WorldWideScience

Sample records for hui ban gong

  1. Solar Imagery - GONG (Magnetogram)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  2. Solar Imagery - GONG

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  3. [Qi Gong: medicine or enlightenment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Viescas Javier

    2005-05-01

    According to Dr. Yang Jwing-Ming, the translation for Qi Gong would be "Whatever practice or study related with Qi which requires a lot of time and effort". Qi Gong is a practice which combines posture exercises, gestures, breathing and a mental attitude destined to make Qi circulate in order to preserve one's health, cure diseases and prolong life.

  4. The Rise of Gong Li

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THE advance of Chinese history and the development of the film industry have brought out a new generation of movie stars. Among them Gong Li is the most charming and most well known in the world. Gong Li was born in 1963, the youngest of five children in a family of intellectuals. Both her parents teach at a university. She liked to sing and dance since childhood and early on displayed

  5. GONG ClassicMerge: Pipeline and Product

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Anna L H; Kholikov, Shukur

    2016-01-01

    A recent processing effort has been undertaken in order to extend the range-of-coverage of the GONG merged dopplergrams. The GONG-Classic-era observations have now been merged to provide, albeit at lower resolution, mrvzi data as far back as May of 1995. The contents of this document provide an overview of what these data look like, the processing steps used to generate them from the original site observations, and the outcomes of a few initial quality-assurance tests designed to validate the final merged images. Based on these tests, the GONG project is releasing this data product to the user community (http://nisp.nso.edu/data).

  6. Solar Imagery - GONG (H-alpha)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) is a network of 6 globally-spaced solar observatories that the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center uses to monitor the...

  7. Tai Chi, Qi Gong and Reiki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dennis A

    2004-11-01

    Tai Chi, Qi Gong, and Reiki are complementary therapies that are gaining popularity with patients. Although these therapies seem simple and attractive in their philosophy and are easy to apply,more objective, well-designed research is needed to prove their efficacy and to gain acceptance from the medical community.

  8. Resilience Linguistics, Orthography and the Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, David

    2011-01-01

    The Gong are a minority group of western Thailand whose language has been in decline for over a century. In the 1920s, the first report of the language predicted its imminent demise. Since then, it has contacted to two villages outside its traditional territory. The language there is under threat, particularly since the 1970s with roads, schools,…

  9. Mr.John Gong: Technology Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ From a student who traveled across the ocean to have further study in the U.S., with only 53 dollars in his pocket, to the founder of his own business in the U.S.; from studying the artificial intelligence, to manufacturing high-tech robotics products including satellite tracking system, macro wave brake system and other high tech systems.He is Mr.John Gong, Chairman of American ICP Inc.and President of To Pacific Inc.

  10. Thermography applied acupuncture and qi-gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuwen; Ji, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-Qi

    1997-04-01

    Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture therapy and qi-gong therapy. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases markedly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi- gong.

  11. The sociology of Qi Gong: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an in-depth, idiographic study of how individuals experience others during Qi Gong practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Qi Gong groups to collect research data. These data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to content and thematic analysis across and within groups. The analysis indicates extraordinary experiences of Qi Gong practitioners at various levels of their social functioning. Qi Gong influences their social health in complex and \\dimensional ways. The author compares and contrasts his results with those of recent research. Implications for practice are briefly outlined and possible strategies for future research are presented.

  12. The GONG Site Survey. [solar oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frank; Ambastha, Ashok; Ball, Warren; Duhalde, Oscar; Farris, Don; Fischer, George; Hieda, Les; Zhen, Huang; Ingram, Bob; Jackson, Patty

    1988-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) project is planning to place six observing stations around the world to observe the solar oscillations as continuously as possible. The procedures that are being used to select the six sites are described. Results of measurements of cloud cover obtained by networks of 6 (out of 10) radiometers show a duty cycle of over 93 percent, with the first diurnal sidelobe in the window power spectrum suppressed by a factor of 400. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of a computer model of the expected cloud cover at individual sites.

  13. The Effects of Lei Gong Teng on Reproductive Hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江红; 朱彩凤; 王蔚; 王联欢

    2001-01-01

    The serum reproductive hormone levels were examined with radioimmunoassay in women of child-bearing age before and after treatment with the prescriptions containing Lei Gong Teng (雷公藤Radix Tripterygii Wilfordii). The results showed that Lei Gong Teng could induce amenorrhea, but it was reversible.

  14. Modes Of The Spiral Clock Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R.; Charnley, T.; Swallowe, G. M.; Banu, H.

    1993-03-01

    The modal frequencies of a spiral clock gong have been measured. The mode numbers and forms of vibrations have been identified by finite element modelling and photographic techniques; very good agreement between modelling and experiment was achieved. All modes were found to be either purely in-plane or out-of-plane. In both cases plots of log (2 n - 1) vs. log ƒ yielded curves with two distinct regions, the transition occurring where the wavelength corresponded to one turn of the spiral. Both sets of lower modes were very complex but the modal frequencies above n = 11 were found to fit a modified form of Chladni's law. It is suggested that the modified Chladni law may form the basis of many musical sounds.

  15. Artist He Gong Spans the East and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuLiu

    2004-01-01

    He Gong,a Chinese artist residing in the United Stares,is now teaching at Sichuan University. He studied oil painting and arl education at Southwest China Normal University in 1978 and received his master's degree in 1985,

  16. Rotation of the Solar Core Inferred from GONG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Appourchaux, T.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    We present inferences of the solar core rotation derived from GONG frequency splittings. The GONG data for the low-degree modes (l OLA) inversion method (Chaplin et al. 1998). As in one dimension, the OLA produces better-localized averaging kernels than do least-squares techniques. This is particularly beneficial in the deep interior, where it is in any case difficult to obtain localized information.

  17. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...

  18. Should Fireworks Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the Spring Festival,which fell on February 3 this year,a large number of fires and injuries to people were triggered by fireworks. A new round of debate over whether to again put firework bans in place

  19. Nonessential Products Ban Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by banning the sale and introduction into interstate commerce of certain non-essential products manufactured with or containing ozone-depleting substances.

  20. The Deep Roots of Hui Operao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    HUI Opera Groups arrivalin Beliing for performances200 years ago created a fu-rore,produced Peking opera andpromoted the developmen of val-ious kinds of local operas in China. The earliest Hui opera emergedat the beginning of the sixth centu-ry.It originated in the Qingyangstyle of singing,which was popu-lar in the Jiuhua Mountain areas insouthern Hui.Its fame had spreadthroughout the country by 1522.Book traders of the time compiledthe performed pieces and publishedmore than 10 collections.Some ofthese books went abroad,and nowthe Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris,the Japanese Cabinet Library andthe State Library in Germany allhave several.Later songs by fisher-men along the Yangtze River in theAnqing area were assimilated intothe Qingyaug style and thus a newform of singing,named Bazi sing-ing,emerged.At the same time theQingyang and Shuino styles in theKunshan area in Jiangsu Provincecombined to form Chui singing.

  1. [The application of qi-gong therapy to health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tso-Ying; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies merging traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have proved the complementary healing effects of qi-gong in medical science. Traditional Chinese respiration exercises help to regulate our mind, body and breathing and coordinate our internal organs, remove toxins and enhance immunity. Domestic and foreign studies indicate that qi-gong can relieve chronic pain, reduce tension, increase activities of phagocytes in coenocytes, improve cardiopulmonary function, improve eyesight, influence the index of blood biochemistry, etc. Due to the obvious healing effects of qi-qong therapy, through introducing qi-gone concepts and related medical research, this paper aims to inspire health care workers to integrate qi-qong therapy into medical treatments and nursing care, or to carry out further studies in order to make good the shortfall in provision of holistic medicine and nursing in the interests of the quality of patient care.

  2. A poetica e a pratica do Qi Gong dos Simbolos

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Machado Figueiredo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: A criação deum vídeo sobre uma prática corporal chinesa denominada Qi Gong (1) dos Símbolos é o tema deste projeto, no qual se procurou explorar as possíveis relações entre movimentos corporaisdo oriente e o meio vídeo. O conteúdo estético da obraem vídeo resultou da investigação do tempo interno e do conteúdo simbólico da prática corporal, que compuseram uma expressão audiovisual própria baseada na filosofia chinesa e na pesquisa de cada movimento que compõe o Qi Gong dos S...

  3. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinard, Alysha; Marble, Andrew R.; Berger, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction.NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data available to NSO and the public via the

  4. Transitioning GONG data processing to NOAA SWPC operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinard, A.; Marble, A.; Hill, F.; Berger, T. E.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, providing 24x7 forecasting and support to critical infrastructure operators around the world. Observations of the conditions on the Sun are crucial for determining when and if a warning is needed. The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) operated by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) consists of six ground stations, allowing continuous observations of the Sun. Of particular interest for space weather purposes are the H-alpha images and magnetograms. The H-alpha data are used to identify filaments and their eruptions, to assess active region evolution and plage extent, and to help localize flare locations. The magnetograms are used to identify neutral lines, to examine potential shearing areas and to characterize the magnetic structure of active regions. GONG magnetograms also provide the initial condition for models of solar wind expansion through the heliosphere such as the WSA-Enlil model. Although beyond the scope of current space weather applications, GONG helioseismology products can be used to assess active region emergence on the far side of the Sun and to indicate the flaring potential of a front-side active region. These products are being examined as future tools in flare prediction. NSO has operated GONG as a science facility since 1995 and has provided processed space weather data products to NOAA via public internet connections for the past several years. In 2014 the White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) requested that NOAA transition the GONG network to an operational space weather asset in order to ensure the continued flow of critical magnetogram data for solar wind models. NSO will continue to operate and manage the instruments and sites, but the H-alpha images and 10 minute averaged magnetogram data will be sent directly to SWPC for processing and use in space weather modeling. SWPC will make these data

  5. Hui Students’ Identity Construction in Eastern China: A Postcolonial Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explored Hui students’ lived experiences in school in eastern China and the impact of their experiences on their identity construction. We used postcolonial theory as a theoretical framework and narrative inquiry as a research methodology to guide questions that we asked, data collection, data analysis, and interpretation and discussion of the findings in the study. We found that schooling for the two Hui students in eastern China is a process of reproducing mainstream Han ideology; taking away their culture, beliefs, knowledge, and identity; and imposing the mainstream Han culture and knowledge on Hui students as truth. The participants, two Hui students in an elementary school in eastern China, accepted the identity constructed by mainstream Han teachers and were confused about their Hui identity.

  6. Doing Ideology amid a Crisis: Collective Actions and Discourses of the Chinese Falun Gong Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-ching

    2013-01-01

    Based on an interactionist framework, this article examines how followers of a contemporary Chinese religious movement, Falun Gong, deal with a crisis situation and sustain their conviction in the absence of their charismatic leader. Data were collected during a yearlong ethnography of the Falun Gong in Chicago and Hong Kong. The findings reveal…

  7. Translation and cultural adaptation of Health Utilities Index (HUI) Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3) with application to survivors of childhood cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Sandra; de Camargo, Beatriz; Horsman, John; Furlong, William; Lopes, Luiz Fernando; Seber, Adriana; Barr, Ronald D

    2005-06-01

    There are few publications reporting health-related quality of life (HRQL) in developing nations. Most instruments measuring HRQL have been developed in English-speaking countries. These instruments need to be culturally adapted for use in non-English-speaking countries. The HUI2 and HUI3 are generic, preference-based systems for describing health status and HRQL. Developed in Canada, the systems have been translated into more than a dozen languages and used worldwide in hundreds of studies of clinical and general populations. The Brazilian-Portuguese translation of the HUI systems was supervised by senior HUInc staff having experience with both the HUI systems and translations. The process included two independent forward translations of the multi-attribute health status classification systems and related questionnaires, consensus between translators on a forward translation, back-translation by two independent translators of the forward translation, and review of the back-translations by original developers of the HUI. The final questionnaires were tested by surveying a sample of convenience of 50 patients recruited at the Centro de Tratamento e Pesquisa-Hospital do Cancer in São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study. No assessor, patient or nurse or physician, reported problems answering the HUI questionnaires. No significant differences were found in mean overall HUI2 or HUI3 utility scores among types of assessors. Variability in scores are similar to those from other studies in Latin America and Canada. Test results provide preliminary evidence that the Brazilian-Portuguese translation is acceptable, understandable, reliable and valid for assessing health-status and HRQL among survivors of cancer in childhood in Brazil.

  8. Gebruik van elektriciteit: Domotica: Huis van de toekomst: Klas 4 havo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. van Buuren; M. van der Lee

    2008-01-01

    Deze module behandelt elektriciteit en automatisering in huis. We richten ons daarbij ook op het huis van de toekomst. Bij de elektriciteitsleer ligt de nadruk op het gebruik van elektriciteit in huis, bij de automatisering op intelligente systemen in huis. Er komt een vervolg module domotica 2 als

  9. Polygamy Thrives Despite Ban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明孝

    2001-01-01

    泰国在1932年就以法律形式规定polygamy(一夫多妻制)为非法,但是,目前的实际情况是:One in four Thai men have more than one wife despitethe ban on polygamy.记得梁实秋曾经说过,一个人要一天不得安宁,请客;一个人要一年不得安宁,造屋;一个人要一辈子不得安宁,讨小老婆。此文的主人公,57岁的Supat,家有7妻,同住一幢三层楼房。不知此君家中是否相安无事。

  10. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z # A B C D E ... Y Z Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being Share: © Mariann Seriff The following ...

  11. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concentration, and reduce stress. and qi gong A component of traditional Chinese medicine that combines movement, meditation, ... more about tai chi NCCIH has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to ...

  12. Tai Chi and Qi Gong for Health and Well-Being

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Health Information Research Research Results Results by Date Sponsored by NCCIH Division of Extramural Research Conducted ... and Well-Being Video Introduction and Background Warm-up Qi Gong Tai Chi Cool Down This page ...

  13. [Is Qi Gong suitable for the prevention of low back pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner-Dungl, Andrea

    2004-12-01

    Low back pain is one of the main problems of health care, and has many causes. To prevent low back pain daily activities are highly important--static work as well as dynamic movement--carried out in an ergonomic and economical way. Studies have shown that the compliance of patients with regard to exercise training and ergonomic recommendations is not very high. The main posture of Qi Gong training is similar to the recommended posture by low back schools. Qi gong exercises respect basic physiological and ergonomic principles of movement in every way. Qi Gong fulfils the most important criteria for the prevention and therapy of idiopathic low back pain. Qi Gong training requires no special equipment. It is simple and can be undertaken everywhere. A growing number of people have become interested in Qi Gong, and train regularly and effectively. Low back pain rarely occurs in such people, and therefore Qi Gong should be considered as one of the most effective means of prevention.

  14. La recherche alpine aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Brun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpine research benefits from several international coordination networks, only one of which – ISCAR (the International Scientific Committee on Research in the Alps – works solely in the Alpine arc. The creation of ISCAR is a consequence of the input and involvement of various Alpine partners around the Alpine Convention. Alpine research now aims to promote an integrated vision of Alpine territories focusing on creating and maintaining spatial and temporal networks of sustainable relationships between humans and the other components of the ecosphere. It combines resource usage with conservation of the biological and cultural diversity that makes up the Alpine identity. This article aims to show: (1 how international Alpine research coordination is organised; (2 the role played by the Alpine Convention as a framework of reference for specifically Alpine research; and (3 the role that the ISCAR international commit-tee and the Interreg “Alpine Space” programmes play in uniting research around territorial challenges relating to biodiversity conservation and territorial development.La recherche sur les Alpes bénéficie de plusieurs réseaux de coordination internationaux dont un seul, le comité international recherche alpine (ISCAR, se consacre exclusivement à l’arc alpin. La création de l’ISCAR est une retombée de la mobilisation des divers partenaires alpins autour de la mise en place de la Convention alpine. Aujourd’hui, la recherche alpine vise à promouvoir une vision intégrée des territoires centrée sur la création et le maintien d’un réseau spatial et temporel de relations durables entre les hommes et les autres composantes de l’écosphère. Elle associe étroitement la mise en valeur des ressources et la conservation des diversités biologiques et culturelles qui constituent l’identité alpine. Cet article a pour ambition de montrer : (1 comment s’organise la coordination internationale des recherches sur les

  15. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  16. Interleukin-6 genotypes and serum levels in Chinese Hui population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-Ping; Liang, Shu; Pan, Min; Sun, Rong-Liang; Chen, Chu; Luan, Hong; Jiang, Min-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in different physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and circulating levels of IL-6 differ greatly between individuals. The Chinese Hui is one of the largest ethnic minorities, little is known about the distribution of IL-6 genetic variations and their effects on serum levels in Hui population. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of -174G/C (rs1800795), -597G/A (rs1800797), and -634C/G (rs1800796) polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene promoter region and their association with IL-6 serum levels in the Ningxia Hui population. A total of 96 Hui subjects, (57 men and 39 women; mean age 49.65 ± 19.73 years) unrelated nationality residents in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were enrolled. Genotyping of the three polymorphisms were performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) combined with gel electrophoresis and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The -174G/C (97.92% GG, 2.08% GC, and 0% CC) and -597G/A (98.96% GG, 1.04% GA, and 0% AA) polymorphisms were rare. The frequencies of -634C/G genotypes CC, CG, and GG were found to be 54.17%, 40.62%, and 5.21%, respectively in total studied subjects, the derived allele frequencies for the C and G alleles were 74.48% and 25.52%. Increased IL-6 levels were correlated with the IL-6 -634G allele carriers (CG+GG genotypes). The results suggest that IL-6 -174G/C and -597G/A are rare but -634C/G is common in the Ningxia Hui population, and the -634G allele is associated with circulating levels of IL-6.

  17. Interleukin-6 genotypes and serum levels in Chinese Hui population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in different physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, and circulating levels of IL-6 differ greatly between individuals. The Chinese Hui is one of the largest ethnic minorities, little is known about the distribution of IL-6 genetic variations and their effects on serum levels in Hui population. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of -174G/C (rs1800795), -597G/A (rs1800797), and -634C/G (rs1800796) pol...

  18. Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Stöckl, Andrea; Mucha, Dariusz

    2010-07-01

    This study describes two similar approaches to human movement: Qi Gong exercises and the Feldenkrais method. These systems are investigated in terms of Gestalt concepts and humanistic psychology. Moshe Feldenkrais created the concept known as Awareness Through Movement. This concept assumes that by becoming more aware of one's movements, one functions at a higher level. In similar ways to those using the Feldenkrais method, individuals may become more aware of their own movements by performing Qi Gong exercises: A therapeutic modality that facilitates mind-body integration. Qi Gong exercises commonly lead to increased personal awareness accompained by enhanced quality, fluency and smoothness of movement. These two methods of movement therapies are explored in terms of their relations with Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology. (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing a Social Movement's Use of Internet: Resource Mobilization, New Social Movement Theories and the Case of Falun Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bi Yun

    2009-01-01

    Falun Gong emerged as spiritual social movement after being outlawed by the Chinese Communist Party authorities in 1999. Since then, Falun Gong practitioners have made heavy use of information and communication technologies, particularly the Internet, to further their movement's activities. This dissertation systematically examines the role of…

  20. Will Banning Foreign Abbreviations Help?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ From early April, China's national broad-caster CCTV banned the use of borrowed English abbreviations such as NBA, GDP, WTO and CPI in all its programs. The move was launched in line with a government directive after several national legislators and political advisors called for the preservation of the Chinese language's purity.

  1. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  2. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand ... housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also banned smoking on the ...

  3. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  4. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  5. [Research on Zhang's collated edition of Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li

    2010-05-01

    Lei gong pao zhi lun (Master Lei's Discourse on Processing of Chinese Materia Medica) collated by Zhang Ji, and printed by Zhang's Yisheng Tang in Chengdu in 1932 was the first collated edition. Its original edition was not Jing shi zheng lei bei ji ben cao (Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) of the Song Dynasty, but was Xiu shi zhi nan (Instruction for Drug Processing) and Lei gong pao zhi yao xing jie (Explanation on Master Lei's Properties of Drugs Processing) of the Qing Dynasty. The contents of this collated edition was far from Lei gong pao zhi lun with many mistakes, and was not the best edition to study Lei gong pao zhi lun.

  6. Meridional Flow in the Solar Convection Zone II: Helioseismic Inversions of GONG Data

    CERN Document Server

    Jackiewicz, J; Kholikov, S

    2015-01-01

    Meridional flow is thought to play a very important role in the dynamics of the solar convection zone; however, because of its relatively small amplitude, precisely measuring it poses a significant challenge. Here we present a complete time-distance helioseismic analysis of about two years of ground-based GONG Doppler data to retrieve the meridional circulation profile for modest latitudes, in an attempt to corroborate results from other studies. We use an empirical correction to the travel times due to an unknown center-to-limb systematic effect. The helioseismic inversion procedure is first tested and reasonably validated on artificial data from a large-scale numerical simulation, followed by a test to broadly recover the solar differential rotation found from global seismology. From GONG data, we measure poleward photospheric flows at all latitudes with properties that are comparable with earlier studies, and a shallow equatorward flow about $65$\\,Mm beneath the surface, in agreement with recent findings f...

  7. 龚德树生平述略%On the Life of GongDeshu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁曙光

    2013-01-01

    龚德树,捻军军师,白旗总旗主,捻军前期领导人之一,是捻军行动、方针的重要策划者。相对于其他捻军领导人狭隘的小农意识和地域意识,龚德树是捻军中最具大局观之人,他清醒地意识到捻军力量的不足,坚持与太平军联合作战,直至1861年战死。龚德树战死较早,但在前期捻军中的重要性不亚于盟主张乐行,目前对其研究较少。通过对龚德树生平的论述,希望对其研究起到抛砖引玉的作用。%As a division of Nian Army , the Lord of white flag , and one of the early leaders of the Nian Army , Gong Deshu is an important policy planner .Compared to other leaders of Nian Army full of narrow smallholder consciousness and local conscious -ness, Gong Deshu was clearly aware of the problems the Nian Army forces faced , and he insisted the joint operations with Taiping army.He was taken as an important person as Zhang Lexin Niang , At present the research .Based on the life of Gong Deshu , the paper discussed the life of Gong Deshu .

  8. Thermographic Diagnosis for Curative Effect of Acupuncture and Qi-gong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hong-wei; LI Ying; CHEN Jin-long; QIN Yu-wen

    2005-01-01

    Thermographic technique can be used to measure temperature distribution of body surface in real-time, non-contact and full-field, which has been successfully used in medical diagnosis, remote sensing, and NDT, etc. The authors have developed a thermographic experiment that can be applied to inspect the effect of action of acupuncture and qi-gong (a system of deep breathing exercises) by measuring the temperature of hand and arm. The observation is performed respectively by thermography for the dynamic changes of temperature of the arm and hand after acupuncture treatment and qi-gong treatment. Thermographic results show that the temperature on the collateral channels increases significantly. In the meantime, it can be seen that the above therapies of traditional Chinese medicine can stimulate the channel collateral system. This also contributes a new basis to the effect of action of the therapies of traditional Chinese medicine. The work shows that thermographic technique is a powerful tool for research in traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, some thermal images are obtained from the persons treated with acupuncture and qi-gong.

  9. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Jones, V.M.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  10. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  11. China Bans Some Processing Trade Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Commerce Ministry and General Administration of Customs jointly issued a circular, which will ban the processing trade activities for some metals concentrates. According to the circular, the processing trade for a number of metals concentrates will be banned from August 22, 2005.

  12. L’ESPACE MULTIPLIE CHEZ SARTRE : HUIS-CLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina-Amelia GEORGESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Du point de vue historique, le XXe siècle est le siècle le plus bouleversé de l’histoire connue de l’humanité, se caractérisant par plusieurs événements majeurs. C’est dans ce contexte que Jean-Paul Sartre se fraie un chemin dans la vie littéraire française en y apportant un souffle nouveau. Notre travail se propose d’analyser la pièce Huis clos dans le but de démontrer que lorque l’on parle de l’espace de l’emprisonnement, on doit prendre en considération qu’il ne s’agit pas d’un seul type d’espace et que celui-ci se multiplie justement pour rendre l’impossibilité d’y échapper.

  13. La langue scientifique arabe hier et aujourd'hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layal Merhy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose un exposé concis des statuts de la langue scientifique arabe entre hier et aujourd'hui. Après avoir rapidement décrit le rôle des médias dans l'évolution de la langue, l'étude cherche à observer - dans le cadre de la diffusion sociale du savoir - le développement de la communication scientifique dans le Monde Arabe. Aussitôt, cette tentative d'analyse tâche de repérer les contraintes qui freinent l'évolution scientifique et linguistique dans les pays arabes et d'ouvrir la voie à des perspectives d'amélioration futures.

  14. MERIDIONAL FLOW IN THE SOLAR CONVECTION ZONE. II. HELIOSEISMIC INVERSIONS OF GONG DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackiewicz, J. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Serebryanskiy, A. [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent 100072 (Uzbekistan); Kholikov, S., E-mail: jasonj@nmsu.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Meridional flow is thought to play a very important role in the dynamics of the solar convection zone; however, because of its relatively small amplitude, precisely measuring it poses a significant challenge. Here we present a complete time–distance helioseismic analysis of about 2 years of ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler data to retrieve the meridional circulation profile for modest latitudes in an attempt to corroborate results from other studies. We use an empirical correction to the travel times due to an unknown center-to-limb systematic effect. The helioseismic inversion procedure is first tested and reasonably validated on artificial data from a large-scale numerical simulation followed by a test to broadly recover the solar differential rotation found from global seismology. From GONG data, we measure poleward photospheric flows at all latitudes with properties that are comparable with earlier studies and a shallow equatorward flow about 65 Mm beneath the surface, in agreement with recent findings from Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. No strong evidence of multiple circulation cells in depth or latitude is found, yet the whole phase space has not yet been explored. Tests of mass flux conservation are then carried out on the inferred GONG and HMI flows and compared to a fiducial numerical baseline from models, and we find that the continuity equation is poorly satisfied. While the two disparate data sets do give similar results for about the outer 15% of the interior radius, the total inverted circulation pattern appears to be unphysical in terms of mass conservation when interpreted over modest time scales. We can likely attribute this to both the influence of realization noise and subtle effects in the data and measurement procedure.

  15. A ginástica terapêutica e preventiva chinesa Lian Gong/Qi Gong como um dos instrumentos na prevenção e reabilitação da LER/DORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutembergue Livramento

    Full Text Available Este ensaio traz elementos da medicina ocidental, da medicina tradicional chinesa e da sociologia do trabalho para reflexão sobre o Qi Gong - exercícios terapêuticos, um dos pilares da Medicina Tradicional Chinesa (MTC - como importante meio de prevenção da LER/DORT e recuperação da saúde. Considerando a natureza interdisciplinar e diversos níveis de prevenção, aborda aspectos sociológicos sobre as condições de trabalho frequentemente relacionadas com este tipo de adoecimento e categorias de trabalhadores mais acometidos. Focaliza aspectos médicos sobre a LER/DORT e as Síndromes de Bloqueio na MTC, estabelecendo canais de articulação e contribuição entre esses campos de conhecimento sobre a saúde humana. Ressalta o Qi Gong como importante prática terapêutica e preventiva na MTC e sua adequação à LER/DORT. No âmbito do Qi Gong, focaliza o Lian Gong Shi Ba Fa - Lian Gong em 18 Terapias, já amplamente experimentado na China e divulgado, inclusive no Brasil, para tratar e prevenir síndromes de dor em região cervical, ombros, membros superiores, membros inferiores e região lombar. À guisa de conclusão, são apresentadas algumas reflexões sobre a propriedade e a importância do Qi Gong na reabilitação e na prevenção da LER/DORT.

  16. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  17. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sub-surface Meridional Flow Results from MWO, GONG, and MDI during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Stephen; Rhodes, Edward J.; Bogart, Richard S.

    2014-06-01

    Time series of full-disk Dopplergrams were acquired at the 60-Foot Solar tower of the Mount Wilson Observatory every year between 1987 and 2009. Analysis of this archive revealed that the focal plane of the Tower did experience a small amount of systematic rotation, which suggested that the alignment of the optics had changed slightly over the years since its construction in 1907. This has caused some of the initial daily flow maps to possess a so-called “washing machine” effect similar to the pattern that was seen in raw GONG flow maps. We have incorporated a systematic program of ring-diagram analysis in which we have tracked the raw solar images using five differing assumed instrumental rotation rates. We have then gone on to compute synoptic maps of the horizontal flow vectors at several different depths over much of Solar Cycle 23 in order to study how such an instrumental rotation might affect both the zonal and meridional flows as functions of latitude, depth, and time. We compare these results with GONG and MDI flow measurements to empirically determine the regime within which the MWO results are reliable and extend our analysis into Solar Cycle 22.

  19. Detailed Image Comparison using MDI, HMI and GONG Co-Eval Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    2017-08-01

    I present preliminary results from detailed image comparison using MDI, HMI and GONG co-eval observations taken in 2014, when all three instruments were operational. This comparison allows me to estimate both the instrumental image distortion and the instrument PSF, with respect to HMI. Both intensity and velocity images are compared when available. The precise observing perspective of each instrument had to be accounted since it affects the projected image on the instrument detector at the required level of precision (i.e., a fraction of an HMI pixel). In the process, it was discovered that the meta data generated by the respective projects were not accurate enough. While the inclusion of the image distortion and the instrument PSF in the spatial decomposition will improve the determination of high degree modes, it may also benefit other local helioseismic analysis.

  20. Variation of Acoustic Power with Magnetic Field as seen in Gong+ Data

    CERN Document Server

    Venkatakrishnan, P; Tripathy, S C; Kumar, Brajesh

    2002-01-01

    The acoustic spectra in sunspots are known to be richer in higher frequency power. We have attempted a generalized study of the effect of magnetic fields on the shape of the acoustic spectrum using GONG+ bread-board data (spatial scale of ~ 2 arc-sec per pixel) of 11 May, 2000 and 12 June, 2000. The mean power spectra of the velocity oscillations were obtained by averaging over several spectra for different values of the magnetic field. With increasing magnetic field, the acoustic power increases at higher frequencies and decreases at lower frequencies with a transition at ~= 5 mHz. This behaviour is slightly different from earlier results obtained from SOHO/MDI data.

  1. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  2. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species.

  3. Will Banning Begging Improve Traffic Safety?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 2,Zhuhai,a city in south China’s Guangdong Province, issued road safety regulations banning begging in vehicle lanes. The new regulations allow the police to impose fines on beggers.Drivers who buy anything from vendors or give money to beg- gars will also be fined.

  4. Should Tourists Be Banned From Campuses?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Xiamen University,one of the leading universities in China,began to ban tour groups from entering its campus on June 1.The notice of the university said that except for certain dining halls,most of the school's cafeterias will not receive tourists or accept cash.However,individual tourists are still allowed to enter the campus after registration.

  5. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  6. [Line scanning analysis of white porcelain from Gong Kiln in early Tang dynasty by energy disperse X-ray fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xue; Mao, Zhen-wei; Feng, Min; Hu, Yao-wu; Wang, Chang-sui; Liu, Hong-miao

    2005-07-01

    Gong kiln, for its long porcelain-firing history, was one of three representative white porcelain kilns in northern China. In order to improve the quality and whiteness of white porcelain, a decorating layer or cosmetic earth was laid on the body surface in Gong kiln during early Tang dynasty, which was able to blot out rough surface and weaken the influence of fuscous body upon surface color. In this paper the main chemical composition of the white porcelain's profile was analyzed by using energy disperse X-Ray fluorescence. The result showed that different materials were used as cosmetic earth during early Tang dynasty, in accordance with the phenomenon under optical microscope. In addition, the glaze belongs to calcium glaze in which plant ash was added.

  7. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  8. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  9. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  10. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  11. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  12. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Man-Keung

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)

  13. When Liu Hui Meets Archimedes: Students' Epistemological and Cultural Interpretations of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Po-Hung

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in what way and to what extent Taiwanese college students' epistemological views of mathematics had evolved during a history-based liberal arts mathematics course titled: "When Liu Hui Meets Archimedes--Development of Eastern and Western Mathematics." The course was designed to help college students…

  14. Take Pictures of the Motherland : Zhao Hui and His Photo Collection "China Story"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangJinghua; ZhaoHui

    2003-01-01

    A story can be narrated in different ways. As to the story about China, Zhao Hui's version is unique. This is a story presented by camera lens, a story that unfolds a cultural China with vitality and grandeur. One can be all but overwhelmed by its new means of presentation, its new concept of photographing,

  15. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SIX Y CHROMOSOMAL STR IN CHINESE HUI ETHNIC GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bofeng; Lü Guiping; Yao Guifa; Zhu Jun; Dong Hongwang; Sun Qingdong; Huang Lei; Liu Yao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study genetic polymorphism of 6 Y chromosomal STR in Hui ethnic group living in Ningxia Hui ethnic autonomous region, in order to evaluate their usefulness in forensic science and enrich the Chinese genetic information resources. Methods We investigated 101 unrelated, healthy, male individuals of Hui ethnic group and studied their allelic frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of 6 Y chromosomal STR. Primer for each loci was labeled with the fluorescent by FAM (blue) or TAMRA(yellow). The data of Hui ethnic group were generated co-amplification, GeneScan, genotype, and genetic distribution analysis. Results 31 alleles and 43 phenotype(DYS385) were detected, with the frequencies ranging from 0.0099-0.7129. Out of a total of 101 individuals, 96 showed different haplotypes; 91 were unique; 5 were found 2 times. The haplotype diversity for 6 Y-STR loci was 0.9990. Conclusion The date obtained can be valuable for individual identification, paternity testing in forensic fields and for population genetics because of 6 Y-STR loci high polymorphism.

  16. Using SDO and GONG as Calibration References for a New Telescope Pointing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long duration observations are a basic requirement for most types of helioseismic measurements. Pointing stability and the quality of guiding is thus an important issue with respect to the spatio-temporal analysis of any velocity datasets. Existing pointing tools and correlation-tracking devices will help to remove most of the spatial deviations building up during an observation with time. Yet most ground- and space-based high-resolution solar telescopes may be subject to slow image-plane drift that cannot be compensated for by guiding and which may accumulate to displacements of 10″ or more during a 10-hour recording. We have developed a new pointing model for solar telescopes that may overcome these inherent guiding-limitations. We have tested the model at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife. We are using SDO and GONG full-disk imaging as a calibration reference. We describe the algorithms developed and used during the tests. We present our first results. We describe possible future applications as to be implemented at the VTT. So far, improvements over classical limb-guider systems by a factor of 10 or more seem possible.

  17. Meridional Flow in the Solar Convection Zone I: Measurements from GONG Data

    CERN Document Server

    Kholikov, Shukur; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of GONG Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive, yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near th...

  18. Egyptian court overturns ban on genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) performed by health professionals in Egypt was overturned by a June 24 [1997] ruling of Judge Abdul Aziz Hamade of a mid-level administrative court in Cairo. The judge determined that the ministerial decree, which had been implemented last July by Health Minister Ismail Sallam, inappropriately restricted the practice of doctors. According to news reports, the court cited research purporting to show that failure to perform FGM harmed children, as well as quotes from Mohammed, which FGM advocates said endorsed the procedure under Islamic law. Although the court overturned the ministerial decree, it did acknowledge that Parliament could outlaw the practice; however, human rights groups believe the practice is too popular for Parliament to do so. The suit against the ban had been filed by Sheik Youssef al-Badry, a conservative Islamic cleric, and Munir Fawzi, a Cairo gynecologist. In May, Egypt's highest court had recommended to the mid-level court that FGM should be legal. The decision does not effect a ban on the performance of surgery by those without a medical license, including barbers and midwives. It is estimated that 80% of girls in Egypt undergo FGM. Egypt's highest Sunni Moslem authority contests the endorsement of FGM under Islamic law.

  19. Publication Text Ban Research in the Time of Shaoxing Agreement%“绍兴和议”时期出版限禁研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽冰

    2013-01-01

    In the year of 1141, Song Dynasty made an Shaoxing Agreement with Jin Dynasty. In order to maintain this agreement, the emperor Gao Zong and the prime minister Qin Hui set off a series of tex ban on op⁃position anthology (in particular the ban on private history) and Cheng Yi Theory. The text ban had an extreme⁃ly serious negative impact, which led to the behaviour of censure corrupted the social atmosphere, a large num⁃ber of books were burnt and the culture was devastated. Scholars created the flattering poetry, which led to liter⁃ary disgrace.%  绍兴十一年(1141)宋金“绍兴和议”成,高宗与丞相秦桧为维护“和议”这一“国是”,在文化领域里掀起了一系列出版限制(文禁),主要有禁反对派文集(特别是禁私史)以及禁程颐道学等。一系列的出版限制带来了极其严重的负面影响,告讦之风的盛行败坏了社会风气,大量书籍的焚毁使文化遭受摧残,士子们争相创作谄诗谀文更使文坛蒙尘。

  20. Asbestos: use, bans and disease burden in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Kim, Rokho; Jiang, Ying; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Park, Eun-Kee; Rantanen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse national data on asbestos use and related diseases in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods For each of the 53 countries, per capita asbestos use (kg/capita/year) and age-adjusted mortality rates (deaths/million persons/year) due to mesothelioma and asbestosis were calculated using the databases of the United States Geological Survey and WHO, respectively. Countries were further categorized by ban status: early-ban (ban adopted by 2000, n = 17), late-ban (ban adopted 2001–2013, n = 17), and no-ban (n = 19). Findings Between 1920–2012, the highest per capita asbestos use was found in the no-ban group. After 2000, early-ban and late-ban groups reduced their asbestos use levels to less than or equal to 0.1 kg/capita/year, respectively, while the no-ban group maintained a very high use at 2.2 kg/capita/year. Between 1994 and 2010, the European Region registered 106 180 deaths from mesothelioma and asbestosis, accounting for 60% of such deaths worldwide. In the early-ban and late-ban groups, 16/17 and 15/17 countries, respectively, reported mesothelioma data to WHO, while only 6/19 countries in the no-ban group reported such data. The age-adjusted mortality rates for mesothelioma for the early-ban, late-ban and no-ban groups were 9.4, 3.7 and 3.2 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Asbestosis rates for the groups were 0.8, 0.9 and 1.5 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Conclusion Within the European Region, the early-ban countries reported most of the current asbestos-related deaths. However, this might shift to the no-ban countries, since the disease burden will likely increase in these countries due the heavy use of asbestos. PMID:25378740

  1. AHP 37: A GROUP OF MURAL PAINTINGS FROM THE 1930S IN A MDO REB GONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Linrothe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of several summer and winter visits to A mdo Reb gong in the late 1990s and early 2000s, I had the privilege of meeting 'Teacher Kevin' and several of his students (of Tibetan and various ethnicities and teaching colleagues in Xining. I sat in on more than one of the evenings at his apartment with his amazingly proficient language students. Often these rather jolly gatherings ended with a performance fest: going round the room, each person was obliged to sing a song. Without either musicality or a good memory for lyrics, and in the face of some truly extraordinary musical talents among the Tibetan-speaking young men, I usually begged off. I vividly recall one evening, however, when I was somehow convinced or inspired to uncharacteristically sing a bawdy song taught to me in the winter of 1971 by my friends Chief and Skeezix, two Chippewa Native Americans who were resident, as I was that year, on Madelaine Island in the Wisconsin side of Lake Superior. The ditty started, "There once was an Indian maid, a shy little prairie maid..." and went downhill from there. In Xining that night, we all recovered, and I even had the good fortune soon after to be able to steer Skidmore College into admitting, in consecutive years, two of Teacher Kevin's students, Spencer (Don grub dbang chen and Joe (Sgrol ma don grub, who both graduated with BA degrees. The point of this anecdote is to suggest that Kevin's methods may have been unorthodox, but, to put it mildly, they did work, not only with Tibetan students and the English language, but also to the mutual benefit with the world of Tibet-related scholars, so many of whom came to know and appreciate Kevin, his colleagues, and his students. ...

