicrobial activity of hydrogel containing S. edule extract on a large range of gram negative and gram positive multi-resistant bacteria and fungi. This topical formulation may be used as antimycotic and as antibacterial in cutaneous infections.

  9. Parasites, pathological conditions and resistance to Marteilia cochillia in lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballal, María J; Iglesias, David; Darriba, Susana; Cao, Asunción; Mariño, J Carlos; Ramilo, Andrea; No, Edgar; Villalba, Antonio

    2016-12-21

    A histopathological survey revealed parasites and pathological conditions affecting lagoon cockles Cerastoderma glaucum along the Galician coast; serious pathological threats were not detected because the potentially pathogenic conditions (infections with a Marteilia-like parasite and bucephalid sporocysts, disseminated neoplasia and a condition involving large foci of heavy haemocytic reaction) were rare, while more prevalent parasites had negligible or limited pathogeny. Considering that C. edule and C. glaucum are sympatric in some Galician rias, it is remarkable that C. glaucum was not seriously affected by Marteilia cochillia while C. edule suffered an intense outbreak of this parasite associated with massive mortality. Comparison of the digestive gland between cockle species showed co-occurrence of digestive tubules in different phases, with abundant disintegrated tubules, in the case of C. glaucum, while C. edule showed synchronicity and absence of fully disintegrated tubules; these differences could influence their susceptibility to M. cochillia because the main location of this parasite in common cockles is the epithelia of the digestive gland. Moreover, the observation of histological sections through the digestive gland easily allows differentiating the 2 cockle species.

  10. Igor Stromajer / Igor Stromajer ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stromajer, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Sloveeni kunstnikust Igor Stromajerist (sünd. 1967) ja tema loomingust. I. Stromajer võitis 1997. a. Hamburgi Kunstihalle korraldatud võrgukunsti võistluse "Extension" tööga "0.html". Tema domeeni www.intima.org ülespandud tööd kuuluvad parima disainiga võrgukunsti näidete hulka. I. Stromajer on loonud WAP-kunsti mobiiltelefonidele, lavastanud Interneti-performance'eid. I. Stromajer 1999. a. tehtud meiliintervjuus oma töödest, pikemalt võrguprojektist "b.ALT.ica", võrgukunsti tulevikust

  11. Metropolitani muuseum sai hindamatu kingituse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    New Yorgi Metropolitani kunstimuuseumile pärandati mai alguses üks maailma paremaid 20. sajandi kunsti erakogusid. Hiljuti Mehhikos Guernavacas surnud Natasha Gelman jättis muuseumile 85 Matisse'i, Picasso, Braque'i, Balthusi, Modigliani jt. kunstnike tööd. Hinnatavamate taieste hulka kuuluvad ligi kümme Mir̤ tööd ja kaks varajast kubistlikku tööd Braque'ilt ja Picassolt. Metropolitani muuseumi direktor Philipe de Montebello tutvustab kollektsiooni

  12. Eesti disaini uudised / Kai Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Kai, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia üliõpilaste Kadri Kruus-Laurimaa kott-jope, Riho Tiiveli lusikas "Spoon container" ja Ülle Jehe sisustuspadjad "Roll it!" valiti Prantsusmaal toimunud rahvusvahelisel kunsti-ja disainikõrgkoolide võrgustiku CUMULUS konkursil "European Ways of Life" nominentide hulka. EKA sisearhitektuuri eriala üliõpilaste toolide hindamisest. Mari Adamsoni nimelise noore tekstiilikunstniku preemia pälvis Kadri Klampe. Eesti Ajaloomuuseumis Maarjamäe lossis avatud moenäitusest "Paula, sul on poisipea!", mille koostas Helle Avila, konsulteeris Anu Ojavee, kujundasid Krista Lepland ja Malle Jürgenson büroost Laika, Belka ja Strelka

  13. Viljandis tuleb imeline kohtumine / Linda Järve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järve, Linda, 1946-

    2001-01-01

    8.-22. juulinì01 toimub Eestis 10. Euroopa Laste Teatrikohtumine (EDERED - European Drama Encounter), mis toob kohale 180 last koos juhendajatega 18 riigist. Samal ajal on koos ka EDERED-i peaassamblee. Kahenädalase, peamiselt Viljandis aset leidva kohtumise korraldavad Eesti Harrastusteatrite Liit, haridusministeerium ja Viljandi linnavalitsus. EDERED loodi 1985. a, pärast 4 aastat varem toimunud esimest laste teatrikohtumist, kus osalesid 12-14-aastased lapsed. Hiljem lisandusid EDERED-i ürituste hulka ka noorte teatrikohtumised, kus osalejad on 16-20-aastased. EDERED-i kohtumistel kasutatakse mitmesuguseid teatriõpetuse meetodeid, toimub loov koostöö laste ja õpetajate vahel

  14. Organochlorine residues analysed in invertebrates of the Dutch Wadden Sea by two methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, G.; Ernst, W.; Goerke, H.; Duinker, J. C.; Hillebrand, M. T. J.

    Two laboratories analysed 12 organochlorine compounds in the same and parallel samples of 3 invertebrate species ( Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Crangon crangon) obtained from the western Dutch Wadden Sea in 1976. The two different analytical methods used resulted in very similar mean residue levels. These levels deviated in only 2 out of 16 cases by more than 50%. The PCB levels predominated with 20 to 100 ng·g -1, and were higher than those of the same species from the Weser estuary, Germany. The other compounds ranged generally below 6 ng·g -1.

  15. INFLUENZA DELLE CONDIZIONI ECOLOGICHE SULLA STRATEGIA RIPRODUTTIVA E SULLA BIOMETRIA DI CHLAMYS OPERCULARIS (L. 1758) (MOLLUSCA, BIVALVIA)

    OpenAIRE

    NEGUSANTI, JIN SOOK

    2007-01-01

    2005/2006 Chlamys opercularis è un animale edule, comune su fondi sabbiosi e sabbiosi-detritici, posti ad una profondità variabile tra 4-400m (più comune a 40m). Ha una conchiglia di colore molto vario, inequivalve (valva sinistra più convessa) ed inequilaterale, con una lunghezza massima di 9cm. La scultura conchigliare è caratterizzata da 18-25 coste radiali, presenti su ciascuna valva, tra le quali si trovano le linee di accrescimento. L'interno è lucido, solcato ed ondulato in corrispo...

  16. Climate change impacts on potential recruitment in an ecosystem engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emer; O' Riordan, Ruth M; Culloty, Sarah C

    2013-03-01

    Climate variability and the rapid warming of seas undoubtedly have huge ramifications for biological processes such as reproduction. As such, gametogenesis and spawning were investigated at two sites over 200 km apart on the south coast of Ireland in an ecosystem engineer, the common cockle, Cerastoderma edule. Both sites are classed as Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), but are of different water quality. Cerastoderma edule plays a significant biological role by recycling nutrients and affecting sediment structure, with impacts upon assemblage biomass and functional diversity. It plays a key role in food webs, being a common foodstuff for a number of marine birds including the oystercatcher. Both before and during the study (early 2010-mid 2011), Ireland experienced its two coldest winters for 50 years. As the research demonstrated only slight variation in the spawning period between sites, despite site differences in water and environmental quality, temperature and variable climatic conditions were the dominant factor controlling gametogenesis. The most significant finding was that the spawning period in the cockle extended over a greater number of months compared with previous studies and that gametogenesis commenced over winter rather than in spring. Extremely cold winters may impact on the cockle by accelerating and extending the onset and development of gametogenesis. Whether this impact is positive or negative would depend on the associated events occurring on which the cockle depends, that is, presence of primary producers and spring blooms, which would facilitate conversion of this extended gametogenesis into successful recruitment.

  17. Spatial and temporal characteristics of benthic invertebrate communities at Culbin Sands lagoon, Moray Firth, NE Scotland, and impacts of the disturbance of cockle harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Mariyam Mendonça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Culbin Sands lagoon, a protected site in NE Scotland, was surveyed every 2 to 4 weeks during a three-year period (1994-1996 to study benthic invertebrate communities. Beds of Mytilus edulis covered 18000 m2. 53 macroinfaunal species were identified outside these areas. The most conspicuous were: the lugworm Arenicola marina (mean up to 55 casts m-2; and bivalves Cerastoderma edule (mean up to 158 ind. m-2 and Macoma balthica (mean up to 79 ind. m-2 after settlement. The standing stock ranged from 20 to 32 g AFDW m-2 yr-1 respectively from more exposed to more sheltered areas. Most species showed a clear recruitment peak in autumn, but others (e.g. Capitella capitata, and Spionidae displayed several peaks in a year. Communities were also compared between the sampling sites before and after an incidental disturbance caused by cockle Cerastoderma edule harvesting, which took place in June 1995. One site showed –0.7% variation in the total standing stock, but +22% for smaller-cockles, as larger filter-feeding cockles were removed therefore enhancing their own larval settlement. Polychaete Spionidae populations also increased after larger cockles were removed. The polychaete Arenicola marina population returned to its normal activities just after the dramatic disturbance of the sediment.

  18. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    ,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical were the methanol extracts of M. edule (IC50 = 0.1 mg/mL) and J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL), and the ether extracts of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.2 mg/mL) and A. macrostachyum (IC50 = 0.3 mg/mL). The highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) against the 2,2'-azino-bis (3......-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical was obtained in the ether extract of J. acutus (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL) and H. portulacoides (IC50 = 0.9 mg/mL). The maximum total phenolic content (TPC) was found in the methanol extract of M. edule (147 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g) and in the ether extract of J....... acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic...

  19. Connectivity, neutral theories and the assessment of species vulnerability to global change in temperate estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, Guillem; Albaina, Aitor; Aranburu, Aizkorri; Borja, Ángel; Diekmann, Onno E.; Estonba, Andone; Franco, Javier; Garmendia, Joxe M.; Iriondo, Mikel; Muxika, Iñigo; Rendo, Fernando; Rodríguez, J. Germán; Ruiz-Larrañaga, Otsanda; Serrão, Ester A.; Valle, Mireia

    2013-10-01

    One of the main adaptation strategies to global change scenarios, aiming to preserve ecosystem functioning and biodiversity, is to maximize ecosystem resilience. The resilience of a species metapopulation can be improved by facilitating connectivity between local populations, which will prevent demographic stochasticity and inbreeding. This investigation estimated the degree of connectivity among estuarine species along the north-eastern Iberian coast, in order to assess community vulnerability to global change scenarios. To address this objective, two connectivity proxy types have been used based upon genetic and ecological drift processes: 1) DNA markers for the bivalve cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and seagrass Zostera noltei, and 2) the decrease in the number of species shared between two sites with geographic distance. Neutral biodiversity theory predicts that dispersal limitation modulates this decrease, and this has been explored in estuarine plants and macroinvertebrates. Results indicate dispersal limitation for both saltmarsh plants and seagrass beds community and Z. noltei populations; this suggests they are especially vulnerable to expected climate changes on their habitats. In contrast, unstructured spatial pattern found in macroinvertebrate communities and in C. edule genetic populations in the area suggests that estuarine soft-bottom macroinvertebrates with planktonic larval dispersal strategies may have a high resilience capacity to moderate changes within their habitats. Our findings allow environmental managers to prioritize the most vulnerable species and habitats to be restored.

  20. Estimation of density-dependent mortality of juvenile bivalves in the Wadden Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Andresen

    Full Text Available We investigated density-dependent mortality within the early months of life of the bivalves Macoma balthica (Baltic tellin and Cerastoderma edule (common cockle in the Wadden Sea. Mortality is thought to be density-dependent in juvenile bivalves, because there is no proportional relationship between the size of the reproductive adult stocks and the numbers of recruits for both species. It is not known however, when exactly density dependence in the pre-recruitment phase occurs and how prevalent it is. The magnitude of recruitment determines year class strength in bivalves. Thus, understanding pre-recruit mortality will improve the understanding of population dynamics. We analyzed count data from three years of temporal sampling during the first months after bivalve settlement at ten transects in the Sylt-Rømø-Bay in the northern German Wadden Sea. Analyses of density dependence are sensitive to bias through measurement error. Measurement error was estimated by bootstrapping, and residual deviances were adjusted by adding process error. With simulations the effect of these two types of error on the estimate of the density-dependent mortality coefficient was investigated. In three out of eight time intervals density dependence was detected for M. balthica, and in zero out of six time intervals for C. edule. Biological or environmental stochastic processes dominated over density dependence at the investigated scale.

