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  1. Mebiolgel, a thermoreversible polymer as a scaffold for three dimensional culture of Huh7 cell line with improved hepatocyte differentiation marker expression and HCV replication

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    A R Rajalakshmy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A novel three dimensional (3D culture system purely synthesised from co-polymer which is free from biological contamination for Huh7 cell cultivation and hepatitis C virus (HCV replication has been attempted. Materials and Methods: Mebiolgel, a thermo-reversible gelation polymer was used as a 3D scaffold for culturing Huh7, a liver carcinoma cell line used in our study. The 3D culture of the cells were infected with cell culture derived HCV. Result: The scaffold supported the cell growth as 3D spheroids for up to 63 days. Moreover mebiolgel was found to be improving the hepatocyte differentiation of Huh7 cells at the transcript level. Three dimensional culture was susceptible for HCV infection, and this was confirmed by detecting the HCV replication intermediate viral core antigen.Conclusion: Mebiolgel based culture system was proven to be suited for 3D culture of Huh7 cells by improvising liver specific genotypic expression and was susceptible for HCV replication. Since mebiolgel based Huh 7 express better hepatocyte differentiation markers genotypically, this can be implemented as an alternate for primary hepatocytes in studies such as viral isolation from patient serum.

  2. Huh-7 cell line as an alternative cultural model for the production of human like erythropoietin (EPO

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    Kausar Humera

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Erythropoietin (EPO is a glycoprotein hormone which is required to regulate the production of red blood cells. Deficiency of EPO is known to cause anemia in chronically infected renal patients and they require regular blood transfusion. Availability of recombinant EPO has eliminated the need for blood transfusion and now it is extensively used for the treatment of anemia. Glycosylation of erythropoietin is essential for its secretion, stability, protein conformation and biological activity. However, maintenance of human like glycosylation pattern during manufacturing of EPO is a major challenge in biotechnology. Currently, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line is used for the commercial production of erythropoietin but this cell line does not maintain glycosylation resembling human system. With the trend to eliminate non-human constituent from biopharmaceutical products, as a preliminary approach, we have investigated the potential of human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7 to produce recombinant EPO. Materials and methods Initially, the secretory signal and Kozak sequences was added before the EPO mature protein sequence using overlap extension PCR technique. PCR-amplified cDNA fragments of EPO was inserted into mammalian expression vector under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter and transiently expressed in CHO and Huh-7 cell lines. After RT-PCR analysis, ELISA and Western blotting was performed to verify the immunochemical properties of secreted EPO. Results Addition of secretory signal and Kozak sequence facilitated the extra-cellular secretion and enhanced the expression of EPO protein. Significant expression (P Conclusion Huh-7 cell line has a great potential to produce glycosylated EPO, suggesting the use of this cell line to produce glycoproteins of the therapeutic importance resembling to the natural human system.

  3. Protein transfection study using multicellular tumor spheroids of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

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    Takuma Kato

    Full Text Available Several protein transfection reagents are commercially available and are powerful tools for elucidating function of a protein in a cell. Here we described protein transfection studies of the commercially available reagents, Pro-DeliverIN, Xfect, and TuboFect, using Huh-7 multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS as a three-dimensional in vitro tumor model. A cellular uptake study using specific endocytosis inhibitors revealed that each reagent was internalized into Huh-7 MCTS by different mechanisms, which were the same as monolayer cultured Huh-7 cells. A certain amount of Pro-DeliverIN and Xfect was uptaken by Huh-7 cells through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which may lead to transcytosis through the surface-first layered cells of MCTS. The results presented here will help in the choice and use of protein transfection reagents for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutic proteins against MCTS models.

  4. Differential expression of several drug transporter genes in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines.

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    Louisa, Melva; Suyatna, Frans D; Wanandi, Septelia Inawati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Syafruddin, Din

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture techniques have many advantages for investigation of drug transport to target organ like liver. HepG2 and Huh-7 are two cell lines available from hepatoma that can be used as a model for hepatic drug transport. The present study is aimed to analyze the expression level of several drug transporter genes in two hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh-7 and their response to inhibitors. This is an in vitro study using HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. The expression level of the following drug transporter genes was quantified: P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance protein 1, Organic Anionic Transporter Protein 1B1 (OATP1B1) and Organic Cationic Transporter-1 (OCT1). Ribonucleic acid was extracted from the cells using Tripure isolation reagent, then gene expression level of the transporters is quantified using Applied Biosystems quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Verapamil (P-glycoprotein inhibitor), nelfinavir (OATP1B1 inhibitor), quinidine (OCT1 inhibitor) were used to differentiate the inhibitory properties of these agents to the transporter expressions in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Huh-7 shows a higher level of P-glycoprotein, OATP1B1 and OCT1 expressions compared with those of HepG2. Verapamil reduces the expressions of P-glycoprotein in HepG2 and Huh-7; nelfinavir reduces the expression of OATP1B1 in HepG2 and Huh-7; while quinidine reduces the OCT1 gene expressions in HepG2, but not in Huh-7 cells. This study indicates that HepG2 might be a more suitable in vitro model than Huh-7 to study drug transport in hepatocytes involving drug transporters.

  5. Encapsulation of Huh-7 cells within alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres.

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    Mahou, Redouan; Tran, Nhu Mai; Dufresne, Murielle; Legallais, Cécile; Wandrey, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Novel calcium alginate poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid microspheres (Ca-alg-PEG) were developed and evaluated as potentially suitable materials for cell microencapsulation. Grafting 5-13% of the backbone units of sodium alginate (Na-alg) with α-amine-ω-thiol PEG maintained the gelling capacity in presence of calcium ions, while thiol end groups allowed for preparing chemically crosslinked hydrogel via spontaneous disulfide bond formation. The combination of these two gelling mechanisms yielded Ca-alg-PEG. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Huh-7) were encapsulated in Ca-alg-PEG and calcium alginate beads (Ca-alg), and cultured for 2 weeks under agitation conditions. Immediately after completion of the microencapsulation, the cell viability was 60% and similar in Ca-alg-PEG and Ca-alg. The proliferation of Huh-7 encapsulated in Ca-alg-PEG was slightly higher than in Ca-alg. Accelerated proliferation after 2 weeks was observed for the encapsulation in Ca-alg-PEG. The production of albumin confirmed the functionality of the encapsulated Huh-7 cells. The study confirms the suitability of Ca-alg-PEG and the one-step technology for cell microencapsulation.

  6. Metformin induces apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 cells in vitro and its mechanism

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    林芬

    2013-01-01

    Objective to investigate the effects of antidiabetic drug metformin on proliferation and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7 cells.Methods Huh-7 cells were treated with metformin at different concentrations.Cell viability was determined by MTT assay.Cell apoptosis and CD133+expression rate were detected by flow cytometery (FCM) .Expressions of PTEN,Akt,p-Akt,Bcl-2,Bax proteins in the cells were measured by Western blot.The effect of metformin on the hepato-

  7. Lipogenesis in Huh7 cells is promoted by increasing the fructose: Glucose molar ratio

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    Fernando; Windemuller; Jiliu; Xu; Simon; S; Rabinowitz; M; Mahmood; Hussain; Steven; M; Schwarz

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether hepatocyte lipogenesis, in an in vitro cell culture model, is modulated by adjusting culture media monosaccharide content and concentration.METHODS: Hepatocytes(Huh7), demonstrating glucose and fructose uptake and lipid biosynthesis, were incubated in culture media containing either glucose alone(0.65-0.72 mmol/L) or isosmolar monosaccharide(0.72 mmol/L) comprising fructose:glucose(F:G) molar ratios ranging from 0.58-0.67. Following a 24-h incubation, cells were harvested and analyzed for total protein, triglyceride(TG) and cholesterol(C) content. Significant differences(P < 0.05) among groups were determined using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparisons.RESULTS: After a 24 h incubation period, Huh7 cell mass and viability among all experimental groups were not different. Hepatocytes cultured with increasing concentrations of glucose alone did not demonstrate a significant change either in C or in TG content. However, when the culture media contained increasing F:G molar ratios, at a constant total monosaccharideconcentration, synthesis both of C and of TG increased significantly [F:G ratio = 0.58, C/protein(μg/μg) = 0.13;F:G = 0.67, C/protein = 0.18, P < 0.01; F:G ratio = 0.58,TG/protein(μg/μg) = 0.06; F:G ratio = 0.67, TG/protein= 0.11, P < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: In an in vitro hepatocyte model, glucose or fructose plus glucose support total cell mass and lipogenic activity. Increasing the fructose:glucose molar ratio(but not glucose alone) enhances triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis. These investigations demonstrate fructose promotes hepatocellular lipogenesis, and they provide evidence supporting future, in vivo studies of fructose’s role in the development of hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  8. Characterization of increased drug metabolism activity in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated Huh7 hepatoma cells.

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    Choi, S; Sainz, B; Corcoran, P; Uprichard, S; Jeong, H

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Huh7 cells' baseline capacity to metabolize drugs and to investigate whether the drug metabolism was enhanced upon treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined using probe drugs by analysing relevant metabolite production rates. The expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes in control Huh7 cells were generally very low, but DMSO treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of most drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as other liver-specific proteins. Importantly, functionality assays confirmed concomitant increases in drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Additionally, treatment of the Huh7 cells with 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 expression. The results indicate that DMSO treatment of Huh7 cells profoundly enhances their differentiation state, thus improving the usefulness of this common cell line as an in vitro hepatocyte model.

  9. Gli-1 siRNA induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells

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    Xi-Lin Chen; Liang-Qi Cao; Miao-Rong She; Qian Wang; Xiao-Hui Huang; Xin-Hui Fu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Gli-1 small interference RNA (siRNA) on Huh7 cells, and the change of Bcl-2 expression in Huh7 cells.METHODS: Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells Huh7 were used. Cell viability was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expressions of Gli-1 and Bcl-2 family members were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Apoptosis was detected by Flow cytometry using propidium iodide, measured by Hoechst 33258 staining using Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy and caspase-3 enzymatic assay. Cell growth was analyzed after treatment with Gli-1 siRNA and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu).RESULTS: Inhibition of Gli-1 mRNA in Huh7 cells through Gli-1 siRNA reduced cell viability. Gli-1 siRNA treatment also induced apoptosis by three criteria, increase in the sub-Gl cell cycle fraction, nuclear condensation, a morphologic change typical of apoptosis, and activation of caspase-3. Gli-1 siRNA was also able to down-regulate Bcl-2. However, Gli-1 siRNA resulted in no significant changes in Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, and Bid. Furthermore, Gli-1 siRNA increased the cytotoxic effect of 5-Fu on Huh7 cell.CONCLUSION: Down-regulation of Bcl-2 plays an important role in apoptosis induced by Gli-1 siRNA in HCC cells. Combination Gli-1 siRNA with chemotherapeutic drug could represent a more promising strategy against HCC. The effects of the strategies need further investigation in vivo and may have potential clinical application.

  10. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

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    Elodie Jouan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, OCT1 and bile salt export pump or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3 in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  11. Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells

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    Xiao-Hong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NFκB activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1 in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca2+]i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NFκB activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NFκB activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NFκB activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NFκB-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins.

  12. Proteomic analysis of HUH-7 cells harboring in vitro-transcribed full-length hepatitis C virus 1b RNA

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    Meng XUN; Si-hai ZHAO; Chun-xia CAO; Juan SONG; Ming-ming SHAO; Yong-lie CHU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study examined the differential expression of proteins in HuH-7 cells and HUH-7 cells harboring in vitro-transcribed full-length hepatitis C virus 1b RNA (HuH-7-HCV), and elucidated the cellular responses to HCV replication. Methods: The protein profiles of matched pairs of HuH-7-HCV cells and HUH-7 mock cells were analyzed by 2-D electrophoresis (2DE). Solubilized proteins were separated in the first dimension by isoelectric focusing, and by 12.5% SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The differential protein expression was analyzed by use of image analysis software to identify candidates for HCV infection-associated proteins. Results: In total, 29 protein spots showed increases and 25 protein spots showed decreases in signal in HuH-7-HCV cell 2DE profiles as compared with HuH-7 mock cells. In the next step, the 10 spots showing the greatest in-crease and the 10 spots showing the greatest decrease were excised from gels and the proteins present were identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ioniza-tion Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS) or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 13 proteins were identified successfully. The potential significance of the differential expression due to HCV replication was discussed. Conclusion: Our study identifies changes in the proteome of HuH-7 cells in the presence of HCV replication and yields information of the mechanism of HCV pathogenesis. These results will be useful for the identification of HCV infection-associated proteins that could be molecular targets for treatment.

  13. Inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines.

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    Ali, Liaqat; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Ur Rehman, Irshad; Ali, Amjad; Iqbal, Syed Abbas; Kamel, Eyad Hassan

    2014-04-17

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to infect 200 million individuals in the globe, including approximately 10 million in Pakistan causing both acute and chronic hepatitis. The standard treatment against HCV is pegylated interferon therapy in combination with a nucleoside analogue ribavirin. In addition, several herbal extracts and phytochemicals derivatives are used traditionally in the treatment of liver diseases as well as HCV infection. The present study determines the inhibitory effect of kaolin minerals compound against hepatitis C virus in Huh-7 cell lines. Huh-7 cell lines were used for the in vitro HCV replication by using HCV positive sera from different patients with known HCV genotypes and viral titer/load. Total RNA was extracted from these infected cells and was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). The viral titer was compared with the control samples to determine the anti-HCV activity of kaolin derived compounds. Kaolin is a group of clay minerals, with the chemical composition Al2 Si2O5 (OH)4. The results showed promising effectiveness of local kaolin derived anti-HCV compounds by causing 28% to 77% decrease in the HCV titer, when applied to infected Huh-7 cell lines. This study provides the basis for future work on these compounds especially to determine the specific pathway and mechanism for inhibitory action in the replicon systems of viral hepatitis. Kaolin mineral derivatives show promising inhibitory effects against HCV genotypes 3a and 1a infection, which suggests its possible use as complementary and alternative medicine for HCV viral infection.

  14. Isolation and identification of CD133 + cells from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Huh-7%人肝癌细胞系Huh-7中CD133+细胞的分离及鉴定

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    孙岚; 宋东颖; 刘岩磊; 刘岩; 张英鸽

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过表面标志分选法富集人肝癌Huh-7细胞中CD133+细胞,并初步鉴定其特性.方法 采用流式细胞分选技术从人肝癌细胞系Huh-7中分选出CD133+细胞,并进行干细胞比例分析;通过对CD133+细胞体外成球能力及增殖能力检测,考察CD133+细胞的自我更新能力;观察CD133+细胞在非肥胖性糖尿病/重度联合免疫缺陷小鼠(NOD/SCID)体内的成瘤情况.结果 分选获得的CD133+细胞经无血清培养后阳性比例达90%以上;CD133+细胞体外无血清培养3d即可成球且生长速度较CD133-细胞快;CD133+细胞在NOD/SCID小鼠体内21 d左右即可形成异种移植瘤.结论 CD133+表面标志物分选方法可以高纯度富集CD133+细胞,利用CD133抗体分选获得的CD133+细胞具有肿瘤干细胞样特性.%Objective To enrich CD133+ cells from human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines Huh-7 cells through fluorescence activated cell sorting and identify their biological characteristics. Methods CD133 + cells were sorted by flow cytometry and the percentage of them in cultured Huh-7 cells was analyzed. The self-renewing and sphere-forming ability of CD133 + cell were observed by light microscope in vitro in comparison with CD133+ cells. Tumor-forming ability of CD133+ cells was observed by xenografts of them in NOD/SCID mice. Results Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the purity of CD133 + subset cells exceeded 90% , CD133 + subset cells were verified multipotent with the ability of forming tumor spheres within 3 culture days. And CD133 + subset cells were higher proliferative in vitro and had higher tumorigenitic ability in vivo than those of CD133+ subset cells in mice for 21 d. Conclusion CD133 + cells super marker sorting method can enrich CD133 + cells in high purity, and CD133 + cells sorted with CD133 antibody possess the characteristics of tumor stem cells.

  15. Lactobionic acid enhances mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles targeting to hepatocellular carcinoma cell Huh7%乳糖酸修饰mPEG-PLGA-PLL纳米粒靶向肝癌细胞Huh7的研究

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    孙彦明; 朱明洁; 王炳武; 孙颖; 刘培峰; 段友容

    2012-01-01

    背景与目的 去唾液酸糖蛋白受体(asialoglycoprotein receptor,ASGPR)是一种肝细胞特异性表达的膜表面蛋白,能够特异性地识别带有半乳糖残基的糖蛋白.乳糖酸含有半乳糖基团,可以作为靶向肝癌的特异性配基.该研究旨在探讨乳糖酸修饰的聚乙二醇/聚丙交酯-乙交酯/聚赖氨酸[methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(L-lysine)(mPEG-PLGA-PLL)纳米粒,mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs)]对肝癌Huh7靶向效果,为构建新型的靶向肝癌的纳米递送系统提供实验数据.方法 MTT法确定Huh7细胞摄取mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs与mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs适当的浓度;通过激光共聚焦和荧光显微镜定性观察Huh7对罗丹明B标记的mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs和mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs的摄取;并采用流式细胞计数仪定量研究Huh7细胞对两者的摄取差别;尾静脉注射荷Huh7瘤裸鼠研究两者体内分布情况.结果 mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs与mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs的浓度在0.2 mg/mL时细胞存活率较高且对Huh7细胞的毒性较小.激光共聚焦断层扫描显示Huh7细胞可以较好地摄取mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs,同时流式细胞仪定量显示mPEGPLGA-PLL-GAL NPs在Huh7细胞的分布较mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs高40%(P<0.05).mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs与mPEG-PLGAPLL-GAL NPs在移植瘤中的分布明显多于其他脏器,并且随时间的延长mPEG-PLGA-PLL-GAL NPs体现了更好的靶向效果.结论 体外与体内实验证明乳糖酸修饰的mPEG-PLGA-PLL NPs对肝癌细胞Huh7有很好的靶向效果,可为肝癌的靶向治疗提供较好的药物载体.%Background and purpose: It is a wonderful approach to deliver drugs to hepatocellular carcinoma cell by receptor-mediated targeting. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) specifically recognized by galactose moiety residue is a mainly expressing membrane protein on the surface of hepatocellular carcinoma cell. Methoxy-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(L-lysine) (m

  16. 体外培养的嵌合体丙型肝炎病毒感染Huh7.5细胞的透射电镜观察%Observation of chimeric hepatitis C virus In infected Huh7.5 cell through transmission electron microscopy

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    马力; 魏欣; 张野; 王平忠; 连建奇; 贾战生

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过透射电子显微镜技术观察体外培养的嵌合体丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)感染Huh7.5细胞后胞内病毒颗粒的形态学特征及细胞内部超微结构的变化.方法 将含有全长HCV嵌合基因组的质粒pFL-J6/JFH体外转录为HCV RNA,电穿孔转染至Huh7.5细胞,实时定量聚合酶链反应(qRT-PCR)测定培养上清中病毒数量;间接免疫荧光检测病毒蛋白的表达;收取转染后细胞培养上清感染原始Huh7.5细胞,制作超薄细胞切片,透射电子显微镜技术观察被感染细胞中病毒颗粒的形态学特征及细胞超微结构的变化.结果 qRT-PCR显示不同时间点收取的转染后细胞培养上清中含有高水平的病毒量;间接免疫荧光显示病毒NSSA非结构蛋白高表达;透射电子显微镜观察到被感染的Huh7.5细胞内含有大量有包膜或无包膜的病毒样颗粒,细胞质内部分膜性细胞器增生,出现黄病毒科病毒感染后特征性结构及某种未知结构等.结论 体外培养的嵌合体HCV具有HCV颗粒的形态学特征,并能够有效感染人源性肝细胞Huh7.5.%Objective To observe the morphological characteristics of HCV particles and intracel-lular ultrastructure changes in Huh7. 5 cells which was infected with chimeric HCV via transmission electron microscopy. Methods Plasmid J6/JFH encoding the full length HCV chimeric genome was transcribed to HCV RNA in vitro and the RNA was transfected into Huh7.5 cells by electroporation. Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was used to assay HCV copies of the supernatant of transfected cells. Indirect immunofluo-rescence was used to detect the expression of HCV proteins. The cell culture superoatant were used to infect narve Huh7.5 cells, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe morphological characteristics of vi-rus particles and intracellular ultrastructure changes in infected Huh7. 5 cells. Results qRT-PCR showed high level virus copies in supernatant of transfected cells

  17. Cell surface glycan alterations in epithelial mesenchymal transition process of Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cell.

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    Shan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Due to recurrence and metastasis, the mortality of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is high. It is well known that the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT and glycan of cell surface glycoproteins play pivotal roles in tumor metastasis. The goal of this study was to identify HCC metastasis related differential glycan pattern and their enzymatic basis using a HGF induced EMT model. METHODOLOGY: HGF was used to induce HCC EMT model. Lectin microarray was used to detect the expression of cell surface glycan and the difference was validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. The mRNA expression levels of glycotransferases were determined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: After HGF treatment, the Huh7 cell lost epithelial characteristics and obtained mesenchymal markers. These changes demonstrated that HGF could induce a typical cell model of EMT. Lectin microarray analysis identified a decreased affinity in seven lectins ACL, BPL, JAC, MPL, PHA-E, SNA, and SBA to the glycan of cell surface glycoproteins. This implied that glycan containing T/Tn-antigen, NA2 and bisecting GlcNAc, Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc, terminal α or βGalNAc structures were reduced. The binding ability of thirteen lectins, AAL, LCA, LTL, ConA, NML, NPL, DBA, HAL, PTL II, WFL, ECL, GSL II and PHA-L to glycan were elevated, and a definite indication that glycan containing terminal αFuc and ± Sia-Le, core fucose, α-man, gal-β(α GalNAc, β1,6 GlcNAc branching and tetraantennary complex oligosaccharides structures were increased. These results were further validated by lectin blot and fluorescence cell lectin-immunochemistry. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of Mgat3 decreased while that of Mgat5, FucT8 and β3GalT5 increased. Therefore, cell surface glycan alterations in the EMT process may coincide with the expression of glycosyltransferase. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study systematically clarify the alterations of cell surface

  18. Alginate hydrogel protects encapsulated hepatic HuH-7 cells against hepatitis C virus and other viral infections.

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    Nhu-Mai Tran

    Full Text Available Cell microencapsulation in alginate hydrogel has shown interesting applications in regenerative medicine and the biomedical field through implantation of encapsulated tissue or for bioartificial organ development. Although alginate solution is known to have low antiviral activity, the same property regarding alginate gel has not yet been studied. The aim of this work is to investigate the potential protective effect of alginate encapsulation against hepatitis C virus (HCV infection for a hepatic cell line (HuH-7 normally permissive to the virus. Our results showed that alginate hydrogel protects HuH-7 cells against HCV when the supernatant was loaded with HCV. In addition, alginate hydrogel blocked HCV particle release out of the beads when the HuH-7 cells were previously infected and encapsulated. There was evidence of interaction between the molecules of alginate hydrogel and HCV, which was dose- and incubation time-dependent. The protective efficiency of alginate hydrogel towards HCV infection was confirmed against a variety of viruses, whether or not they were enveloped. This promising interaction between an alginate matrix and viruses, whose chemical mechanisms are discussed, is of great interest for further medical therapeutic applications based on tissue engineering.

  19. Nuclear Import Analysis of Two Different Fluorescent Marker Proteins into Hepatocyte Cell Lines (HuH-7 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent proteins as expression markers and protein fusion partners has provedimmensely valuable for resolving the organization of biological events in living cells. EGFP and DsRed2 arecommonly fluorescent marker protein which is used for biotechnology and cell biology research. The presentstudy was designed to identify the expression vector that suitable to ligate with DNA encoding HBV coreprotein for intracellular localization study in hepatocyte cell, which were expressed as fusion proteins. We alsocompared and quantified the expressed fluorescent protein which predominantly localized in the cellcompartment. The results indicated that DsRed2 shown as less than ideal for intracellular localization study ofthan EGFP, because of its tetrameric structure of the fluorescent protein and when fused to a protein of interest,the fusion protein often forms aggregates in the living cells. In contrast, EGFP fluorescent protein shown a muchhigher proportion of cytoplasmic localization, thus being more suitable for analysis of intracellular localizationthan DsRed2 fluorescent protein. EGFP fluorescent protein is also capable to produce a strong green fluorescencewhen excited by blue light, without any exogenously added substrate or cofactor, events inside living cell canthus be visualized in a non-invasive way. Based on our present quantitative data and some reasons above shownthat EGFP is more suitable than DsRed2 as a fluorescent marker protein for intracellular localization study intoHuH-7 cell.Keywords: EGFP, DsRed2 fluorescent protein , HuH-7 cell, HBV, intracellular localization

  20. 奥沙利铂对原发性肝癌细胞系HUH-7的抗肿瘤效果评价%Oxaliplatin for hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HUH-7 anti-tumor effect of the evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴莲淑; 王迎春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨奥沙利铂对原发性肝癌细胞系HUH-7是否会产生作用和影响,根据其对抗肿瘤的效果决定是否能够应用于对肝癌细胞的临床治疗。方法把中科院2012年3月—2014年4月的肝癌细胞作为该试验的研究对象,用流式细胞仪器对癌细胞的分布周期和死亡状况进行分析,运用MTT法测试不同浓度和不同的作用时间的奥沙利铂对肝癌细胞增长繁殖的抑制效果。通过多次试验,得出最终结论。结果经过48 h作用后,癌细胞死亡率达到了11.8%,可见奥沙利铂对于肝癌细胞的繁衍增长有着很强的抑制功效,并且呈现出计量和时间的依赖性。结论奥沙利铂对原生性肝癌细胞系HUH-7的抗瘤效果明显,它可以抑制肝癌细胞繁殖,使细胞周期停留在S期和G2PM期之间,进而使癌细胞死亡。但是其具体的运行机制还有待研究,因而奥沙利铂能否应用于临床治疗还不能盖棺定论。%Objective To observe the effect of oxaliplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HUH-7 will produce the effect and influence, according to the anti - tumor effect decided whether to apply in the clinical treatment ofhepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods Hepatoma cells as the object of study in this experiment, the distribution of cancer cell cycle were analyzed by flow cy-tometry instrument and death situation, using MTT method to test the inhibitory effect of different concentrations and different ac-tion time of oxaliplatin on hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth and reproduction of.Through many experiments, and draw the final conclusion. Results After 48 hours after the action of cancer cell death rate reached 11.8%, visible Asha Leigh Per has a very strong inhibitory effect on liver cancer cells multiplygrowth, and presents the measurement and time dependence. Conclusion Anti tumoreffect conclusion oxaliplatin on primary hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HUH-7 is obvious, it

  1. Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-producing and hepatitis C virus-replicating HepG2 cells secrete no more lipoviroparticles than VLDL-deficient Huh7.5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammart, Baptiste; Michelet, Maud; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Parent, Romain; Bartosch, Birke; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David

    2013-05-01

    In the plasma samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, lipoviroparticles (LVPs), defined as (very-) low-density viral particles immunoprecipitated with anti-β-lipoproteins antibodies are observed. This HCV-lipoprotein association has major implications with respect to our understanding of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry. However, cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) virions produced in Huh7 cells, which are deficient for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, are only associated with and dependent on apolipoprotein E (apoE), not apolipoprotein B (apoB), for assembly and infectivity. In contrast to Huh7, HepG2 cells can be stimulated to produce VLDL by both oleic acid treatment and inhibition of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but are not permissive for persistent HCV replication. Here, we developed a new HCV cell culture model to study the interaction between HCV and lipoproteins, based on engineered HepG2 cells stably replicating a blasticidin-tagged HCV JFH1 strain (JB). Control Huh7.5-JB as well as HepG2-JB cell lines persistently replicated viral RNA and expressed viral proteins with a subcellular colocalization of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), core, gpE2, and NS5A compatible with virion assembly. The intracellular RNA replication level was increased in HepG2-JB cells upon dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, MEK/ERK inhibition, and NS5A overexpression to a level similar to that observed in Huh7.5-JB cells. Both cell culture systems produced infectious virions, which were surprisingly biophysically and biochemically similar. They floated at similar densities on gradients, contained mainly apoE but not apoB, and were not neutralized by anti-apoB antibodies. This suggests that there is no correlation between the ability of cells to simultaneously replicate HCV as well as secrete VLDL and their capacity to produce LVPs.

  2. Lentivirus vectors construction of SiRNA targeting interferenceGPC3 gene and its biological effects on liver cancer cell lines Huh-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Jiang Lei; Chun Yao; Qing-Yun Pan; Hao-Cheng Long; Lei Li; Shu-Ping Zheng; Cheng Zeng; Jian-Bin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To buildGPC3 gene short hairpin interferenceRNA(shRNA) slow virus vector, observe expression ofHuh-7GPC3 gene in human liver cell line proliferation apoptosis and the effect ofGPC3 gene influencing on liver cancer cell growth, and provide theoretical basis for gene therapy of liver cancer.Methods:Hepatocellular carcinoma cell lineHuh-7 was transfected by aRNA interference technique.GPC3 gene expression in a variety of liver cancer cell lines was detected by fluorescence quantitativePCR.TargetedGPC3 gene sequences of small interfering RNA(siRNA)PGC-shRNA-GPC3 were restructured.Stable expression cell lines of siRNA were screened and established with the help of liposomes(lipofectamineTM2000) as carrier transfection of human liver cell lines.In order to validate siRNA interference efficiency,GPC3 siRNA mRNA expression was detected after transfection by usingRT-PCR andWestern blot.The absorbance value of the cells of blank group, untransfection group and transfection group, the cell cycle and cell apoptosis were calculated, and effects ofGPC3 gene onHuh-7 cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed.Results:In the liver cancer cell linesHuh-7,GPC3 gene showed high expression.PGC-shRNA-GPC3 recombinant plasmid was constructed successfully via sequencing validation.Stable recombinant plasmid transfected into liver cancer cell linesHuh-7 can obviously inhibitGPC3 mRNA expression level.Conclusions:The targetedGPC3 siRNA can effectively inhibit the expression ofGPC3.

  3. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of 2-Methoxyestradioi on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Human huh7 Cells in Vitro%2-甲氧基雌二醇对肝癌huh7细胞增殖与凋亡的作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅娟娟; 朱尤庆; 常城; 蔡莎莎

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察2-甲氧基雌二醇(2ME2)对肝癌huh7细胞增殖及凋亡的影响,并初步探讨其分子机制.方法:采用不同浓度的2ME2作用于肝癌huh7细胞,以噻唑蓝(MTT)法测定其细胞毒作用;流式细胞仪检测细胞周期和细胞凋亡;Western blot观察血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)及Bcl-2蛋白的表达.结果:2ME2可抑制肝癌细胞huh7的生长,具有浓度和时间依赖性;2ME2能抑制huh7细胞分裂,大部分细胞阻滞在G2/M期,S期细胞减少;2ME2能诱导huh7细胞凋亡,主要是诱导huh7细胞发生早期凋亡;免疫印迹检查结果显示,2ME2能下调VEGF及Bcl-2蛋白的表达.结论:2ME2能抑制肝癌细胞huh7的增殖并诱导其凋亡,其机制可能与通过下调VEGF及Bel-2表达有关.%Objective: To evaluate the effect of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) on the proliferation and ap-optosis of human huh7 cells, and to study its molecular mechanisms. Methods: The human huh7 cells were exposed to different concentration of 2-ME2, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the cells cytotoxicity; the flow cytometry was adopted to test the cells cycle and apoptosis; Western blot was used to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Bcl-2 protein. Results: The growth of huh7 cells was inhibited by 2-ME2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner? 2ME2 could inhibit the mitosis of huh7 cells, cells were arrested in G2/M phases, and the huh7 cells in S phase decreased; 2ME2 could induce huh7 cells apoptosis, particularly induce cell early apoptosis; Western blot result demonstrated 2ME2 decreased the expression of VEGF and Bcl-2 dose-dependently. Conclusion; 2ME2 can inhibit the proliferation of huh7 cells and induce cells apoptosis, which maybe related to its effect of down-regulating VEGF and Bcl-2.

  5. Effect of CCR7 on proliferation and invasiveness in hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 cells%CCR7对Huh-7肝癌细胞系增殖和侵袭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伯; 周萃阶; 刘秋华; 蒋维; 李建伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨CCR7对肝细胞肝癌转移的影响.方法 构建siRNA-CCR7载体,稳定转染表达CCR7的肿瘤细胞株Huh-7,用MTT法检测沉默CCR7基因对Huh-7肝癌细胞系增殖的影响,通过趋化侵袭实验检测其对肿瘤细胞株Huh-7趋化、侵袭能力的影响.结果 通过抑制Huh-7细胞CCR7的表达,稳定转染siRNACCR7能有效抑制Huh-7细胞的增殖,并能抑制CCL21刺激的趋化和侵袭能力.结论 沉默CCR7基因能有效抑制肝癌细胞增殖和侵袭性.

  6. Optimization of in vitro HBV replication and HBsAg production in HuH7 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallone, Daniela; Moriconi, Francesco; Colombatto, Piero; Oliveri, Filippo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2013-04-01

    The Gunther's vector-free method (GM), using PCR-amplified full length HBV-DNA (fl-HBV-DNA), is currently the best in vitro HBV replication system despite the low intracellular HBV-DNA production. The replication efficiency and HBsAg secretion of 12 isolates from HBsAg/HBeAg positive sera by GM, Monomer-Linear-Sticky-Ends-DNA (MLSE) and Monomer-Circular-Closed (MCC) were compared in HuH7 cells. Eight of twelve genomes (67%) were replication competent by GM; however direct sequencing (DS) showed that more than 80% of input DNA was undigested in spite of SapI treatment. Replication Intermediates (RI) were detected earlier (24 vs. 48h) and in higher amounts (2.51±0.32 and 6.43±0.43 fold) by MCC than GM or MLSE. By MCC 10 of 12 genomes (83%) were replication competent and 7 produced high RI levels. RI and HBsAg kinetics correlated positively in MCC (R=0.696, p=0.017 overall; R=0.928, p=0.008), but not in GM (R=-0.437, p=0.179 overall; R=-0.395, p=0.439) in genotype D isolates. In conclusion, HBV-DNA circularization prior transfection improves in vitro viral replication and replication competent HBsAg production, mimicking better the in vivo conditions.