  2. A ginástica terapêutica e preventiva chinesa Lian Gong/Qi Gong como um dos instrumentos na prevenção e reabilitação da LER/DORT

    OpenAIRE

    Gutembergue Livramento; Tânia Franco; Alaíde Livramento

    2010-01-01

    Este ensaio traz elementos da medicina ocidental, da medicina tradicional chinesa e da sociologia do trabalho para reflexão sobre o Qi Gong - exercícios terapêuticos, um dos pilares da Medicina Tradicional Chinesa (MTC) - como importante meio de prevenção da LER/DORT e recuperação da saúde. Considerando a natureza interdisciplinar e diversos níveis de prevenção, aborda aspectos sociológicos sobre as condições de trabalho frequentemente relacionadas com este tipo de adoecimento e categorias de...

  3. [First cracks in smoking ban in catering establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørstad, Harald T; Berdowski, Jocelyn; Peters, Ron J G

    2009-01-01

    The first exemption to the comprehensive ban on smoking in public places in the Netherlands was made on 14 May 2009. The exemption was based on a technicality in the wording of the law, and could potentially lead to further exemptions to the smoking ban being made. The authors argue that focusing solely on the wording is a sidetrack in the main discussion. Furthermore, they argue that the smoking ban only bans smoking in public places and that the individual's right to perform actions potentially hazardous to their own health should not be limited, as long as it puts no-one else at risk. That is exactly what smoking in public places does. They also argue that other legislative measures comparable to the smoking ban are already in effect. In conclusion, the ban on smoking in public places does not remove the right to smoke, but serves to create a healthier social environment for everyone.

  4. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...... the creation of alliances between researchers, politicians, administration and industry. Danish researchers interpreted the research in a way to suit their ‘mental maps’ and to support their initially set goal to reduce industrially produced trans fats. The process displayed a ‘co-production’ where research...

  5. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we inves- tigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this

  6. Do Affirmative Action Bans Lower Minority College Enrollment and Attainment?: Evidence from Statewide Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Using institutional data on race-specific college enrollment and completion, I examine whether minority students were less likely to enroll in a four-year public college or receive a degree following a statewide affirmative action ban. As in previous studies, I find that black and Hispanic enrollment dropped at the top institutions; however, there…

  7. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  8. Home smoking bans in an urbanizing community in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne F; Xia, Xiao; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2009-08-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major threat to public health worldwide. Previous studies have suggested that home smoking bans effectively reduce SHS exposure to nonsmokers in the home. In China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer, more than 540 million nonsmokers are exposed to SHS. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have examined the prevalence or correlates of home smoking bans in mainland China. This paper presents a quantitative study on home smoking bans in an urbanizing community in Shanghai, China. In 2006, a cross-sectional survey based on probability sampling (N=243) was conducted in Changqiao, an urbanizing community in Shanghai, China. Interviews were conducted in person in Mandarin Chinese by trained interviewers. The behavioral ecologic model, which emphasizes the multilevel environmental contingencies of behavior, was applied as the theoretical model. Data were analyzed in 2008 using logistic regression to explore correlates of complete home smoking bans. In this community, only 26% of respondents reported having complete home smoking bans. Smoking respondents and families were less likely to have complete smoking bans in the home. Home smoking bans were positively associated with the perceived density of smoke-free homes in the community, and with the perceived likelihood of community reprimand for smoking in the home. Home smoking bans were not widely adopted in this community in China. Future interventions should focus on the community and social environment in order to promote home smoking bans.

  9. [Study on processing adjuvant medicines in Lei Gong's treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruixian

    2010-09-01

    There were 268 kinds of medicines recorded in the book of Lei Gong's Treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun). Among these medicines, 178 medicines were prepared with adjuvant medicines, including general and special compatible adjuvant medicines. These adjuvant medicines used in this book can be explained by the theory of "seven-relation compatibility". The author tried to explain the usage and their compatibility of these adjuvant medicines and put forward that attention should be paid to the changes in functions of medicines and the influences of society should be paid attention.

  10. Introduction to Professor ZHENG Hui-tian's Clinical Experience in Treating Urethral Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ling-song; YUAN Shun-xing; HAUNG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    @@ Prof. ZHENG Hui-tian organized the project of "Acupuncture Treatment of Urethral Syndrome by the Method to Reinforce the Kidney and Warm Yang", which won the second prize for scientific achievements awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the second prize for the scientific achievements awarded by Shanghai Municipal Science Commission in 1996 and was introduced to the whole nation as a scientific achievement of traditional Chinese medicine in 1997.

  11. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...

  12. Relationships between University Professors and Students: Should They Be Banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether universities and colleges should attempt to ban all student-faculty relationships, as many have tried to do. It argues that, because adults have a fundamental right to engage in intimate relationships without interference, supporters of relationship bans must meet a high standard in defending them. But…

  13. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  14. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  15. 16 CFR 1303.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banned hazardous products. 1303.4 Section 1303.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... exempted by § 1303.3, are banned hazardous products (see definitions in § 1303.2): (a) Paint and...

  16. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  17. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  18. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  19. Association of Apo-E gene polymorphism with biochemical and lipid metabolism parameters in patients with diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations in Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茜

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the association of apolipoprotein (Apo) E gene polymorphism with difference in biochemical metabolism of diabetic nephropathy of Hui and Han populations. Methods ApoE genotype was determined by PCR-RFLP in diabetic patients with or without diabetic nephropathy (DN) and normal peoples in Hui and Han peoples, the related biochemical parameters were simultaneously detected. Results (1) Huis had 3 genotypes, i. e. E2/E3, E3/E3 and E3/E4, and their fre-

  20. The influences of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood cell counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Tsoy-Ing; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Chao, Tsu-Yi

    2006-01-01

    After surgery, breast cancer patients are offered adjuvant chemotherapy to avoid cancer cell spread. During chemotherapy process, neutrophils could fall relatively, and side effects could spike to the peak. Therefore, the medical care personnel should prevent the progression of the side effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The experiment group (n = 32) received a 21-day Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy, whereas the control group (n = 35) did not. White blood cells, platelet, and hemoglobin were measured on the day before chemotherapy and on days 8, 15, and 22 during chemotherapy. According to this study, there were significant differences in white blood cells (F = 115.76, P qi-gong therapy may decrease leukopenia in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It is recommended conducting more studies on qi-gong and then introducing it in clinical nursing practice at an appropriate time to promote quality of nursing care and quality of patient life.

  1. Analysis on Characteristic of Comments on Medicine in Zhe Gong Man Lu%简析《折肱漫录》“品药”之特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝文

    2015-01-01

    Zhe Gong Man Lu was written by Huang Chenghao in the Ming Dynasty which consisted of seven volumes. This book contains excellent medical essays in traditional Chinese medicine based on the clinical experience of the author. The contents ofZhe Gong Man Lu focus on three issues, such as replenishing the vital energy, keeping in good health and medicine. The name ofZhe Gong Man Lu originated from the proverb “Excellent doctors can endure the pain similar to three times of humeral fracture ”. The third volume of Zhe Gong Man Lu explained the comments on medicine on basis of 53 kind of Chinese herbs which were tasted by the author and applied in his clinical experience, with preciseness and characteristics. This article analyzed the comments on medicine inZhe Gong Man Luin order to extend the knowledge of doctors.%《折肱漫录》为明代黄承昊撰辑,凡7卷,是医话著作中的精品。作者以自身治病用药的经验为主,汇集了养神、养形、医药3个方面内容,取“三折肱而为良医”之义,著成此书。“品药”出自卷3,黄氏对53种口所亲尝、身所亲历的常用药物加以评述,甚为精当,极有特色。本文将对“品药”的内容进行分析,以增广临证之视野。

  2. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  3. Les Totonaques aujourd’hui, entre crise du développement et nouvelles revendications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ellison

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available La population de langue totonaque, qui compte aujourd’hui un peu plus de 400,000 locuteurs, se concentre principalement dans le nord-est de l’Etat de Puebla et le centre-nord de l’Etat de Veracruz. C’est la région du Totonacapan, le « pays totonaque ». La langue totonaque constitue avec le tepehua un groupe isolé, mais on sait que les Totonaques ont participé à la construction des fameuses pyramides de Teotihuacan (au nord de Mexico avant de s’installer sur le pourtour du Golfe du Mexique, ...

  4. GongXi与TCu220C宫内节育环临床效果比较观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦健容; 邓晓燕

    2008-01-01

    目的:比较宫喜(GongXi)活性官腔形宫内节育环(IUD)和TCu220C IUD的临床使用效果.方法:选择自愿放置IUD的已婚育龄妇女400例,随机分成两组(200例),分别放置宫喜IUD和TCu220C IUD,并进行12个月随访观察.结果:宫喜IUD的因症取出率显著低于TCu220c IUD(P<0.05),妊娠率、脱落率、宫喜IUD与TCu220C IUD比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论:宫喜IUD是避孕效果优于TCu220C IUD,可在临床上推广使用.

  5. Levi Strauss and H&M Announce Ban on Sandblasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a commitment to the health and safety of workers across the apparel industry, Levi Strauss & Co. and Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) announced plans to implement a global ban on sandblasting in all of their future product

  6. Comparison of the HUI3 and the EQ-5D-3L in a nursing home setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Accurately assessing changes in the quality of life of older people living permanently in nursing homes is important. The multi-attribute utility instrument most commonly used and recommended to assess health-related quality of life in the nursing home population is the three-level EuroQol EQ-5D-3L. To date, there have been no studies using the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3). The purpose of this study was to compare the level of agreement and sensitivity to change of the EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 in a nursing home population. Methods EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 scores were measured as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial of nurse led care coordination in a nursing home population in Perth, Western Australia at baseline and 6-month follow up. Results Both measures were completed for 199 residents at baseline and 177 at 6-month follow-up. Mean baseline utility scores for EQ-5D-3L (0.45; 95% CI 0.41–0.49) and HUI3 (0.15; 95% CI 0.10–0.20) were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.01) and agreement was poor to moderate between absolute scores from each instrument (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.63). The EQ-5D-3L appeared more sensitive to change over the 6-month period. Conclusion Our findings show that the EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 estimate different utility scores among nursing home residents. These differences should be taken into account, particularly when considering the implications of the cost-effectiveness of particular interventions and we conclude that the HUI3 is no better suited to measuring health-related quality of life in a nursing home population when compared to the EQ-5D-3L. PMID:28234983

  7. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  8. Understanding individual attitudes towards ban on smoking in public places

    OpenAIRE

    Zasimova, Liudmila; Kossova, Elena; Ryazanova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses factors that have impact on individual attitudes towards bans on smoking in a number of public places — hospitals, universities, work sites, sports facilities, cafes and restaurants, bars and clubs. Using data from national public opinion survey conducted in 2011 by Levada Center for HSE we show that support of smoking bans varies across types of public places and depends on different social and economic characteristics of individuals. Smoking is an important but not the o...

  9. [A preliminary report on the investigation of medicinal plant resources in the Liupan Mountains of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Pu, X; Sun, J; Zhang, G

    1990-02-01

    In this paper, 423 species of medicinal plants belonging to 94 families in Liupan Mountains of Ningzia Hui Autonomous Region have been reported, of which 403 species belonging to 79 families are medicinal spermatophytes. The paper may serve as a reference for medical authorities in developing and utilizing plant resources.

  10. Experience of Professor Gong Lijuan in the Treatment of Sweating from the Head%龚丽娟教授治疗“头汗”经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛钧

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the experiences of Professor Gong Lijuan in treating sweating from the head. Methods:Experiences of professor Gong Lijuan in treating sweating from the head were analy2ed and summarized through learning with the teacher. Results: Professor Gong Lijuan regarded the methods of Zhang Zhongjing as the key link,adopted the methods of three causes and flexibly treating sweating from the head. Her syndrome differentiation and treatment attributed to heat in the lesser yang, internal accumulation of dampness-heat , accumulation of water-heat in the chest, debilitation of the life gate fire, repectively adopted the methods of harmonizing and releasing the lesser yang, opening on to the triple ehergizers, clearing and discharging fire, draining dampness and smoothing gallbladder,expeling retained fluid by drastic purgation, discharging heat and breaking binds, replenishing fire and warming yang, assisting kidney and filling essence,and so on. Conclusion:Gong Lijuan has achieved significant efficacy in treating sweating from the head.%目的:总结龚丽娟教授治疗“头汗”经验.方法:通过跟师学习,总结、分析龚丽娟教授治疗“头汗”的方法.结果:龚丽娟教授论治“头汗”,以仲景之法为纲,三因制宜,灵活变通,具体辨证多责之少阳热郁,湿热内蕴,水热结胸,命门火衰,分别采用和解少阳、畅达三焦,清热泄热、利湿利胆,峻下逐水、泄热破结,益火温阳、补肾填精等治法.结论:龚丽娟教授治疗“头汗”疗效显著.

  11. Smoking bans in secure psychiatric hospitals and prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Danny H; Rees, Megan A

    2014-09-01

    The proposal of complete smoking bans in closed institutions, such as prisons and psychiatric hospitals, creates a tension between individual "rights" and the health of all members of that community. Smokers in closed institutions generally smoke more, suffer more health consequences and are less likely to quit than smokers in other settings. Complete smoking bans do not cause an increase in behavioural problems, nor do bans cause worsening of mental illness or quality of life. Although infrequently tested, the responsibility of public institutions to protect others from second-hand smoke has usually outweighed any individual "right to smoke" in legal judgments. A substantial cultural shift may be required from considering smoking a "rare pleasure" during detention to the realisation that smoking is the most significant reversible health risk factor for this population. The implementation of complete smoking bans in closed institutions is challenging and requires careful and proactive planning by staff. As complete smoking bans are being considered in many institutions and jurisdictions, this column presents a review of the evidence base and ethical issues involved.

  12. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  13. Impact of the balance billing ban on California emergency providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Bing; Riner, Myles; Chan, Theodore C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  14. Evidence of Qi-gong energy and its biological effect on the enhancement of the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Kataoka, T; Hamada, C; Matsumoto, M

    2001-01-01

    In order to test for an effect of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) treated externally with Qi energy ("Qi-treated" PBS) on the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), rigorously controlled experiments employing masking and randomized procedures were carried out under independent monitoring. In all experiments, Qi treatment was externally applied under monitoring to newly purchased unopened 100 ml bottles of PBS, and the PMN phagocytic activity was assayed by one experimenter in masked, randomized and monitored conditions using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence method. Phagocytic activity data were obtained in triplicate for each sample and then statistically analyzed. The PBS samples Qi-treated by the Qi-gong master and by one of the Qi-gong trainees showed clear stimulation of PMN phagocytic activity which was significant statistically, and this phenomenon was highly reproducible. Out of 10 experiments by the Qi-gong master, only twice did Qi-treatment fail to influence the PBS. The activity of Qi-treated PBS decayed over days or weeks. Furthermore, it was found that Qi-treated PBS had decreased phagocytic stimulatory activity after microwave treatment, but not after autoclave treatment. We also demonstrated that microwave irradiation and infrared laser pulse irradiation have similar effects on PBS as Qi-treatment. The results obtained in this experiment provide evidence of the existence of Qi energy, its ability to influence an electrolyte solution and its biological effect. Furthermore, microwave or infrared laser pulse treatment was found to partly mimic the Qi-treatment of PBS.

  15. Study on the art of language of Feng Gong's sketch%冯巩小品语言艺术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李馥君

    2013-01-01

    Feng Gong's sketch was a public concern, the main reason were the characteristics of the language approach, humorous joke, vivid interpretation. So his sketch loved by all of us. In this article, the language of Feng Gong's sketch in recent years are analyzed and explored by the voice pronunciation, vocabulary and sentence structure .And summarizes the expression features of the characteristics of the language of the Feng Gong's sketch.%冯巩的小品被大众所关注,主要是因为特色化的语言方式,诙谐幽默的笑料,生动形象的演绎,使得他的小品深受大家的喜爱。本文主要通过语音、词汇、句式方面将冯巩近几年小品的语言进行分析和探究,概括出冯巩小品特色化语言的表达特点。

  16. Gao Gong "Retaliation" Question Discrimination——Since by Wang Shizhen "Jiajing auxiliary biography Gao Gong Biography" is a center%丑诋与厚诬:高拱“报复”问题辨析——以王世贞《嘉靖以来首辅传·高拱传》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳天雷

    2011-01-01

    明代嘉、隆时期政治家和改革家高拱的"报复"问题,可谓由来已久。追根溯源,这一问题盖出自王世贞《嘉靖以来首辅传》之《高拱传》。该传作为高拱逝世后最早的一篇传记,多半篇幅叙述他倾轧同僚,报复朝官,排斥异己,贪赃纳贿等,从而使高拱背负"报复"恶名,并对其后史家修撰的多篇《高拱传》及其现今史学界也产生了严重负面影响。澄清这一问题,对如实评价高拱的政治品格和道德操守具有重要意义。%The Ming Dynasty statesman and the reformer Gao Gong "the retaliation" the question,as if has become the conclusion in the history educational world,however this does not tally with the historical fact.Gets to the bottom,since this question has stemmed from Wang Shizhen most early "Jiajing an Auxiliary Biography""Gao Gong Biography".Not only,therefore should the biography cause Gao Gong to shoulder repairs resentful,nurses a grudge "the retaliation" the evil reputation,moreover many which composes to the Ming and Qing Dynasties historian "Gao Gong Biography" and the nowadays history educational world has had the serious negative influence.Discriminates this question,is helpful in makes to Gao Gong political moral character and the moral personal integrity conforms to the historical evidence appraisal.

  17. Perceptions and influences of a state prison smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Laura; Seal, David W; Jorenby, Douglas E; Corcoran, Kerri; Sosman, James M

    2012-10-01

    Prison smoking bans are increasingly common. It is important to consider how those who are incarcerated respond to these bans and to the subsequent development of contraband tobacco markets. Since there are high rates of smoking in individuals who become incarcerated, along with high rates of chronic illnesses that are exacerbated by smoking, it is critical to examine whether there are health promoting changes in perceptions of and intentions toward smoking and other health behaviors that can be maintained on release to the community. Interviews with incarcerated men experiencing a prison smoking ban revealed their responses to being smoke-free, reactions to the presence of contraband smoking, and the influences of this experience on their intentions to smoke following release.

  18. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  19. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the

  20. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report

  1. Study Challenges Assumptions about Affirmative-Action Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the results of a new study on the impact of bans on race-conscious admissions policies which seem to confirm what many critics of affirmative action have long suspected: It is Asian-Americans, rather than whites, who are most disadvantaged by elite universities' consideration of ethnicity and race. Left unanswered are the…

  2. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  3. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Offer Tools for Nuclear Testing—and Solving Nuclear Mysteries ,” Washington Post, November 1, 2011, p. 1. Horovitz, Liviu, “A Detour Strategy for the...Today, October 2009, pp. 46-52. Kimball, Daryl, “Reconsidering the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Sorting Fact from Fiction ,” Arms Control Association

  4. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  5. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  6. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use…

  7. Burn Bans lifted for Tribal Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties on Jan. 11, Ban Continues for Yakama Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is lifting its burn ban on open burning for the Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Sauk-Suiattle and Puyallup Indian Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties due to improved air quality, effective at 8:00 a.m., Janu

  8. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  9. Association of TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese Hui population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xu, J R; Wang, Y J; Liu, X M

    2015-08-21

    Diabetes is one of costly chronic diseases. Previous studies across several ethnicities have shown that polymorphisms in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene were strongly associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In the present study, the association between the TCF7L2 gene and the susceptibility to T2DM in a Chinese Hui population was interrogated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and allelic specific PCR were employed for examining the TCF7L2 gene rs12255372 (G>T) and rs290487 (C>T), and rs7901695 (T>C) polymorphisms, respectively, in 109 healthy individuals and 111 subjects with T2DM who were of Chinese Hui descent and lived in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China. The results showed that the genotypic frequency of rs290487 and the allelic frequency distributions of the rs7901695 and rs290487 loci were not significantly different between patients and controls in this population. However, both the genotypic and the allelic frequencies at rs12255372 exhibited statistical differences between the patients with T2DM and the unaffected cohort (P 2255372 locus in the patients was higher than that in healthy individuals (OR = 1.198, 95%CI = 1.097-1.307). These findings suggest that the TCF7L2 rs12255372 (G>T) polymorphism might be one of the most important genetic factors associated with T2DM susceptibility, and that individuals in the Chinese Hui population who carry a G allele at this locus might be at risk to develop T2DM.

  10. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  11. 76 FR 56754 - Petition Requesting Ban on Use and Production of Atrazine; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... AGENCY Petition Requesting Ban on Use and Production of Atrazine; Notice of Availability AGENCY... the environmental advocacy group Save the Frogs that EPA ban the use and production of atrazine. DATES... environmental advocacy group Save the Frogs requesting that EPA ban the use and production of atrazine. This...

  12. Evaluation of the Chinese Fine Spatial Resolution Hyperspectral Satellite TianGong-1 in Urban Land-Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueke Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The successful launch of the Chinese high spatial resolution hyperspectral satellite TianGong-1 (TG-1 opens up new possibilities for applications of remotely-sensed satellite imagery. One of the main goals of the TG-1 mission is to provide observations of surface attributes at local and landscape spatial scales to map urban land cover accurately using the hyperspectral technique. This study attempted to evaluate the TG-1 datasets for urban feature analysis, using existing data over Beijing, China, by comparing the TG-1 (with a spatial resolution of 10 m to EO-1 Hyperion (with a spatial resolution of 30 m. The spectral feature of TG-1 was first analyzed and, thus, finding out optimal hyperspectral wavebands useful for the discrimination of urban areas. Based on this, the pixel-based maximum likelihood classifier (PMLC, pixel-based support vector machine (PSVM, hybrid maximum likelihood classifier (HMLC, and hybrid support vector machine (HSVM were implemented, as well as compared in the application of mapping urban land cover types. The hybrid classifier approach, which integrates the pixel-based classifier and the object-based segmentation approach, was demonstrated as an effective alternative to the conventional pixel-based classifiers for processing the satellite hyperspectral data, especially the fine spatial resolution data. For TG-1 imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 89.1%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 91.8%. For Hyperion imagery, the pixel-based urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 85.9%, whereas the hybrid urban classification was obtained with an average overall accuracy of 86.7%. Overall, it can be concluded that the fine spatial resolution satellite hyperspectral data TG-1 is promising in delineating complex urban scenes, especially when using an appropriate classifier, such as the

  13. Le Dictionnaire québécois d’aujourd’hui : Enquête sur les registres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Guillot

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Dictionnaire québécois d’aujourd’hui came out in 1992. The publication of this dictionary sparked a controversy on, among other things, word labeling. The language registers given for many words did not seem to reflect how Quebec francophones felt about them. The debate was such that, one year later, a second edition was produced. The main changes made concern the language registers of a number of entries, on which this time, Quebec francophones would agree. A survey was therefore carried out to determine whether the registers indicated in Le Dictionnaire québécois d’aujourd’hui correspond to Quebec francophones’ linguistic intuitions. A 50-word questionnaire was given to 150 respondents, who were asked to assign a language register to each word. The results of this survey have led to the conclusion that the registers given in Le Dictionnaire québécois d’aujourd’hui often do not correspond to the intuitions of Quebec francophones.

  14. Drought Adaptation in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China: Actions, Planning, Pathways and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NX region of Northwestern China is threatened by increased meteorological drought induced by climate change (CC and constraints on water supply from the Yellow River. Thus, the NX region is representative of attempts to adapt to CC and variability in China’s arid regions. Field visits, a questionnaire and in situ inspections were conducted in 2012–2014 to understand people’s perception and awareness of drought and its impact, particularly with respect to adaptation strategies. We mainly focused on drought adaptation actions and planning implemented at the government level under the double pressures of drought and allocation. We described a suitable adaptation pathway for socio-economic sustainable development and discussed existing adaptation barriers. Construction of modern efficient water-saving agriculture lies at the core of drought adaptation, with socio-economic sustainable development being the ultimate goal. To achieve this, policies and institutional, engineering, technological, structural and social initiatives and measures—classified into macro adaptation strategies and specific coping measures—are implemented. Adaptation often encounters obstacles, e.g., policy issues from household contract responsibility systems, funding difficulties of low-income farmers, traditional behavioral habits and low education and literacy levels among farmers. The adaptation pathway involves the construction of modern efficient water-saving agriculture. Agricultural water savings are then transferred to developed industries, which back-feed socio-economic sustainable development in the NX region.

  15. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Mariotti, Chiara; Vicinanza, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Au vu de la forte demande, la conférence sera également disponible en vidéoconférence : lien d'accès "webcast" disponible en bas de cette page. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinai...

  16. Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui - English

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Marie Curie, les femmes et la science, d'hier à aujourd'hui Conférence par Hélène Langevin-Joliot Avec la participation de l'Echo du Reculet de Thoiry. L'enregistrement et la liste d'attente sont déjà complets... Mais il n'est pas rare que des personnes réservent et ne viennent pas. Nous réassignerons les places libérées selon la règle "premier arrivé, premier inscrit". Nous envisageons la possibilité de faire un webcast de la conférence. Plus d'information bientôt. Hélène Langevin-Joliot, directrice de recherche émérite en physique nucléaire fondamentale au CNRS à Orsay, est aussi la fille de Frédéric et Irène Joliot-Curie (prix Nobel de chimie en 1935) et la petite-fille de Pierre Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903) et de Marie Curie (prix Nobel de physique en 1903 et prix Nobel de chimie en 1911). Hélène Langevin-Joliot nous parlera de sa vie scientifique, de l’histoire extraordinaire de sa famille et en particulier du rôle des ...

  17. [Stabilization of the distal radioulnar joint by Hui-Lindscheid ligamentoplasty. Report of 10 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchaud, C; Savioz, D; Della Santa, D

    1996-01-01

    The surgical treatment of chronic sprain of the distal radio-ulnar joint remains a difficult problem. Some authors have proposed a radio-ulnar stabilization procedure which involves some loss of mobility of the forearm. Other, more radical authors, have suggested partial or complete resection of the ulnar head. In this case, they restore mobility in prono-supination, but often with a loss of stability and discomfort or pain. Hui and Lindscheid modified a technique of tenodesis which had been previously proposed by Bunnell. They perfected a tenodesis based on the use of the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. We feel that this procedure should ensure stability of the distal radio-ulnar joint, while preserving its mobility. We used this technique in 9 patients who were reviewed with a follow-up of 2.7 years. The authors obtained 2/3 of good and very good results. This procedure will be compared with other techniques currently used and differences of the results will be discussed. Unfortunately, few articles have been published on this subject.

  18. A Remote Sensing Model to Estimate Sunshine Duration in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓晨; 邱新法; 曾燕; 高佳琦; 何永健

    2015-01-01

    Sunshine duration (SD) is strongly correlated with solar radiation, and is most widely used to estimate the latter. This study builds a remote sensing model on a 100 m × 100 m spatial resolution to estimate SD for the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Digital elevation model (DEM) data are employed to refl ect topography, and moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud products (Aqua MYD06−L2 and Terra MOD06−L2) are used to estimate sunshine percentage. Based on the terrain (e.g., slope, aspect, and terrain shadowing degree) and the atmospheric conditions (e.g., air molecules, aerosols, moisture, cloud cover, and cloud types), observation data from weather stations are also incorporated into the model. Verifi cation results indicate that the model simulations match reasonably with the observations, with the average relative error of the total daily SD being 2.21%. Further data analysis reveals that the variation of the estimated SD is consistent with that of the maximum possible SD; its spatial variation is so substantial that the estimated SD diff ers signifi cantly between the south-facing and north-facing slopes, and its seasonal variation is also large throughout the year.

  19. Land cover change during a period of extensive landscape restoration in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid Restrepo, Angela M; Yang, Yu Rong; Hamm, Nicholas A S; Gray, Darren J; Barnes, Tamsin S; Williams, Gail M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; McManus, Donald P; Guo, Danhuai; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-11-15

    Environmental change has been a topic of great interest over the last century due to its potential impact on ecosystem services that are fundamental for sustainable development and human well-being. Here, we assess and quantify the spatial and temporal variation in land cover in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), China. With high-resolution (30m) imagery from Landsat 4/5-TM and 8-OLI for the entire region, land cover maps of the region were created to explore local land cover changes in a spatially explicit way. The results suggest that land cover changes observed in NHAR from 1991 to 2015 reflect the main goals of a national policy implemented there to recover degraded landscapes. Forest, herbaceous vegetation and cultivated land increased by approximately 410,200ha, 708,600ha and 164,300ha, respectively. The largest relative land cover change over the entire study period was the increase in forestland. Forest growth resulted mainly from the conversion of herbaceous vegetation (53.8%) and cultivated land (30.8%). Accurate information on the local patterns of land cover in NHAR may contribute to the future establishment of better landscape policies for ecosystem management and protection. Spatially explicit information on land cover change may also help decision makers to understand and respond appropriately to emerging environmental risks for the local population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New geranylated flavanones from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong with their anti-proliferative activity on lung cancer cells A549.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian-yang; Jin, Xing; Tang, Wen-zhao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Yun-xue

    2015-09-01

    Three new geranylated flavanones, named as paucatalinone A (1), B (2), and isopaucatalinone B (3), were isolated from the fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong (Scrophulariaceae). Their structures were well determined by means of IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD techniques. Paucatalinone A (1) is the first sample as a dimeric geranylated flavanone derivative isolated from natural products. Paucatalinone A (1) displayed good antiproliferative effects on human lung cancer cells A549 and resulted in a clear increase of the percentage of cells in G1 phase and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases in comparison with control cells.

  1. Using Health Utility Index (HUI for Measuring the Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL Among Individuals with Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Mo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life is an important indicator in assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions. The Health Utilities Index (HUI is a recently developed system for measuring the overall health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL of individuals, clinical groups, and general populations. Using the HUI (constructed based on eight attributes: vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain/discomfort to measure the HRQL for chronic disease patients and to detect possible associations between HUI system and various chronic conditions, this study provides information to improve the management of chronic diseases.This study is of interest to data analysts, policy makers, and public health practitioners involved in descriptive clinical studies, clinical trials, program evaluation, population health planning, and assessments. Based on the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS for 2000–01, the HUI was used to measure the quality of life for individuals living with various chronic conditions (Alzheimer/other dementia, effects of stroke, urinary incontinence, arthritis/rheumatism, bowel disorder, cataracts, back problems, stomach/intestinal ulcers, emphysema/COPD, chronic bronchitis, epilepsy, heart disease, diabetes, migraine headaches, glaucoma, asthma, fibromyalgia, cancers, high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, thyroid condition, and other remaining chronic diseases. Logistic Regression Model was employed to estimate the associations between the overall HUI scores and various chronic conditions. The HUI scores ranged from 0.00 (corresponding to a state close to death to 1.00 (corresponding to perfect health; negative scores reflect health states considered worse than death. The mean HUI score by sex and age group indicated the typical quality of life for persons with various chronic conditions. Logistic Regression results showed a strong relationship between low HUI scores (≤ 0.5 and 0.06

  2. Managing asbestos in Italy: twenty years after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Establishing an asbestos ban is not sufficient to achieve effective primary prevention. Twenty years after the Italian asbestos ban, the residual presence of asbestos-containing materials, estimated to be 80 percent of the quantity existing in 1992, may still be the cause of negative effects to the health of workers and the general population. The so called "asbestos way-out" at this rate of cleaning up, roughly 1 percent per year, is too slow, and new policy to re-discuss the entire process is needed. Encouragement of the owners with tax relief when the substitution of the asbestos roofs is performed with photovoltaic panels, as well as reducing the cost of removal planning local landfills may be the keys to accelerate the cleanup process.

  3. Welfare impact of a ban on child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a new rationale for imposing restrictions on child labor. In a standard overlapping generation model where parental altruism results in transfers that children allocate to consumption and education, the Nash-Cournot equilibrium results in suboptimal levels of parental transfers and does not maximize the average level of utility of currently living agents. A ban on child labor decreases children's income and generates an increase in parental transfers bringing their levels closer to the optimum, raising children's welfare as well as average welfare in the short run and in the long run. Moreover, the inability to work allows children to allocate more time to education, and it leads to an increase in human capital. Besides, to increase transfers, parents decrease savings and hence physical capital accumulation. When prices are flexible, these effects diminish the positive welfare impact of the ban on child labor.

  4. Homework Should Be Banned in Primary Schools in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧雅

    2013-01-01

    Recently in China, most parents, when asked about the attitudes towards homework, favor homework as a necessity for practice because the college entrance examination still exists. Admittedly, homework guarantees students ’command of knowl-edge and better prepares one for the coming tests. However, for pupils, the assigned homework to be finished during the non-school hours is detrimental to individual health, family relationships, realization of schools ’educational goals and societal equality. In addition, homework for kids, against its original intention in practice, can’t help kids learn efficiently and thus should be banned. This essay focuses on specific reasons in various aspects why homework should be banned.

  5. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the world, with particular focus on three serious implications for the public: (a) uncertainty about the physician's interests, namely, that patients must trust the physician to put patient wellbeing ahead of possible gains when taking medical decisions; (b) uncertainty about alternative treatments, namely, that patients must trust in the physician's treatment decisions; and (c) uncertainty about the exclusive patient-physician relationship, namely, that patients must develop and maintain a good relationship with one physician. Physician advertising bans continue to tell the public in most of the modern world that these are irrelevant or inappropriate issues, meaning that they are effectively left to the public to resolve.

  6. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    09/205_119828.html; and Foster Klug and Matthew Pennington, “Photos Show NKorea Nuclear Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http...the CTBT, lack of Chinese ratification, U.S. efforts to seek renegotiation of the ABM Treaty, and efforts to ban nuclear weapons in the Middle East led...Readiness,” Associated Press/ ABC News, December 28, 2012, http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/ap- exclusive-photos-show-nkorea-nuclear

  8. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  9. Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Chitanondh, Hathai; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans Introduction Countrywide household surveys by the National Statistical Office have been the main source of information support for tobacco control in Thailand. The first, second and third surveys were carried out in 1976, 1981 and 1986 (five year intervals). Thereafter the surveys were carried out every two years. For the past two decades, the total number of smokers has risen, presumably as a result ...

  10. Does banning affirmative action harm college student quality?

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Banning affirmative action from college admissions decisions cannot prevent an admissions office that cares about diversity from achieving it through channels other than the explicit consideration of race. We construct a model of college admissions where candidates from two groups with different average qualifications compete for a fixed number of seats. When an admissions office that cares both about the quality and diversity of its entering class can use group identity as a criterion for ad...

  11. « Comment le sais-tu ? ». La paralepse, aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available À partir des définitions genettiennes de la paralepse (excès d’informations par rapport au code modal dominant, il s’agit de cerner les usages et les fonctions du procédé dans la littérature narrative d’aujourd’hui, en relation homo- ou hétérodiégétique, en régime fictionnel ou semi-fictionnel. Des exemples prélevés dans divers récits contemporains (de Roegiers, Toussaint, Carrère, Echenoz permettent de constater que la paralepse assure un renouvellement du soupçon à l’époque actuelle, en jouant un rôle de révélateur épistémologique. En effet, ce procédé narratif paradoxal engage une réflexion en acte sur la fiction, son perspectivisme, ses capacités de modélisation, et ses pouvoirs heuristiques.Based upon Gerard Genette’s definitions of paralepsis, (information exceeding that normally offered by the dominant mode of narrative focalisation, this article seeks to outline the uses and functions of the device in contemporary narrative literature, through its homo and heterodiegetic positioning in both fictional and semi-fictional texts. Examples taken from a variety of contemporary stories (Roegiers, Toussaint, Carrère, Echenoz allow us to see that paralepsis plays a role of epistemological indicator, facilitating a contemporary renewal of suspicion (le soupçon concerning narration. In fact, this paradoxical narrative device brings about a reflection upon fiction, its perspectivism, its modelling capabilities and heuristic capacities.

  12. Impact of "Grain to Green" Programme on echinococcosis infection in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Eimear; Barnes, Tamsin S; Xu, Yangyang; Zhao, Hengbo; Clements, Archie C A; Gray, Darren J; McManus, Donald P; Atkinson, Jo-An M; Williams, Gail M; Yang, YuRong

    2014-10-15

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is endemic among the human population of Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, where the prevalence is estimated to be between 2.2% and 3.6%. Government-run sheep abattoirs in Xiji County have closed in recent years and, as a consequence, slaughter is carried out mostly at rural market places. The market place in Xinglong Township, Xiji County, is home to an increasing number of stray dogs and the lack of government control over slaughter practices potentially favours Echinococcus granulosus transmission. A survey of sheep, goats and cattle reared in Xiji County was conducted in Xinglong Market and Xinglong Township to determine prevalence and transmission dynamics of E. granulosus infection. The liver and lungs of all livestock aged one year and older were examined macroscopically post mortem; visual examination and palpation of organs determined overall prevalence of E. granulosus. Cysts consistent in appearance with E. granulosus were observed in 2/184 sheep (prevalence 1.0%) and 1/55 of the cattle examined (prevalence 1.8%); 0/13 goats were found to be infected. However, microscopic examination of these suspected cysts failed to confirm these samples as E. granulosus, giving a prevalence of confirmed infection of zero percent in all three species. The prevalence of liver fluke was 61.3% in sheep and 12.7% in cattle with a significant difference between males and females (p ≤ 0.001). Considering the high prevalence of echinococcosis in the local human population, the absence of CE observed among commercially slaughtered livestock was surprising. Several explanations for this discrepancy and their implications are proposed.

  13. [Carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Jin, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Su, Ji-Shuai; Zhu, Ren-Bin; Ma, Zheng-Rui; Liu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Based on the data of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region forest resources inventory, field investigation and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the carbon sequestration status of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region, estimated the carbon density and storage of forest ecosystems, and analyzed their spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that the biomass of each forest vegetation component was in the order of arbor layer (46.64 Mg x hm(-2)) > litterfall layer (7.34 Mg x hm(-2)) > fine root layer (6.67 Mg x hm(-2)) > shrub-grass layer (0.73 Mg x hm(-2)). Spruce (115.43 Mg x hm(-2)) and Pinus tabuliformis (94.55 Mg x hm(-2)) had higher vegetation biomasses per unit area than other tree species. Over-mature forest had the highest arbor carbon density among the forests with different ages. However, the young forest had the highest arbor carbon storage (1.90 Tg C) due to its widest planted area. Overall, the average carbon density of forest ecosystems in Ningxia region was 265.74 Mg C x hm(-2), and the carbon storage was 43.54 Tg C. Carbon density and storage of vegetation were 27.24 Mg C x hm(-2) and 4.46 Tg C, respectively. Carbon storage in the soil was 8.76 times of that in the vegetation. In the southern part of Ningxia region, the forest carbon storage was higher than in the northern part, where the low C storage was mainly related to the small forest area and young forest age structure. With the improvement of forest age structure and the further implementation of forestry ecoengineering, the forest ecosystems in Ningxia region would achieve a huge carbon sequestration potential.

  14. The effects of lian gong in hypertensives attended a family healthcare unit in the city of Parnaíba, Piauí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elce de Seixas Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the effects of Lian Gong in hypertensive users of Family Health Unity. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study, involving 20 volunteers, regardless of gender, aged 45 to 70 years residing in the city of Parnaíba-PI, Brazil. The intervention was performed in quiet and noise-free environment, from August to September 2011, three times per week, with a total of 30 sessions. We used the tool Focus Group at the beginning and end of the intervention. We applied the technique of thematic analysis of the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD using three methodological approaches: main idea, key expressions and CSD. Basic statistics operations were used (percentages to quantify the lines. Results: Before the intervention, the group reported having hypertension perceived by the manifestation of physical symptoms and / or psychic symptoms based on the diagnosis and treatment rejection, revealing a superficial level of knowledge or misinformation about the disease. After the intervention, improvement in physical and emotional symptoms, social relationships and family was reported, as well as the difficulty of changing habits, which can be alleviated with the interdisciplinary support and continuation of exercise. Final Thoughts: The practice of Lian Gong was effective for improving the physical and emotional state of hypertensive patients and may be an adjuvant therapy to control hypertension in primary health care.