  1. Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Castro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ∼1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ∼580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1 was obtained from a chayote (S. edule leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Avaliku võimu ja kodanikualgatuse partnerlus : koostööd mõjutavad tegurid / Krista Hinno, Tanel Vallimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hinno, Krista

    2007-01-01

    Artiklis esitatakse kokkuvõte Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi Kodanikeühiskonna Uurimis- ja Arenduskeskuse uurimuse "Avaliku võimu ja kodanikualgatuse komplementaarsed suhted" peamistest tulemustest. Raporti autorite hulka kuulusid Erle Rikmann, Krista Hinno, Aigi Bremse, Kersti Kollom, Mari Sepp ja Tanel Vallimäe. Toetudes uuringutele väidavad autorid, et Eesti ametnikkond on soodsalt meelestatud koostööle kodanikuühendustega, takistuseks võivad saada kodanikeühenduste erinev tööstiil, vajalike ressursside puudus, sh ka ajanappus, ametnike kaadrivoolavus ja teatavate vanusegruppide vähene avatus. Diagrammid: Koostöö jaotumine asutuseliikide vahel; Ametnike hinnang ühistegevuse sisukusele seoses koostöö algatamisega; Ametnike hinnang omaduse vajalikkusele oma töös (vastajate osakaal, kes peavad antud omadust oma töös väga vajalikuks)

  3. Impacts of ethylenediurea (EDU) soil drench and foliar spray in Salix sachalinensis protection against O3-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Saitanis, Costas J; Manning, William J; Sugai, Tetsuto; Koike, Takayoshi

    2016-12-15

    It is widely accepted that elevated levels of surface ozone (O3) negatively affect plants. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a synthetic substance which effectively protects plants against O3-caused phytotoxicity. Among other questions, the one still open is: which EDU application method is more appropriate for treating fast-growing tree species. The main aims of this study were: (i) to test if chronic exposure of Salix sachalinensis plants to 200-400mgEDUL(-1), the usually applied range for protection against O3 phytotoxicity, is beneficial to plants; (ii) to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to elevated O3 on S. sachalinensis; (iii) to assess the efficacy of two methods (i.e. soil drench and foliar spray) of EDU application to plants; (iv) to investigate the appropriate concentration of EDU to protect against elevated O3-induced damage in S. sachalinensis; and (v) to compare the two methods of EDU application in terms of effectiveness and EDU consumption. Current-year cuttings grown in infertile soil free from organic matter were exposed either to low ambient O3 (AOZ, 10-h≈28.3nmolmol(-1)) or to elevated O3 (EOZ, 10-h≈65.8nmolmol(-1)) levels during daylight hours. Over the growing season, plants were treated every nine days with 200mL soil drench of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) or with foliar spray of 0, 200 or 400mgEDUL(-1) (in two separate experiments). We found that EDU per se had no effects on plants exposed to AOZ. EOZ practically significantly injured S. sachalinensis plants, and the impact was indifferent between the experiments. EDU did not protect plants against EOZ impact when applied as soil drench but it did protect them when applied as 200-400mgL(-1) foliar spray. We conclude that EDU may be more effective against O3 phytotoxicity to fast-growing species when applied as a spray than when applied as a drench. Keymessage: Soil-drenched EDU was ineffective in protecting willow plants against O3-induced injury, whereas foliar-sprayed EDU was effective even

  4. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  5. Reentrant metallic behavior in the Weyl semimetal NbP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Bugaris, D. E.; Xiao, Z. L.; Wang, Y. L.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Kwok, W. K.

    2017-09-01

    We report the occurrence of reentrantmetallic behavior in theWeyl semimetal NbP. When the appliedmagnetic field H is above a critical value H-c, a reentrance appears as a peak in the temperature-dependent resistivity rho(xx) (T) at T = T-p, similar to that observed in graphite where it was attributed to local superconductivity. The Tp(H) relationship follows a power-law dependence T-p similar to (H-H-c)(1/nu) where. can be derived from the temperature dependence of the zero-field resistivity rho(0)(T) similar to T-nu. From concurrent measurements of the transverse rho(xx) (T) and Hall rho(xy)(T) magnetoresistivities, we reveal a clear correlation between the rapidly increasing rho(xy) (T) and the occurrence of a peak in the rho(xx) (T) curve. Quantitative analysis indicates that the reentrantmetallic behavior arises from the competition of the magnetoconductivity sigma(xx) (T) with an additional component Delta sigma(xx) (T) = kappa(H)sigma(xx)(T) where kappa(H) = [rho(xy)(T)/rho(xx)(T)](2) is the Hall factor. We find that the Hall factor (kappa(H) approximate to 0.4) at peak temperature T-p is nearly field independent, leading to the observed T-p (H) relationship. Furthermore, the reentrant metallic behavior in rho(xx) (T) also is reflected in the behavior of rho(xx) (H) that ranges from nonsaturating at T > 70K to saturation at liquid-helium temperatures. The latter can be explained with the magnetic field dependence of the Hall factor kappa(H) (H). Our paper demonstrates that a semiclassical theory can account for the "anomalies" in the magnetotransport phenomena of NbP without invoking an exotic mechanism.

  6. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohlenberg, F.; Kiorboe, T.

    1983-02-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger was impaired in the contaminated sediment compared to control. The impairment was most pronounced in the laboratory tests, where almost no burrowing occured. In a very simple laboratory set-up, highly significant avoidance of the contaminated sediment was demonstrated for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus maenas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact of contaminated sediments.

  7. Phylogenetic and microscopic studies in the genus Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) in West Africa, including the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maba, Dao Lamèga; Guelly, Atsu K; Yorou, Nourou S; Verbeken, Annemieke; Agerer, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Despite the crucial ecological role of lactarioid taxa (Lactifluus, Lactarius) as common ectomycorrhiza formers in tropical African seasonal forests, their current diversity is not yet adequately assessed. During the last few years, numerous lactarioid specimens have been sampled in various ecosystems from Togo (West Africa). We generated 48 ITS sequences and aligned them against lactarioid taxa from other tropical African ecozones (Guineo-Congolean evergreen forests, Zambezian miombo). A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from a dataset of 109 sequences. The phylogenetic placement of the specimens, combined with morpho-anatomical data, supported the description of four new species from Togo within the monophyletic genus Lactifluus: within subgen. Lactifluus (L. flavellus), subgen. Russulopsis (L. longibasidius and L. pectinatus), and subgen. Edules (L. melleus). This demonstrates that the current species richness of the genus is considerably higher than hitherto estimated for African species and, in addition, a need to redefine the subgenera and sections within it.

  8. Morphological diversity of microstructures occurring in selected recent bivalve shells and their ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Krzysztof Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental adaptation of molluscs during evolution has led to form biomineral exoskeleton – shell. The main compound of their shells is calcium carbonate, which is represented by calcite and/or aragonite. The mineral part, together with the biopolymer matrix, forms many types of microstructures, which are differ in texture. Different types of internal shell microstructures are characteristic for some bivalve groups. Studied bivalve species (freshwater species – duck mussel (Anodonta anatina Linnaeus, 1758 and marine species – common cockle (Cerastoderma edule Linnaeus, 1758, lyrate Asiatic hard clam (Meretrix lyrata Sowerby II, 1851 and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 from different locations and environmental conditions, show that the internal shell microstructure with the shell morphology and thickness have critical impact to the ability to survive in changing environment and also to the probability of surviving predator attack. Moreover, more detailed studies on molluscan structures might be responsible for create mechanically resistant nanomaterials.

  9. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica).

  10. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  11. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  12. Uso de plantas medicinais por pessoas com hipertensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir el uso de plantas medicinales en el tratamiento de la hipertensión arterial por personas con hipertensión inscritas en el Programa de Salud Familiar en una ciudad del interior de Pernambuco. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, cuyos datos se obtuvieron a través de guía de entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicada a 172 pacientes. Resultados: el uso de plantas medicinales para el control de la hipertensión fue informado por 39,5%, de los cuales 57,4% utiliza sólo una planta medicinal. Entre las especies citadas predominó el uso de chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusión: plantas medicinales constituyen terapia coadyuvante en el tratamiento de hipertensión, sin embargo requiere monitoreo del manejo y de las especies seleccionadas.

  13. Assessing the spatial variability, level and source of organic chemical contaminants in bivalve fishing grounds on the Galician coast (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nuria; Fernández-Boán, María; Verísimo, Patricia; Freire, Juan

    2013-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, organotin compounds and triazines were quantified in sediments and bivalves collected in four areas on the Galician coast. One or several species were analysed at each site depending on their availability, including mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), clams (Venerupis pullastra and Ruditapes decussatus) and razor shells (Ensis siliqua). The general spatial distribution of contaminants was consistent in spite of the different sources of contamination. High inter-species variability was also observed. M. galloprovincialis and V. pullastra showed the highest levels of contaminants and intra-spatial variability, which highlights them as suitable species to be used as sentinel organisms. The area of O Burgo showed some worrisome results: PCB sediment concentrations were within the range that could cause biological effects. Also the level of heptachlor observed in V. pullastra was above limits accepted on edible seafood. Finally TBT concentration in mussels correlated with concentrations causing imposex in snails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The distribution of the amphipod Corophium arenarium in the Dutch Wadden Sea: relationships with sediment composition and the presence of cockles and lugworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    On the tidal flats in the Dutch Wadden Sea Corophium volutator is a dominant species of the upper intertidal zone; the closely related Corophium arenarium is usually found in the lower zone, but only in low densities (a few hundreds per m 2). A survey in the Dutch Wadden Sea showed that this zonation pattern was only present when a muddy sediment was found in the upper zone and a sandy in the lower zone. C. arenarium was restricted to sandy sediments, C. volutator to muddy sediments. Where a sandy sediment was found in the upper intertidal zone, C. arenarium locally occurred in relatively high densities (a few thousands per m 2). An aquarium experiment showed that C. arenarium actively avoided muddy sediments. Field experiments were carried out to study the influence of other macrozoobenthic species (known to affect the related C. volutator) on the abundance of C. arenarium. Within large defaunated areas small plots were stocked with different densities of the lugworm Arenicola marina and the cockle Cerastoderma edule. In small plots within a natural benthic community densities of these species were also augmented or (in A. marina) reduced. Strongly negative density-dependent effects of both A. marina and C. edule were found on the abundance of C. arenarium. In the natural situation, its densities showed A. marina to be the most important factor in determining the abundance of C. arenarium. In particular the removal of lugworms caused a strong increase in C. arenarium densities. These results agreed with the distribution of these species along a transect perpendicular to the shore of Schiermonnikoog, where a significant negative correlation was found between the densities of A. marina and C. arenarium. Aquarium experiments showed that the negative effect of cockles and lugworms must be due to migration rather than mortality in C. arenarium.

  15. Applicability Of A Semi-Automated Clinical Chemistry Analyzer In Determining The Antioxidant Concentrations Of Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L. Hilario

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that are protective against diseases associated to oxidative stress. There is a need for high throughput screening method that should be useful in determining the antioxidant concentration in plants. Such screening method should significantly simplify and speed up most antioxidant assays. This paper aimed at comparing the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Pointe Scientific MI USA with the traditional standard curve method and using a Vis spectrophotometer in performing the DPPH assay for antioxidant screening. Samples of crude aqueous leaf extract of kulitis Amaranthus viridis Linn and chayote Sechium edule Linn were screened for the Total Antioxidant Concentration TAC using the two methods. Results presented in mean SD amp956gdl were compared using unpaired Students t-test P0.05. All runs were done in triplicates. The mean TAC of A. viridis was 646.0 45.5 amp956gdl using the clinical chemistry analyzer and 581.9 19.4 amp956gdl using the standard curve-spectrophotometer. On the other hand the mean TAC of S. edule was 660.2 35.9 amp956gdl using the semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer and 672.3 20.9 amp956gdl using the spectrophotometer. No significant differences were observed between the readings of the two methods for A. viridis P0.05 and S. edible P0.05. This implies that the clinical chemistry analyzer can be an alternative method in conducting the DPPH assay to determine the TAC in plants. This study presented the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer in performing the DPPH assay. Further validation can be conducted by performing other antioxidant assays using this equipment.