  7. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Olga A.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Karpenko, Inna L.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A.; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGFβ1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein. PMID:26035647

  8. Comparative evaluation of curcumin and curcumin loaded- dendrosome nanoparticle effects on the viability of SW480 colon carcinoma and Huh7 hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Dehghan Esmatabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and a major cause of morbidity globally. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of death in the world. About 80% of all anticancer drugs are somehow related to natural products. One of the most important of these natural compounds is curcumin, the main component of turmeric that has a wide range of pharmacological activities. Curcumin has been found to suppress cell proliferation and decrease cell viability in various types of cancer cells; however, owing to lack of aqueous solubility, curcumin has shown reduced bioavailability in studies. Recent studies have shown that new 400th generation of dendrosome nanoparticle can increase bioavailability of curcumin and thus enhance the cytotoxic properties.  The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of curcumin alone and in combination with 400th generation dendrosome nanoparticles (DNC on cell viability rate in SW480 and Huh7 cells. Methods: SW480 and Huh7 cells were incubated with different concentrations of curcumin and DNC (0-50μM for 24, 48 and 72 h. Then cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay and IC50 was determined. Results: The results suggested that the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of DNC was stronger than curcumin on SW480 and Huh7 cells. Conclusion: The results suggest DNC as a more effective herbal anticancer agent for colorectal and hepatocellular tumors.

  9. Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)-Producing and Hepatitis C Virus-Replicating HepG2 Cells Secrete No More Lipoviroparticles than VLDL-Deficient Huh7.5 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammart, Baptiste; Michelet, Maud; Pécheur, Eve-Isabelle; Parent, Romain; Bartosch, Birke; Zoulim, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    In the plasma samples of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, lipoviroparticles (LVPs), defined as (very-) low-density viral particles immunoprecipitated with anti-β-lipoproteins antibodies are observed. This HCV-lipoprotein association has major implications with respect to our understanding of HCV assembly, secretion, and entry. However, cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) virions produced in Huh7 cells, which are deficient for very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, are only associated with and dependent on apolipoprotein E (apoE), not apolipoprotein B (apoB), for assembly and infectivity. In contrast to Huh7, HepG2 cells can be stimulated to produce VLDL by both oleic acid treatment and inhibition of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but are not permissive for persistent HCV replication. Here, we developed a new HCV cell culture model to study the interaction between HCV and lipoproteins, based on engineered HepG2 cells stably replicating a blasticidin-tagged HCV JFH1 strain (JB). Control Huh7.5-JB as well as HepG2-JB cell lines persistently replicated viral RNA and expressed viral proteins with a subcellular colocalization of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), core, gpE2, and NS5A compatible with virion assembly. The intracellular RNA replication level was increased in HepG2-JB cells upon dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, MEK/ERK inhibition, and NS5A overexpression to a level similar to that observed in Huh7.5-JB cells. Both cell culture systems produced infectious virions, which were surprisingly biophysically and biochemically similar. They floated at similar densities on gradients, contained mainly apoE but not apoB, and were not neutralized by anti-apoB antibodies. This suggests that there is no correlation between the ability of cells to simultaneously replicate HCV as well as secrete VLDL and their capacity to produce LVPs. PMID:23427158

  10. RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicon transfected Huh-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagya, Neetu; Varma, Satya Pavan Kumar; Thakral, Deepshi; Joshi, Prashant; Durgapal, Hemlata; Panda, Subrat Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is as varied as they appear similar; while HBV causes an acute and/or chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, HEV mostly causes an acute self-limiting disease. In both infections, host responses are crucial in disease establishment and/or virus clearance. In the wake of worsening prognosis described during HEV super-infection over chronic HBV hepatitis, we investigated the host responses by studying alterations in gene expression in liver cells (Huh-7 cell line) by transfection with HEV replicon only (HEV-only), HBV replicon only (HBV-only) and both HBV and HEV replicons (HBV+HEV). Virus replication was validated by strand-specific real-time RT-PCR for HEV and HBsAg ELISA of the culture supernatants for HBV. Indirect immunofluorescence for the respective viral proteins confirmed infection. Transcription profiling was carried out by RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the poly-A enriched RNA from the transfected cells. Averages of 600 million bases within 5.6 million reads were sequenced in each sample and ∼15,800 genes were mapped with at least one or more reads. A total of 461 genes in HBV+HEV, 408 in HBV-only and 306 in HEV-only groups were differentially expressed as compared to mock transfection control by two folds (preplicon transfected RNA-Seq based transcriptome analysis to understand the host responses against HEV and HBV.

  11. Quantitative proteomic analysis of exosome protein content changes induced by hepatitis B virus in Huh-7 cells using SILAC labeling and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Wu, Yanxin; Duan, Jinlin; Ma, Yanchun; Shen, Zhongliang; Wei, Lili; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Junqi; Xie, Youhua; Liu, Jing

    2014-12-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection could cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV-mediated pathogenesis is only partially understood, but X protein (HBx) reportedly possesses oncogenic potential. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with diverse functions released by various cells including hepatocytes, and HBV harnesses cellular exosome biogenesis and export machineries for virion morphogenesis and secretion. Therefore, HBV infection might cause changes in exosome contents with functional implications for both virus and host. In this work, exosome protein content changes induced by HBV and HBx were quantitatively analyzed by SILAC/LC-MS/MS. Exosomes prepared from SILAC-labeled hepatoma cell line Huh-7 transfected with HBx, wildtype, or HBx-null HBV replicon plasmids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Systematic analyses of MS data and confirmatory immunoblotting showed that HBx overexpression and HBV, with or without HBx, replication in Huh-7 cells indeed caused marked and specific changes in exosome protein contents. Furthermore, specific changes in protein contents were also detected in exosomes purified from HBV-infected patients' sera compared with control sera negative for HBV markers. These results illustrate a new aspect of interactions between HBV and the host and provide the foundation for future research into roles played by exosomes in HBV infection and pathogenesis.

  12. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Stimulates Proliferation, Wound Closure and Inhibits Apoptosis of HuH-7 Cells via CDC42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongru; Qi, Yingzi; Luo, Jing; Yang, Jing; Xie, Qi; Deng, Chen; Su, Na; Wei, Wei; Shi, Deshun; Xu, Feng; Li, Xiangping; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been considered as the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been reported to be oncogenic. The underlying mechanisms of HBV-related HCC are not fully understood, and the role played by the HBx protein in HBV induced carcinogenesis remains controversial. CDC42, a member of the Rho GTPase family, has been reported to be overexpressed in several different cancers, including HBV-related HCC. However, the specific role of CDC42 in HCC development remains unclear. Here, we investigated the cellular mechanisms by which CDC42 was responsible for the higher proliferation of HuH-7 cells mediated by HBx. We found that the expression level of CDC42 and its activity were significantly increased in HuH-7-HBx cells. The deficiency of CDC42 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and inhibition by specific inhibitor CASIN led to the reduction of HBx-mediated proliferation. Furthermore, we observed that IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 1 (IQGAP1), the downstream mediator of the CDC42 pathway, might be involved in the carcinogenesis induced by HBx. Therefore, the HBx/CDC42/IQGAP1 signaling pathway may potentially play an important role in HBx-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:28282856

  13. Dengue virus NS1 protein interacts with the ribosomal protein RPL18: this interaction is required for viral translation and replication in Huh-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Salazar, Margot; Angel-Ambrocio, Antonio H; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Hurtado-Monzon, Arianna M; Alcaraz-Estrada, Sofia L; Ludert, Juan E; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2015-10-01

    Given dengue virus (DENV) genome austerity, it uses cellular molecules and structures for virion entry, translation and replication of the genome. NS1 is a multifunctional protein key to viral replication and pathogenesis. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with NS1 may help in further understanding the functions of NS1. In this paper we isolated a total of 64 proteins from DENV infected human hepatic cells (Huh-7) that interact with NS1 by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation assays. The subcellular location and expression levels during infection of the ribosomal proteins RPS3a, RPL7, RPL18, RPL18a plus GAPDH were determined. None of these proteins changed their expression levels during infection; however, RPL-18 was redistributed to the perinuclear region after 48hpi. Silencing of the RPL-18 does not affect cell translation efficiency or viability, but it reduces significantly viral translation, replication and viral yield, suggesting that the RPL-18 is required during DENV replicative cycle.

  14. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) stimulates triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 hepatoma cells via p38-dependent upregulation of DGAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paland, Nicole; Gamliel-Lazarovich, Aviva; Coleman, Raymond; Fuhrman, Bianca

    2014-11-01

    The liver is the central organ of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism. Oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides is under the control of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α. Impairment of these receptors' function contributes to the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) was shown to regulate gene expression in the liver involving PPARγ transcriptional activity. In this study we questioned whether uPA modulates triglyceride metabolism in the liver, and investigated the mechanisms involved in the observed processes. Huh7 hepatoma cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of uPA for 24 h uPA dose-dependently increased the cellular triglyceride mass, and this effect resulted from increased de novo triglyceride synthesis mediated by the enzyme diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). Also, the amount of free fatty acids was highly up regulated by uPA through activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1. Chemical activation of PPARα further increased uPA-stimulated triglyceride synthesis, whereas inhibition of p38, an upstream activator of PPARα, completely abolished the stimulatory effect of uPA on both triglyceride synthesis and DGAT2 upregulation. The effect of uPA on triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 cells was mediated via binding to its receptor, the uPAR. In vivo studies in uPAR(-/-) mice demonstrated that no lipid droplets were observed in their livers compared to C57BL/6 mice and the triglyceride levels were significantly lower. This study presents a new biological function of the uPA/uPAR system in the metabolism of triglycerides and might present a new target for an early therapeutic intervention for NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  16. Plasmodium berghei Δp52&p36 parasites develop independent of a parasitophorous vacuole membrane in Huh-7 liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploemen, Ivo H J; Croes, Huib J; van Gemert, Geert-Jan J; Wijers-Rouw, Mietske; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The proteins P52 and P36 are expressed in the sporozoite stage of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Δp52&p36 sporozoites lacking expression of both proteins are severely compromised in their capability to develop into liver stage parasites and abort development soon after invasion; presumably due to the absence of a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM). However, a small proportion of P. berghei Δp52&p36 parasites is capable to fully mature in hepatocytes causing breakthrough blood stage infections. We have studied the maturation of replicating Δp52&p36 parasites in cultured Huh-7 hepatocytes. Approximately 50% of Δp52&p36 parasites developed inside the nucleus of the hepatocyte but did not complete maturation and failed to produce merosomes. In contrast cytosolic Δp52&p36 parasites were able to fully mature and produced infectious merozoites. These Δp52&p36 parasites developed into mature schizonts in the absence of an apparent parasitophorous vacuole membrane as shown by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Merozoites derived from these maturing Δp52&p36 liver stages were infectious for C57BL/6 mice.

  17. Plasmodium berghei Δp52&p36 parasites develop independent of a parasitophorous vacuole membrane in Huh-7 liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo H J Ploemen

    Full Text Available The proteins P52 and P36 are expressed in the sporozoite stage of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Δp52&p36 sporozoites lacking expression of both proteins are severely compromised in their capability to develop into liver stage parasites and abort development soon after invasion; presumably due to the absence of a parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM. However, a small proportion of P. berghei Δp52&p36 parasites is capable to fully mature in hepatocytes causing breakthrough blood stage infections. We have studied the maturation of replicating Δp52&p36 parasites in cultured Huh-7 hepatocytes. Approximately 50% of Δp52&p36 parasites developed inside the nucleus of the hepatocyte but did not complete maturation and failed to produce merosomes. In contrast cytosolic Δp52&p36 parasites were able to fully mature and produced infectious merozoites. These Δp52&p36 parasites developed into mature schizonts in the absence of an apparent parasitophorous vacuole membrane as shown by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Merozoites derived from these maturing Δp52&p36 liver stages were infectious for C57BL/6 mice.

  18. In vitro antitumor efficacy of berberine: solid lipid nanoparticles against human HepG2, Huh7 and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Huai-ling; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Ber-SLN) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-SLN relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-SLN were 154.3 ± 4.1 nm and -11.7 ± 1.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-SLN effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 10.6 μg/ml, 5.1 μg/ml, and 7.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-SLN is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  19. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine-nanostructured lipid carriers against human HepG2, Huh7, and EC9706 cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Fan, Hua; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma and esophageal carcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Ber-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma and antiesophageal carcinoma effects of Ber-NLC relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NLC were 189.3 +/- 3.7 nm and -19.3 +/- 1.4 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Ber-NLC effectively inhibited the proliferation of human HepG2 and Huh7 and EC9706 cells, and the corresponding IC50 value was 9.1 μg/ml, 4.4 μg/ml, and 6.3 μg/ml (18.3μg/ml, 6.5μg/ml, and 12.4μg/ml μg/ml of bulk Ber solution), respectively. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber-NLC is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  20. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of berberine nanosuspension against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells as well as H22 tumor bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Jun-biao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yi-fei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2014-09-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Both in vitro and in vivo anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Ber-NS relative to effcacy of bulk Ber were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 +/- 3.7 nm and 6.99 +/- 0.17 mV, respectively. Ber-NS exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 and Huh7 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values were 8.1 and 4.7 μg/ml (18.3 and 6.5 μg/ml of Ber solution). In vivo studies also showed higher antitumor efficacy, and inhibition rates was 63.7% (41.4 % of Ber solution) at 100 mg/kg intragastric administration in the H22 solid tumor bearing mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating hepatocarcinoma.

  1. A new triterpene and protective effect of Periploca somaliensis Browicz fruits against CCl₄-induced injury on human hepatoma cell line (Huh7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monem, Azza R; Kandil, Zeinab A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2015-01-01

    The potential hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of Periploca somaliensis Browicz fruits, its different fractions (n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol) and the major isolated compound ursolic acid was evaluated using the human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) based on the changes in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Each sample was tested at three different concentrations (1000, 100 and 10 μg/mL). All tested samples exhibited a potent concentration-independent cytoprotective effect relative to silymarin as a reference standard. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of P. somaliensis Browicz fruits afforded two known triterpenes, namely ursolic acid, and 11α,12α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-olean-13β,28-olide, and a newly discovered one, namely 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13β,28-olide. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data.

  2. Activity-based protein profiling of the hepatitis C virus replication in Huh-7 hepatoma cells using a non-directed active site probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Craig S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV poses a growing threat to global health as it often leads to serious liver diseases and is one of the primary causes for liver transplantation. Currently, no vaccines are available to prevent HCV infection and clinical treatments have limited success. Since HCV has a small proteome, it relies on many host cell proteins to complete its life cycle. In this study, we used a non-directed phenyl sulfonate ester probe (PS4≡ to selectively target a broad range of enzyme families that show differential activity during HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Results The PS4≡ probe successfully targeted 19 active proteins in nine distinct protein families, some that were predominantly labeled in situ compared to the in vitro labeled cell homogenate. Nine proteins revealed altered activity levels during HCV replication. Some candidates identified, such as heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (or HSP70 cognate, have been shown to influence viral release and abundance of cellular lipid droplets. Other differentially active PS4≡ targets, such as electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, protein disulfide isomerase A5, and nuclear distribution gene C homolog, constitute novel proteins that potentially mediate HCV propagation. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the practicality and versatility of non-directed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP to complement directed methods and accelerate the discovery of altered protein activities associated with pathological states such as HCV replication. Collectively, these results highlight the ability of in situ ABPP approaches to facilitate the identification of enzymes that are either predominantly or exclusively labeled in living cells. Several of these differentially active enzymes represent possible HCV-host interactions that could be targeted for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  3. Secretion of One Adipokine Nampt/Visfatin Suppresses the Inflammatory Stress-Induced NF-κB Activity and Affects Nampt-Dependent Cell Viability in Huh-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nampt/visfatin acts in both intracellular and extracellular compartments to regulate multiple biological roles, including NAD metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and senescence. However, its function in chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not been well-defined. Here we use Huh-7 hepatoma cells as a model to determine how Nampt/visfatin affects cellular survival under oxidative stress. We found that the transition of Nampt/visfatin from intracellular into extracellular form was induced by H2O2 treatment in 293T cells and confirmed that this phenomenon was not due to cell death but through the secretion of Nampt/visfatin. In addition, Nampt/visfatin suppressed cell viability in oxidative treatment in Huh-7 cells and acted on the inhibition of hepatoma cell growth. Oxidative stress also reduced the Nampt-mediated activation of NF-κB gene expression. In this study, we identify a novel feature of Nampt/visfatin which functions as an adipokine that can be secreted upon cellular stress. Our results provide an example to understand how adipokine interacts with chemotherapeutic treatment by oxidative stress in HCC.

  4. Gene Network Analysis of Glucose Linked Signaling Pathways and Their Role in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Growth and Survival in HuH7 and HepG2 Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Emmanuelle; Vega, Nathalie; Weiss-Gayet, Michèle; Géloën, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression may be affected by metabolism. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of glucose on the proliferation and/or survival of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Human gene datasets regulated by glucose were compared to gene datasets either dysregulated in HCC or regulated by other signaling pathways. Significant numbers of common genes suggested putative involvement in transcriptional regulations by glucose. Real-time proliferation assays using high (4.5 g/L) versus low (1 g/L) glucose on two human HCC cell lines and specific inhibitors of selected pathways were used for experimental validations. High glucose promoted HuH7 cell proliferation but not that of HepG2 cell line. Gene network analyses suggest that gene transcription by glucose could be mediated at 92% through ChREBP in HepG2 cells, compared to 40% in either other human cells or rodent healthy liver, with alteration of LKB1 (serine/threonine kinase 11) and NOX (NADPH oxidases) signaling pathways and loss of transcriptional regulation of PPARGC1A (peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors gamma coactivator 1) target genes by high glucose. Both PPARA and PPARGC1A regulate transcription of genes commonly regulated by glycolysis, by the antidiabetic agent metformin and by NOX, suggesting their major interplay in the control of HCC progression. PMID:26380295

  5. In vivo study of the HC-TN strain of hepatitis C virus recovered from a patient with fulminant hepatitis: RNA transcripts of a molecular clone (pHC-TN) are infectious in chimpanzees but not in Huh7.5 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Akito; Takikawa, Shingo; Thimme, Robert

    2007-01-01

    disease severity, host immune response, viral evolution, and outcome. A second chimpanzee (CH1581) was infected from CH1422 plasma, and a third chimpanzee (CH1579) was infected from RNA transcripts of a consensus cDNA of HC-TN (pHC-TN). RNA transcripts of pHC-TN did not replicate in Huh7.5 cells, which...

  6. Transcriptome profiling and genome-wide DNA binding define the differential role of fenretinide and all-trans RA in regulating the death and survival of human hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying; Liu, Hui-Xin; He, Yuqi; Fang, Yaping; Fang, Jianwen; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2013-04-01

    Fenretinide is significantly more effective in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells than all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The current study uses a genome-wide approach to understand the differential role fenretinide and ATRA have in inducing apoptosis in Huh7 cells. Fenretinide and ATRA-induced gene expressions and DNA bindings were profiled using microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-RXRα antibody. The data showed that fenretinide was not a strong transcription regulator. Fenretinide only changed the expressions of 1 093 genes, approximately three times less than the number of genes regulated by ATRA (2 811). Biological function annotation demonstrated that both fenretinide and ATRA participated in pathways that determine cell fate and metabolic processes. However, fenretinide specifically induced Fas/TNFα-mediated apoptosis by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes i.e., DEDD2, CASP8, CASP4, and HSPA1A/B; whereas, ATRA induced the expression of BIRC3 and TNFAIP3, which inhibit apoptosis by interacting with TRAF2. In addition, fenretinide inhibited the expression of the genes involved in RAS/RAF/ERK-mediated survival pathway. In contrast, ATRA increased the expression of SOSC2, BRAF, MEK, and ERK genes. Most genes regulated by fenretinide and ATRA were bound by RXRα, suggesting a direct effect. This study revealed that by regulating fewer genes, the effects of fenretinide become more specific and thus has fewer side effects than ATRA. The data also suggested that fenretinide induces apoptosis via death receptor effector and by inhibiting the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway. It provides insight on how retinoid efficacy can be improved and how side effects in cancer therapy can be reduced.

  7. Adaptive mutations enhance assembly and cell-to-cell transmission of a high-titer hepatitis C virus genotype 5a Core-NS2 JFH1-based recombinant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Prentoe, Jannick; Meredith, Luke W

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recombinant hepatitis C virus (HCV) clones propagated in human hepatoma cell cultures yield relatively low infectivity titers. Here, we adapted the JFH1-based Core-NS2 recombinant SA13/JFH1C3405G,A3696G (termed SA13/JFH1orig), of the poorly characterized genotype 5a, to Huh7.5 cells......81-deficient Huh7-derived cells demonstrated that these changes did not affect replication but increased HCV assembly and specific infectivity as early as 24 h posttransfection. Infectious coculture assays in Huh7.5 cells showed a significant increase in cell-to-cell transmission for SA13/JFH1Core...

  8. Adaptive mutations allow establishment of JFH1-based cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus genotype 4A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    transmembrane domain (.alpha.), in the cytoplasmic part (.beta.) or at the NS2/NS3 cleavage site (y). Following transfection of Huh7.5 cells with RNA transcripts, infectious viruses were produced in the ED43/JFH1-.beta. and -y cultures only. Compared to the 2a control virus, production of infectious viruses...

  9. Production and characterization of high-titer serum-free cell culture grown hepatitis C virus particles of genotype 1-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Christian K; Jensen, Tanja B; Prentoe, Jannick

    2014-01-01

    Recently, cell culture systems producing hepatitis C virus particles (HCVcc) were developed. Establishment of serum-free culture conditions is expected to facilitate development of a whole-virus inactivated HCV vaccine. We describe generation of genotype 1-6 serum-free HCVcc (sf-HCVcc) from Huh7...

  10. Modulation of Huh7.5 spheroid formation and functionality using modified PEG-based hydrogels of different stiffness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available Physical cues, such as cell microenvironment stiffness, are known to be important factors in modulating cellular behaviors such as differentiation, viability, and proliferation. Apart from being able to trigger these effects, mechanical stiffness tuning is a very convenient approach that could be implemented readily into smart scaffold designs. In this study, fibrinogen-modified poly(ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA based hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties were synthesized and applied to control the spheroid formation and liver-like function of encapsulated Huh7.5 cells in an engineered, three-dimensional liver tissue model. By controlling hydrogel stiffness (0.1-6 kPa as a cue for mechanotransduction representing different stiffness of a normal liver and a diseased cirrhotic liver, spheroids ranging from 50 to 200 μm were formed over a three week time-span. Hydrogels with better compliance (i.e. lower stiffness promoted formation of larger spheroids. The highest rates of cell proliferation, albumin secretion, and CYP450 expression were all observed for spheroids in less stiff hydrogels like a normal liver in a healthy state. We also identified that the hydrogel modification by incorporation of PEGylated-fibrinogen within the hydrogel matrix enhanced cell survival and functionality possibly owing to more binding of autocrine fibronectin. Taken together, our findings establish guidelines to control the formation of Huh7.5 cell spheroids in modified PEGDA based hydrogels. These spheroids may serve as models for applications such as screening of pharmacological drug candidates.

  11. Cell culture system of a hepatitis C genotype 3a and 2a chimera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A robust and genetically stable cell culture system for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype 3a is provided. A genotype 3a/2a (S52/JFH1) recombinant containing the structural genes (Core, E1, E2), p7 and NS2 of strain S52 was constructed and characterized in Huh7.5 cells. S52/JFH1 and J6/JFH viruses...... exhibited different combinations of these mutations. Finally, viruses resulting from transfection with RNA transcripts of five S52/JFH1 recombinants containing these combinations of putative adaptive mutations performed as efficiently as J6/JFH viruses in Huh7.5 cells and were all genetically stable after...

  12. Robust hepatitis C genotype 3a cell culture releasing adapted intergenotypic 3a/2a (S52/JFH1) viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith; Scheel, Troels; Høgh, Mette

    2007-01-01

    , which has a high prevalence worldwide. METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA transcripts of an intergenotypic 3a/JFH1 recombinant with core, E1, E2, p7, and NS2 of the 3a reference strain S52, and released viruses were passaged. Cultures were examined for HCV core and/or NS5A expression...... (immunostaining), HCV RNA titers (real-time PCR), and infectivity titers (50% tissue culture infectious dose). The role of mutations identified by sequencing of recovered S52/JFH1 viruses was analyzed by reverse genetics studies. RESULTS: S52/JFH1 and J6/JFH viruses passaged in Huh7.5 cells showed comparable...

  13. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

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    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  14. Adaptive mutations allow establishment of JFH1-based cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus genotype 4A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    transmembrane domain (.alpha.), in the cytoplasmic part (.beta.) or at the NS2/NS3 cleavage site (y). Following transfection of Huh7.5 cells with RNA transcripts, infectious viruses were produced in the ED43/JFH1-.beta. and -y cultures only. Compared to the 2a control virus, production of infectious viruses...... was significantly delayed. However, in subsequent passages efficient spread of infection and high HCV RNA titers were obtained. Infectivity titers were approximately 10-fold lower than for the 2a control virus. Sequence analysis of recovered 4a/2a recombinants from 3 serial passages and subsequent reverse genetic...

  15. Robust hepatitis C genotype 3a cell culture releasing adapted intergenotypic 3a/2a (S52/JFH1) viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, J.M.; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Hoegh, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recently, full viral life cycle hepatitis C virus (HCV) cell culture systems were developed for strain JFH1 (genotype 2a) and an intragenotypic 2a/2a genome (J6/JFH). We aimed at exploiting the unique JFH1 replication characteristics to develop culture systems for genotype 3a......, which has a high prevalence worldwide. METHODS: Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA transcripts of an intergenotypic 3a/JFH1 recombinant with core, E1, E2, p7, and NS2 of the 3a reference strain S52, and released viruses were passaged. Cultures were examined for HCV core and/or NS5A expression...... (immunostaining), HCV RNA titers (real-time PCR), and infectivity titers (50% tissue culture infectious dose). The role of mutations identified by sequencing of recovered S52/JFH1 viruses was analyzed by reverse genetics studies. RESULTS: S52/JFH1 and J6/JFH viruses passaged in Huh7.5 cells showed comparable...

  16. Effects of laminin and collagen type I on the morphology and secretion of proteins in human hepatoblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiwa,Takayoshi

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of laminin (LAM and collagen type I (C-I on human hepatoblastoma (HuH-6 and hepatoma (HuH-7 cell lines were investigated. C-I was superior to LAM in supporting the attachment of the cells, especially of HuH-6, to plastic surfaces. No effect of LAM and C-I on cellular morphology was recognizable by phase contrast microscopy. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM, much more microvilli were found on the cell surface of HuH-6 on LAM substrate than on C-I substrate. In HuH-7 cells, however, these microvilli were rarely found on either LAM substrate or C-I substrate. The gel profile of the proteins secreted by HuH-6 and HuH-7 cells was not affected by the culture substrate except for the major band, though the amount of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP secreted was larger when the cells were cultured on LAM substrate than on C-I substrate. These results indicate that the ability of LAM or C-I to enhance attachment is different from that to enhance AFP production or microvilli expression in HuH-6 cells and probably in HuH-7 cells.

  17. Cutting the gordian knot-development and biological relevance of hepatitis C virus cell culture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith Margarete; Bukh, Jens

    2008-01-01

    described. Research on the viral life cycle, efficient therapeutics, and a vaccine has been hampered by the absence of suitable cell culture systems. The first system permitting studies of the full viral life cycle was intrahepatic transfection of RNA transcripts of HCV consensus complementary DNA (c...... studies of the function of viral proteins, their interaction with each other and host proteins, new antivirals, and neutralizing antibodies in the context of the full viral life cycle. However, several challenges remain, including development of cell culture systems for all major HCV genotypes...... isolate JFH1, which for unknown reasons showed an exceptional replication capability and resulted in formation of infectious viral particles in the human hepatoma cell line Huh7, led in 2005 to the development of the first full viral life cycle in vitro systems. JFH1-based systems now enable in vitro...

  18. Hepatocyte-derived cultured cells with unusual cytoplasmic keratin-rich spheroid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavalle, Pierre-Yves; Alsaleh, Khaled; Pillez, Andre; Cocquerel, Laurence [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Allet, Cecile [INSERM U837-JPARC, 59045 Lille (France); Dumont, Patrick [Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); CNRS UMR 8161, F-59021 Lille (France); Loyens, Anne [INSERM U837-JPARC, 59045 Lille (France); Leteurtre, Emmanuelle [Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Centre de Biologie Pathologie, CHRU de Lille, Avenue Oscar-Lambret, Lille cedex (France); Omary, M. Bishr [Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America (United States); Dubuisson, Jean; Rouille, Yves [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Wychowski, Czeslaw, E-mail: czeslaw.wychowski@ibl.fr [INSERM U1019, CNRS UMR 8204, CIIL, F-59021 Lille (France); Universite Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2011-11-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in a variety of diseases that are characteristic morphological features of several hepatic, muscular and neurodegenerative disorders. They display a predominantly filamentous ultrastructure that is also observed in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). A cellular clone containing an intracytoplasmic body was isolated from hepatocyte cell culture, and in the present study we examined whether this body might be related or not to Mallory-Denk body (MDB), a well characterized intracytoplasmic inclusion, or whether this cellular clone was constituted by malignant rhabdoid tumor cells. The intracytoplasmic body was observed in electron microscopy (EM), confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and several proteins involved in the formation of its structure were identified. Using light microscopy, a spheroid body (SB) described as a single regular-shaped cytoplasmic body was observed in cells. During cytokinesis, the SB was disassembled and reassembled in a way to reconstitute a unique SB in each progeny cell. EM examination revealed that the SB was not surrounded by a limiting membrane. However, cytoplasmic filaments were concentrated in a whorled array. These proteins were identified as keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18), which formed the central core of the SB surrounded by a vimentin cage-like structure. This structure was not related to Mallory-Denk body or aggresome since no aggregated proteins were located in SB. Moreover, the structure of SB was not due to mutations in the primary sequence of K8/K18 and vimentin since no difference was observed in the mRNA sequence of their genes, isolated from Huh-7 and Huh-7w7.3 cells. These data suggested that cellular factor(s) could be responsible for the SB formation process. Aggregates of K18 were relocated in the SB when a mutant of K18 inducing disruption of K8/K18 IF network was expressed in the cellular clone. Furthermore, the INI1 protein, a remodeling-chromatin factor deficient in rhabdoid cells, which

  19. Hepatocyte-derived cultured cells with unusual cytoplasmic keratin-rich spheroid bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavalle, Pierre-Yves; Alsaleh, Khaled; Pillez, André; Cocquerel, Laurence; Allet, Cécile; Dumont, Patrick; Loyens, Anne; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Omary, M Bishr; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves; Wychowski, Czeslaw

    2011-11-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusions are found in a variety of diseases that are characteristic morphological features of several hepatic, muscular and neurodegenerative disorders. They display a predominantly filamentous ultrastructure that is also observed in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). A cellular clone containing an intracytoplasmic body was isolated from hepatocyte cell culture, and in the present study we examined whether this body might be related or not to Mallory-Denk body (MDB), a well characterized intracytoplasmic inclusion, or whether this cellular clone was constituted by malignant rhabdoid tumor cells. The intracytoplasmic body was observed in electron microscopy (EM), confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and several proteins involved in the formation of its structure were identified. Using light microscopy, a spheroid body (SB) described as a single regular-shaped cytoplasmic body was observed in cells. During cytokinesis, the SB was disassembled and reassembled in a way to reconstitute a unique SB in each progeny cell. EM examination revealed that the SB was not surrounded by a limiting membrane. However, cytoplasmic filaments were concentrated in a whorled array. These proteins were identified as keratins 8 and 18 (K8/K18), which formed the central core of the SB surrounded by a vimentin cage-like structure. This structure was not related to Mallory-Denk body or aggresome since no aggregated proteins were located in SB. Moreover, the structure of SB was not due to mutations in the primary sequence of K8/K18 and vimentin since no difference was observed in the mRNA sequence of their genes, isolated from Huh-7 and Huh-7w7.3 cells. These data suggested that cellular factor(s) could be responsible for the SB formation process. Aggregates of K18 were relocated in the SB when a mutant of K18 inducing disruption of K8/K18 IF network was expressed in the cellular clone. Furthermore, the INI1 protein, a remodeling-chromatin factor deficient in rhabdoid cells, which

  20. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 5A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    of in vitro transcripts in Huh7.5 cells, production of infectious viruses was delayed. However, in subsequent viral passages efficient spread of infection and HCV RNA titers as high as for J6/JFH were obtained. Infectivity titers were at all time points analyzed comparable to J6/JFH control virus. Sequence...

  1. Cytoskeletal Requirements for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Synthesis in the HCV Replicon Cell Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Bost, Anne G.; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  2. Cytoskeletal requirements for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA synthesis in the HCV replicon cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Anne G; Venable, Daryl; Liu, Lifei; Heinz, Beverly A

    2003-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces microtubule aggregates in infected hepatocytes. To determine if cytoskeletal elements are important for HCV RNA synthesis, we examined the effect of cytoskeleton inhibitors on HCV replicon transcription in Huh7 cells. The data demonstrate that HCV replication complex-mediated RNA synthesis requires microtubule and actin polymerization.