  15. Guan Gong legend and the folk characteristics of numerous varieties%关公传说及其多种变体的民俗特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴欣馨

    2012-01-01

      民间传说作为劳动人民的“口传历史”,在记录与之相对应的民众信仰时起到了不可忽视的作用。正是由于口传身教的民众心理和讲述的人物形象具有普遍、广泛的社会功能,而使其在不断地发展演变中得以流传下来。关公传说作为体现关公信仰及其历史发展的一个侧面,为我们展现了它丰富多彩的民俗特色和实际意义。%  Folk tales as labor's"oral history", play a role can not be ignored in the record corresponding to the popular religion. It is due to oral teaching the populace psychology and tells the characters having a generally, a wide range of social functions, and survives in the continuous evolution. Guan Gong legend as the embodiment of belief in Guan Gong and its historical development as a side, shows us its rich and colorful folk characteristics and practical significance.

  16. External evaluation of the Ban Nam Paeng & Ban Nam Ki ComMod case study in Nan Province, Northern Thailand : Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Patamadit, I.

    2007-01-01

    Verslag van de evaluatie rondom het gebruik van Companion Modelling (ComMod) bij projecten in Ban Nam Paeng & Ban Nam Ki, in de provincie Nan, in het noorden van Thailand. Een van de doelen is om de lokale bevolking (meer) inspraak te geven bij besluitvorming rond bijvoorbeeld het oprichten van

  17. Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 24 Y-chromosomal STR in Chinese Hui ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Wen-Juan; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Lv, Zhe; Dong, Nan; Li, Qiong; Yang, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Hou, Yin-Ling; Qian, Li; Fan, Shuan-Liang; Xu, Peng

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 115 unrelated Hui male individuals from Haiyuan county or Tongxin county, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, to evaluate the forensic application of the 24 STR loci and to analyze interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Hui group data and previously published data of other 13 populations. A total of 115 different haplotypes were observed on these 24 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.4049 (DYS437) to 0.9729 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 1 at AGCU 24 Y-STR loci level, while the values were reduced to 0.999237, 0.996949, and 0.996644 at the Y-filer 17 loci, 11 Y-STR loci of extended haplotype and 9 Y-STR loci of minimal haplotype levels, respectively; whereas, haplotype diversity for additional 7 loci (not included in Y-filer 17 loci) was 0.995271. The pairwise FST , multidimensional scaling plot and neighbor-joining tree indicated the Hui group had the closest genetic relationship with Sala in the paternal lineage in the present study. In summary, the results in our study indicated the 24 Y-STRs had a high level of polymorphism in Hui group and hence could be a powerful tool for forensic application and population genetic study.

  18. PROMINENT PERSONNEL YIN Hui-jin(殷惠军)——An Outstanding Cardiologist of Integrative Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Prof.YIN Hui-jin,Ph.D.,male,was born on March 26,1971 in Ningxia.He graduated from Ningxia Medical College in 1994 with a 5-year course and got a bachelor degree,and then further studied in Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine from 1994 to 2000 for master and Ph.D.degrees.And then he worked in postdoctoral mobile working station of Open Laboratory of Heredity and Molecule Development Biology of China Academy of Science from 2000 to 2002.

  19. Sur l’emploi des toponymes du Kosovo-Metohija en français d’aujourd’hui

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Selena

    2015-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous analysons l’emploi des noms de lieux du Kosovo-Metohija en langue française depuis la fin du XXe siècle jusqu’à aujourd’hui. La période citée se caractérise par un vaste usage de l’albanais et de l’anglais et par un usage très réduit du serbe dans la communication publique et officielle au Kosovo-Metohija. Les instances internationales admettent le changement de désignations toponymiques et la suppression des noms basés sur un context...

  20. Transaction Pattern Based on Secondary Clientelism, Business Ideology and Market Development: The case of lime market in Hui Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Secondary clientelism is a special exchange relationship derived from primary clientelism. The market with transactions dependent on the secondary clientelism would be”because of”erembeddedness”. Using the lime market in Hui Town as a case, this paper tries to explore why this kind of markets could achieve market order from the perspective of the interconnection of market structure and market culture. Analysis demonstrates that, the coupling induction of structural embeddedness and cultural embeddedness is the deeper mechanism for the market development. Although the new business ideology and transactional dependence on networks originate from market structural transitions, active construction and choice behaviors of the manufacturers still manifest great importance.

  1. The impact of texting bans on motor vehicle crash-related hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Alva O; Menachemi, Nir; Blackburn, Justin L; Sen, Bisakha; Nelson, Leonard; Morrisey, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We used a panel design and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 19 states between 2003 and 2010 to examine the impact of texting bans on crash-related hospitalizations. We conducted conditional negative binomial regressions with state, year, and month fixed effects to examine changes in crash-related hospitalizations in states after the enactment of a texting ban relative to those in states without such bans. Results indicate that texting bans were associated with a 7% reduction in crash-related hospitalizations among all age groups. Texting bans were significantly associated with reductions in hospitalizations among those aged 22 to 64 years and those aged 65 years or older. Marginal reductions were seen among adolescents. States that have not passed strict texting bans should consider doing so.

  2. 明清徽州火灾及徽商的救助%Fire Disasters in Hui Region and Hui Business People’ s Relief in Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆辉仔

    2014-01-01

    The fire disasters in Hui region are usually seasonal and regional though it may caused by people or nature .The fire disaster here is partly due to its own characters .The busi-ness people of Hui were humanistic and often provided aid for precaution and relief after disas -ters and therefore ease the disasters .%徽州地区的火灾具有季节集中性和地点集中性,发生的原因有人为的,也有自然的。由于徽州地区自身因素,徽州火灾的危害也极为严重。然而,具有儒士品格的徽商在火灾发生之前的预防举措和灾后的救助,使这里的火灾受害程度得以减轻。徽商对徽州地区火灾救助给予了很大的帮助。

  3. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP, Caesalpinia sappan (CS, Evodia rutaecarpa (ER, Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA, Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH, Tumeric (Tu, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, and Trogopterus Dung (TD effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv. (AS, Tabanus (Ta, and Pollen Typhae (PT, which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle

  4. Banning PRF programmer's manual. [considering MOS integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelthau, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    This manual describes a modification of the Banning placement routing folding program. The modifications to this program have been made to implement it on a Sigma 5 computer. Flow charts of various levels, beginning with high level functional diagrams and working down to the level of detail deemed necessary to understand the operations of the various sections of the program are included. Along with the flow charts of each subroutine is a narrative description of its functional operation and definitions of its arrays and key variables, and a section to assist the programmer in dimensioning the program's arrays.

  5. Towards the Idealization Procedure of BAN- Like Logics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-li; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the flaws of Mao's method,which is an augmentation of protocol idealization in BAN-like logics, and then offer some new idealization rules based on Mao's method. Furthermore, we give some theoretical analysis of our rules using the strand space formalism, and show the soundness of our idealization rules under strand spaces.Some examples on using the new rules to analyze security protocols are also concerned. Our idealization method is more effective than Mao's method towards many protocol instances,and is supported by a formal model.

  6. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  7. Production of Ban miniature pig embryos by in vitro fertilization: a comparative study with Landrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bui Xuan; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Uoc, Nguyen Thi; Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Linh, Nguyen Viet; Men, Nguyen Thi; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Nagai, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Ban is an endangered miniature pig breed in Vietnam. This study aimed to set up an in vitro embryo production (IVP) system for this breed. Ban's epididymal sperm concentration (1240 ± 35 × 10(6) /mL) was lower (P Landrace (4160 ± 42 × 10(6) /mL). However, sperm characteristics before and after freezing in Ban and Landrace were similar. The numbers of follicles with diameter larger than 2 mm per ovary in Ban females treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (27.1 ± 1.3) were higher (P Landrace (12.9 ± 2.0) and in non-hormone stimulated Ban (no > 2 mm follicles). After in vitro maturation, the percentages of oocytes with expanded cumulus cells and the first polar body (matured oocytes) were not different among Ban, hormone-stimulated Ban and Landrace. The percentages of two-cell embryos and morulae derived from oocytes collected from three sources did not differ. However, the rate of blastocysts derived from oocytes in non-stimulated Ban (4.0 ± 3.8%) was lower (P Landrace (15.3 ± 1.8%). In conclusion, an effective IVP system for good quality embryos in Ban, that is essential for genetic conservation of this breed, was established.

  8. Perceptions of the solarium ban in Australia: 'Fake it, don't bake it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wilson, Carlene; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Rayner, Joanne; Makin, Jen

    2015-08-01

    The causal link between ultraviolet radiation from solarium use and skin cancer is well established. In 2012 and 2013, state governments across Australia announced plans to ban commercial solarium use from 31 December 2014. The present study examined the responses of solarium and non-solarium users to the ban on commercial solariums in Australia. Participants (n = 488; 388 females, 100 males; mean age = 26.02, s.d. = 9.95) completed an online questionnaire during the summer prior to the ban relating to solarium usage and their opinions about the ban. Overall, 49% (n = 237) of participants were aware of the impending ban; 17% (n = 83) had used a solarium at some point in their life. The response to the solarium ban was positive; however, some current solarium users intended post-ban to use privately owned sunbeds and or spend a greater amount of time sun-tanning. These findings indicate a high level of public support for the solarium ban, which has removed a risky source of ultraviolet radiation in Australia. SO WHAT? Further steps are now needed to monitor the tanning behaviours of previous solarium users post-ban and their access to private sunbed use and other potentially dangerous methods of tanning (e.g. tanning injections).

  9. On site inspection for nuclear test ban verirication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Marschall

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of verifying compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty is mainly a technical one. However the problem of detecting, locating and identifying nuclear explosions has, since the late 1950s, been intimately involved with the political problems associated with negotiating a treaty. In fact there are few other areas in which policy, diplomacy and science have been so interwoven. This paper attempts to illustrate how technology can. be applied to solve some of the political problems which arise when considering the role of an On Site Inspection (OSI to determine whether or not a nuclear explosion, in violation of a treaty, has occurred or not. It is hoped that the reader, with a scientific background, but with little or no experience of treaty negotiations, will gain an. insight as to how technical matters can interact with political requirements. The demands made on scientists to provide technical support for negotiating and rnonitoring compliance of a treaty have increased significanfly over the last 40 years. This is a period in which a number of major treaties have contained a significant technical component e.g. the Limited Test Ban Treaty (Threshold Treaty and the Chemical Weapon Convention. This paper gives an indication of some of the political decisions which will have to be made and suggests some of the technical methods which are of value in the identification of a clandestine nuclear explosion.

  10. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 宫洪涛教授从相火论治不寐%Experience of Pro.GONG Hong-tao for treating insomnia from Xianghuo Lun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅会娟; 宫洪涛

    2015-01-01

    Pro.GONG Hong-tao was good at treating insomnia from Xianghuo Lun, the professor thought that Xianghuo was closely related to insomnia. Insomnia was divided into Xu and Shi, and treated from Xianghuo, all achieved good effects.%宫洪涛教授临证擅治不寐,常从相火论治,认为相火与不寐的关系密切,从相火的生理、病理出发,将不寐分为虚实两端,从相火角度分别辨证论治,并在临床上取得了显著的疗效。

  12. 龚氏非文字智力量表汉族城市与农村儿童测验结果的比较%A Comparison of the Results of Gong's Nonverbal Test Between Urban and Rural Chi ldren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶瑞繁; 龚耀先

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results of Gong's Nonverbal Intelligence Test between urban and rural children.Methods: A total of 134 male and 129 fema le rural children of 8~12 years were tested with the Gong's Nonverbal Intellige nce Test. Results: The rural children ob tained significantly l ower scores (P<0.05) on all sub-tests except for Digit Symbol of the test, a s co mpared to urban children matched for age and sex.Conclusion: There was significant difference betwe en rural and urban children in intelligence as assessed by the Gong's Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

  13. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    monitoring using PMU devices and enhanced grid analysis tools; and Initiative 3: Identifying grid automation and smart technology architecture retrofit/improvement opportunities following a systematic review approach, inclusive of increasing renewables and variable distributed generation. Each of the initiative was conducted in partnership with industry technology and equipment providers to facilitate utility deployment experiences inform decision making, assess supporting infrastructure cost considerations, showcase state of the technology, address integration hurdles with viable workarounds. For each initiative, a multi-phased approach was followed that included 1) investigative planning and review of existing state-of-the-art, 2) hands on deployment experiences and 3) process implementation considerations. Each phase of the approach allowed for mid-course corrections, process review and change to any equipment/devices to be used by the utilities. To help the island grids transform legacy infrastructure, the Wind HUI provided more systematic approaches and exposure with vendor/manufacturers, hand-on review and experience with the equipment not only from the initial planning stages but through to deployment and assessment of field performance of some of the new, remote sensing and high-resolution grid monitoring technologies. HELCO became one of the first utilities in the nation to install and operate a high resolution (WindNet) network of remote sensing devices such as radiometers and SODARs to enable a short-term ramp event forecasting capability. This utility-industry and federal government partnership produced new information on wind energy forecasting including new data additions to the NOAA MADIS database; addressed remote sensing technology performance and O&M (operations and maintenance) challenges; assessed legacy equipment compatibility issues and technology solutions; evaluated cyber-security concerns; and engaged in community outreach opportunities that will

  14. Hawaii Utility Integration Initiatives to Enable Wind (Wind HUI) Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dora Nakafuji; Lisa Dangelmaier; Chris Reynolds

    2012-07-15

    monitoring using PMU devices and enhanced grid analysis tools; and Initiative 3: Identifying grid automation and smart technology architecture retrofit/improvement opportunities following a systematic review approach, inclusive of increasing renewables and variable distributed generation. Each of the initiative was conducted in partnership with industry technology and equipment providers to facilitate utility deployment experiences inform decision making, assess supporting infrastructure cost considerations, showcase state of the technology, address integration hurdles with viable workarounds. For each initiative, a multi-phased approach was followed that included 1) investigative planning and review of existing state-of-the-art, 2) hands on deployment experiences and 3) process implementation considerations. Each phase of the approach allowed for mid-course corrections, process review and change to any equipment/devices to be used by the utilities. To help the island grids transform legacy infrastructure, the Wind HUI provided more systematic approaches and exposure with vendor/manufacturers, hand-on review and experience with the equipment not only from the initial planning stages but through to deployment and assessment of field performance of some of the new, remote sensing and high-resolution grid monitoring technologies. HELCO became one of the first utilities in the nation to install and operate a high resolution (WindNet) network of remote sensing devices such as radiometers and SODARs to enable a short-term ramp event forecasting capability. This utility-industry and federal government partnership produced new information on wind energy forecasting including new data additions to the NOAA MADIS database; addressed remote sensing technology performance and O&M (operations and maintenance) challenges; assessed legacy equipment compatibility issues and technology solutions; evaluated cyber-security concerns; and engaged in community outreach opportunities that will

  15. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  16. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-18 - Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Text Messaging While Driving. 52.223-18 Section 52.223-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-18 Contractor Policy to Ban Text Messaging While Driving. As prescribed in 23.1105, insert the following clause: CONTRACTOR POLICY TO BAN TEXT MESSAGING WHILE...

  18. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  19. Racial Diversity, Legitimacy, and the Citizenry: The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Graduate School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment and Degrees and a methodology that supports causal inference to examine the effects of affirmative action bans in Texas, California, Washington, and Florida on graduate student of color enrollment. The findings show that the bans have reduced by 12.2% the average proportion of…

  20. Campaigns to Overrule Campus Gun Bans Have Failed in Many States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    People can bring guns most places in Arizona, but the state's Board of Regents has long banned all weapons from public college campuses. Now some lawmakers are trying to change that. State Senator Karen S. Johnson, a Republican, proposed a bill in January that would trump the regents' ban, allowing anyone with a concealed-weapons permit to carry a…

  1. Reduced Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with a Public Smoking Ban: Matched Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2007-01-01

    There has been no research linking implementation of a public smoking ban and reduced incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among nonsmoking patients. An ex post facto matched control group study was conducted to determine whether there was a change in hospital admissions for AMI among nonsmoking patients after a public smoking ban was…

  2. Campaigns to Overrule Campus Gun Bans Have Failed in Many States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    People can bring guns most places in Arizona, but the state's Board of Regents has long banned all weapons from public college campuses. Now some lawmakers are trying to change that. State Senator Karen S. Johnson, a Republican, proposed a bill in January that would trump the regents' ban, allowing anyone with a concealed-weapons permit to carry a…

  3. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM...

  4. On the Outline Regarding Problems of the Hui Minority Muslim and its guidance in the Implementation of Yan' an Hui Policies%《关于回回民族问题的提纲》及其指导下的延安回族政策实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小军

    2012-01-01

    1940年,西工委拟定《关于回回民族问题的提纲》(下文简称《提纲》),标志着党对回族的政策达到较高水平。《提纲》系统阐发了党对回族的政策:建立民族自治制度,保障回族在政治上与汉族享有平等权利;成立专门管理机构来管理民族事务;组织成立回族文化救国团体;培养民族干部,发展回族教育事业,实行文化上的平等;尊重伊斯兰教,尊重回民生活习惯等。延安时期的回族政策与实践,为新时期回族政策与理论发展提供了鲜活的历史参考。%In 1940, the Central Northwest Working Committee drew up the Outline about Problems of Hui ( Outline), indicating the CPC' s advancement of Hui policies. The Outline systematically explained the purposes of the CPC' s Hui policies : to establish a system of regional ethnic autonomy ; to ensure equal rights between Hui and Han in politics ; to found specialized departments in charge of ethnic affairs ; to establish groups interested in the na- tional preservation of Hui culture ; to develop the ethnic - minority cadres ; to improve the Hui educational facilities ; to carry out the cultural equity; to respect Islam and the conventions of the Hui, and so on. The implementation of Hui policies during the period of Yan' an provides living historical reference to Hui policies and theoretical develop- ment in today' s era.

  5. Analysis on the Legislation of Hui Customs-Case from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%回族习惯立法分析--以宁夏回族自治区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱学

    2013-01-01

    As an ethnic group believing in Islam , Hui people influenced by the Islamic law , have their own character-istic custom and concept of value .Based on the regulations of Constitutions and Autonomous Charter , the local law system formed gradually , including the marriage custom , Halal food , funeral custom and custom of holidays .The legislation of Hui custom is very meaningful for sustaining the ethnic relations of equality , mutual help and harmony .%回族是全民信仰伊斯兰教的民族,受伊斯兰教法影响,回族形成了自己特有的风俗习惯和价值观念。依据《宪法》和《民族区域自治法》规定,宁夏回族自治区自治机关在行使民族立法自治权过程中,逐步形成了保障回族宗教信仰和风俗习惯的法律体系,主要包括婚姻习惯、清真食品、丧葬习惯和节庆习惯等方面的地方性法规和地方政府规章。回族习惯立法对于巩固和发展平等、团结、互助、和谐的民族关系具有重要意义。

  6. An analysis of Hui national Wushu from the perspective of sociology%社会学视野下的回族武术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星潭

    2016-01-01

    以社会学视角对回族武术进行探讨,认为民族信仰、军事参与、生存张力等多重因素维持了回族尚武的传统。回族在日常生活中,借助身体圣行再现尚武秉性,并形成地方特色;通过拳种的传统再造,扩大民族间的认同,实现中华民族多元一体格局下的文化共生。%From the perspective of sociology, the author probed into Hui national Wushu, and put forward the fol-lowing opinions: multiple factors, such as national belief, military involvement and survival tension etc, have main-tained the warrior tradition of the Hui nationality; in the daily life of the Hui nationality, the Hui people reproduce their warrior nature by means of body ritual, having formed a local landscape, and expanded recognition between nationalities and realized cultural symbiosis under the all Chinese nations united situation through tradition repro-duction of boxing.

  7. An Survey of the Hui Chen You's Family During the Ming Dynasty%明朝回回人陈友家族考述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮

    2012-01-01

    有明一代,涌现出一大批著名的回回军事家、政治家、外交家等等,他们对明朝的巩固与发展作出了巨大贡献和牺牲。"西域回回"陈友以出使起家,后因军功封为世爵,成为明朝回回人当中的标志性人物。对陈友个人及其家族成员的事迹考述,对研究明代回回人的历史活动以及历史作用有重要的价值。%During the Ming dynasty, there emerged many notable Hui militarists, politicians and diplomats who made a number of contributions at personal sacrifice in order to further the consolidation and development of the country. As a Serindia Hui, Chen You got his start from a career as a diplomat and was offered a marquis title on the basis of his military exploits. During the Ming Dynasty, he became an iconic figure amongst the Hui. Through this historical survey of Chen You and his family, we see the significant value he has with regard towards the histori- cal activity and influence of the Hui during the Ming dynasty.

  8. Business Ethics of The Hui Nationality & Its Contemporary Significance%回族的商业伦理思想及其当代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓华; 吕广文

    2012-01-01

      回族起源于唐宋时期阿拉伯地区的来华商人,是一个以商为本的民族。回族商人在长期的经济活动中形成了一套集法律、宗教、道德于一体的商业伦理思想,在这一独具特色思想的指导下,回民族的经济健康、有序地发展,民族不断繁荣强大。在今天的社会主义市场经济体制下,弘扬回族商业伦理思想,仍然具有十分重要的现实指导意义。%  The Hui Nationality originated from the Arabian merchants came to china in the Tang and Song Dynasties, it is a business-oriented nation. By the long-term economic activities, Hui merchants formed a set of business ethics incorporating the law, religion and morality. Under the guidance of this unique idea, Hui's economy achieves sound and orderly development, and their nation becomes more and more prosperous and powerful. In the context of today’s socialist market economic system, carrying forward the business ethics of the Hui Nationality sill has important practical and guiding significance.

  9. New York governor signs ban on female genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-03

    On September 29, 1997, mixed-record Governor George Pataki (R) signed a bill that bans female genial mutilation (FGM) from being performed on minor females and establishes a campaign to educate the communities that traditionally use FGM about the "health risks and emotional trauma inflicted by such practices." The measure, AB 3379, which is scheduled to take effect 45 days after the signing date, passed the Assembly on July 2 by 145-0 and was approved in the Senate by 55-0. AB 3379 would only allow such a procedure to be used by a licensed medical practitioner if it is "necessary to the health of the person on whom it is performed" or it is performed "for medical purposes" associated with labor or childbirth. Individuals accused of performing FGM would be charged with a class E felony, which is punishable by up to 1 year in prison.

  10. Should Universities Ban Profanity Online to Resolve Moral Dilemma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Peking University recently announced that in response to frequently seen profan- ity and malicious rumors by some netizens on Internet forums and bulletin boards,it is considering modifying its school rules to ban this form of behavior online. China now has 9.200 million Internet users for whom being online is part of modern cul- ture.Internet offers room to express opinions and ideas freely but it’s also a way for people to release the stress of life.It’s inevitable that this freedom is abused,resulting in all forms of insults,damaging gossip and the spreading of lies.Because of the lack of self-restraint and imposed disciplines,this kind of commu- nication is rapidly lowering moral standards.

  11. Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

  12. Exporting DBCP and other banned pesticides: consideration of ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, L K; Frank, A L

    1999-01-01

    Many developed countries permit the export of pesticides that are banned, restricted, or unregistered within their own borders. This practice, which leads to the exposure of agricultural workers in developing countries to high levels of pesticides that are not permitted in the country of manufacture, raises many ethical issues as well as economic, social, political, and public health issues. Worldwide attempts to control export of such pesticides, through the FAO/UNEP Prior Informed Consent program, moves this issue in the right direction. This article explores the current U.S. and international practices, using the specific example of export of DBCP to banana-producing countries. The actions taken by multinational corporations, manufacturers of the pesticides, and public health officials in both the exporting and importing countries are explored, along with the impacts on workers, local economies, governments, and the environment.

  13. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  14. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  16. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chafen; Zhu; Li; Wang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market.It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period(one month before the announcement of a financial report),due to high regulation risk.However,the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period,while trades outside it remain highly profitable.Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading.The regulation has changed insider trading patterns,but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring.This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  17. Analysis of the Ecological Migration Pattern in Ethnic Minority Areas——A Case Study of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By taking Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region as an example,this paper analyzes the ecological migration pattern in ethnic minority areas.The basic patterns of development for poverty relief in Ningxia are in-situ migration and new area development pattern.The new area development pattern includes three types,namely small town development pattern around urban radiation districts,urban labor migration pattern,and large-scale ecological migration pattern.Finally,successful experience of ecological migration in Ningxia is summarized.First,scientific industrial planning shall be made on the basis of proper selection of ecological migration location in immigrant settlement regions.Second,scientific and comprehensive ecological migration policies should be formulated.

  18. La république en Grande-Bretagne aujourd’hui : une idée anglaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine MIOCHE

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Il peut paraître y avoir un paradoxe à parler de république aujourd’hui en Grande-Bretagne en ceci que seule ou presque la Grande-Bretagne, de ce qui fut le vaste Empire britannique, est demeurée une monarchie. Des États-Unis à la Rhodésie, en passant par l’Inde et l’Irlande (à l’exception importante du nord de l’île, les anciens territoires britanniques ont opté majoritairement pour un régime parlementaire non monarchique, l’Australie, le Canada et la Nouvelle-Zélande étant d’intéressantes ...

  19. Ban on asbestos diaphragms in the chlorine-related chemical industry and efforts toward a worldwide ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannasi, Fernanda

    2007-01-01

    The EU Directive 1999/77/EC, prohibiting new applications of chrysotile, exempted diaphragms used in electrolysis to produce chorine and caustic soda in existing chlor-alkali plants until they reach the end of their service life, or until suitable asbestos-free substitutes become available, whichever is sooner. There is no technical justification for extending this exemption after January 2008, when it is scheduled for review. Economic interests should not take precedence over the social and environmental costs imposed by the asbestos production required for this industry. The EU Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment should not further delay the necessary decision on a total and immediate worldwide ban of the mining, manufacturing, and all uses of asbestos.

  20. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  1. 试论《回回药方》治疗脑系疾病滴鼻剂的剂型特点%On Characteristics of Drug Forms of Nose Drops for Brain Disease in HuiHui YaoFang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀龙; 马晓东; 丁小龙; 王佩佩; 贾孟辉

    2012-01-01

    Medical theory of Hui nationality, prescription names, formation, preparation and instruction of 19 recipes for brain disease from 12th remained volume "ZhongFengMen-ZuoTan YouHuang KouYan WaiXieLei" of HuiHui YaoFang were analyzed and concluded to explore characteristic of drug forms of nose drops and promote clinical application of external nose drops.%对残卷十二"众风门-左瘫右痪口眼歪斜类"治疗脑系疾病的19首滴鼻剂的回族医学理论、方剂名称、药物组成、制备服法进行分析、归纳和总结,探讨回族医学滴鼻剂的剂型特点,并在临床中推广使用.

  2. Touching with Affection:Views on the Teaching of "A Speech of Mr. Liang Ren' gong"%以情动人--《记梁任公先生的一次演讲》教学之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑶

    2014-01-01

    《记梁任公先生的一次演讲》不仅仅向我们展示了梁任公先生作为学者的政治情怀,也曲折隐晦地表现了梁实秋的政治情怀,两位伟大的学者不论是演讲还是文章,都让读者真正体会到了只有“动情”才能“动人”。%"A Speech of Mr. Liang Ren'gong"not only shows us the political feelings of Mr. Liang Ren'gong as a scholar, but also implicitly manifests Liang Shiqiu's political feelings.Both the speech and passage of the two great scholars have made the readers truly experience that only affection can touch people.

  3. Analysis of Ecological Tourism Development Conditions of Gong Naisi National Forest Park%巩乃斯国家森林公园发展生态旅游条件分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2016-01-01

    Abstact:On the basis of Gong Naisi National Forest Park construction and current situation of the development of tourism,the paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of ecological tourism development of the park,in order to provide reference for Gong Naisi National Forest Park ecological tourism development.%该文在巩乃斯国家森林公园建设及旅游发展现状的基础上,分析了该森林公园发展生态旅游的优势及劣势,以期能够为巩乃斯国家森林公园生态旅游的发展提供参考。

  4. Dynamics of the Gong windstorm (Jan 2013) in the context of a 20-year high-resolution simulation of Iberian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Pedro M. A.; João Chinita, Maria; Cardoso, Rita; Soares, Pedro; Viterbo, Pedro; Pinto, Paulo; Mendes, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Portugal was affected by a number of windstorms associated with mid-latitude cyclones, some with significant impact on built infrastructures, namely on the electric grid. Two of those storms were particularly violent, the Oeste storm on the 23 December 2009, and the Gong storm on 19 January 2013. The Klaus storm, on the 23 January 2009, had some impact but only in the northern edge of Iberia, but the Xinthia storm, on the 27 February 2010, had extensive impact in the Portuguese territory. Considering impacts on the electric grid, these 4 storms are part of a set of about 10 storms per decade, although earlier storms didn't get a name. The relevance of these extreme events in recent climate motivated a case study analysis of the more relevant storms and its analysis in a continuous regional climate simulation of the Iberian climate. The RCM simulation used WRF at 9km resolution, with ERA-Interim boundary conditions initially for the period 1989-2008, here extended until 28 Feb 2013. The former simulations were extensively validated against Iberian gridded temperature and precipitation datasets (Soares et al 2012), and against Portuguese station data (Cardoso et al 2013). Results are here validated, in the extended 24 year period, also against standard 10-m wind observations. Case study analysis used the same boundary conditions and model (WRF), but at both 9 and 3 km horizontal resolutions, and also included sensitivity experiments to different parametrizations. While the WRF RCM simulation, forced by ERA-Interim, presents an overall excellent performance in the representation of both the mean climate (temperature, precipitation and wind), and also in the representation of high-rank precipitation quantiles, the two most extreme windstorm events are not well represented. However, the Gong storm is very well represented in the case study simulation, even at 9km resolution with exactly the same boundary conditions, but a somewhat different initial

  5. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  6. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  7. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  9. Health effects of the Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stephen A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in America, claiming 450,000 lives annually. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, caused by smoking in the vast majority of cases, became the third leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2008. The burden of asthma, often exacerbated by tobacco exposure, has widespread clinical and public health impact. Despite this considerable harm, we know relatively little about the natural history of lung disease and respiratory impairment in adults, especially after smoking cessation. Methods/Design Our paper describes the design and rationale for using the 2004 Federal Bureau of Prisons tobacco ban to obtain insights into the natural history of respiratory diseases in adult men and women of different races/ethnicities who are imprisoned in federal medical facilities. We have developed a longitudinal study of new prison arrivals, with data to be collected from each participant over the course of several years, through the use of standardized questionnaires, medical chart reviews, lung function tests, six-minute walk tests, and stored serum for the analysis of present and future biomarkers. Our endpoints include illness exacerbations, medication and health services utilization, lung function, serum biomarkers, and participants’ experience with their health and nicotine addiction. Discussion We believe the proposed longitudinal study will make a substantial contribution to the understanding and treatment of respiratory disease and tobacco addiction.

  10. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  11. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social......Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  12. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  13. Nicotine Replacement Combined with a Novel Compound (ProBAN for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Leigh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation rates with available pharmacological therapies remain suboptimal. Anecdotal observations with a combination of sublingual pralidoxime and ipratropium (ProBAN suggested that these agents in combination with nicotine gum improved quit rates.

  14. Banámichi C2004, nueva variedad de trigo cristalino Banámichi C2004, new durum wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alfonso Camacho-Casas

    Full Text Available Un nuevo cultivar de trigo duro o cristalino, Banámichi C2004, fue desarrollado para las áreas productoras de trigo del noroeste de México. Este cultivar fue obtenido en el Campo Experimental Valle del Yaqui (CEVY del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y pecuarias (INIFAP y registrado con el número 1732-TRI-061-030505-C en el Servicio Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 es resistente a la nueva raza BBG/BN de roya de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, con rendimientos de 5.5 a 6.2 t ha-1 y buena calidad del grano para el mercado de exportación. Banámichi C2004 supera en forma consistente al testigo Júpare C2001, tanto en la capacidad de producir proteína en grano como en el contenido de pigmento amarillo en el endospermo y en la fuerza del gluten. Banámichi C2004 puede crecer durante el ciclo otoño-invierno en los estados de Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa y Sonora.A new variety of durum wheat, Banámichi C2004, was developed for the wheat-producing areas in northwestern Mexico. This variety was produced in the Yaqui Valley Experimental Station (CEVY of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (INIFAP and registered with the number 1732-TRI- 061-030505-C in the National Seed Inspection and Certification Service (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 is resistant to the new BBG/BN breed of wheat rust (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, and has yields of 5.5 to 6.2 t ha-1 and good grain quality for the export market. Banámichi C2004 surpasses the control Júpare C2001 in a consistent manner, in the protein-producing capacity in the grain as in the content of yellow pigment in the endosperm and in the strength of gluten. Banámichi C2004 can grow in the autumn-winter cycle in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa and Sonora.

  15. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  16. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents. A ....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  17. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  18. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result.

  19. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  20. Bar and restaurant workers' attitudes towards Norway's comprehensive smoking ban: a growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Bontempo, Daniel E; Hetland, Jørn

    2010-06-01

    Norway passed legislation banning smoking in restaurants, bars and other public spaces in 2004. This study tracks changes in hospitality workers' attitudes towards Norway's ban over three time points, using growth modelling analysis to examine predictors of attitude change. Participants were a national sample of 1525 bar and restaurant workers. Surveys were conducted, by phone or internet, one month before the ban's implementation and at 4 and 12 months thereafter. Exploratory principal components analysis of nine survey items revealed one primary attitude component. A latent growth model was fitted to the data to examine trajectories of attitude change and individual differences in rate of change. Respondents supported the ban before implementation and increased support at 4 months (p=0.021) and again at 12 months (p=0.001). Concern for one's job followed a quadratic trend, increasing at 4 months and decreasing at 12 months (phospitality workers increased their support of the ban over its first year. The strong influence of the within-person variables leads to two primary policy recommendations. First, support should be provided to assist cessation efforts and prevent relapse. Second, informational campaigns should inform hospitality workers about evidence that smoking bans are not economic threats to the industry.

  1. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100% were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers in Osun state and 58.8% in Ogun state stated that they did not receive information on the banned pesticides from government agencies but through other channels. More than half of the marketers (52.9% in Ogun, 55% in Kwara and 47.1% in Osun strongly disagreed that government should place a ban on pesticides. Availability of banned pesticides in their stock, insufficient information from the concerned government agricultural agencies, and fear of short supply of approved pesticides are among the reasons proffered by the marketers for not supporting the ban of pesticides. Relevant government regulatory agencies should conduct a comprehensive inventory of pesticides offered for sale by the marketers of agrochemicals. There should be massive public awareness programme, and wellcoordinated association for all the marketers of agrochemicals. Agrochemical manufacturers should translate instructions and warnings on pesticide labels to local languages understood by the farmers.

  2. Longitudinal Impact of the Smoking Ban Legislation in Acute Coronary Syndrome Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, P.; Matias-Dias, C.; Pinto, F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The association between smoking and CV has been proved; however smoking is still the first preventable cause of death in the EU. We aim to evaluate the potential impact of the smoke ban on the number of ACS events in the Portuguese population. In addition, we evaluate the longitudinal effects of the smoking ban several years after its implementation. Methods. We analyzed the admission rate for ACS before and after the ban using data from hospital admission. Monthly crude rate was computed, using the Portuguese population as the denominator. Data concerning the proportion of smokers among ACS patients were obtained from the NRACS. Interrupted time series were used to assess changes over time. Results. A decline of −5.8% was found for ACS crude rate after the smoking ban. The decreasing trend was observed even after years since the law. The effect of the ban was higher in men and for people over 65 years. The most significant reduction of ACS rate was found in Lisbon. Conclusions. Our results suggest that smoking ban is related to a decline in ACS admissions, supporting the importance of smoke legislation as a public health measure, contributing to the reduction of ACS rate. PMID:28265574

  3. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  4. Correlates of household smoking bans in low-income families of children with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamboldt, Frederick S; Balkissoon, Ronald C; Rankin, Allison E; Szefler, Stanley J; Hammond, S Katharine; Glasgow, Russell E; Dickinson, W Perry

    2008-03-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) harms all children's health, especially children with asthma. Yet, children with asthma are as likely to live with smokers as healthy children. Household smoking bans are being advocated to reduce children's harm from SHS. To measure the effect of household smoking bans on child SHS exposure and to examine correlates of strict smoking bans in a low-income, diverse sample, 91 children with asthma were matched to 91 healthy children. All had at least one smoker living in their homes. Nicotine dosimeters, child cotinine assays, and maternal reports quantified child SHS exposures. Maternal reports of household smoking rules, behaviors, and beliefs, and other family characteristics were also gathered. The presence of a strict household smoking ban vastly reduced children's SHS exposures and was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked by the mother and by other family members, the belief that SHS was a personal health risk, having children with asthma, and living in a single-family home. Many children are exposed to high levels of SHS at home. Strict household smoking bans greatly decrease, but do not eliminate children's SHS exposure. Even in disadvantaged families, mutable factors were associated with strict smoking bans. Increased dissemination and use of established public health strategies are needed to reduce children's SHS exposures.

  5. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of a law banning the use of cellular phones by drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Daniel; Shiell, Alan; Fyie, Ken

    2010-10-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a law banning the use of cellular phones by drivers in the Canadian province of Alberta. Cost-effectiveness analysis using a probabilistic decision-analytic model and publicly available data. We adopted a societal perspective. Health gains were measured in terms of quality-adjusted life-years. Costs include those associated with awareness raising, enforcement and the welfare loss associated with the reduction in cellular phone use, less savings in health care and other costs associated with automobile accidents. A ban promotes health and releases resources worth more than the costs. There is an 80% chance that a ban will be 'cost saving', and a 94% chance that a ban will cost less than Can$50,000/QALY. The results are sensitive to the additional risk posed by cellular phone use while driving, and the rate and pattern with which drivers comply with a ban. Under our base line assumptions a cellular phone ban is likely to be cost saving from a societal perspective. The results are sensitive to parameters for which there is very little information or for which the available information is contradictory.

  7. 浅析回族服饰的文化象征性%Analysis of Cultural Symbolic Significance of the Hui Ethnic Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金婷

    2011-01-01

    回族作为以伊斯兰为民族文化根源的民族,在历史发展进程中呈现出伊斯兰教的内化与对汉族文化涵化同时发生而联系又紧密的特点。回族服饰具有伊斯兰文化与中华文化二元一体的结构特点,在伊斯兰文化语境下又体现出宗教文化的象征性。伊斯兰教的内化和汉族文化涵化构成了回族服饰文化的核心和其演变的主题。%The Hui ethnic group bases itself on Islam,presenting that Islamic internalization goes hand in hand with the Han ethnic cultural acculturation in the long development process.The Hui ethnic dress is featured by Islamic-Chinese culture integration.It represents both religious and cultural symbolic significance in the context of Islamic culture.Therefore,Islamic internalization and the Han ethnic cultural acculturation constitute the core of the Hui ethnic dress culture.

  8. [Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and the compilation during the early Song Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi

    2010-07-01

    Tai ping sheng hui fang, the first medical formulary of the Song Dynasty, compiled from the 3(rd) year of Taiping-xingguo reign to the 3(rd) year of Chunhua reign (978 ∼ 992), under the edict of the Taizong Emperor, was popularly applied and extensively circulated and called "the first formulary of the Dynasty". It is extremely significant in the medical history of the Song Dynasty due to its theory of prescription art, practical prescriptions and clinical practice. During the process of its circulation, different versions appeared, including the Guozijian Orthodox Version, Guozijian Small-character Version, Chongwen Hall Abridged Version, Newly Carved Version of Zhuanyunsi, and the Local Abridged Version, thus adapting to the demands of various walks of life in the society. Its unique role in the development of the Song society was founded by its introduction, application and popularization by the emperors, local officials, medical scholars, diplomatic envoys, and intellectuals. The "kind administration" of the authority and the government was further greatly facilitated by the involvement of the government and the introduction of printing. Its practical prescriptions became forceful tools to prevent and treat diseases, to conquer witchcraft, to protect local social security, and to pronounce the merits of officials and physicians at all levels.

  9. The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in horses in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can infect warm-blooded animals and humans. The present study was performed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A total of 637 blood samples were collected from seven regions in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang in 2011 and assayed for T. gondiiantibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Risk factors (age, gender, and region related to seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 200 horses (31.4%, 95% CI 27.79–35.00 were seropositive for T. gondii. Age, gender, and region present no association with seroprevalence (p>0.05 in the logistic regression analysis. The results indicated that T. gondii is widely prevalent in horses in Xinjiang, northwestern China, representing a serious threat to animal and human health. Therefore, more careful measures should be performed to control and prevent T. gondii infection in horses from Xinjiang, northwestern China.