  16. Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins in bivalves of low and elevated toxicities following exposure to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms in Portuguese estuarine and coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Maria João; Vale, Carlos; Ferreira, João Gomes

    2015-11-01

    Profiles of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were examined in 405 composite samples of Mytilus spp., Cerastoderma edule, Donax trunculus and Spisula solida collected between 2007 and 2012 from natural production areas in two estuaries (Aveiro and Mondego), two coastal lagoons (Óbidos and Formosa), and three open coastal areas (Aguda, Comporta and Culatra). Toxin concentrations were obtained from the biotoxin monitoring programme database. Episodes of PST toxicity in Portugal have been associated with Gymnodinium catenatum blooms. Toxin profiles for each species showed no trend over the surveyed years. In general, profiles differ only slightly among areas, except for Óbidos. However, toxin profiles in bivalves varied between low and elevated toxicities, corresponding to below and above the PST regulatory limit, respectively. The ratio R1=(C1+2):B1, which were the main toxins produced by G. catenatum cells, decreased considerably between elevated and low toxicity cockles, indicating the elimination of C1+2 or conversion of compounds into B1. R2=[(dcSTX)+(dcGTX2+3)]:[(C1+2)+(B1)], which represents the ratio of minor to major toxins in G. catenatum cells, increased substantially in wedge clams (D. trunculus) of low toxicity and less markedly in cockles (C. edule) and mussels (Mytilus spp.). These differences are interpreted as the predominance of a biotransformation phase after exposure to the algal bloom. The toxin profile of surf clams (S. solida) was dominated by decarbamoyl compounds, reflecting intense biotransformation during exposure to blooms. The higher ratio R2 in low toxicity samples suggests that elimination of the produced decarbamoyl toxins was slower than biotransformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Disturbance of benthic infauna by sediment-reworking activities of the lugworm Arenicola marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    The influence of the lugworm Arenicola marina on the abundance of other benthic species was studied in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Small squares (1 m 2) within depopulated 144-m 2 plots were recolonized with various (naturally-occurring) lugworm densities (0-10-20-40-80 and 0-25-50-75-100 per m 2). These plots were sampled during the summer. Lugworms were found to have a strongly negative effect on the densities of C. volutator. At 0-density lugworms, the numbers of C. volutator were high. These were halved at 17 lugworms per m 2 ( i.e. the mean density on the tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea), and were further reduced at higher lugworm densities ( e.g. 20% remained at 40 lugworms per m 2). Laboratory observations of Corophium behaviour in the presence of Arenicola suggest that sediment-reworking lugworms stimulate Corophium to emigrate. Effects of lugworms on other benthic species were also studied in the same way. Lugworms were found to have strongly negative effects on the juvenile densities of various worm and bivalve species ( Nereis diversicolor, Nephtys hombergii, Heteromastus filiformis, Scoloplos armiger, Pygospio elegans, Capitella capitata and Mya arenaria, Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Angulus tenuis, respectively).

  18. The role of environmental variables in structuring landscape-scale species distributions in seafloor habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Casper; Aarts, Geert; Van der Meer, Jaap; Piersma, Theunis

    2010-06-01

    Ongoing statistical sophistication allows a shift from describing species' spatial distributions toward statistically disentangling the possible roles of environmental variables in shaping species distributions. Based on a landscape-scale benthic survey in the Dutch Wadden Sea, we show the merits of spatially explicit generalized estimating equations (GEE). The intertidal macrozoobenthic species, Macoma balthica, Cerastoderma edule, Marenzelleria viridis, Scoloplos armiger, Corophium volutator, and Urothoe poseidonis served as test cases, with median grain-size and inundation time as typical environmental explanatory variables. GEEs outperformed spatially naive generalized linear models (GLMs), and removed much residual spatial structure, indicating the importance of median grain-size and inundation time in shaping landscape-scale species distributions in the intertidal. GEE regression coefficients were smaller than those attained with GLM, and GEE standard errors were larger. The best fitting GEE for each species was used to predict species' density in relation to median grain-size and inundation time. Although no drastic changes were noted compared to previous work that described habitat suitability for benthic fauna in the Wadden Sea, our predictions provided more detailed and unbiased estimates of the determinants of species-environment relationships. We conclude that spatial GEEs offer the necessary methodological advances to further steps toward linking pattern to process.

  19. A mixed modeling approach to predict the effect of environmental modification on species distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cozzoli

    Full Text Available Human infrastructures can modify ecosystems, thereby affecting the occurrence and spatial distribution of organisms, as well as ecosystem functionality. Sustainable development requires the ability to predict responses of species to anthropogenic pressures. We investigated the large scale, long term effect of important human alterations of benthic habitats with an integrated approach combining engineering and ecological modelling. We focused our analysis on the Oosterschelde basin (The Netherlands, which was partially embanked by a storm surge barrier (Oosterscheldekering, 1986. We made use of 1 a prognostic (numerical environmental (hydrodynamic model and 2 a novel application of quantile regression to Species Distribution Modeling (SDM to simulate both the realized and potential (habitat suitability abundance of four macrozoobenthic species: Scoloplos armiger, Peringia ulvae, Cerastoderma edule and Lanice conchilega. The analysis shows that part of the fluctuations in macrozoobenthic biomass stocks during the last decades is related to the effect of the coastal defense infrastructures on the basin morphology and hydrodynamics. The methodological framework we propose is particularly suitable for the analysis of large abundance datasets combined with high-resolution environmental data. Our analysis provides useful information on future changes in ecosystem functionality induced by human activities.

  20. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  1. Shellfish dredging pushes a flexible avian top predator out of a marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A van Gils

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread concern about the direct and indirect effects of industrial fisheries; this concern is particularly pertinent for so-called "marine protected areas" (MPAs, which should be safeguarded by national and international law. The intertidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea are a State Nature Monument and are protected under the Ramsar convention and the European Union's Habitat and Birds Directives. Until 2004, the Dutch government granted permission for ~75% of the intertidal flats to be exploited by mechanical dredgers for edible cockles (Cerastoderma edule. Here we show that dredged areas belonged to the limited area of intertidal flats that were of sufficient quality for red knots (Calidris canutus islandica, a long-distance migrant molluscivore specialist, to feed. Dredging led to relatively lower settlement rates of cockles and also reduced their quality (ratio of flesh to shell. From 1998 to 2002, red knots increased gizzard mass to compensate for a gradual loss in shellfish quality, but this compensation was not sufficient and led to decreases in local survival. Therefore, the gradual destruction of the necessary intertidal resources explains both the loss of red knots from the Dutch Wadden Sea and the decline of the European wintering population. This study shows that MPAs that do not provide adequate protection from fishing may fail in their conservation objectives.

  2. Immediate effect of intertidal non-mechanised cockle harvesting on macrobenthic communities: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel Sousa Leitão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ria Formosa cockles (Cerastoderma edule have traditionally been harvested with a harvesting-knife (HK. However, over the last six years there has been an increase in the use of a hand-dredge (HD to exploit cockle beds. A comparative study on the impact of these harvesting methods on the benthic macrofauna was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the possible introduction of the hand-dredge in the fishery. Macrofaunal mortality was very low regardless of the gear. However, the total mortality resulting from using the HK was superior to the one observed for the HD. For the same fishing time the hand-dredge covers an area approximately five times greater that the one covered by the knife, with the former yielding 5 times the catch of the latter. Consequently, the use of hand-dredges increases the fishing effort, which may lead to the overexploitation of the cockle populations. Our results revealed that the immediate effect of both gears on macrobenthic communities was similar and minimal. Therefore, we believe that introducing the hand-dredge in the cockle fishery should only be authorised if other management measures, such as daily quotas, closed areas and limiting the number of fishing licenses, are implemented.

  3. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-23

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  4. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  5. Role of acyl carrier protein isoforms in plant lipid metabolism: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlrogge, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research from my lab has revealed that several higher plant species have multiple isoforms of acyl carrier protein (ACP) and therefore this trait appears highly conserved among higher plants. This level of conservation suggests that the existence of ACP isoforms is not merely the results of neutral gene duplications. We have developed techniques to examine a wider range of species. Acyl carrier proteins can be labelled very specifically and to high specific activity using H-palmitate and the E. coli enzyme acyl-ACP synthetase. Isoforms were then resolved by western blotting and native PAGE of H-palmitate labelled ACP's. Multiple isoforms of ACP were observed the leaf tissue of the monocots Avena sativa and Hordeum vulgare and dicots including Arabidopsis thallina, Cuphea wrightii, and Brassica napus. Lower vascular plants including the cycad, Dioon edule, Ginkgo biloba, the gymnosperm Pinus, the fern Anernia phyllitidis and Psilotum nudum, the most primitive known extant vascular plant, were also found to have multiple ACP isoforms as were the nonvascular liverwort, Marchantia and moss, Polytrichum. Therefore, the development of ACP isoforms occurred early in evolution. However, the uniellular alge Chlamydomonas and Dunaliella and the photosynthetic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Agmnellum have only a single elecrophotetic form of ACP. Thus, multiple forms of ACP do not occur in all photosynthetic organisms but may be associated with multicellular plants.

  6. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  7. Macrobenthos of the subtidal Wadden Sea: revisited after 55 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesen, W.; Reise, K.

    1982-12-01

    During the years 1923 1926 Hagmeier & Kändler (1927) sampled the macrofauna of subtidal shallows and channels of the Wadden Sea close to the Island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea). Reinvestigating this study area in 1980, a substantially altered faunal composition was recorded. An approach is made to quantify the comparison in terms of abundance, species richness and diversity of invertebrate taxa. Human interference is assumed to be responsible for the major changes. Natural oyster beds have been overexploited and the local population of Ostrea edulis has been driven to extinction. Subsequently, mussels (Mytilus edulis) spread in the entire region, promoted by shell fishery. Particularly barnacles and many polychaetes took advantage of the expansion of mussel banks which is substantiated by correlation analysis. Reefs of the colonial polychaete Sabellaria spinulosa stood in the way of shrimp trawling and became destroyed together with the associated fauna. A subtidal Zostera marina bed was wiped out in 1934 by a natural epidemic disease but never succeeded in reestablishing itself. The associated fauna disappeared. Large epibenthic predators and scavengers (crabs, snails and starfish) survived all these changes. The total number of species remained approximately at the same level but molluscs experienced losses and polychaetes diversified. Overall abundance increased with a disproportionately large share of a few species (Mytilus edulis, Balanus crenatus, Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger). The subtidal fauna of the Wadden Sea proved to be vulnerable to human disturbance; thus, the present community can no longer be viewed as the outcome of entirely natural processes.

  8. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc, Lactuca indica (Li, and Perilla ocymoides (Po contained abundant quercetin (Que, while Artemisia lactiflora (Al and Gynura bicolor (Gb were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc and Sechium edule (Se-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan and malvidin (Mal were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe, Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz. Presl (Ane, Ipomoea batatas (Ib-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content.