  3. Robust HCV Genotype 3a Infectious Cell Culture System Permits Identification of Escape Variants With Resistance to Sofosbuvir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez Almeida, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.; Gottwein, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    barrier to resistance for sofosbuvir, whereas resistance to this DAA can be induced in genotype 3a. We therefore isolated HCV genotype 3a variants with reduced sensitivity to sofosbuvir, with increased fitness and with cross-resistance to other NS5B inhibitors. These findings indicate that sofosbuvir......Background & Aims Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) effectively eradicate chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although HCV genotype 3a is less responsive to these drugs. We aimed to develop genotype 3a infectious cultures and study the effects of inhibitors of NS5A and NS5B and resistance...... with increasing concentrations of sofosbuvir was used to promote selection of HCV-resistant variants. Results We engineered a DBN3a variant with 17 substitutions (DBN3acc) that had replication and propagation kinetics in Huh7.5 cells comparable with prototype J6/JFH1. The adaptive mutations also produced culture...

  4. Permissivity of primary human hepatocytes and different hepatoma cell lines to cell culture adapted hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Helle

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in Hepatitis C virus (HCV culture since the JFH1 strain cloning. However, developing efficient and physiologically relevant culture systems for all viral genotypes remains an important goal. In this work, we aimed at producing a high titer JFH1 derived virus to test different hepatic cells' permissivity. To this end, we performed successive infections and obtained a JFH1 derived virus reaching high titers. Six potential adaptive mutations were identified (I599V in E2, R1373Q and M1611T in NS3, S2364P and C2441S in NS5A and R2523K in NS5B and the effect of these mutations on HCV replication and infectious particle production was investigated. This cell culture adapted virus enabled us to efficiently infect primary human hepatocytes, as demonstrated using the RFP-NLS-IPS reporter protein and intracellular HCV RNA quantification. However, the induction of a strong type III interferon response in these cells was responsible for HCV inhibition. The disruption of this innate immune response led to a strong infection enhancement and permitted the detection of viral protein expression by western blotting as well as progeny virus production. This cell culture adapted virus also enabled us to easily compare the permissivity of seven hepatoma cell lines. In particular, we demonstrated that HuH-7, HepG2-CD81, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells were permissive to HCV entry, replication and secretion even if the efficiency was very low in PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells. In contrast, we did not observe any infection of SNU-182, SNU-398 and SNU-449 hepatoma cells. Using iodixanol density gradients, we also demonstrated that the density profiles of HCV particles produced by PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells were different from that of HuH-7 and HepG2-CD81 derived virions. These results will help the development of a physiologically relevant culture system for HCV patient isolates.

  5. Continuously microscopically observed and process-controlled cell culture within the SlideReactor: proof of a new concept for cell characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartlander, Ruth; Schmid, Jochen; Brandenburg, Börries; Katenz, Ekaterina; Vondran, Florian Wolfgang Rudolf; Pless, Gesine; Cheng, Xiangdong; Pascher, Andreas; Neuhaus, Peter; Sauer, Igor Maximilian

    2007-01-01

    Certain cell types, especially primary human cells, favor a well-defined culture environment offering continuous supply of nutrients and oxygen and waste product removal. Several bioreactors based on special matrices or hollow fibers have been developed that provide such conditions. However, characterization of matrix re-organization or growth of tissue within these systems is possible only after culture termination. Evaluation of the influence of certain medium additives or culture conditions (e.g., temperature, oxygenation) on cell viability, expansion, and differentiation within these systems remains a challenging task. The SlideReactor, a miniaturized hollow fiber-based bioreactor, was developed to enable the observation of cells during culture. An operation concept offering predefined conditions for various cell types has been designed. For proof of concept, primary human cells (hepatocytes, fibroblasts, keratinocytes) and cell lines (HepG2, HuH7, C3A, WiDr, SkHep1) were cultured and observed. A series of experiments (n=40) showed the feasibility of the set-up; determination of process parameters and continuous observation is possible. The SlideReactor may serve as a simple and cost-efficient tool for cell characterization and optimization of cell-culture conditions.

  6. Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Targets IFNAR1 for Lysosomal Degradation in Free Fatty Acid Treated HCV Cell Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Kurt

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for both liver disease progression and an impaired response to interferon alpha (IFN-α-based combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Previously, we reported that free fatty acid (FFA-treated HCV cell culture induces hepatocellular steatosis and impairs the expression of interferon alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1, which is why the antiviral activity of IFN-α against HCV is impaired.To investigate the molecular mechanism by which IFNAR1 expression is impaired in HCV cell culture with or without free fatty acid-treatment.HCV-infected Huh 7.5 cells were cultured with or without a mixture of saturated (palmitate and unsaturated (oleate long-chain free fatty acids (FFA. Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in HCV-infected culture was visualized by oil red staining. Clearance of HCV in FFA cell culture treated with type I IFN (IFN-α and Type III IFN (IFN-λ was determined by Renilla luciferase activity, and the expression of HCV core was determined by immunostaining. Activation of Jak-Stat signaling in the FFA-treated HCV culture by IFN-α alone and IFN-λ alone was examined by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. Lysosomal degradation of IFNAR1 by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA in the FFA-treated HCV cell culture model was investigated.FFA treatment induced dose-dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in HCV-infected Huh-7.5 cells. FFA treatment of infected culture increased HCV replication in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular lipid accumulation led to reduced Stat phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, causing an impaired IFN-α antiviral response and HCV clearance. Type III IFN (IFN-λ, which binds to a separate receptor, induces Stat phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation as well as antiviral clearance in FFA-treated HCV cell culture. We show here that the HCV-induced autophagy response is increased in FFA-treated cell culture

  7. A Scalable Perfusion Culture System with Miniature Peristaltic Pumps for Live-Cell Imaging Assays with Provision for Microfabricated Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Sreenath; Suma, M.S.; Raju, Shilpa R.; Bhargav, Santosh D.B.; Arunima, S.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a perfusion culture system with miniature bioreactors and peristaltic pumps. The bioreactors are designed for perfusion, live-cell imaging studies, easy incorporation of microfabricated scaffolds, and convenience of operation in standard cell culture techniques. By combining with miniature peristaltic pumps—one for each bioreactor to avoid cross-contamination and to maintain desired flow rate in each—we have made a culture system that facilitates perfusion culture inside standard incubators. This scalable system can support multiple parallel perfusion experiments. The major components are fabricated by three-dimensional printing using VeroWhite, which we show to be amenable to ex vivo cell culture. Furthermore, the components of the system can be reused, thus making it economical. We validate the system and illustrate its versatility by culturing primary rat hepatocytes, live imaging the growth of mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) on microfabricated ring-scaffolds inserted into the bioreactor, performing perfusion culture of breast cancer cells (MCF7), and high-magnification imaging of hepatocarcinoma cells (HuH7). PMID:26309810

  8. Advantages of a single-cycle production assay to study cell culture-adaptive mutations of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, Rodney S; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Takikawa, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    mutations that were selected during serial passage in Huh-7.5 cells were studied. Recombinant genomes containing all five mutations produced 3-4 logs more infectious virions than did wild type. Neither a coding mutation in NS5A nor a silent mutation in E2 was adaptive, whereas coding mutations in E2, p7...

  9. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  10. Insect Cell Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Lynn, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidoptera

  11. Efficient cell culture system for hepatitis C virus genotype 7a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    by the corresponding genes of the genotype 7a strain QC69 and characterized them in Huh7.5 cells. Sequence analysis of 7a/JFH1 recombinants recovered after viral passage in Huh7.5 cells following 4 independent transfection experiments revealed adaptive mutations in Core, E2, NS2, NS5A and NS5B. In reverse genetic...... studies the importance of these mutations for improved growth kinetics was shown. Adapted 7a/JFH1 viruses showed growth kinetics, infectivity and RNA titers comparable to a previously developed 3a/JFH1 reference virus. Conclusion: The developed 7a/JFH1 viruses provide a robust in vitro tool for research...

  12. Different Responses of Two Highly Permissive Cell Lines Upon HCV Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Honghe Chen; Rongjuan Pei; Xinwen Chen

    2013-01-01

    The construction of the first infectious clone JFH-1 speeds up the research on hepatitis C virus (HCV).However,Huh7 cell line was the only highly permissive cell line for HCV infection and only a few clones were fully permissive.In this study,two different fully permissive clones of Huh7 cells,Huh7.5.1 and Huh7-Lunet-CD81 (Lunet-CD81) cells were compared for their responses upon HCV infection.The virus replication level was found slightly higher in Huh7.5.1 cells than that in Lunet-CD81 cells.Viability of Huh7.5.1 cells but not of Lunet-CD81 cells was reduced significantly after HCV infection.Further analysis showed that the cell cycle of infected Huh7.5.1 cells was arrested at G1 phase.The G1/S transition was blocked by HCV infection in Huh7.5.1 cells as shown by the cell cycle synchronization analysis.Genes related to cell cycle regulation was modified by HCV infection and gene interaction analysis in GeneSpring GX in Direct Interactions mode highlighted 31 genes.In conclusion,the responses of those two cell lines were different upon HCV infection.HCV infection blocked G1/S transition and cell cycle progress,thus reduced the cell viability in Huh7.5.1 cells but not in Lunet-CD81 cells.Lunet-CD81 cells might be suitable for long term infection studies of HCV.

  13. Highly Efficient JFH1-Based Cell-Culture System for Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 5a: Failure of Homologous Neutralizing-Antibody Treatment to Control Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja B; Gottwein, Judith Margarete; Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer

    2008-01-01

    was to adapt the system to employ genotype 5. Methods. @nbsp; Huh7.5 cells infected with SA13/JFH1, containing Core-NS2 of strain SA13 (genotype 5a), were monitored for Core expression and for supernatant infectivity and HCV-RNA titers. Adaptive mutations of SA13/JFH1 were identified by sequence analysis...

  14. Mutational analysis of the hepatitis C virus E1 glycoprotein in retroviral pseudoparticles and cell-culture-derived H77/JFH1 chimeric infectious virus particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, R S; Kawaguchi, K; Meunier, J-C

    2009-01-01

    . Retrovirus-based HCV-pseudotyped viruses (HCVpp; genotype 1a) containing Ala or Pro substitutions at conserved amino acid positions within this putative fusion peptide were generated. Mutation of conserved residues significantly reduced efficiency of HCVpp entry into Huh-7 cells. The majority of amino acid...

  15. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  16. Establishment of a Novel Permissive Cell Line for the Propagation of Hepatitis C Virus by Expression of MicroRNA miR122

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambara, Hiroto; Fukuhara, Takasuke; Shiokawa, Mai; Ono, Chikako; Ohara, Yuri; Kamitani, Wataru

    2012-01-01

    The robust cell culture systems for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are limited to those using cell culture-adapted clones (HCV in cell culture [HCVcc]) and cells derived from the human hepatoma cell line Huh7. However, accumulating data suggest that host factors, including innate immunity and gene polymorphisms, contribute to the variation in host response to HCV infection. Therefore, the existing in vitro systems for HCV propagation are not sufficient to elucidate the life cycle of HCV. A liver-specific microRNA, miR122, has been shown to participate in the efficient replication of HCV. In this study, we examined the possibility of establishing a new permissive cell line for HCV propagation by the expression of miR122. A high level of miR122 was expressed by a lentiviral vector placed into human liver cell lines at a level comparable to the endogenous level in Huh7 cells. Among the cell lines that we examined, Hep3B cells stably expressing miR122 (Hep3B/miR122) exhibited a significant enhancement of HCVcc propagation. Surprisingly, the levels of production of infectious particles in Hep3B/miR122 cells upon infection with HCVcc were comparable to those in Huh7 cells. Furthermore, a line of “cured” cells, established by elimination of HCV RNA from the Hep3B/miR122 replicon cells, exhibited an enhanced expression of miR122 and a continuous increase of infectious titers of HCVcc in every passage. The establishment of the new permissive cell line for HCVcc will have significant implications not only for basic HCV research but also for the development of new therapeutics. PMID:22114337

  17. Characterization of CD133~+ parenchymal cells in the liver: Histology and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seiichi Yoshikawa; Yoh Zen; Takahiko Fujii; Yasunori Sato; Tetsuo Ohta; Yutaka Aoyagi; Yasuni Nakanuma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To reveal the characteristics of CD133~+ cells in the liver.METHODS: This study examined the histological characteristics of CD133~+ cells in non-neoplastic and neoplastic liver tissues by immunostaining, and also analyzed the biological characteristics of CD133~+ cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or cholangiocarcinoma cell lines.RESULTS: Immunostaining revealed constant expression of CD133 in non-neoplastic and neoplastic biliary epithelium, and these cells had the immunophenotype CD133~+/CK19+/HepPar-1~-. A small number of CD133~+/CK19~-/HepPar-1~+ cells were also identified in HCC and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. In addition, small ductal structures, resembling the canal of Hering, partly surrounded by hepatocytes were positive for CD133. CD133 expression was observed in three HCC (HuH7, PLC5 and HepG2) and two cholangiocarcinoma cell and HepG2) and two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuCCT1 and CCKS1). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) revealed that CD133~+ and CD133~-cells derived from HuH7 and HuCCT1 cells similarly produced CD133~+ and CD133~-cells during subculture. To examine the relationship between CD133~+ cells and the side population (SP) phenotype, FACS was performed using Hoechst 33342 and a monoclonal antibody against CD133. The ratios of CD133~+/CD133~-cells were almost identical in the SP and non-SP in HuH7. In addition, four different cellular populations (SP/CD133~+, SP/CD133~-, non-SP/CD133~+, and non-SP/CD133~-) could similarly produce CD133~+ and CD133~-cells during subculture. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that CD133 could be a biliary and progenitor cell marker in vivo. However, CD133 alone is not sufficient to detect tumor-initiating cells in cell lines.

  18. Selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, suppresses cellular proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines via cell cycle arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yeon Baek; Wonhee Hur; Jin Sang Wang; Si Hyun Bae; Seung Kew Yoon

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the growth inhibitory mechanism of NS-398, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor,in two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2and Huh7).METHODS: HepG2 and Huh7 cells were treated with NS-398. Its effects on cell viability, cell proliferation,cell cycles, and gene expression were respectively evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1)assay, 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining,flow cytometer analysis, and Western blotting,with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as positive control.RESULTS: NS-398 showed dose- and time-dependent growth-inhibitory effects on the two cell lines.Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expressions in HepG2 and Huh7 cells, particularly in Huh7 cells were inhibited in a time- and dose-independent manner.NS-398 caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase with cell accumulation in the sub-G1 phase in HepG2 and Huh7cell lines. No evidence of apoptosis was observed in two cell lines.CONCLUSION: NS-398 reduces cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in HepG2 and Huh7 cell lines,and COX-2 inhibitors may have potent chemoprevention effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  19. Comparison of Helicobacter bilis-Associated Protein Expression in Huh7 Cells Harbouring HCV Replicon and in Replicon-Cured Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Hepatitis B or C infections are the main causes of HCC with hepatitis C being the major risk factor for liver cancer in the developed countries. Recently, complications with bacteria of the genus Helicobacter have been associated with HCV-induced HCC. To further understand the mechanisms leading to the development of HCC in the presence of HCV and/or Helicobacter spp., investigation of the differen...

  20. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as bi...

  1. Mechanism of HCV's resistance to IFN-α in cell culture involves expression of functional IFN-α receptor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamaze Christophe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanisms underlying the Hepatitis C virus (HCV resistance to interferon alpha (IFN-α are not fully understood. We used IFN-α resistant HCV replicon cell lines and an infectious HCV cell culture system to elucidate the mechanisms of IFN-α resistance in cell culture. The IFN-α resistance mechanism of the replicon cells were addressed by a complementation study that utilized the full-length plasmid clones of IFN-α receptor 1 (IFNAR1, IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2, Jak1, Tyk2, Stat1, Stat2 and the ISRE- luciferase reporter plasmid. We demonstrated that the expression of the full-length IFNAR1 clone alone restored the defective Jak-Stat signaling as well as Stat1, Stat2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and antiviral response against HCV in all IFN-α resistant cell lines (R-15, R-17 and R-24 used in this study. Moreover RT-PCR, Southern blotting and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the cells from both R-15 and R-24 series of IFN-α resistant cells have 58 amino acid deletions in the extracellular sub domain 1 (SD1 of IFNAR1. In addition, cells from the R-17 series have 50 amino acids deletion in the sub domain 4 (SD4 of IFNAR1 protein leading to impaired activation of Tyk2 kinase. Using an infectious HCV cell culture model we show here that viral replication in the infected Huh-7 cells is relatively resistant to exogenous IFN-α. HCV infection itself induces defective Jak-Stat signaling and impairs Stat1 and Stat2 phosphorylation by down regulation of the cell surface expression of IFNAR1 through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that expression of cell surface IFNAR1 is critical for the response of HCV to exogenous IFN-α.

  2. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  3. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  4. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  5. Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of liver injury associated with chronic HCV infection, as well as the individual roles of both viral and host factors, are not clearly defined. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cytopathic effects, in addition to immune-mediated processes, play an important role in liver injury. Gene expression profiling during multiple time-points of acute HCV infection of cultured Huh-7.5 cells was performed to gain insight into the cellular mechanism of HCV-associated cytopathic effect. Maximal induction of cell-death-related genes and appearance of activated caspase-3 in HCV-infected cells coincided with peak viral replication, suggesting a link between viral load and apoptosis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of the cell-death genes function to induce apoptosis in response to cell cycle arrest. Labeling of dividing cells in culture followed by flow cytometry also demonstrated the presence of significantly fewer cells in S-phase in HCV-infected relative to mock cultures, suggesting HCV infection is associated with delayed cell cycle progression. Regulation of numerous genes involved in anti-oxidative stress response and TGF-beta1 signaling suggest these as possible causes of delayed cell cycle progression. Significantly, a subset of cell-death genes regulated during in vitro HCV infection was similarly regulated specifically in liver tissue from a cohort of HCV-infected liver transplant patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Collectively, these data suggest that HCV mediates direct cytopathic effects through deregulation of the cell cycle and that this process may contribute to liver disease progression. This in vitro system could be utilized to further define the cellular mechanism of this perturbation.

  6. An operational concept for long-term cinemicrography of cells in mono- and co-culture under highly controlled conditions--the SlideObserver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billecke, Nils; Raschzok, Nathanael; Rohn, Susanne; Morgul, Mehmet H; Schwartlander, Ruth; Mogl, Martina; Wollersheim, Sonja; Schmitt, Katharina R; Sauer, Igor M

    2012-05-31

    Cell morphology, proliferation and motility, as well as mono- and heterotypic cell-to-cell interactions, are of increasing interest for in vitro experiments. However, tightly controlling culture conditions whilst simultaneously monitoring the same set of cells is complicated. Moreover, video-microscopy of distinct cells or areas of cells over a prolonged period of time represents a technical challenge. The SlideObserver was designed for cinemicrography of cells in co-and monoculture. The core elements of the system are the SlideReactors, miniaturised hollow fibre-based bioreactors operated in closed perfusion loops. Within the SlideReactors, cells can be cultured under adaptable conditions as well as in direct- and indirect co-culture. The independent perfusion loops enable controlled variation of parameters such as medium, pH, and oxygenation. A combined automated microscope stage and camera set-up allows for micrograph acquisition of multiple user-defined regions of interest within the bioreactor units. For proof of concept, primary cells (HUVEC, human hepatocytes) and cell lines (HuH7, THP-1) were cultured under stable and varying culture conditions, as well as in mono- and co-culture. The operational system enabled non-stop imaging and automated control of process parameters as well as elective manipulation of either reactor. As opposed to non-perfused culture systems or comparable devices for cinemicrographic analysis, the SlideObserver allows simultaneous morphological monitoring of an entire culture of cells in multiple bioreactors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of autophagy in differential sensitivity of hepatocarcinoma cells to sorafenib

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Trevan; D; Fischer; Jin-Hee; Wang; Adrian; Vlada; Jae-Sung; Kim; Kevin; E; Behrns

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of sorafenib(SFN) in autophagy of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). We evaluated how SFN affects autophagy signaling pathway in human HCC cell lines. METHODS: Two different human HCC cell lines, Hep3 B and Huh7, were subjected to different concentrations of SFN. Cell viability and onset of apoptosis were determined with colorimetric assay and immunoblotting analysis, respectively. The changes in autophagy-related proteins, including LC3, ULK1, AMPK, and LKB, were determined with immunoblotting analysis in the presence or absence of SFN. To assess autophagic dynamics, autophagic flux was measured with chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. The autophagic responsiveness between different HCC cell lines was compared under the autophagy enhancing conditions.RESULTS: Hep3 B cells were significantly more resistant to SFN than Huh7 cells. Immunoblotting analysis revealed a marked increase in SFN-mediated autophagy flux in Huh7 cells, which was, however, absent in Hep3 B cells. While both starvation and rapamycin enhanced autophagy in Huh7 cells, only rapamycin increased autophagy in Hep3 B cells. Immunoblotting analysis of autophagy initiation proteins showed that SFN substantially increased phosphorylation of AMPK and consequently autophagy in Huh7, but not in Hep3 B cells.CONCLUSION: The autophagic responsiveness to SFN is distinct between Hep3 B and Huh7 cells. Resistance of Hep3 B cells to SFN may be associated with altered autophagy signaling pathways.

  8. Single strain isolation method for cell culture-adapted hepatitis C virus by end-point dilution and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Sugiyama

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV culture system has enabled us to clarify the HCV life cycle and essential host factors for propagation. However, the virus production level of wild-type JFH-1 (JFH-1/wt is limited, and this leads to difficulties in performing experiments that require higher viral concentrations. As the cell culture-adapted JFH-1 has been reported to have robust virus production, some mutations in the viral genome may play a role in the efficiency of virus production. In this study, we obtained cell culture-adapted virus by passage of full-length JFH-1 RNA-transfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. The obtained virus produced 3 log-fold more progeny viruses as compared with JFH-1/wt. Several mutations were identified as being responsible for robust virus production, but, on reverse-genetics analysis, the production levels of JFH-1 with these mutations did not reach the level of cell culture-adapted virus. By using the single strain isolation method by end-point dilution and infection, we isolated two strains with additional mutations, and found that these strains have the ability to produce more progeny viruses. On reverse-genetics analysis, the strains with these additional mutations were able to produce robust progeny viruses at comparable levels as cell culture-adapted JFH-1 virus. The strategy used in this study will be useful for identifying strains with unique characteristics, such as robust virus production, from a diverse population, and for determining the responsible mutations for these characteristics.

  9. Replication of a hepatitis C virus replicon clone in mouse cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisari Francis V

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a significant public health burden and small animal models are needed to study the pathology and immunobiology of the virus. In effort to develop experimental HCV mouse models, we screened a panel of HCV replicons to identify clones capable of replicating in mouse hepatocytes. Results We report the establishment of stable HCV replication in mouse hepatocyte and fibroblast cell lines using replicons derived from the JFH-1 genotype 2a consensus sequence. Viral RNA replication efficiency in mouse cells was comparable to that observed in human Huh-7 replicon cells, with negative-strand HCV RNA and the viral NS5A protein being readily detected by Northern and Western Blot analysis, respectively. Although HCV replication was established in the absence of adaptive mutations that might otherwise compromise the in vitro infectivity of the JFH-1 clone, no infectious virus was detected when the culture medium from full length HCV RNA replicating mouse cells was titrated on Huh-7 cells, suggesting that the mouse cells were unable to support production of infectious progeny viral particles. Consistent with an additional block in viral entry, infectious JFH-1 particles produced in Huh-7 cells were not able to establish detectable HCV RNA replication in naïve mouse cells. Conclusion Thus, this report expands the repertoire of HCV replication systems and possibly represents a step toward developing mouse models of HCV replication, but it also highlights that other species restrictions might continue to make the development of a purely murine HCV infectious model challenging.

  10. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures and ti...

  11. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J

    2013-06-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome.

  12. Quasispecies of Hepatitis C Virus Participate in Cell-Specific Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Takasuke; Yamamoto, Satomi; Ono, Chikako; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Takeshi; Sato, Asuka; Tamura, Tomokazu; Motomura, Takashi; Okamoto, Toru; Imamura, Michio; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Chayama, Kazuaki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2017-03-22

    It is well documented that a variety of viral quasispecies are found in the patients with chronic infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, the significance of quasispecies in the specific infectivity to individual cell types remains unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of quasispecies of the genotype 2a clone, JFH1 (HCVcc), in specific infectivity to the hepatic cell lines, Huh7.5.1 and Hep3B. HCV RNA was electroporated into Huh7.5.1 cells and Hep3B/miR-122 cells expressing miR-122 at a high level. Then, we adapted the viruses to Huh7 and Hep3B/miR-122 cells by serial passages and termed the resulting viruses HCVcc/Huh7 and HCVcc/Hep3B, respectively. Interestingly, a higher viral load was obtained in the homologous combination of HCVcc/Huh7 in Huh7.5.1 cells or HCVcc/Hep3B in Hep3B/miR-122 cells compared with the heterologous combination. By using a reverse genetics system and deep sequence analysis, we identified several adaptive mutations involved in the high affinity for each cell line, suggesting that quasispecies of HCV participate in cell-specific infectivity.

  13. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  14. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  15. Efficient infectious cell culture systems of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) prototype strains HCV-1 and H77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Mikkelsen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The first discovered and sequenced hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome and the first in vivo infectious HCV clones originated from the HCV prototype strains HCV-1 and H77, respectively, both widely used in research of this important human pathogen. In the present study, we developed...... mutations (HCV1cc) replicated efficiently in Huh7.5 cells and produced supernatant infectivity titers of 10(4.0) focus-forming units (FFU)/ml. Eight of these mutations were identified from passaged HCV-1 viruses, and the A970T/I1312V/C2419R/A2919T mutations were essential for infectious particle production......-adapted full-length TN viruses and a common NS3 helicase mutation (S1368P) derived from viable H77C and HCV-1 5-5A recombinants, initiated replication and culture adaptation of H77C containing LSG and TNcc(1a)-adaptive mutations. An H77C recombinant harboring 19 mutations (H77Ccc) replicated and spread...

  16. Highly efficient full-length hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (strain TN) infectious culture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-Ping; Ramirez, Santseharay; Jensen, Sanne B

    2012-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of end stage liver disease worldwide. In the United States, most HCV-related disease is associated with genotype 1 infection, which remains difficult to treat. Drug and vaccine development was hampered by inability to culture......) culture systems in Huh7.5 cells. Here, we developed a highly efficient genotype 1a (strain TN) full-length culture system. We initially found that the LSG substitutions conferred viability to an intergenotypic recombinant composed of TN 5' untranslated region (5'UTR)-NS5A and JFH1 NS5B-3'UTR; recovered...... with 8 changes (designated TN cell-culture derived, TNcc) replicated efficiently and released infectious particles of ∼5 log(10) focus-forming units per mL; passaged TNcc did not require additional changes. IFN-α and directly acting antivirals targeting the HCV protease, NS5A, and NS5B, each inhibited...

  17. Robust and persistent replication of the genotype 6a hepatitis C virus replicon in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Peng, Betty; Chan, Katie; Gong, Ruoyu; Yang, Huiling; Delaney, William; Cheng, Guofeng

    2014-05-01

    Genotype 6 (GT6) hepatitis C virus (HCV) is prevalent in Southeast Asia and southern China, where it can constitute up to 50% of HCV infections. Despite this, no direct-acting antivirals are approved to treat GT6 HCV infection, and no cell culture systems have been described. In this study, we aimed to develop a GT6 HCV subgenomic replicon to facilitate the identification and development of new HCV therapies with pan-genotype activity. A subgenomic replicon cDNA encoding a GT6a consensus sequence plus an NS5A amino acid substitution (S232I) was synthesized. Electroporation of RNA encoding the GT6a replicon into Huh-7-derived cells consistently yielded 20 to 100 stable replicon colonies. Genotypic analyses of individual replicon colonies revealed new adaptive mutations across multiple viral nonstructural proteins. The E30V and K272R mutations in NS3 and the K34R mutation in NS4A were observed most frequently and were confirmed to enhance GT6a replicon replication in the presence of the NS5A amino acid substitution S232I. These new adaptive mutations allowed establishment of robust luciferase-encoding GT6a replicons for reproducible quantification of HCV replication, and the luciferase-encoding replicons enabled efficient determinations of antiviral activity for HCV inhibitors in a 384-well assay format. While nucleoside/nucleotide NS5B inhibitors and cyclophilin A inhibitors had similar antiviral activities against both GT6a and GT1b replicons, some nonnucleoside NS5B inhibitors, NS3 protease inhibitors, and NS5A inhibitors had less antiviral activity against GT6a replicons. In conjunction with other genotype replicons, this robust GT6a replicon system will aid in the development of pan-genotypic HCV regimens.

  18. Perfusion Based Cell Culture Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, A.; Emnéus, J.; Dufva, M.

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers.

  19. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers.......Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...

  20. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  1. Coencapsulation of Target Effector Cells With Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces Pericapsular Fibrosis and Improves Graft Survival in a Xenotransplanted Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Evans, Margaret D M; Rowe, Anthony; Bean, Penelope A; Tuch, Bernard E

    2016-01-01

    Pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO) is a problem that thwarts full implementation of cellular replacement therapies involving encapsulation in an immunoprotective material, such as for the treatment of diabetes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have inherent anti-inflammatory properties. We postulated that coencapsulation of MSCs with the target cells would reduce PFO. A hepatoinsulinoma cell line (HUH7) was used to model human target cells and was coencapsulated with either human or mouse MSCs at different ratios in alginate microcapsules. Viability of encapsulated cells was assessed in vitro and xenografted either intraperitoneally or subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice. Graft retrieval was performed at 3 weeks posttransplantation and assessed for PFO. Coencapsulation of human MSCs (hMSCs) or mouse MSCs (mMSCs) with HUH7 at different ratios did not alter cell viability in vitro. In vivo data from intraperitoneal infusions showed that PFO for HUH7 cells coencapsulated with hMSCs and mMSCs in a ratio of 1:1 was significantly reduced by ∼30% and ∼35%, respectively, compared to HUH7 encapsulated alone. PFO for HUH7 cells was reduced by ∼51% when the ratio of mMSC/HUH7 was increased to 2:1. Implanting the microcapsules subcutaneously rather than intraperitoneally substantially reduced PFO in all treatment groups, which was most significant in the mMSC/HUH7 2:1 group with a ∼53% reduction in PFO compared with HUH7 alone. Despite the reduced PFO reaction to the individual microcapsules implanted subcutaneously, all microcapsule treatment groups were contained in a vascularized fibrotic pouch at 3 weeks. The presence of MSCs in microcapsules retrieved from these fibrotic pouches improved graft survival with significantly higher cell viabilities of 83.1 ± 0.6% and 79.1 ± 0.8% seen with microcapsules containing mMSC/HUH7 at 2:1 and 1:1 ratios, respectively, compared to HUH7 alone (51.5 ± 0.7%) transplanted subcutaneously. This study showed that

  2. Hepatic co-cultures in vitro reveal suitable to detect Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress responses on the bladder carcinogen o-anisidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewering, Franziska; Jouy, Florent; Caliskan, Sükran; Kalkhof, Stefan; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Zellmer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    The azo dye o-anisidine is known as an industrial and environmental pollutant. Metabolites of o-anisidine remain in the liver for >24h. However, the toxicological impact of o-anisidine on the liver and its individual cell types, e.g., hepatocytes and immune cells, is currently poorly understood. A novel co-culture system, composed of HepG2 or Huh-7 cells, and differentiated THP-1 cells was used to study the metabolic capacity towards o-anisidine, and compared to primary murine hepatocytes which express high enzyme activities. As model compounds the carcinogenic arylamine o-anisidine and its non-carcinogenic isomer, p-anisidine, as well as caffeine were used. Global proteome analysis revealed an activation of eIF2 and Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways only in co-cultures after treatment with o-anisidine. This was confirmed via detection of reactive oxygen species. In addition, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased already after 3h treatment of cells, which correlated with a decrease of ATP levels (R(2)>0.92). In the supernatant of co-cultured, but not single-cultured HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, o-anisidine caused increases of damage-associated proteins, such as HMGB1 (high mobility group box-1) protein. In summary, only co-cultures of HepG2 and THP-1 cells predict o-anisidine induced stress responsive pathways, since the system has a higher sensitivity compared to single cultured cells.

  3. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk.

  4. Chalcone-Induced Apoptosis through Caspase-Dependent Intrinsic Pathways in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Escobar, Carlos A.; Romero, Valentina; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisén, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Jeldes, Emanuel; Pizarro, Luis; Simon, Felipe; Echeverria, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved through the use of natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress or prevent the development of cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects and the mechanism of action of two compounds, 2,3,4′-trimethoxy-2′-hydroxy-chalcone (CH1) and 3′-bromo-3,4-dimethoxy-chalcone (CH2), over human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and Huh-7) and cultured mouse hepatocytes (HepM). Cytotoxic effects were observed over the HepG2 and Huh-7, and no effects were observed over the HepM. For HepG2 cells, treated separately with each chalcone, typical apoptotic laddering and nuclear condensation were observed. Additionally, the caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins activation by using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were studied. Caspase-8 was not activated, but caspase-3 and -9 were both activated by chalcones in HepG2 cells. Chalcones also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after 4, 8 and 24 h of treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that apoptosis in HepG2 was induced through: (i) a caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway; and (ii) by alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, and also, that the chalcone moiety could be a potent candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas. PMID:26907262

  5. Chalcone-Induced Apoptosis through Caspase-Dependent Intrinsic Pathways in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Tagle, Rodrigo; Escobar, Carlos A; Romero, Valentina; Montorfano, Ignacio; Armisén, Ricardo; Borgna, Vincenzo; Jeldes, Emanuel; Pizarro, Luis; Simon, Felipe; Echeverria, Cesar

    2016-02-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved through the use of natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress or prevent the development of cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects and the mechanism of action of two compounds, 2,3,4'-trimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-chalcone (CH1) and 3'-bromo-3,4-dimethoxy-chalcone (CH2), over human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and Huh-7) and cultured mouse hepatocytes (HepM). Cytotoxic effects were observed over the HepG2 and Huh-7, and no effects were observed over the HepM. For HepG2 cells, treated separately with each chalcone, typical apoptotic laddering and nuclear condensation were observed. Additionally, the caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins activation by using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were studied. Caspase-8 was not activated, but caspase-3 and -9 were both activated by chalcones in HepG2 cells. Chalcones also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation after 4, 8 and 24 h of treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that apoptosis in HepG2 was induced through: (i) a caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway; and (ii) by alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, and also, that the chalcone moiety could be a potent candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas.