  10. Regional Evaluation of Wind Erosion of the Loess Plateau in Pengyang County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Baoping; Ding Guodong; Li Yubao

    2003-01-01

    The loess plateau in China is well-known for its severe water erosion. A nationwide soil erosion survey discovered that wind erosion of the loess land is also greatly concerned. The severity of wind erosion for each land use in Pengyang County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, was evaluated according to the national standard of soil erosion classification. The evaluation system includes a GIS database, an evaluation indicator system and a classification system for land and land use. The erodible nature of soil and annual soil loss of the most erodible land were obtained as follows: (1) Croplands plowed and harrowed in late autumn were the most erodible land,with an erosion intensity of medium grade and an erodible proportion of 46%; (2) The erodible proportion of natural grasslands was between 19.3% and 21.5%, whose erosion intensity was of mostly tolerable grade; (3) When it came to the whole county, there was 21.3% of the total area in tolerable grade in terms of wind erosion intensity, 42.1% slight and 34.8% medium.

  11. Temporal-Spatial Variation of Drought Indicated by SPI and SPEI in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China (Ningxia is an important food production area in northwest China severely affected by drought. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI were calculated based on monthly meteorological data to explore climate change and variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency, and spatial extent in Ningxia during 1972–2011. Results show that the SPEI is more applicable than the SPI for exploring climate change and drought variation in Ningxia. The Ningxia climate experienced a significant drying tendency. Annual SPEI decreased about 0.37 decade−1 during 1972–2011. Drought was exacerbated by this drying tendency. Regional average duration, maximum duration, intensity, and frequency of drought identified by the SPEI increased by one month, three months, 0.15%, and 36.1%, respectively, during 1992–2011 compared to the period of 1972–1991. The spatial extent of drought identified by the SPEI increased about 14.4% decade−1 in the spring during 1972–2011. Spatially, drought frequency increased from north to south. Average intensity (maximum duration of drought calculated by the SPEI increased (decreased northward and southward from the central arid area.

  12. 西北回族抗日史研究%On History of Resistance against Japanese Aggression of Northwest Hui Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志平; 海万玲

    2015-01-01

    日本全面侵华后,由于兵力所限,虽未对西北地区进行地面武装侵扰,但通过军机轰炸、策划“回回国”阴谋等行径,对西北人民犯下了滔天罪行。在民族存亡之际,西北回族人民同全国各族人民一起在各条战线上展开了反侵略斗争,其中以回族、撒拉族、保安族等为主要成员的骑兵第一师、第81军在正面战场与日军展开了殊死较量,战绩辉煌。此外,回族民众还利用与中东伊斯兰国家的友好关系,开展民间外交奔赴中东地区传播抗日救亡思想并寻求国际支持与理解,宗教人士则通过自身声望影响穆斯林参军抗日,回族社团与报刊也充分发挥社会职责,揭露日本离间回汉关系、肢解中国的阴谋,鼓励回胞奔赴前线杀敌卫国,文艺工作者更是以各种文艺形式宣传抗日救亡思想。经过战争的洗礼,回族社会空前团结,爱国主义精神和国家认同感更加强烈。%After staging large-scale aggression war into China,though restricted by the lack of militar-y force,Japan had not staged land invasion into northwest China,they still conducted aerial bombing, schemed to establish"Huihui State",and committed serious crimes to the people there.At this criti-cal moment of death or life for the nation,along with all other nationalities,people of Hui nationality in northwest China launched the fight against Japanese aggression.The first cavalry division and 81th army (both mainly consisted of Hui,Sala,and Baoan nationalities)fought face-to-face against Japa-nese invaders and had extraordinary battle achievements.Besides,due to friendly relationship with Is-lamic nations in Mideast,people of Hui nationality went to Mideast to seek international support and understanding for this very cause.With their own influence,religious figures encouraged Muslims to join the arm.Societies and newspapers of Hui nationality played full social role to disclose

  13. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes.

  14. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling eWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial

  15. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  16. Public Support for a Ban on Headscarves: A Cross-National Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda van der Noll

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper compares a psychological explanation of support for a ban on headscarves in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the Netherlands. This study examines how perceptions of threat posed by Muslims and Islam and the overall attitude towards Muslims explain support for a ban on headscarves. In addition, cross-national comparisons are made to study how these relations are affected by contextual differences. Analyses are based on the 2005 survey on Islamic extremism by the Pew Research Center. Results show that the countries have a large influence on whether someone supports the ban on headscarves, indicating that contextual differences matter. In addition, having a negative attitude towards Muslims makes it more likely to support a ban on headscarves. In general, perceived threat contributes to stronger support, although there are slight differences in effect between the countries. Finally, perceived threat equally influences support for the ban on headscarves among prejudiced and non-prejudiced people.

  17. ATTITUDE OF ADULT POPULATION OF THE KRASNOYARSK TERRITORY TO SMOKING BAN AT WORKPLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Olegovich Trufanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an opinion survey among representative sample of working population of the Krasnoyarsk Territory (1000 persons aged from 18 to 60 to study their attitude to the introduction of smoking ban at workplaces. Data was collected from questionnaires and telephone interviews.The collected data suggests, that 32,7% of respondents smoke on a regular basis, 45,2% are exposed to cigarette smoke at workplaces, 67,2% of nonsmokers are passive smokers. 64,8% of respondents support the idea of smoking ban at indoor workplaces;  46,3% of respondents support imposing sanctions for violation of the ban; 52,6% of smokers are ready to smoke only outdoors or in specially allotted places. After the introduction of smoking ban at cafes, restaurants and bars 90,8% of working population will still continue visiting them or visit more often, and 16,9% of those who did  not attend them before because of cigarette smoke present in the air. In the view of the working population introduction of smoking ban at indoor workplaces is essential for the preservation of the population’s health.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-3

  18. Cumann na mBan & Women in Irish Republican Paramilitary Organisations, 1969-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Reinisch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the centenary of Cumann na mBan, the Irish Republican women’s organisation. While a number of recent publications have dealt with the first decade of Cumann na mBan, its existence in the second half of the 20th century has largely been neglected by academics. However, women played an integral part in the Republican struggle and many of these women held influential positions in the Irish Republican Movement. With this in mind, the article will discuss the role of Cumann na mBan within the so-called Provisional Republican Movement between 1969 and 1986. Based on 25 Oral History interviews with former members of the women’s organisation, the membership structure of the organisation and its activities will be discussed. In particular, the role of women in the Irish Republican Movement will be examined along with a number of other factors which have hitherto been largely underplayed in the historiography of women activists in the Irish Republican Movement. This will provide students and academics with literature for further in-depth research on Cumann na mBan. In essence, the aim of the article is to introduce Cumann na mBan into the historiography of the recent conflict in the North of Ireland.

  19. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  20. Smoking outside: the effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The primary aim of the ban was to reduce people's exposure to second-hand smoke. A 95% compliance rate among employers suggests this aim was achieved. By prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor working places, an effect of the ban was to increase the non-monetary cost of smoking. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. A difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employed relative to the non-working population following the introduction of the workplace smoking ban. The research finds that the workplace smoking ban did not induce a greater reduction in smoking prevalence among the employed population compared with the non-working population. In fact, the evidence suggests a significantly larger decrease in smoking prevalence among the non-workers relative to the employed. Changes in the real price of cigarettes and changes in attitudes to risk are discussed as possible causes for the pattern observed.

  1. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  2. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  3. Iron ore pollution in Mandovi and Zuari estuarine sediments and its fate after mining ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Suja, S; Sudheesh, V; Srivastava, Shubh; Rao, V Purnachandra

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore was mined from the banded iron formations of Goa, India, and transported through the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries for six decades until the ban on mining from September 2012. Here we focus on the environmental magnetic properties of sediments from the catchment area, upstream and downstream of these estuaries, and adjacent shelf during peak mining time. Magnetic susceptibility (χ lf) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) values of sediments were highest in upstream (catchment area and estuaries), decreased gradually towards downstream (catchment area and estuaries), and were lowest on the adjacent shelf. The χ lf values of the Mandovi estuary were two to fourfold higher than those in the Zuari. The sediments of these two estuaries after the mining ban showed enrichment of older magnetite and sharp decrease in the SIRM values. Although the input of ore material has been reduced after mining ban, more flushing of estuarine sediments is required for healthier environment.

  4. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...... accounted for the variation in the population size and for seasonal trends. Potential confounders included were: gender, age and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Results: A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found in the last three years of the study period after adjusting...... in the number of AMI-admissions was found already one year before the SB after adjustment for the incidence of T2D. The results differ from most results found in similar studies throughout the world and may be explained by the incremental enactment of SBs in Denmark and the implementation of a nation-wide ban...

  5. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  6. Local responses to the Maharashtra gutka and pan masala ban: A report from Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Maharashtra government has banned the production, sale, distribution and storage of gutka, and pan masala in the Maharashtra State due to the increasing burden of cancer and reproductive health problems attributable to the use of these products. In view of this, it is important to understand the way producers′, sellers′ and users′ are adapting to the ban. Objective: During the two months following the ban (July 19 th through Sept 30, 2012, a research team studying smokeless tobacco use and promotion in a low income community of Mumbai conducted rapid surveillance to assess the impact of the ban in the study community. Materials and Methods: Assessment involved documenting new points of sale, informal observations of tobacco use, and interviews with thirteen shop owners and eight gutka users′. Overall changes in accessibility, availability, patterns of use of tobacco products, perception of ban, social norms and surveillance activities were assessed. Results: Tobacco companies were marketing new products that resembled gutka, under similar brand logos. Surveillance, financial and social cost of selling gutka or using it in public have had an immediate effect on reducing local supply, demand and use and increasing stigma associated with its use. There was an increased recognition of ill-effects of gutka on cancer among sellers′ but not overall. Conclusions : To reduce the overall consumption of tobacco in the community, it is critical to include programs that create awareness about effects of smokeless tobacco on health and sustain surveillance levels. This would maintain requirements of the ban, and sustain limits on accessibility, availability and use of these products in the community and other similar communities.

  7. Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of the southern San Andreas Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Peter O.; Behr, Whitney M.; Rood, Dylan; Sharp, Warren D.; Rockwell, Thomas; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Salin, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Northwest directed slip from the southern San Andreas Fault is transferred to the Mission Creek, Banning, and Garnet Hill fault strands in the northwestern Coachella Valley. How slip is partitioned between these three faults is critical to southern California seismic hazard estimates but is poorly understood. In this paper, we report the first slip rate measured for the Banning fault strand. We constrain the depositional age of an alluvial fan offset 25 ± 5 m from its source by the Banning strand to between 5.1 ± 0.4 ka (95% confidence interval (CI)) and 6.4 + 3.7/−2.1 ka (95% CI) using U-series dating of pedogenic carbonate clast coatings and 10Be cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of surface clasts. We calculate a Holocene geologic slip rate for the Banning strand of 3.9 + 2.3/−1.6 mm/yr (median, 95% CI) to 4.9 + 1.0/−0.9 mm/yr (median, 95% CI). This rate represents only 25–35% of the total slip accommodated by this section of the southern San Andreas Fault, suggesting a model in which slip is less concentrated on the Banning strand than previously thought. In rejecting the possibility that the Banning strand is the dominant structure, our results highlight an even greater need for slip rate and paleoseismic measurements along faults in the northwestern Coachella Valley in order to test the validity of current earthquake hazard models. In addition, our comparison of ages measured with U-series and 10Be exposure dating demonstrates the importance of using multiple geochronometers when estimating the depositional age of alluvial landforms.

  8. Socioeconomic differentials in the immediate mortality effects of the national Irish smoking ban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consistent evidence has demonstrated that smoking ban policies save lives, but impacts on health inequalities are uncertain as few studies have assessed post-ban effects by socioeconomic status (SES and findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the national Irish smoking ban on ischemic heart disease (IHD, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mortality by discrete and composite SES indicators to determine impacts on inequalities. METHODS: Census data were used to assign frequencies of structural and material SES indicators to 34 local authorities across Ireland with a 2000-2010 study period. Discrete indicators were jointly analysed through principal component analysis to generate a composite index, with sensitivity analyses conducted by varying the included indicators. Poisson regression with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine monthly age and gender-standardised mortality rates in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years, stratified by tertiles of SES indicators. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Post-ban mortality reductions by structural SES indicators were concentrated in the most deprived tertile for all causes of death, while reductions by material SES indicators were more equitable across SES tertiles. The composite indices mirrored the results of the discrete indicators, demonstrating that post-ban mortality decreases were either greater or similar in the most deprived when compared to the least deprived for all causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Overall findings indicated that the national Irish smoking ban reduced inequalities in smoking-related mortality. Due to the higher rates of smoking-related mortality in the most deprived group, even equitable reductions across SES tertiles resulted in decreases in inequalities. The choice of SES indicator was influential in the measurement of

  9. [Evaluation of the knowledge and manner of workers of workplaces in Tokat about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Celik, Deniz; Etikan, Ilker; Inönü, Handan; Yılmaz, Ayşe; Seyfikli, Zehra

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and manner of cafe, pub and restaurant (with/without alcohol) workers in our city center about the ban on restriction of indoor smoking. To determine the preparation about the ban, smoking characteristics of workers, the knowledge on passive smoking. A questionnaire was performed to workers. The type of workplace, the number of workers, existence of a restriction of indoor smoking, any preparation about the ban were asked. The job of worker, whether the worker has a knowledge on the ban or not, the idea of the workers on the necessity and practicability of the ban were asked. Smoking history and the knowledge about passive smoking of workers were recorded. Fagerstrom nicotine dependent test (FNDT) was performed to smokers. Eighty four work places with 568 workers included in the study. The questionnaire was performed to 337 workers whose mean age was 29.1/years. 292 of workers were male. 190 of cases were current smokers. 166 of cases (49.3%) know the meaning of passive smoking. Alcohol offering was made at 8 of workplaces. Smoking was forbidden in 20 of workplaces. A preparation was performed about the ban in 30 of (46.9%) other workplaces. 88.4% of workers have knowledge on the ban, 64.7% of them know the punishment of the noncompliance of the ban. 81.3% of the workers believe the necessity and 45.7% of them believe the practicability of the ban. Smokers and especially who's FNBT > 5 have a stronger belief on the necessity and practicability of the ban. We determined that the preparation about the ban was inadequate although there was an little time for the put into practice the law. So we think that the controls of workplaces should be happened frequent.

  10. The Hunt Is Not On China's ban on trophy hunting remains despite calls for a relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2011-01-01

    Dulan,a small town in northwest China's Qinghai Province,would have been an unfamiliar name to most Chinese,if not for the recent high-profile debate regarding the possible relaxation of a six-year ban on hunting in the vicinity of the town.Foreign hunters have been familiar with Dulan since 1992 when they were tirst granted permits to hunt in the area.The State Forestry Administration (SFA) banned hunting in the region in 2006 amidst concerns that hunters were killing too many animals and damaging the local ecosystem.

  11. A Late Pleistocene transgression in Thailand: A marine molluscan fauna from Ban Praksa (Samut Prakan Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Mauro Pietro

    2012-01-01

    A Late Pleistocene molluscan fauna sampled at Ban Praksa, near the Chao Phraya River mouth (Lower Central Plain of Bangkok, Thailand) is herein analyzed and paleoecologically characterized, revealing a shallow infralittoral, coarse/hard-bottomed environment. The comparison of the Ban Praksa association with several coeval ones recovered from Phra Pradaeng Formation seems to be evidence of a 10,000 year hiatus between two separate groups of marine faunas, possibly belonging to different interstadial transgressive peaks that occurred during the long-term sea-level regression following the Last Interglacial.

  12. Study on mosque architectural form development of the Hui Nationality in the Yellow River Basin%黄河流域回族清真寺建筑形态发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新新

    2015-01-01

    以中国黄河流域的回族聚居区为研究范围,以回族清真寺为研究对象,通过探讨黄河流域回族清真寺的建筑形态发展,分析了回族清真寺在我国回族穆斯林生活中的作用,并对其保护与发展措施进行了研究,以期为我国伊斯兰建筑艺术的研究和回族清真寺的发展提供参考。%Taking the Hui Nationality concentrated area of the Yellow River Basin in China as the research scope,taking the Hui Nationality mosque as the research target,through explores the architectural form development of the Hui Nationality mosque of the Yellow River Basin,the paper analyzes the role of the Hui Nationality mosque in domestic Muslim living,and studies its protection and development,with a view to pro-vide some guidance for domestic Muslim building arts research and the Hui Nationality mosque development.

  13. 恢刺法治疗急性肩周炎50例%Treatment of 50 Patients with Acute Shoulder Periarthritis by Hui Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝艳; 张轶鸣; 贾延涛; 王慧; 岳全; 吴继开; 陈斯

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察恢刺法针刺阳陵泉、阿是穴治疗急性肩周炎的临床疗效。方法:将100例肩周炎患者随机分为治疗组,对照组。治疗组50例采用恢刺法针刺阳陵泉、阿是穴治疗;对照组50例采用常规针刺治疗。均每天针刺1次,疗程2周,观察其疗效。结果:治疗组疗效明显高于对照组。结论:恢刺法针刺阳陵泉、阿是穴治疗急性肩周炎可缓解疼痛,改善肩关节活动度,有较好疗效。%Objective:To observe the clinical effects on the acute shoulder periarthritis by Hui acupuncture at Yanglingquan point and Ashi point.Methods:100 patients were randomly divided into two groups:a treatment group and a control group.Among them, 50 patients in the treatment group were treated by Hui acupuncture at Yanglingquan point and Ashi point while other 50 patients in the control group received normal acupuncture treatment.During the two weeks’ treatment, all the patients were acupunctured once a day.Results:Patients in the treatment group felt much relieved than those in the control group.Conclusion:Hui acupuncture at Yan-glingquan point and Ashi point turns out to be a desirably effective way to treat acute shoulder periarthritis.

  14. Development obstacles of poor rural Hui ethnic females and its countermeasures: Based on survey data of 1 327 Hui ethnic females of Guanghe county%回族农村女性的发展障碍与应对策略——基于广河县1327名回族女性的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振兴; 韩建民

    2012-01-01

    Based on the survey data of 1 327 poor rural Hui ethnic females (over fourteen years old) of Guanghe county, Gansu province, this paper finds that due to the influence of traditional family value, poor healthy condition and poor exploitation of human resources, poor rural Hui women face many development obstacles such as their low status in the family, low educational background, little social participation. Hence, the writer proposes some countermeasures so as to promote the sound development of rural Hui women: to advocate new religion and family concept; to promote the education and training of the rural Hui women; to recognize the value of rural women's housework; to encourage them to engage in some small business and provide small loans to them.%基于甘肃广河县294户回族家庭1 327名回族女性(14岁以上)的调查发现,由于传统宗教家庭观念限制、身体健康水平欠佳以及人力资源的教育性开发不力等因素影响,回族农村女性面临诸多发展障碍,如家庭经济地位低下、文化程度不高、社会参与度低等。据此,应提倡新的宗教、家庭观念;加强回族农村女性教育,强化其农业科技知识培训;认定农村女性家务劳动的实际价值,鼓励其从事基本商业贸易并提供小额贷款倾斜政策,最终促进回族农村女性自身的良性发展。

  15. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Järvholm; A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAims: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the

  16. The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that underlie the ban on off-label promotion, however, reveals that Congress was concerned that physicians were responding rationally to false and misleading promotional claims. In this Article, I explore the doctrinal questions raised by conceiving of the ban on off-label promotion not as a ban on "truthful speech to physicians" but instead as a prophylaxis against false and misleading pharmaceutical promotion. I review the evidence that false and misleading claims were commonplace before the ban's adoption and persist today, along with the enforcement challenges the FDA confronted at that time and would confront were the ban lifted, and conclude the government likely could develop the factual record necessary to establish that Congress' rejection of an after-the-fact case-by-case approach to combating false and misleading prescription drug promotion is constitutional.

  17. Appendix I3-1 to Wind HUI Initiative 1: AWST-WindNET-Phase 1 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Zack

    2012-07-15

    This report is an appendix to the Hawaii WindHUI efforts to develop and operationalize short-term wind forecasting and wind ramp event forecasting capabilities. The report summarizes the WindNET Phase 1 efforts on the Big Island of Hawaii and includes descriptions of modeling methodologies, use of field validation data, results and recommendations. The objective of the WindNET project was to investigate the improvement that could be obtained in short-term wind power forecasting for wind generation facilities operating on the island grids operated by Hawaiian Electric Companies through the use of atmospheric sensors deployed at targeted locations. WindNET is envisioned as a multiphase project that will address the short-term wind forecasting issues of all of the wind generation facilities on the all of the Hawaiian Electric Companies' island grid systems. The first phase of the WindNET effort (referred to as WindNET-1) was focused on the wind generation facilities on the Big Island of Hawaii. With complex terrain and marine environment, emphasis was on improving the 0 to 6 hour forecasts of wind power ramps and periods of wind variability, with a particular interest in the intra-hour (0-1 hour) look-ahead period. The WindNET project was built upon a foundation that was constructed with the results from a previously completed observation targeting study for the Big Island that was conducted as part of a project supported by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and interactions with the western utilities. The observational targeting study provided guidance on which variables to measure and at what locations to get the most improvement in forecast performance at a target forecast site. The recommendations of the observation targeting study were based on the application two techniques: (1) an objective method called ensemble sensitivity analysis (ESA) (Ancell and Hakim, 2007; Torn and Hakim, 2008; Zack et al, 2010); and (2) a subjective method based on a

  18. 伊斯兰哲学宇宙论对回族传统宗教信仰文化的影响%Chinese Islamic Philosophy to Hui Traditional Cosmological Religious Beliefs Cultural Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱双成; 崔华华

    2012-01-01

    伊斯兰哲学宇宙论与回族传统宗教信仰文化联系异常密切。回族传统宗教信仰文化的形成、内容以及形式等都深受伊斯兰哲学宇宙论的影响。对伊斯兰哲学宇宙论与回族传统宗教信仰文化的关系进行深入研究具有积极的意义。%Chinese Islamic philosophy cosmology and Hui traditional religious beliefs and cultural links are unusual close. Hui traditional religious cultural formation, religious belief culture content as well as religious cultural form etc all deeply influence of Chinese islamic philosophy cosmology. Islamic philosophy in China the hui traditional religion cosmology and in-depth study relation to culture has positive significance.

  19. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  20. Job satisfaction and attitudes of restaurant staff regarding the smoking ban – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljudevit Pranić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While extant research on the impacts of smoke-free legislation on hospitality employees and industries has centered on developed countries, the research on the effects of smoking bans in transition countries has received very little attention. Hoping to assist in filling this void, this research empirically explores the relationships among restaurant employees’ attitudes, demographics, work-related variables (WRV, and job satisfaction after the introduction of a smoke-free legislation in one transition economy, i.e. Croatia. Results revealed that gender, education, age, restaurant seating allocation, hospitality work experience, smoking status, average weekly workload, and the restaurant area served were for the most part not significant in explaining different perceptions toward a smoking ban. However, the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy somewhat influenced how respondents view the smoking ban. In terms of the respondents’ preferred restaurant smoking policy, results revealed no significant differences in regards to demographics and WRV. With regard to job satisfaction, staff with more positive post-implementation attitudes towards the ban exhibit somewhat higher levels of satisfaction with the current job. Overall, respondents appear willing to make concessions for both pro- and anti-smoking patrons, staff, and owners/managers. Therefore, lawmakers should consider population characteristics, seating allocation, and the combination thereof when devising restaurant smoking policies.

  1. Prostitution in the Netherlands since the lifting of the brothel ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide information on the state of affairs regarding prostitution in the Netherlands in 2006 in the context of the evaluation of the lifting of the brothel ban, in order to be able, if necessary, to develop flanking policy.

  2. 76 FR 39240 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... employees about the safety risks associated with texting while driving. As a result of public comments, the... subcontractors to adopt and enforce policies that ban texting while driving. The Executive Order does not include... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) definitions of electronic device, texting, and...

  3. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty research and development: plans and accomplishments ...from signature to entry into force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This brochure describes the high-priority R&D that is being pursued in the DOE Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D Program and how it will support effective CTBT monitoring. Monitoring challenges, sensor systems, signal analysis, resolution of ambiguities, and the timeline for CTBT history and program milestones are covered.

  4. Understanding the Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Different Graduate Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of affirmative action bans in four states (California, Florida, Texas, and Washington) on the enrollment of underrepresented students of color within six different graduate fields of study: the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, business, education, and humanities. Findings show that affirmative action…

  5. Do Bans on Affirmative Action Hurt Minority Students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of…

  6. 75 FR 76461 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... authority under various statutes to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an antimicrobial substance used in... ``pervasive and widespread use'' of triclosan poses significant risks to human health and the environment....

  7. 76 FR 5808 - Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... AGENCY Petition for a Ban on Triclosan; Notice of Availability; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... comment. The petition asks EPA to use its authority under various statutes to regulate triclosan. In a... EPA to use its authority under various statutes to regulate triclosan. Triclosan is an...

  8. Enforcing an Outdoor Smoking Ban on a College Campus: Effects of a Multicomponent Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kari Jo; Stearns, Julee N.; Kovach, Rachel G.; Harrar, Solomon W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Data on effective strategies to enforce policies banning outdoor smoking are sparse. This study tested the effects of an enforcement package implemented on a college campus. Participants: Thirty-nine observers recorded compliance of 709 outside smokers. Methods: Smoking within 25 feet of buildings was noncompliant. The intervention…

  9. Supreme Court Strikes down a Gun Ban and Raises Questions for College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court's landmark ruling overturning Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban could have implications for colleges that prohibit firearms on their campuses. Last month the court declared for the first time that the U.S. Constitution's Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep a gun, not just the right of states to maintain armed…

  10. China's Most Populous Province to Ban Fetus Sex Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Henan, the most populous province in central China,is plagued by an excessively high sex ratio imbalance at birth in certain parts of the province. To ameliorate the situation, the province will enact regulations to ban non-medically necessary fetus gender identification and sex-selective abortions.

  11. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  12. Supreme Court Strikes down a Gun Ban and Raises Questions for College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric; Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The Supreme Court's landmark ruling overturning Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban could have implications for colleges that prohibit firearms on their campuses. Last month the court declared for the first time that the U.S. Constitution's Second Amendment protects an individual's right to keep a gun, not just the right of states to maintain armed…

  13. SISTEM INFORMASI SARANA DAN PRASARANA SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFOKAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ainul Yaqin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak- Standar sarana dan prasarana adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.2. Pengelolaan sarana dan prasarana sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data-data usulan pengadaan, penerimaan, distribusi, penggunaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.2. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi sarana dan prasarana dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci : standar 6.2. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Sarana dan Prasarana, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  14. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  15. Legal Maneuvering: Law Schools Struggle to Produce Despite Affirmative Action Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Constance A.

    1999-01-01

    The ban on affirmative action in college and university admissions has stimulated law schools to recruit underrepresented minorities more aggressively, in some cases producing more competition for historically black institutions. Declines in law school minority enrollments are also attributed to student preferences for other areas of study, such…

  16. 78 FR 33393 - Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Safety Act (CPSA) to determine that adult portable bed rails pose an unreasonable risk of injury and... (CPSA) to determine that adult portable bed rails pose an unreasonable risk of injury and...

  17. OpenBAN: An Open Building ANalytics Middleware for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandarasamy Arjunan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards the realization of smart building applications, buildings are increasingly instrumented with diverse sensors and actuators. These sensors generate large volumes of data which can be analyzed for optimizing building operations. Many building energy management tasks such as energy forecasting, disaggregation, among others require complex analytics leveraging collected sensor data. While several standalone and cloud-based systems for archiving, sharing and visualizing sensor data have emerged, their support for analyzing sensor data streams is primitive and limited to rule-based actions based on thresholds and simple aggregation functions. We develop OpenBAN, an open source sensor data analytics middleware for buildings, to make analytics an integral component of modern smart building applications. OpenBAN provides a framework of extensible sensor data processing elements for identifying various building context, which different applications can leverage. We validate the capabilities of OpenBAN by developing three representative real-world applications which are deployed in our test-bed buildings: (i household energy disaggregation, (ii detection of sprinkler usage from water meter data, and (iii electricity demand forecasting. We also provide a preliminary system performance of OpenBAN when deployed in the cloud and locally.

  18. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  19. Van huis naar school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands about two and a half million children are going each day to school as pedestrian, as cyclist or as moped- rider. It is important to remember that these children are forced by the society to go to school and the society has therefore the responsibility for the safe journey to schoo

  20. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  1. 回药少尼子的本草考证%Research on Materia Medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 何婷; 高如宏

    2016-01-01

    According to the record in YanXingLu, prophet Mohammed said Hui medicine can cure many of disease. So we made a research on materia medica of Hui Herbal Medicine ShaoNiZi in Huihui prescriptions from several aspects, including Species research, historical records, origin, chemical composition, pharmacological ef-fects, traditional and modern medicine usage, and security as well, and found that it is the dry mature seed of the Ra-nunculaceae Nigella sativa L. Because of its wide therapeutic range, safety and non-toxic, it values to research.%《言行录》记载回药少尼子能够治疗许多疾病。因此本研究从品种考证、历史记载、产地、化学成分、药理作用、传统及现代医学用法、安全性等方面对《回回药方》中少尼子进行本草考证研究,确定其为毛茛科植物家黑种草 Nigella sativa L.的干燥成熟种子,其治疗范围极其广泛,且安全无毒,具有很大的研究价值。

  2. The Banquet Music of Hui Nationality in the Inheritance and the Variation%回族宴席曲的传承及流变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓君

    2015-01-01

    回族宴席曲是西北流行的古老民间音乐形式,是我国民间音乐文化艺术的奇葩。它既保留了本民族的音乐特征又吸收了多民族音乐文化元素,演唱中自然夹杂了本民族语言及地方方言等词汇,特色鲜明,韵味独特。本文对回族宴席曲的传承和流变进行了概述,并通过典型的例子诠释了回族宴席曲的流变。%The Banquet music of Hui nationality is an ancient folk music in the northwest and a miracle of Chinese folk music culture .It retains the national music characteristics and absorbs other national music cultural elements ,singing naturally mixed with their native language and dialect ,which are distinctive and peculiar .In this paper ,the inheritance and evolvement of the Banquet music of Hui nationality are summa‐rized ,and the evolvement is interpreted by typical examples .

  3. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Complying with the smoking ban by students before and after introducing legislative intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rzeźnicki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.

  5. Supreme Court issues limited ruling in challenge to Utah abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-28

    A law passed in Utah in 1991 which prohibited abortion except in cases of life endangerment, rape, incest, risk of grave damage to a woman's medical health, or grave fetal defects. The exceptions for women who had been sexually abused were eliminated after 20 weeks gestation. In December 1992, US District Court Judge J. Thomas Greene found the ban unconstitutional as applied to abortions prior to 20 weeks but upheld it as applied to procedures after that point in pregnancy. A three-judge appellate panel later reversed the district court decision in August 1995 on the argument that the prohibition on post-20-week abortions could not stand independent of the ban on earlier procedures. The appeals court also struck down a requirement that physicians performing those abortions allowed after viability use the method most likely to give the fetus the best chance of survival, unless it would endanger a woman's life or cause grave damage to her medical health. In an unsigned opinion issued on June 17, 1996, the US Supreme Court reversed the appeals court decision which struck down Utah's original 1991 ban on abortions. Five justices ruling in Leavitt v. Jane L. found that the US Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit misapplied Utah precedent when it found that the criminal abortion statute could not be divided into two separate abortion bans, one before and one after 20 weeks gestation. Health care providers will now argue that the ban on post-20-week abortions should be struck down on constitutional grounds. This is the first challenge to a state abortion law to come under High Court review since Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992.

  6. Tai Chi and Qi Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improved their functioning. For Mental Health and Cognitive Function While a range of research has suggested that ... 279. Saeed SA, Antonacci DJ, Bloch RM. Exercise, yoga, and meditation for depressive and anxiety disorders. American ...

  7. Yo ban? Rape rap and limits of free speech in India : An argument analysis of the debate about banning the artist Honey Singh

    OpenAIRE

    Bergdahl, Becky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of an argument analysis of three columns published in the Indian newspaper The Indian Express in the aftermath of the gangrape and murder of a young woman in Delhi in December 2012, and the following debate about glorification of rape in Indian popular culture. One of the columnists is arguing in favour of including gender as a category in the Indian law on hate speech, thereby banning an artist called Honey Singh and his lyrics about rape. The two other columnists are ar...

  8. The effect of a smoking ban on hospitalization rates for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Gaudreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban. METHODS: Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed. RESULTS: The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04 immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by -0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01 in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.

  9. Building JiuChengGong virtual scene and achieving interactive roaming%九成宫虚拟场景创建及其交互漫游实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀麟; 许嘉琳; 杨宇峤; 万韬阮; 武桐; 田蓉

    2015-01-01

    Combining the archaeological data,methods for building JiuChengGong virtual scene and achieving interactive roaming were researched.For problems encountered during the achieving process,such as complexity of the scene,memory occupying, lacks of smoothing screen,complexity of interaction devices and so on,a hybrid modeling method and a method using Kinect mo-tion capture were put forward.Complex virtual scene was built and human posture control was achieved instead of keyboard con-trol through interactive roaming process.The original style of Sui and Tang ruins’JiuChengGong was reproduced.The entire roaming process avoids the “jumping”phenomenon,and the screen is fluent.Human posture control can accurately reflect the interactive roaming process,and Kinect can capture motion accurately.It is of great significance to protect and display JiuCheng-Gong sites.%结合考古资料,研究隋唐遗址九成宫虚拟场景创建及其交互漫游实现的方法。针对其实现过程中遇到的场景复杂、内存占用多、画面不流畅、交互设备复杂等问题,提出混合建模和采用Kinect进行动作捕捉的方法,实现复杂虚拟场景的构建及交互漫游过程中人体姿势控制代替键盘控制,重现隋唐遗址九成宫的原始风貌。整个漫游过程无“跳跃”现象,画面流畅,人体姿势控制能正确反映到交互漫游过程中,Kinect动作捕捉精度较高,对九成宫遗址的保护和展示有重要意义。

  10. 甘肃临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况的抽样调查与分析%Incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture:a sampling survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司庆宗; 安晓莉; 李淼; 马占海; 马玉梅; 赵望泓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province. Methods Root caries in 436 Hui elderly people aged 65 -74 years and their clinical examination were investigated with questionnaire by random sampling according to the third national oral health survey standards and methods. Results The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture was 28. 90% , with mean number of root caries of 0. 42. No significant difference was found in the incidence of root caries between urban and rural areas and between male and female (P >0.05). The filling rate of root caries was only 0. 68%. The root caries index ( RCI) value was 2. 85% and 2.76% , respectively, in the distal and mesial surfaces. The RCI value was higher in maxillary teeth than in corresponding mandibular teeth. Root caries involving one root surface was detected in 88. 7% of Hui elderly people. Logistic regression analysis showed that frequency of teeth brushing and sugar food intake was closely related with the occurrence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture ( OR; 0. 492,95%C7:0.317 to 0.764,P =0.002;OR:l. 654,95%C/:1.033 to 2.648,P =0.036). Conclusion The incidence of root caries in Hui elderly people of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is low due to their good oral health and life habits. However, root caries is rarely treated, thus needing instructions on their oral health and taking more preventive measures against their oral diseases.%目的 了解并分析甘肃省临夏回族自治州回族老年人根面龋发病状况.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查标准和方法,采用多阶段分层等容量随机抽样方法对436例临夏回族65 ~ 74岁老年人进行问卷调查及根面龋的口腔临床检查.结果 临夏市65 ~ 74岁回族老年人恒牙根面龋患病率为28.90%,龋均为0.42.患龋率和龋均在城乡和性别

  11. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  12. Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Järvholm, Bengt; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Several countries have banned the use of asbestos. The future health impacts of previous use have been modeled but there are to our knowledge no convincing studies showing a decreased occurrence of asbestos-related diseases due to a ban. The aim of our study was to estimate the effects of the ban and other measures to decrease the use of asbestos in Sweden. METHODS: The effect was measured through comparing the incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma in birth cohorts who started to ...

  13. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  14. Impact of the smoking ban on the volume of bar sales in Ireland: evidence from time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Normand, Charles

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the first to estimate the economic impact of a comprehensive smoking ban in all enclosed public places of work, on bars in Ireland. The demand in bars, represented by a monthly index of sales volume, is explained by relative prices in bars, prices of alcohol sold in off-licences and the aggregate retail sales (ARS) as a proxy for general economic activity and incomes. The smoking ban is included into the model as a step dummy and the modelling is done using ARIMAX strategy. The results show a reduction in the volume of sales in bars by -4.6% (p<0.01) following the ban.

  15. 论回族的宗教信仰与养生保健%On Religious Beliefs and Health Preservation of Hui Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国明

    2015-01-01

    In the perspective of Hui Muslims ,birth ,aging ,illness and death are the eternal laws of nature ,which are irresistible to human beings .Death of the mortal body is not the end but the continuum of human life and it may resurrect in the after life .Such a view of life has determined their ways of living different from Chinese Taoists who pursue immortal lives .The health preservation concepts of the Hui group are closely linked with their religious beliefs and living habits which influence their health values .From the perspective of traditional Chinese health preservation culture ,the religious activities and habits of Hui Muslims contain profound knowledge of health preservation .Meanwhile ,some of the wisdom and rationale can definitively serve as valuable guidance and inspiration for modern people in their pursuit of a healthy and satisfying life .%在回族穆斯林的思想观念中,生老病死是永恒的自然规律,不可抗拒。今世的死亡不是人生的结束,而是人生的继续,人的生命在后世还会复活。这样的生命观决定了他们不可能像中国道家一样去寻求长生不老的方式方法来延长自己的生命。回族穆斯林的养生保健,与他们的宗教信仰以及由其影响的健康生活习惯有密切的联系。在中国传统养生文化看来,回族穆斯林的宗教活动和日常生活习惯包含了丰富的养生之道。其中一些合理的观念和行为对当前人们的身心健康也具有重要的启示和借鉴作用。

  16. EPA Declares Outdoor Burn Ban for Indian Reservations in Snohomish and Pierce Counties, Burn Ban Continues for Yakama Reservation: Air Pollution Levels Now in the Unhealthy to Very Unhealthy Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is declaring a ban on all outdoor open burning on the Tulalip, Stillaguamish, Sauk-Suiattle and Puyallup Indian Reservations in Washington due to stagnant air conditions and elevated air pollution. These conditions

  17. 启功、曾毅公旧藏《敦煌变文集》稿本述略%Introduction to the Manuscript of Dunhuang Bianwen Collection Kept by Qigong and ZENG Yi-gong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 萨仁高娃

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍了启功、曾毅公先生旧藏的手稿.手稿体现了王重民、启功等编者校录编辑的过程.通过稿本与出版本异同的对比分析,揭示出稿本的学术史价值.%The present article introduces the manuscript of Dunhuang Bianwen Collection kept by Qigong and ZENG Yi-gong.The manuscript shows the process of the compiling Dunhuang Bianwen Collection by WANG Zhong-min,Qigong,etc.By comparing the manuscript and the published version,it indicates the academic importance of the manuscript.

  18. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  19. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  20. Clarifying beliefs underlying hunter intentions to support a ban on lead shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.; Doncarlos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Shot from hunting adds toxic lead to environments worldwide. Existing lead shot regulations have been instituted with little understanding of hunter beliefs and attitudes. This study applied the Theory of Reasoned Action, using a multilevel, multivariate approach, to clarify how positive and negative beliefs relate to attitudes about a ban on lead shot. Structure coefficients and commonality analysis were employed to further examine relationships between beliefs and attitudes. Results suggest that while both positive and negative outcomes influence attitudes, positive outcomes were more influential for supporters and negative beliefs for opposers. Management may need to focus on the results from hunters who indicated that they would be unlikely to support a ban, as these hunters include those who may actively oppose additional efforts to regulate lead.