  9. Potensi Ekstrak Tumbuhan Sebagai Pengawet Produk Pangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of natural antimicrobials such as plants extracts to preserve food get much attention of the researchers. This is related to the increasing of public concern over synthetic chemical food preservatives. Various types of plants had been declared can produce extracts that effectively inhibited the growth of food-contaminating microbes, such as methanol and ethanol extracts of bark Saccoglottis gabonensis, effectively inhibited the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum; extracts of onion and red pepper inhibited Candida crucei and Candida utilis; ethanol and water extracts of Eugenia Jambos had antimicrobial properties against bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Yersenia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus warneri; Picung seed extract (Pagium edule inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus; and ethanol extract of Salvia pratensis leaves inhibited Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extraction of antimicrobial compounds from plant material could be done by using different types of solvents. Among the various types of solvents, ethanol and methanol solvents are most commonly used.Keyword: antimicrobial, plant extract, food preservative

  10. Modelling benthic macrofauna and seagrass distribution patterns in a North Sea tidal basin in response to 2050 climatic and environmental scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Anja; Millat, Gerald; Staneva, Joanna; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution patterns of seven macrofauna species, seagrass beds and mixed mussel/oyster reefs were modelled for the Jade Bay (North Sea, Germany) in response to climatic and environmental scenarios (representing 2050). For the species distribution models four presence-absence modelling methods were merged within the ensemble forecasting platform 'biomod2'. The present spatial distribution (representing 2009) was modelled by statistically related species presences, true species absences and six high-resolution environmental grids. The future spatial distribution was then predicted in response to expected climate change-induced ongoing (1) sea-level rise and (2) water temperature increase. Between 2009 and 2050, the present and future prediction maps revealed a significant range gain for two macrofauna species (Macoma balthica, Tubificoides benedii), whereas the species' range sizes of five macrofauna species remained relatively stable across space and time. The predicted probability of occurrence (PO) of two macrofauna species (Cerastoderma edule, Scoloplos armiger) decreased significantly under the potential future habitat conditions. In addition, a clear seagrass bed extension (Zostera noltii) on the lower intertidal flats (mixed sediments) and a decrease in the PO of mixed Mytilus edulis/Crassostrea gigas reefs was predicted for 2050. Until the mid-21st century, our future climatic and environmental scenario revealed significant changes in the range sizes (gains-losses) and/or the PO (increases-decreases) for seven of the 10 modelled species at the study site.

  11. Shell architecture: a novel proxy for paleotemperature reconstructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Nehrke, Gernot; Wanamaker, Alan D., Jr.; Witbaard, Rob; Schöne, Bernd R.

    2017-04-01

    Mollusk shells are unique high-resolution paleoenvironmental archives. Their geochemical properties, such as oxygen isotope composition (δ18Oshell) and element-to-calcium ratios, are routinely used to estimate past environmental conditions. However, the existing proxies have certain drawbacks that can affect paleoreconstruction robustness. For instance, the estimation of water temperature of brackish and near-shore environments can be biased by the interdependency of δ18Oshell from multiple environmental variables (water temperature and δ18Owater). Likely, the environmental signature can be masked by physiological processes responsible for the incorporation of trace elements into the shell. The present study evaluated the use of shell structural properties as alternative environmental proxies. The sensitivity of shell architecture at µm and nm-scale to the environment was tested. In particular, the relationship between water temperature and microstructure formation was investigated. To enable the detection of potential structural changes, the shells of the marine bivalves Cerastoderma edule and Arctica islandica were analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation and Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM). These techniques allow a quantitative approach to the microstructural analysis. Our results show that water temperature induces a clear response in shell microstructure. A significant alteration in the morphometric characteristics and crystallographic orientation of the structural units was observed. Our pilot study suggests that shell architecture records environmental information and it has potential to be used as novel temperature proxy in near-shore and open ocean habitats.

  12. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na comunidade quilombola Carreiros, Mercês – Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia M. C. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi identificar as espécies medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade quilombola Carreiros, bem como traçar o perfil social das famílias desta comunidade. Para tanto, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas da comunidade, sendo um representante de cada família. Para fins de registro foram coletados dois exemplares de cada espécie medicinal identificada, os quais foram conservados na forma de exsicatas e mantidos no Laboratório de Ecologia do IF Sudeste MG – Campus Rio Pomba. As mulheres aparentemente desempenham importante papel social e estão bastante envolvidas no conhecimento das plantas medicinais. Nota-se, que o conhecimento existente foi adquirido de forma empírica e éevidente entre as famílias a preocupação em repassar os conhecimentos tradicionais sobre o uso das plantas medicinais aos jovens. Dentre as principais espécies utilizadas pela comunidade estão: Citrus Sinensis L., Psidium guajava L., Leonurus sibiricus L., Citrus Limonia (Osbeck, Carica sp., Vernonia condensataBacker, Sechuium edule (Jacq. Sw, Sansevieria trifasciata Prain, Malpighia glabra L., e Saccharum zofficinarum L..

  13. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  14. Long-term epidemiological study of disseminated neoplasia of cockles in Galicia (NW Spain): temporal patterns at individual and population levels, influence of environmental and cockle-based factors and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, S; Iglesias, D; Villalba, A; Carballal, M J

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of disseminated neoplasia (DN) affecting cockles Cerastoderma edule (L.) in Galicia was addressed at individual and population levels. Early stage of DN was characterized by isolated neoplastic cells occurring in branchial vessels or in the connective tissue of gills, mantle, gonad or digestive gland. As disease progressed, the neoplastic cells appeared loose in foci and became widely distributed throughout the organs. In advanced stages, the connective tissue of most organs was infiltrated by neoplastic cells, which displaced normal cells, leading to the loss of the normal tissue/organ architecture. Host defence reaction was occasionally observed. A field survey performed for 7 years, in two cockle beds located in different Galician Rías, showed that DN is a hyperendemic disease usually present all year-round at high prevalence in adult cockles but with annual prevalence minima in spring likely due to the death of heavily affected cockles, concurrently with gonad ripeness-spawning. DN was detected in the cockles ranging from 10 to 39 mm in size; the highest DN prevalence and severity corresponded to the cockles of intermediate size/age (22-29 mm/0.7-1 year old). Sex did not appear to influence DN occurrence. An inhibitory effect of DN on cockle gametogenesis was detected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sõnavara loomulik rikkus haritud keeleoskaja tekstides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilvi Alp

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Keeleoskuse üheks näitajaks on sõnavara rikkus ja selle ulatus. Uurimuses võrdlesime kõrgtaseme eesti keele eksami edukalt sooritanud kohalike venelaste sõnavara eesti keelt emakeelena rääkivate kõrgharidusega mittefiloloogide sõnavaraga kolme tüüpi tekstis: suuline dialoog, suuline esinemine ja kirjalik essee. Sõnavara rikkuse mõõtmiseks kasutasime Uber’i indeksit, sõnavara ulatuse määramiseks võrdlesime L1 ja L2 sõnavara sagedussõnastiku sõnavaraga (10 000 sagedasemat sõna. Sõnavara rikkus erines kahel rühmal oluliselt: L1 oli L2-st rikkam dialoogis ja monoloogis, eriti aga essees. Sõnavara ulatus näitas seevastu sarnast mustrit: elementaarsõnavara e sagedussõnastiku esimese 3000 sõna hulka kuulus nii suulises kui ka kirjalikus keelevormis u 65% L1 sõnavarast ja 70% L2 omast. Harvaesinevaid sõnu oli nii L1 kui ka L2 suulistes ja kirjalikes tekstides u 20%. Võrreldes tulemusi samade L1 ja L2 tekstide formaalsusindeksitega, mis on L1 ja L2 puhul küllaltki sarnased, jõudsime järeldusele, et vaesem sõnavara ei ole vabal rääki- misel ja kirjutamisel takistuseks, juhul kui sõnakasutus on registri- ja žanrikohane.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.12

  16. Conjunto mínimo de parâmetros para avaliação da microbiota do solo e da fixação biológica do nitrogênio pela soja Minimal set of parameters for evaluation soil microbiota and biological nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinei Aparecida de Souza

    2008-01-01

    soil DNA by the denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis method (DGGE detected qualitative changes in soil microbes, related to the homogeneity of the area, as well as to differences among treatments, areas and harvests. Nodule dry weight (NDW was the most suitable parameter for the evaluation of nodulation. Significant correlations were obtained between the SDW and the total N accumulated in shoots (TNS. Similar results were obtained between SDW and total N-ureides (TNU. Monitoring of the symbiosis in soils traditionally cropped with soybean and poor on N may be achieved only by the determination of NDW and SDW.

  17. Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verloove, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions to the flora of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain.- Recent fieldwork in Tenerife, especially in September 2010, yielded several interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, “Asian” Cardamine flexuosa, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla and Solanum abutiloides are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, while Eragrostis barrelieri var. pygmaea, Ficus microcarpa, Ipomoea purpurea, Leucaena leucocephala subsp. glabrata, Sechium edule, Tradescantia zebrina and Turnera ulmifolia are new to the flora of the island of Tenerife. New records of Acacia cyclops, Atriplex suberecta, Heliotropium curassavicum, Paspalum dilatatum, P. notatum, Pluchea ovalis, Pulicaria paludosa, Sclerophylax spinescens and Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum confirm their recent expansion on the island of Tenerife. New records are provided for the recently described Sporobolus copei . Finally, Paspalum vaginatum (hitherto possibly confused with P. distichum and Potentilla indica are confirmed from the island of Tenerife.

    Adiciones para la flora de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España.- Algunos recientes trabajos de campo en Tenerife, especialmente en Septiembre de 2010, trajeron consigo varias nuevas e interesantes adiciones de plantas vasculares no autóctonas. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica, Cardamine flexuosa “Asiática”, Cestrum parqui, Digitaria violascens, Ficus lyrata, Ficus rubiginosa, Hoffmannseggia glauca, Hyparrhenia rufa subsp. altissima, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Merremia tuberosa, Passiflora morifolia, Phytolacca dioica, Schefflera actinophylla y

  18. Pulp fruit added to culture medium for in vitro orchid developmentPolpa de frutos adicionada ao meio de cultivo no crescimento in vitro de orquídea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rostirolla Batista de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As an additive in in vitro culture media, fruits have a great potential for facilitating economical orchid production because of lower technology requirements and the ease of obtaining raw materials to formulate culture media. We studied the in vitro growth of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. grown in a simplified culture medium supplemented with different kinds of fruit pulp. The experimental design was completely randomised, with eight seedlings per replication and ten replications per treatment, for a total of 80 seedlings per treatment. The culture medium was made using 150 g L -1 of pulp (without peel or seed from the following fruits: ripe Santa Cruz tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., dwarf bananas (Musa cavendishii L. of intermediate ripeness, light green chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw, ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. or green coconut (Cocos nucifera L..The treatment control was MS 50 %. The treatments and the control were kept in a growth chamber for seven months before evaluating seedling survival percentage, shoot height, number of leaves, rooting percentage, root number, root length and dry masses of shoot and roots. The highest percentages of seedling survival were obtained using MS 50 %, banana and coconut medium. The seedling survival and rooting percentages illustrate that it is possible to emphasise the culture medium MS 50% and the culture medium supplemented with coconut on the most traditional culture medium with banana or tomato pulp. For the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl., a simplified culture medium supplemented with coconut pulp is the most suitable for use as an alternative to MS 50%. A simplified culture medium supplemented with papaya pulp is not recommended for the in vitro development of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. Os frutos apresentam potencial para serem utilizados na elaboração de meios de cultivo para facilitar a produção de orquídeas em pequenas propriedades, contribuindo para a rentabilidade do cultivo

  19. Is porewater an important route of metals to macrobenthic organisms? Example of an estuarine field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinetr, V.; Baeyens, W. [Free Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Lab. for Analytical Chemistry; Ysebaert, T.; Meire, P. [Inst. of Nature Conservation, Hasselt (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    Porewater is recently hypothesized as a direct and important route of metal exposure to benthic organisms. However, only a few research studies clearly indicate its usefulness in monitoring and assessment of metal pollution. This study aims to answer whether porewater is really a significant route of metals to macrobenthic organisms in a natural sediment environment. Therefore, seven intertidal locations along the salinity gradient of the Schelde estuary (Belgium-The Netherlands) were investigated during a one year period (1993--1994). Metal analysis was performed on monthly samples of dominant macrobenthic species including the bivalves Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Cerastodema edule and Mya arenaria, the amphipod Corophium volutator and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Metal analysis includes manganese, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and lead. The results show temporal and spatial variation of metals in both macrobenthic organisms and porewater. Levels of some metals in porewater, for example cadmium, lead, and copper are higher in winter months than in summer months in coherence with higher levels found in some benthic species. For some benthic species, metal contents were directly related to metal concentrations in porewater. However, no firm conclusion can be drawn that porewater is the only main source of bioavailable metals to benthic organisms and all metal species in porewater are bioavailable. In order to understand metal bioavailability in the sediment environment, a combination of information from a multidisciplinary approach (geochemistry, benthic ecology and toxicology) is needed. In fact, this study fits within the framework of a Triad-approach, conducted on sediments of the Schelde estuary.