  6. Chalcone-Induced Apoptosis through Caspase-Dependent Intrinsic Pathways in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramirez-Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Chemoprevention of HCC can be achieved through the use of natural or synthetic compounds that reverse, suppress or prevent the development of cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects and the mechanism of action of two compounds, 2,3,4′-trimethoxy-2′-hydroxy-chalcone (CH1 and 3′-bromo-3,4-dimethoxy-chalcone (CH2, over human hepatoma cells (HepG2 and Huh-7 and cultured mouse hepatocytes (HepM. Cytotoxic effects were observed over the HepG2 and Huh-7, and no effects were observed over the HepM. For HepG2 cells, treated separately with each chalcone, typical apoptotic laddering and nuclear condensation were observed. Additionally, the caspases and Bcl-2 family proteins activation by using Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were studied. Caspase-8 was not activated, but caspase-3 and -9 were both activated by chalcones in HepG2 cells. Chalcones also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation after 4, 8 and 24 h of treatment in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that apoptosis in HepG2 was induced through: (i a caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway; and (ii by alterations in the cellular levels of Bcl-2 family proteins, and also, that the chalcone moiety could be a potent candidate as novel anticancer agents acting on human hepatomas.

  7. Analysis of hepatitis C virus core/NS5A protein co-localization using novel cell culture systems expressing core-NS2 and NS5A of genotypes 1-7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Scheel, Troels K H; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2013-01-01

    JFH1-based recombinants expressing core-NS2 and NS5A from genotypes 1-7, and analysed core and NS5A co-localization in infected cells. Huh7.5 cells were transfected with RNA of core-NS2/NS5A recombinants and putative adaptive mutations were analysed by reverse genetics. Adapted core-NS2/NS5A...

  8. Interpretation of cell culture phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, J L; Dodson, M V

    2000-03-01

    This paper discusses the dilemma of interpreting unusual or abnormal phenomena seen in cell cultures and is not intended to address the statistical design of experiments. Problems that can be encountered when growing cells in experimental situations include low or decreasing cell numbers, abnormal cell morphology, microbial contamination, and detachment of the cell monolayer. If any of these situations occur, it is not realistic to proceed with data analysis until the problem is corrected. The best policy is to attempt to standardize all types of cultures used for analysis and to avoid using any cultures that display atypical characteristics.

  9. Role of ADAM17 in invasion and migration of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells after irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Woo; Hur, Wonhee; Choi, Jung Eun; Kim, Jung-Hee; Hwang, Daehee; Yoon, Seung Kew

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the biological role of CD133-expressing liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) enriched after irradiation of Huh7 cells in cell invasion and migration. We also explored whether a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) influences the metastatic potential of CSC-enriched hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after irradiation. A CD133-expressing Huh7 cell subpopulation showed greater resistance to sublethal irradiation and specifically enhanced cell invasion and migration capabilities. We also demonstrated that the radiation-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzyme activities as well as the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor were increased more predominantly in Huh7CD133+ cell subpopulations than Huh7CD133− cell subpopulations. Furthermore, we showed that silencing ADAM17 significantly inhibited the migration and invasiveness of enriched Huh7CD133+ cells after irradiation; moreover, Notch signaling was significantly reduced in irradiated CD133-expressing liver CSCs following stable knockdown of the ADAM17 gene. In conclusion, our findings indicate that CD133-expressing liver CSCs have considerable metastatic capabilities after irradiation of HCC cells, and their metastatic capabilities might be maintained by ADAM17. Therefore, suppression of ADAM17 shows promise for improving the efficiency of current radiotherapies and reducing the metastatic potential of liver CSCs during HCC treatment. PMID:26993601

  10. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Shengjuan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States); Bergen, Werner G. [Program in Cellular and Molecular Biosciences/Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Hausman, Gary J. [Animal Science Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2771 (United States); Zan, Linsen, E-mail: zanls@yahoo.com.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province 712100 (China); Dodson, Michael V., E-mail: dodson@wsu.edu [Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: •DFAT cells are progeny cells derived from dedifferentiated mature adipocytes. •Common problems in this research is potential cell contamination of initial cultures. •The initial cell culture purity is crucial in DFAT cell research field. -- Abstract: Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  11. Combination therapy and evaluation of therapeutic effect in hepatocellular carcinoma cell using triple reporter genes; containing for NIS, HSV1-sr39tk and GFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, You La; Lee, Yong Jin; Ahn, Sohn Joo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To identify therapeutic effect after combine Sodium Iodine Symporter (NIS) and Mutant Herpes-simplex virus type 1 sr39tk (HSV1-sr39tk) expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell, we transfected triple gene and investigated the properties of these gene ability in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. After making vector with gene encoding a fusion protein comprised of HSV1-sr39tk and green florescence protein (GFP), to make triple reporter genes NIS gene was further fused to the vector using IRES vector. The vector expressing triple reporter gene was transfected to the Huh-7 cell line using liposome. Functions of hNIS and HSV1-sr39tk expression were confirmed by radio iodine uptake with and without perchlorate and [3H]-penciclovir (3-H PCV) uptake, respectively. To evaluate therapeutic effect in vitro, GCV and I-131 was treated in Huh-7/NTG cell and dual therapy performed. An animal imaging acquired using Optix and microPET in vivo. I-125 uptake was increased up to 100-fold compare to that of non-transfected cells. The transfected cell accumulated H-3 PCV up to 53 times higher at 2 hour than that of non-transfected cells. With fluorescence microscopy, green fluorescence was detected in the transfected cell. In cytotoxic studies, the cell viability of Huh-7/NTG cell was decreased to 41 % of control cell at 10ug/ml GCV concentrations. The survival rate of the Huh-7/NTG cell treated with I-131 decreased up to 16%. In I-131 and GCV dual therapy, Huh-7/NTG cell survival rate decreased up to 4%. In animal studies, Huh-7/NTG tumors showed higher uptake of 18F-FHBG and I-124 than Huh-7 tumors. GFP signal is also higher in Huh-7/NTG tumor than control. We successfully constructed a vector with delivery two therapeutic genes and one reporter gene and transfected the vector to a Huh-7 cell. The hepatocellular carcinoma cell transfected with the vector can be treated with GCV and I-131. The effect of dual gene therapy could be easily assessed by the optical reporter gene imaging.

  12. Peroxiredoxin II Is Essential for Maintaining Stemness by Redox Regulation in Liver Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taeho; Bak, Yesol; Park, Young-Ho; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Young Nyun; Bak, In Seon; Kim, Jin-Man; Yoon, Do-Young; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2016-05-01

    Redox regulation in cancer stem cells (CSCs) is viewed as a good target for cancer therapy because redox status plays an important role in cancer stem-cell maintenance. Here, we investigated the role of Peroxiredoxin II (Prx II), an antioxidant enzyme, in association with maintenance of liver CSCs. Our study demonstrates that Prx II overexpressed in liver cancer cells has high potential for self-renewal activity. Prx II expression significantly corelated with expression of epithelial-cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) and cytokerain 19 in liver cancer tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Downregulation of Prx II in Huh7 cells with treatment of siRNA reduced expression of EpCAM and CD133 as well as Sox2 in accordance with increased ROS and apoptosis, which were reversed in Huh7-hPrx II cells. Huh7-hPrx II cells exhibited strong sphere-formation activity compared with mock cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exposure enhanced sphere formation, cell-surface expression of EpCAM and CD133, and pSTAT3 along with activation of VEGF receptor 2 in Huh7-hPrx II cells. The result also emerged in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) and SK-HEP-1-H-ras(G12V) cells with high-level expression of Prx II. Prx II was involved in regulation of VEGF driving cancer stem cells through VEGFR-2/STAT3 signaling to upregulate Bmi1 and Sox2. In addition, knockdown of Prx II in Huh7-H-ras(G12V) cells showed significant reduction in cell migration in vitro and in tumorigenic potential in vivo. Taken together, all the results demonstrated that Prx II plays a key role in the CSC self-renewal of HCC cells through redox regulation. Stem Cells 2016;34:1188-1197.

  13. Cell culture purity issues and DFAT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjuan; Bergen, Werner G; Hausman, Gary J; Zan, Linsen; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-04-12

    Dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, in vitro, has been pursued/documented for over forty years. The subsequent progeny cells are named dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells). DFAT cells are proliferative and likely to possess mutilineage potential. As a consequence, DFAT cells and their progeny/daughter cells may be useful as a potential tool for various aspects of tissue engineering and as potential vectors for the alleviation of several disease states. Publications in this area have been increasing annually, but the purity of the initial culture of mature adipocytes has seldom been documented. Consequently, it is not always clear whether DFAT cells are derived from dedifferentiated mature (lipid filled) adipocytes or from contaminating cells that reside in an impure culture.

  14. Efficient replication of genotype 3a and 4a hepatitis C virus replicons in human hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Mohsan; Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M;

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C, the quest for pan-genotype, effective, and well-tolerated inhibitors continues. To facilitate these efforts, it is desirable to have in vitro replication systems for all major HCV genotypes. However, cell culture replication systems exist...... for only genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a. In this study, we generated G418-selectable subgenomic replicons for prototype strains of genotypes 3a (S52) and 4a (ED43). Production of G418-resistant colonies by S52 and ED43 in Huh-7.5 cells required the amino acid substitutions S2210I and R2882G, respectively, cell...... culture adaptive mutations originally reported for genotype 1b replicons. RNA replication was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and detection of viral protein. Sequencing of multiple independent replicon clones revealed the presence of additional nonsynonymous mutations. Interestingly...

  15. Cell culture compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yiao, Jian

    2014-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6 (SEQ ID NO:1 encodes the full length endoglucanase; SEQ ID NO:4 encodes the mature form), and the corresponding endoglucanase VI amino acid sequence ("EGVI"; SEQ ID NO:3 is the signal sequence; SEQ ID NO:2 is the mature sequence). The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. Identification of a unique hepatocellular carcinoma line, Li-7, with CD13(+) cancer stem cells hierarchy and population change upon its differentiation during culture and effects of sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Abei, Masato; Danjoh, Inaho; Shirota, Ryoko; Yamashita, Taro; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Nakamura, Yukio

    2015-04-11

    Cancer stem cell (CSC) research has highlighted the necessity of developing drugs targeting CSCs. We investigated a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line that not only has CSC hierarchy but also shows phenotypic changes (population changes) upon differentiation of CSC during culture and can be used for screening drugs targeting CSC. Based on a hypothesis that the CSC proportion should decrease upon its differentiation into progenitors (population change), we tested HCC cell lines (HuH-7, Li-7, PLC/PRF/5, HLF, HLE) before and after 2 months culture for several markers (CD13, EpCAM, CD133, CD44, CD90, CD24, CD166). Tumorigenicity was tested using nude mice. To evaluate the CSC hierarchy, we investigated reconstructivity, proliferation, ALDH activity, spheroid formation, chemosensitivity and microarray analysis of the cell populations sorted by FACS. Only Li-7 cells showed a population change during culture: the proportion of CD13 positive cells decreased, while that of CD166 positive cells increased. The high tumorigenicity of the Li-7 was lost after the population change. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed slow growth and reconstructed the bulk Li-7 populations composed of CD13(+)/CD166(-), CD13(-)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) fractions, whereas CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells showed rapid growth but could not reproduce any other population. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed high ALDH activity, spheroid forming ability and resistance to 5-fluorouracil. Microarray analysis demonstrated higher expression of stemness-related genes in CD166(-) than CD166(+) fraction. These results indicated a hierarchy in Li-7 cells, in which CD13(+)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells serve as slow growing CSCs and rapid growing progenitors, respectively. Sorafenib selectively targeted the CD166(-) fraction, including CD13(+) CSCs, which exhibited higher mRNA expression for FGF3 and FGF4, candidate biomarkers for sorafenib. 5-fluorouracil followed by sorafenib inhibited the growth of bulk Li-7

  17. Insect Cell Culture and Biotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert R.Granados; Guoxun Li; G.W.Blissard

    2007-01-01

    The continued development of new cell culture technology is essential for the future growth and application of insect cell and baculovirus biotechnology. The use of cell lines for academic research and for commercial applications is currently dominated by two cell lines; the Spodoptera frugiperda line, SF21 (and its clonal isolate, SF9), and the Trichoplusia ni line, BTI 5B1-4, commercially known as High Five cells. The long perceived prediction that the immense potential application of the baculovirus-insect cell system, as a tool in cell and molecular biology, agriculture, and animal health, has been achieved. The versatility and recent applications of this popular expression system has been demonstrated by both academia and industry and it is clear that this cell-based system has been widely accepted for biotechnological applications. Numerous small to midsize startup biotechnology companies in North America and the Europe are currently using the baculovirus-insect cell technology to produce custom recombinant proteins for research and commercial applications. The recent breakthroughs using the baculovirus-insect cell-based system for the development of several commercial products that will impact animal and human health will further enhance interest in this technology by pharma. Clearly, future progress in novel cell and engineering advances will lead to fundamental scientific discoveries and serve to enhance the utility and applications of this baculovirus-insect cell system.

  18. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, Ragunath [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Lyn, Rodney K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Srinivasan, Prashanth [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Delcorde, Julie [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta (Canada); Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Katz Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 (Canada); Pezacki, John P., E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  19. 病毒基因组耦联报告基因用于筛选适宜丙型肝炎病毒培养的亚细胞克隆株%Screening of highly permissive cell subclone for hepatitis C virus culture with reporter gene on viral genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐婧雯; 张雪梅; 王晓辉; 吴文龙; 吴忠香; 张智辉; 向昊; 姚宇峰; 寸韡

    2013-01-01

    目的 快捷筛选到适合丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)培养的细胞系.方法 将荧光素酶报告基因耦联到JFHlHCV基因组中,检测了多个人肝细胞系对HCV的易感性,进一步利用耦联荧光素酶的HCV复制子模型筛选并经过IFN-α处理更适宜HCV培养的Huh7亚细胞克隆株.结果 实验结果显示BEL7402、BEL7404、QSG7701、SMMC7721、QGY7701、QGY7703和HepG等肝细胞均不易感染HCV,仅限于Huh7细胞能被HCV感染.同时实验获得了更适宜HCV培养的Huh7亚细胞克隆株——Huh7G3.结论 在利用IFN-α处理细胞的过程中,通过检测荧光素酶活性,显示IFN-α对HCV亚基因组的复制抑制效果具有剂量依赖效应,研究同时显示:HCV复制子细胞能否抵抗HCV的超感染依赖于细胞内是否存在HCV RNA复制而不是其复制水平的高低.%Objective To select appropriate cell line for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) production.Methods A JFHl-based luciferase reporter virus HCV-tGlu was generated.Using the reporter virus,several human hepatic cell lines were checked for their permissiveness to HCV infection.Furthermore,HCV bicistronic reporter system for subgenomic replication and IFN-α treatment approach were used to establish a new Huh7 subclone cell line.Results The results showed that HCV infection was restricted to Huh7,but not to BEL7402,BEL7404,QSG7701,SMMC7721,QGY7701,QGY7703 or HepaG2 cell lines.An IFN-αtreated Huh7 subclone cell line,Huh7G3,which bear an increased permissiveness for HCVcc replication was established.Conclusion During IFN treatment,the inhibitory effect of IFN on HCV subgenome replication was dose-dependent as indicated by the luciferase activities.The results also showed that the resistance of HCV replicon-containing cells to the HCV superinfection relied on the presence of HCV RNA in the cells but not depend on the intracellular virus genomic replication level.

  20. 9 CFR 101.6 - Cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cell cultures. 101.6 Section 101.6..., SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.6 Cell cultures. When used in conjunction with or in reference to cell cultures, which may be referred to as tissue...

  1. Defining viability in mammalian cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Susan M.; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A large number of assays are available to monitor viability in mammalian cell cultures with most defining loss of viability as a loss of plasma membrane integrity, a characteristic of necrotic cell death. However, the majority of cultured cells die by apoptosis and early apoptotic cells, although non-viable, maintain an intact plasma membrane and are thus ignored. Here we measure the viability of cultures of a number of common mammalian cell lines by assays that measure me...

  2. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellanzhiyil Surendran Sunila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reports on the efficacy of homeopathic medicines in animal models are limited, there are even fewer reports on the in vitro action of these dynamized preparations. We have evaluated the cytotoxic activity of 30C and 200C potencies of ten dynamized medicines against Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites, Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma, lung fibroblast (L929 and Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines and compared activity with their mother tinctures during short-term and long-term cell culture. The effect of dynamized medicines to induce apoptosis was also evaluated and we studied how dynamized medicines affected genes expressed during apoptosis. Mother tinctures as well as some dynamized medicines showed significant cytotoxicity to cells during short and long-term incubation. Potentiated alcohol control did not produce any cytotoxicity at concentrations studied. The dynamized medicines were found to inhibit CHO cell colony formation and thymidine uptake in L929 cells and those of Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosinum were found to induce apoptosis in DLA cells. Moreover, dynamized Carcinosinum was found to induce the expression of p53 while dynamized Thuja produced characteristic laddering pattern in agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. These results indicate that dynamized medicines possess cytotoxic as well as apoptosis-inducing properties.

  3. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  4. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  5. Best practices in cell culture: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baust, John M; Buehring, Gertrude Case; Campbell, Lia; Elmore, Eugene; Harbell, John W; Nims, Raymond W; Price, Paul; Reid, Yvonne A; Simione, Frank

    2017-08-14

    This overview describes a series of articles to provide an unmet need for information on best practices in animal cell culture. The target audience primarily consists of entry-level scientists with minimal experience in cell culture. It also include scientists, journalists, and educators with some experience in cell culture, but in need of a refresher in best practices. The articles will be published in this journal over a six-month period and will emphasize best practices in: (1) media selection; (2) use and evaluation of animal serum as a component of cell culture medium; (3) receipt of new cells into the laboratory; (4) naming cell lines; (5) authenticating cell line identity; (6) detecting and mitigating risk of cell culture contamination; (7) cryopreservation and thawing of cells; and (8) storing and shipping viable cells.

  6. Efficient Culture Adaptation of Hepatitis C Virus Recombinants with Genotype-Specific Core-NS2 by Using Previously Identified Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R

    2011-01-01

    ) but not to ED43 (4a). The mutations permitting robust virus production in Huh7.5 cells had no apparent effect on viral replication but allowed efficient assembly of intracellular infectious HCV for adapted novel or previously developed recombinants. In conclusion, previously identified mutations permitted...

  7. Cell density monitoring and control of microencapsulated CHO cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Harriet Emma

    2015-01-01

    Though mammalian cells play a key role in the manufacturing of recombinant glycosylated proteins, cell cultures and productivity are limited by the lack of suitable systems to enable stable perfusion culture. Microencapsulation, or entrapping cells within a semi-permeable membrane, offers the potential to generate high cell density cultures and improve the productivity by mimicking the cells natural environment. However, the cells being secluded by the microcapsules membrane are difficult to ...

  8. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  9. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  10. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3)H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or l...

  11. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  12. Primary Culture of Porcine Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao X

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for the primary culture of porcine pancreatic acinar cells. INTERVENTIONS: Dispersed pancreatic acinar cells available utilizing RPMI-1640 medium containing collagenase III. After purification, the isolated acinar cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with the addition of 2.5% fetal bovine serum. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The morphological characteristics of acinar cells were described. (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells and the activity of amylase or lipase were determined during the culture process. RESULTS: There were no remarkable morphological changes in the pancreatic acinar cells during the 20 days culture. The acini showed a tendency to gather but did not attach to the walls of the culture disks. A good (3H-thymidine incorporation of acinar cells in the primary culture was maintained. The secretion of amylase or lipase from the acini decreased with the length of time of the culture. DISCUSSION: The primary culture of acinar cells from a porcine pancreas which was carried out in this study maintained the normal morphology of the acinar cells and their ability to grow but not their secretion of amylase or lipase. The method would benefit by the further experiments on acini of porcine pancreas.

  13. Radioiodine Therapy of Liver Cancer Cell Following Tissue Specific Sodium Iodide Symporter Gene Transfer and Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy with Optical Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byoung Kuk; Lee, You La; Lee, Yong Jin [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-10-15

    Cancer specific killing can be achieved by therapeutic gene activated by cancer specific promotor. Expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene causes transportation and concentration of iodide into the cell, therefore radioiodine treatment after NIS gene transfer to cancer cell could be a form of radionuclide gene therapy. luciferase (Luc) gene transfected cancer cell can be monitored by in vivo optical imaging after D-luciferin injection. Aims of the study are to make vector with both therapeutic NIS gene driven by AFP promoter and reporter Luc gene driven by CMV promoter, to perform hepatocellular carcinoma specific radiodiodine gene therapy by the vector, and assessment of the therapy effect by optical imaging using luciferase expression. A Vector with AFP promoter driven NIS gene and CMV promoter driven Luc gene (AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc) was constructed. Liver cancer cell (HepG2, Huh-7) and non liver cancer cell (HCT-15) were transfected with the vector using liposome. Expression of the NIS gene at mRNA level was elucidated by RT-PCR. Radioiodide uptake, perchlorate blockade, and washout tests were performed and bioluminescence also measured by luminometer in these cells. In vitro clonogenic assay with I-131 was performed. In vivo nuclear imaging was obtained with gamma camera after I-131 intraperitoneal injection. A Vector with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc was constructed and successfully transfected into HepG2, Huh-7 and HCT-15 cells. HepG2 and Huh-7 cells with AFP-NIS-CMV-Luc gene showed higher iodide uptake than non transfected cells and the higher iodide uptake was totally blocked by addition of perchlorate. HCT-15 cell did not showed any change of iodide uptake by the gene transfection. Transfected cells had higher light output than control cells. In vitro clonogenic assay, transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells showed lower colony count than non transfected HepG2 and Huh-7 cells, but transfected HCT-15 cell did not showed any difference than non transfected HCT-15 cell

  14. Embryonic Stem Cells: Isolation, Characterization and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells isolated from the mammalian blastocyst. Traditionally, these cells have been derived and cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) supportive layers, which allow their continuous growth in an undifferentiated state. However, for any future industrial or clinical application hESCs should be cultured in reproducible, defined, and xeno-free culture system, where exposure to animal pathogens is prevented. From their derivation in 1998 the methods for culturing hESCs were significantly improved. This chapter wills discuss hESC characterization and the basic methods for their derivation and maintenance.

  15. Cell Suspension Culture of Neem Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The establishment of suspension culture system for neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) cells and the suspension culture condition was studied. It shows that the neem cell suspension culture system was best in B5 liquid medium, 2.0~4.0mg/L NAA with direct spill method. Based on the integrated analysis of cell biomass, Azadirachtin content and productivity, the optimum culture conditions were B5 liquid medium, 2.0-4.0 mg/L NAA, 3% sucrose at 25 ℃. The optimum rotating speed of the shaker and broth content d...

  16. [Effects of beryllium chloride on cultured cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kagami, M

    1984-05-01

    The effects of beryllium on cultured cells were investigated. Three cell-lines (HeLa-S3, Vero, HEL-R66) were used in these experiments and they were cultured in Eagle's MEM plus 5 or 10% FBS (Fetal Bovine Serum) containing beryllium in various concentrations. HeLa cells or Vero cells were able to grow in the medium with 10 micrograms Be/ml (1.1 mM). On the other hand, the growth of HEL cells were strongly inhibited, even when cultured in the medium with 1 microgram Be/ml (1.1 X 10(-1) mM) and the number of living cells showed markedly low level as compared to that of the control samples cultured in the medium without beryllium. The cytotoxic effects of beryllium on these cells, which were cultured for three days in the medium with beryllium, were observed. None of cytotoxic effects were found on HeLa cells cultured with 0.5 micrograms/ml (5.5 X 10(-2) mM) and on Vero cells cultured with 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), while HEL cells received cytotoxic effects even when cultured in the medium containing 0.05 micrograms Be/ml (5.5 X 10(-3) mM), and these effects on the cells appeared strong when cultured in the medium without FBS. It was revealed from these experiments that HEL cells are very sensitive in terms of toxic effects of beryllium. Therefore, there cells can be used for the toxicological study on low level concentrations of the metal.

  17. Dynamic culture improves cell reprogramming efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Junren; Sun, Raymond; Chu, Julia; Li, Song

    2016-06-01

    Cell reprogramming to pluripotency is an inefficient process and various approaches have been devised to improve the yield of induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the effect of biophysical factors on cell reprogramming is not well understood. Here we showed that, for the first time, dynamic culture with orbital shaking significantly improved the reprogramming efficiency in adherent cells. Manipulating the viscosity of the culture medium suggested that the improved efficiency is mainly attributed to convective mixing rather than hydrodynamic shear stress. Temporal studies demonstrated that the enhancement of reprogramming efficiency required the dynamic culture in the middle but not early phase. In the early phase, fibroblasts had a high proliferation rate, but as the culture became over-confluent in the middle phase, expression of p57 was upregulated to inhibit cell proliferation and consequently, cell reprogramming. Subjecting the over confluent culture to orbital shaking prevented the upregulation of p57, thus improving reprogramming efficiency. Seeding cells at low densities to avoid over-confluency resulted in a lower efficiency, and optimal reprogramming efficiency was attained at a high seeding density with dynamic culture. Our findings provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of how dynamic culture condition regulate cell reprogramming, and will have broad impact on cell engineering for regenerative medicine and disease modeling.

  18. New culture medium concepts for cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Kim, B Y; Yeo, J E; Nemeno, J G; Jo, Y H; Yang, W; Nam, B M; Namoto, S; Tanaka, S; Sato, M; Lee, K M; Hwang, H S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Before cell or tissue transplantation, cells or tissues have to be maintained for a certain period in vitro using culture medium and methods. Most culture media contain substances such as pH indicators and buffers. It is not known whether some of these substances are safe for subsequent application in the transplantation of cells or tissues into the human body. We investigated culture media and methods with respect to the safety of the components in future transplantation applications. A modified culture medium--medical fluid-based culture medium (FCM)--was designed by using various fluids and injectable drugs that are already currently permitted for use in clinical medicine. Medium components necessary for optimal cell growth were obtained from approved drugs. FCM was manufactured with adjusted final concentrations of the medium components similar to those in commercial Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). In particular, 1029.40 mg/L amino acids, approximately 88.85 mg/L vitamins, 13,525.77 mg/L inorganic salts, and 4500 mg/L D-glucose comprise the high-glucose FCM. Next, human fat synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and rat H9c2 (2-1) cells were cultured under 2 conditions: (1) DMEM-high glucose (HG), an original commercial medium, and (2) optimized FCM-HG. We assessed the morphologies and proliferation rates of these cells. We observed that FCM-HG was able to induce the growth of FS-MSC and commercially available H9c2 cell. The morphologies and proliferation patterns of these cells cultured under FCM-HG showed no differences compared with cells grown in DMEM-HG. Our data suggest that FCM, which we developed for the first time according to the concept of drug repositioning, was a useful culture medium, especially in cultured cells intended for human cell transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J E

    1979-01-01

    The autofluorescence other than intrinsic protein emission of viable cultured mammalian cells has been investigated. The fluorescence was found to originate in discrete cytoplasmic vesicle-like regions and to be absent from the nucleus. Excitation and emission spectra of viable cells revealed at least two distinct fluorescent species. Comparison of cell spectra with spectra of known cellular metabolites suggested that most, if not all, of the fluorescence arises from intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and riboflavin and flavin coenzymes. Various changes in culture conditions did not affect the observed autofluorescence intensity. A multiparameter flow system (MACCS) was used to compare the fluorescence intensities of numerous cultured mammalian cells.

  20. Emulsions Containing Perfluorocarbon Support Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Lu-Kwang; Lee, Jaw Fang; Armiger, William B.

    1990-01-01

    Addition of emulsion containing perfluorocarbon liquid to aqueous cell-culture medium increases capacity of medium to support mammalian cells. FC-40 Fluorinert (or equivalent) - increases average density of medium so approximately equal to that of cells. Cells stay suspended in medium without mechanical stirring, which damages them. Increases density enough to prevent cells from setting, and increases viscosity of medium so oxygen bubbled through it and nutrients stirred in with less damage to delicate cells.

  1. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates the induction of pro-oncogenic and fibrogenic phenotypes in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, Anna; Arciello, Mario; Petrini, Stefania; Conti, Beatrice; Missale, Gabriele; Balsano, Clara

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is one of the most common etiological factors involved in fibrosis development and its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pivotal role of hepatic stellate cells (HCSs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) in fibrogenesis is now certainly accepted, while the network of molecular interactions connecting HCV is emerging as a master regulator of several biological processes including proliferation, inflammation, cytoskeleton and ECM remodeling. In this study, the effects of HCV proteins expression on liver cancer cells, both pro-invasive and pro-fibrogenic phenotypes were explored. As a model of HCV infection, we used permissive Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells infected with JFH1-derived ccHCV. Conditioned medium from these cells was used to stimulate LX-2 cells, a line of HSCs. We found that the HCV infection of Huh7.5.1 cells decreased adhesion, increased migration and caused the delocalization of alpha-actinin from plasma membrane to cytoplasm and increased expression levels of paxillin. The treatment of LX-2 cells, with conditioned medium from HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells, caused an increase in cell proliferation, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, hyaluronic acid release and apoptosis rate measured as cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). These effects were accompanied in Huh7.5.1 cells by an HCV-dependent increasing of FAK activation that physically interacts with phosphorylated paxillin and alpha-actinin, and a rising of tumor necrosis factor alpha production/release. Silencing of FAK by siRNA reverted all effects of HCV infection, both those directed on Huh7.5.1 cells, and those indirect effects on the LX-2 cells. Moreover and interestingly, FAK inhibition enhances apoptosis in HCV-conditioned LX-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HCV, through FAK activation, may promote cytoskeletal reorganization and a pro-oncogenic phenotype in hepatocyte-like cells, and a fibrogenic phenotype in HSCs.

  2. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    OpenAIRE

    LI Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizin...

  3. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  4. Insect cell culture in reagent bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, S; Roest, S; Klopp, J; Carnal, S; Marti, S; Gerhartz, B; Shrestha, B

    2014-01-01

    Growing insect cells with high air space in culture vessel is common from the early development of suspension cell culture. We believed and followed it with the hope that it allows sufficient air for optimal cell growth. However, we missed to identify how much air exactly cells need for its growth and multiplication. Here we present the innovative method that changed the way we run insect cell culture. The method is easy to adapt, cost-effective and useful for both academic and industrial research labs. We believe this method will revolutionize the way we run insect cell culture by increasing throughput in a cost-effective way. In our study we identified:•Insect cells need to be in suspension; air space in culture vessel and type of culture vessel is of less importance. Shaking condition that introduces small air bubbles and maintains it in suspension for longer time provides better oxygen transfer in liquid. For this, high-fill volume in combination with speed and shaking diameter are important.•Commercially available insect cells are not fragile as original isolates. These cells can easily withstand higher shaking speed.•Growth condition in particular lab set-up needs to be optimized. The condition used in one lab may not be optimum for another lab due to different incubators from different vendors.

  5. Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Caralt, Sònia; Uriz, María J; Wijffels, René H

    2007-10-01

    Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a new source of sponge material for cell culture. Stem cells are present in high amounts in embryos and are more versatile and resistant to infections than adult cells. Additionally, genetic engineering and cellular research on apoptotic mechanisms are promising new fields that might help to improve cell survival in sponge-cell lines. We propose that one topic for future research should be how to reduce apoptosis, which appears to be very high in sponge cell cultures.