  1. The Impact of Massage Gong" Yi Jin Jing" on College Students with Insomnia%推拿功法"易筋经"对大学生失眠症的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 李旗; 马树祥; 郑剑; 孙树文; 梅荣军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study is to observe the curative effect of massage gong " Yi Jin Jing" on university students with insomnia. Method: There were 180 participants in this study, including 60 insomnia students in the treatment group, 60 insomnia students in the acupuncture control group and 60 healthy students in the control group. Two groups were treated after two months, and we tested the PSQI , SDS and SAS in groups. Result: It showed that after treatment the PSQI , SDS and SAS of the treatment group declined remarkably (P 0. 05). Conclusion-.It can be concluded that massage gong " Yi Jin Jing" is effective for insomnia students.%目的:观察"易筋经"治疗大学生失眠症的疗效并探讨其可能的作用机制.方法:选取120例患失眠症的学生,随机分为治疗组和对照组,另选取60例健康人作为实验组.进行2个月治疗,观察实验前与实验后4个月匹兹堡睡眠质量指数量表、焦虑自评量表(sAs)和抑郁自评量表(sDs)的变化.结果:治疗组在治疗后的PSQI各项目及总分、抑郁、焦虑评分较治疗前均有明显下降(P<0.01),且与空白组相比无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:运用"易筋经"练习的方法对青年失眠患者进行治疗是切实可行的,能够改善患者焦虑情绪及睡眠症状.

  2. Chinese Capital Built the Biggest Nickel Factory in Indonesia to Cope with Raw Ore Export Ban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Following the raw ore export ban announced by Indonesia in January this year,the rising margin of nickel price has topped 60%.At the London Metal Exchange,nickel price has risen from the bottom of USD 13334 per tonne on January 9 this year to the peak of USD 21625per tonne on May 13,recording a new highest level of nickel price in two years.

  3. Surface coatings as xenon diffusion barriers on plastic scintillators : Improving Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification

    OpenAIRE

    Bläckberg, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ability of transparent surface coatings to reduce xenon diffusion into plastic scintillators. The motivation for the work is improved radioxenon monitoring equipment, used with in the framework of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. A large part of the equipment used in this context incorporates plastic scintillators which are in direct contact with the radioactive gas to be detected. One problem with such setup is that radioxenon...

  4. Smoking ban and small-for-gestational age births in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair; Daly, Sean; Clarke, Vanessa; Keogan, Sheila; Clancy, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA) births. We developed a population-based birthweight (BW) percentile curve based on a recent study to compute SGA (BW births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed linking with monthly maternal smoking rates from a large referral maternity university hospital. We ran individual control and CUSUM charts, with bootstrap simulations, to pinpoint the breakpoint for the impact of ban implementation ( = April 2004). Monthly SGA rates (%) before and after April 2004 was considered pre and post ban period births, respectively. Autocorrelation was tested using Durbin Watson (DW) statistic. Mixed models using a random intercept and a fixed effect were employed using SAS (v 9.2). A total of 588,997 singleton live-births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. vSGA and SGA monthly rates declined from an average of 4.7% to 4.3% and from 6.9% to 6.6% before and after April 2004, respectively. No auto-correlation was detected (DW = ~2). Adjusted mixed models indicated a significant decline in both vSGA and SGA rates immediately after the ban [(-5.3%; 95% CI -5.43% to -5.17%, pbirth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful comprehensive smoke-free legislation in a vulnerable population group as pregnant women.

  5. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola) grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil) as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha) of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphor...

  6. The Fight to Ban Opium in the Soviet Areas of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN recent years, I visited some old Soviet Areas (established during the Second Revolutionary Civil War, 1927-1937) in Sichuan Province. Recalling the war with local people and singing Red Army and revolutionary songs of those years, I remember the folk songs about giving UP the opium habit. In order to establish and develop the revolutionary base in Sichuan, the Party and Red Army carried out a mass movement to ban opium, saving tens of thousands families from ruin.

  7. Do bans on affirmative action hurt minority students? Evidence from the Texas Top 10% Plan

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In light of the recent bans on affirmative action in higher education, this paper provides new evidence on the effects of alternative admissions policies on the persistence and college completion of minority students. I find that the change from affirmative action to the Top 10% Plan in Texas decreased both retention and graduation rates of lower-ranked minority students. Results show that both fall-to-fall freshmen retention and six-year college graduation of seconddecile minority students d...

  8. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  9. Banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Bachynski, Kathleen E

    2013-07-01

    Campaigns to limit tobacco use started in the 1970s and have led to bans on public smoking, which have been extended to parks and beaches. A review of state and local statutes shows that during 1993-2011, smoking was banned in 843 parks and on 150 beaches across the United States. Three justifications for these restrictions have been invoked: the risk of passive smoke to nonsmokers, the pollution caused by cigarette butts, and the long-term risks to children from seeing smoking in public. Our analysis of the evidence for these claims found it far from definitive and in some cases weak. What, then, accounts for the efforts to impose such bans? We conclude that the impetus is the imperative to denormalize smoking as part of a broader public health campaign to reduce tobacco-related illness and death. Although invoking limited evidence may prove effective in the short run, it is hazardous for public health policy makers, for whom public trust is essential.

  10. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  11. Gender and Power Dynamics in Transnational Marriage Brokerage: The Ban on Commercial Matchmaking in Taiwan Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Hui Tseng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan attracted a considerable number of marriage migrants from Southeast Asia and China through brokers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. With widely circulated, sensational news stories about foreign spouses being abused and advertisements of foreign brides as objects for sale, women involved in the business were gradually seen by the public as victims of transnational marriage brokerage. Under pressure from some women’s groups in Taiwan and the anti-trafficking campaign in the international community, the Taiwanese government eventually banned transnational commercial matchmaking in 2008. This article examines the gender politics behind the ban by reviewing the debate over this policy. It also provides an ethnographic study of women’s power relationships with other parties involved in the marriage business. By exposing the market and cultural logic that made this business blossom, this article challenges the binaries of perpetrator/victim and exploitation/freedom in the dominant representations of the transnational marriage market. It calls for a transnational and transclass perspective to understand these women’s “active submission” to the market and concludes that, without this consideration, the enforcement of the 2008 ban ends up serving only to save the international reputation of the host country and fulfill the liberal middle-class imaginary of moral order of the host society, rather than solving women’s problems per se.

  12. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  13. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA.

  14. The Transfer of Land Contractual Management Rights in Ethnic Village--A Case Study of Ya’ergou Village in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey in Ya’ergou Village,Yuanzhou District,Guyuan City,the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region,we analyze the status quo of the transfer of land contractual management rights in this village,and study the basic information,form,characteristics,and problems concerning the transfer of land contractual management rights in this nationality village.Then corresponding countermeasures are put forward for promoting the transfer of land contractual management rights in ethnic village as follows:strengthening the publicity of the policy in order to improve farmers’ ideological understanding;raising the rent in order to promote the transfer of the land contractual management rights;diverting the governmental investment to the talented people within village;consolidating management and resolving disputes in the transfer timely and effectively.

  15. L’expérience de la carrière scientifique aujourd’hui. Zoom sur le vécu de chercheurs postdoctorants

    OpenAIRE

    Fusulier, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Cet article vise à alimenter le débat sur la régulation de la science et des carrières scientifiques aujourd’hui. Bien que fondé sur une analyse de l’organisation de la recherche en Belgique, il révèle certains aspects généralisables en particulier au système français. Il repose empiriquement sur une enquête ayant ciblé les chargés de recherches (postdoctorants) du Fonds national de la recherche scientifique (FNRS) initiée en 2010 à l’Université catholique de Louvain. Dans un premier temps, e...

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  17. Striving for quality use of medicines: how effective is Australia's ban on direct-to-consumer prescription medicine advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sonja

    2009-02-01

    The potential for both positive and negative effects arising from direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines challenges health policymakers to develop regulatory schemes which selectively capture the positive aspects of the practice. Australia has dealt with this quandary by banning the practice, while New Zealand and the United States permit it. However, in recent times pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly successful in introducing promotional materials into the Australian market. This article demonstrates that the Australian ban is consistent with striving for the major policy goal of quality use of medicines, thus providing the basis for arguing that solutions to strengthen the ban against the identified threats ought to be implemented. Quality use of medicines can be most effectively achieved via the combined effect of the strengthened ban and the mimicking of the limited positive aspects of direct-to-consumer advertising by government provision of non-promotional information to consumers.

  18. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A rando

  20. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms.

  1. 从“区域”到“整体”:回族史研究的历史人类学思考%From Region to Entirety:a Historical Anthropology Study on Hui Muslims’ History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙彦奋

    2016-01-01

    目前,回族历史研究主要存在三种取向:一是受传统史学研究的影响,研究材料主要依赖于文献资料,缺乏对民间资料的重视;二是受回族分布格局的影响,区域性特点鲜明;三是受学科的影响,研究方法比较单一。文化的地域性和区域历史的特殊性,是回族历史研究不能忽视的两个方面。突出区域文化在回族历史研究方面有重要的作用。在加强回族区域历史“文本”书写的同时,注重回族史研究的整体建构,是回族历史研究应有之义。%At present, the historical study of the Hui Muslims mainly exists three kinds of orientation , the first was affected by the tradi-tional historical research , which was the materials research mainly depended on the literature ,and lack of attention to the private information;the second was affected by the distribution pattern of Hui Muslims with distinctive regional characteristics;the third was affected by subject, research method is relatively homogeneous .Regional culture and the specialty of regional history are two aspects not be ignored .Highlighting the regional culture plays an important role in the study of Hui Muslims ’ history.While strengthening the “text” writing of the Hui Mus-lims’ regional history, overall construction of the research on Hui Muslims’ history is the significance of the research.

  2. Le fonctionnement en réseau comme élément du contexte d’intervention en santé mentale aujourd’hui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Deliège

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le contexte dans lequel sont aujourd’hui amenés à intervenir les professionnels de la santé mentale est de plus en plus marqué par les pratiques de collaboration qui se développent au-delà des frontières d’une institution, qu’on appelle aussi le "travail en réseau". Le modèle du réseau s’est construit en opposition à celui de l’institution; ces deux modèles de fonctionnement se différencient tant dans le rapport qu’ils entretiennent au savoir, qu’à la norme et au contrôle. Cet article resitue l’émergence du concept de réseau dans les politiques publiques belges. Le fonctionnement en réseau dans la pratique soulève aussi une série de difficultés et de questions comme la cohabitation des logiques institutionnelles et réticulaires, la répartition de la responsabilité et les modalités de prise de décision, l’intérêt de la formalisation (ou non des procédures, la responsabilisation de l’usager des services de santé mentale et l’articulation des savoirs autant de questions que pose aujourd’hui le contexte d’intervention en santé mentale.

  3. Employees' job satisfaction after the introduction of a total smoke-ban in bars and restaurants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Jørn; Hetland, Hilde; Mykletun, Reidar J; Aarø, Leif E; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible effects of a total smoke-ban in Norwegian bars and restaurants (introduced on June 1st 2004) on employees' job satisfaction. A national representative sample was randomly selected from the public registry of all companies in the hospitality business. A baseline survey was conducted in May 2004, follow-up measurements were performed in September/October 2004 and May 2005. Altogether, 1525 employees agreed to participate in the baseline survey. Among respondents at baseline, 894 (59.4%) remained in the sample at the first follow-up and 758 (49.7%) at the second follow-up. Analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed a significant three-way interaction between personal smoking behaviour, attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted and time from baseline to the second follow-up. A small decline in job satisfaction was found between baseline and the first follow-up among employees who were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban. There was, however, an increase in job satisfaction between the first and second follow-up among the others (non-smokers and smokers with a positive attitude towards the ban). While job satisfaction was higher among smokers with negative attitudes towards the ban than among other employees before the ban entered into force, the opposite was the case one year later. The work environments in bars and restaurants seem to have changed towards being more satisfactory for non-smokers and smokers with positive attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted. In contrast, a small but persisting worsening of job satisfaction was found among employees that were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban.

  4. Facilitators and Barriers of Smokers’ Compliance with Smoking Bans in Public Places: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is associated with an increased risk of many diseases. Many countries have ratified a national smoking ban in public places, but studies on factors related to smoking issues in public places post-ban are lacking. Aim: To identify facilitators and barriers that influenced smokers’ compliance with smoking bans in public places. Methods: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Web of Science database, we conducted a systematic search of English articles published before June 2015 on factors of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places. Results: A total of 390 references were identified, among which seventeen articles (twelve quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, three mixed-method studies were included in this review. These studies focused on four types of public places including recreational venues (n = 7, hospital (n = 5, school (n = 4, and workplace (n = 1. Factors at the  individual-, interpersonal-, and organizational-level were identified: at the individual level, nicotine dependence, insufficiency of tobacco-related knowledge, and the negative attitudes towards smoking bans were the most commonly identified barriers; at the interpersonal level, the smoking behaviors of people around, close relatives, and friends’ approval were the main barriers; and at the organizational level, the main barriers were inefficient implementation of the bans and the inconvenience of the designative smoking areas. Conclusions: This synthesis of the literature provided evidence of the identified barriers and facilitators of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans. It will be beneficial for the policy-maker to consider interventions on multiple levels of factors to overcome the barriers and enhance smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places.

  5. Smoke-Free Laws and Direct Democracy Initiatives on Smoking Bans in Germany: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kohler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Germany’s 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. Methods: We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. Results: The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens’ or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman’s ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04. Conclusions: The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  6. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  7. Smoke-free laws and direct democracy initiatives on smoking bans in Germany: a systematic review and quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan; Minkner, Philipp

    2014-01-03

    Germany's 16 states regulate smoking differently within health protection principles laid down in the federal law. All state smoke-free laws in Germany have undergone at least one change since taking effect. We systematically review federal and state laws regulating smoking, as well as petitions, popular initiatives and referenda that aimed at changing statutory smoking bans. Data generated through the systematic review were correlated with state smoking rates. The protection from the dangers of secondhand smoke is the primary motive for smoking bans in Germany. The first smoke-free laws affecting smoking in pubs, restaurants and several other public places were introduced in 2007. In 2008, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany ruled in a leading decision on the smoke-free laws of two states that some common smoking ban exemptions of the introduced smoke-free laws violate the basic right to freely exercise a profession and mandated revisions. All states but Bavaria and Saarland, whose smoking bans were more and less comprehensive than those judged by the constitutional court, respectively, needed to change the smoking ban exemptions to reconcile their smoke-free laws with the constitution. Direct democracy initiatives to change smoking bans were only successful in Bavaria in 2010, but a total of 15 initiatives by citizens' or interest groups attempted to influence non-smokers protection legislation through direct democratic procedures. Early ratification of a smoking ban in a federal state correlates with a higher reduction in the smoking rate from 2005 to 2009 (Spearman's ρ = 0.51, p = 0.04). The federal government structure and direct democratic participation in smoke-free legislation in Germany has produced a diversity of local smoking bans and exemptions.

  8. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Grant, Ashley; Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-08-15

    The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia-having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world-enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions was very good: there were virtually no

  9. Restaurant and bar owners' exposure to secondhand smoke and attitudes regarding smoking bans in five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiling; Hammond, S Katharine; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J; Yang, Yan; Nan, Yi; Feng, Guoze; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2011-05-01

    Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  10. Restaurant and Bar Owners’ Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Attitudes Regarding Smoking Bans in Five Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great progress made towards smoke-free environments, only 9% of countries worldwide mandate smoke-free restaurants and bars. Smoking was generally not regulated in restaurants and bars in China before 2008. This study was designed to examine the public attitudes towards banning smoking in these places in China. A convenience sample of 814 restaurants and bars was selected in five Chinese cities and all owners of these venues were interviewed in person by questionnaire in 2007. Eighty six percent of current nonsmoking subjects had at least one-day exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at work in the past week. Only 51% of subjects knew SHS could cause heart disease. Only 17% and 11% of subjects supported prohibiting smoking completely in restaurants and in bars, respectively, while their support for restricting smoking to designated areas was much higher. Fifty three percent of subjects were willing to prohibit or restrict smoking in their own venues. Of those unwilling to do so, 82% thought smoking bans would reduce revenue, and 63% thought indoor air quality depended on ventilation rather than smoking bans. These results showed that there was support for smoking bans among restaurant or bar owners in China despite some knowledge gaps. To facilitate smoking bans in restaurants and bars, it is important to promote health education on specific hazards of SHS, provide country-specific evidence on smoking bans and hospitality revenues, and disseminate information that restricting smoking and ventilation alone cannot eliminate SHS hazards.

  11. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register (May 2014); CENTRAL (Issue 5, 2014); MEDLINE (1966 to 28 May 2014); EMBASE (1974 to 28 May 2014); PsychINFO (June 2013); and five alcohol and marketing databases in October 2013. We also searched seven conference databases and www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/ in October 2013. We checked the reference lists of all studies identified and those of relevant systematic reviews or guidelines, and contacted researchers, policymakers and other experts in the field for published or unpublished data, regardless of language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series (ITS) studies that evaluated the restriction or banning of alcohol advertising via any format including advertising in the press, on the television, radio, or internet, via billboards, social media or product placement in films. The data could be at the individual (adults or adolescent) or population level. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one small RCT (80 male student participants conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2009) and three ITS studies (general population studies in Canadian provinces conducted in the 1970s and 80s).The RCT

  12. 回族人群饮食习惯与胃癌发生的相关性研究%Study on correlation of dietary habits and risk of gastric cancer in Hui population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓辉; 葛箭; 蔡慧珍; 葛云叶

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究回族人群独特的饮食习惯与胃癌患病的相关性,并进一步探讨与回族人群胃癌发病相关的饮食危险因素.方法 采用1∶1配对的病例对照研究方法,问卷调查126例胃癌和贲门癌回族患者以及126例非病例回族人群的饮食习惯,采用单因素和多因素条件Logistic回归模型进行数据分析.结果 经单因素与多因素条件Logistic回归分析结果显示,三餐不定时、常食腌制食品、常食油炸食品均有统计学意义(P<0.05,OR值分别为3.054,2.363,1.915).常食水果可降低胃癌的发生(OR=0.281,P<0.01).结论 三餐不定时、常食腌制食品及常食油炸食品可能会增加回族人群胃癌患病的危险性,而多食水果是回族胃癌的保护因素.%OBJECTIVE To study correlation of the special dietary habits and the risk of gastric cancer in Hui population, and to explore the risk factors of diet associated with gastric cancer in Hui population. METHODS 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted in 126 Hui people with gastric cancer, cardiac carcinoma and normal Hui people. Questionnaire including diet factors was used in the subjects. The data were analyzed by mono-factorial and multi-factorial conditional Logistic regression. RESULTS It revealed in mono-factorial and multi-factorial conditional Logistic regression analysis that there was a significant correlation between taking meals at irregular time, taking pickled foods frequently, taking fried foods frequently and gastric cancer in Hui people with odds ratios of 3.054, 2.363, and 1.915 respectively (P < 0.05). The results also showed that taking fresh fruit frequently was likely to decrease the risk of gastric cancer in Hui people (OR =0.281, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION The study shows that the dietary habits are associated with gastric cancer in Hui population as taking meals at irregular time, taking pickled foods frequently, taking fried foods frequently are the possible risk factors for

  13. Reductions in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality following the national irish smoking ban: interrupted time-series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown decreases in cardiovascular mortality following the implementation of comprehensive smoking bans. It is not known whether cerebrovascular or respiratory mortality decreases post-ban. On March 29, 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to implement a national workplace smoking ban. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this policy on all-cause and cause-specific, non-trauma mortality. METHODS: A time-series epidemiologic assessment was conducted, utilizing Poisson regression to examine weekly age and gender-standardized rates for 215,878 non-trauma deaths in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years. The study period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, with a post-ban follow-up of 3.75 years. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Following ban implementation, an immediate 13% decrease in all-cause mortality (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, a 26% reduction in ischemic heart disease (IHD (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, a 32% reduction in stroke (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.85, and a 38% reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.83 mortality was observed. Post-ban reductions in IHD, stroke, and COPD mortalities were seen in ages ≥65 years, but not in ages 35-64 years. COPD mortality reductions were found only in females (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.70. Post-ban annual trend reductions were not detected for any smoking-related causes of death. Unadjusted estimates indicate that 3,726 (95% CI: 2,305-4,629 smoking-related deaths were likely prevented post-ban. Mortality decreases were primarily due to reductions in passive smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The national Irish smoking ban was associated with immediate reductions in early mortality. Importantly, post-ban risk differences did not change with a longer follow-up period. This study corroborates previous evidence for cardiovascular

  14. The Status and Role of Hui people in Economic Development of Ningxia in Qing Dynasty%回族在清代宁夏经济发展中的地位和作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦增

    2016-01-01

    Hui people is an important component of the population of Ningxia in Qing Dynasty.In the early pe-riod of Qing Dynasty, Hui people mainly inhabited in areas like Xiji, Haiyuan, Guyuan, Tongxin, Jinji, Lingzhou, Wuzhong and Pingluo, where agriculture was relatively developed and traffic was relatively convenient, and the pop-ulation of Hui people living in the North was much more than that in the South.In the late Qing Dynasty, Guyuan, Yanchi and Tongxin became their main inhabiting areas.Hui people in Ningxia play an important role in the devel-opment of agriculture, handicraft industry and business in Qing Dynasty.In the long-term economic activities in Qing Dynasty, an economic structure of Hui people in Ningxia was formed in which they were mainly engaged in ag-riculture and concurrently engaged in animal husbandry and handicraft industry.It is very significant for our man-agement of ethnic relations and acceleration of economic development of Ningxia to understand and acknowledge the role Hui people ever played in the economic development of Ningxia in ancient times.%回族是清代宁夏人口的重要组成部分。清代前期,宁夏的回族主要集中在西吉、海原、固原、同心、金积、灵州、吴忠、平罗等农业相对发达、交通较为便利的地区,且北部多于南部。清代后期,固原、同心等地成为回族的聚居区。回族在清代宁夏农牧业、手工业和商业的发展中起了很大作用。清代宁夏的回族在长期的经济活动中,形成了以农业为主,兼营畜牧业、手工业和商业的经济结构。正确认识和了解回族在古代宁夏经济开发中的作用,对于当前正确处理民族关系、加快宁夏经济发展具有重要的意义。

  15. Compliance to Gutka ban and other provisons of COTPA in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pimple

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes and other tobacco products act 2003 (COTPA is the principal law governing tobacco control in India. Government of Maharashtra in one of its landmark decisions also banned manufacturing, sale and distribution of gutka and pan masala since July 2012. The desired impact and level of enforcement of the COTPA legislation and the gutka and pan masala ban in Maharashtra State, however, needs assessment. Among the many provisions within COTPA, the present study seeks to assess compliance to implementation and enforcement of Section 5 and 6 of COTPA including compliance to gutka and pan masala ban in Mumbai, India. Methodology: Six educational institutes (EI within the Mumbai metropolitan region were selected in a two stage random sampling process. Area around each EI was manually mapped and all the tobacco products selling outlets with in the 100 yards distance were listed by trained Field Social Investigators and were observed to determine compliance for Section 5 and Section 6 of the COTPA legislation and for gutka and pan masala ban. The vendors/shop owners manning these outlets were also interviewed for their personal sociodemographic details, self-tobacco use, awareness and perception about ill-effects of tobacco and existing tobacco control legislation in the country. Results: A total of 222 tobacco retail outlets were listed within 100 yards of the EI in violation to the provisions of Section 6 of COTPA, of which 72 (32.4% were selling tobacco products on mobile structures. About 53.2% of the tobacco vendors were also users of some form of tobacco. Whereas, nearly 217 (97.7% vendors were aware about the gutka and pan masala ban in the State, only 48.2% were aware about the existence of COTPA legislation. None of the EI had a display board prohibiting the sale of tobacco products within a radius of 100 yards of their EI. Only 56.3% tobacco outlets had complied with the mandatory warning display boards indicating tobacco

  16. The effectiveness of tobacco sales ban to minors: the case of Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, A H; Rainio, S U

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of the 1977 and 1995 tobacco sales bans on tobacco acquisition of minors. Biennial nationwide postal surveys (adolescent health and lifestyle survey, AHLS) in 1977-2003; annual classroom surveys (school health promotion survey, SHPS) in 1996-2003. Entire Finland-12, 14, 16, and 18 year olds (AHLS, n = 80 282); eighth and ninth graders (14-16 year olds) (SHPS, n = 226 681). Purchase of tobacco from commercial sources during the past month, purchase from different commercial (shop, kiosk, other outlet) and social sources, ease of buying tobacco, overall acquisition of tobacco products, daily smoking, tobacco experimenting. Decrease in tobacco purchase from commercial sources was small and short term after 1977 but large and permanent after 1995: purchase rate among 14 year old smokers diminished from 90% to 67% in 2003, 16 year olds from 94% to 62%. Purchases in shops decreased most (14 year olds: from 39% to 14%; 16 year olds: from 76% to 27%); purchases in kiosks less. An increase was observed in obtaining tobacco from other outlets and friends (social sources). Only 2-3% of 14-16 year old smokers used commercial sources exclusively when obtaining tobacco. Daily smoking began to decrease after 2001, following an earlier decrease in those experimenting. No changes were observed among age groups not targeted by the ban. Legislation appears to have permanently changed tobacco sales practices and decreased purchases from commercial sources. Social sources need to be taken into account when controlling access to tobacco. Sales bans should be accompanied by other health promotion measures.

  17. Banned -- Select: "a drug to alter the sex of the foetus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, P V

    1993-04-01

    In 1991, the Government of Gujarat State, India, banned the manufacture and sale of an Ayurvedic drug called Select. This was the first time an Ayurvedic product had ever been banned. The manufacturer claimed that if a pregnant woman took Select for 45 days after her last menstrual period, she would have a male fetus. Further, the manufacturer marketed the drug as a tool which would change the dowry system (i.e., it would reduce the number of girls in the population). Select's high cost did not deter the naive and trusting public in Gujarat and other states. Drug activists and consumer groups called for the ban and noted that the marketing claims were typical of the unethical behavior of the Ayurvedic market. These consumer groups brought the existence of Select to the attention of the government which admittedly cannot adequately monitor and control the drug market. Groups ranging from illegal smugglers to multinational giants use loopholes in the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Excise Laws to license their drugs as Ayurvedic/Herbal, but most drugs are hazardous. Policy makers, physicians, nongovernmental and consumer groups, the media, and others should join together to rid India of this unethical practice. They should help the government to implement a rational policy for traditional systems of medicine and, once the policy has been developed to select an essential drug list of Ayurvedic drugs needed for national health programs; monitor and minimize misleading advertisements; screen all existing Ayurvedic drugs and drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs of other traditional medicine systems; and require thorough research on the relevance, usefulness, and safety of new patent drugs. The government should declare any products with more than 12% alcohol to be liquor.

  18. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  19. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  20. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  1. Trans fat and cardiovascular disease mortality: Evidence from bans in restaurants in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J; Rieger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of trans fat bans on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates. Several New York State jurisdictions have restricted the use of ingredients containing artificial trans fat in food service establishments. The resulting within-county variation over time and the differential timing of the policy's rollout is used in estimation. The results indicate that the policy caused a 4.5% reduction in CVD mortality rates, or 13 fewer CVD deaths per 100,000 persons per year. The averted deaths can be valued at about $3.9 million per 100,000 persons annually.

  2. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidhubala, E.; Pisinger, C.; Basumallik, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP...... on the sachets. Results: Totally 65 STPs were collected; 26 distinct products and 23 brands. All products were claimed to be 'tobacco' by the shop keepers. Sixty-five percent of the products informed to contain tobacco and 15.4% to contain pan masala. Five sachets did not inform about the content; 30.8% did...

  3. Causal regulations vs. political will: why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2008-05-01

    Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on European Union and United States formulations of regulatory precaution and then analyze zoonotic infections in terms of the consequences of relying on political will to justify precautionary bans. We do not attempt a political analysis of these issues; rather, we conduct a regulatory analysis of precautionary legal requirements and use Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to assess a set of policy outcomes. Thirty-seven years ago, the Joint Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (the Swann Report) warned that uncontrolled use of similar antibiotics in humans and food animals could promote the emergence of resistant strains of foodborne bacteria that could endanger human health. Since then, many countries have either banned or restricted antibiotics as feed additives for promoting animal growth. Others, including the United States, have relied on prudent use guidelines and programs that reduce total microbial loads, rather than focusing exclusively on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In retrospect, the regulatory strategy of banning or restricting animal antibiotic uses has had limited success: it has been followed in many cases by deteriorating animal health and increases in human illnesses and resistance rates. Conversely, a combination of continued prudent use of antibiotics to prevent and control animal infections, together with HACCP and other improvements, has been followed by large improvements in the microbial safety of chickens and other food animals in the United States, leaving both animals and people

  4. Revisiting the Concept of Sanctuary in an Era of Backlash, Deportations and Bans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Délano Alonso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., the expansion of an already enlarged deportation apparatus and the attempt to establish a ban against immigrants from targeted countries by the Donald Trump administration has generated a wave of protests and institutional responses from activists, lawyers and immigrant-serving organizations to local governments. Students, faculty, and staff at over 190 schools, colleges, and universities around the country have mobilized to create and sign petitions calling for their respective administrations to declare their campuses sanctuaries, in response to policies that specifically target immigrant communities and have created fear, anxiety as well as real cases of abuse, discrimination and separation of families.

  5. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102. We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005 and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007 in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5 in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2 in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network.

  6. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Austrian Tobacco Act in practice--analysing the effectiveness of partial smoking bans in Austrian restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of partial smoking bans in restaurants and bars, such as those currently in place in Austria, by evaluating adherence to the relevant regulations and assessing the satisfaction levels of those affected by these regulations. To evaluate adherence, 127 randomly selected restaurants and bars were observed using a form of structured observation. In order to evaluate their level of satisfaction with the regulations, 342 randomly selected customers and 29 restaurant owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. The customers widely adhered to the partial smoking bans, but many of them were dissatisfied with the fragmented Austrian solution. Most restaurant owners showed neither adherence to the relevant regulations nor satisfaction with the partial smoking bans. The present study reveals that partial bans on smoking are an ineffective solution. The presumed advantages of these regulations, such as still allowing smoking in restaurants provided a spatial separation of smoking and non-smoking areas is guaranteed, cannot be confirmed; adherence to the partial bans is rather inadequate, especially among restaurant owners, and the level of satisfaction with the Austrian solution is poor as well, not only among smoking and non-smoking customers, but also restaurant owners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The legal design of the international and European Union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipperth, Lena

    2009-02-01

    The Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), which was adopted in 2001 and will come into force in September 2008, bans the use of TBT (tributyltin) antifouling paint on ships. The EU (European Union) effectively implemented the Convention on 1 January 2008 by enforcing a similar ban. Several states have national restrictions and bans in place. The regulation on TBT antifouling paint aims at checking the risk of adverse effects on marine ecosystems. The legal and political situation is, however, characterized by complex relations between different layers of legislation, the use of several different legal techniques, and levels of ambition. The international and EU bans thereby cause some indirect effects, which are only partly included in what is seen as 'the TBT issue' and so only partly assessed in the legal process of the ban. This article discusses the expediency of the existing legislation and legal strategies aimed at reducing the negative environmental effects of TBT-like toxins in marine ecosystems and indirect effects of such actions. It considers the adequacy and limits of current regulatory approaches for handling complex environmental problems, such as TBT in antifouling paint.

  9. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  10. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  11. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  12. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  13. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  14. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Southeast Asia Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS. This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011, a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9% at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  15. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-13

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  16. 《名公书判清明集》所见南宋亲属间诉讼%Litigation between Relatives from MingGongShuPanQingMingJi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小明

    2012-01-01

    The MingGongShuPanQingMingJi is a convicted corpus of the Southern Song Dynas- ty, because the cases are real convicted, and therefore it is with high historical value. The most ca- ses of MingGongShuPanQingMingJi are between relatives. Through the analysis of the court verdict,especially the property dispute lawsuits between relatives, on the one hand, we can see that people at the time were thoughtless and treacherous and many people were selfish and re- gardless of the kinship relation. On the other hand, the attitudes of the judges could be reflected. They advocated value family of Confucian ethics. For the cases related to human relations, they advocated the principle of education going before the punishment, the beautiful and the kind be- ing the custom and human relations being the essence of administration. Those judges could be regarded as the faithful guardians and implementers of Confucianism.%《名公书判清明集》是南宋时期的一部判文集,因其均为实判,故此史料价值很高。《名公书判清明集》中的案例,大多与亲属间的诉讼有关。通过分析相关判词,尤其是亲属间的财产纠纷诉讼,可以看出当时民风浇薄,很多人为一己私利不顾亲情的世间百态;另一方面则反映了名公们的态度,他们大力提倡儒家重视家庭伦理的主张,对关涉人伦案件的处理,往往以教化为先,惩罚在后,以美风俗、厚人伦为为政之根本,可谓儒家思想的忠实卫护者和积极践行者。

  17. Exploring the effect of hui-merchant’s clan sense and family business in Anhui%徽商宗族观对当代安徽家族企业发展的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    As the support of clan, ancient hui-merchants were al-powerful more then 300 years. Nowadays, there are many family business improve rapidly in the land of Anhui with the support of family. This thesis explores the interaction between the hui-merchants and lineage from the clan sense, at the same time, sums up the inheritance and development of hui-merchants on the clan sense. Exploring the advantage of the hui-merchants’ clan sense. The purpose is to find out how the clan sense support the Anhui family business entrepreneurial management, and take great use of its benefits. So we can improve the succes ful rate of the family business entrepreneurship, and promote the development of the enterprises in Anhui.%  由于宗族力量等原因的支持,古徽商携亲带友在商场叱咤风云三百余年。今天,在徽商曾经居住过的土地上,由于家族力量的支持,新徽商的家族企业正在快速发展。本文从宗族观角度出发,探究徽商与宗族之间的相互作用,研究家族企业的特点和发展过程,同时,总结新徽商对徽商宗族观的继承和发展,目的是为了发现宗族观对安徽家族企业的影响,积极利用其有利方面,从而提高家族企业创业的成功率,促进安徽家族企业的发展。

  18. Creativity Makes A New County——Hui Autonomous County of Dachang%图强求精天地新创意水乡展宏图——大厂回族自治县

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hui Autonomous County of Dachang was established in 1955, a Beijing-nearest county of ethnic minority group. Dachang, is a creative city from water. It is origi-nally a piece of vast grassland with beauti-ful scenery full of spring and grass. The emperor Zhu Li of Ming Dynasty estab-lished royal horse ground here and granted Dachang as its name.

  19. Common Pesticides Used in Suicide Attempts Following the 2012 Paraquat Ban in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Hwang, Il-Woong; Kim, Jae-Wook; Moon, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Suyeon; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To determine the change in pesticides used during suicide attempts after the 2012 paraquat (PQ) ban, we evaluated the annual number of suicide attempts by pesticide ingestion between 2011 and 2014. We extracted demographic, clinical outcome, and pesticide class data from the medical records of 1,331 patients that attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion. Pesticides were sorted into 5 groups: herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, other pesticides, and combined pesticides. Each group was subdivided into various classes based on publications by the respective Resistance Action Committees. The chi-square test for trends was used to compare the annual incidence of categorical variables. The total number of suicide attempts decreased each year, from 399 in 2011 to 245 in 2014. Simultaneously, PQ ingestion decreased from 253 patients in 2011 to 60 in 2014. The proportion of PQ to pesticides also decreased from 63.4% in 2011 to 24.5% in 2014. Furthermore, the rate of decrease in the proportion of PQ to all herbicide categories increased by calendar year. In conclusion, there is a significant trend in increased annual number of suicides and proportion of suicides using glyphosates and glufosinates versus total herbicides. However, the number of suicide attempts using glyphosate and glufosinate is lower than that using PQ. The ratio of persons completing suicide to those attempting suicide after pesticide ingestion has decreased every year after the PQ ban.

  20. ESR dating of laterite from Ban Tha Ta Suea, Kanchanaburi, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsuwan, S; Vichaidid, T; Limsuwan, P

    2011-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was carried out on laterite samples collected from Ban Tha Ta Suea, the original deposit of the laterite used in the construction of Muang Sing Historical Park. Ban Tha Ta Suea is about 6 km east of Muang Sing Historical Park in Kanchanaburi province (181 km far from Bangkok). The dose response of the g=2.0028 ESR signal was found to be suitable for age determination. An exponential saturation function was fitted to the ESR signal growth on additional γ-irradiation. Extrapolation of this function resulted in the accumulated dose 144±5 Gy. Gamma spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to determine concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples from which the annual dose rate 16±2 mGy was calculated. In addition, the dose rate of cosmic rays was taken into account. The ESR age of laterite samples was found to be 9.0±0.9 ka. This age falls within the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary on the geological time scale. Samples from Muang Sing Historical Park were assigned to the same epoch. Both results agree with the geological map.

  1. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  2. ESR dating of laterite from Ban Tha Ta Suea, Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limsuwan, S., E-mail: opticslaser@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Vichaidid, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus, Pattani 94000 (Thailand); Limsuwan, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was carried out on laterite samples collected from Ban Tha Ta Suea, the original deposit of the laterite used in the construction of Muang Sing Historical Park. Ban Tha Ta Suea is about 6 km east of Muang Sing Historical Park in Kanchanaburi province (181 km far from Bangkok). The dose response of the g=2.0028 ESR signal was found to be suitable for age determination. An exponential saturation function was fitted to the ESR signal growth on additional {gamma}-irradiation. Extrapolation of this function resulted in the accumulated dose 144{+-}5 Gy. Gamma spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used to determine concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in the samples from which the annual dose rate 16{+-}2 mGy was calculated. In addition, the dose rate of cosmic rays was taken into account. The ESR age of laterite samples was found to be 9.0{+-}0.9 ka. This age falls within the Holocene epoch of the Quaternary on the geological time scale. Samples from Muang Sing Historical Park were assigned to the same epoch. Both results agree with the geological map.

  3. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  4. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  5. Bibliometrics Analysis on the Periodical Literature in the Journal of Hui Muslim Minority Studies in China%我国回族研究引用期刊文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霞

    2012-01-01

    Taking the 2001-2010 statistical data of refers to the periodical literature of Journal of Hui Muslim Minority Studies which is the unique academic journal to study the historical culture of Hui nationality and the problem of the Hui nationality during the Socialist period as the base, the paper makes the statistics and analysis on the reference frequency, the kinds of reference periodicals, subject publications of the referred papers and papers publishment, and so on, from the perspective of bibliometrics.%以我国唯一的全方位研究回族历史文化及社会主义时期回族问题的学术性期刊——《回族研究》2001-2010年引用期刊文献的统计数据为蓝本,从引用频次、引用期刊种类、引用论文的学科发布及著者发布等方面,从文献计量学视角,进行了统计与分析.

  6. 论回族口承非物质文化的传承与保护%Research on the Inheritance and Protection of the Oral Culture of the Hui Minority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓琴

    2012-01-01

    The oral cultural heritage of the Hui is rich in content and vast in scope. Related government de- partments and scholars have made positive efforts and attained a certain level of success in rescuing and protecting intangible aspects of Hui culture. However, with the shock of globalization and modernization, the oral culture of the Hui is confronted with marginalization and eradication. For this reason, there is an urgent need for the inherit- ance and protection of its cultural heritage.%回族口承非物质文化遗产内容丰富,种类众多。相关政府部门和学者积极有为,在抢救和保护回族非物质文化方面作出积极努力并取得一定成效。但在全球化和现代化的冲击下,回族口承文化仍然面临边缘化和被消解的窘境。因此,对其保护和传承工作亟须跟进。

  7. 临夏回族舞蹈的动律特征及形成因素%Movement Patterns and Formative factors of Hui Dance in Linxia Area,Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马路明; 李琦

    2011-01-01

    "动律"是一个民族舞蹈风格的重要体现,对动律特征及形成因素的深入分析,能帮助我们理解该民族舞蹈中的多元文化现象。笔者以甘肃临夏地区的回族舞蹈为切入点,试析在特定的自然环境、生活习俗和民族心理等因素中回族舞蹈的动律特征及形成因素,以进一步推进回族舞蹈的继承与发展。%Movement pattern is an important manifestation of ethnic dance styles. By analyzing features of movement patterns and their formative factors,multi-cultures can be revealed in the ethnic dance. The author of the paper examines Hui dance in Linxia area of Gansu Province,analyzing how specific environment,living habit and customs as well as ethnic psychology has influenced the movement patterns and formation of the dance of Hui people. The purpose of the study is to offer suggestions to the inheritance and development of Hui dance.