  20. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - II. The theoretical effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Bazairi, Hocein; Alfeddy, Nazik; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    Numerous marine populations experience parasite pressure. This is the case of the cockles Cerastoderma edule which are often highly infected by trematode macroparasites. These parasites display a complex life cycle, with a succession of free-living and parasitic stages. Climate, and in particular temperature, is an important modulator of the transmission dynamics of parasites. Consequently, global change is thought to have implications for the epidemiology of infectious diseases. Using Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant parasite of cockles as 2nd intermediate host in Arcachon Bay (France), we used mathematical models of parasite emergence (cercariae) and parasite infection (metacercariae) in cockles as a function of water temperature, in order to study different scenarios of temperature increases. Globally, with a + 0.5 °C to + 6.0 °C simulation, cumulated emergence of cercariae and accumulation of metacercariae tended to decrease or stagnate, respectively. This is the consequence of a trade-off between sooner (spring) and later (autumn) cercariae emergence/infestation on one hand, and a longer inhibition period of cercariae emergence/infestation during the hottest days in summer. Using sea water temperature in Oualidia (Morocco) where mean annual sea temperature is 3 °C higher than in Arcachon Bay, our model predicted infestation all year long (no seasonality). The model gave a correct estimation of the total number of parasites that was expected in cockles. Conversely, observed infestation in Oualidia followed a seasonal pattern like in Arcachon Bay. These results suggest that, if temperature is a strong driver of parasite transmission, extrapolation in the framework of climate change should be performed with caution.

  1. Shellfish Fishery Severely Reduces Condition and Survival of Oystercatchers Despite Creation of Large Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Verhulst

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries and other human activities pose a global threat to the marine environment. Marine protected areas (MPAs are an emerging tool to cope with such threats. In the Dutch Wadden Sea, large MPAs (covering 31% of all intertidal flats have been created to protect shellfish-eating birds and allow recovery of important habitats. Even though shellfish fishing is prohibited in these areas, populations of shellfish-eating birds in the Wadden Sea have declined sharply. The role of shellfish fisheries in these declines is hotly debated, therefore, we investigated the effectiveness of MPAs for protecting oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus populations. Shellfish stocks (cockles, Cerastoderma edule were substantially higher in the MPAs, but surprisingly this has not resulted in a redistribution of wintering oystercatchers. Oystercatchers in unprotected areas had less shellfish in their diet and lower condition (a combined measure of mass and haematological parameters, and their estimated mortality was 43% higher. It is likely, therefore, that shellfish fishing explains at least part of the 40% decline in oystercatcher numbers in recent years. Condition and mortality effects were strongest in males, and the population sex ratio was female biased, in agreement with the fact that males rely more on shellfish. The unprotected areas apparently function as an "ecological trap," because oystercatchers did not respond as anticipated to the artificial spatial heterogeneity in food supply. Consequently, the MPAs are effective on a local scale, but not on a global scale. Similar problems are likely to exist in terrestrial ecosystems, and distribution strategies of target species need to be considered when designing terrestrial and marine protected areas if they are to be effective.

  2. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the

  3. The response of benthic foraminifer, ostracod and mollusc assemblages to environmental conditions: a case study from the Camalti Saltpan (Izmir-Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MERIC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this report is benthic foraminifer populations preserved in the saltpan of Camalti in the Province of Izmir. High salinity in certain habitats of Ammonia tepida Cushman may be the primary cause of the high rate of twins and triplets as well as other morphological abnormalities recorded within this species (50 % as compared to an anomaly rate of 1 % in normal marine waters. Thicker cyst membrane developing in extremely saline environments may encourage twins and other morphological deformities by denying free movement of the offspring. Ecological factors such as heavy metal contamination of ambient waters as well as contamination by other wastes are also not ruled out as leading to such developmental anomalies. Of the 27 collected samples, Number 5 (that is closest to the sea includes the typical marine foraminifers. Nonion depressulum (Walker & Jacob, Ammonia tepida Cushman and Porosononion subgronosum(Egger are the dominant species in other samples. A total of 63 abnormal individuals (8 triplets, 24 twins, and 31 morphological anomalies was found within seven of the 27 samples collected. Ten samples contained freshwater ostracods: Darwinula stevensoni(Brady and Robertson, Leptocythere lacertosa Hirschmann, Cyprideis torasa (Jones, Cyprideis (C. anatolica Bassiouni, and Loxochoncha elliptica Brady. Among these samples (some of which contained only a few species of ostracods - and those limited in number of offspring, one had an unusually high ratio of healthy foraminifers vs those with anomalies. Worthy of note in another sample was a high abundance of molluscs. Among pelecypods, were found Ostrea edulis Linné, Lucinella divaricata (Linné, Pseudocama gryphina Lamarck,Cerastoderma edule (Linné, and Scrobicularia plana da Costa; and among gastropods were identified Hydrobi (Hydrobia acuta(Draparnaud, Rissoa labiosa (Montagu, R. parva (da Costa, R. violacea Desmarest, Pirenella conica (Blainville, Bittium desayesi(Cerulli and

  4. Promoción positiva de vegetales en preescolares costarricenses empleando el Kamishibai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la evaluación de la promoción positiva de los vegetales chayote (Sechium edule y brócoli (Brassica oleracea L, al emplear la estrategia de animación a la lectura conocida como Kamishibai. Durante el año 2012 en San José, se estudió la actitud infantil hacia los vegetales (positiva, negativa o neutra, y el agrado sensorial que manifestaba esta población antes de la exposición al Kamishibai y posterior a la misma. Se trabajó con 213 infantes preescolares entre los 4 y 6 años de edad. Las evaluaciones de actitud se efectuaron por medio de una entrevista, mientras que el agrado se estudió por medio de un panel sensorial. La exposición al Kamishibai consistió en 10 intervenciones en la forma de sesiones de cuentos, donde se dividieron los infantes en cuatro grupos según género del menor y género del personaje del cuento que promocionó el vegetal. Todas las actividades se llevaron a cabo en un espacio de juego acondicionado para tal efecto en el salón de clases. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, puede argumentarse que el uso del Kamishibai como técnica de animación a la lectura incrementó significativamente la opinión positiva y el agrado inicial hacia los vegetales en los menores (p<0,05, indiferentemente de su género y del género de las figuras que efectuaron la promoción.

  5. Experiments on selection of feeding site and food size in oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, of different social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, M. F.; Swennen, C.; De Bruijn, L. L. M.

    Oystercatchers, Haematopus ostralegus, were tested for size selection in two prey species, cockles ( Cerastoderma edule) and mussels ( Mytilus edulis), under semi-natural, but strictly experimental, conditions that allowed recovery of all shells of prey items eaten. Within any patch of cockles offered, size was not an important selection criterion for the birds. The mean length of cockles consumed always differed less than 1 mm (the measuring accuracy) from the mean length of the cockles presented. When given a choice between patches of different prey quality, the birds tended to select patches according to their relative dominance status, with the most dominant bird feeding mainly in the patch where the prey items had the largest flesh contents. Less dominant birds were forced out of the preferred patch and obtained most of theif food from a patch of presumedly lower quality. One of these birds adapted its prey-handling method and its bill shape for efficient feeding in such a low quality pathc, and it continued feeding in that patch, even after the dominant conspecifics had been removed. In experiments with mussels as prey, the test bird did not select primarily on the basis of size but tended to eat those mussels that were easiest to open. It is concluded that size selection in oystercatchers that eat either cockles or mussels ends with the choice of a certain foraging patch. Within a patch of cockles of one year-class, which is the field condition for the majority of oystercatchers in the Wadden Sea, no selection for size occurs, because this would take too much extra searching time to be profitable.

  6. STUDI KOMUNITAS RUMPUT LAUT DI PANTAI SANUR DAN PANTAI SAWANGAN NUSA DUA BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALIH INDRAWATI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this research are to analyze structure community population, relative population, variety domination, heterogeneous, and equality of seaweed species in Sanur and Sawangan Beach Nusa Dua.The result of the study shows that in Sanur and Sawangan Beach observed 13 related seaweed species were observed, which are: Ulva reticulata, Chaetomorpha crassa, Bornetella nitida, Halimeda macroloba, Padina australis, Sargassum binderi, Hypnea asperi, Dictyopteris sp, Gracilaria coronapifolia, Gracilaria gracilis, Acanthopora spicifera, Euchema edule, Euchema denticulatum Meanwhile, , Caulerpa racemosa, Boergesiana forbessii, Sargassum crassifolium, Gelidium sp, Turbinaria ornata, Gracilaria foliifera only observed in Sanur Beach and species of Actinotrichia fragilis, Ulva lactuca, Euchema serra, Turbinaria conoides observed in Sawangan Beach, Nusa Dua.Heterogeneous value index (H in Sanur Beach is 0.75 – 1.87 categorized as medium category, except in station five characterized as low category. Domination index (C is 0.10 – 0.28, where there is no dominated species. Equality index value (E is 0.32 – 0.85 in unstable condition, except in station one is stable. In Sawangan Beach, heterogeneous indexes is 1.04 – 1.54, that spread in all stations by medium category. Domination index is 0.14 – 0.30, indicated that there is no dominant species. Equality index is 0.47 – 0.74, by stabile condition in station one, while others station is unstable. Highest relatif population in Sanur Beach is 37.63% in station three (Gracilaria foliifera. In Sawangan Nusa Dua Beach is Hypnea asperi (48.65%.Substrate analysis show that Sanur and Sawangan Beach has mud sand types. Water temperature in both research locations approximately is 28.90 C – 30.40 C, pH 7.00 – 7.80 and dissolved oxygen around 6.8mg/1-7.4mg/l.

  7. Conditional Responses of Benthic Communities to Interference from an Intertidal Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Colen

    Full Text Available Habitat-modifying organisms that impact other organisms and local functioning are important in determining ecosystem resilience. However, it is often unclear how the outcome of interactions performed by key species varies depending on the spatial and temporal disturbance context which makes the prediction of disturbance-driven regime shifts difficult. We investigated the strength and generality of effects of the filter feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule on its ambient intertidal benthic physical and biological environment. By comparing the magnitude of the effect of experimental cockle removal between a non-cohesive and a sheltered cohesive sediment in two different periods of the year, we show that the outcome of cockle interference effects relates to differences in physical disturbance, and to temporal changes in suspended sediment load and ontogenetic changes in organism traits. Interference effects were only present in the cohesive sediments, though the effects varied seasonally. Cockle presence decreased only the density of surface-dwelling species suggesting that interference effects were particularly mediated by bioturbation of the surface sediments. Furthermore, density reductions in the presence of cockles were most pronounced during the season when larvae and juveniles were present, suggesting that these life history stages are most vulnerable to interference competition. We further illustrate that cockles may enhance benthic microalgal biomass, most likely through the reduction of surface-dwelling grazing species, especially in periods with high sediment load and supposedly also high bioturbation rates. Our results emphasize that the physical disturbance of the sediment may obliterate biotic interactions, and that temporal changes in environmental stressors, such as suspended sediments, may affect the outcome of key species interference effects at the local scale. Consequently, natural processes and anthropogenic activities that change

  8. Estrategia estatal de conservación de las cícadas (Zamiaceae: una propuesta para el estado de Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Vite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available México es el segundo país con mayor diversidad de cícadas en el mundo. En él, la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO es una de las regiones biogeográficas con mayor riqueza de estas plantas. El objetivo de este estudio fue plantear la estrategia de conservación de cícadas para el estado de Hidalgo, ubicado en la parte sur de la SMO; para esto se revisó la literatura científica, se consultaron los principales herbarios de México y se hicieron recorridos de campo. Los resultados muestran que Hidalgo alberga tres géneros y ocho especies: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii, Z. vazquezii, posicionándose en el cuarto lugar nacional en riqueza de cícadas. Las especies se distribuyen en 26 municipios. Se encontró que la diversidad de cícadas es mayor a la de otras entidades con mayor superficie e incluso a la de algunos países de Centroamérica. La estrategia estatal de conservación de cícadas aquí desarrollada propone conservar cerca de 11 325ha, distribuidas en siete municipios, bajo un esquema mixto de conservación. Esta propuesta será útil para que las instancias gubernamentales establezcan nuevas ANP’s en la región biogeográfica de la SMO.