  6. Rotating cell culture systems for human cell culture: human trophoblast cells as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Warner, Jessica A; Machado, Heather L; Morris, Cindy A; Höner zu Bentrup, Kerstin

    2012-01-18

    The field of human trophoblast research aids in understanding the complex environment established during placentation. Due to the nature of these studies, human in vivo experimentation is impossible. A combination of primary cultures, explant cultures and trophoblast cell lines support our understanding of invasion of the uterine wall and remodeling of uterine spiral arteries by extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs), which is required for successful establishment of pregnancy. Despite the wealth of knowledge gleaned from such models, it is accepted that in vitro cell culture models using EVT-like cell lines display altered cellular properties when compared to their in vivo counterparts. Cells cultured in the rotating cell culture system (RCCS) display morphological, phenotypic, and functional properties of EVT-like cell lines that more closely mimic differentiating in utero EVTs, with increased expression of genes mediating invasion (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)) and trophoblast differentiation. The Saint Georges Hospital Placental cell Line-4 (SGHPL-4) (kindly donated by Dr. Guy Whitley and Dr. Judith Cartwright) is an EVT-like cell line that was used for testing in the RCCS. The design of the RCCS culture vessel is based on the principle that organs and tissues function in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment. Due to the dynamic culture conditions in the vessel, including conditions of physiologically relevant shear, cells grown in three dimensions form aggregates based on natural cellular affinities and differentiate into organotypic tissue-like assemblies. The maintenance of a fluid orbit provides a low-shear, low-turbulence environment similar to conditions found in vivo. Sedimentation of the cultured cells is countered by adjusting the rotation speed of the RCCS to ensure a constant free-fall of cells. Gas exchange occurs through a permeable hydrophobic membrane located on the back of the bioreactor. Like their parental tissue in vivo, RCCS

  7. Porcine mitral valve interstitial cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, W; Rosenthal, A; Granton, B; Gotlieb, A I

    1988-11-01

    There are connective tissue cells present within the interstitium of the heart valves. This study was designed to isolate and characterize mitral valve interstitial cells from the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. Explants obtained from the distal part of the leaflet, having been scraped free of surface endocardial cells, were incubated in medium 199 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells grew out of the explant after 3 to 5 days and by 3 weeks these cells were harvested and passaged. Passages 1 to 22 were characterized in several explant sets. The cells showed a growth pattern reminiscent of fibroblasts. Growth was dependent on serum concentration. Cytoskeletal localization of actin and myosin showed prominent stress fibers. Ultrastructural studies showed many elongated cells with prominent stress fibers and some gap junctions and few adherens junctions. There were as well cells with fewer stress fibers containing prominent Golgi complex and dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In the multilayered superconfluent cultures, the former cells tended to be on the substratum of the dish or surface of the multilayered culture, whereas the latter was generally located within the layer of cells. Extracellular matrix was prominent in superconfluent cultures, often within the layers as well. Labeling of the cells with antibody HHF 35 (Tsukada T, Tippens D, Gordon D, Ross R, Gown AM: Am J Pathol 126:51, 1987), which recognizes smooth muscle cell actin, showed prominent staining of the elongated stress fiber-containing cells and much less in the secretory type cells. These studies show that interstitial mitral valve cells can be grown in culture and that either two different cell types or one cell type with two phenotypic expressions is present in culture.

  8. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy Yijuan; Kiss, Robert; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including 1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; 2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; 3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process knowledge; and 4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation that is compliant with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., engineering of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development.

  9. Cell culture processes for monoclonal antibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Shen, Amy (Yijuan); Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Animal cell culture technology has advanced significantly over the last few decades and is now generally considered a reliable, robust and relatively mature technology. A range of biotherapeutics are currently synthesized using cell culture methods in large scale manufacturing facilities that produce products for both commercial use and clinical studies. The robust implementation of this technology requires optimization of a number of variables, including (1) cell lines capable of synthesizing the required molecules at high productivities that ensure low operating cost; (2) culture media and bioreactor culture conditions that achieve both the requisite productivity and meet product quality specifications; (3) appropriate on-line and off-line sensors capable of providing information that enhances process control; and (4) good understanding of culture performance at different scales to ensure smooth scale-up. Successful implementation also requires appropriate strategies for process development, scale-up and process characterization and validation that enable robust operation and ensure compliance with current regulations. This review provides an overview of the state-of-the art technology in key aspects of cell culture, e.g., generation of highly productive cell lines and optimization of cell culture process conditions. We also summarize the current thinking on appropriate process development strategies and process advances that might affect process development. PMID:20622510

  10. Isolation of mitochondria from tissue culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David A; Shadel, Gerald S

    2014-10-01

    The number of mitochondria per cell varies substantially from cell line to cell line. For example, human HeLa cells contain at least twice as many mitochondria as smaller mouse L cells. This protocol starts with a washed cell pellet of 1-2 mL derived from ∼10⁹ cells grown in culture. The cells are swollen in a hypotonic buffer and ruptured with a Dounce or Potter-Elvehjem homogenizer using a tight-fitting pestle, and mitochondria are isolated by differential centrifugation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Culture and transfection of axolotl cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Jean-François; Sader, Fadi; Ferretti, Patrizia; Roy, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    The use of cells grown in vitro has been instrumental for multiple aspects of biomedical research and especially molecular and cellular biology. The ability to grow cells from multicellular organisms like humans, squids, or salamanders is important to simplify the analyses and experimental designs to help understand the biology of these organisms. The advent of the first cell culture has allowed scientists to tease apart the cellular functions, and in many situations these experiments help understand what is happening in the whole organism. In this chapter, we describe techniques for the culture and genetic manipulation of an established cell line from axolotl, a species widely used for studying epimorphic regeneration.

  12. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  13. Wound Coverage by Cultured Skin Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    and spread. 6 We later coated collagen sponges with human or porcine plasma. Although this coating improved the plating of epidermal cells, it did not...healing by cultured epidermal grafts, we have found that: - We were able to grow epidermal cells on collapsed collagen sponges . As a result, we can create...plastic. Epidermal cells grown on collagen sponges formed four to five layers of nucleated cells, compared to only one layer on plastic surfaces. The use of

  14. Direct infection and replication of naturally occurring hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in normal human hepatocyte cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Buck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection afflicts about 170 million individuals worldwide. However, the HCV life cycle is only partially understood because it has not been possible to infect normal human hepatocytes in culture. The current Huh-7 systems use cloned, synthetic HCV RNA expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells to produce virions, but these cells cannot be infected with naturally occurring HCV obtained from infected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe a human hepatocyte culture permissible to the direct infection with naturally occurring HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the blood of HCV-infected patients. The culture system mimics the biology and kinetics of HCV infection in humans, and produces infectious virions that can infect naïve human hepatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This culture system should complement the existing systems, and may facilitate the understanding of the HCV life cycle, its effects in the natural host cell, the hepatocyte, as well as the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines.

  15. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea

  16. Primary cell cultures of bovine colon epithelium: isolation and cell culture of colonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föllmann, W; Weber, S; Birkner, S

    2000-10-01

    Epithelial cells from bovine colon were isolated by mechanical preparation combined with an enzymatic digestion from colon specimens derived from freshly slaughtered animals. After digestion with collagenase I, the isolated tissue was centrifuged on a 2% D-sorbitol gradient to separate epithelial crypts which were seeded in collagen I-coated culture flasks. By using colon crypts and omitting the seeding of single cells a contamination by fibroblasts was prevented. The cells proliferated under the chosen culture conditions and formed monolayer cultures which were maintained for several weeks, including subcultivation steps. A population doubling time of about 21 hr was estimated in the log phase of the corresponding growth curve. During the culture period the cells were characterized morphologically and enzymatically. By using antibodies against cytokeratine 7 and 13 the isolated cells were identified as cells of epithelial origin. Antibodies against vimentin served as negative control. Morphological features such as microvilli, desmosomes and tight junctions, which demonstrated the ability of the cultured cells to restore an epithelial like monolayer, were shown by ultrastructural investigations. The preservation of the secretory function of the cultured cells was demonstrated by mucine cytochemistry with alcian blue staining. A stable expression of enzyme activities over a period of 6 days in culture occurred for gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, acid phosphatase and NADH-dehydrogenase activity under the chosen culture conditions. Activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased to about 50% of basal value after 6 days in culture. Preliminary estimations of the metabolic competence of these cells revealed cytochrome P450 1A1-associated EROD activity in freshly isolated cells which was stable over 5 days in cultured cells. Then activity decreased completely. This culture system with primary epithelial cells from the colon will be used further as a model for the colon

  17. Oxidative stress induces monocyte necrosis with enrichment of cell-bound albumin and overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial chaperones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Tang

    Full Text Available In the present study, monocytes were treated with 5-azacytidine (azacytidine, gossypol or hydrogen peroxide to induce cell death through oxidative stress. A shift from apoptotic to necrotic cell death occurred when monocytes were treated with 100 µM azacytidine for more than 12 hours. Necrotic monocytes exhibited characteristics, including enrichment of cell-bound albumin and up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER- and mitochondrial-specific chaperones to protect mitochondrial integrity, which were not observed in other necrotic cells, including HUH-7, A2780, A549 and HOC1a. Our results show that the cell-bound albumin originates in the culture medium rather than from monocyte-derived hepatocytes, and that HSP60 is a potential binding partner of the cell-bound albumin. Proteomic analysis shows that HSP60 and protein disulfide isomerase are the most abundant up-regulated mitochondrial and ER-chaperones, and that both HSP60 and calreticulin are ubiquitinated in necrotic monocytes. In contrast, expression levels of the cytosolic chaperones HSP90 and HSP71 were down-regulated in the azacytidine-treated monocytes, concomitant with an increase in the levels of these chaperones in the cell culture medium. Collectively, our results demonstrates that chaperones from different organelles behave differently in necrotic monocytes, ER- and mitochondrial chaperones being retained and cytosolic and nuclear chaperones being released into the cell culture medium through the ruptured cell membrane. HSP60 may serve as a new target for development of myeloid leukemia treatment.

  18. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  19. Flux analysis of mammalian cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, D.E.; Tramper, J.

    2010-01-01

    Animal cells are used for the production of vaccines and pharmaceutical proteins. The increase in demand for these products requires an increase in volumetric productivity of animal cell culture processes, which can be attained through an increase in biomass concentration and/or specific productivit

  20. Xylogenesis in zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, Elena T.; Woltering, Ernst J.

    2017-01-01

    Main conclusion: Physiological and molecular studies support the view that xylogenesis can largely be determined as a specific form of vacuolar programmed cell death (PCD). The studies in xylogenic zinnia cell culture have led to many breakthroughs in xylogenesis research and provided a background

  1. Flux analysis of mammalian cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, D.E.; Tramper, J.

    2010-01-01

    Animal cells are used for the production of vaccines and pharmaceutical proteins. The increase in demand for these products requires an increase in volumetric productivity of animal cell culture processes, which can be attained through an increase in biomass concentration and/or specific

  2. Pitfalls in cell culture work with xanthohumol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, M; Kraus, B; Heilmann, J

    2012-01-01

    Xanthohumol, the most abundant prenylated chalcone in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones, is well known to exert several promising pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo. Among these, the chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects are probably the most interesting. As xanthohumol is hardly soluble in water and able to undergo conversion to isoxanthohumol we determined several handling characteristics for cell culture work with this compound. Recovery experiments revealed that working with xanthohumol under cell culture conditions requires a minimal amount of 10% FCS to increase its solubility to reasonable concentrations (-50-75 micromol/l) for pharmacological in vitro tests. Additionally, more than 50% of xanthohumol can be absorbed to various plastic materials routinely used in the cell culture using FCS concentrations below 10%. In contrast, experiments using fluorescence microscopy in living cells revealed that detection of cellular intake of xanthohumol is hampered by concentrations above 1% FCS.

  3. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  4. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  5. Pinoresinol from Ipomoea cairica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páska, Csilla; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Ferlin, Mariagrazia; Kunvári, Mónika; László, Miklós

    2002-10-01

    Ipomoea cairica cell cultures produced a tetrahydrofuran lignan, (+)-pinoresinol, identified by UV, IR, MS and NMR methods, not yet found in the intact plant, and new in the Convolvulaceae family. Pinoresinol was found to have antioxidant and Ca2+ antagonist properties. As it could be requested for its biological activity, we examined the possibility to raise the pinoresinol yield of I. cairica cultures, as well as we continued investigations on lignans' response to optimization.

  6. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  7. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro...

  8. General overview of neuronal cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer; Amini, Shohreh; White, Martyn K

    2013-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, we provide a general overview of neuronal cell culture. This is a rapidly evolving area of research and we provide an outline and contextual framework for the different chapters of this book. These chapters were all contributed by scientists actively working in the field who are currently using state-of-the-art techniques to advance our understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of the central nervous system. Each chapter provides detailed descriptions and experimental protocols for a variety of techniques ranging in scope from basic neuronal cell line culturing to advanced and specialized methods.

  9. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  10. Enhanced Replication of Hepatitis E Virus Strain 47832c in an A549-Derived Subclonal Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemmerer, Mathias; Apelt, Silke; Trojnar, Eva; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Wenzel, Jürgen J.; Johne, Reimar

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen with increasing importance. The lack of efficient cell culture systems hampers systematic studies on its replication cycle, virus neutralization and inactivation. Here, several cell lines were inoculated with the HEV genotype 3c strain 47832c, previously isolated from a chronically infected transplant patient. At 14 days after inoculation the highest HEV genome copy numbers were found in A549 cells, followed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, whereas HepG2/C3A, Huh-7 Lunet BLR and MRC-5 cells only weakly supported virus replication. Inoculation of A549-derived subclone cell lines resulted in most cases in reduced HEV replication. However, the subclone A549/D3 was susceptible to lower virus concentrations and resulted in higher virus yields as compared to parental A549 cells. Transcriptome analysis indicated a downregulation of genes for carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAM) 5 and 6, and an upregulation of the syndecan 2 (SDC2) gene in A549/D3 cells compared to A549 cells. However, treatment of A549/D3 cells or A549 cells with CEACAM- or syndecan 2-specific antisera did not influence HEV replication. The results show that cells supporting more efficient HEV replication can be selected from the A549 cell line. The specific mechanisms responsible for the enhanced replication remain unknown. PMID:27690085

  11. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  12. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  13. Shape memory polymers for active cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin A; Luo, Xiaofan; Mather, Patrick T; Henderson, James H

    2011-07-04

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of "smart" materials that have the ability to change from a fixed, temporary shape to a pre-determined permanent shape upon the application of a stimulus such as heat(1-5). In a typical shape memory cycle, the SMP is first deformed at an elevated temperature that is higher than its transition temperature, T(trans;) [either the melting temperature (T(m;)) or the glass transition temperature (T(g;))]. The deformation is elastic in nature and mainly leads to a reduction in conformational entropy of the constituent network chains (following the rubber elasticity theory). The deformed SMP is then cooled to a temperature below its T(trans;) while maintaining the external strain or stress constant. During cooling, the material transitions to a more rigid state (semi-crystalline or glassy), which kinetically traps or "freezes" the material in this low-entropy state leading to macroscopic shape fixing. Shape recovery is triggered by continuously heating the material through T(trans;) under a stress-free (unconstrained) condition. By allowing the network chains (with regained mobility) to relax to their thermodynamically favored, maximal-entropy state, the material changes from the temporary shape to the permanent shape. Cells are capable of surveying the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment(6). The mechanisms through which mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment control cell behavior are areas of active research. Substrates of defined topography have emerged as powerful tools in the investigation of these mechanisms. Mesoscale, microscale, and nanoscale patterns of substrate topography have been shown to direct cell alignment, cell adhesion, and cell traction forces(7-14). These findings have underscored the potential for substrate topography to control and assay the mechanical interactions between cells and their physical environment during cell culture, but the substrates used to date

  14. Microanalysis of gene expression in cultured cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Veer (Eveliene)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis two aspects of gene expression in cultured cells have been studied: the heterogeneity in gene expression in relation with the development and application of microchemical techniques for the prenatal diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and the possibility of inducing g

  15. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  16. Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our focus...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....

  17. Nanotechnology, Cell Culture and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Haraguchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated new types of polymer hydrogels and polymer nanocomposites, i.e., nanocomposite gels (NC gels and soft, polymer nanocomposites (M-NCs: solid, with novel organic/inorganic network structures. Both NC gels and M-NCs were synthesized by in-situ free-radical polymerization in the presence of exfoliated clay platelets in aqueous systems and were obtained in various forms such as film, sheet, tube, coating, etc. and sizes with a wide range of clay contents. Here, disk-like inorganic clay nanoparticles act as multi-functional crosslinkers to form new types of network systems. Both NC gels and M-NCs have extraordinary optical and mechanical properties including ultra-high reversible extensibility, as well as a number of new characteristics relating to optical anisotropy, polymer/clay morphology, biocompatibility, stimuli-sensitive surfaces, micro-patterning, etc. For examples, the biological testing of medical devices, comprised of a sensitization test, an irritation test, an intracutaneous test and an in vitro cytotoxicity test,was carried out for NC gels and M-NCs. The safety of NC gels and M-NCs was confirmed in all tests. Also, the interaction of living tissue with NC gel was investigated in vivo by implantation in live goats; neither inflammation nor concrescence occurred around the NC gels. Furthermore, it was found that both N-NC gels consisting of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide(PNIPA/clay network and M-NCs consisting of poly(2-methoxyethyacrylate(PMEA/clay network show characteristic cell culture and subsequent cell detachment on their surfaces, although it was almost impossible to culture cells on conventional, chemically-crosslinked PNIPA hydrogels and chemically crossslinked PMEA, regardless of their crosslinker concentration. Various kinds of cells, such ashumanhepatoma cells (HepG2, normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, could be cultured to be confluent on the surfaces of N

  18. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  19. Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our foc...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....... in this paper is on the optimization of how a biochemical application is performed on a biochip. In this paper, we consider cell culture biochips, where several cell colonies are exposed to soluble compounds and monitored in real-time to determine the right combination of factors that leads to the desired...

  20. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  1. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  2. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  3. Culturing of retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtink, Monika; Engelmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells adjacent to the photoreceptors of the retina. It plays a crucial role in maintaining photoreceptor health and survival. Degeneration or dysfunction of the RPE can lead to photoreceptor degeneration and as a consequence to visual impairment. The most common diseased state of the RPE becomes manifest in age-related macular degeneration, an increasing cause of blindness in the elderly. RPE cells are therefore of great interest to researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and cell transplantation. In fact, studies in animal models have proven that the transplantation of RPE cells can delay the course of photoreceptor degenerative diseases. Although first attempts to transplant RPE cells into the subretinal space in human individuals suffering from age-related macular degeneration were less successful, RPE cell transplantation is still favored as a future therapeutic option, and much work is done to develop and design cell transplants. Cell banking is a prerequisite to have well-differentiated and characterized cells at hand when needed for research purposes, but also for therapeutic approaches. In this chapter the authors will describe methods to isolate, culture and preserve adult human RPE cells for the purpose of RPE cell banking. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prevention and Detection of Mycoplasma Contamination in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in cell culture is mycoplasma infection. It can extensively affectcell physiology and metabolism. As the applications of cell culture increase in research,industrial production and cell therapy, more concerns about mycoplasma contaminationand detection will arise. This review will provide valuable information about: 1. the waysin which cells are contaminated and the frequency and source of mycoplasma species incell culture; 2. the ways to prevent mycoplasma contamination in cell culture; 3. the importanceof mycoplasma tests in cell culture; 4. different methods to identify mycoplasmacontamination; 5. the consequences of mycoplasma contamination in cell culture and 6.available methods to eliminate mycoplasma contamination. Awareness about the sourcesof mycoplasma and pursuing aseptic techniques in cell culture along with reliable detectionmethods of mycoplasma contamination can provide an appropriate situation to preventmycoplasma contamination in cell culture.

  5. Human ES cells: starting culture from frozen cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Dimos, John; Eggan, Kevin

    2006-11-09

    Here we demonstrate how our lab begins a HuES human embryonic stem cell line culture from a frozen stock. First, a one to two day old ten cm plate of approximately one (to two) million irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cells is rinsed with HuES media to remove residual serum and cell debris, and then HuES media added and left to equilibrate in the cell culture incubator. A frozen vial of cells from long term liquid nitrogen storage or a -80 C freezer is sourced and quickly submerged in a 37 C water bath for quick thawing. Cells in freezing media are then removed from the vial and placed in a large volume of HuES media. The large volume of HuES media facilitates removal of excess serum and DMSO, which can cause HuES human embryonic stem cells to differentiate. Cells are gently spun out of suspension, and then re-suspended in a small volume of fresh HuES media that is then used to seed the MEF plate. It is considered important to seed the MEF plate by gently adding the HuES cells in a drop wise fashion to evenly disperse them throughout the plate. The newly established HuES culture plate is returned to the incubator for 48 hrs before media is replaced, then is fed every 24 hours thereafter.

  6. Mouse cell culture - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases, starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward and David Tosh provide a necessary update of the protocols currently needed. In fact, nearly half of the book is devoted to stem cells culture protocols, mainly embryonic, from a list of several organs (kidney, lung, oesophagus and intestine, pancreas and liver to mention some........

  7. Sequencing technologies for animal cell culture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremkow, Benjamin G; Lee, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, 2nd and 3rd generation sequencing technologies have made the use of genomic sequencing within the animal cell culture community increasingly commonplace. Each technology's defining characteristics are unique, including the cost, time, sequence read length, daily throughput, and occurrence of sequence errors. Given each sequencing technology's intrinsic advantages and disadvantages, the optimal technology for a given experiment depends on the particular experiment's objective. This review discusses the current characteristics of six next-generation sequencing technologies, compares the differences between them, and characterizes their relevance to the animal cell culture community. These technologies are continually improving, as evidenced by the recent achievement of the field's benchmark goal: sequencing a human genome for less than $1,000.

  8. Prostaglandin E₂ receptor EP2 mediates Snail expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shan-Yu; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Min; Xia, Shu-Kai; Bai, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li; Ma, Juan; Rong, Rong; Wang, Yi-Pin; Du, Ming-Zhan; Wang, Jie; Chen, Meng; Shi, Feng; Yang, Qin-Yi; Leng, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to influence cell invasion and metastasis in several types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). however, the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain to be further elucidated. Snail, as one of key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), plays pivotal roles in HCC invasion and metastasis. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible signaling pathways through which PGE2 regulates Snail protein expression in HCC cell lines. PGE2 markedly enhanced Huh-7 cell invasion and migration ability by upregulating the expression level of Snail protein, and EP2 receptor played an important role in this process. Src, EGFR, Akt and mTOR were all activated and involved in the regulation of snail protein expression. Our findings suggest that PGE2 could upregulate the expression level of Snail protein through the EP2/Src/EGFR/Akt/mTOR pathway in Huh-7 cells, which promotes HCC cell invasion and migration.

  9. TGF-β1/SMAD SIGNALING PATHWAY MEDIATES p53-DEPENDENT APOPTOSIS IN HEPATOMA CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine whether transforming growth factor betal ( TGF-β1 )/Smad signaling pathway mediates p53-dependent apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines. Methods Three human hepatic carcinoma cell lines, HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B, were used in this study. TGF-β31-induced apoptosis in hepatic carcinoma cell lines was analyzed using TUNEL assay. For identifying the mechanism of apoptosis induced by TGF-β1, cell lines were transfected with a TGF-β1-inducible luciferase reportor plasmid containing Smad4 binding elements. After transfection, cells were treated with TGF-β1, then assayed for luciferase activity. Results The apoptosis rate of HepG2 cell lines (48.51% ± 8.21% ) was significantly higher than control (12. 72% ±2. 18%, P <0. 05 ). But TGF-β1 was not able to induce apoptosis of Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines. The relative luciferase activity of TGF-β1-treated HepG2 cell lines (4. 38) was significantly higher than control (1.00, P <0. 05). But the relative luciferase activity of TGF-β1-treated Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines less increased compared with control. Conclusions HepG2 cells seem to be highly susceptible to TGF-β1-induced apoptosis compared with Hep3B and Huh-7 cell lines. Smad4 is a central mediator of TGF-β1 signaling transdution pathway. TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway might mediate p53-dependent apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines.

  10. Mouse cell culture: methods and protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira M. Guerra Shinohara

    2010-01-01

    The mouse is, out of any doubt, the experimental animal par excellence for many many colleagues within the scientific community, notably for those working in mammalian biology (in a broad sense, from basic genetic to modeling human diseases), starting at least from 1664 Robert Hooke experiments on air’s propertyn. Not surprising then that mouse cell cultures is a well established field of research itself and that there are several handbooks devoted to this discipline. Here, Andrew Ward ...

  11. Embryo forming cells in carrot suspension cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Toonen, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Somatic cells of many plant species can be cultured in vitro and induced to form embryos that are able to develop into mature plants. This process, termed somatic embryogenesis, was originally described in carrot (Daucus carota L.). Somatic embryos develop through the same characteristic morphological stages, i.e. the globular-, heartand torpedo-stage respectively, as their zygotic counterparts. Due to the different cellular origin of somatic embryos, it is less clear to what extent the earli...

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAR RUSLAN; ARTRI; ELFAHMI

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesi...

  13. 野生型Parkin基因对肝癌细胞生长的影响%Effect of wild type parkin gene on growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 施红旗; 单云峰; 沈文状; 朱智; 刘顺芳

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨野生型及突变型Parkin基因表达对人肝癌细胞株Huh-7在体内外生长情况的影响.方法 利用脂质体介导的基因转染法将野生型及突变型Parkin基因真核表达载体转染肝癌细胞株Huh-7,筛选稳定表达细胞株,通过逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)进行鉴定并送测序分析.细胞增殖实验和裸鼠致瘤性实验检测各稳定表达株的体内外生长情况.结果 成功建立了稳定表达野生型和突变型Parkin基因的Huh-7细胞株.以转染空载体的Huh-7细胞作为对照,野生型Parkin基因的表达可明显抑制肝癌细胞在体外的生长(t=3.875,P=0.031),可显著减缓裸鼠皮下瘤的生长速度并减小其体积(t=8.228,P=0.003).突变型Parkin基因的表达对肝癌细胞的生长影响不大(P>0.05).结论 野生型Parkin的重表达有助于肝癌细胞恶性表型的逆转.野生型Parkin基因是一个肝癌相关的抑癌基因.%Objective To explore the effect of wild type or mutant parkin gene expression on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7. Methods The parkin (wild type or mutant) expression vector and empty vector were transferred into Huh-7 cell lines with LipofectAMINE 2000 reagents. The positive clones that expressed parkin gene stably were chosen by G418 and checked by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to check the DNA sequences. The cytobiological behaviors of those positive clones were analyzed by cell proliferation assay and tumorigenesis in nude mice. Results Huh-7 cell lines that expressed wild type or mutant parkin gene stably were successfully established. The growth of wild type parkin-expressed cells was obviously inhibited compared with the control cells transfected with empty vectors(t= 3. 875, P= 0. 031).The volume of tumor formed by wild type parkin-expressing cells in nude mice was also significantly reduced (t=8. 228,P=-0. 003). Mutant parkin gene expression had a slight effect on the

  14. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massai, Diana; Isu, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future.

  15. Conversion of primordial germ cells to pluripotent stem cells: methods for cell tracking and culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Go; Suda, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are unipotent cells committed to germ lineage: PGCs can only differentiate into gametes in vivo. However, upon fertilization, germ cells acquire the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body, including germ cells. Therefore, germ cells are thought to have the potential for pluripotency. PGCs can convert to pluripotent stem cells in vitro when cultured under specific conditions that include bFGF, LIF, and the membrane-bound form of SCF (mSCF). Here, the culture conditions which efficiently convert PGCs to pluripotent embryonic germ (EG) cells are described, as well as methods used for identifying pluripotent candidate cells during culture.

  16. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  17. An Introductory Undergraduate Course Covering Animal Cell Culture Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdziak, Paul E.; Petitte, James N.; Carson, Susan D.

    2004-01-01

    Animal cell culture is a core laboratory technique in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Cell culture is a relatively old technique that has been sparingly taught at the undergraduate level. The traditional methodology for acquiring cell culture training has been through trial and error, instruction when…

  18. Characteristics of nobiletin-mediated alteration of gene expression in cultured cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu, E-mail: nemoto@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Ikeda, Ayaka; Yoshida, Chiaki; Kimura, Junko; Mori, Junki [Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Fujiwara, Hironori [Department of Anti-Dementia Functional Food Development, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-7 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yokosuka, Akihito; Mimaki, Yoshihiro [Department of Medicinal Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji 192-0392 (Japan); Ohizumi, Yasushi [Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Department of Anti-Dementia Functional Food Development, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-7 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Laboratory of Kampo Medicines, Yokohama College of Pharmacy, 601 Matano-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama 245-0066 (Japan); Degawa, Masakuni [Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Nobiletin-mediated alterations of gene expression were examined with DNA microarrays. ► Three organ-derived cell lines were treated with 100 μM nobiletin for 24 h. ► In all cell lines, 3 endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes were up-regulated. ► Some cell cycle-regulating and oxidative stress-promoting genes were down-regulated. ► These alterations may contribute to nobiletin-mediated biological effects. -- Abstract: Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid that is highly contained in the peels of citrus fruits, exerts a wide variety of beneficial effects, including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, repressive effects in hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and ameliorative effects in dementia at in vitro and in vivo levels. In the present study, to further understand the mechanisms of these actions of nobiletin, the nobiletin-mediated alterations of gene expression in three organ-derived cell lines – 3Y1 rat fibroblasts, HuH-7 human hepatocarcinoma cells, and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells – were first examined with DNA microarrays. In all three cell lines, treatments with nobiletin (100 μM) for 24 h resulted in more than 200% increases in the expression levels of five genes, including the endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes Ddit3, Trib3, and Asns, and in less than 50% decreases in the expression levels of seven genes, including the cell cycle-regulating genes Ccna2, Ccne2, and E2f8 and the oxidative stress-promoting gene Txnip. It was also confirmed that in each nobiletin-treated cell line, the levels of the DDIT3 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3, also known as CHOP and GADD153) and ASNS (asparagine synthetase) proteins were increased, while the level of the TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein, also known as VDUP1 and TBP-2) protein was decreased. All these findings suggest that nobiletin exerts a wide variety of biological effects, at least partly, through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and

  19. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLESIA O. GRYGORIEVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Grygorieva OO, Berezovsjka MA, Dacenko OI. 2015. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 38-42. Two cultures of Chlamydomonas actinochloris Deason et Bold in the lag-phase were exposed to the microwave irradiation. One of them (culture 1 was not treated beforehand, whereas the other (culture 2 was irradiated by microwaves 2 years earlier. The measurement of cell quantity as well as measurement of change of intensities and spectra of cultures photoluminescence (PL in the range of chlorophyll a emission was regularly conducted during the cell cultures development. Cell concentration of culture 1 exposed to the microwave irradiation for the first time has quickly restored while cell concentration of culture 2 which was irradiated repeatedly has fallen significantly. The following increasing of cell concentration of culture 2 is negligible. Cell concentration reaches the steady-state level that is about a half of the cell concentration of control culture. Initially the PL efficiency of cells of both cultures decreases noticeable as a result of irradiation. Then there is the monotonic increase to the values which are significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control cultures. The ratio of the intensities at the maxima of the main emission bands of chlorophyll for control samples of both cultures remained approximately at the same level. At the same time effect of irradiation on the cell PL spectrum appears as a temporary reduction of this magnitude.

  20. Insect cell culture in research: Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Mourya, D T; Mishra, A C

    2005-06-01

    Insect cell cultures are widely used in viral diagnosis and biotechnology, for the production of recombinant proteins, viral pesticides and vaccines as well as in basic research in genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, endocrinology and virology. Following KRP Singh's pioneering research in 1967, a large number of cell lines from diptera, hemiptera, and lepidopteran insects were established and characterized in India. With the availability of the modern tools in molecular biology and the advancements made in biotechnology, the indigenous cell lines may prove useful in creating a future without biohazardous chemical pesticides as well as producing life saving pharmaceuticals and vaccines for many diseases. This review summarizes information gathered regarding the insect cell lines established so far in India. It also covers the familiarization of the well characterized continuous cell lines and their potential applications. Special attention is given to virus susceptibility of the cell lines, the yield of virus with a comparative analysis with other conventional systems. The potential applications of dipteran and lepidopteran cell lines in agriculture and biotechnology are also briefly discussed for prospective studies.

  1. High-resolution proteomic and lipidomic analysis of exosomes and microvesicles from different cell sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka A. Haraszti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs, including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs, are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a The protein patterns of exosomes were more likely different from their cells of origin than were the protein patterns of MVs; (b The proteomes of U87 and Huh7 exosomes were similar to each other but different from the proteomes of MSC exosomes, whereas the lipidomes of Huh7 and MSC exosomes were similar to each other but different from the lipidomes of U87 exosomes; (c exosomes exhibited proteins of extracellular matrix, heparin-binding, receptors, immune response and cell adhesion functions, whereas MVs were enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, proteasome and mitochondrial proteins. Exosomes and MVs also differed in their types of lipid contents. Enrichment in glycolipids and free fatty acids characterized exosomes, whereas enrichment in ceramides and sphingomyelins characterized MVs. Furthermore, Huh7 and MSC exosomes were specifically enriched in cardiolipins; U87 exosomes were enriched in sphingomyelins. This study comprehensively analyses the protein and lipid composition of exosomes, MVs and source cells in 3 different cell types.

  2. High-resolution proteomic and lipidomic analysis of exosomes and microvesicles from different cell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraszti, Reka A.; Didiot, Marie-Cecile; Sapp, Ellen; Leszyk, John; Shaffer, Scott A.; Rockwell, Hannah E.; Gao, Fei; Narain, Niven R.; DiFiglia, Marian; Kiebish, Michael A.; Aronin, Neil; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were more likely different from their cells of origin than were the protein patterns of MVs; (b) The proteomes of U87 and Huh7 exosomes were similar to each other but different from the proteomes of MSC exosomes, whereas the lipidomes of Huh7 and MSC exosomes were similar to each other but different from the lipidomes of U87 exosomes; (c) exosomes exhibited proteins of extracellular matrix, heparin-binding, receptors, immune response and cell adhesion functions, whereas MVs were enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, proteasome and mitochondrial proteins. Exosomes and MVs also differed in their types of lipid contents. Enrichment in glycolipids and free fatty acids characterized exosomes, whereas enrichment in ceramides and sphingomyelins characterized MVs. Furthermore, Huh7 and MSC exosomes were specifically enriched in cardiolipins; U87 exosomes were enriched in sphingomyelins. This study comprehensively analyses the protein and lipid composition of exosomes, MVs and source cells in 3 different cell types. PMID:27863537

  3. Cell culture device using spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Chung-Jen; Shen, Ching-I.; Ou, Chung-Ming

    2009-07-01

    Spatial light modulator is introduced for cell culturing and related illumination experiment. Two kinds of designs were used. The first type put the cell along with the bio-medium directly on top of the analyzer of the microdisplay and set a cover glass on it to retain the medium environment, which turned the microdisplay into a bio-container. The second type introduced an optical lens system placed below the spatial light modulator to focus the light spots on specific position. Details of the advantages and drawbacks for the two different approaches are discussed, and the human melanocyte cell (HMC) is introduced to prove the feasibility of the concept. Results indicate that the second type is much more suitable than the first for precision required application.