  8. Hui Musl ims’ National Identity and Cultural Consciousnesses duringAnti-Japanese War%抗日战争时期回族的国家意识与文化自觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞

    2015-01-01

    国家意识提升与民族文化自觉是近现代以来回族发展的新气象,在抗日战争时期,回族更是以奋勇抗战、爱国爱教的实际行动体现出回族在近代民族国家条件下对民族与国家利益相一致关系的深刻认识。回族的民族文化自觉也将回族引向现代民族发展之路。%Chinese Hui Muslims had promoted national identity and ethnic cultural consciousness since modern China , which as a new phenomenon, had been embodied during the anti-Japanese war that Hui Muslims implemented their ideology of Love Nation and Love Islam into effect.Hui Muslims’ ethnic cultural consciousness helped themselves find a route to modern development .

  9. Analysis of the Source of the Famous Brand of the Hui Muslims’ Restaurant%回族餐饮老字号品牌资产来源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景娥

    2015-01-01

    Hui Muslims’ famous brands are the precious heritage after many years of operation, which is influenced by the epitome of the Hui culture. Brand awareness, brand loyalty, brand association are three elements which have significant positive impact on Hui Mus-lims’ famous brands. In this article, we suggest that the famous brands consistently help update the brand connotation, constantly enhance the brand awareness, foster customer brand loyalty, and establish a convenient service business philosophy.%回族餐饮老字号是回族文化的宝贵资产。品牌认知、品牌忠诚度、品牌联想三个要素对回族餐饮老字号品牌资产有显著正向影响,建议回族老字号更新回族餐饮老字号品牌内涵,不断提升品牌知名度,培育顾客品牌忠诚度,树立便捷服务经营理念。

  10. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  11. Drive-away policing and situational crime prevention in China: an analysis of motorcycle ban (jinmo) policy in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    Using the example of motorcycle ban policy in Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, this article examines how situational crime prevention strategies are used in contemporary urban China. The article argues that although a motorcycle ban policy may reduce motorcycle snatch theft (feiche qiangduo) in Guangzhou, it inevitably caused a problem of displacement. However, some types of displacement are desirable for local government. An argument about drive-away policing is proposed in this article to understand policing styles in contemporary China. In addition, the article argues that motorcycle ban, as a strategy to prevent snatch theft and robbery, is also a strategy to deal with the crisis in police legitimacy. Therefore, crime prevention in China has more social and political significance than just reducing crime.

  12. Zoning by Functions of Small-Scale Forest Ecosystems:A Case Study of Hui-Sun Forest Station in Taiwan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hsiaofei; Wang Yanglin; Li Zhengguo; Hsueh Ichen

    2006-01-01

    To optimize the spatial structure of an ecosystem,a forest landscape was selected as a research object.Based on the theory of structure and functions of landscape ecology,combined with the analysis of the characteristics of the inner structure in an ecosystem,this paper proposes to establish certain procedures to regulate the spatial structure of this forest landscape and construct a landscape pattern of forest ecosystem functions.Considering the functions of biologic production,environmental services,and cultural support in forest ecosystems,forest landscape zones should consist of areas of forest production,research,experimentation,recreation,and conservation to add value to the forest ecosystem,enhance its functions,and then identify the relevant environmental factors according to the environment featured in the research area.Based on the methods of landscape ecology and ecological planning,this paper develops a zoning project of ecosystem functions suitable for various environments.For this research,the Hui-Sun forest station in Taiwan Province,China was selected to be the experimental area for studying the feasibility of developing a zoning project of forest ecosystem services and the suitability of optimizing the spatial structures of the services.

  13. 桂林草坪回族乡特色休闲旅游发展%Characteristic Leisure Tourism Development of Caoping Hui Township of Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽萍

    2015-01-01

    Some factors such as the backward tourism infrastructure, the serious loss of the culture tourist resources, t he single tourism project and the lack of innovation and tourism talents restrict tourism development of Caoping Hui Township of Guilin. By analyzing the resources superiority and developing status, the study put forward some development countermeasures, such as improving the infrastructure construction and tourism security system, strengthening the construction of cultural connotation and tourism information, and innovating the methods of leisure tourism.%旅游基础设施较为落后, 文化旅游资源流失严重, 旅游项目单一, 缺乏创新以及旅游开发人才匮乏等因素制约着桂林草坪回族乡的旅游发展. 通过探讨草坪回族乡的资源优势和发展现状, 提出完善基础设施建设、 创新休闲旅游方式、 加强文化内涵建设、 健全旅游保障制度、 加强旅游信息化建设等发展对策.

  14. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming. Considerable population growth in the last fifty years in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR, the People’s Republic of China (PRC, has led to dramatic increases in deforestation and modified agricultural practices. In turn, this has resulted in many changes in the habitats for the definitive and intermediate hosts of both Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which have increased the risks for transmission of both parasites, affecting echinococcosis prevalence and human disease. Ecological environmental changes due to anthropogenic activities and natural events drive Echinococcus transmission and NHAR provides a notable example illustrating how human activity can impact on a parasitic infection of major public health significance. It is very important to continually monitor these environmental (including climatic factors that drive the distribution of Echinococcus spp. and their impact on transmission to humans because such information is necessary to formulate reliable future public health policy for echinococcosis control programs and to prevent disease spread.

  15. Has the ban on smoking in New South Wales restaurants worked? A comparison of restaurants in Sydney and Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Borland, R; Lal, A

    2001-05-21

    To evaluate compliance with a legislative ban on smoking inside restaurants by comparing smoking in Sydney restaurants (where it is legally banned) with smoking in Melbourne restaurants (not subject to a legal ban). Unobtrusive observational study of restaurant patrons, and interviews with restaurant staff, carried out by 159 volunteers. 78 Sydney restaurants with smoke-free indoor environments (as required by legislation) and 81 Melbourne restaurants not subject to legislation preventing smoking. The study took place from 20-31 October 2000. Legislation to ban smoking in indoor areas of restaurants was introduced in New South Wales in September 2000 (about six weeks before our study). Observed incidents of smoking inside restaurants; staff attitudes to the ban; customer satisfaction as indicated by comments to staff; staff perceptions of restaurant patronage. No restaurant patrons were seen smoking in 78 Sydney restaurants during 156 hours of observation of 2,646 diners, compared with 176 smokers among 3,014 Melbourne diners over 154 hours of observation. Thirty-one per cent (24/78) of Sydney restaurants had experienced smokers attempting to smoke indoors after the legislation was introduced; 6% (5/78) reported instances of smokers refusing to stop smoking when asked; 79% (62/78) of restaurants had received favourable comments from patrons about the smoke-free law; 81% (63/78) of restaurant staff interviewed either supported or strongly supported the law. Since introduction of the legislation, 76% of restaurants reported normal trade, 14% increased trade, and 9% reduced trade. Smoke-free restaurants do not require "smoking police" to enforce bans, present few ongoing difficulties for staff, attract many more favourable than unfavourable comments from patrons, and do not adversely affect trade.

  16. The effect of an ambulance diversion ban on emergency department length of stay and ambulance turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Joyce, Nina; Baker, William E; Biddinger, Paul D; Dyer, K Sophia; Friedman, Franklin D; Imperato, Jason; King, Alice; Maciejko, Thomas M; Pearlmutter, Mark D; Sayah, Assaad; Zane, Richard D; Epstein, Stephen K

    2013-03-01

    Massachusetts became the first state in the nation to ban ambulance diversion in 2009. It was feared that the diversion ban would lead to increased emergency department (ED) crowding and ambulance turnaround time. We seek to characterize the effect of a statewide ambulance diversion ban on ED length of stay and ambulance turnaround time at Boston-area EDs. We conducted a retrospective, pre-post observational analysis of 9 Boston-area hospital EDs before and after the ban. We used ED length of stay as a proxy for ED crowding. We compared hospitals individually and in aggregate to determine any changes in ED length of stay for admitted and discharged patients, ED volume, and turnaround time. No ED experienced an increase in ED length of stay for admitted or discharged patients or ambulance turnaround time despite an increase in volume for several EDs. There was an overall 3.6% increase in ED volume in our sample, a 10.4-minute decrease in length of stay for admitted patients, and a 2.2-minute decrease in turnaround time. When we compared high- and low-diverting EDs separately, neither saw an increase in length of stay, and both saw a decrease in turnaround time. After the first statewide ambulance diversion ban, there was no increase in ED length of stay or ambulance turnaround time at 9 Boston-area EDs. Several hospitals actually experienced improvements in these outcome measures. Our results suggest that the ban did not worsen ED crowding or ambulance availability at Boston-area hospitals. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Assessing the impact of the national smoking ban in indoor public places in china: evidence from quit smoking related online searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. METHODS: This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms "Smoking Ban(s," "Quit Smoking," and "Electronic Cigarette(s," along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009-2011. FINDINGS: Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of "Smoking Ban(s" and "Quit Smoking" related search queries. The volume of search queries related to "Electronic Cigarette(s" was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. INTERPRETATION: To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users' smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China.

  18. Banning shisha smoking in public places in Iran: an advocacy coalition framework perspective on policy process and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh-Mahani, Akram; Breton, Eric; Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-07-01

    Shisha smoking is a widespread custom in Iran with a rapidly growing prevalence especially among the youth. In this article, we analyze the policy process of enforcing a federal/state ban on shisha smoking in all public places in Kerman Province, Iran. Guided by the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), we investigate how a shisha smoking ban reached the political agenda in 2011, how it was framed by different policy actors, and why no significant breakthrough took place despite its inclusion on the agenda. We conducted a qualitative study using a case study approach. Two main sources of data were employed: face-to-face in-depth interviews and document analysis of key policy texts. We interviewed 24 policy actors from diverse sectors. A qualitative thematic framework, incorporating both inductive and deductive analyses, was employed to analyze our data. We found that the health sector was the main actor pushing the issue of shisha smoking onto the political agenda by framing it as a public health risk. The health sector and its allies advocated enforcement of a federal law to ban shisha smoking in all public places including teahouses and traditional restaurants whereas another group of actors opposed the ban. The pro-ban group was unable to neutralize the strategies of the anti-ban group and to steer the debate towards the health harms of shisha smoking. Our analysis uncovers three main reasons behind the policy stasis: lack of policy learning due to lack of agreement over evidence and related analytical conflicts between the two groups linked to differences in core and policy beliefs; the inability of the pro-ban group to exploit opportunities in the external policy subsystem through generating stronger public support for enforcement of the shisha smoking ban; and the nature of the institutional setting, in particular the autocratic governance of CHFS which contributed to a lack of policy learning within the policy subsystem. Our research demonstrated the utility

  19. 关公文化主题旅游协作联盟的构建研究%On the Construction of the Thematic Tourism Collaborative Union about Guan Gong Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗燕; 陈瑛

    2011-01-01

    主题性旅游协作联盟是一种新型的旅游合作战略模式,其协作基础为相似的空间认知要素、现代化的信息技术支撑和物态化的整合营销品牌.本文选取关公文化作为研究对象,从组织体系、产业集群、品牌营销、保障机制等方面进行主题性旅游协作联盟的构建.%As a new mode of tourism collaboration, thematic tourism union is founded on the similar spatial perception, modern information technology and uniform brand marketing.The article takes Guan Gong Culture as object of study, constructs thematic tourism collaborative union in terms of organizational system, industrial cluster, brand marketing, and security mechanism.

  20. Identification of C-geranylated flavonoids from Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong fruits by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and their anti-aging effects on 2BS cells induced by H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Ying-Ai; Gao, Tian-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Yun-Xue

    2017-05-01

    The fruits of Paulownia catalpifolia Gong Tong are used as a Chinese folk herbal medicine for the treatment of enteritis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and dysentery, etc. Our previous study has identified new C-geranylated flavanones with obvious anti-proliferative effects in lung cancer A549 cells. In the present study, a new C-geranylated flavone, paucatalinone C (1) and five known C-geranylated flavanones (2-6) were isolated. In addition, a total of 34 C-geranylated flavonoids were detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS coupling techniques from the CH2Cl2 extract of P. catalpifolia. Futhermore, anti-aging effects of isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro with premature senescent 2BS cells induced by H2O2. Phytochemical results indicated that P. catalpifolia was a natural resource of abundant C-geranylated flavonoids. Diplacone (3) and paucatalinone A (5) were the potent anti-aging agents in the premature senescent 2BS cells induced by H2O2 and the C-geranyl substituent may be an important factor because of its lipophilic character. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 休戚相关荣辱与共--论苏轼与王巩的交谊%Sharing Weal and Woe and Supporting Each Other---On Friendship Between Su Shi and Wang Gong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻世华; 朱广宇

    2013-01-01

      Su Shi has an all-round close relationship with Wang Gong .In politics they share weal and woe and support each other and in literature and art they share common interests .And in daily life they are in frequent contact with each other .In spite of the changed situation they share sincere friendship ,especially in time of adversity they never leave each other ,which composes a music of true love in the world .%  苏轼与王巩关系密切而全面,既有政治上的休戚相关、荣辱与共,也有文学艺术上的共同爱好,更有生活上的多种联系。双方不因境遇变化而有所改变的真挚情谊,特别是患难时的不离不弃,谱写了人间自有真情的乐章。

  2. 民国时期回族报刊关于回族婚俗问题的讨论%The Discussion of the HuiM uslims’ Traditions of Marriage on Their Newspapers during the Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉

    2013-01-01

    在民国时期新兴的回族报刊中,回族婚姻问题是当时回族知识阶层热烈讨论的焦点问题之一。回族知识分子就回族社会中存在的早婚、奢侈婚姻和不遵从伊斯兰教义的诸多婚姻陋俗展开批判,并有针对性地提出了许多卓有成效的改革措施,即适龄结婚、简朴婚礼和向伊斯兰教义回归。这些讨论和重建措施实质上折射了民国时期回族婚姻中“变”与“不变”的特征:产生一定变化的是婚姻仪式与观念,不变的是共同的伊斯兰宗教信仰以及相关联的民族认同感,以维护族群边界。%Hui Muslims’Marriage, as one of the core problems, was hotly discussed by the intellectuals on Hui Mus-lims’newly edited newspapers during the Republic of China .The Hui Muslim intellectuals criticized the phenomena existed in the Hui Muslim society , such as early marriage , luxurious wedding and traditions of marriage not followed by the Islamic doctrines.Besides, they proposed some effective reformations with regard to the marriage age , simple wedding and retur-ning to the doctrine etc ., which reflected the characteristics of changing and invariability of Hui Muslims ’ marriage during the Republic of China .The changing of it are rituals and perceptions , and the invariabilities are belief and ethnic identities , of which to maintain the boundaries of ethnicity .

  3. Modeling the dynamics of DDT in a remote tropical floodplain: indications of post-ban use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Annelle; Ng, Carla A; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Bastos, Wanderley; Bogdal, Christian; Dos Reis, George Alexandre; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding the fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in tropical environments. In Brazil, indoor residual spraying with DDT to combat malaria and leishmaniasis began in the 1950s and was banned in 1998. Nonetheless, high concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were recently detected in human breast milk in the community of Lake Puruzinho in the Brazilian Amazon. In this work, we couple analysis of soils and sediments from 2005 to 2014 at Puruzinho with a novel dynamic floodplain model to investigate the movement and distribution of DDT and its transformation products (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) and implications for human exposure. The model results are in good agreement with the accumulation pattern observed in the measurements, in which DDT, DDE, and DDD (collectively, DDX) accumulate primarily in upland soils and sediments. However, a significant increase was observed in DDX concentrations in soil samples from 2005 to 2014, coupled with a decrease of DDT/DDE ratios, which do not agree with model results assuming a post-ban regime. These observations strongly suggest recent use. We used the model to investigate possible re-emissions after the ban through two scenarios: one assuming DDT use for IRS and the other assuming use against termites and leishmaniasis. Median DDX concentrations and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios from both of these scenarios agreed with measurements in soils, suggesting that the soil parameterization in our model was appropriate. Measured DDX concentrations in sediments were between the two re-emission scenarios. Therefore, both soil and sediment comparisons suggest re-emissions indeed occurred between 2005 and 2014, but additional measurements would be needed to better understand the actual re-emission patterns. Monte Carlo analysis revealed model predictions for sediments were very sensitive to highly

  4. Investigation of sleep patterns and sleep disorders in Uigur and Hui children in XinJiang%新疆维吾尔族和回族儿童睡眠状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    塔吉古丽·阿不扎热; 徐佩茄; 阿曼古丽·铁木尔; 张季红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the sleep quality and quantity and their influencing factors in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang Province. Methods From March to December of 2007, 912 Uigur and 1019 Hui school children (6 to 14 years) were randomly sampled from 6 cities of Xinjing Province. The questionnaire on children's sleep states and sleep environments was filled in by children's parents. Results The mean sleep time of Uigur and Hui children was 10. 1 ±1.4 hrs. The sleep time in Uigur children was significantly less than that in Hui children (9.7 ± 1.2 hrs vs 10.4 ±1.5 hfs; P <0.05 ). The mean incidence of sleep disorders was 23.56%. The Uigur children had a lower incidence of sleep disorders compared with the Hui children ( 18.42% vs 28.16%; P <0. 001 ). Ethnic group, sleep latency, use ora swing bed, family history of snore, watching TV before sleeping, hypertrophy of tonsils, eating before sleeping,feeding patterns and recurrent upper respiratory tract infection were the factors associated with the sleep quality and quantity. Conclusions The influencing factors of sleep quality and quantity are multifactorial in Uigur and Hui children in Xinjiang Province. Pediatrician, child health care doctors and parents should pay more attention to children's sleep. The incidence of sleep disorders is different between Uigur and Hui children, suggesting that more research for the prevention and treatment of sleep disorders should be performed in different ethic groups.%目的 了解新疆维吾尔族与回族儿童睡眠状况及其相关影响因素.方法 2007年3-12月采取随机整群抽样的方法,在新疆地区6个县市的小学随机抽取912名维吾尔族学龄儿童和1019名回族学龄儿童,年龄6~14岁,在严格质量控制下由调查者对家长进行儿童睡眠状况的问卷调查.结果 维吾尔族、回族儿童平均睡眠时间为10.1±1.4 h,其中维吾尔族为9.7±1.2 h,回族为10.4±1.5 h,两民族间差异有统计学意义(P<0

  5. Tobacco Use Documenting Policy and Its Association with Pupils' Smoking and Their Perception of the Enforcement of School Smoking Bans in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Vesa; Kulmala, Jenni; Raisamo, Susanna; Rimpelä, Arja; Ståhl, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Finnish national data sets on schools (N = 496) and pupils (N = 74,143; 14-16 years) were used to study whether a systematic documenting policy for the violations of school smoking bans was associated with pupils' smoking and their perceptions on the enforcement of smoking bans. Attending a school with a systematic documenting policy was…

  6. Racial Diversity in the Medical Profession: The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans on Underrepresented Student of Color Matriculation in Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Mickey-Pabello, David

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of affirmative action bans in six states (California, Washington, Florida, Texas, Michigan, and Nebraska) on the matriculation rates of historically underrepresented students of color in public medical schools in these states. Findings show that affirmative action bans have led to about a 17% decline (from 18.5% to…

  7. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  8. Inverse transport for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Issartel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An international monitoring system is being built as a verification tool for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Forty stations will measure on a worldwide daily basis the concentration of radioactive noble gases. The paper introduces, by handling preliminary real data, a new approach of backtracking for the identification of sources of passive tracers after positive measurements. When several measurements are available the ambiguity about possible sources is reduced significantly. The approach is validated against ETEX data. A distinction is made between adjoint and inverse transport shown to be, indeed, different though equivalent ideas. As an interesting side result it is shown that, in the passive tracer dispersion equation, the diffusion stemming from a time symmetric turbulence is necessarily a self-adjoint operator, a result easily verified for the usual gradient closure, but more general.

  9. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The Library that Cried Wolf: Outcomes of a Banned Book Hoax on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In fall 2012, the Mansfield University library created a Facebook hoax banning a book from the library. Attention was quickly drawn to the book and the library. Ending a few short days later, the hoax left many unanswered questions. Through interviews with individuals on different sides of the hoax, a review of Facebook statistics and comments, and other relevant data, this paper explores the impact on the people involved, the learning outcomes achieved, and the impact on the reputation and credibility of the library and university. The information collected reveals a complex picture of feeling, perceptions, and intentions. While successful at gaining attention, the hoax strategy as employed produced a negative response warranting concern. The paper concludes with suggestions for those contemplating a hoax strategy.

  11. Comprehensive test ban treaty international monitoring system security threats and proposed security attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, T.J.; Craft, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    To monitor compliance with a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), a sensing network, referred to as the International Monitoring System (IMS), is being deployed. Success of the IMS depends on both its ability to preform its function and the international community`s confidence in the system. To ensure these goals, steps must be taken to secure the system against attacks that would undermine it; however, it is not clear that consensus exists with respect to the security requirements that should be levied on the IMS design. In addition, CTBT has not clearly articulated what threats it wishes to address. This paper proposes four system-level threats that should drive IMS design considerations, identifies potential threat agents, and collects into one place the security requirements that have been suggested by various elements of the IMS community. For each such requirement, issues associated with the requirement are identified and rationale for the requirement is discussed.

  12. Banning the Soviet Lobotomy: Psychiatry, Ethics, and Professional Politics during Late Stalinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how lobotomy came to be banned in the Soviet Union in 1950. The author finds that Soviet psychiatrists viewed lobotomy as a treatment of "last resort," and justified its use on the grounds that it helped make patients more manageable in hospitals and allowed some to return to work. Lobotomy was challenged by psychiatrists who saw mental illness as a "whole body" process and believed that injuries caused by lobotomy were therefore more significant than changes to behavior. Between 1947 and 1949, these theoretical and ethical debates within Soviet psychiatry became politicized. Psychiatrists competing for institutional control attacked their rivals' ideas using slogans drawn from Communist Party ideological campaigns. Party authorities intervened in psychiatry in 1949 and 1950, persecuting Jewish psychiatrists and demanding adherence to Ivan Pavlov's theories. Psychiatrists' existing conflict over lobotomy was adopted as part of the party's own campaign against harmful Western influence in Soviet society.

  13. The Socio-Cultural Effects of Banning Traditional Midwives from Attending Homebirth in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Hulubas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from 1960 traditional birth attendants were forbidden to deliver in Romania and pregnant women found themselves forced to give birth in hospitals. The highly respected village figure became a cultural phenomenon that made her more of a legend character. A village from Galaţi County experienced an uncanny event that activated the cultural information on midwives, as a continuation of the stories of her qualities. In hospitals, however, rituals are maintained under the intention of purifying nurses from unclean birth, while granny-midwife became a role, a character usually played by the mother of the woman in parturition. Customs evolve against the loss of this important social persona and we face an artificial scenario. We are now able to witness the last social effects of banning homebirth.

  14. The clinical implications of a smoking ban on submarines in the U.S. Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anil N; Arnold, Michael J

    2011-02-01

    By the end of calendar year 2010, a total smoking ban on submarines is expected to be implemented throughout the submarine force because of the negative health effects of environmental tobacco smoke and the recently demonstrated exposure of nonsmoking submariners to measurable levels of nicotine during submarine deployments. Historically, smoking has been highly prevalent in the military, but new data on the negative health effects of tobacco have led the military to change its policies, restricting its use in certain environments. A number of research studies have examined the effect of smoking on the military, cessation and prevention interventions, effect of environmental tobacco smoke onboard the submarine, and treatment modalities aimed at smokers attempting to quit. With the potential for considerable physical and psychological effects, a mass tobacco cessation program is being implemented to support the prohibition onboard the submarine. Recommendations for a successful implementation program are included.

  15. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáša ADAŠKOVÁ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks 5 years after the avoparcin ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The glycopeptide growth promoter avoparcin was banned from animal production in Denmark in 1995. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in broiler flocks in the absence of the selective pressure exerted by the use of avoparcin. One hundred sixty......-two broiler flocks from rearing systems with different histories of avoparcin exposure were investigated for the presence of VRE. Using a direct selective plating procedure, VRE were isolated from 104 of 140 (74.3%) broiler flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin on conventional...... and extensive indoor broiler farms. In contrast, only 2 of 22 (9.1%) organic broiler flocks reared on free-range farms with no history of previous exposure to avoparcin were VRE-positive. Furthermore, the occurrence of VRE over time in flocks reared in broiler houses previously exposed to avoparcin...

  17. Temporal changes in the attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas among adults in the Capital Region of Denmark from 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Helbech, Bodil; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The population's attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas is important for their passing, implementation and compliance. Smoking bans are believed to reduce the social acceptability of smoking, and once people experience them, public support increases - also among pre-ban sceptics....... This study aimed to examine the temporal changes in public attitude towards smoking bans in public arenas from 2007 to 2010 and whether these changes differed across educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Methods: Data from two surveys among adults (aged 25-79 years......) in 2007 and 2010 in the Capital Region of Denmark (n=36,472/42,504, response rate = 52.3) was linked with data on sex, age and educational attainment from central registers. Age-standardised prevalence of supportive attitude towards smoking bans was estimated. Temporal changes in supportive attitude were...

  18. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Vidhubala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP available in Chennai, India. Methods: In systematically chosen zones and regions of Chennai city, we randomly identified three kinds of kiosks (n = 18 and asked for “gutkha” and “pan masala,” one of each product available. Details of each product were reviewed based on the information printed on the sachets. Results: Totally 65 STPs were collected; 26 distinct products and 23 brands. All products were claimed to be “tobacco” by the shop keepers. Sixty-five percent of the products informed to contain tobacco and 15.4% to contain pan masala. Five sachets did not inform about the content; 30.8% did not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. Conclusion: The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily available and due to promotional laudatory messages and lacking information about the content and warning of health damage, the consumers are left with the perception that they buy more or less harmless product. The Indian Government must introduce policies to control production, import, and sale of illicit STP but we also call for a coordinated international solution.

  19. Books on Trial: A Survey of Recent Cases. A Periodic Report from NCAC's Clearinghouse on School Book-Banning Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition Against Censorship, New York, NY.

    Designed to provide insight into both the philosophical and emotional dimensions of community conflicts over students' exposure to ideas, this report summarizes 4 current court cases and 16 previous decisions in cases involving the banning of books, magazines, and films from public schools. Some details of two recent cases are provided to…

  20. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  1. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  2. Impact of tobacco control policies in hospitals: Evaluation of a national smoke-free campus ban in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: After the law, particulate matter < 2.5 µm concentrations were much below the values obtained before the law and below the annual guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization for outdoor settings (10 μg/m3. Our data showed the feasibility of implementing a smoke-free campus ban and its positive effects.

  3. E-waste bans and U.S. households' preferences for disposing of their e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovantseva, Natalia; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2013-07-30

    To deal with the inadequate disposal of e-waste, many states have instituted bans on its disposal in municipal landfills. However, the effectiveness of e-waste bans does not seem to have been analyzed yet. This paper starts addressing this gap. Using data from a survey of U.S. households, we estimate multivariate logit models to explain past disposal behavior by households of broken/obsolete ("junk") cell phones and disposal intentions for "junk" TVs. Our explanatory variables include factors summarizing general awareness of environmental issues, pro-environmental behavior in the past year, attitudes toward recycling small electronics (for the cell phones model only), socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and the presence of state e-waste bans. We find that California's Cell Phone Recycling Act had a significant and positive impact on the recycling of junk cell phones; however, state disposal bans for junk TVs seem to have been mostly ineffective, probably because they were poorly publicized and enforced. Their effectiveness could be enhanced by providing more information about e-waste recycling to women, and more generally to adults under 60. Given the disappointing performance of policies implemented to-date to enhance the collection of e-waste, it may be time to explore economic instruments such as deposit-refund systems.

  4. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  5. Perumusan Strategi Bersaing pada Perusahaan Ban dengan Metode Analisis Portofolio Produk (Studi Kasus: PT Multistrada Arah Sarana, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael August Zefanya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industri ban di Indonesia mengalami perkembangan pesat dalam kurun waktu 10 tahun terakhir. Namun, terjadinya krisis ekonomi global menjadi penyebab menurunnya pendapatan, salah satunya adalah PT MASA dengan produk utamanya yaitu ban mobil Achilles dan ban motor Corsa yang digunakan sebagai objek penelitian ini. Telah diilakukan analisis PESTEL dan Porter’s Five Forces, identifikasi faktor lingkungan internal dan eksternal dengan analisis SWOT serta merumuskan alternatif strategi bersaing untuk direkomendasikan kepada PT MASA. Perumusan strategi alternatif didapat dari hasil analisis Matriks BCG dan Matriks IE sebagai analisis portofolio untuk mendapatkan tema strategi alternatif dalam pembuatan Matriks SWOT. Strategi alternatif kemudian diperingkatkan dengan QSPM dan dilanjutkan pembuatan rencana aksi bagi PT MASA dalam waktu 5 tahun ke depan. Setelah dilakukan analisis industri, diketahui bahwa ancaman terbesar datang dari pesaing produsen ban. Dari hasil analisis portofolio, PT MASA berada di kuadran I karena memiliki koordinat IFE serta EFE 3,32 dan 3,26. Dari hasil analisis Matriks IE, PT MASA direkomendasikan untuk melakukan strategi grow and build. Hasil Matriks BCG menunjukkan bahwa Achilles berada di dogs, sementara Corsa berada di question marks. Terdapat 13 strategi alternatif hasil dari formulasi strategi dengan menggunakan matriks TOWS. Dari hasil analisis QSPM, terdapat 7 alternatif strategi terbaik dan rencana aksi..

  6. EU ecodesign regulation. More as only a light bulb ban; EU-Oekodesign-Richtlinie. Mehr als ein Gluehbirnenverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Corinna [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Within a broader public, the EU Ecodesign Directive (Directive 2009/125/EC) was known and notoriously as a 'light bulb ban'. This resulted in strong emotions. But it has shown an impact in many other areas - usually unnoticed and often for the financial and practical benefits of the consumers. Now, the EU Commission wants to go one step further.

  7. 76 FR 44751 - Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act... the United Nations Charter to carry out the decisions of the United Nations Security Council imposed... a United Nations Security Council resolution referenced in Annex A to this proclamation. (b)...

  8. After the ban of slot machines in Norway: a new group of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Skutle, Arvid

    2013-03-01

    Changes in demographical and clinical features of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, and their gambling preferences before and after the ban of slot machines in Norway from 1 July 2007. Is there an emergence of a new group of gamblers seeking treatment after the ban? The participants were 99 patients, 16 women and 83 men, with the mean age of 35 years. All were referred to the Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway, for treatment of gambling addiction in the period October 2006 to October 2009. A comprehensive assessment package was applied, focusing on demographical characteristics, the severity of pathological gambling, mental health and substance use disorder. After the ban the mean age was significantly lower, and significantly more were highly educated, in regular employment, and married. Internet gambling and a sport betting game called Odds were the most common options, and gambling problems had become more severe with greater depth due to gambling, bad conscious, heavy alcohol consumption, and more suicidal thoughts and attempts. After the ban of slot machines, the characteristics of treatment-seeking gamblers have been changed, and with great implications for treatment strategies.

  9. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  10. Hospital and community surveys reveal the severe public health problem and socio-economic impact of human echinococcosis in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y R; Williams, G M; Craig, P S; Sun, T; Yang, S K; Cheng, L; Vuitton, D A; Giraudoux, P; Li, X; Hu, S; Liu, X; Pan, X; McManus, D P

    2006-06-01

    A comprehensive study of human echinococcosis (caused by Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis), including assessment of hospital records, community surveys and patient follow-up, was conducted in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), China. In contrast to hospital records that showed 96% of echinococcosis cases were caused by cystic echinococcosis (CE), 56% of cases detected in active community surveys were caused by alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The AE and CE cases co-existed frequently in the same village, even occurring in the same patient. A serious public health problem caused by echinococcosis was evident in southern NHAR, typified by: a long diagnostic history for both AE and CE (7.5 years) compared with a shorter treatment history (4.7 years); a significant mortality rate (39%) caused by AE in one surveyed village, where patients had no previous access to treatment; family aggregation of CE and AE cases; a high proportion of both AE (62.5%) and CE (58%) in females; a high rate of recurrent surgery (30%) for CE demonstrated by surgical records; and frequent symptomatic recurrences (51%) because of discontinuous or sporadic access to chemotherapy for AE. The disease burden for both human AE and CE is thus very severe among these rural communities in NHAR, and this study provides the first attempt to determine the costs of morbidity and surgical intervention of human CE and AE cases both at the hospital and community level in this setting. This information may be useful for assessing the cost effectiveness of designing effective public health programs to control echinococcosis in this and other endemic areas in China and elsewhere.

  11. A Research of the Ethnic Intermarriage of Muslim (Hui) Tibetans in Shigatse%日喀则“藏回”族际通婚调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗布; 孙海芳

    2016-01-01

    with the deepening of inter-ethnic communication, the Muslim(Hui) Tibetans in Shigatse as a typical ex⁃ample of acculturation, is a group of people have been gradually“Tibetanized”in the process of inter-ethnic communication, but they consciously preserve and inherit their national identity at the aspect of religious belief and ethnic intermarriage. Compared with the strict marriage discipline of the Muslim people in inland prohibit⁃ing ethnic intermarriage, the Muslim Tibetans in Shigatse allow ethnic intermarriage, but the Tibetans or any oth⁃er ethnic people, who marry with the Muslim Tibetans, have to convert their religious beliefs to Islam first.%伴随着族际交流的日益深入,日喀则“藏回”作为文化涵化的典型例证,是族际深度交往过程中,逐步“藏化”的群体,但是在宗教信仰与族际通婚方面,刻意保留并维持着原有的民族特征。较之内地回族严格族内婚姻的戒律,日喀则“藏回”可以接受“藏入回”或者其他民族“入回”,可以婚娶他族的配偶,但是前提条件是对方必须信仰伊斯兰教,即改变原有宗教信仰。除却极端个例外,不存在“回入藏”的现象。

  12. SmartBAN with Periodic Monitoring Traffic: A Performance Study on Low-Delay and High Energy-Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lihua; Dias, M Pubuduni Imali; Wong, Elaine

    2016-12-20

    The Smart Body Area Network (SmartBAN) is a recently proposed system for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Compared to conventional WBANs, it is designed to support lower system complexity and ultra-low power consumption. In a SmartBAN, the sensors' access is scheduled upon receiving a beacon on the data channel at the beginning of each working cycle, termed inter-beacon interval (IBI). As network performance including delay and energy consumption is highly dependent on the length of IBI, we present, in this paper, an Optimal IBI frame for SmartBAN. Our focus is on the delivery of uplink periodically-generated sensor data with low delay and high energy-efficiency. As periodic traffic is a common traffic pattern widely generated in e-health applications, for which most previously proposed Markov models for WBANs are inapplicable, a closed-form analytical delay model for periodic SmartBAN transmission is derived. Exploiting this model, a time-optimized framework that minimizes average uplink delay is formulated. An adaptive inter-beacon interval (A-IBI) algorithm is then proposed to determine the Optimal IBI during the network connection between hub and sensors. Finally, sleep mode in sensors and doze mode in the hub are introduced to reduce energy consumption under the proposed framework. With Optimal IBI, the percentage of energy-savings and channel efficiency are evaluated. Simulation and theoretical results show that by using the proposed time-optimized framework, both delay and energy consumption of periodic traffic are significantly reduced. Comparisons with the IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN show performance improvements in periodic uplink delay and energy consumption with our proposed time-optimized framework for SmartBANs.

  13. The Hui Architectural Phenomenon Analysis based on the Traditional Wooden Space: A Case Study of Traditional Wooden Mosque of Ningxia Hui Nationality%基于传统木构空间的回族建筑现象解析——以宁夏回族传统木构清真寺为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕宁娜

    2013-01-01

    In China,the mosque as a typical representative of the Islamic Architecture,along with the process of the introduction and spread of Islam,experienced four periods of transplant,formed,high tide,stagnation and recession.Mosque in China has designed withthe basic rules of the World Islamic Architecture,at the same time,the formation of a unique shape and style are different from those of other religious buildings.Ningxia as the only largest Muslim population settlements,due to its unique geographical environment,sociocultural and religious history,traditional building skills and other reasons,makes the region Hui mosque have showed the significant differences with other regions.The paper selects Ningxia traditional wooden mosque building as an object of study,analyzes the monomer building space from the overall layout,timber frame and technology.It reveals a tradifional wooden frame of the Ningxia Hui mosques architectural features,provides evidence for protection and inheritance Hui wooden architecture,space design practices and reference in the Ningxia region.%在中国,伊斯兰教建筑的典型代表——清真寺,随着伊斯兰教的传入,在传播的过程中,经历了移植、形成、高潮、停滞衰退等四个时期.中国清真寺建筑在遵循了世界伊斯兰教建筑的基本规则的同时,形成了有别于其他宗教建筑的独有形制和风格.宁夏作为全国唯一的、最大的回族人口聚居地,由于其独特的地理环境、社会文化、宗教历史、传统建筑技艺等原因,使得该地区的回族清真寺表现出与其他地区显著的差异.该文选取宁夏境内传统木构清真寺建筑作为研究对象,从总体布局、单体建筑空间、木构架技术等方面对其进行深入解析,揭示了宁夏回族传统木构架清真寺建筑特征,为宁夏地区保护与传承回族木构建筑技术、空间设计手法等提供实证与参考.

  14. Primary Investigation on TCM Dietary Therapy and health preservation in Shan Jia Qing Gong%《山家清供》中的中医食疗养生思想初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐睿瑶; 李俊德

    2015-01-01

    Shan Jia Qing Gong was finished in the Southern Song Dynasty and written by Lin Hong. This booK includes two volumes with 104 papers on dietary recipes,especially on vegetarian diet. One hun-dred and four vegetarian dietary recipes imply the subject of health preservation rather than being against the meat or fish food. Most dietary recipes in the booK were introduced as poetry,stressing on light diet,removing worries and controlling the desire within the capacity. The author emphasized sage - liKe life style and had in-tegrated this thought into the recipes. The statements of Shennong's Herbal had been quoted many times, which embodies the high value of TCM healthcare.%《山家清供》成书于南宋,作者为林洪。该书分上下两卷,共撰饮膳食谱104篇,以素食为主。这104篇宋代经典素食,不仅指与“荤”相对的饮食,而更是一种包含养生学思想的清雅膳食。全书食谱大多以诗词形式著述,书中推崇清淡饮食,并提倡清心寡欲,摒弃世俗杂念,作者看重祖辈梅妻鹤子的仙风道骨,也将这种思想融入他的食谱中,并多次引述《神农本草经》等论述,体现了较高的中医养生价值。

  15. [The influence of ZHU Gong's Huo ren shu (A Book for Savings Life)in the Southern Song Dynasty and its Influence on the discipline of Cold Pathogenic Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Xin

    2012-11-01

    ZHU Gong's Huo ren shu (A Book for Saving Life) is a famous work in the history of research on Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases. It has great influence on the study of cold pathogenic disease, especially that of the Song dynasty. Many authors reedited or annotated this book to inherit and developed the idea of the Huo ren shu. Thus, a lot of new books, including annotations, revisions, citations, or discussions, appeared. WANG Su's Zeng shi nan yang huo ren shu (Amplified Annotated Huorenshu), for example, is one of them. Those compiled as rhymes or knacks include XU Shu-wei's Shang han bai zheng ge (The Rhymes of Hundred Kinds of Cold Damage Disease), LI Zhi-xian's Huo ren shu kuo (Introduction to Huorenshu), QIAN Wen-li's Shang han bai wen ge (Hundred Questions on Cold Damage Disease), YANG Shi-ying's Shang han lei shu huo ren zong kuo (A General Introduction to Huorenshu, a Classified Book of Cold Damage Disease), and TANG Yin-cai's Shang han jie huo lun (Essay to Answering Suspicions on Cold Damage Disease). Those cited or inherited the book include LI Cheng's Shang han yao zhi (Gist of Cold Damage Disease), GUO Yong's Shang han bu wang lun (Supplements to Cold Damage Disease), SUN Zhi-ning's Shang han jian yao shi shuo (Ten Simple Discourses on Cold Damage Disease), and CHEN Zi-ming's Guan jian da quan liang fang (A Complete Effective Formulary with my Own Opinions). Those differentiating the essentials of the Huorenshu including CHENG Jiong's Huo ren shu bian (Differentiation for Huorenshu), and LU Zu-chang's Ni jin huo ren can tong yu yi (An Elaboration on Huorenshu to be Presented). All the above books indicate the impact of the Huorenshu, and show its influence on later ages as well.