  9. Promoción positiva de vegetales en preescolares costarricenses empleando el Kamishibai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la evaluación de la promoción positiva de los vegetales chayote (Sechium edule y brócoli (Brassica oleracea L, al emplear la estrategia de animación a la lectura conocida como Kamishibai. Durante el año 2012 en San José, se estudió la actitud infantil hacia los vegetales (positiva, negativa o neutra, y el agrado sensorial que sentía esta población antes de la exposición al Kamishibai y, posterior a la misma; se trabajó conn 213 infantes preescolares entre los 4 y 6 años de edad. Las evaluaciones de actitud se efectuaron por medio de una entrevista, mientras que el agrado se estudió por medio de un panel sensorial. La exposición al Kamishibai consistió en 10 intervenciones en la forma de sesiones de cuentos, donde se dividieron los infantes en cuatro grupos según género del menor y género del personaje del cuento que promocionó el vegetal. Todas las actividades se llevaron a cabo en un espacio de juego acondicionado para tal efecto en el salón de clases. A partir de los resultados obtenidos, puede argumentarse que el uso de la técnica del Kamishibai como técnica de animación a la lectura incrementó significativamente la opinión positiva y el agrado inicial hacia los vegetales en estas personas menores (p<0,05, indiferentemente de su género y del género de las figuras que efectuaron la promoción.

  10. Vitamin C content and potential of makroalga in the Coastal Region of Cigebang, Cianjur, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIA SETIAWATI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Setiawati T, Nurzaman M, Mutaqin AZ, Budiono R, Abdiwijaya A. 2017. Vitamin C content and potential of makroalga in the Coastal Region of Cigebang, Cianjur, West Java. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 39-44. This research aims to know the content of vitamin C macroalgae and its potential for the community in coastal area Cigebang Cianjur, West Java province. The methods used in the study is a quantitative descriptive approach. Techniques of sampling survey method using macroalgae, vitamin C test with the method iodometry, and to know the potential of macroalgae according to the community is carried out by the methods of questionnaire. The results showed that there is a difference of vitamin C on seven types of macroalgae are found namely Boergesenia forbesii 0.0167 mg/mL, Codium edule 0.0191 mg/mL, Padina sanctae-crucis 0.0686 mg/mL, Chaetomorpha antennina 0.0129 mg/mL, Ulva lactuca 0.0191 mg/mL, Cladophoropsis sundanensis 0.0211 mg/mL, and Sargassum sp. 0.0959 mg/mL. of the highest content of vitamin C contained in Sargassum sp. and the lowest at Chaetomorpha antennina. Based on the knowledge of local people, macroalgae are potentially economically and mostly sold to support the life of the community. Some people offer it as foodstuffs such as dodol, urab, stir fry, and even can be consumed directly. Other potential communities know about the macroalgae, i.e. as food ingredients gelatin, cosmetic ingredients, such as batik shirt-making materials, and medicines.

  11. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pi-Jen; Hsin, Min-Chieh; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Fan, Tung-Yung; Meng, Pei-Jie; Lu, Chung-Cheng; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2015-01-01

    Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  12. Pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Phyllachoraceae) from the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova, M X Vila; Borges, L R; de Sousa, A C B; Brasileiro, B T R V; Lima, E A L A; da Costa, A F; de Oliveira, N T

    2011-02-22

    Onion anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the State of Pernambuco. We examined the pathogenicity of 15 C. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using RAPDs and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the rDNA region. Ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (Sechium edule), guava (Psidium guajava), pomegranate (Punica granatum), water from the Capibaribe River, maracock (Passiflora sp), coconut (Cocus nucifera), surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora), and marine soil; five isolates came from onions collected from four different regions of the State of Pernambuco and one region of the State of Amazonas. Pathogenicity tests were carried out using onion leaves and bulbs. All strains were capable of causing disease in leaves, causing a variable degree of lesions on the leaves; four strains caused the most severe damage. In the onion bulb tests, only three of the above strains caused lesions. Seven primers of arbitrary sequences were used in the RAPD analysis, generating polymorphic bands that allowed the separation of the strains into three distinct groups. The amplification products generated with the primers ITS1 and ITS4 also showed polymorphism when digested with three restriction enzymes, DraI, HaeIII and MspI. Only the latter two demonstrated genetic variations among the strains. These two types of molecular markers were able to differentiate the strain from the State of Amazonas from those of the State of Pernambuco. However, there was no relationship between groups of strains, based on molecular markers, and degree of pathogenicity for onion leaves and bulbs.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of trophic relationships among co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture dominated ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Sébastien; Marín Leal, Julio César; Dubois, Stanislas; Orvain, Francis; Blin, Jean-Louis; Bataillé, Marie-Paule; Ourry, Alain; Galois, Robert

    2009-04-01

    The temporal dynamics of carbon and nitrogen isotope values of co-occurring suspension-feeders in two shellfish culture areas (Normandy, France) were investigated over two years to evaluate the inter-specific trophic partitioning and relative contributions of organic matter sources to benthic suspension-feeders' diet. Oysters ( Crassostrea gigas), mussels ( Mytilus edulis), cockles ( Cerastoderma edule), slipper limpets ( Crepidula fornicata), and sand-mason worms ( Lanice conchilega) were sampled in an estuarine environment (Baie des Veys, east Cotentin, Normandy), while oysters, mussels, slipper limpets, and honeycomb worms ( Sabellaria alveolata) were sampled in an open-marine environment (Lingreville-sur-mer, west Cotentin, Normandy). Whatever the sampling period, the bivalves, C. gigas and M. edulis, exhibited the lowest values of δ13C and δ15N compared with the other species. Feeding relationships among suspension-feeders in both C. gigas culture areas exhibited temporal variations due to the marine/estuarine influence and seasonal changes in food supply. In the open-marine ecosystem, the contribution of phytoplankton remained the most important for all species except S. alveolata, while in the estuarine ecosystem, microphytobenthos and/or macroalgae detritus contributed a larger extent to the organisms' diets. During phytoplankton bloom periods (e.g. May and July) suspension-feeders, except for S. alveolata, relied strongly on phytoplankton; however, the majority of suspension-feeders exhibited different opportunistic behaviour in winter when phytoplankton biomass might be a limiting factor. We hypothesized that differences in particle capture and selection by the suspension-feeders influenced their isotopic values. Feeding ecology of suspension-feeders partly explained why competition was limited and why ecosystems can often support unexpectedly large numbers of suspension-feeders. We also showed that understanding ecosystem characteristics of the organic

  14. Nutrient enrichment coupled with sedimentation favors sea anemones over corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Jen Liu

    Full Text Available Fine sediments, which account for the majority of total fluvial sediment flux, have been suggested to degrade coral reefs on a global scale. Furthermore, sediment impacts can be exacerbated by extreme rainfall events associated with global climate change and anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. We report the findings from a series of mesocosm experiments exploring the effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment on the interactions between the hard coral Acropora muricata, the sea anemone Mesactinia ganesis, and the green macroalga Codium edule. Mesocosms were manipulated to simulate either unimpacted reefs or reefs exposed to elevated levels of fine sediments for 10 or 14 days to simulate the effects of heavy rainfall. The first and second experiments were aimed to examine the effects of inorganic and organic sediments, respectively. The third experiment was designed to examine the interactive effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated sediment loads. Neither inorganic nor organic sediment loadings significantly affected the physiological performance of the coral, but, importantly, did reduce its ability to compete with other organisms. Photosynthetic efficiencies of both the green macroalga and the sea anemone increased in response to both sediment loadings when they were simultaneously exposed to nutrient enrichment. While organic sediment loading increased the nitrogen content of the green macroalga in the first experiment, inorganic sediment loading increased its phosphorus content in the second experiment. The coral mortality due to sea anemones attack was significantly greater upon exposure to enriched levels of organic sediments and nutrients. Our findings suggest that the combined effects of short-term sedimentation and nutrient enrichment could cause replacement of corals by sea anemones on certain coral reefs.

  15. [State strategy for Cycad (Zamiaceae) conservation: a proposal for the State of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Aurelia; Pulido, María T; Flores-Vázquez, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Mexico has the second largest cycad diversity in the world, and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) is one of the richest biogeographic regions for these plants. Despite there is a general Cycad National Program in the country, there are no state-level cycad conservation strategies or programs. Thus the aim of this study was to propose a cycad conservation strategy for the state of Hidalgo, which is located in the Southern part of the SMO. For this, a cycad species inventory was made in the state, for which three methods were used: review of published literature; consultation in the main Mexican herbaria to verify botanical specimens; and exhaustive field research to compare findings with previously reported species and to recognize new records at the county and state level. The proposed research work strategy combined the following elements: prioritize the county and local areas with greatest cycad species richness; prioritize the species least resistant to environmental change and/or having restricted geographic distribution; and to consider the main uses of these plants by local residents. The results showed that Hidalgo has three genera and eight species ofcycads: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii and Z. vazquezii, all of which are considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This study added two new species records for Hidalgo and 21 at the county level. The species are distributed in 26 counties, of which Chapulhuacán and Pisaflores are notable for their high species richness. Hidalgo has the fourth-greatest cycad species richness among Mexican states, although its area accounts for only 1.07% of the country. The state's diversity is greater than in other states with larger area, and even than in some other entire countries in Mesoamerica. The presented state cycad conservation strategy proposes that a total of some 11,325 ha to be conserved in nine zones

  16. Estudo da concordância das citações de uso e importância das espécies e famílias utilizadas como medicinais pela comunidade do bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Secretti Vendruscolo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para quantificar dados etnobotânicos estão sendo usadas como complementares aos levantamentos sobre a utilização de plantas por populações. Neste trabalho são utilizadas técnicas para avaliar a concordância das citações de uso e a importância das espécies e famílias para as 51 pessoas entrevistadas no bairro Ponta Grossa, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. Para tal, foram utilizados os cálculos de Valor de Uso (UV e a porcentagem corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc para as 142 espécies mencionadas no levantamento. As espécies Aloe arborescens Mill., Citrus × aurantium L., Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Eugenia uniflora L., Cunila microcephala Benth., Citrus limon (L. Osveck, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Psidium guajava L., Artemisia absinthium L., Ocimum basilicum L., Plantago tomentosa Lam., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Persea americana Mill., Aloysia citrodora Palau, Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl., Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq. J.F. Macbr., Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nyman ex A.W. Hill, Ocimum selloi Benth. e Tanacetum vulgare L., nesta ordem de Valor de Uso, foram consideradas como as mais importantes para a população estudada. As famílias mais importantes foram Asphodelaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Rutaceae e Lythraceae. Para o cálculo da porcentagem a corrigida de Concordância quanto aos Usos Principais (CUPc foram consideradas como espécies principais as que apresentaram valores acima de 24%: Eugenia uniflora, Achyrocline satureioides, Psidium guajava, Cunila microcephala, Plectranthus barbatus, Citrus × aurantium, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Punica granatum L., Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw., Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Pruski, Aloysia citrodora, Foeniculum vulgare, Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Artemisia absinthium, Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br., Mikania laevigata Sch. Bip ex Baker, Aloe arborescens e Petroselinum

  17. Cockle infection by Himasthla quissetensis - I. From cercariae emergence to metacercariae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaudouin, Xavier; Blanchet, Hugues; Desclaux-Marchand, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Bachelet, Guy