  4. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R;

    2003-01-01

    A streamlined, simple technique for primary cell culture from E17 rat tissue is presented. In an attempt to standardize culturing methods for all neuronal cell types in the embryo, we evaluated a commercial medium without serum and used similar times for trypsinization and tested different surfaces...... for plating. In 1 day, using one method and a single medium, it is possible to produce robust E17 cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), cerebellum, and enteric plexi. Allowing the endogenous glial cells to repopulate the cultures saves time compared with existing techniques, in which glial cells are added...... to cultures first treated with antimitotic agents. It also ensures that all the cells present in vivo will be present in the culture. Myelination commences after approximately 2 weeks in culture for dissociated DRG and 3-4 weeks in cerebellar cultures. In enteric cultures, glial wrapping of the enteric...

  5. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  6. Novel hepatitis C virus reporter replicon cell lines enable efficient antiviral screening against genotype 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Margaret; Yang, Huiling; Sun, Siu-Chi; Peng, Betty; Tian, Yang; Pagratis, Nikos; Greenstein, Andrew E; Delaney, William E

    2010-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) subgenomic replicon is the primary tool for evaluating the activity of anti-HCV compounds in drug discovery research. Despite the prevalence of HCV genotype 1a (approximately 70% of U.S. HCV patients), few genotype 1a reporter replicon cell lines have been described; this is presumably due to the low replication capacity of such constructs in available Huh-7 cells. In this report, we describe the selection of highly permissive Huh-7 cell lines that support robust replication of genotype 1a subgenomic replicons harboring luciferase reporter genes. These novel cell lines support the replication of multiple genotype 1a replicons (including the H77 and SF9 strains), are significantly more permissive to genotype 1a HCV replication than parental Huh7-Lunet cells, and maintain stable genotype 1a replication levels suitable for antiviral screening. We found that the sensitivity of genotype 1a luciferase replicons to known antivirals was highly consistent between individual genotype 1a clonal cell lines but could vary significantly between genotypes 1a and 1b. Sequencing of the nonstructural region of 12 stable replicon cell clones suggested that the enhanced permissivity is likely due to cellular component(s) in these new cell lines rather than the evolution of novel adaptive mutations in the replicons. These new reagents will enhance drug discovery efforts targeting genotype 1a and facilitate the profiling of compound activity among different HCV genotypes and subtypes.

  7. How do culture media influence in vitro perivascular cell behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Birgit; Volz, Ann-Cathrin; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2015-12-01

    Perivascular cells are multilineage cells located around the vessel wall and important for wall stabilization. In this study, we evaluated a stem cell media and a perivascular cell-specific media for the culture of primary perivascular cells regarding their cell morphology, doubling time, stem cell properties, and expression of cell type-specific markers. When the two cell culture media were compared to each other, perivascular cells cultured in the stem cell medium had a more elongated morphology and a faster doubling rate and cells cultured in the pericyte medium had a more typical morphology, with several filopodia, and a slower doubling rate. To evaluate stem cell properties, perivascular cells, CD146(-) cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. It was seen that perivascular cells, as well as CD146(-) cells and MSCs, cultured in stem cell medium showed greater differentiation than cells cultured in pericyte-specific medium. The expression of pericyte-specific markers CD146, neural/glial antigen 2 (NG2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), myosin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) could be found in both pericyte cultures, as well as to varying amounts in CD146(-) cells, MSCs, and endothelial cells. The here presented work shows that perivascular cells can adapt to their in vitro environment and cell culture conditions influence cell functionality, such as doubling rate or differentiation behavior. Pericyte-specific markers were shown to be expressed also from cells other than perivascular cells. We can further conclude that CD146(+) perivascular cells are inhomogeneous cell population probably containing stem cell subpopulations, which are located perivascular around capillaries.

  8. Fibrogenic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in injured liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto M Baertschiger

    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC are currently investigated clinically as cellular therapy for a variety of diseases. Differentiation of MSC toward endodermal lineages, including hepatocytes and their therapeutic effect on fibrosis has been described but remains controversial. Recent evidence attributed a fibrotic potential to MSC. As differentiation potential might be dependent of donor age, we studied MSC derived from adult and pediatric human bone marrow and their potential to differentiate into hepatocytes or myofibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Following characterization, expanded adult and pediatric MSC were co-cultured with a human hepatoma cell line, Huh-7, in a hepatogenic differentiation medium containing Hepatocyte growth factor, Fibroblast growth factor 4 and oncostatin M. In vivo, MSC were transplanted into spleen or liver of NOD/SCID mice undergoing partial hepatectomy and retrorsine treatment. Expression of mesenchymal and hepatic markers was analyzed by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, adult and pediatric MSC expressed characteristic surface antigens of MSC. Expansion capacity of pediatric MSC was significantly higher when compared to adult MSC. In co-culture with Huh-7 cells in hepatogenic differentiation medium, albumin expression was more frequently detected in pediatric MSC (5/8 experiments when compared to adult MSC (2/10 experiments. However, in such condition pediatric MSC expressed alpha smooth muscle more strongly than adult MSC. Stable engraftment in the liver was not achieved after intrasplenic injection of pediatric or adult MSC. After intrahepatic injection, MSC permanently remained in liver tissue, kept a mesenchymal morphology and expressed vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin, but no hepatic markers. Further, MSC localization merges with collagen deposition in transplanted liver and no difference was observed using adult or pediatric MSC. In conclusion, when transplanted into an

  9. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-04-25

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryptosporidium cell culture infectivity assay design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B J; Keegan, A R; Robinson, B S; Monis, P T

    2011-05-01

    Members of the genus Cryptosporidium, which cause the gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis, still represent a significant cause of water-borne disease worldwide. While intensive efforts have been invested in the development of techniques for parasite culture, in vitro growth has been hampered by a number of factors including low levels of infectivity as well as delayed life-cycle development and poor synchronicity. In this study we examined factors affecting the timing of contact between excysted sporozoites and target host cells and the subsequent impact of this upon the establishment of infection. We demonstrate that excystation rate impacts upon establishment of infection and that in our standard assay format the majority of sporozoites are not close enough to the cell monolayer when they are released from the oocyst to successfully establish infection. However, this can be easily overcome by centrifugation of oocysts onto the cell monolayer, resulting in approximately 4-fold increases in sporozoite attachment and subsequent infection. We further demonstrate that excystation procedures can be tailored to control excystation rate to match the assay end purpose and that excystation rate can influence data interpretation. Finally, the addition of both a centrifugation and washing step post-sporozoite attachment may be appropriate when considering the design of in vitro culture experiments for developmental analysis and stage-specific gene expression as this appears to increase the synchronicity of early developmental stages.

  11. Sarcoma derived from cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Nauta, Alma J; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis Mortari, Angela; McElmurry, Ron T; Bell, Scott; Xia, Lily; Zhou, Ning; Riddle, Megan; Schroeder, Tania M; Westendorf, Jennifer J; McIvor, R Scott; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; Oseth, Leann; Hirsch, Betsy; Yant, Stephen R; Kay, Mark A; Peister, Alexandra; Prockop, Darwin J; Fibbe, Willem E; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    To study the biodistribution of MSCs, we labeled adult murine C57BL/6 MSCs with firefly luciferase and DsRed2 fluorescent protein using nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposons and coinfused labeled MSCs with bone marrow into irradiated allogeneic recipients. Using in vivo whole-body imaging, luciferase signals were shown to be increased between weeks 3 and 12. Unexpectedly, some mice with the highest luciferase signals died and all surviving mice developed foci of sarcoma in their lungs. Two mice also developed sarcomas in their extremities. Common cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in tumor cells isolated from different animals. Original MSC cultures not labeled with transposons, as well as independently isolated cultured MSCs, were found to be cytogenetically abnormal. Moreover, primary MSCs derived from the bone marrow of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed cytogenetic aberrations after several passages in vitro, showing that transformation was not a strain-specific nor rare event. Clonal evolution was observed in vivo, suggesting that the critical transformation event(s) occurred before infusion. Mapping of the transposition insertion sites did not identify an obvious transposon-related genetic abnormality, and p53 was not overexpressed. Infusion of MSC-derived sarcoma cells resulted in malignant lesions in secondary recipients. This new sarcoma cell line, S1, is unique in having a cytogenetic profile similar to human sarcoma and contains bioluminescent and fluorescent genes, making it useful for investigations of cellular biodistribution and tumor response to therapy in vivo. More importantly, our study indicates that sarcoma can evolve from MSC cultures.

  12. Silencing of WWP2 inhibits adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yong; Xu, Sheng-Qian; Pan, De-Biao; Ye, Guan-Xiong; Wu, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Shi; Wang, Chao-Jun; Jiang, Jin-Yan; Fu, Jing

    2016-05-01

    The role and clinical implication of the WWP2 E3 ubiquitin ligase in liver cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the expression level of WWP2 and its functions in cell adhesion, invasion, and migration in liver cancer. We used real-time PCR to detect the expression of WWP2 in liver cancer and adjacent samples from the People's Hospital of Lishui and also analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-seq data by bioinformatics. Migration and invasion were detected by transwell analysis. We detected a strong WWP2 expression in tumor tissues of the People's Hospital of Lishui, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with lower WWP2-expressing tumors. WWP2 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus stably infected cells (shWWP2), Huh7, showed slower growth speed compared with scramble control-infected cells in a xenograft mouse model. Knockdown of WWP2 Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells demonstrated a reduction in adhesion, invasion, and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that WWP2 is positively correlated to cancer-related pathways including the chemokine signaling pathway. WWP2 also regulated MMP-9, caspase-9, CXCR3, and CCR5 expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, knockdown of CXCR3 and CCR5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion, and migration in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. Our data suggest that targeting of WWP2 may be a therapeutic strategy for liver cancer treatment.

  13. DNA MUTAGENESIS IN PANAX GINSENG CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiselev K.V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, it is well documented that plant tissue culture induces a number of mutations and chromosome rearrangements termed “somaclonal variations”. However, little is known about the nature and the molecular mechanisms of the tissue culture-induced mutagenesis and the effects of long-term subculturing on the rate and specific features of the mutagenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare DNA mutagenesis in different genes of Panax ginseng callus cultures of different age. It has previously been shown that the nucleotide sequences of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC locus and the selective marker nptII developed mutations during long-term cultivation of transgenic cell cultures of P. ginseng. In the present work, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of selected plant gene families in a 2-year-old and 20-year-old P. ginseng 1c cell culture and in leaves of cultivated P. ginseng plants. We analysed sequence variability between the Actin genes, which are a family of house-keeping genes; the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and dammarenediol synthase (DDS genes, which actively participate in the biosynthesis of ginsenosides; and the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase (SERK genes, which control plant development. The frequency of point mutations in the Actin, PAL, DDS, and SERK genes in the 2-year-old callus culture was markedly higher than that in cultivated plants but lower than that in the 20-year-old callus culture of P. ginseng. Most of the mutations in the 2- and 20-year-old P. ginseng calli were A↔G and T↔C transitions. The number of nonsynonymous mutations was higher in the 2- and 20-year-old callus cultures than the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the cultivated plants of P. ginseng. Interestingly, the total number of N→G or N→C substitutions in the analyzed genes was 1.6 times higher than the total number of N→A or N→T substitutions. Using methylation-sensitive DNA fragmentation

  14. Growth of cultured porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, A.K.; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nicolini, Jair;

    2003-01-01

    To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation.......To establish and characterize cultures of porcine retinal pigment epithelial (pRPE) cells in order to produce confluent monolayers of cells for transplantation....

  15. 沉默Rock2对肝癌细胞增殖及凋亡作用的研究%Study of Rock2 on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天德; 袁荣发; 王庆诺; 蒋成行; 杨志强; 邵江华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Rock2 on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines. Methods: There were four experimental groups in this study, including untreated group, non-targeting group, PBS group and shRock2 group. Hepatocellular carcinoma Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines were transfected with shRock2. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assays were used to detect the expression levels of Rock2 mRNA and protein, respectively. The cell proliferation of Huh-7 and HepG2 was measured by MTT assay. The cell cycle was detected by PI staining method through flow cytometry and the earlier apoptosis was demonstrated by Annexin V apoptosis kit. Results: Results of RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the expression levels of Rock2 mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in shRock2 transfected Huh-7 and HepG2 cells. After the silence of Rock2, the cell proliferation was blocked in the shRock2 cells compared to that of control group (P < 0.01). The cell-cycle arrest was promoted at the G0/G1 phase. But the percentage of cells in S phase and G2/M decreased compared to that of control groups (P < 0.01). The earlier apoptotic rate of shRock2 Huh-7 and HepG2 cells was significantly increased compared with that of control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: After Rock2 silencing, the proliferation was significantly inhibited and early apoptosis was induced in hepatoma cell lines Huh7 and HepG2 cells, which suggested that Rock2 may be a new target for HCC gene therapy.%目的:探讨沉默Rock2基因对人肝癌细胞Huh-7和HepG2增殖和凋亡作用的影响.方法:实验分为空白对照组、干扰无意义组、转染PBS组及干扰Rock2组.将Rock2干扰质粒shRock2转染到人肝癌细胞Huh-7和HepG2中,通过实时荧光定量PCR检测Rock2 mRNA的表达水平;Western blot检测Rock2蛋白的表达水平;MTT比色法检测沉默Rock2后对Huh-7和HepG2细胞增殖抑制的影响;

  16. Synthesis and preliminary mechanistic evaluation of 5-(p-tolyl)-1-(quinolin-2-yl)pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid amides with potent antiproliferative activity on human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankara Pirol, Şeyma; Çalışkan, Burcu; Durmaz, Irem; Atalay, Rengül; Banoglu, Erden

    2014-11-24

    We synthesized a series of novel amide derivatives of 5-(p-tolyl)-1-(quinolin-2-yl)pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid and assessed their antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines (Huh7, human liver; MCF7, breast and HCT116, colon carcinoma cell lines) with the sulforhodamine B assay. Compound 4j with 2-chloro-4-pyridinyl group in the amide part exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against all cell lines with IC50 values of 1.6 μM, 3.3 μM and 1.1 μM for Huh7, MCF7 and HCT116 cells, respectively, and produced dramatic cell cycle arrest at SubG1/G1 phase as an indicator of apoptotic cell death induction. On the basis of their high potency in cellular environment, these straightforward pyrazole-3-carboxamide derivatives may possess potential in the design of more potent compounds for intervention with cancer cell proliferation.

  17. Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sadettin S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed.

  18. Preloading with L-BPA, L-tyrosine and L-DOPA enhances the uptake of [(18)F]FBPA in human and mouse tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingelhofer, Bettina; Kreis, Katharina; Mairinger, Severin; Muchitsch, Viktoria; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Langer, Oliver; Kuntner, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate if cellular [(18)F]FBPA uptake can be increased upon preloading with amino acids. [(18)F]FBPA uptake was assessed in HuH-7, CaCo-2 and B16-F1 cells pretreated with different concentrations or incubation times of L-BPA, L-tyrosine or L-DOPA. Without preloading, highest uptake of [(18)F]FBPA was observed in B16-F1 cells, followed by CaCo-2 cells and HuH-7 cells. In all cell lines higher [(18)F]FBPA accumulation (up to 1.65-fold) was obtained with increasing L-BPA, L-DOPA and L-tyrosine concentrations.

  19. Modelling of Mammalian cells and cell culture processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, F R; Mantalaris, A; Asprey, S P

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cell cultures represent the major source for a number of very high-value biopharmaceutical products, including monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), viral vaccines, and hormones. These products are produced in relatively small quantities due to the highly specialised culture conditions and their susceptibility to either reduced productivity or cell death as a result of slight deviations in the culture conditions. The use of mathematical relationships to characterise distinct parts of the physiological behaviour of mammalian cells and the systematic integration of this information into a coherent, predictive model, which can be used for simulation, optimisation, and control purposes would contribute to efforts to increase productivity and control product quality. Models can also aid in the understanding and elucidation of underlying mechanisms and highlight the lack of accuracy or descriptive ability in parts of the model where experimental and simulated data cannot be reconciled. This paper reviews developments in the modelling of mammalian cell cultures in the last decade and proposes a future direction - the incorporation of genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data, taking advantage of recent developments in these disciplines and thus improving model fidelity. Furthermore, with mammalian cell technology dependent on experiments for information, model-based experiment design is formally introduced, which when applied can result in the acquisition of more informative data from fewer experiments. This represents only part of a broader framework for model building and validation, which consists of three distinct stages: theoretical model assessment, model discrimination, and model precision, which provides a systematic strategy from assessing the identifiability and distinguishability of a set of competing models to improving the parameter precision of a final validated model.

  20. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  1. Protection of cultured mammalian cells by rebamipide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoku, Shigetoshi; Aramaki, Ryoji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kusumoto, Naotoshi

    1997-06-01

    Rebamipide which is used as a drug for gastritis and stomach ulcer has large capability for OH radical scavenging. It is expected that rebamipide has protective effect against ionizing radiations. The present paper deals with protective effect of rebamipide for cultured mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiations. As rebamipide is insoluble in water, three solvents were used to dissolve. Rebamipide dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl formamide (DMFA) and 0.02 N NaOH was added to the cells in Eagle`s minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and the cells were irradiated with X-rays. After irradiation, the cells were trypsinized, plated in MEM with 10% fetal calf serum and incubated for 7 days in a CO{sub 2} incubator to form colonies. Rebamipide dissolved in 0.02 N NaOH exhibited the protective effect expected its OH radical scavenging capability. However, the protective effect of rebamipide dissolved in DMSO was about half of that expected by its radical scavenging capability and that of rebamipide dissolved in DMFA was not observed. Uptake of rebamipide labeled with {sup 14}C increased with increasing contact time with rebamipide. These rebamipide mainly distributed in nucleus rather than cytoplasm. (author)

  2. Microfluidics and cancer analysis: cell separation, cell/tissue culture, cell mechanics, and integrated analysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-01-21

    Among the growing number of tools available for cancer studies, microfluidic systems have emerged as a promising analytical tool to elucidate cancer cell and tumor function. Microfluidic methods to culture cells have created approaches to provide a range of environments from single-cell analysis to complex three-dimensional devices. In this review we discuss recent advances in tumor cell culture, cancer cell analysis, and advanced studies enabled by microfluidic systems.

  3. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    -defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  4. Three-dimensional cell culturing by magnetic levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisler, William L; Timm, David M; Gage, Jacob A; Tseng, Hubert; Killian, T C; Souza, Glauco R

    2013-10-01

    Recently, biomedical research has moved toward cell culture in three dimensions to better recapitulate native cellular environments. This protocol describes one method for 3D culture, the magnetic levitation method (MLM), in which cells bind with a magnetic nanoparticle assembly overnight to render them magnetic. When resuspended in medium, an external magnetic field levitates and concentrates cells at the air-liquid interface, where they aggregate to form larger 3D cultures. The resulting cultures are dense, can synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) and can be analyzed similarly to the other culture systems using techniques such as immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), western blotting and other biochemical assays. This protocol details the MLM and other associated techniques (cell culture, imaging and IHC) adapted for the MLM. The MLM requires 45 min of working time over 2 d to create 3D cultures that can be cultured in the long term (>7 d).

  5. Primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae salivary gland cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda F Rocha

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we developed a primary culture of Rhodnius prolixus salivary gland and main salivary canal cells. Cells remained viable in culture for 30 days. Three types of cells were indentified in the salivary gland cultures, with binuclear cells being the most abundant. The supernatants of salivary cultures contained mainly 16-24 kDa proteins and presented anticoagulant and apyrase activities. Secretion vesicles were observed budding from the cellular monolayer of the main salivary canal cells. These results indicate that R. prolixus salivary proteins may be produced in vitro and suggest that the main salivary canal may have a possible secretory role.

  6. A Chimeric Cetuximab-Functionalized Corona as a Potent Delivery System for Microtubule-Destabilizing Nanocomplexes to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells: A Focus on EGFR and Tubulin Intracellular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Kini, Sudarshan; Srivastava, Rohit; Panda, Dulal

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we have developed microtubule destabilizing agents combretastatin A4 (CA4) or 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) encapsulated poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) nanocomplexes for targeted delivery to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. An epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be overexpressed in HCC cells. Therefore, the targeting moiety cetuximab (Cet), an anti-EGFR chimeric monoclonal antibody, is functionalized on the surface of these diblock copolymeric coronas. Cetuximab is associated with the extracellular domain of the EGFR; therefore, the uptake of the cetuximab conjugated nanocomplexes occurred efficiently in EGFR overexpressing HCC cells indicating potent internalization of the complex. The cetuximab targeted-PLGA-b-PEG nanocomplexes encapsulating CA4 or 2ME strongly inhibited phospho-EGFR expression, depolymerized microtubules, produced spindle abnormalities, stalled mitosis, and induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells compared to the free drugs, CA4 or 2ME. Further, the combinatorial strategy of targeted nanocomplexes, Cet-PLGA-b-PEG-CA4 NP and Cet-PLGA-b-PEG-2ME NP, significantly reduced the migration of Huh7 cells, and markedly enhanced the anticancer effects of the microtubule-targeted drugs in Huh7 cells compared to the free drugs, CA4 or 2ME. The results indicated that EGFR receptor-mediated internalization via cetuximab facilitated enhanced uptake of the nanocomplexes leading to potent anticancer efficacy in Huh7 cells. Cetuximab-functionalized PLGA-b-PEG nanocomplexes possess a strong potential for the targeted delivery of CA4 or 2ME in EGFR overexpressed HCC cells, and the strategy may be useful for selectively targeting microtubules in these cells.

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-07

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications.

  8. Expression pattern of mda-7/IL-24 receptors in liver cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhu; Zhi-Bin Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mda-7/IL-24 receptor belongs to the typeⅡ cytokine receptor family, and its two heterodimeric receptors are IL-22R1/IL-20R2 and IL-20R1/IL-20R2. Mda-7/IL-24 receptor expression in liver cancer cell lines has not yet been described. This information may be helpful for further clinical gene therapy. METHODS: With normal skin total RNA as template, the cDNA sequences of IL-20R1, IL-20R2 and IL-22R were ampliifed by RT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from cultured liver cancer cell lines and a normal liver cell line, then detected by northern blotting, and the expression of mda-7/IL-24 receptors was analyzed. RESULTS: PLC/PRF/5 and SMMC-7721 expressed IL-20R1;BEL-7402, Hep3B, HepG2, and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-20R2; and HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-22R. Only HepG2 expressed the IL-22R/IL-20R2 receptor complex. PLC/PRF/5 completely expressed both heterodimeric receptors. Huh-7, QGY-7701 and WRL-68 did not express the IL-24 receptor. CONCLUSION: Complete mda-7/IL-24 receptors are seldom expressed in liver cancer cell lines.

  9. Quantitative-PCR Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Cell Culture Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, George D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative TaqMan PCR method was developed for assessing the Cryptosporidium parvum infection of in vitro cultivated human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures. This method, termed cell culture quantitative sequence detection (CC-QSD), has numerous applications, several of which are presented. CC-QSD was used to investigate parasite infection in cell culture over time, the effects of oocyst treatment on infectivity and infectivity assessment of different C. parvum isolates. CC-Q...

  10. Organ culture-cell culture system for studying multistage carcinogenesis in respiratory epithelium. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Vernon E.; Marchok, Ann C.; Nettesheim, Paul

    1977-01-01

    An organ culture-cell culture system was used to demonstrate carcinogen dose-dependent transformation of tracheal epithelial cells in vitro. Tracheal explants were exposed to MNNG (N-methyl-N/sup 1/-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) in organ culture. Outgrowths from these explants provided epithelial cell cultures. The numbers of long term epithelial cell cultures and cell lines that were established per explant increased as MNNG exposure concentration increased. At the present time, more cell lines derived from explants exposed to the highest MNNG concentration have produced palpable tumors than cell lines derived from explants exposed to lower MNNG concentrations. No cell lines were established from primaries derived from control explants. TPA (12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate), stimulates DNA synthesis in tracheal epithelium in organ culture in a manner simular to that described for mouse skin. Short exposures to TPA not only stimulated DNA synthesis earlier, but the stimulation was greater than that obtained with continuous exposure. At the present time, exposure of tracheal organ cultures to MNNG followed by TPA has resulted in an enhanced production of morphologically altered cells in primary epithelial cell cultures, than exposure to either agent alone.

  11. Intragenotypic JFH1 based recombinant hepatitis C virus produces high levels of infectious particles but causes increased cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateu, Guaniri; Donis, Ruben O; Wakita, Takaji

    2008-01-01

    into the JFH1 infectious clone. All genomes produced high levels of intracellular HCV RNA and NS3 protein in Huh-7.5 transfected cells. However, JFH1 genomes containing J6 sequences from C to E2 (CE2) or C to p7 (Cp7) secreted up to 100-fold more infectious HCV particles than the parental JFH1 clone....... Subsequent infection of naive Huh-7.5 cells with each of the J6/JFH1 recombinants at a multiplicity of infection of 0.0003 resulted in high viral titers only for CE2 and Cp7 viruses. Comparison of virion production by the Cp7 J6/JFH1 recombinant to previously described J6/JFH1 recombinants showed flexibility...

  12. Growth of the Pittsburgh Pneumonia Agent in Animal Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldo, Charles R.; Pasculle, A. William; Myerowitz, Richard L.; Gress, Francis M.; Dowling, John N.

    1981-01-01

    Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (Legionella micdadei) grew in monkey, chicken, and human cell cultures. Pittsburgh pneumonia agent grew predominantly in the cytoplasm, resulting in a nonfocal, mild cytopathic effect.

  13. Suppression of AKT anti-apoptotic signaling by a novel drug candidate results in growth arrest and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cuconati

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most common cause of cancer fatalities worldwide, with limited treatment options and five year survival rates of between 50% growth inhibition by HBF-0079. In Huh7 cells, HBF-0079 induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and concomitant apoptosis, and its effects were irreversible after removal of the compound. These observations corroborate a loss of AKT phosphorylation at the mTORC2-targeted residue S473, with concurrent loss of phosphorylation of the mTORC1 targets SK6 and 4EBP1 in Huh7 but not PH5CH cells. Finally, growth of Hep3B-derived tumors in a murine xenograft model was significantly repressed by the compound through either systemic or intratumoral administration of formulated HBF-0079. The potential for development of this drug candidate is discussed.

  14. Particle Trajectories in Rotating Wall Cell Culture Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran N.; Downey, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Cell cultures are extremely important to the medical community since such cultures provide an opportunity to perform research on human tissue without the concerns inherent in experiments on individual humans. Development of cells in cultures has been found to be greatly influenced by the conditions of the culture. Much work has focused on the effect of the motions of cells in the culture relative to the solution. Recently rotating wall vessels have been used with success in achieving improved cellular cultures. Speculation and limited research have focused on the low shear environment and the ability of rotating vessels to keep cells suspended in solution rather than floating or sedimenting as the primary reasons for the improved cellular cultures using these devices. It is widely believed that the cultures obtained using a rotating wall vessel simulates to some degree the effect of microgravity on cultures. It has also been speculated that the microgravity environment may provide the ideal acceleration environment for culturing of cellular tissues due to the nearly negligible levels of sedimentation and shear possible. This work predicts particle trajectories of cells in rotating wall vessels of cylindrical and annular design consistent with the estimated properties of typical cellular cultures. Estimates of the shear encountered by cells in solution and the interactions with walls are studied. Comparisons of potential experiments in ground and microgravity environments are performed.

  15. Cell culture chip using low-shear mass transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Pitchimani, Rajasekar; Dang, Dana; Bayer, Keith; Harrington, Tyler; Pappas, Dimitri

    2008-06-03

    We have developed a flow cell that allows culturing adherent cells as well as suspended cells in a stable, homogeneous, and low-shear force environment. The device features continuous medium supply and waste exchange. In this paper, a simple and fast protocol for device design, fabrication, and assembly (sealing) based on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMDS)/glass slide hybrid structure is described. The cell culture system performance was monitored, and the effective shear force inside the culture well was also determined. By manipulating the device dimensions and volumetric flow rate, shear stress was controlled during experiments. Cell adhesion, growth, proliferation, and death over long-term culture periods were observed by microscopy. The growth of both endothelial and suspension cells in this device exhibited comparable characteristics to those of traditional approaches. The low-shear culture device significantly reduced shear stress encountered in microfluidic systems, allowing both adherent and suspended cells to be grown in a simple device.

  16. Three-dimensional Tissue Culture Based on Magnetic Cell Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool for drug discovery, tissue engineering, and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional (2D) cell growth with gene expression, signaling, and morphology that can differ from those in vivo and thus compromise clinical relevancy1–5. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) culture of cells based on magnetic levitation in the presence of hydrogels containing gold and magnetic iron oxide (MIO) nanoparticles plus filamentous bacteriophage. This methodology allows for control of cell mass geometry and guided, multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture through spatial variance of the magnetic field. Moreover, magnetic levitation of human glioblastoma cells demonstrates similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumor xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest levitated 3D culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and allows for long-term multi-cellular studies. PMID:20228788

  17. HAIR CELL-LIKE CELL GENERATION INDUCED BY NATURE CULTURE OF ADULT RAT AUDITORY EPITHELIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hui; Zhu Hongliang; Li Shengli; Yao Xiaobao; Wang Xiaoxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective To establish adult rat auditory epithelial cell culture and try to find precursor cells of auditory hair cells in vitro. Methods With refinement of culture media and techniques, cochlear sensory epithelial cells of adult rat were cultured. Immunocytochemistry and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)labeling were used to detect properties and mitotic status of cultured cells. Results The cultured auditory epithelial cells showed a large, flat epithelial morphotype and expressed F-actin and cytokeratin, a subset of cells generated from auditory epithelium were labeled by calretinin, a specific marker of early hair cell. Conclusion Adult rat auditory epithelium can be induced to generate hair cell-like cells by nature culture, this phenomenon suggests that progenitor cells may exist in rat cochlea and they may give birth to new hair cells. Whether these progenitor cells are tissue specific stem cells is still need more study.

  18. Dissociated neurons of the pupal blowfly antenna in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A; Iwama, A

    1995-12-01

    Primary cell cultures are useful for studying the function of neurons in a simplified and controlled environment. We established a primary culture of antennal cells from pupal blowflies in order to investigate olfactory receptor neurons. In cultures, neuron-like cells were identified on the basis of morphology and immunocytochemical characterization with anti-HRP staining. Neuron-like cells showed variety in the extension pattern of neurites. Many neuron-like cells extended a single prominent long process, which reached about 200 microm after four days, and several short ones. However, some neuron-like cells differentiated in other ways; some exhibited bipolar or multipolar processes, distinct from intact olfactory receptor neurons. The size of cell bodies of neuron-like cells as divisible into two groups; approx. 7 microm diameter and 10-15 microm diameter. Neuron-like cells in culture will provide a good model for electrophysiological analysis and for developmental studies of olfactory receptor neurons.

  19. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    Microfluidic cell culture has been a research area with great attention the last decade due to its potential to mimic the in vivo cellular environment more closely compared to what is possible by conventional cell culture methods. Many exciting and complex devices have been presented providing...... possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs......, these devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment...

  20. THE ALKALOID CYTISINE IN THE CELL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaliev A.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are vegetative establishments of complex and original structure with nitrous heterocycles in the basis. For a long time they drew researchers’ attention because of their unique and specific physiological effect on alive organisms. Not all the representatives of the globe’s flora contain these unique substances. Alkaloid cytisine is to be found mainly in the plants of the fabaceous family - Fabaceae. For the cytisine production the seeds of Thermopsis lanceolata R.Br (T. lanceolata R.Br and Cytisus laburnum (C. laburnum are used as a raw material. The object of the research is T. lanceolata cell culture. Sterile sprouts are used at the first stage of the experiment. Callus genesis is accompanied with dedifferentiation. It leads to the cellular organization simplification. Based on an important property of a plant cell, such as totipotency, there appears the formation of the “de novo” biosynthetic device. The cultivation algorithm consists of two basic stages: (i the cultivation conditions optimization of callus with a high level of the primary metabolites biosynthesis (Aspartat – lysine; (ii the research of cultivation chemical and physical factors influence on the secondary metabolite (cytisine biosynthesis and accumulation. During the cultivation the Murashige and Skoog classical recipe of nutrient medium will be used. Optimization of the cultivation conditions will concern the phytohormones, macro- and micronutrients content, as the purpose of optimization is the production of the determined high-level competence embriogenical callus. The main problem is genetic heterogeneity of a cellular population and instability of morpho-physiological processes. The correct management of higher plants cells population is possible at the synchronization of a cellular cycle phases. The references analysis has shown that it is almost impossible to synchronize cellular cycles in the culture of plant tissue. The application of chemical

  1. An Optically Controlled 3D Cell Culturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S. Ishii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 3D cell culture system was developed and tested. The cell culture device consists of a microfluidic chamber on an optically absorbing substrate. Cells are suspended in a thermoresponsive hydrogel solution, and optical patterns are utilized to heat the solution, producing localized hydrogel formation around cells of interest. The hydrogel traps only the desired cells in place while also serving as a biocompatible scaffold for supporting the cultivation of cells in 3D. This is demonstrated with the trapping of MDCK II and HeLa cells. The light intensity from the optically induced hydrogel formation does not significantly affect cell viability.

  2. Aeroponics for the culture of organisms, tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, P J; Zobel, R W

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of aeroponics are discussed. Contrast is made, where appropriate, with hydroponics and aero-hydroponics as applies to research and commercial applications of nutrient mist technology. Topics include whole plants, plant tissue cultures, cell and microbial cultures, and animal tissue cultures with regard to operational considerations (moisture, temperature, minerals, gaseous atmosphere) and design of apparati.