  16. "Steel Poetics"of Contemporary Poems:on Steel City by Gong Xuemin%当代诗歌的“钢铁诗学”--读龚学敏的《钢的城》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学东

    2015-01-01

    In the steel-cored era,the outstanding feature of Steel City ,the sixth collection of Gong Xuemin's poems, lies in its poetic planning,thus presenting the special meaning of"Steel Poetics" in contemporary poems.He started his "poems of steel" from the origin of Chinese steel,then came back to "steel itself",which presented steel's soft-ness,warmness and lyricism.Meanwhile,during the process of coming back to "steel poetics" of "steel itself",his poems widely displayed a kind of strong scientific sense and rational spirit,thus supplying a possibility of new poetics for contemporary poems on how to transfuse rational spirit and scientific sense into "new lyric".%在这个钢筋铁骨的时代,龚学敏的第六本个人诗集《钢的城》其突出的特点在于对“钢铁”的诗性规划,并由此呈现了当代诗歌“钢铁诗学”,具有特别的意义。他从中国钢铁的源头展开的“钢铁之诗”,回到了“钢铁本身”,彰显出钢铁的柔性、温暖性、抒情性的一面。同时,在回到“钢铁本身”的“钢铁诗学”中,还张扬出一种浓烈的科技意识和理性精神,这为当代诗歌如何注入理性精神、科技意识的“新的抒情”走向,提供了一种新的诗学可能。

  17. 自我叙事式解读回族宗教活动空间的意义%The Self-narrative Style Interpretation of Hui's Religious Activity Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白凯

    2012-01-01

    Based on emic perspective, this paper makes a subjective intentionality interpretation of the existential meaning of Hui's religious activity space by the self-narrative style method. After a complete autobiography and immersed thinking, the author holds the idea that there are some characteristics existing in Hui's religious activity space shown as follows: Firstly, homes, mosques and graveyards constitute the core of Hui's religious activity space. Secondly, for Muslim believers, homes, mosques and graveyards are not single physical space, but religious "places" which have unique significances. Thirdly, the author's memories and summaries of the religious functions and meanings of homes, mosques and graveyards illustrate that Hui's religious activity space are characterized by transformation from place to placelessness. The non-place conversion's place point is the mosque. Fourthly, "jie du wa"~a religious ceremony and religious behavior-builds bridges from space to place, from place to placelessness for Hui religious activity space. The analysis and conclusions explicate that Hui's religious activity space has the trait of transition from material religion spatial structure of place to spirit religious space structure of placelessness.%基于主位研究视角,以作者自我叙事的方式,对回族宗教活动空间的存在主义意涵进行了主体意向性解读,完整自叙和沉浸思考后作者认为,回族宗教活动空间存在以下特征:①回族宗教活动空间的核心构成为家、清真寺和坟园;②家、清真寺和坟园对回族宗教信仰者而言,不是单一的物理空间,而是具有特殊意义的宗教“地方”;③说明了回族宗教活动空间具有地方到无地方的转化特征,无地方转换的地方指向是清真寺;④“接都哇”这一宗教仪式和宗教行为构建了回族宗教活动空间从空间到地方,从地方到无地方转换的桥梁.该分析过程与结论说明了

  18. La mirada sartriana: poder y otredad en L’Être et le Néant, La Nausée y Huis clos (The Sartrean View: Power and Otherness in L’Être et le Néant, La Nausée and Huis clos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lloyd Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En L’Être et le Néant y La Nausée, Jean-Paul Sartre le otorga importancia a la mirada: aspecto esencial para explorar el tema existencial. Así, se analizan interrogantes y reflexiones como las siguientes: sin la mirada del otro, ¿cómo puedo saber verdaderamente que existo? Al verme y confirmar mi existencia, en ese mismo instante, la otra persona me convierte en un objeto, pues el observador es el sujeto de su mirada. Al mirar a los demás, soy también sujeto de mi mirada y convierto a los otros en objeto. El juego de la mirada es un juego de poder. La obra de teatro Huis clos también presenta el juego sartriano de poder y mirada, que será analizado en esta ponencia. Dans ses libres L’Être et le Néant et La Nausée Jean-Paul Sartre donne beaucoup d’importance au « regard ». Sartre nous dit que le regard est un aspect essentiel pour explorer le thème existentiel. Des questions et des réflexions comme les suivantes seront étudiées : sans le regard d’une autre personne, comment puis-je savoir si j’existe vraiment ? Quand une personne me regarde, elle confirme mon existence, mais en même temps elle me convertit en un objet puisque la personne qui me regarde est le sujet de son regard. Moi, quand je regarde l’autre personne je suis aussi le sujet de mon regard et je convertis l’autre personne en un objet. Ce jeu du regard est un jeu du pouvoir. La pièce de théâtre de Sartre Huis clos aussi présente ce jeu sartrien du pouvoir et du regard et sera analysée dans cette communication.

  19. Symbols of Maturity and the Leaving of a Legacy: A Preliminary Study of the Formation of Genealogies and Families among the Hui Muslim Minority People%成熟的象征与存在的延续——回族家谱与回族家族形成初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张訸

    2011-01-01

    本文就目前所发现的回族家谱进行研究,重点考察回族家谱的特点及回族家谱的修撰与回族家族组织的建立之间的关系;分析回族家谱与其他少数民族家谱的异同之处;阐释回族家谱的文化意义与社会价值。%This paper is devoted to the research of what is currently known regarding the genealogy of the Hui . Its focus is upon the study of distinctive characteristics of the Hui genealogy along with the relationship between genealogy composition and the establishment of Hui family clans. Also, it considers the similarities and differences between Hui genealogies and those of other ethnic minorities. Lastly, the paper expounds on the cultural significance and societal value of Hui genealogies.

  20. Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia: A New Branch of Chinese Overseas Literature%海外华人文学的新支:东南亚回族华人文学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建军

    2016-01-01

    Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is literature branch active in Singapore and Malaysia , which has not yet attracted researchers attention .From 1950s to date, it could be divided into three stages .The formation of the Hui Muslims Overseas Literature in Southeast Asia is related to the Chinese Hui Muslims ' migration and the develop-ment of the Chinese literature .Studying on it will be helpful for comprehending the relations between Chinese Overseas lit -erature and Islamic culture , which mainly covered the themes crossing with Zhenghe , female and authors ' creativeness .%东南亚回族华人文学是海外华人文学中尚未引起研究者重视的一支. 东南亚回族华人文学活跃于新加坡和马来西亚,从20世纪50年代至今,大致可分为三个发展阶段,出现了戴小华等一批作家. 东南亚回族华人文学的形成与回族华人的移民活动和东南亚华人文学的发展有关,对其进行研究,有助于学界思考东南亚华人文学与伊斯兰文化的关系. 东南亚回族华人文学的特色在于郑和题材创作、女性题材创作,以及作家创作的跨越性.

  1. Professor OUYANG Hui-qing's explorations and practice on teaching of traditional Chinese medicine%欧阳惠卿中医教学观念的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖雅琪; 罗颂平; 黄洁明; 许丽绵; 赵颖

    2013-01-01

    欧阳惠卿通过长期的教学实践,逐步形成自己的中医教学观:教育培养中医人才是教研室第一要务,课堂教学与临床带教相结合以促进医学生成长,中医临床教学不可或缺,教学中应贯穿中医文化与学术传承.她的人才观为:教师人才是团队发展的关键,是教研室建设的核心内容,是学科人才建设的基础.她的教学管理观为:教研室主任是教育培养人才的实践者,教学团队发展的担当者.%Professor OUYANG Hui-qing's gradually formed her own teaching concept of traditional Chinese medicine through long-term teaching practice:the most important teaching aim is to cultivate talents of traditional Chinese medicine.Clinical practice together with classroom teaching can promote the growing knowledge of medical students.Clinical practices are necessary and should penetrate culture and academic tradition of traditional Chinese medicine.OUYANG Hui-qing's concepts on talents are:cultivating teaching faculties is the key to the development of the teaching team,the core of construction of the teaching and research section,and the basis of construction of the discipline.OUYANG Hui-qing's management concepts are:the dean of the teaching and research section is the practitioner of personnel training practice and the undertaker of teaching team development.

  2. 试论满族和回族饮食文化对近代成都的影响%Discussion on the Effect of Manchu and Hui Nationality Diet Culture on Modern Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁刚

    2012-01-01

    晚清民国的成都是现代川菜菜系的发源地与演变中心。成都的满族和回族人口也影响到了现代川菜菜系在成都的定型、发展和走向成熟的历史进程。满族、回族等少民族饮食文化推动了近代成都饮食业的发展,从原料选取、烹饪技法、菜品制作、筵席内容等方面给现代川菜菜系以影响。生活在成都的满族、回族等少数民族的饮食习俗为成都市民的饮食生活增添了新的内容,带来了新的饮食品种,大大丰富了成都川菜中的面食、糕点、小吃的内容。%late Qing Dynasty is the origin and evolution Center of modern Sichuan cuisine in Chengdu.Manchu and the Hui nationality population in Chengdu have also affected the historical process of the shaping,development and maturity of modern Sichuan cuisine in Chengdu.Manchu,Hui national minority diet culture has promoted the development of the catering industry in Chengdu,influenced the raw materials selection,cooking techniques,food production,content and other aspects of modern Sichuan cuisine.The diet custom of Manchu,Hui minority Living in Chengdu has added new content to Chengdu people 's diet,brought new dietary variety,greatly enriched the content of the pasta,cakes,snack of Sichuan cuisine in Chengdu.

  3. 设计美学语境下徽派建筑设计的传承与创新研究%Research on Inheritance and Innovation of Hui-style Architecture in the Content of Design Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左铁峰; 高巍

    2016-01-01

    基于设计美学的徽派建筑设计传承与创新研究,是将徽派建筑设计作为设计美学的一个对象予以面向,探讨与解决的是设计美学语境下徽派建筑如何传承与怎样创新的问题,需求的契合与提升、基因的提炼与重构和语境的拓展与延伸等是其工作应遵循的基本原则与实施策略。如同基于其他学科与视角的探究与论证一样,这样的“解决方案”必须要与其他的“措施办法”形成有机的“合力”,方能奏效。%The design aesthetics-based inheritance and innovation research of Hui-style architecture design , regarding Hui-style archi-tecture design as an object , discusses the problems of ways of inheritance and innovation of Hui -style architecture design , considering that the fit and promotion of needs , the refinement and reconstruction of gene and the development and extension of context are the bas -ic principles and implementing strategies .The same as exploration and demonstration based on other subjects and perspectives , this“solution” must combine a “resultant force” with other “measures”.

  4. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  5. 杨惠民教授治疗老年类风湿关节炎经验%Experience of Therapy Elderly Rheumatoid Arthritis by Professor YANG Hui-min

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洋

    2012-01-01

    Introducing the therapy experience of elderly rheumatoid arthritis hy Professor YANG Hui-min, summarizing the pathogenic factors and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, dividing elderly rheumatoid into activity and stability of treatment.%介绍杨惠民教授治疗老年类风湿关节炎经验,总结老年类风湿关节炎的病因病机,将老年类风湿关节炎分活动期与稳定期进行治疗.

  6. [Comparative study of theoretical literature on cold pathogenic disease in Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huirui; Liang, Yongxuan

    2014-09-01

    In the Wai tai mi yao fang (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) compiled in 752, its portion on cold pathogenic disorders embodies the achievements before the mid Tang Dynasty, whereas that in the Tai ping sheng hui fang (Taiping Holy Prescriptions for Universal Relief), compiled in 992 embodies those before the early Song Dynasty. Comparison on the theory of cold disorders in both books reveal that, during the 2 centuries period from mid Tang to early Song Dynasties, the texts as a carrier for the transmission of such theory in both show no distinct changes, but only with minor revisions and improvements.

  7. 论近代宁夏回族经堂教育的演变及特点%On Evolution and Characteristics of Ningxia Hui Mosque Education in Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文斐; 高石钢

    2014-01-01

    经堂教育产生于明清时期,是我国回族穆斯林接受教育的基本形式。近代以来,宁夏回族经堂教育由以往单一的宗教教育形式逐渐演变为回民小学、中阿学校、阿訇教义国文讲习所、伊斯兰教讲习所等多种形式,呈现出了种类繁多、办学方式多元,课程内容丰富、全面并与伊斯兰教积极互动的特点。近代社会思潮广泛传播的影响、回族的民族觉醒、崇尚求知的民族文化传统、上层人士的努力以及宁夏地方政府的推动作用等是造成近代宁夏回族经堂教育演变的社会、历史性原因。%The Muslim mosque education originated in the Ming and Qing Dynasties is a basic form of Hui Muslim education. In modern times,single traditional form of Ningxia Hui mosque religious education had changed into various forms,included Hui nationality elementary school,China-Arab school,imam doctrineˊs Chinese lecture assembly and Islam assembly,etc. Presented the characteristics of variety differently,running school forms multiply,course content rich and comprehensive and had a positive interaction with Islam. Modern social thoughts spread,national awakening of the ethnic Hui,national cultural traditionˊs advocating for knowledge,elite efforts and also Ningxia local governmentˊs pro-mote role was the social and history reasons.

  8. 宁夏农村回族妇女婚姻暴力处理方式探究%A Tentative Study on Hui Women’ s Ways to Deal with Marital Violence in Ningxia Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 章志敏

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marital violence has become a focus in academic field.However, researches on marital violence upon Hui women are not sufficient.Therefore, the paper is to make a tentative study on the ways that Hui women often take to deal with marital violence after they have suffered from it and some relative affecting factors based on a questionnaire survey, holding that Hui women in the rural areas of Ningxia are more inclined to tolerate marital violence and seek informal social support when seeking help, and the ways they take to deal with marital violence are influenced by their cognition of marital violence, their willingness to seek help and the factor whether mosques in their villages would take measures to solve the problem or not, etc.With these findings, the thesis is to provide some reference for preventing marital violence upon Hui women in the future.%近年来婚姻暴力问题一直被学界热议,但是关于农村回族妇女婚姻暴力问题的研究是比较缺乏的,通过对宁夏农村回族妇女的婚姻家庭进行问卷调查,对她们的婚姻暴力处理方式以及相关因素进行分析发现,宁夏农村回族妇女在遭受家庭暴力后较为倾向于去忍受婚姻暴力,在寻求帮助的过程中则较为倾向于去寻求非正式社会支持,而这种行为受到她们对婚姻暴力的认知、寻求帮助的意愿以及所在村里的清真寺是否会过问婚姻暴力问题等因素的影响。同时,这些发现能够为今后农村回族妇女婚姻暴力问题的防治提供一些参考。

  9. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants (CT sealants) are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-industrial urban settings in the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of CT sealants. We evaluated PAH concentrations following the ban by analyzing sediment cores collected from Lady Bird Lake in 2012; Lady Bird Lake impounds the Colorado River in central Austin and receives runoff from much of the greater Austin area. The mean sum concentration of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant PAHs (∑PAH16) in one of two 2012 sediment cores analyzed for PAHs declined 75% from before 2006 (mean of 4 samples=8,090 μg kg-1) to 2012 (mean of 2 samples=2,030 μg kg-1), reversing a 40-year (1959-1999) upward trend in PAH concentrations that was previously documented. The downward trend in PAH concentrations in the seven uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals in the first 2012 core was statistically significant (r=0.93, p-value=0.002). Post-2008 PAH trends in the second 2012 core were similar (significant downward trend in the six uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals and mean 2012 ∑PAH16 of 2,390 μg kg-1); however, pre-2007 sediment did not appear to have been preserved in this core likely because of the effects of flooding on sediment deposition and mixing at this site--the largest flood on the Colorado River in Austin in 20 years was in 2007. On the basis of a comparison of lake-sediment PAH profiles to 22 PAH source profiles, the PAH loading to lake sediment continues to be dominated by CT sealants. The continued dominance of proportional PAH loading by CT sealants in spite of decreased concentrations since 2006 might be because legacy CT sealant and contaminated soils and sediments continue to yield PAHs to runoff. A previous study using source-receptor modeling concluded that CT sealants were the largest PAH source to 40 urban lakes studied in the

  10. Le travail aujourd’hui. L’hypothèse de la reconnaissance Work today. The hypothesis of recognition El trabajo hoy: hipótesis del reconocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jusque dans les années 1970, le travail était au cœur de la réflexion sociologique, et du débat public. Aujourd’hui, après les espoirs et les déconvenues des années 1980 et 1990, après la « révolution managériale », et ses dégâts, et qu’il s’agisse du sens qu’il revêt pour l’individu, pour l’entreprise ou pour la société toute entière, il implique d’être repensé à nouveaux frais. Ne sommes-nous pas entrés dans l’ère de la reconnaissance – un concept qui peut nous aider à redonner sens au travail ?Until the mid seventies, work was a key issue in sociological research, as well as in the public debate. During the eighties and the nineties, things changed, and it became difficult to define the meaning of work for individuals, for companies or for the whole society. Today, new approaches are possible, including those that are based on the concept of recognition.Hasta los años 1970, el trabajo estaba en el centro de la reflexión sociológica y del debate público. Hoy, después de las esperanzas y los desengaños de los años 1980 y 1990, tras la “revolución gerencial” y sus estragos, tratándose ya sea del sentido que tiene para el individuo, para la empresa o para la sociedad entera, habrá que volver a pensar el trabajo desde cero. ¿No hemos entrado acaso a la era del reconocimiento, concepto que puede ayudarnos a devolverle un sentido al trabajo?

  11. Energy efficiency of rural dwellings in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region%宁夏地区乡村民居节能设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群; 梁锐; 刘加平

    2011-01-01

    为改善宁夏乡村地区居住建筑室内冬季热环境,达到建筑节能65%的目标,对典型传统民居进行了调研和围护结构能耗分析,发现了民居建筑耗能的主要薄弱部位.结合当地自然气候与经济条件,从建筑功能布置与空间组合、太阳能资源利用和围护结构构造等方面出发,提出整体式的建筑设计改进方案,并通过能耗分析计算新方案的热工性能与室内热环境质量,证明了在宁夏地区通过合理的设计农村住宅也可以达到提高室内热舒适和节能的目标.%In order to improve the thermal environment and reach the energy efficiency goal of rural house in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the paper investigates a typical traditional vernacular, analyzes the index of heat loss of building envelop and discovers the main weak part in the building affecting on the energy consumption. Combining with the local conditions of climate and economy, this paper put forward the integrating designing project, including the function layout, room combination, solar energy utilization and construction of building envelop. A new project for improving the indoor thermal comfort and saving energy was given in this paper. The index of heating loss of two rural buildings are calculated in order to verify the effectiveness of the new project. At the same time, it is bproved that the improvement of the thermal environment and 65% energy efficiency goal can meet with by appropriate architectural designs.

  12. Research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing based on RS and GIS technology: a case study of the Ningxia Hui autonomous region in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Wen, MeiPing; Zhang, FeiFei; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Xiupeng

    2016-10-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization in China, most rural areas formed a widespread phenomenon, i.e., destitute village, labor population loss, land abandonment and rural hollowing. And it formed a unique hollow village problem in China finally. The governance of hollow village was the objective need of the development of economic and social development in rural area for Chinese government, and the research on the evaluation method of rural hollowing was the premise and basis of the hollow village governance. In this paper, several evaluation methods were used to evaluate the rural hollowing based on the survey data, land use data, social and economic development data. And these evaluation indexes were the transition of homesteads, the development intensity of rural residential areas, the per capita housing construction area, the residential population proportion in rural area, and the average annual electricity consumption, which can reflect the rural hollowing degree from the land, population, and economy point of view, respectively. After that, spatial analysis method of GIS was used to analyze the evaluation result for each index. Based on spatial raster data generated by Kriging interpolation, we carried out re-classification of all the results. Using the fuzzy clustering method, the rural hollowing degree in Ningxia area was reclassified based on the two spatial scales of county and village. The results showed that the rural hollowing pattern in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region had a spatial distribution characteristics that the rural hollowing degree was obvious high in the middle of the study area but was low around the study area. On a county scale, the specific performances of the serious rural hollowing were the higher degree of extensive land use, and the lower level of rural economic development and population transfer concentration. On a village scale, the main performances of the rural hollowing were the rural population loss and idle land. The

  13. Samen kom je er wel. Een afstudeerartikel over het Skejby halfway house: een huis waar delinquenten en studenten onder één dak wonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Broker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Together you will get there. A graduation article on the Skejby halfway house: a house where delinquents and students live togetherThe Skejby house is unique and produces remarkable results. The recidivism percentage among its’ delinquent inhabitants is over 20% lower than in the halfway houses where only prisoners reside. The aim of Skejby is to ease the transition between imprisonment and reentry in society. The experiment, in which students and prisoners live together, originates from the idea that behavioral transformation is realized most effectively within a socially engaged group. The principal of collective responsibility is dominant in Skejby, resulting in a feeling of belonging to a group among the delinquents. In this group, the students serve as prosocial role models. Consequently, the standards and values that are picked up in prison are reshaped into much needed skills that are required for living a “regular” life in society. In contrast to the reintegration program in Skejby, the Dutch reintegration program mainly consists of one-to-one consultations between the delinquent and the probation officer. The reintegration thus does not take place in a group to which the delinquent can relate, while it is precisely this unique communal feeling of belonging that induces behavioral change in the prisoners. SAMENVATTING Samen kom je er wel. Een afstudeerartikel over het Skejby halfway house: een huis waar delinquenten en studenten onder één dak wonenHet Skejby house is uniek in zijn soort en boekt opmerkelijke resultaten: het recidivepercentage ligt ruim 20% lager dan bij halfway huizen waar alleen delinquenten wonen. Skejby heeft als doel om de overgang tussen gevangenis en samenleving zo klein mogelijk te maken. Het experiment, waarbij studenten en delinquenten samen wonen, komt voort uit het idee dat gedragsverandering het best bewerkstelligt wordt binnen een sociaal verbonden groep. In Skejby heerst het principe van

  14. Petrochemistry and origin of basalt breccia from Ban Sap Sawat area, Wichian Buri, Phetchabun, central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phisit Limtrakun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is usually considered to be controlled by escape tectonics associated with India-Asia collision during theLate Cenozoic, and basaltic volcanism took place in this extensional period. This volcanism generated both subaqueous andsubaerial lava flows with tholeiitic to alkalic basaltic magma. The subaqueous eruptions represented by the studied WichianBuri basalts, Ban Sap Sawat in particular, are constituted by two main types of volcanic lithofacies, including lava flows andbasalt breccias. The lava flows are commonly porphyritic with olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts and microphenocrysts,and are uncommonly seriate textured. The basalt breccias are strongly vitrophyric texture with olivine and plagioclasephenocrysts and microphenocrysts. Chemical analyses indicate that both lava flows and basalt breccias have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were solidified from the same magma. Their chondrite normalized REE patternsand N-MORB normalized patterns are closely analogous to the Early to Middle Miocene tholeiites from central Sinkhote-Alinand Sakhalin, northeastern margin of the Eurasian continent which were erupted in a continental rift environment. The originfor the Wichian Buri basalts show similarity of lava flows and basalt breccias, in terms of petrography and chemical compositions, signifying that they have been formed from the same continental within-plate, transitional tholeiitic magma.

  15. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  16. The Common Agricultural Policy Role in Addressing External Shocks - The Case of Russian Import Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA DRĂGOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is one of the oldest and most controversial common policies and it is financed directly from the European Union budget. Some critics of CAP argue that especially in the context of the challenges brought by the international crisis, this policy represents a “burden” for the European budget. Our research aims to responds those critics by showing that CAP may represent an important tool for addressing the external shocks impact on agricultural sector of EU. In this view, we will highlight the role of CAP in sustaining the European farmer during the crisis generated by the Russian import ban, adopted as a response to the sanctions imposed by EU to the Russian Federation in the context of Ukrainian crisis. Using a quantitative and qualitative analysis we will assess how the CAP has supported the European agricultural sector and also the future measures that could be adopted to create a more flexible response in the case of other external shocks.

  17. Modeling Noble Gas Transport and Detection for The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunwei; Carrigan, Charles R.

    2014-03-01

    Detonation gases released by an underground nuclear test include trace amounts of 133Xe and 37Ar. In the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, On Site Inspection Protocol, such gases released from or sampled at the soil surface could be used to indicate the occurrence of an explosion in violation of the treaty. To better estimate the levels of detectability from an underground nuclear test (UNE), we developed mathematical models to evaluate the processes of 133Xe and 37Ar transport in fractured rock. Two models are developed respectively for representing thermal and isothermal transport. When the thermal process becomes minor under the condition of low temperature and low liquid saturation, the subsurface system is described using an isothermal and single-gas-phase transport model and barometric pumping becomes the major driving force to deliver 133Xe and 37Ar to the ground surface. A thermal test is simulated using a nonisothermal and two-phase transport model. In the model, steam production and bubble expansion are the major processes driving noble gas components to ground surface. After the temperature in the chimney drops below boiling, barometric pumping takes over the role as the major transport process.

  18. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  19. Annual banned-substance review: the Prohibited List 2008-analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The list of prohibited substances and methods of doping issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency is updated and modified annually based on most recent developments and scientific data. Compounds and methods are maintained, added, or removed from the list, or they are placed in so-called monitoring programmes that have been established to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of particular substances and methods in- and/or out-of-competition. Consequently, doping control laboratories continuously update, modify and optimize existing screening and confirmation assays to ensure utmost comprehensiveness in detecting the prohibited and monitored substances as well as chemically and pharmacologically related analogs. The annual banned-substance review for human sports drug testing critically summarizes recent innovations in analytical approaches supporting the detection of established and newly outlawed substances and methods of doping. Literature from January 2007 through September 2008 as indexed in Medline and Web of Science was screened and articles on detection methods for substances and methods of doping in humans were compiled according to the 2008 Prohibited List of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Few new approaches were presented for individual doping agents and the majority of reports demonstrated new options for increasing the comprehensiveness of existing doping control assays. In addition, new techniques in separation and/or ionization of analytes complementary to commonly used procedures were described, which, so far, did not meet all requirements of sports drug testing. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  1. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  2. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  3. Machine learning for radioxenon event classification for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J., E-mail: trevor_stocki@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada); Li, Guichong; Japkowicz, Nathalie [School of Information Technology and Engineering, University of Ottawa, 800 King Edward Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, 775 Brookfield Road, A.L. 6302D1, Ottawa, ON, K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    A method of weapon detection for the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) consists of monitoring the amount of radioxenon in the atmosphere by measuring and sampling the activity concentration of {sup 131m}Xe, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe by radionuclide monitoring. Several explosion samples were simulated based on real data since the measured data of this type is quite rare. These data sets consisted of different circumstances of a nuclear explosion, and are used as training data sets to establish an effective classification model employing state-of-the-art technologies in machine learning. A study was conducted involving classic induction algorithms in machine learning including Naive Bayes, Neural Networks, Decision Trees, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Support Vector Machines, that revealed that they can successfully be used in this practical application. In particular, our studies show that many induction algorithms in machine learning outperform a simple linear discriminator when a signal is found in a high radioxenon background environment.

  4. Parrotfish sex ratios recover rapidly in Bermuda following a fishing ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Shay; Luckhurst, Brian E.; Box, Stephen J.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    Parrotfishes are an ecologically and commercially important teleost group whose grazing contributes to maintaining coral-dominated states on hermatypic reefs. However, overfishing has skewed sex ratios of Atlantic parrotfishes because fishing has disproportionate impacts on larger individuals, and males are generally larger than females. Whether protection from fishing may allow sex ratios to return to equilibrium is unknown, as fishing can induce irreversible ecological and/or evolutionary shifts. Bermuda banned trap fishing in 1990, creating a unique opportunity to analyse long-term responses of Atlantic parrotfishes to release from fishing. We found that sex ratios of four common parrotfishes were initially skewed, with male proportions ranging from 0.04 to 0.18. However, male proportions rebounded within 3-4 yr, equilibrating at values ranging from 0.36 to 0.54, similar to those reported at unfished sites in the region. Our results are encouraging for regional efforts to recover lost grazing function by restoring overfished herbivore populations.

  5. A cross-sectional survey on behavior problems among eco-migrant children of Hui and Han in Ningxia, China%宁夏生态移民地区儿童行为问题现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜国利; 方建群; 张朝霞; 冯丽平; 吴锦荣; 马馥荔; 陈诗祺; 赵冉然; 王颖丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the detection rate and correlates of behavioral problems among eco-migrant children in Hui and Han ethnicities.Methods Using multistage randomized sampling method,2 653 eco-migrant teenagers,3 174 indigenous and 2 334 homeland peers were selected.Their parents were asked to finish the Achenbach' s Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a self-developed correlates questionnaire.Results 765 eco-migrant children with behavioral problems were detected,with detection rate as 28.8%,higher than that of homeland group (24.2%) and native group (19.3%)(x2=73.547,P<0.012 5).Ecological migration mainly influenced factors as bad contacts,depression,obsessive-compulsive,discipline,attack for boys aged 6-11,bad contacts for boys aged 12-16 and extraversion behavioral problems for girls aged 12-16,in Hui.These factors both associated to eco-migrant children's behavioral problems in Hui and Han:cesarean section (OR =1.863,95% CI:1.144-3.035,for Han) and (OR=2.979,95% CI:2.067-4.293,for Hui),physical defects(OR=1.730,95%CI:1.087-2.751,for Han) and (OR=2.552,95%CI:1.649-3.950,for Hui),arable as a main income way(OR=1.272,95%CI:1.066-1.518,for Han) and (OR=1.212,95%CI:1.033-1.422,for Hui),parents' education level above middle school (OR=0.709,95% CI:0.539-0.932,for Han) and (OR=0.698,95%CI:0.542-0.898,for Hui),parents' frequently in good mood (OR=0.710,95%CI:0.613-0.821,for Han) and (OR=0.826,95%CI:0.718-0.949,for Hui).However,major diseases in the process of growth (OR=1.794,95% CI:1.163-2.767),and parents with chronic illness or disability (OR=1.463,95% CI:1.061-2.016) only associated with that in Han; single-parent or remarried families (OR=1.583,95% CI:1.078-2.325),parents often drinking (OR=1.557,95%CI:1.019-2.379),the time of parents' work longer than half a year(OR=1.494,95% CI:1.197-1.864),parents' more content to life now (OR=0.813,95% CI:0.700-0.945),and children in older age (OR=0.939,95%CI:0.889-0.991) only

  6. British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R M

    2008-06-01

    In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled "Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries," which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not been accompanied by any significant reduction in tobacco consumption. Opponents of tobacco advertising restrictions trumpeted the IAA reports in print materials, media communications and legislative hearings during the 1980s and beyond. A new analysis of tobacco industry documents and transcripts of tobacco litigation testimony reveals that British American Tobacco ghost-wrote the IAA reports and that the Tobacco Institute (the trade association then representing the major US cigarette manufacturers) helped to arrange for Boddewyn to present the findings to the US Congress and the media. Further research on tobacco industry documents and tobacco litigation transcripts should assess whether tobacco industry sources were responsible for ghost-writing other studies favourable to the industry.

  7. Evaluation of Uncertainty for Detecting the Content of Banned Aromatic Amines in Textile Products by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Ke-jie; LI Zheng-rong; YANG Li-sheng; MIN Jie; YE Hong-miao

    2006-01-01

    The article evaluated the uncertainty of the content of banned aromatic amines in textile products in terms of GB/T17592. 1 - 1998 Textiles-test Method of Banned Azo Colourants-gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method, analyzed and quantified the uncertainty components which affected the measurement results.Through calculation, the uncertainty of the sample mainly came from C0 standard uncertainty, weighing, uncertainty of volume, effect on the recovery rate of sample during the course of extraction and purification and ucertainty from the random effect during the course of measurement. It was obtained that the expanded uncertainties of the content of 2 -naphthylamine, benzidine and 2, 4 - diaminotoluene with higher frequency in 24 kinds of forbidden aromatic amines were respectively 2.128, 2.302 and 4.778 mg/kg.

  8. Zoning for health? The year-old ban on new fast-food restaurants in South LA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Cohen, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    A regulation banning new fast-food establishments for one year in Los Angeles, California, was passed unanimously by the city council in July 2008. It was motivated by health concerns and excessive obesity rates in South Los Angeles. However, it might not have had the impact that was intended. This paper reviews the empirical evidence for the regulation and whether it is likely to target the primary levers of obesity. We argue that the premises for the ban were questionable. For example, the density of fast-food chain restaurants per capita is actually higher in other parts of Los Angeles than in South LA. Other changes, such as menu calorie labeling, are likely to have a bigger impact on overweight and obesity.

  9. Review of BAN Xiu-wens Academic Thoughts%班秀文学术思想研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝丽霞; 员晓云; 戴铭; 张璐砾

    2012-01-01

    国医大师班秀文教授对中医经典著作和历代名家学术思想颇有研究,他擅长治疗内、妇、儿科疑难杂病,其中,对中医妇科造诣尤深.不少学者对其学术思想有所探讨和研究,本文对近25年来,学者们对班秀文学术思想的研究状况进行综述.%Professor BAN Xiu-wen has studied TCM classics and academic thoughts and he is good at treating internal diseases,gynaecology and paediatrics diseases,pediatric diseases and difficult miscellaneous diseases. He is especially skilled at TCM gynecological attainments. Many scholars have studied its academic thoughts , this paper reviewed the BAN's academic thought research in recent 25 years.

  10. Polygamy Thrives Despite Ban From Reuters%无视法律:一夫多妻仍盛行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明孝

    2001-01-01

    [选注者按:泰国在1932年就以法律形式规定polygamy(一夫多妻制)为非法,但是,目前的实际情况是:One in four Thai men have more than one wife despite the ban on polygamy.记得梁实秋曾经说过,一个人要一天不得安宁,请客;一个人要

  11. Consumer protection through a legislative ban on industrially produced trans fatty acids in foods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Legislation has, within a few years, virtually eliminated the intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) in Denmark, by banning any food with an IP-TFA content greater than 2% of total fat. This accomplishment has been obtained without noticeable effects on the availability, price...... their risk of coronary heart disease. The Danish experience demonstrates that this risk can be eliminated...

  12. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Bauer, Georg F; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin

    2013-06-04

    In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine.

  13. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophi, Costas A; Paisi, Martha; Pampaka, Despina; Kehagias, Martha; Vardavas, Constantine; Connolly, Gregory N

    2013-01-27

    Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation's effect on revenue and employment. Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  14. WEAR-A-BAN: INTERFAZ INALÁMBRICA DE CONTROL HOMBRE-MAQUINA INCORPORADO SOBRE UNA BASE TEXTIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Cambra Sanchez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wear-a-BAN is the development of a human to machine wireless interface able to register biomechanical data and transmit it to a receptor (machine to be used in a specific purpose.It is developed through a built-in system in textiles (clothes, which allows performing the process in an unobtrusive and natural way, has been the goal. The development has been focused in four specific scenarios: Smart fabrics interactive textiles, activity monitoring, rehabilitation robotics and gaming.

  15. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35) were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p hotel turnover rate increased by 4.1% and the restaurant revenue by 6.4%; employment increased that same year by 7.2% and 1.0%, respectively. Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services. PMID:23351838

  16. WEAR-A-BAN: INTERFAZ INALÁMBRICA DE CONTROL HOMBRE-MAQUINA INCORPORADO SOBRE UNA BASE TEXTIL.

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Cambra Sanchez; Rosa López Ferre; Javier Pascual Bernabeu; José Gisbert Gomis; Carlos Grau Llopis

    2013-01-01

    Wear-a-BAN is the development of a human to machine wireless interface able to register biomechanical data and transmit it to a receptor (machine) to be used in a specific purpose.It is developed through a built-in system in textiles (clothes), which allows performing the process in an unobtrusive and natural way, has been the goal. The development has been focused in four specific scenarios: Smart fabrics interactive textiles, activity monitoring, rehabilitation robotics and gaming.

  17. Tobacco companies' use of retailer incentives after a ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; Purves, Richard I; Moodie, Crawford; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-31

    Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities. This article focuses on data collected in June to July 2015 and June to July 2016 after a ban on the open display of tobacco was fully implemented in Scotland. Retailers described being offered and benefiting from a range of financial and other incentives, typically offered via tobacco company representatives ('reps'). Most of the retailers received tobacco manufacturer support for converting their storage unit to be compliant with the new regulations, and several participated in manufacturer 'loyalty' or 'reward' schemes. Incentives were additionally offered for maintaining stock levels and availability, positioning brands in specified spaces in the public-facing storage units (even though products were covered up), increasing sales, trialling new products and participating in specific promotions, such as verbally recommending specific brands to customers. Even in a market where the open display of tobacco is prohibited, tobacco companies continue to incentivise retailers to sell and promote their brands and have developed new promotional strategies. For countries that have implemented tobacco display bans, or are considering doing so, one option to combat these practices would be to ban promotional communications between manufacturers and retailers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Economic and environmental impacts on ports and harbors from the convention to ban harmful marine anti-fouling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Michael A

    2003-08-01

    The recent Diplomatic Conference held (1-5 October 2001) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in London adopted the Draft Convention prepared by The Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of IMO for the "Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems for Ships." The convention has been developed to immediately ban the use of Tributyltin (TBT) globally in anti-fouling paints to "protect the marine environment". The ban on TBT has come about because TBT has detrimental effects on non-target marine organisms. In November 1999, IMO agreed that a treaty be developed by the MEPC to ensure a ban on the application of TBT based anti-fouling paints by 1 January 2003, and a ban on the use of TBT by 1 January 2008. At the meeting surious concern was expressed by some experts for the need to identify in the treaty the necessary regulatory language for: (1) the "safe" removal, treatment, and disposal of marine anti-foulants deemed "harmful" by the treaty and (2) who is liable for the future dredging and disposal of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments--to also "protect the marine environment". The requirement for "safe" removal and disposal was incorporated at MEPC 46 as Article 5 in the treaty, without it shipyards complying with existing national and local discharge regulations (most have none for discharge of TBT) could inadvertently release more TBT to ports and harbors in the five-year compliance period than has been leached from ships (hulls) in the past 40 years to the same waters. Virginia is the only State in the US that regulates the discharge to below 50 ng/l (50 parts per trillion). However, the liability for the future dredging and disposal costs of TBT-contaminated port and harbor sediments has not been addressed.

  19. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  20. Changes in tobacco industry advertising around high schools in Greece following an outdoor advertising ban: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Lazuras, Lambros; Triantafylli, Danai; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-09-01

    As tobacco advertising bans are enacted in accordance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, it is essential to assess enforcement and how the industry may circumvent such measures. During this longitudinal study, we compared the characteristics of points-of-sale (POS) advertising within 300 m of all high schools in Heraklion, Greece before (n=101 POS and 44 billboards in 2007) and after (n=106 POS in 2011) an outdoor advertising ban was implemented in 2009. Cigarette advertisements in all retailers near all high schools were assessed. Following the ban, tobacco industry billboards around schools were eradicated (from 44 to 0). The proportion of POS that had external advertisements dropped from 98% to 66% (padvertisements on the door (79.5% to 20.4%, padvertisements per POS fell from 7.4 to 3.9 (padvertising restriction in Greece has led to a reduced number of tobacco advertisements per POS, and the eradication of billboard advertising. Nevertheless, there is a need to regulate kiosks, which were identified as a key vector for tobacco advertising, and to increase compliance among regulated convenience stores.