    2016-07-01

    The European cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an exploited bivalve along the North-Eastern Atlantic semi-sheltered ecosystems. Its population dynamics are driven by numerous environmental factors, including parasitism, particularly by trematodes. The complex life cycle of trematodes includes a free living stage (cercaria) between the first (a mollusk) and the second (an invertebrate or a vertebrate) intermediate hosts. Taking the example of Himasthla quissetensis, a dominant trematode in Arcachon Bay (France) utilizing Nassarius reticulatus as first intermediate host and the cockle as second intermediate host, we investigated the correlation between cockle infection and cercariae emergence by N. reticulatus, including the role of water temperature and light. Experimental and field data provided evidence that cercariae emergence from N. reticulatus took place during the night and for water temperature comprised between 15 °C and 22 °C (optimum at 20 °C). The lifespan of cercariae did not exceed 48 h and 50% of them were no more infectious after 7 h. A model was designed (emergence = f(water temperature)) in order to calculate an average monthly cercarial emergence rate according to water temperature that was daily recorded for 5 years (1998-2002). Concomitantly, non-infected cockles were transplanted each of these years in order to assess the infection rate by H. quissetensis. Infection occurred strictly for the same water temperatures (and dates) as those expected for cercariae emergence. Within each year, there was often (but not always) a good correlation between the predicted number of emerging cercariae and the observed number of cercariae transformed into metacercariae in cockles. However, the among-years variability of cockle infection (× 4.4 range) was not explained by the predicted annual number of emerging cercariae. This study highlights the importance of water temperature and light in stimulating cercariae emergence which is closely related to the

  18. The human alimentary tract transfer and body retention of environmental polonium-210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G J; Rumney, H S [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a 4 year study to investigate the human alimentary tract transfer factor (f{sub A} value) and body retention of {sup 210}Po in shellfish. In the first 3 years, mussels (Mytilus edulis L.), cockles (Cerastoderma edule L.) and brown meat from crab (Cancer pagurus L.) were successively studied. In each year five volunteers (from a pool of seven) ate a suitable portion of the shellfish and provided 24 h samples of excreta usually for 3 days before and for at least 7 days during and after eating. Subsamples of shellfish were analysed to determine the intakes of {sup 210}Po. Faeces were analysed and the data used to assess apparent f{sub A} values. Urine samples were analysed in the mussel and crab studies to provide urinary excretion parameters. Pb-210 was also analysed during the mussel study; the levels were low, leading to large uncertainties, but confirming the negligible effect of radioactive decay to its granddaughter {sup 210}Po in the main study. In the fourth year, larger samples of brown crab meat were eaten by five volunteers and faecal samples were taken at suitable times over periods of up to 43 days to study body retention of {sup 210}Po. The first {approx}7 days provided additional data on f{sub A} values. Pooled results for the apparent f{sub A} for the whole study lay in the range 0.15-0.65 with a mean of 0.46; corrections for endogenous excretion suggest a true f{sub A} value of {approx}0.51, supporting the value of 0.5 currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The retention data suggest a biological half-time of about 40 days, in broad consistency with the 50 days currently used by the ICRP. Thus there is no strong evidence from this study suggesting a change in dose coefficient for {sup 210}Po. Full experimental data are provided to allow independent further interpretation.

  19. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zwaan, Albertus; Babarro, Jose M F; Monari, Marta; Cattani, Otello

    2002-03-01

    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and molybdate (specific inhibitor of the process of sulfate reduction). Survival in (near) anoxic seawater of Chamelea was studied in a static system by comparing untreated seawater with autoclaved seawater and untreated clams with clams incubated in well-aerated seawater, containing the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, prior to the anoxic survival test. With untreated clams and natural seawater (median mortality time 2.4 days) a decrease in pH and exponential accumulation of sulfide and ammonium was observed in the anoxic medium, indicating excessive growth of (sulfate reducing) bacteria. In sterilized seawater LT50 (2.1 days) was not significantly different and again considerable amounts of ammonium and sulfide accumulated. However, pre-treatment of clams with chloramphenicol resulted in an increase of LT50 (11.0 days) by approximately fivefold. Accumulation of ammonium and sulfide was retarded, but was finally even stronger than in the medium containing untreated clams. Median mortality times were 2.5 and 2.4 days for Chamelea and 2.7 and 2.9 days for Cerastoderma for static and flow-through incubations, respectively. Addition of chloramphenicol increased strongly survival time in both systems with corresponding values of 11.0 and 16.3 days for Chamelea, and 6.4 and 6.5 days for Cerastoderma. LT50 of Scapharca in anoxic seawater was 14.4 days. Chloramphenicol and penicillin increased median survival time to 28.5 and 28.7 days, respectively, whereas polymyxin displayed no effect (LT50=13.6 days). Molybdate added to artificial sulfate free seawater blocked biotic sulfide formation, but did not improve survival time (LT50=13.7 days). Overall the results indicate

  20. Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of fifteen halogenated flame retardants in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2013-07-26

    in different kind of freeze-dried mollusks: mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and clam (R. philippinarum). Raft cultured mussels showed the highest concentrations of HFRs (up to 0.8ngg(-1) wet weight of BDE-209). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amino acid racemization analysis (AAR) as a successful tool for dating Holocene coastal sediments: Stratigraphy of a barrier island spit (Southern Sylt/North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Tanja; Ziehe, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Dating of Holocene sediments in shallow coastal areas of the German North Sea by conventional techniques is commonly problematic. In particular the marine reservoir effect of radiocarbon means that radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to sediments younger than about 400 years. Amino acid racemization dating (AAR) is a viable alternative for dating young sediments. The method is based on the determination of ratios of D and L amino acid enantiomers in organic matrices of biogenic carbonates. In this study we use AAR as a tool for dating Holocene barrier islands sediments. Based on an AAR derived chronological framework we develop a model of barrier spit accretion which describes the interaction between extreme events, fair weather coastal processes and sedimentary development that constrains the major episodes of barrier island evolution. The stratigraphy was defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys complemented by sedimentological coring data. The stratigraphy is then conceptualised in a AAR chronostratigraphic framework to define a chronological order and allow the development of a stratigraphic model of the evolution of Southern Sylt. The AAR data provide high temporal resolution and have been used for dating stages of barrier spit accretion. The time lines are marked as storm surge generated erosion unconformities in the stratigraphic profile. Individual shells and shell fragments of Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis and Scrobicularia plana have been accumulated by short-term storm events as shell layers associated with the erosion unconformities and have been dated by AAR. Time lines reveal that the barrier spit accretion occurred episodically, and is dependant on the provided rate of sand delivery. The general trend is that sequences young to the. South. The AAR derived time lines have been verified and correlated by historic maps and sea charts. It is apparent that spit enlargement at this site increased significantly during the

  2. Impact of trematode parasitism on the fauna of a North Sea tidal flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, G.

    1984-03-01

    disturbances. A single metacercaria is sufficient to kill a larval fish. Mytilus edulis and Cardium (Cerastoderma) edule are 100% infested with metacercariae of H. elongata. Heavy infestation impairs the byssus-thread production in mussels and affects the burrowing ability of cockles. Longevity and resistance to environmental — particularly thermal — stress are reduced in bivalves infested with H. elongata and R. roscovita. There is evidence that, in the study area, population size and age composition of the molluscs discussed are (indirectly) controlled by trematode parasites employing sea birds as final hosts, rather than directly by the predatory activities of these birds.

  3. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO NAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E MICROBIOLÓGICAS DA POLPA DE MARACUJÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA PADOVANE AMARO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Frutos de maracujá amarelo (Passjflora edulls f. flavicarpa Deg., material IAC-275, foram processados para a obtenção da polpa. A polpa obtida foi pasteurizada durante 30 segundos empregando três faixas de temperatura (69 a 72ºC, 73 a 76ºC e 77 a 82ºC. Foi também obtida polpa fresca (sem pasteurizar. Polpas fresca e pasteurizadas foram comparadas utilizando avaliações físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 nos valores de acidez total, no pH e no ratio das polpas fresca e pasteurizada. A polpa fresca apresentou menor conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais (p < 0,05 em relação à polpa pasteurizada e conteúdo de vitamina C praticamente similar, embora tenha havido diferença significativa (p < 0,05 entre a polpa pasteurizada na faixa de temperatura de 69 a 72ºC e as demais. As perdas de vitamina C decorrentes do processamento foram de 5%,4% e 0,6%, quando as faixas de temperatura de 69 a 72°C, 73 a 76°C e 77 a 82°C foram, respectivamente, empregadas. Os resultados da análise microbiológica mostraram que as polpas pasteurizadas apresentaram contagem de bolores e leveduras, de mesófilos aeróbios e de psicrófilos aeróbios significativamente (p < 0,05 menor quando comparadas à polpa fresca, indicando que o tratamento térmico empregado foi adequado.

  4. Effects of body-size and season on digestive organ size and the energy balance of cockles fed with a constant diet of phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola, I; Larretxea, X; Navarro, E; Iglesias, J I P; Urrutia, M B

    2008-05-01

    Seasonal variation in size-dependence of seawater clearance rate, absorption efficiency, oxygen consumption, gill area, length of the crystalline style and dry weight of digestive gland was analyzed in cockles Cerastoderma edule from the Mundaka Estuary, Spain. Experimental determinations were performed monthly (from July 1998 to November 1999) in cockles being fed with Tetraselmis suecica (organic content: 87.84 +/- 1.95%) at a concentration of 3 mm(3)/l for 3 days. Analysis of covariance reveals no seasonal differences in both size-dependence of seawater clearance rate and oxygen consumption, which were found to scale to dry body weight with mass-exponents of 0.56 and 0.62, respectively. No significant correlation was found between absorption efficiency and body weight. Mass-exponents for gill area, dry weight of the digestive gland and length of the crystalline style remained constant among seasons showing values of 0.62, 0.34 and 0.82, respectively. Seasonal trends for every physiological determination were calculated for a standard size (200 mg) cockle: standardized clearance rates and oxygen consumptions followed a similar trend with minimum values in winter ( approximately 0.5 l/h and approximately 100 microl O2/h, respectively) and maximum values during spring-summer ( approximately 1.7 l/h and approximately 250 microl O2/h, respectively), whereas absorption efficiency and food throughput time showed both the opposite pattern with highest values corresponding to winter months ( approximately 50-60% and approximately 5-6 h, respectively), and lowest ( approximately 30% and approximately 3-4 h, respectively) to summer-autumn. Scope for growth exhibited minimum values in winter followed by a rapid increase along the winter-spring transition, maximum values being attained in spring (May) and summer (July). Exponential decline of seasonal values of absorption efficiency associated to rising ingestion rates of organic matter presented an asymptotic minimum at 0

  5. New results on Late Quaternary stratigraphy of Manych depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanov, Redzhep; Yanina, Tamara; Borisova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Manych-strait connected Black sea and Caspian Sea in Pleistocene is a great event in the history of the Ponto-Caspian region. The strait located within such geological structure as Manych Depression which is extended sublatitudinally from the west coast of Nothern Caspian to the north-west of the Azov sea. The existence of the Manych-strait is essentially for the stratigraphy and paleogeography. There were several stages when marine waters spilled over from Black sea to Caspian and alternatively. Due to the alternation of sedimentary layers it is possible to correlate pleistocene deposits and paleogeographic events. Nowadays there are a lot of materials and data about the history of Manych-strait. In the profile are distinguished interbedding marine deposits with lacustrine and alluvial formations and subaerial deposit on top. The main question is the paleogeographical reconstruction. We try to solve this problem using our new data and elaborating available information. In February 2016 complex geomorphologic and paleogeographic works in central part of depression on northern coast of Manych-Gudilo lake were carried out. We performed cable drilling of 2 cores (depth of each 45 m) and hand hammer drilling (8 boreholes, max. depth 12 m) of covering Holocene sediments on different geomorphological levels of depression. From the core (3 cm diameter) continuous sampling was made for spore-pollen, lithological and geochemical analyzes. The stratigraphic subdivision of the core is based on facial-lithology and macro-malakofaunistic analisys. In the lower part of both cores there is barren formation of interbedding layers of sand and clays. The bottom line is precise, below lays a marine Carangat formation (MIS-5) of sand and clay with well-preserved Black Sea marine mollusk shells (Cardium edule, Paphia senescens, Ostrea edulis, Loripes lacteus, Chione gallina, Chlamys glabra). Higher in the core there is a loam-clay layer including both Black Sea (euryhaline species