  3. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  4. Isolation and culture of larval cells from C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihui Zhang

    Full Text Available Cell culture is an essential tool to study cell function. In C. elegans the ability to isolate and culture cells has been limited to embryonically derived cells. However, cells or blastomeres isolated from mixed stage embryos terminally differentiate within 24 hours of culture, thus precluding post-embryonic stage cell culture. We have developed an efficient and technically simple method for large-scale isolation and primary culture of larval-stage cells. We have optimized the treatment to maximize cell number and minimize cell death for each of the four larval stages. We obtained up to 7.8×10(4 cells per microliter of packed larvae, and up to 97% of adherent cells isolated by this method were viable for at least 16 hours. Cultured larval cells showed stage-specific increases in both cell size and multinuclearity and expressed lineage- and cell type-specific reporters. The majority (81% of larval cells isolated by our method were muscle cells that exhibited stage-specific phenotypes. L1 muscle cells developed 1 to 2 wide cytoplasmic processes, while L4 muscle cells developed 4 to 14 processes of various thicknesses. L4 muscle cells developed bands of myosin heavy chain A thick filaments at the cell center and spontaneously contracted ex vivo. Neurons constituted less than 10% of the isolated cells and the majority of neurons developed one or more long, microtubule-rich protrusions that terminated in actin-rich growth cones. In addition to cells such as muscle and neuron that are high abundance in vivo, we were also able to isolate M-lineage cells that constitute less than 0.2% of cells in vivo. Our novel method of cell isolation extends C. elegans cell culture to larval developmental stages, and allows use of the wealth of cell culture tools, such as cell sorting, electrophysiology, co-culture, and high-resolution imaging of subcellular dynamics, in investigation of post-embryonic development and physiology.

  5. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  6. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in Arabidopsis cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Heredia, José M; Hervás, Manuel; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Navarro, José A

    2008-06-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a derivative from the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA), is a commonly used drug that has a dual role in animal organisms as an anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. It acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases (COXs), which catalyze prostaglandins production. It is known that ASA serves as an apoptotic agent on cancer cells through the inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme. Here, we provide evidences that ASA also behaves as an agent inducing programmed cell death (PCD) in cell cultures of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in a similar way than the well-established PCD-inducing agent H(2)O(2), although the induction of PCD by ASA requires much lower inducer concentrations. Moreover, ASA is herein shown to be a more efficient PCD-inducing agent than salicylic acid. ASA treatment of Arabidopsis cells induces typical PCD-linked morphological and biochemical changes, namely cell shrinkage, nuclear DNA degradation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release from mitochondria and induction of caspase-like activity. However, the ASA effect can be partially reverted by jasmonic acid. Taking together, these results reveal the existence of common features in ASA-induced animal apoptosis and plant PCD, and also suggest that there are similarities between the pathways of synthesis and function of prostanoid-like lipid mediators in animal and plant organisms.

  8. Effects of LncRNA-HOST2 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Tian; Cao, Jing-Lin; Yan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Yang; An, Cong-Jing; Lv, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-31

    This study explored the effect of LncRNA-HOST2 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line SMMC-7721. HCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 162 HCC patients were collected. The HCC cell lines were assigned into the control group (regular culture), negative control group (NC, transfected with siRNA) and experimental group (transfected with Lnc-HOST2 siRNA). qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of LncRNA-HOST2. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 and colony-forming assays, cell apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell migration by scratch test. Transwell assay was used to evaluate cell migration and invasion abilities. LncRNA-HOST2 expression in the HCC tissues increased 2 to 10 times than that in the adjacent normal tissues. Compared with the HL-7702 cell line, LncRNA-HOST2 expression in HepG2, SMMC7721 and Huh7 cell lines was all up-regulated, but the SMMC-7721 cell had the highest Lnc-HOST2 expression. The LncRNA-HOST2 expression in the experimental group was down-regulated as compared to the control and NC groups. In comparison with the control and NC groups, cloned cells reduced, cell apoptosis increased, clone-forming ability weakened and inhibitory rate of colony formation increased in the experimental group. The cells migrating and penetrating into transwell chamber were fewer in the experimental group than those in the control and NC groups. The experimental group exhibited slow wound-healing and decreased cell migration area after 48 h. These findings indicate that LncRNA-HOST2 can promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion and inhibit cell apoptosis in human HCC cell line SMMC-7721.

  9. A 3D cell culture system: separation distance between INS-1 cell and endothelial cell monolayers co-cultured in fibrin influences INS-1 cells insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabra, Georges; Vermette, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell culture system allowing studying the effect of separation distance between monolayers of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) co-cultured in fibrin over INS-1 cell insulin secretion. For this purpose, a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture chamber was designed, built using micro-fabrication techniques and validated. The co-culture was successfully carried out and the effect on INS-1 cell insulin secretion was investigated. After 48 and 72 h, INS-1 cells co-cultured with HUVEC separated by a distance of 100 µm revealed enhanced insulin secretion compared to INS-1 cells cultured alone or co-cultured with HUVEC monolayers separated by a distance of 200 µm. These results illustrate the importance of the separation distance between two cell niches for cell culture design and the possibility to further enhance the endocrine function of beta cells when this factor is considered.

  10. Callus production from photoautotrophic soybean cell culture protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowhury, V K; Widholm, J M

    1985-10-01

    Protoplasts were prepared from a photoautotrophic (PA) cell line of Glycine max (soybean). A yield of 75 to 90% after two to three hours digestion in a mixture of 1% Cellulase R10, 0.2% Pectolyase Y23 and 2% Driselase was obtained. Cell division and colony formation occurred from approximately 18% of the plated protoplasts. The cultured protoplasts were as sensitive to the herbicide atrazine, a photosynthetic inhibitor, as the original PA cells under the same conditions. Protoplasts and cells of a heterotrophic (HT) soybean culture were not as sensitive to atrazine. The isolated protoplasts retained the PA characteristics of the parental culture in the callus and cell suspension cultures obtained from the protoplasts. The chromosome numbers in the parental cell line and in cells derived from the isolated protoplasts (both PA and HT) were found to be largely (99%) the normal diploid number of 40.

  11. HEPES inhibits the conversion of prion protein in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmouly, Karine; Belondrade, Maxime; Casanova, Danielle; Milhavet, Ollivier; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2011-05-01

    HEPES is a well-known buffering reagent used in cell-culture medium. Interestingly, this compound is also responsible for significant modifications of biological parameters such as uptake of organic molecules, alteration of oxidative stress mechanisms or inhibition of ion channels. While using cell-culture medium supplemented with HEPES on prion-infected cells, it was noticed that there was a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of accumulation of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)). This effect was present only in live cells and was thought to be related to modification of the PrP environment or biology. These results could modify the interpretation of cell-culture assays of prion therapeutic agents, as well as of previous cell biology results obtained in the field using HEPES buffers. This inhibitory effect of HEPES could also be exploited to prevent contamination or propagation of prions in cell culture.

  12. Horizontally rotated cell culture system with a coaxial tubular oxygenator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a horizontally rotating bioreactor useful for carrying out cell and tissue culture. For processing of mammalian cells, the system is sterilized and fresh fluid medium, microcarrier beads, and cells are admitted to completely fill the cell culture vessel. An oxygen containing gas is admitted to the interior of the permeable membrane which prevents air bubbles from being introduced into the medium. The cylinder is rotated at a low speed within an incubator so that the circular motion of the fluid medium uniformly suspends the microbeads throughout the cylinder during the cell growth period. The unique design of this cell and tissue culture device was initially driven by two requirements imposed by its intended use for feasibility studies for three dimensional culture of living cells and tissues in space by JSC. They were compatible with microgravity and simulation of microgravity in one G. The vessels are designed to approximate the extremely quiescent low shear environment obtainable in space.

  13. 21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and... DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5885 Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a) Identification. Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture...

  14. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures

  15. Primary cell culture of human adenocarcinomas--practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerescu, Lucian; Tucureanu, Cătălin; Caraş, Iuliana; Neagu, Stefan; Melinceanu, Laura; Sălăgeanu, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    Cell culture is one of the major tools for oncology research, being an excellent system in which to study the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and to understand cancer cell physiology. Progress in understanding the biology of any type of carcinoma has been impeded by the inability to culture adequately malignant cells from most epithelial tissues. The ultimate in vitro tumor model would completely reflect the in vivo tumor microenvironment in function and mechanism. Unfortunately, such a model does not currently exist. Homogeneous cell lines that can be continuously propagated on plastic surfaces have been extensively used as a surrogate for tumor environment; however they are very different from the in vivo tumor cells. Model systems involving primary culture represent the situation most closely related to the original tissue although they have a number of disadvantages over cell lines, such as the limited ability to repeat studies with a well characterized culture system that can be used in multiple laboratories. The primary culture may contain many types of stromal and infiltrating cell types potentially complicating the interpretation of data. Yet, their properties better reflect the cellular interactions present in intact tissue. The present article reviews the critical steps in obtaining, routine maintenance and cryopreservation of primary tumor cell cultures, based on information from literature and personal experience on the subject. The article also includes an updated protocol for primary tumor cell isolation and culture.

  16. Optical Oxygen Sensors for Applications in Microfluidic Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Grist

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence and concentration of oxygen in biological systems has a large impact on the behavior and viability of many types of cells, including the differentiation of stem cells or the growth of tumor cells. As a result, the integration of oxygen sensors within cell culture environments presents a powerful tool for quantifying the effects of oxygen concentrations on cell behavior, cell viability, and drug effectiveness. Because microfluidic cell culture environments are a promising alternative to traditional cell culture platforms, there is recent interest in integrating oxygen-sensing mechanisms with microfluidics for cell culture applications. Optical, luminescence-based oxygen sensors, in particular, show great promise in their ability to be integrated with microfluidics and cell culture systems. These sensors can be highly sensitive and do not consume oxygen or generate toxic byproducts in their sensing process. This paper presents a review of previously proposed optical oxygen sensor types, materials and formats most applicable to microfluidic cell culture, and analyzes their suitability for this and other in vitro applications.

  17. Coculture of osteoblasts and endothelial cells: optimization of culture medium and cell ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, J.; Beucken, J.J. van den; Yang, F.; Both, S.K.; Cui, F.Z.; Pan, J.; Jansen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Vascularization strategies in cell-based bone tissue engineering depend on optimal culture conditions. The present study aimed to determine optimal cell culture medium and cell ratio for cocultures of human marrow stromal cells (HMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in view of

  18. Biologic characteristics of fibroblast cells cultured from the knee ligaments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鸿辉; 唐毅; 李斯明; 沈雁; 刘向荣; 钟灿灿

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To culture fibroblast cells from the kneeligaments and to study the biological characteristics of thesecells.Methods: Cells of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) fromNew Zealand white rabbit were cultured in vitro. Cellulargrowth and expression of the collagen were analyzed.Moreover, an in vitro wound closure model was establishedand the healing of the ACL and the MCL cells wascompared.Results: Maximal growth for all these cells wereobtained with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's mediumsupplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, but RPMI 1640and Ham's F12 media were not suitable to maintain thesecells. Morphology of both ACL and MCL cells from NewZealand white rabbit was alike in vitro, but the MCL cellsgrew faster than the ACL cells. Both cell types producedsimilar amount of collagen in culture, but the ratio ofcollage type I to type III produced by ACL cells was higherthan that produced by MCL cells. Wound closure assayshowed that at 36 hours after injury, cell-free zones createdin the ACL cultures were occupied partially by the ACLcells; in contrast, the wounded zone in the MCL cultureswas almost completely covered by the cells.Conclusions: Although the ACL cells and the MCLcells from New Zealand white rabbit show similarappearance in morphology in culture, the cellular growthand the biochemical synthesis of collagen as well as thehealing in vitro were significantly different. Thesedifferences in intrinsic properties of the two types of cells invitro might contribute to the differential healing potentialsof these ligaments in vivo.

  19. LIF-free embryonic stem cell culture in simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Kawahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is an indispensable factor for maintaining mouse embryonic stem (ES cell pluripotency. A feeder layer and serum are also needed to maintain an undifferentiated state, however, such animal derived materials need to be eliminated for clinical applications. Therefore, a more reliable ES cell culture technique is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cultured mouse ES cells in simulated microgravity using a 3D-clinostat. We used feeder-free and serum-free media without LIF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we show that simulated microgravity allows novel LIF-free and animal derived material-free culture methods for mouse ES cells.

  20. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  1. Proteome Analysis of Liver Cells Expressing a Full- Length Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Replicon and Biopsy Specimens of Posttransplantation Liver from HCV-Infected Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Diamond, Deborah L.; Chan, Eric Y.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Qian, Weijun; Stastna, Miroslava; Baas, Tracey; Camp, David G.; Carithers, Jr., Robert L.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full length HCV replicon. We detected > 4,400 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). The set of Huh-7.5 proteins confidently identified is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive yet reported for a human cell line. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of Huh-7.5 cells (+) and (-) the HCV replicon identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where > 1,500 proteins were detected from 2 {micro}g protein lysate using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.

  2. Negundoside, an irridiod glycoside from leaves of Vitex negundo, protects human liver cells against calcium-mediated toxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheikh A Tasduq; Peerzada J Kaiser; Bishan D Gupta; Vijay K Gupta; Rakesh K Johri

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of 2'-p-hydroxy benzoylmussaenosidic acid [negundoside (NG), against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in HUH-7 cells.METHODS: CCl4 is a well characterized hepatotoxin, and inducer of cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative stress. In addition, lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular calcium are important steps in the pathway involved in CCl4 toxicity. Liver cells (HUH-7) were treated with CCl4, and the mechanism of the cytoprotective effect of NG was assessed. Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective drug, was used as control.RESULTS: NG protected HUH-7 cells against CCl4 toxicity and loss of viability without modulating CYP2E1 activity. Prevention of CCl4, toxicity was associated with a reduction in oxidative damage as reflected by decreased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in lipid peroxidation and accumulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and maintenance of intracellular glutathione homeostasis. Decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of caspases mediated DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest, as a result of CCl4 treatment, were also blocked by NG. The protection afforded by NG seemed to be mediated by activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and inhibition of phospholipases (cPLA2).CONCLUSION: NG exerts a protective effect on CYP2El-dependent CCl4 toxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation, followed by an improved intracellular calcium homeostasis and inhibition of Ca2+-dependent proteases.

  3. Colorimetric pH measurement of animal cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Juno; Moon, Soo-Jin; Hong, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ik-Hwan

    2010-11-01

    Most animal cell culture media can be buffered using bicarbonate and high pressure CO(2) in a closed system. However, in an open system, the pH of the culture media increases continuously due to the marked difference in CO(2) pressure between the culture media and the atmosphere. Therefore, it is important to measure the exact pH of the culture media in an intact closed system. In this study, a pH measurement method was developed using visible light. The pH was calculated from light absorbance by the cells and by the culture media. This method was successfully applied to both suspension and anchorage-dependent cell cultures.

  4. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been te...... tested successfully with brain slices and PC12 cells. The culture substrate can be modified using metal electrodes and/or nanostructures for conducting electrical measurements while culturing and for better mimicking the in vivo conditions.......In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been...

  5. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  6. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK mediates the induction of pro-oncogenic and fibrogenic phenotypes in hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisi

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection is one of the most common etiological factors involved in fibrosis development and its progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The pivotal role of hepatic stellate cells (HCSs and extracellular matrix (ECM in fibrogenesis is now certainly accepted, while the network of molecular interactions connecting HCV is emerging as a master regulator of several biological processes including proliferation, inflammation, cytoskeleton and ECM remodeling. In this study, the effects of HCV proteins expression on liver cancer cells, both pro-invasive and pro-fibrogenic phenotypes were explored. As a model of HCV infection, we used permissive Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells infected with JFH1-derived ccHCV. Conditioned medium from these cells was used to stimulate LX-2 cells, a line of HSCs. We found that the HCV infection of Huh7.5.1 cells decreased adhesion, increased migration and caused the delocalization of alpha-actinin from plasma membrane to cytoplasm and increased expression levels of paxillin. The treatment of LX-2 cells, with conditioned medium from HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cells, caused an increase in cell proliferation, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, hyaluronic acid release and apoptosis rate measured as cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. These effects were accompanied in Huh7.5.1 cells by an HCV-dependent increasing of FAK activation that physically interacts with phosphorylated paxillin and alpha-actinin, and a rising of tumor necrosis factor alpha production/release. Silencing of FAK by siRNA reverted all effects of HCV infection, both those directed on Huh7.5.1 cells, and those indirect effects on the LX-2 cells. Moreover and interestingly, FAK inhibition enhances apoptosis in HCV-conditioned LX-2 cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that HCV, through FAK activation, may promote cytoskeletal reorganization and a pro-oncogenic phenotype in hepatocyte-like cells, and a fibrogenic phenotype in

  7. [Application of cell co-culture techniques in medical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Gui-Bo; Qin, Meng; Yao, Fan; Sun, Xiao-Bo

    2012-11-01

    As the cell co-culture techniques can better imitate an in vivo environment, it is helpful in observing the interactions among cells and between cells and the culture environment, exploring the effect mechanisms of drugs and their possible targets and filling the gaps between the mono-layer cell culture and the whole animal experiments. In recently years, they has attracted much more attention from the medical sector, and thus becoming one of research hotspots in drug research and development and bio-pharmaceutical fields. The cell co-culture techniques, including direct and indirect methods, are mainly used for studying pathological basis, new-type treatment methods and drug activity screening. Existing cell co-culture techniques are used for more pharmacological studies on single drug and less studies on interaction of combined drugs, such as collaborative compatibility and attenuation and synergistic effect among traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In line with the action characteristics of multi-component and multi-target, the cell co-culture techniques provide certain reference value for future studies on the effect and mechanism of combined TCMs on organisms as well as new methods for studies on TCMs and their compounds. This essay summarizes cell co-culture methods and their application and look into the future of their application in studies on TCMs and compounds.

  8. Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaIuppa, J A; McAdams, T A; Papoutsakis, E T; Miller, W M

    1997-09-01

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is important for applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of materials for implantation, the ability of materials to support proliferation of primary human cells in cultures for reinfusion into patients has not been addressed. We screened a variety of commercially available polymer (15 types), metal (four types), and glass substrates for their ability to support expansion of hematopoietic cells when cultured under conditions that would be encountered in a clinical setting. Cultures of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for expansion of total cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM; progenitors committed to the granulocyte and/or monocyte lineage). Human hematopoietic cultures in serum-free medium were found to be extremely sensitive to the substrate material. The only materials tested that supported expansion at or near the levels of polystyrene were tissue culture polystyrene, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy, Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene, cellulose acetate, titanium, new polycarbonate, and new polymethylpentene. MNC were less sensitive to the substrate materials than the primitive CD34+ progenitors, although similar trends were seen for expansion of the two cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materials on hematopoietic cultures appear to be caused by protein adsorption and/or leaching of toxins. Factors such as cleaning, sterilization, and reuse significantly affected the performance of some materials as culture substrates. We also used PB CD34+ cell cultures to examine the biocompatibility of gas-permeable cell culture and blood storage bags and several types of tubing commonly used with biomedical equipment

  9. An extended ΔCT-method facilitating normalisation with multiple reference genes suited for quantitative RT-PCR analyses of human hepatocyte-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Riedel

    Full Text Available Reference genes (RG as sample internal controls for gene transcript level analyses by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR must be stably expressed within the experimental range. A variety of in vitro cell culture settings with primary human hepatocytes, and Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines, were used to determine candidate RG expression stability in RT-qPCR analyses. Employing GeNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder algorithms, this study identifies PSMB6, MDH1 and some more RG as sufficiently unregulated, thus expressed at stable levels, in hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Inclusion of multiple RG, quenching occasional regulations of single RG, greatly stabilises gene expression level calculations from RT-qPCR data. To further enhance validity and reproducibility of relative RT-qPCR quantifications, the ΔCT calculation can be extended (e-ΔCT by replacing the CT of a single RG in ΔCT with an averaged CT-value from multiple RG. The use of two or three RG--here identified suited for human hepatocyte-like cells--for normalisation with the straightforward e-ΔCT calculation, should improve reproducibility and robustness of comparative RT-qPCR-based gene expression analyses.

  10. Culturing Schwann Cells from Neonatal Rats by Improved Enzyme Digestion Combined with Explants-culture Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop an improved method for culturing Schwann cells(SCs) by using both enzyme digestion and explants-culture approaches and compared with traditional explants-culture method and general hemi-explants-culture method. Methods Bilaterally sciatic nerves and brachial plexus nerves were dissected from 3 to 5-day-old neonatal SD rats and explants-culture method,general hemi-explants-culture method,and improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method were adopted to culture SCs,respectively. SCs were digested and passaged after 7 days in culture and counted under the microscope. The purity of SCs was identified by S-100 immunofluorescence staining. Results The SCs of improved method group grew fastest and the total number of cells obtained was(1.85±0.13)×10(6);the SCs of the hemi-explants-culture method group grew slower than the improved method group and the total number of cells obtained was (1.10±0.10)×10(6);the SCs of the explants-culture method group grew slowest and the total number of cells obtained was (0.77±0.03)×10(6).The total number of cells obtained showed significant difference among the three groups(Pculture method group,and (74.50±4.23)% in the explants-culture method group(Pculture method can obtain sufficient amount of high-purity SCs in a short time and thus may be applied in further research on peripheral nerve regeneration.

  11. Cell cycle regulation in human embryonic stem cells: links to adaptation to cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Tomas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Holubcova, Zuzana; Hampl, Ales

    2013-03-01

    Cell cycle represents not only a tightly orchestrated mechanism of cell replication and cell division but it also plays an important role in regulation of cell fate decision. Particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cells or multipotent progenitor cells, regulation of cell fate decision is of paramount importance. It has been shown that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) show unique cell cycle characteristics, such as short doubling time due to abbreviated G1 phase; these properties change with the onset of differentiation. This review summarizes the current understanding of cell cycle regulation in hESCs. We discuss cell cycle properties as well as regulatory machinery governing cell cycle progression of undifferentiated hESCs. Additionally, we provide evidence that long-term culture of hESCs is accompanied by changes in cell cycle properties as well as configuration of several cell cycle regulatory molecules.

  12. Matrix Stiffness Modulates Proliferation, Chemotherapeutic Response and Dormancy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Jörg; Gordon-Walker, Timothy T; Aucott, Rebecca L; van Deemter, Mariëlle; Quaas, Alexander; Walsh, Shaun; Benten, Daniel; Forbes, Stuart J; Wells, Rebecca G; Iredale, John P

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the physical environment is a critical mediator of tumor behavior. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) develops within an altered biomechanical environment and increasing matrix stiffness is a strong predictor of HCC development. The aim of this study was to establish whether changes in matrix stiffness, which are characteristic of inflammation and fibrosis, regulate HCC cell proliferation and chemotherapeutic response. Using an in vitro system of “mechanically-tunable” matrix-coated polyacrylamide gels, matrix stiffness was modeled across a pathophysiologically-relevant range, corresponding to values encountered in normal and fibrotic livers. Results Increasing matrix stiffness was found to promote HCC cell proliferation. The proliferative index (assessed by Ki67 staining) of Huh7 and HepG2 cells was 2.7-fold and 12.2-fold higher, respectively, when the cells were cultured on stiff (12kPa) versus soft (1kPa) supports. This was associated with stiffness-dependent regulation of basal and HGF-stimulated mitogenic signaling through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). β1-integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were found to modulate stiffness-dependent HCC cell proliferation. Following treatment with cisplatin, we observed reduced apoptosis in HCC cells cultured on a stiff versus soft (physiological) supports. Interestingly, however, surviving cells from soft supports had significantly higher clonogenic capacity than surviving cells from a stiff microenvironment. This was associated with enhanced expression of cancer stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, c-kit, CXCR4, octamer-4 (OCT4) and NANOG. Conclusion Increasing matrix stiffness promotes proliferation and chemotherapeutic resistance, whereas a soft environment induces reversible cellular dormancy and stem cell characteristics in HCC. This has implications for both the treatment of

  13. LIF-Free Embryonic Stem Cell Culture in Simulated Microgravity

    OpenAIRE

    Yumi Kawahara; Tomotaka Manabe; Masaya Matsumoto; Teruyuki Kajiume; Masayasu Matsumoto; Louis Yuge

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an indispensable factor for maintaining mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency. A feeder layer and serum are also needed to maintain an undifferentiated state, however, such animal derived materials need to be eliminated for clinical applications. Therefore, a more reliable ES cell culture technique is required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We cultured mouse ES cells in simulated microgravity using a 3D-clinostat. We used feeder-free and...

  14. Three-dimensional cell culture models for investigating human viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Chen, Guomin; Zeng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are physiologically relevant, as they provide reproducible results, experimental flexibility and can be adapted for high-throughput experiments. Moreover, these models bridge the gap between traditional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures and animal models. 3D culture systems have significantly advanced basic cell science and tissue engineering, especially in the fields of cell biology and physiology, stem cell research, regenerative medicine, cancer research, drug discovery, and gene and protein expression studies. In addition, 3D models can provide unique insight into bacteriology, virology, parasitology and host-pathogen interactions. This review summarizes and analyzes recent progress in human virological research with 3D cell culture models. We discuss viral growth, replication, proliferation, infection, virus-host interactions and antiviral drugs in 3D culture models.

  15. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  16. Microfluidic cardiac cell culture model (μCCCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Estrada, Rosendo; Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Hamid, Tariq; Ismahil, Mohamed Ameen; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2010-09-15

    Physiological heart development and cardiac function rely on the response of cardiac cells to mechanical stress during hemodynamic loading and unloading. These stresses, especially if sustained, can induce changes in cell structure, contractile function, and gene expression. Current cell culture techniques commonly fail to adequately replicate physical loading observed in the native heart. Therefore, there is a need for physiologically relevant in vitro models that recreate mechanical loading conditions seen in both normal and pathological conditions. To fulfill this need, we have developed a microfluidic cardiac cell culture model (μCCCM) that for the first time allows in vitro hemodynamic stimulation of cardiomyocytes by directly coupling cell structure and function with fluid induced loading. Cells are cultured in a small (1 cm diameter) cell culture chamber on a thin flexible silicone membrane. Integrating the cell culture chamber with a pump, collapsible pulsatile valve and an adjustable resistance element (hemostatic valve) in series allow replication of various loading conditions experienced in the heart. This paper details the design, modeling, fabrication and characterization of fluid flow, pressure and stretch generated at various frequencies to mimic hemodynamic conditions associated with the normal and failing heart. Proof-of-concept studies demonstrate successful culture of an embryonic cardiomyoblast line (H9c2 cells) and establishment of an in vivo like phenotype within this system.

  17. Isolating highly pure rat spermatogonial stem cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, F Kent; Chapman, Karen M; Wu, Zhuoru; Garbers, David L

    2008-01-01

    Methods are detailed for isolating highly pure populations of spermatogonial stem cells from primary cultures of testis cells prepared from 22- to 24-day-old rats. The procedure is based on the principle that testicular somatic cells bind tightly to plastic and collagen matrices when cultured in serum-containing medium, whereas spermatogonia and spermatocytes do not bind to plastic or collagen when cultured in serum-containing medium. The collagen-non-binding testis cells obtained using these procedures are thus approx. 97% pure spermatogenic cells. Stem spermatogonia are then easily isolated from the purified spermatogenic population during a short incubation step in culture on laminin matrix. The spermatogenic cells that bind to laminin are more than 90% undifferentiated, type A spermatogonia and are greatly enriched in genetically modifiable stem cells that can develop into functional spermatozoa. This method does not require flow cytometry and can also be applied to obtain enriched cultures of mouse spermatogonial stem cells. The isolated spermatogonia provide a highly potent and effective source of stem cells that have been used to initiate in vitro and in vivo culture studies on spermatogenesis.

  18. Three Dimensional Culture of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Batchelder

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinomas arise from the nephron but are heterogeneous in disease biology, clinical behavior, prognosis, and response to systemic therapy. Development of patient-specific in vitro models that efficiently and faithfully reproduce the in vivo phenotype may provide a means to develop personalized therapies for this diverse carcinoma. Studies to maintain and model tumor phenotypes in vitro were conducted with emerging three-dimensional culture techniques and natural scaffolding materials. Human renal cell carcinomas were individually characterized by histology, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR to establish the characteristics of each tumor. Isolated cells were cultured on renal extracellular matrix and compared to a novel polysaccharide scaffold to assess cell-scaffold interactions, development of organoids, and maintenance of gene expression signatures over time in culture. Renal cell carcinomas cultured on renal extracellular matrix repopulated tubules or vessel lumens in renal pyramids and medullary rays, but cells were not observed in glomeruli or outer cortical regions of the scaffold. In the polysaccharide scaffold, renal cell carcinomas formed aggregates that were loosely attached to the scaffold or free-floating within the matrix. Molecular analysis of cell-scaffold constructs including immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR demonstrated that individual tumor phenotypes could be sustained for up to 21 days in culture on both scaffolds, and in comparison to outcomes in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. The use of three-dimensional scaffolds to engineer a personalized in vitro renal cell carcinoma model provides opportunities to advance understanding of this disease.

  19. Proteome analysis of liver cells expressing a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicon and biopsy specimens of posttransplantation liver from HCV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jon M; Diamond, Deborah L; Chan, Eric Y; Gritsenko, Marina A; Qian, Weijun; Stastna, Miroslava; Baas, Tracey; Camp, David G; Carithers, Robert L; Smith, Richard D; Katze, Michael G

    2005-06-01

    The development of a reproducible model system for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has the potential to significantly enhance the study of virus-host interactions and provide future direction for modeling the pathogenesis of HCV. While there are studies describing global gene expression changes associated with HCV infection, changes in the proteome have not been characterized. We report the first large-scale proteome analysis of the highly permissive Huh-7.5 cell line containing a full-length HCV replicon. We detected >4,200 proteins in this cell line, including HCV replicon proteins, using multidimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) separations coupled to mass spectrometry. Consistent with the literature, a comparison of HCV replicon-positive and -negative Huh-7.5 cells identified expression changes of proteins involved in lipid metabolism. We extended these analyses to liver biopsy material from HCV-infected patients where a total of >1,500 proteins were detected from only 2 mug of liver biopsy protein digest using the Huh-7.5 protein database and the accurate mass and time tag strategy. These findings demonstrate the utility of multidimensional proteome analysis of the HCV replicon model system for assisting in the determination of proteins/pathways affected by HCV infection. Our ability to extend these analyses to the highly complex proteome of small liver biopsies with limiting protein yields offers the unique opportunity to begin evaluating the clinical significance of protein expression changes associated with HCV infection.

  20. Development of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; PENG Li-pan; WU Nan; LI Le-ping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the in vitro development of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells culture (BM-MSC).Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed.The search terms were “bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell" and "cell culture".Study selection Articles regarding the in vitro development of BM-MSCs culture,as well as the challenge of optimizing cell culture environment in two-dimensional (2D) vs.3D.Results Improving the culture conditions increases the proliferation and reduces the differentiation.Optimal values for many culture parameters remain to be identified.Expansion of BM-MSCs under defined conditions remains challenging,including the development of optimal culture conditions for BMSC and large-volume production systems.Conclusions Expansion of BM-MSCs under defined conditions remains challenges,including the development of optimal culture conditions for BMSC and scale-up to large-volume production systems.Optimal values for many culture parameters remain to be identified.

  1. THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF SEPARATED AND CULTURED CELL OF PORPHYRA YEZOENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    There are many reports that cells (protoplasts) separated from the thallus of Porphyra by enzyme can develop to normal leafy thalli in the same way as monospores. But there are few investigations on the subcellular structure of the isolated vegetative cell for comparison with the subcellular structure of monospores. To clarify whether the separated and cultured cells undergo the same or similar ultrastructure changes during culture and germination as monospores undergo in their formation and germination, we observed their ultrastructure, compared them with those of the monospore and found that the ultrastructure of separated and cultured cells did not have the characteristic feature as that of monospore formation, such as production of small and large fibrous vesicles, but was accompanied by vacuolation and starch mobilization like that in monospore germination. The paper also discusses the relations between monospores and separated and cultured cells.

  2. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepitis, Charalambos; Bergholt, Mads S.; Mazo, Manuel M.; Leonardo, Vincent; Skaalure, Stacey C.; Maynard, Stephanie A.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2017-03-01

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell-material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  3. Surface modified alginate microcapsules for 3D cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chueh, Di-Yen; Chen, Peilin

    2016-06-01

    Culture as three dimensional cell aggregates or spheroids can offer an ideal platform for tissue engineering applications and for pharmaceutical screening. Such 3D culture models, however, may suffer from the problems such as immune response and ineffective and cumbersome culture. This paper describes a simple method for producing microcapsules with alginate cores and a thin shell of poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) to encapsulate mouse induced pluripotent stem (miPS) cells, generating a non-fouling surface as an effective immunoisolation barrier. We demonstrated the trapping of the alginate microcapsules in a microwell array for the continuous observation and culture of a large number of encapsulated miPS cells in parallel. miPS cells cultured in the microcapsules survived well and proliferated to form a single cell aggregate. Droplet formation of monodisperse microcapsules with controlled size combined with flow cytometry provided an efficient way to quantitatively analyze the growth of encapsulated cells in a high-throughput manner. The simple and cost-effective coating technique employed to produce the core-shell microcapsules could be used in the emerging field of cell therapy. The microwell array would provide a convenient, user friendly and high-throughput platform for long-term cell culture and monitoring.