  1. Airborne exposure and biological monitoring of bar and restaurant workers before and after the introduction of a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Dag G; Fladseth, Geir; Daae, Hanne L; Gjølstad, Merete; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Skogstad, Marit; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Molander, Paal

    2006-03-01

    The aims were to assess the impact of a total smoking ban on the level of airborne contaminants and the urinary cotinine levels in the employees in bars and restaurants. In a follow up design, 13 bars and restaurants were visited before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Ninety-three employees in the establishments were initially included into the study. The arithmetic mean concentration of nicotine and total dust declined from 28.3 microg m(-3) (range, 0.4-88.0) and 262 microg m(-3) (range, 52-662), respectively, to 0.6 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-3.7) and 77 microg m(-3) (range, not detected-261) after the smoking ban. The Pearson correlation coefficient between airborne nicotine and total dust was 0.86 (p restaurants. The urinary cotinine levels were reduced in non-smokers. The decline found in smokers may suggest a reduction in the amount of smoking after intervention. In non-smokers cotinine concentrations were higher based on urine sampled the morning after a shift than based on urine sampled immediately post-shift.

  2. [Persistent amphetamine consumption by truck drivers in São Paulo State, Brazil, despite the ban on production, prescription, and use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia de; Endo, Ligia Goes; Sinagawa, Daniele Mayumi; Yonamine, Maurício; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-09-01

    Amphetamine use by truck drivers for occupational purposes is widely known. The production and consumption of amphetamines was banned by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in October 2011. This study analyzes persistent amphetamine use by truck drivers since the ban was implemented. A convenience sample of 427 truck drivers was taken along highways in São Paulo State in 2012. Participants were asked to answer a structured questionnaire and provide a urine sample to screen for recent amphetamine consumption through toxicological analysis. Among the interviewed drivers, 7% had used some illicit drug recently and 2.7% had used amphetamines. Amphetamines are still consumed by truck drivers despite the risks and the recent ban. The authorities should thus monitor the possession and use of amphetamines by drivers in order to effectively enforce the ban.

  3. Empirical Research of Brand Trust Relationship Influential Factors of Huis Old Brands%基于回族老字号的顾客品牌信任关系影响因素实证研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保军

    2014-01-01

    The process from weak brands developing to strong brands serenely is the process of customer trust increases, exploring factors that influence brand trust is great significance to the brand growth. Re-search shows, enterprises, customers and interactive processes are key factors that affect brand trust rela-tionships;through questionnaires of Huis old brands validated the brand trust and influential factors, for exploring brand trust relationships and promoting Huis old brands growth provide important ideas.%从弱小品牌发展到强势品牌的过程实质是顾客信任程度增加的过程,探索影响品牌信任关系的因素对于品牌成长具有重要意义。研究证明,企业、顾客及交互过程是影响品牌信任关系的关键因素,通过回族老字号的调查问卷对品牌信任与影响因素的关系进行了验证,将对深入探讨品牌信任关系的影响因素,促进回族老字号品牌成长提供重要的思路。

  4. 中央红军会理攻坚战述论%Presentation and Discussion on the Battle of the Central Red Army in Hui-li County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘财富; 景志明

    2011-01-01

    During the Long March period,the battle of the Central Red Army in Hui-li county of Si-chuan province was an important one.Because casualties were too serious,so many criticisms occurred in the Party or the Red Army.Based on the relevant historical documents,the author thinks the military action taken by the Red Army in Hui-li county had favorable and unfavorable factors.Though the battle didn’t win,it still had positive significance in which the Red Army went north rapidly and broke though the Da Du-he river defence set by the army of Kuomingtang.%会理攻坚战是中央红军长征在四川时的一场重要战斗。因红军伤亡过大且攻城失利,所以当时党内军内非议颇多。本文通过相关史料的梳理,分析红军攻城的有利与不利因素,从而说明这次战斗的失利对于中央红军迅速北上并突破国民党大渡河防线仍有积极的影响。

  5. Prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in ethnic Hui and Han residents in Ningxia%宁夏回族自治区回、汉族居民烟草、酒精使用调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊峰; 马辉; 王志忠; 张毓洪

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解宁夏回族自治区(宁夏)回、汉族居民烟草、酒精使用情况及其分布特征,为民族地区改善戒烟、限酒措施提供参考.方法 采用多阶段系统抽样法,抽取宁夏地区≥18岁居民6 476人进行入户调查.烟草和酒精使用障碍根据国际疾病分类-10(ICD-10)标准采用复合型国际诊断交谈表3.0(CIDI 3.0)中文版评估.结果 共有5 811名受访者完成全部调查,目前吸烟率为19.15%,其中男性吸烟率高于女性(44.73%vs.1.51%),差异有统计学意义(x2=1 693.25,P<0.001);男性中回族吸烟率低于汉族(33.19%vs.51.95%),差异有统计学意义(x2=79.99,P<0.001).男性烟草依赖患病率为1.75%,回、汉族男性烟草依赖患病率差异无统计学意义(x2=0.02,P=0.958).目前饮酒率为5.78%,其中男性饮酒率高于女性(12.48% vs.1.16%),差异有统计学意义(x2=329.94,P<0.001);男性中回族饮酒率低于汉族(4.71%vs.17.34%),差异有统计学意义(x2=82.03,P<0.001);男性酒精使用障碍患病率为6.03%,男性回族酒精使用障碍患病率低于汉族(3.50%vs.7.61%),差异有统计学意义(x2=16.68,P<0.001).结论 宁夏地区回族成年人烟草和酒精使用率低于同地区汉族,当地的回族文化对减少人群烟草、酒精使用可能具有积极的影响.%Objective To understand the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in ethnic Hui and Han residents in Ningxia Hui autonomous region and provide evidence for the smoking cessation and alcohol use reduction in minority area.Methods Face to face interview was performed in 6 476 subjects aged ≥ 18 years who were selected through systematic sampling in Ningxia.The tobacco use and alcohol use related disorders were evaluated with Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0(CIDI 3.0) according to International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10).Results A total of 5 811 subjects completed the survey, the prevalence of current smoking was 19

  6. 集体记忆与民族亲和力的建构——以兰州西关清真寺为例%The Collective Memory and the Construction of Hui Ethnic Identity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永久; 丁生忠

    2012-01-01

    在城市空间结构再生产的过程中,城市规模向四周逐渐延伸,市民的居住格局也随之发生变化,原先围寺聚居的回族穆斯林群众,便迁至城市的各个街区角落。通过对散居回族现状和特点的分析,探知其以清真寺为集体记忆的符号,借助集体欢腾、个体情感进发、宗教仪式来建构民族亲和力,以实现其群体和谐的目标。%In the process of the reproduction of urban spatial structures, the size of a city gradually stretches out in all directions. At the same time, people's residential structure changes: the Muslims of Hui Ethnic:Group originally clustering around mosques are now moving to every corner of the city. In this thesis, the authors discuss the status quo and characteristics of the identity of Hui Ethnic Group in order to construct ethnic affinity by using the Mosque as a symbol of collective memory, relying on collective exultation, individual emotional venting and religious rituals, so as to reach the goal of group harmony.

  7. 宁夏地区回汉族中小学生超重肥胖流行趋势分析%Analyses of the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity in Hui and Han students in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红霞; 石丽文; 赵燚; 杨建军; 金晶; 张毓洪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity in Hui and Han students in Ningxia from 2005 to 2010, in order to provide evidence for development of preventive measures against obesity. Methods Students aged 7 to 18 participated in th? 2005 and 2010 National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health of Ningxia were selected as subjects. The newly established BMI screening criteria for o-verweight and obesity was used to analyze the prevalence among various populations. Results The prevalence rates of overweight among Han boys, Han girls, Hui boys and Hui girls were 10. 1% , 5. 7% ,7. 4% and5.9% in 2010, 7.9% , 5.4% ,4.0% and4.7% in 2005 .respectively. Meanwhile, the prevalence rates of obesity for the Han boys, Han girls, Hui boys, and Hui girls were 5. 1 %, 2.9 % ,4.1% and 2. 6% in 2010,3. 8%, 1.8%,1.9% and 1.3% in 2005 , respectively. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were higher among children aged 7-12 than those a-mong other age groups in Hui and Han students of rural and urban areas. The ordinal regression showed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among students in 2010 were higher than those in 2005 after controlling for Living areas (in urban area or not) , age and gender. Meanwhile, the Han students were higher than those of Hui students. Conclusion The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity increase rapidly and spread from urban to rural areas among Hui and Han students gradually in Ningxia, therefore, it is necessary to take comprehensive measures to prevent and control the obesity of adolescents in Ningxia.%目的 了解宁夏地区2005-2010年回族与汉族不同群体学生超重、肥胖流行趋势,为制定学生肥胖防治措施提供依据.方法 使用2005和2010年宁夏地区全国学生体质调研资料的数据,利用中国学龄儿童青少年超重和肥胖体质量指数(BMI)筛查标准,对7~18岁中小学生进行超重、肥胖筛查.结果 汉族男生超重率2005年为7.9

  8. 张惠言的《花间》词学接受及其意义%ZHANG Hui-yan’ s ci Reception of Huajian and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅向东

    2013-01-01

    《花间》词学接受至清代的张惠言才有了一个深刻的变化。基于“以《国风》、《离骚》之旨趣,铸温、韦、周、辛之面目”的词学策略,张氏对《花间》采取了故意误读、文本支离和点石成金的接受方式,正是由于其重读《花间》和重释温庭筠,古典词学至常州词派实际上经历了从传统的为词之学向读词之学的转变。%A great change happened in ZHANG Hui-yan’s ci reception of Huajian in the Qing Dynasty.Based on the ci strat-egy of “showing the true appearance of WEN Ting-yun, WEI Zhuang, ZHOU Bang-yan and XIN Qi-ji with Guo Feng and Li Sao as the purport”, ZHANG Hui-yan received Huajian through intentional misreading and deconstruction, thus working miracles.It is because of his reinterpretation of Huajian and WEN Ting-yun that the change of classical ci from its ontology to its reading occurred in the Changzhou ci school.

  9. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  10. Marketingový mix FC Baník Ostrava a návrhy na jeho zlepšení

    OpenAIRE

    Bartošek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of FC Baník Ostrava and proposals for its improvement. Targets: Comprehensive appraisal of FC Baník Ostrava marketing mix. The objective was to make an improvement proposal of individual marketing elements based on the synthesis of the club fans marketing research results and author's experience. Methods: An electronic questioning was used to obtain the relevant information. This questioning was focused on the fans satisfaction, opinion and attitude. The respondents were ...

  11. 福建惠安女文化景观构造及其空间性%Studying on Cultural Landscape Construction and Spatial Characteristics Based on the Case of Women in Hui'an County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 李彬

    2012-01-01

    在对福建渔家女文献梳理和文化元素统计基础上,运用女性地理学理论和方法,解读惠安女文化景观构造特征和形成原因.研究结果表明:惠安女文化萌芽于隋唐,发展于宋元,鼎盛于明清;惠安女文化景观空间分布主要集中于以泉州港为中心的沿海半岛地区;惠安女在工种方面已超出传统中国女性从事职业类型,服饰体现海洋文化特征,婚俗表现出向父系过渡遗留和对劳动力争夺的结果,并建立起互助、自救等社会组织.惠安女文化景观是沿海地理环境特征和社会劳动地域分工共同作用的结果.%The paper describes systematiclly the landscape performances and characteristics of women in Hui'an county——a typical fisherwomen in Fujian province——through combing the literatures and assorting and counting cultural elements based on cultural formation,landscape construction and cause analysis by feminism and theories and methods of cultural geography.The indings show that the phenomenon of women culture in Hui'an county had appeared as early as during Sui and Tang Dynasties,and gained a large-scale development during Song and Yuan Dynasties and the landscapes had been built up during Ming and Qing Dynasties.As to the distribution in space,women in Hui'an county mainly live in the east costal areas of Hui'an county,which are circled by Meizhou gulf where the city of Quanzhou as the center of the gulf.In the view of cultural formation,women do more than the ones in other areas in China,even they engage in what men do in many work fields in Chinese traditional society,their apparels embody cultural characteristics of marine,the customs on marriage is the outcomes which hawe been handed down from the transition to patriarchal society and struggled for each other between their parents and in-laws,and types of social organizations are created for help each other among women.So the cultural landscapes of women in Hui'an county is a

  12. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  13. The Development of Community Economic System of Thung Kula Ronghai Farmers at Ban Ta Yuak, Northeastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasopsuk Rithidet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article was based on the case study at Ban Tayuak, Tambon Thung Luang, Amphoe Suwannaphum, Roi Et, Thung Kula Ronghai, N.E. Thailand By using qualitative research method, the researcher interviewed farmers who had been settled there over ten years. Field and documentary data were then analyzed. The results of the study were as follows: The area of thung Kula Ronghai has been occupied since the prehistoric period. Prehistoric and today’s settlements are found at Ban Muang Bua and Ban Tha Nen, Amphoe Kasetwisai, Roiet; Ban ya Weuk, Amphoe chumponburi, Surin. The evidences found included rice, fish, Salt, and iron tools. As the new comers to the area, the people at Ban Ta yuak were themselves thai – Khmers and came from Amphoe Thathum, Surin looking for fertile land. The community economic systems were classified as traditional and newly developed ones. The traditional economic system existed before 1974 The newly developed one introduced during 1974 - 2003. The traditional economic system was subsistent depending upon family and clan labor, rain water, ancestral beliefs, and community exchange. The newly developed economic system was based on a single crop growing and chemical fertilizer. Such a market economy was partly introduced by the government during 1974 - 1997 Unlike the traditional economic system, the market economy emphasized capital investment and pricing of which the farmers had no or little control. The commercial goods were nore expenive than the agricultural produces. As a result, the farmers spent more than their annual income earning. The System created poverty within village communities in thung Kula Ronghai region. The period of 1997 - 2003 the community developed an economic system of their own choice promoting participation and the pooling of natural resources, investment, technology, and local wisdom. They set up a silk making group. they marketed their own rice, silk cloth and dealt with Outside organizations

  14. Do the ban on use of anti-microbial growth promoter impact on technical change and the efficiency of slaughter-pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Otto, Lars; Jensen, Peter Vig

    2005-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters in the production of “Finishing Pigs” for slaughter. We investigate if the ban on the use of anti-microbial growth promoters has for specialised pig-producers altered the productivity of inputs......, technical change and the efficiency of production. This paper complements an earlier paper that investigated the impact of the ban on weaned-pig produc-tion. Background: The study is motivated by the fact that antimicrobial growth promoters have been known world wide to protect livestock from bacteria...... of the use of growth promoters in 1995, which re-sulted in a total ban in 2000. EU as a follow-up to the Danish action also initiated a ban on the use of growth promoters that are known to contribute to human health hazard. In the US the discussion of a ban is an ongoing subject of debate. For US producers...

  15. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P products purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P < 0.01). For wine, however, these effects were not significant. Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR.

  17. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil: Price and trade impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-26

    This study addresses the issue of the ban on exports of Alaskan crude oil. At present almost all crude oil production from Alaska must be sold in the United States, i.e., it may not be exported. This study examines the impact, mainly on the West Coast, of eliminating this export restraint. The study concentrates on two time periods. These are 1988, the most recent year for which complete data are available, and 1995, a year in which Alaskan production is projected to be substantially less than at present. This is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) second report on this subject. The first was released earlier in 1990. They differ principally in the years for which results are presented and in the models used to generate quantitative results. The first report was limited to 1988. The quantitative results for that year were based on use of a single region model and therefore did not take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. Because of this limitation, quantitative results were limited to Alaskan crude oil prices. All other price and trade flow results were qualitative. In contrast, the present report covers both 1988 and 1995. The quantitative results are generated with use of a more comprehensive model, one which does take into account petroleum interactions among all areas of the world. The model-generated results cover both crude and product prices as well as petroleum trade flows. The quantitative results in the present report therefore supersede those in the first, although both sets are generally consistent.

  18. Should Postponing Motherhood via “Social Freezing” Be Legally Banned? An Ethical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Bernstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In industrial societies, women increasingly postpone motherhood. While men do not fear a loss of fertility with age, women face the biological boundary of menopause. The freezing of unfertilized eggs can overcome this biological barrier. Due to technical improvements in vitrification, so-called “social freezing” (SF for healthy women is likely to develop into clinical routine. Controversial ethical debates focus on the risks of the technique for mother and child, the scope of reproductive autonomy, and the medicalization of reproduction. Some criticize the use of the technique in healthy women in general, while others support a legally defined maximum age for women at the time of an embryo transfer after oocyte cryopreservation. Since this represents a serious encroachment on the reproductive autonomy of the affected women, the reasons for and against must be carefully examined. We analyze arguments for and against SF from a gendered ethical perspective. We show that the risk of the cryopreservation of oocytes for mother and future child is minimal and that the autonomy of the women involved is not compromised. The negative ethical evaluation of postponed motherhood is partly due to a biased approach highlighting only the medical risks for the female body without recognizing the potential positive effects for the women involved. In critical accounts, age is associated in an undifferentiated way with morbidity and psychological instability and is thus used in a discriminatory way. We come to the conclusion that age as a predictor of risk in the debate about SF is, from an ethical point of view, an empty concept based on gender stereotypes and discriminatory connotations of aging. A ban on postponing motherhood via SF is not justified.

  19. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.

    2014-05-01

    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.

  20. Using DNA to track the origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Samuel K; Mailand, Celia; Booth, Rebecca; Mutayoba, Benezeth; Kisamo, Emily; Clark, Bill; Stephens, Matthew

    2007-03-01

    The illegal ivory trade recently intensified to the highest levels ever reported. Policing this trafficking has been hampered by the inability to reliably determine geographic origin of contraband ivory. Ivory can be smuggled across multiple international borders and along numerous trade routes, making poaching hotspots and potential trade routes difficult to identify. This fluidity also makes it difficult to refute a country's denial of poaching problems. We extend an innovative DNA assignment method to determine the geographic origin(s) of large elephant ivory seizures. A Voronoi tessellation method is used that utilizes genetic similarities across tusks to simultaneously infer the origin of multiple samples that could have one or more common origin(s). We show that this joint analysis performs better than sample-by-sample methods in assigning sample clusters of known origin. The joint method is then used to infer the geographic origin of the largest ivory seizure since the 1989 ivory trade ban. Wildlife authorities initially suspected that this ivory came from multiple locations across forest and savanna Africa. However, we show that the ivory was entirely from savanna elephants, most probably originating from a narrow east-to-west band of southern Africa, centered on Zambia. These findings enabled law enforcement to focus their investigation to a smaller area and fewer trade routes and led to changes within the Zambian government to improve antipoaching efforts. Such outcomes demonstrate the potential of genetic analyses to help combat the expanding wildlife trade by identifying origin(s) of large seizures of contraband ivory. Broader applications to wildlife trade are discussed.

  1. The relationship between the stress-related psychosocial factors and the psychosomatic adjustment after surgery(II):The effect of Qi-Gong relaxation training%心理社会因素与手术康复(二):气功的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓红; 姜乾金; 叶圣雅

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Qi-Gong relaxation training on the operation-related psychological stress and the post-operative psychosomatic adjustment in upper-abdominal surgery patients. Methods Forty-two patients undergoing upper-abdominal surgery in intervention group were instructed to do Qi-Gong relaxation training, and forty patients matched were controls without Qi-Gong relaxation training. On the day before surgery, a self-developed patients' pre-operative appraisal questionnaire, a self-developed patients' pre-operative behavior rating questionnaire for completion by medical workers, and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) of State -Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in two groups. In an hour before operation,the shift of the mean value of pulse and systolic pressure of every case compared with the base line measured at his (or her) admission was also recorded. After surgery, patients were assessed with a self-developed patients' post-operative appraisal questionnaire, a self-developed patients' post-operative behavior rating questionnaire for completion by medical workers and SAI of STAI. Besides, the indexes of physical rehabilitation, including intestinal aerofluxus, total dosage of analgesia and so on, were recorded. Data were analysed in t-test with SPSS. Results Compared with controls, the patients in intervention group had more positive anticipation about the following operation, lower pre- and post-operative anxiety, and lighter post-operative pain experience. There was no difference in the indexes of physical rehabilitation between two groups. Conclusions Qi-Gong relaxation training could lead patients to better psychological adjustment both before and after operation. This finding suggests that Qi-Gong relaxation training could be used as an effective psycho-behavior intervention in abdominal surgery patients.%目的探索气功放松训练在外科心理应激及术后心身康复中的干预作用。方法随机选

  2. Analysis of Sinkiang Hui People’ s Flower From Interdisciplinary Perspective---A Case Study of Sinkiang Yanqi Hui People Autonomous County%跨学科视域下新疆回族花儿探究--以新疆焉耆回族自治县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 张付新

    2016-01-01

    The flower ( folk song) of Yanqi Hui nationality,with obvious regional,mul-ticultural and ethnic characters,is a prominent representative of Sinkiang. The origin,repre-sentation,artistic feature,historical significance and cultural value are analyzed from the per-spective of history anthropology,sociology,and economy anthropology. It is pointed out that multi-ethnic and cultural diversity and richness make effective way to promote ethnic com-munication and integration. This is also a necessary spiritual drive and cultural source for social stability in Sinkiang.%焉耆回族花儿是新疆回族花儿的杰出代表,其地域性、多元性和民族性特征非常明显。本文则通过历史人类学、社会学、经济人类学的学科视野对焉耆回族花儿的渊源流变、表现方式、艺术特征、历史意蕴和文化价值进行了深入的剖析,并指出民族文化的多样性和丰富性是构建新疆各民族交往交流交融的有效途径,也是实现新疆社会稳定和长治久安不可替代的精神动力和文化源泉。

  3. 焦作地区回汉族糖尿病发病率调查分析%Incidence investigation of diabetes mellitus in Hui and Han population of Jiaozuo region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清红; 袁新建; 王红心

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Hui and Han population aged 30 years and over in Jiaozuo. And to analyze the association between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and body mass index(BMI). Methods We conducted a case-control study with 663 people aged 30-81 years. Among the total,337 subjects were Hui population, 326 subjects were Han population. Among them, integrated records of body height,body mass,waist circumference(WC) ,hip circumference,blood pressure,fasting plasma glucose were analyzed. The waist hip ratio (WHR) and BMI were computed. Over weight was defined as BMI≥24,and the criteria of central obesity:WC≥90 cm for men,WC≥80 cm for women. Excel was used to build database, SPSS 10.0 was used for analyses. Results Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass, BMI, WC, hip circumference, WHR in Hui population were significantly higher than those in Han population ( P < 0. 05 or <0. 01). The prevalence of diabetes in Hui of Jiaozuo was 38. 6% (130/337), while that was 8. 3% (27/326) for Han, and the difference was statistically significant P <0. 01); Meanwhile, the Hui was significantly higher than 9.7% (4 949/46 239) of the national incidence, the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 01). Abdominal obesity diabetes prevalence and non-abdominal obesity diabetes prevalence in Hui was higher than those in Han. Abdominal obesity diabtes prevalence 30. 0%(101/337) vs8.0%(26/326)(P<0. 05),non-abdominal obesity diabetes prevalence 8. 6% (29/337) vs 0.3% (10/326) ( P <0. 01), respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of diabetes in the Hui of Jiaozuo was significantly higher than the national average,while the Han and the national prevalence of diabetes is close. Elevated BMI and WC are major risk factors of diabetes, controlling for BMI and WC increase is important to reduce the incidence of diabetes.%目的 探索焦作地区回汉族糖尿病的患病率及其与体

  4. Vung Tau - Co Gong dam, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.; Meerdink, L.; Meijer, G.J.; Sirks, E.; Van Vliet, R.

    2011-01-01

    The area around Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) faces flooding and salt intrusion problems. Flooding problems are caused by intensive rainfall in the city, high river discharges and high tides on sea. Dr. Hoc, the vice-minister of MARD (Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) proposed to

  5. Vung Tau - Co Gong dam, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.; Meerdink, L.; Meijer, G.J.; Sirks, E.; Van Vliet, R.

    2011-01-01

    The area around Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) faces flooding and salt intrusion problems. Flooding problems are caused by intensive rainfall in the city, high river discharges and high tides on sea. Dr. Hoc, the vice-minister of MARD (Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) proposed to c

  6. Empirical Research on Hui-honored Consumers Intergenerational Transmission and Brand Loyalty%回族老字号消费者代际传承与品牌忠诚关系实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保军; 马玉龙

    2015-01-01

    Consumers' cultural values based on the intergenerational transmission of family ties had an impor-tant impact on consumer behavior,as well as the consumer brand awareness and the brand trust.The consum-ers of Hui Old brand exhibited unique consumption characteristics owe to ethnic,religious and geographical effect,the intergenerational transmission of consumer groups in the Hui old brand more prominent.Empirical research showed that the impact of Hui old brand intergenerational transmission on brand awareness,brand trust and brand loyalty was significantly positive.Based on the perspective of intergenerational transmission,en-hancing consumers' brand loyalty had an important enlightenment to promote the brand development and tradi-tions cultural heritage,and own brand competitiveness.%基于家庭纽带的代际传承形成的消费者文化价值观深刻影响着消费者行为,使消费者品牌认知、品牌信任的形成无不带有代际影响的烙印。回族老字号的消费者受到民族、宗教、地域的影响表现出独特的消费特征,代际传承在回族老字号消费群体更为突出。从实证角度深入研究回族老字号消费者代际传承对品牌认知、品牌信任以及品牌忠诚的影响,呈现出显著的正相关关系。基于代际传承视角提升消费者品牌忠诚度对推动老字号品牌发展和传统文化的传承和推广以及自有品牌竞争力的提升都具有重要的启示意义。

  7. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  8. The International Data Centre of the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: vision and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratt, S.R. [Vienna International Centre, Vienna (Austria). Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    2001-05-01

    The mission of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty International Data Centre (IDC) is to: (a) acquire data over a Global Communications Infrastructure from a global network of 337 facilities of the International Monitoring Systems (IMS), (b) to process and analyze these data, and (c) to provide the IMS data, IDC products and services to Member States. In effect, the IDC symbolizes a new brand of arms control for the information age, leveraging Internet communications, knowledge-based data fusion, graphical decision support systems and Web-based user interfaces to achieve its mission. During 2000, the IDC was disseminating products based on data from about 90 seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide stations of the future network. The number of events in the reviewed seismo-acoustic bulletins ranged from 40 to 360 each day. On average, some 200 radionuclide spectra were processed and analysed each month. Users from 45 Member States received an average of close to 18,000 data and product deliveries per month from the IDC. As the IDC continues to prepare for entry-into-force of the CTBT, it will continue to integrate the state-of-the-art in science and technology in order to meet the demands of the increasing volume of new types of IMS data, expanded IDC services, and a growing base of users. (orig.) [German] Die Aufgaben des Internationalen Datenzentrums (IDC) fuer das Umfassende Verbot fuer Nuklearversuche (UVNV) sind die folgenden : (a) Sammeln der Daten vom globalen Netzwerk mit 337 Einrichtungen des Internationalen Ueberwachungssystems (IMS) ueber eine globale Kommunikationsinfrastruktur, (b) Verarbeitung und Analyse dieser Daten, und (c) Versorgung der Mitgliedsstaaten mit diesen IMS Daten sowie mit IDC Produkten und Diensten. Das IDC symbolisiert damit eine neuen Typ der Ruestungskontrolle im Informationszeitalter und stuetzt sich dabei auf Internet Kommunikation, wissensbasierte Datenfusion, graphische Systeme zur Entscheidungshilfe sowie Web

  9. It is Time to Ban Rapid Weight Loss from Combat Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme G; Saunders, Bryan; Iglesias, Rodrigo T; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-11-01

    Most competitions in combat sports are divided into weight classes, theoretically allowing for fairer and more evenly contested disputes between athletes of similar body size, strength and agility. It has been well documented that most athletes, regardless of the combat sports discipline, reduce significant amounts of body weight in the days prior to competition to qualify for lighter weight classes. Rapid weight loss is characterised by the reduction of a significant amount of body weight (typically 2-10 %, although larger reductions are often seen) in a few days prior to weigh-in (mostly in the last 2-3 days) achieved by a combination of methods that include starvation, severe restriction of fluid intake and intentional sweating. In doing so, athletes try to gain a competitive advantage against lighter, smaller and weaker opponents. Such a drastic and rapid weight reduction is only achievable via a combination of aggressive strategies that lead to hypohydration and starvation. The negative impact of these procedures on health is well described in the literature. Although the impact of rapid weight loss on performance is debated, there remains robust evidence showing that rapid weight loss may not impair performance, and translates into an actual competitive advantage. In addition to the health and performance implications, rapid weight loss clearly breaches fair play and stands against the spirit of the sport because an athlete unwilling to compete having rapidly reduced weight would face unfair contests against opponents who are 'artificially' bigger and stronger. The World Anti-Doping Agency Code states that a prohibited method must meet at least two of the following criteria: (1) enhances performance; (2) endangers an athlete's health; and (3) violates the spirit of the sport. We herein argue that rapid weight loss clearly meets all three criteria and, therefore, should be banned from the sport. To quote the World Anti-Doping Agency Code, this would "protect

  10. Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María J; Fernández, Esteve; Pérez-Rios, Mónica; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Galán, Iñaki; Moncada, Albert; Fu, Marcela; Montes, Agustín; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force. Before-and-after evaluation study with repeated measures. The study was carried out in three regions of Spain (Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) and included a random sample of 178 hospitality venues. We measured vapor-phase nicotine and particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5) as SHS markers at baseline (November-December 2010) and at follow-up (April-June 2011). We also recorded tobacco consumption variables such as the presence of butts, ashtrays, and smokers. In the posttest assessment, we also recorded the number of outdoor smokers close to the entrance. A total of 351 nicotine and 160 PM2.5 measurements were taken. Both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations decreased by more than 90% (nicotine from 5.73 to 0.57 µg/m(3), PM2.5 from 233.38 to 18.82 µg/m(3)). After the law came into force, both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in venues with outdoor smokers close to the entrance than in those without outdoor smokers. All the observational tobacco consumption variables significantly decreased (p hospitality venues dramatically decreased after the 2011 Spanish smoking ban. SHS from outdoor smokers close to entrances seems to drift inside venues. Smoking control legislation should consider outdoor restrictions to ensure complete protection against SHS.

  11. Banning tobacco sales and advertisements near educational institutions may reduce students' tobacco use risk: evidence from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh; Pimple, Sharmila; Gupta, Prakash C; McCarthy, William J; Raute, Lalit J; Patel, Minal; Shastri, Surendra S

    2015-03-01

    India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act bans tobacco sales and advertisements within 100 yards of educational institutions. In school-adjacent neighbourhoods in Mumbai, we assessed adherence to these policies and whether tobacco vendor and advertisement densities were associated with students' tobacco use. High school students' tobacco use was measured using a multistage cluster sampling survey (n=1533). Field geographic information systems data were obtained for all tobacco vendors and advertisements within 500 m of schools (n=26). Random-effects multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations of tobacco vendor and advertisement densities with ever tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use and current tobacco use. There were 1741 tobacco vendors and 424 advertisements within 500 m of schools, with 221 vendors (13%) and 42 advertisements (10%) located within 100 m. School-adjacent tobacco vendor density within 100 m was not associated with the tobacco use outcomes, but tobacco advertisement density within 100 m was associated with all outcomes when comparing highest to lowest density tertiles: ever use (OR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.07), current use (2.23; 1.16, 4.28) and current smokeless tobacco use (2.01; 1.02, 3.98). Tobacco vendor density within 200, 300, 400 and 500 m of schools was associated with current tobacco use and current smokeless tobacco use, but not ever use. The tobacco sales ban near educational institutions could be expanded beyond 100 m. Greater enforcement is needed regarding the current bans, particularly because advertisement density within 100 m of schools was associated with all students' tobacco use outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Assessing knowledge and attitudes of owners or managers of hospitality venues regarding a policy banning indoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaaeddine, G; Al Kuhaimi, T; Al Assaad, R; Dany, M; Diab, R; Hanna, E; Hirmas, N; Ismail, H; Mahmassani, D; Sleiman Tellawi, R; Nakkash, R

    2013-05-01

    In response to accumulating evidence on the detrimental health effects of second-hand smoke, governments throughout the world have adopted laws prohibiting indoor smoking in public places. Lebanon has recently enacted a law prohibiting indoor smoking in all of its forms, rendered effective as of 3 September 2012. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs in Beirut towards the ban, three months before it came into effect. Self-administered cross-sectional survey. Data were derived from a self-administered cross-sectional survey conducted in June 2012. In total, 262 hospitality venues (restaurants, cafes, pubs and nightclubs) were sampled at random to participate. The response rate was 74% (194/262). Overall, 84% of owners/managers reported that they were aware of the ban, yet the average knowledge score was only 3.43/10. A general positive attitude was noted towards customer satisfaction (44.8%), law enforcement (61.1%) and employee protection from second-hand smoke (74%), while 55% of owners/managers were concerned that their revenues would decrease. However, 83.3% expressed their willingness to implement the law. This quantitative study is the first to examine the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues regarding the indoor smoking ban in Lebanon. Civil society and government bodies should use the findings to develop a campaign to address the knowledge and attitudes of owners/managers of hospitality venues to ensure successful enforcement. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark’s club land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas F.; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    in local ‘drug policing assemblages’ characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms...... relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. Conclusion: The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness...

  14. Law and psychiatry: regulating psychotherapy or restricting freedom of speech? California's ban on sexual orientation change efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    California's new law banning sexual orientation change efforts by licensed therapists for patients under 18 immediately provoked court challenges. Therapists, parents, and patients argued that the statute infringed constitutional rights to freedom of speech and parental rights to select treatments for their children. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected all of these claims in a unanimous decision upholding the law. However, the decision evokes concerns that other forms of psychotherapy could be subject to similar regulation. Tort remedies may provide less intrusive means for discouraging use of ineffective and potentially harmful therapies.

  15. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  16. Pharmacokinetics of doxapram in Chinese Hui and Han healthy volunteers%多沙普仑在中国回族和汉族健康人体内的药动学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖勇; 程佳; 郭涛; 夏东亚; 郑谊; 郭红亮

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in Chinese Hui and Han healthy volunteers. Methods:Ten Hui volunteers and ten Han volunteers were given a single dose of 50 mg doxapram by intravenous infusion. The concentration of doxapram in plasma was determined by HPLC method, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software. ResultS:The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Hui volunteers were as follows: cmax 48±0. 46) μg/ml, t1/2β(3. 91±2.05) h,Vd(l. 35±0.45) L/kg,AUC0-12 (3. 02±0. 56)μg · h · ml-1 ,AUC0-∞(3. 49 + 0. 73) μg · h · ml-1. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of Han volunteers were as follows: cmax( 55±0. 52) μg/ml,t1/2β(3. 87 + 2. 17) h,Vd(l. 35± 0. 96) L/kg,AUC0-12(3. 51±1. 26)μg· h · ml-1, AUC0-∞ (4. 06±l. 44) μg · h· ml-1. Conclusion:There were no significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of doxapram between Chinese Hui and Han healthy volunteers.%目的:研究汉族和回族健康受试者单次静脉滴注盐酸多沙普仑后的药动学.方法:回族和汉族健康受试者各10名,单次静脉滴注盐酸多沙普仑50 mg,定时采血,用HPLC法测定多沙普仑血药浓度,DAS 2.0软件计算药动学参数.结果:回族受试者的主要药动学参数为:cmax(1.48±0.46) μg/ml、t1/2β(3.91±2.05) h、Vd(1.35±0.45) L/kg、AUC0~12(3.02±0.56) μg·h·ml-1、AUC0~∞(3.49±0.73) μg·h·ml-1.汉族受试者的主要药动学参数为:cmax(1.55±0.52) μg/ml、t1/2β(3.87±2.17) h、Vd(1.35±0.96) L/kg、AUC0~12(3.51±1.26) μg·h·ml-1、AUC0~∞(4.06±1.44) μg·h·ml-1.结论:经统计学分析,回族和汉族健康受试者单次静脉滴注盐酸多沙普仑后药动学参数的差异无统计学意义.

  17. The First Chinese Translator of Pushkin's Works--JI YI-hui and Pushkin%普希金"初临中土"的向导--戢翼翚与普希金

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁夫

    2000-01-01

    JI Yi-hui was the first Chinese who translated Pushkin's works. Pushkin's "Daughter of lieutenant"was translated from Japanese by him and he gave this Chinese version a new name "Romance of Russia". This version was an assimilative one. There were quite big discrepancies over the book's name, characters' name, person, type and number of words between the Chinese version and the Russian original. However, It was not JI yi-hui but the Japanese translator who should bear full responsibility for these. Because the Japanese version was an abridged one itself and all the divergences above-mentioned could be fould there. Ji's version was not a perfect one, but it was the very beginning for the Chinese to translate pushkin's works and other Russian literary master pieces and therefore had a profound significance in the history of literature.%普希金的第一部汉译作品是《上尉的女儿》,译本题作《俄国情史》,系据日文转译,译者为戢翼翚。这是一部归化式译作,书名、人名、人称、体裁、字数均与原作有较大的出入。不过,责任主要不在中译者,而在日译者。日译本本身就是一个缩写本,上述问题都是目译本所存在的。戢译《俄国情史》虽是一部很不完善的译作,但它开了翻译普希金作品和俄国文学名著的先河,因而具有重要意义。

  18. The Comparison of the Self -Consciousness Developing Situation on the Hui -Nationality Girls and Han -Nationality Girls%回族与汉族女童自我意识发展状况的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗媛; 丁仲学; 李鹏程

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,use the Piers -Harris children's self -consciousness scale (PHCSS),by investiga-ting 535 Han nationality girls and 418 Hui nationality girls.The results showed that:1.The behavior of the Hui nationality girls,body appearance and properties,anxiety,to fit in with the obvious differences in grade four as-pects,and the Han girls intelligence with the school situation,the body appearance and attributes have significant differences in grade;2.The behavior of the self -consciousness of the girls,intelligence and school situation,the body appearance and properties,sociable,happiness and satisfy the five dimensions have significant ethnic differ-ences.%本文采用 Piers -Harris 儿童自我意识量表(PHCSS),通过调查535名汉族女童和418名回族女童。结果发现:1.回族女童的行为、躯体外貌与属性、焦虑、合群这四个方面在年级上存在显著差异,而汉族女童的智力与学校情况、躯体外貌与属性在年级上存在显著差异;2.女童自我意识的行为、智力与学校情况、躯体外貌与属性、合群、幸福与满足五个因子上存在显著的民族差异性。

  19. Evaluation of implementation, compliance and acceptance of partial smoking bans among hospitality workers before and after the Swiss Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization recommends uniform comprehensive smoking bans in public places. In Switzerland, regulations differ between various areas and are mostly incomplete for hospitality venues. As ambiguous regulations offer more leeway for implementation, we evaluated the Swiss regulations with respect to their effects on implementation, acceptance and compliance among hospitality workers. In our longitudinal study, a standardized, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 185 hospitality workers before and 4-6 month after the smoking ban came into effect. The matched longitudinal sample comprised 71 participants (repeated response rate 38.4%). We developed a seven-item acceptance scale. Logistic regressions were performed to explore the factors associated with acceptance. Acceptance of smoking bans was influenced by smoking status and perceived annoyance with second-hand smoke in private. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.09), we found some indications that post-ban acceptance increased in an area with strict regulations, whereas it decreased in two areas with less stringent regulations. Tobacco bans in Swiss hospitality venues are still in a period of consolidation. The incomplete nature of the law may also have had a negative impact on the development of greater acceptance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Injury risk and a tackle ban in youth Rugby Union: reviewing the evidence and searching for targeted, effective interventions. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the tackle, an integral part of Rugby Union, be banned in school rugby, as a means to reduce the risk of injury. This proposal held that harmful contact should be removed in response to what was termed an unacceptably high-injury risk. Such a ban would represent a significant intervention that could change the nature of Rugby Union. As such, the basis and rationale for such a ban is worthy of critical evaluation. This review aims to describe the research on which such a ban is proposed. It does so through an assessment (identification), estimation (understanding of the magnitude and occurrence) and evaluation (determining acceptability) of the risk before decisions can be made about implementing any risk mitigation strategies. The body of literature describing injury risk, particularly among youths, is indeed thin and fraught with methodological differences that makes definitive conclusions impossible. We describe these, and their implications, arguing that the complete ban on the tackle may be unnecessary in young children, in whom injury risk may not be as high as is often argued, but also that it may have detrimental consequences. Finally, we propose alternative strategies and research questions which must be pursued to effectively reduce risk without creating unintended consequences or changing the nature of the sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/