  6. Aplicación de Tecnología de Barreras para la Conservación de Mezclas de Vegetales Mínimamente Procesados / Application of Barrier Technology for the Conservation of Minimally Processed Vegetables Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los vegetales son componentes esenciales de la dietahumana y su procesamiento trae como consecuencia el rápido deterioro ocasionado por el aumento de las reacciones metabólicas, esto hace necesario que se utilicen tecnologías emergentes de conservación. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la tecnología de barreras (desinfección, tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible, atmósfera modificada y refrigeración sobre la vida útil de una mezcla de vegetales mínimamente procesados compuesta por brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., chayote (Sechium edule, apio (Apium graveolens y zanahoria (Daucus carota. Las barreras fueron aplicadas a las hortalizas para luego ser envasadas en dos tipos de bandejas (empaque en atmósfera modificada y empaque en bandeja sello plus. Los vegetales se almacenaron durante 12 días en refrigeración (4 °C y 95% HR, se llevaron a cabo análisis microbiológicos, físicoquímicos y sensoriales, y un estudio de vida útil. Los resultados mostraron que el proceso de desinfección con NaClO 100 ppm y el tratamiento térmico de 60 °C durante 2 min, tuvieron efecto en la reducción de la población microbiana para el día cero de evaluación. La calidad general se conservó para los 12 días dealmacenamiento, en la zanahoria, chayote, coliflor y apio. Laevaluación fisicoquímica presentó diferencias estadísticamente significativas de los parámetros evaluados con respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento. El estudio de vida útil arrojó tiempos de 7 y 5 días para la mezcla de vegetales empacada en bandeja sello plus en atmósfera modificada, respectivamente. La combinación debarreras se muestra como alternativa viable en la conservación de mezclas de vegetales mínimamente procesados. /  Vegetables are essential components of the human diet. However, rapid deterioration of vegetables occurs after

  7. Vida útil de produto minimamente processado composto por abóbora, cenoura, chuchu e mandioquinha-salsa Shelf life of fresh-cut composed of vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alvarenga Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tempo de armazenamento sobre a qualidade de produto minimamente processado à base de hortaliças: abóbora (Cucurbita moschata Duch, cenoura (Daucus carota L., chuchu (Sechium edule Swartz e mandioquinha-salsa (Arracacia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. As hortaliças foram sanificadas em hipoclorito de sódio 200 mg.L-1, por 5 minutos, descascadas, manualmente, e cortadas utilizando-se processador. O produto processado foi sanificado em hipoclorito de sódio 50 mg.L-1, por 3 minutos, e apenas as mandioquinhas-salsa foram imersas em solução de ácido ascórbico 1%, por 2 minutos. As embalagens flexíveis de polietileno de baixa densidade linear (25 x 20 cm, contendo 400 g do "mix", foram armazenadas a 5ºC e 99% UR, por 8 dias. A firmeza e o valor L* das hortaliças estudadas não alteraram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os valores a* e b* da abóbora não oscilaram durante o armazenamento. O valor a* da mandioquinha-salsa e do chuchu aumentou e o da cenoura diminuiu com o armazenamento, enquanto o valor b* da cenoura, do chuchu e da mandioquinha-salsa reduziu. O "mix" apresentou taxa de perda de massa muito baixa e ascensão respiratória até o oitavo dia. A atmosfera de equilíbrio, em torno de 2,93% de O2 e 7,06% de CO2, foi alcançada no interior da embalagem, contendo o "mix", a partir do segundo dia. Não foi detectada a presença de coliformes a 45ºC e Salmonella sp. em nenhuma amostra. Os coliformes a 35ºC aumentaram durante o armazenamento. Conclui-se que, o produto minimamente processado, à base de hortaliças mantém a sua qualidade por 8 dias a 5ºC.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage time on the quality of fresh-cut product made up of four vegetables: pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch, carrot (Daucus carota L., chayote (Sechium edule Swartz, and peruvian carrot (Arracaia xanthorrhiza Bancroft. The vegetables were sanitized in sodium hypochlorite solution (200 mg.L-1 for 5

  8. Motor abilities, movement skills and their relationship before and after eight weeks of martial arts training in people with intellectual disability [Motorické schopnosti, pohybové dovednosti a vztah mezi nimi u osob s mentálním postižením před osmitýdenním kurzem bojových umění a po jeho ukončení

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Karpljuk

    2012-06-01

    judokas had been noted. The effects of the training program should be verified in future studies. It is worth reiterating that by improving motor abilities and expanding the boundaries of skills, people with intellectual disability enhance their quality of life. Attention in the future and thus contributes to a higher quality of intellectually disabled people’s engagement in sport as well as in life.[VÝCHODISKA: Je známo, že část populace osob s mentálním postižením má sklon k obezitě a horšímu zdravotnímu stavu. Proto by v jejich životech měl hrát významnou roli sport. Navrhnout vědecky a profesionálně účinné tréninkové programy pro sportovní vyžití osob s mentálním postižením, sestávající z nezbytné metodiky a didaktických pokynů, je sice těžký úkol, ale stává se nezbytností pro blízkou budoucnost. CÍLE: Cílem studie je stanovit vzájemný vztah mezi vy branými motorickými schopnostmi a pohybovými dovednostmi v rámci bojových umění, jakož i to, jak a do jaké míry osoby s mentálním postižením (MP, které pravidelně trénují judo, mohou po osmitýdenním tréninkovém kurzu ve svých dovednostech v oblasti bojových umění (judo, karate, box a šerm dosáhnout zlepšení. Zajímalo nás také, zda došlo k jakýmkoli změnám ve vybraných motorických dovednostech. METODIKA: Měření motorických schopností a dovedností v oblasti vybraných bojových umění bylo provedeno dvakrát – v březnu 2008, týden před začátkem kurzu, a v květnu 2008, týden po jeho ukončení. Tréninkový kurz trval dva měsíce v rozsahu dvou lekcí týdně. Zkoumaný vzorek sestával z 5 žen a 18 mužů ve věku mezi 16 a 36 lety s mírným až středně těžkým mentálním postižením. Studie byla provedena pomocí 8 testů pro hodnocení motorických schopností a 9 testů pro hodnocení dovedností v oblasti bojových umění. VÝSLEDKY: Výsledky t-testu pro závislé vzorky prokázaly statisticky v

  9. Aplicación de tratamiento térmico, recubrimiento comestible y baño químico como tratamientos poscosecha para la conservación de hortalizas mínimamente procesadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Escobar Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo creciente ha estimulado el desarrollo de los vegetales cuarta gama o mínimamente procesados. Actualmente, se promueve el uso de tecnologías aplicadas a estos productos que les brinden mayor duración y garanticen la reducción de pérdidas poscosecha. En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de tres de estas tecnologías poscosecha sobre la intensidad de la respiración y la calidad sensorial general de las hortalizas mínimamente procesadas: brócoli (Brassica oleracea var. Itálica, coliflor (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L., apio (Apium graveolens, zanahoria (Daucus carota y chayote (Sechium edule. Para el recubrimiento comestible se utilizó pectina de bajo metoxilo (2%, cera carnauba (1%, glicerol (1.5% y ácido ascórbico (0.05%. El tratamiento térmico se hizo a 60 °C durante 2 min, con adición de ácido ascórbico (0.25%, ácido cítrico (0.5% y cloruro de calcio (0.025%. El baño químico se realizó con una solución de ácido cítrico (0.5%, ácido ascórbico (0.05% y cloruro de calcio (0.05%. La tasa de producción de CO2 se midió por el método estático, monitoreando la composición de los gases del espacio de cabeza durante 24 h a 8 °C y humedad relativa de 90%. La evaluación sensorial de color, aroma, crujencia y sabor objetable fueron las características organolépticas tomadas en cuenta para evaluar la calidad general de cada vegetal, la cual fue realizada con un panel de siete jueces previamente entrenados. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, siendo los bloques cada uno de los vegetales y las variables de respuesta la tasa de respiración y la calidad sensorial general. Se encontró que el tratamiento térmico y el recubrimiento comestible permitieron que los vegetales conservaran la calidad sensorial. El análisis estadístico no mostró diferencias significativas respecto al control (P > 0.05. La celeridad de la respiración disminuyó en el apio, el br

  10. Jüri Talvet maailmaluule tõlgendajana / Jüri Talvet’s Interpretations of World Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Pilter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Tartu Ülikooli maailmakirjanduse professori, luuletaja, kirjandusteadlase ja hispaaniakeelse kirjanduse spetsialisti Jüri Talveti tõlketegevuse viljade hulka kuulub luulet ja proosat nii sajandeid vanast Hispaania klassikast kui ka 20. sajandil või tänapäeval romaani keeltes või inglise keeles loodud teostest. Käesolev artikkel keskendub sellele, kuidas professor Talvet on tõlgendanud luule ja poeetika, kuid ka kirjandusajaloo, iseäranis barokk-kirjanduse alaseid küsimusi oma kirjandusteaduslikes esseedes. Vaadeldakse ka tema tõlketegevuse mahtu ja tõlketöö põhimõtteid.   Jüri Talvet (born in 1945 is a poet and a scholar of comparative literature, Chair Professor of World Literature at the University of Tartu. His numerous translations of poetry and poetical fiction from the Romance languages and, to a lesser extent, from English, reflect his views on world poetry. Those views are also expressed in his theoretical writings from the years of 1977 to 2015. Having studied English literature as the main subject at the University of Tartu, he early developed an interest in Spanish, in other Iberian languages, and in the Iberoamerican literatures. His translations from that area include works from medieval and early modern literature as well as notable literary achievements from the 20th century and the contemporary era. Talvet’s interpretations of Federico García Lorca and the “Latin American boom” authors are supported by profound insights into the philosophy, aesthetics, and poetics of the 17th century Spanish Baroque literature, known as the literary Golden Age of Spain. The influence which Talvet’s activities have exerted has widened the horizons of Estonia’s literary culture: while in the early 20th century, the previous German, Russian and Finnish leanings were supplemented by orientations to, and translations from, French and Italian literatures, Talvet has helped to enrich the Estonian literary landscape

  11. Murdelisest tegelaskõnest "Tõe ja õiguse" I osas / Dialect in the Speech of Characters in A. H. Tammsaare’s Truth and Justice Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mandri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel keskendub A. H. Tammsaare „Tõe ja õiguse“ pentaloogia I osas leiduvale murdelisele tegelaskõnele. Murdeline tegelaskõne on ilukirjanduslik võte, mis lähtub autori loomingulistest taotlustest ning on seega lahutamatu teose sisust. Keele- ja kirjandusteadust ühendades pakub artikkel seni puudu nud kontekstisidusa käsitluse „Tõe ja õiguse“ I osa tegelaskõnes kasutatud murdepärasuste omadustest ning funktsioonist teose sisu ja kompositsiooni toetamisel. Murdeline tegelaskõne osutab geograafiliselt kesk- ja läänemurde alale, iseloomustab tegelasi kui talurahva hulka kuulujaid, taotleb külaühiskonna realistlikku esitlust, toetab keeleliselt Vargamäe Ees- ja Tagapere ning vanade ja noorte vastandust.    SU M M A R Y   The use of language in Part I of A. H. Tammsaare’s five-volume novel Truth and Justice (Tõde ja Õigus has received quite a bit of scholarly attention. However, up till now there have been few treatments of dialect in characters’ speech that also take into account the coherence of context and the writer’s aesthetic goals. Features of dialect in characters’ speech have been noticed by many researchers, but they mostly limited themselves to giving descriptive accounts of dialect words. These earlier accounts often approached these passages as authentic specimens of dialect, and did not interpret them in context or as aspects of literary form. This article is based on the literary dialect theory of linguist and literary scholar Sumner Ives, who argues from the principle that dialect phenomena in literature cannot be studied as authentic specimens of dialect. In literature, when characters speak in dialect, this serves goals related to the content and composition of the work, and does not attempt to be a precise representation of real dialect speech. In this spirit, I will examine dialect in the characters’ speech in the first volume of Tammsaare’s cycle of novels Truth and Justice