  4. Nylon-3 polymers that enable selective culture of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Gellman, Samuel H; Masters, Kristyn S

    2013-11-06

    Substrates that selectively encourage the growth of specific cell types are valuable for the engineering of complex tissues. Some cell-selective peptides have been identified from extracellular matrix proteins; these peptides have proven useful for biomaterials-based approaches to tissue repair or regeneration. However, there are very few examples of synthetic materials that display selectivity in supporting cell growth. We describe nylon-3 polymers that support in vitro culture of endothelial cells but do not support the culture of smooth muscle cells or fibroblasts. These materials may be promising for vascular biomaterials applications.

  5. Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmond W K; Beebe, David J

    2010-03-01

    Microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach cell biology research. The dimensions of microfluidic channels are well suited to the physical scale of biological cells, and the many advantages of microfluidics make it an attractive platform for new techniques in biology. One of the key benefits of microfluidics for basic biology is the ability to control parameters of the cell microenvironment at relevant length and time scales. Considerable progress has been made in the design and use of novel microfluidic devices for culturing cells and for subsequent treatment and analysis. With the recent pace of scientific discovery, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate existing tools and techniques, and to synthesize fundamental concepts that would further improve the efficiency of biological research at the microscale. This tutorial review integrates fundamental principles from cell biology and local microenvironments with cell culture techniques and concepts in microfluidics. Culturing cells in microscale environments requires knowledge of multiple disciplines including physics, biochemistry, and engineering. We discuss basic concepts related to the physical and biochemical microenvironments of the cell, physicochemical properties of that microenvironment, cell culture techniques, and practical knowledge of microfluidic device design and operation. We also discuss the most recent advances in microfluidic cell culture and their implications on the future of the field. The goal is to guide new and interested researchers to the important areas and challenges facing the scientific community as we strive toward full integration of microfluidics with biology.

  6. Fundamentals of microfluidic cell culture in controlled microenvironments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmond W. K.; Beebe, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidics has the potential to revolutionize the way we approach cell biology research. The dimensions of microfluidic channels are well suited to the physical scale of biological cells, and the many advantages of microfluidics make it an attractive platform for new techniques in biology. One of the key benefits of microfluidics for basic biology is the ability to control parameters of the cell microenvironment at relevant length and time scales. Considerable progress has been made in the design and use of novel microfluidic devices for culturing cells and for subsequent treatment and analysis. With the recent pace of scientific discovery, it is becoming increasingly important to evaluate existing tools and techniques, and to synthesize fundamental concepts that would further improve the efficiency of biological research at the microscale. This tutorial review integrates fundamental principles from cell biology and local microenvironments with cell culture techniques and concepts in microfluidics. Culturing cells in microscale environments requires knowledge of multiple disciplines including physics, biochemistry, and engineering. We discuss basic concepts related to the physical and biochemical microenvironments of the cell, physicochemical properties of that microenvironment, cell culture techniques, and practical knowledge of microfluidic device design and operation. We also discuss the most recent advances in microfluidic cell culture and their implications on the future of the field. The goal is to guide new and interested researchers to the important areas and challenges facing the scientific community as we strive toward full integration of microfluidics with biology. PMID:20179823

  7. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  8. Controlling the diversity of cell populations in a stem cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  9. Ontogeny of electrically excitable cells in cultured olfactory epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, D; Stallcup, W.; LaCorbiere, M; Kidokoro, Y; Orgel, L

    1985-01-01

    A primary system has been developed in which it is possible to study the production of electrically excitable neuron-like cells from a precursor population of olfactory epithelial cells. Rat nasal epithelium was dissociated and placed in culture. The initial surviving cells are flat and ciliated and contain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). After 3-5 days electrically excitable cells appear that contain neuron-specific enolase but not GFAP. These round cells originate by means of the di...

  10. Completion of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Vero Cells Derived from Monkey Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Murayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hepatitis C virus (HCV cell culture system incorporating the JFH-1 strain and the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 enabled the production of infectious HCV particles. Several host factors were identified as essential for HCV replication. Supplementation of these factors in nonhepatic human cell lines enabled HCV replication and particle production. Vero cells established from monkey kidney are commonly used for the production of vaccines against a variety of viruses. In this study, we aimed to establish a novel Vero cell line to reconstruct the HCV life cycle. Unmodified Vero cells did not allow HCV infection or replication. The expression of microRNA 122 (miR-122, an essential factor for HCV replication, is notably low in Vero cells. Therefore, we supplemented Vero cells with miR-122 and found that HCV replication was enhanced. However, Vero cells that expressed miR-122 still did not allow HCV infection. We supplemented HCV receptor molecules and found that scavenger receptor class B type I (SRBI was essential for HCV infection in Vero cells. The supplementation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE, a host factor important for virus production, enabled the production of infectious virus in Vero cells. Finally, we created a Vero cell line that expressed the essential factors miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE; the entire HCV life cycle, including infection, replication, and infectious virus production, was completed in these cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE were necessary and sufficient for the completion of the entire HCV life cycle in nonhuman, nonhepatic Vero cells.

  11. Characterization of a novel miniature cell culture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Kleis, Stanley J.

    2008-05-01

    Recent advancements in the field of microfluidics have generated much interest in the advent of a miniaturized cell culture device. In this study, we developed a novel miniature culture system (cells, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic in type, for both 1 g and microgravity applications. The miniature culture system may advance the development of microanalytical remote monitoring tools such as biological sentinels, biosensors, and lab-on-a-chip. Integrating the autonomous miniature culture system with a microanalytical device makes a powerful biological tool. Cells can be cultured long-term, harvested, and released directly into an analytical tool without the need for human interaction through fluid dynamic manipulations. This work characterizes the miniature bioreactor system through numerical and experimental proof of concept studies.

  12. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  13. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  14. [Cytotoxicity studies on T-3262 in cultured Chinese hamster cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, T; Nakamura, S; Nojima, Y; Nishio, Y

    1989-04-01

    T-3262 is an antibacterial drug which belongs to the group of pyridonecarboxylic acids. In this study, we investigated cytotoxicity of T-3262 for inhibition of cell growth and effects on viability of, and morphological changes in cultured Chinese hamster cells (V79 cells). The following results were obtained. 1. The 50% inhibition dose of T-3262 for cell growth (ID50, cultured for 48 hours) was 12 micrograms/ml, showing that the inhibitory effect of T-3262 on the cell growth was stronger than that of enoxacin (ENX: ID50 44 micrograms/ml), norfloxacin (NFLX: ID50 105 micrograms/ml) or ofloxacin (OFLX: ID50 145 micrograms/ml). 2. The number of cells increased and dead cells were scarcely seen at the highest concentration tested in culture medium (40 micrograms/ml of T-3262 for 48 hours). At this concentration, degeneration of cytoplasm (atrophy and round shape) and decrease of mitotic cells were observed. These morphological changes were similar to those of the cells treated 400 micrograms/ml of NFLX or OFLX for 48 hours. 3. After the removal of T-3262 from culture medium, the cells began to grow actively and recovered from the morphological changes. The similar phenomenon was observed with ENX treated cells but not with fluorouracil or mitomycin C treated cells.

  15. Application of cell co-culture system to study fat and muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Hwang, Inho

    2014-09-01

    Animal cell culture is a highly complex process, in which cells are grown under specific conditions. The growth and development of these cells is a highly unnatural process in vitro condition. Cells are removed from animal tissues and artificially cultured in various culture vessels. Vitamins, minerals, and serum growth factors are supplied to maintain cell viability. Obtaining result homogeneity of in vitro and in vivo experiments is rare, because their structure and function are different. Living tissues have highly ordered complex architecture and are three-dimensional (3D) in structure. The interaction between adjacent cell types is quite distinct from the in vitro cell culture, which is usually two-dimensional (2D). Co-culture systems are studied to analyze the interactions between the two different cell types. The muscle and fat co-culture system is useful in addressing several questions related to muscle modeling, muscle degeneration, apoptosis, and muscle regeneration. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells could be a useful diagnostic tool to understand the muscle and fat formation in animals. Even though, co-culture systems have certain limitations, they provide a more realistic 3D view and information than the individual cell culture system. It is suggested that co-culture systems are useful in evaluating the intercellular communication and composition of two different cell types.

  16. Ascorbic acid partly antagonizes resveratrol mediated heme oxygenase-1 but not paraoxonase-1 induction in cultured hepatocytes - role of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nrf2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hori Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both resveratrol and vitamin C (ascorbic acid are frequently used in complementary and alternative medicine. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for potential health benefits of resveratrol and its interactions with ascorbic acid. Methods The antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 were analysed for their mRNA and protein levels in HUH7 liver cells treated with 10 and 25 μmol/l resveratrol in the absence and presence of 100 and 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Additionally the transactivation of the transcription factor Nrf2 and paraoxonase-1 were determined by reporter gene assays. Results Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1 and paraoxonase-1 in cultured hepatocytes. Heme oxygenase-1 induction by resveratrol was accompanied by an increase in Nrf2 transactivation. Resveratrol mediated Nrf2 transactivation as well as heme oxygenase-1 induction were partly antagonized by 1000 μmol/l ascorbic acid. Conclusions Unlike heme oxygenase-1 (which is highly regulated by Nrf2 paraoxonase-1 (which exhibits fewer ARE/Nrf2 binding sites in its promoter induction by resveratrol was not counteracted by ascorbic acid. Addition of resveratrol to the cell culture medium produced relatively low levels of hydrogen peroxide which may be a positive hormetic redox-signal for Nrf2 dependent gene expression thereby driving heme oxygenase-1 induction. However, high concentrations of ascorbic acid manifold increased hydrogen peroxide production in the cell culture medium which may be a stress signal thereby disrupting the Nrf2 signalling pathway.

  17. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Total soluble proteins (TSP) and culture filtrate (CF) proteins were extracted from the cell culture ... Even though. Arabidopsis provides for an excellent model system for .... stained, destained and imaged using a Molecular Imager PharosFX ... system, are dynamic and heterogeneous, being com- posed of a ...

  18. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  19. Feeding lactate for CHO cell culture processes: impact on culture metabolism and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincai; Wong, Chun Loong; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Lactate has long been regarded as one of the key metabolites of mammalian cell cultures. High levels of lactate have clear negative impacts on cell culture processes, and therefore, a great amount of efforts have been made to reduce lactate accumulation and/or to induce lactate consumption in the later stage of cultures. However, there is virtually no report on the impact of lactate depletion after initial accumulation. In this work, we observed that glucose uptake rate dropped over 50% at the onset of lactate consumption, and that catabolism of alanine due to lactate depletion led to ammonium accumulation. We explored the impact of feeding lactate as well as pyruvate to the cultures. In particular, a strategy was employed where CO(2) was replaced by lactic acid for culture pH control, which enabled automatic lactate feeding. The results demonstrated that lactate or pyruvate can serve as an alternative or even preferred carbon source during certain stage of the culture in the presence of glucose, and that by feeding lactate or pyruvate, very low levels of ammonia can be achieved throughout the culture. In addition, low levels of pCO(2) were also maintained in these cultures. This was in strong contrast to the control cultures where lactate was depleted during the culture, and ammonia and pCO(2) build-up were significant. Culture growth and productivity were similar between the control and lactate-fed cultures, as well as various product quality attributes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive study on lactate depletion and offers a simple yet effective strategy to overcome ammonia and pCO(2) accumulation that could arise in certain cultures due to early depletion of lactate.

  20. Adherence of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures of bovine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Wilcox, G E

    1985-09-01

    The adherence of five strains of Moraxella bovis to cell cultures was investigated. M bovis adhered to cultures of bovine corneal epithelial and Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells but not to cell types of non-bovine origin. Both piliated and unpiliated strains adhered but piliated strains adhered to a greater extent than unpiliated strains. Antiserum against pili of one strain inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence to the unpiliated strains. Treatment of bacteria with magnesium chloride caused detachment of pili from the bacterial cell and markedly inhibited adherence of piliated strains but caused only slight inhibition of adherence by the unpiliated strains. The results suggested that adhesion of piliated strains to cell cultures was mediated via pili but that adhesins other than pili may be involved in the attachment of unpiliated strains of M bovis to cells.

  1. Quantitative volumetric Raman imaging of three dimensional cell cultures

    KAUST Repository

    Kallepitis, Charalambos

    2017-03-22

    The ability to simultaneously image multiple biomolecules in biologically relevant three-dimensional (3D) cell culture environments would contribute greatly to the understanding of complex cellular mechanisms and cell–material interactions. Here, we present a computational framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman imaging (qVRI). We apply qVRI to a selection of biological systems: human pluripotent stem cells with their cardiac derivatives, monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in conventional cell culture systems and mesenchymal stem cells inside biomimetic hydrogels that supplied a 3D cell culture environment. We demonstrate visualization and quantification of fine details in cell shape, cytoplasm, nucleus, lipid bodies and cytoskeletal structures in 3D with unprecedented biomolecular specificity for vibrational microspectroscopy.

  2. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    kimchi lactobacilli on batch fermentation increased the cell density and lactic acid production with low nutrients .... first series of fermentations were carried out using pure cultures of each ... Each number represents the mean. ± SD of three ...

  3. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on...

  4. Isolation, Culture and Identification of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-jiang Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the optimum protocol for the isolation and culture of porcine muscle satellite cells. Mononuclear muscle satellite cells are a kind of adult stem cell, which is located between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and is the primary source of myogenic precursor cells in postnatal muscle. Muscle satellite cells are a useful model to investigate the mechanisms of muscle growth and development. Although the isolation and culture protocols of muscle satellite cells in some species (e.g. mouse have been established successfully, the culture system for porcine muscle satellite cells is very limited. In this study, we optimized the isolation procedure of porcine muscle satellite cells and elaborated the isolation and culture process in detail. Furthermore, we characterized the porcine muscle satellite cells using the immunofluorecence. Our study provides a reference for the isolation of porcine muscle satellite cells and will be useful for studying the molecular mechanisms in these cells.

  5. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B;

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long...

  6. Generation of a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent cells and immobilized nonadherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Ichikawa, Takashi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Patterned co-culture is a promising technique used for fundamental investigation of cell-cell communication and tissue engineering approaches. However, conventional methods are inapplicable to nonadherent cells. In this study, we aimed to establish a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent and nonadherent cells. Nonadherent cells were immobilized on a substrate using a cell membrane anchoring reagent conjugated to a protein, in order to incorporate them into the co-culture system. Cross-linked albumin film, which has unique surface properties capable of regulating protein adsorption, was used to control their spatial localization. The utility of our approach was demonstrated through the fabrication of a patterned co-culture consisting of micropatterned neuroblastoma cells surrounded by immobilized myeloid cells. Furthermore, we also created a co-culture system composed of cancer cells and immobilized monocytes. We observed that monocytes enhanced the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and its influence was limited to cancer cells located near the monocytes. Therefore, the incorporation of nonadherent cells into a patterned co-culture system is useful for creating culture systems containing immune cells, as well as investigating the influence of these immune cells on cancer drug sensitivity. Various methods have been proposed for creating patterned co-culture systems, in which multiple cell types are attached to a substrate with a desired pattern. However, conventional methods, including our previous report published in Acta Biomaterialia (2010, 6, 526-533), are unsuitable for nonadherent cells. Here, we developed a novel method that incorporates nonadherent cells into the co-culture system, which allows us to precisely manipulate and study microenvironments containing nonadherent and adherent cells. Using this technique, we demonstrated that monocytes (nonadherent cells) could enhance the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and that their influence had a

  7. Which form of collagen is suitable for nerve cell culture?*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohsen Fathi Najafi; Saber Zahri; Fatemeh Vahedi; Leila Esmaililian Toosi; Nazila Ariaee

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed col agen and two-dimensional and three-dimensional col agen matrices on cell survival, attachment and neurite outgrowth of primary cultured nerve cells using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay and inverted microscopy. Hydrolyzed col agen facilitated nerve cell survival and neurite outgrowth, but it had no obvious influences on cellattachment. In contrast, non-hydrolyzed two-dimensional collagen matrix had no obvious effects on neurite outgrowth. These findings suggest that hydrolyzed col agen is an ideal nerve cell culture media.

  8. Study on Cell Suspension Culture of Floribunda Rose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun'ai; WANG Jingang; FAN Jinping; GONG Shufang; CHE Daidi

    2008-01-01

    Friable callus was induced when immature seeds of floribunda rose were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D 3.0 mg-L-1.When transfered onto subculture media,fi-iable callus developed into embryogenic callus,which was used to establish cell suspension lines.Cell suspensions had to be subcultured at a interval of 4-5 days at the first several culture cycles.The best subculturing cycle for the stable cell suspensions was 8-10 days.The best inoculum quantity was 1 mL PCV(Packed Cell Volume) per 40 mL culture fluid.

  9. 2D- and 3D-culture of cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoruzhenko A. I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of mammalian cells in three-dimensional conditions acquires a priority in a variety of biomedical applications. In the areas of toxicology and anticancer drug development it concerns a significant difference of responses to proapoptotic factors of the cells cultured in 2D versus 3D environment. Besides, the clear-cut differences have been found in cell polarity, cytoskeleton structure, distribution of receptors to wide range of hormones, growth factors, etc. in mammalian cells depending on culture conditions. It is resulted in different response of cultured cells to extracellular stimuli. Multicellular spheroids are regarded presently as the most convenient model of solid tumour growth in vitro. The cultivation of thyroid follicles, mammary acini and other structure units, maintaining initial tissue organization, allows studying the behavior, biochemical features and gene profile of differentiated cells. On the other hand, 3D cultures have some limitations in comparison with a well established monolayer culture. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cultures and their application in biological and medical researches will be discussed in this review

  10. Convoluted cells as a marker for maternal cell contamination in CVS cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Jensen, P K; Therkelsen, A J

    1987-01-01

    In order to identify cells of maternal origin in CVS cultures, tissue from 1st trimester abortions were cultivated and the cultures stained in situ for X-chromatin. Convoluted cells and maternal fibroblasts were found to be positive. By chromosome analysis of cultures from 105 diagnostic placenta...... biopsies, obtained by the transabdominal route, metaphases of maternal origin were found in nine cases. In eight of these cases colonies of convoluted cells were observed. We conclude that convoluted cells are of maternal origin and are a reliable marker for maternal cell contamination in CVS cultures....

  11. Xeno-free culture of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transplanting adult stem cells into damaged organs has opened a new prospective for the treatment of several human pathologies. Currently, in vitro expansion and culture of mesenchymal stem cells is founded on supplementing cell culture and differentiation medium with fetal calf serum (FCS) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) that contain numerous growth factors inducing cell attachment to plastic surfaces, proliferation, and differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with medium containing FCS or FBS are unusable in the cell therapy; in fact the central issues regarding limitations in using animal sera for cell therapy is that its components are highly variable and often unknown and may trigger a xenogenic immune response, immunological reactions, and the potential transmission of prion diseases and zoonoses. Here we describe the culture system protocols for the expansion and production of human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) using a new xeno-free medium formulation ensuring the maintenance of the stem cells features comprising the multiple passage expansion, mesengenic lineage differentiation, cellular phenotype, and genomic stability, essential elements for conforming to translation to cell therapy.

  12. Guard cell protoplasts: isolation, culture, and regeneration of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Guard cell protoplasts have been used extensively in short-term experiments designed to elucidate the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate stomatal movements. The utility of uard cell protoplasts for other types of longer-term signal transduction experiments is just now being realized. Because highly purified, primary isolates of guard cell protoplasts are synchronous initially, they are uniform in their responses to changes in culture conditions. Such isolates have demonstrated potential to reveal mechanisms that underlie hormonal signalling for plant cell survival, cell cycle re-entry, reprogramming of genes during dedifferentiation to an embryogenic state, and plant cell thermotolerance. Plants have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of two species: Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, and Beta vulgaris, sugar beet. Plants genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of B. vulgaris. The method for isolating, culturing, and regenerating plants from guard cell protoplasts of N. glauca is described here. A recently developed procedure for large-scale isolation of these cells from as many as nine leaves per experiment is described. Using this protocol, yields of 1.5-2 x 10(7) per isolate may be obtained. Such yields are sufficient for standard methods of molecular, biochemical, and proteomic analysis.

  13. Auxin requirements of sycamore cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, M M; Hall, J F; Robinson, G M; Elliott, M C

    1983-04-01

    Sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cell suspension cultures (strain OS) require 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in their culture medium for normal growth. If the 2,4-D is omitted, rates of cell division are dramatically reduced and cell lysis may occur. Despite this ;auxin requirement,' it has been shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that the cells synthesize indol-3yl-acetic acid (IAA). Changes in free 2,4-D and IAA in the cells during a culture passage have been monitored.There is a rapid uptake of 2,4-D by the cells during the lag phase leading to a maximum concentration per cell (125 nanograms per 10(6) cells) on day 2 followed by a decline to 45 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 (middle of linear phase). The initial concentration of IAA (0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells) rises slowly to a peak of 1.4 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 9 then decreases rapidly to 0.2 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 15 (early declining phase) and 0.08 nanograms per 10(6) cells by day 23 (early stationary phase).

  14. Isolation and Culture of Satellite Cells from Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarò, Antonio; Carosio, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by a population of quiescent mononucleated myoblasts, localized between the basal lamina and sarcolemma of myofibers, known as satellite cells. Satellite cells play a pivotal role in muscle homeostasis and are the major source of myogenic precursors in mammalian muscle regeneration.This chapter describes protocols for isolation and culturing satellite cells isolated from mouse skeletal muscles. The classical procedure, which will be discussed extensively in this chapter, involves the enzymatic dissociation of skeletal muscles, while the alternative method involves isolation of satellite cells from isolated myofibers in which the satellite cells remain in their in situ position underneath the myofiber basal lamina.In particular, we discuss the technical aspect of satellite cell isolation, the methods necessary to enrich the satellite cell fraction and the culture conditions that optimize proliferation and myotube formation of mouse satellite cells.

  15. [Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin

    2003-11-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs.

  16. Qualitative study of three cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Ran, Peng; Chen, Xuemin; Nuessler, Andreas K

    2002-01-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using different in vitro models and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH was decreased over time in culture. However, on day 5, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after day 8 no LDH was detectable in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT did not change significantly over the investigated time. The CYP 1A activity was gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A was faster in MC than in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer such as Omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than in SC. In bioreactor basic CYP 1A activity was preserved over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor followed by SC and MC. Taken together, it was indicated each investigated model had its advantages and disadvantages. It was also underlined that various in vitro models may address different questions.

  17. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  18. Lacrimal gland primary acinar cell culture: the role of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tannus Malki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The goal of the present study was to establish a protocol for primary culture of lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGACs and to assess the effect of adding insulin to the culture media. Methods: LGACs were isolated and cultured from lacrimal glands of Wistar male rats. The study outcomes included cell number, viability, and peroxidase release over time and in response to three concentrations of insulin (0.5, 5.0, and 50.0 μg/mL. Results: In LGAC primary culture, cells started to form clusters by day 3. There was a time-response pattern of peroxidase release, which rose by day 6, in response to carbachol. Culture viability lasted for 12 days. An insulin concentration of 5.0 μg/mL in the culture medium resulted in higher viability and secretory capacity. Conclusions: The present method simplifies the isolation and culture of LGACs. The data confirmed the relevance of adding insulin to maintain LGACs in culture.

  19. Production of recombinant proteins in suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Carole; Michel, Rémy; Lienard, David; Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Sourrouille, Christophe; de March, Ghislaine Grenier; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Plants have emerged in the past decade as a suitable alternative to the current production systems for recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and, today their potential for low-cost production of high quality, much safer and biologically active mammalian proteins is largely documented. Among various plant expression systems being explored, genetically modified suspension-cultured plant cells offer a promising system for production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed, when compared to other plant-based production platforms that have been explored, suspension-cultured plant cells have the advantage of being totally devoid of problems associated with the vagaries of weather, pest, soil and gene flow in the environment. Because of short growth cycles, the timescale needed for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell culture can be counted in days or weeks after transformation compared to months needed for the production in transgenic plants. Moreover, recovery and purification of recombinant proteins from plant biomass is an expensive and technically challenging business that may amount to 80-94% of the final product cost. One additional advantage of plant cell culture is that the recombinant protein fused with a signal sequence can be expressed and secreted into the culture medium, and therefore recovered and purified in the absence of large quantities of contaminating proteins. Consequently, the downstream processing of proteins extracted from plant cell culture medium is less expensive, which may/does balance the higher costs of fermentation. When needed for clinical use, recombinant proteins are easily produced in suspension-cultured plant cells under certified, controllable and sterile conditions that offer improved safety and provide advantages for good manufacturing practices and regulatory compliance. In this chapter, we present basic protocols for rapid generation of transgenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Oriza sativa and Arabidopis

  20. Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia R. Lestard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it affects us. Since the beginning of this century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. The present study was designed to better understand the direct effects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and nonauditory cells.

  1. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  2. Dynamic 3D cell culture via a chemoselective photoactuated ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Nathan P; Luo, Wei; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-09-01

    A new strategy to create a dynamic scaffold for three-dimensional (3D) cell experiments based on a photo-activated cell adhesive peptide ligand is described. After polymerization, the inert matrix becomes cell adhesive by chemoselective modification through the conjugation of oxyamine-terminated ligands. Furthermore, spatial and temporal control of cell culture within the 3D matrix was achieved by the use of a biospecific photoprotected peptide and visualized by confocal microscopy.

  3. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  4. Good Cell Culture Practice for stem cells and stem-cell-derived models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Bal-Price, Anna; Simeonov, Anton; Tagle, Danilo; Allen, Dave; Gerhold, David; Yin, Dezhong; Pistollato, Francesca; Inutsuka, Takashi; Sullivan, Kristie; Stacey, Glyn; Salem, Harry; Leist, Marcel; Daneshian, Mardas; Vemuri, Mohan C; McFarland, Richard; Coecke, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne C; Lakshmipathy, Uma; Mack, Amanda; Wang, Wen Bo; Yamazaki, Daiju; Sekino, Yuko; Kanda, Yasunari; Smirnova, Lena; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The first guidance on Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) dates back to 2005. This document expands this to include aspects of quality assurance for in vitro cell culture focusing on the increasingly diverse cell types and culture formats used in research, product development, testing and manufacture of biotechnology products and cell-based medicines. It provides a set of basic principles of best practice that can be used in training new personnel, reviewing and improving local procedures, and helping to assure standard practices and conditions for the comparison of data between laboratories and experimentation performed at different times. This includes recommendations for the documentation and reporting of culture conditions. It is intended as guidance to facilitate the generation of reliable data from cell culture systems, and is not intended to conflict with local or higher level legislation or regulatory requirements. It may not be possible to meet all recommendations in this guidance for practical, legal or other reasons. However, when it is necessary to divert from the principles of GCCP, the risk of decreasing the quality of work and the safety of laboratory staff should be addressed and any conclusions or alternative approaches justified. This workshop report is considered a first step toward a revised GCCP 2.0.

  5. Creation and characterization of a cell-death reporter cell line for hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhilei; Simeon, Rudo; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Rice, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the creation and characterization of a hepatoma cell line, n4mBid, that supports all stages of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle and strongly reports HCV infection by a cell-death phenotype. The n4mBid cell line is derived from the highly HCV-permissive Huh-7.5 hepatoma cell line and contains a modified Bid protein (mBid) that is cleaved and activated by the HCV serine protease NS3-4A. N4mBid exhibited a 10–20 fold difference in cell viability between the HCV-infected and mock-infected states, while the parental Huh-7.5 cells showed <2 fold difference under the same conditions. The pronounced difference in n4mBid cell viability between the HCV- and mock-infected states in a 96-well plate format points to its usefulness in cell survival-based high-throughput screens for anti-HCV molecules. The degree of cell death was found to be proportional to the intracellular load of HCV. HCV-low n4mBid cells, expressing an anti-HCV short hairpin RNA, showed a significant growth advantage over naïve cells and could be rapidly enriched after HCV infection, suggesting the possibility of using n4mBid cells for the cell survival-based selection of genetic anti-HCV factors. PMID:20188762

  6. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    1992-01-01

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of e

  7. EXPLANTATION OF MESANGIAL CELL HILLOCKS - A METHOD FOR OBTAINING HUMAN MESANGIAL CELLS IN CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULLER, EW; KIM, Y; MICHAEL, AF; VERNIER, RL; VANDERHEM, GK; VANDERWOUDE, FJ

    1992-01-01

    A simple method is presented for selective cell culture of human mesangial cells using explanatation of mesangial cell hillocks. Glomeruli which had been incubated with collagenase were explanted on plastic tissue culture flasks. Three to 6 weeks after explantation, a rapidly growing multilayer of e

  8. Learning about Cells as Dynamic Entities: An Inquiry-Driven Cell Culture Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombi, Peggy Shadduck; Jagger, Kathleen Snell

    2008-01-01

    Using cultured fibroblast cells, undergraduate students explore cell division and the responses of cultured cells to a variety of environmental changes. The students learn new research techniques and carry out a self-designed experiment. Through this project, students enhance their creative approach to scientific inquiry, learn time-management and…

  9. Cell culture process development: advances in process engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Carole; Kiss, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from the cell culture process development community met on September 11 and 12, 2006 at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco to discuss "Cell Culture Process Development: Advances in Process Engineering". This oral session was held as part of the Division of Biochemical Technology (BIOT) program. The presentations addressed the very small scale (less than 1 mL) to the very large scale (20,000 L). The topics covered included development of high throughput cell culture screening systems, modeling and characterization of bioreactor environments from mixing and shear perspectives at both small and large scales, systematic approaches for improving scale-up and scale-down activities, development of disposable bioreactor technologies, and novel perfusion culture approaches. All told, this well-attended session resulted in a valuable exchange of technical information and demonstrated a high level of interest within the process development community.

  10. Stability of resazurin in buffers and mammalian cell culture media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Nicolaisen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The utility of a ferricyanide/ferrocyanide system used in the AlamarBlue(TM) (Serotec, Oxford, UK) vital. dye to inhibit the reduction of resazurin by mammalian cell culture media is questioned. Resazurin was found to be relatively stable when dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The use...... of HEPES resulted in a huge immediate dye reduction, which was significantly enhanced by exposure to diffuse light from fluorescent tubes in the laboratory 8 h per day. The reduction of resazurin by various cell culture media was time and temperature dependent, and it was significantly enhanced......'s nutrient mixture F-10 and F-12. Fetal calf serum (5-20%) slightly decreased resazurin reduction during the first 2 days of incubation. The reduction of resazurin by mammalian cell culture media do not appear to be problematic under normal culture conditions, and it is primarily dependent upon the presence...

  11. Modeling of cell culture damage and recovery leads to increased antibody and biomass productivity in CHO cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Saeideh; Nikdel, Ali; Meshram, Mukesh; McConkey, Brendan; Ingalls, Brian; Budman, Hector; Scharer, Jeno

    2014-09-01

    The development of an efficient and productive cell-culture process requires a deep understanding of intracellular mechanisms and extracellular conditions for optimal product synthesis. Mathematical modeling provides an effective strategy to predict, control, and optimize cell performance under a range of culture conditions. In this study, a mathematical model is proposed for the investigation of cell damage of a Chinese hamster ovary cell culture secreting recombinant anti-RhD monoclonal antibody (mAb). Irreversible cell damage was found to be correlated with a reduction in pH. This irreversible damage to cellular function is described mathematically by a Tessier-based model, in which the actively growing fraction of cells is dependent on an intracellular metabolic product acting as a growth inhibitor. To further verify the model, an offline model-based optimization of mAb production in the cell culture was carried out, with the goal of minimizing cell damage and thereby enhancing productivity through intermittent refreshment of the culture medium. An experimental implementation of this model-based strategy resulted in a doubling of the yield as compared to the batch operation and the resulting biomass and productivity profiles agreed with the model predictions.

  12. Introducing Mammalian Cell Culture and Cell Viability Techniques in the Undergraduate Biology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowey-Dellinger, Kristen; Dixon, Luke; Ackerman, Kristin; Vigueira, Cynthia; Suh, Yewseok K; Lyda, Todd; Sapp, Kelli; Grider, Michael; Crater, Dinene; Russell, Travis; Elias, Michael; Coffield, V McNeil; Segarra, Verónica A

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students learn about mammalian cell culture applications in introductory biology courses. However, laboratory modules are rarely designed to provide hands-on experience with mammalian cells or teach cell culture techniques, such as trypsinization and cell counting. Students are more likely to learn about cell culture using bacteria or yeast, as they are typically easier to grow, culture, and manipulate given the equipment, tools, and environment of most undergraduate biology laboratories. In contrast, the utilization of mammalian cells requires a dedicated biological safety cabinet and rigorous antiseptic techniques. For this reason, we have devised a laboratory module and method herein that familiarizes students with common cell culture procedures, without the use of a sterile hood or large cell culture facility. Students design and perform a time-efficient inquiry-based cell viability experiment using HeLa cells and tools that are readily available in an undergraduate biology laboratory. Students will become familiar with common techniques such as trypsinizing cells, cell counting with a hemocytometer, performing serial dilutions, and determining cell viability using trypan blue dye. Additionally, students will work with graphing software to analyze their data and think critically about the mechanism of death on a cellular level. Two different adaptations of this inquiry-based lab are presented-one for non-biology majors and one for biology majors. Overall, these laboratories aim to expose students to mammalian cell culture and basic techniques and help them to conceptualize their application in scientific research.

  13. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  14. Regulation of UGT2B Expression and Activity by miR-216b-5p in Liver Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluzen, Douglas F; Sutliff, Aimee K; Chen, Gang; Watson, Christy J W; Ishmael, Faoud T; Lazarus, Philip

    2016-10-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B enzymes are important in the detoxification of a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds, including many hormones, drugs, and carcinogens. Identifying novel mechanisms governing their expression is important in understanding patient-specific response to drugs and cancer risk factors. In silico prediction algorithm programs were used to screen for microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential regulators of UGT2B enzymes, with miR-216b-5p identified as a potential candidate. Luciferase data suggested the presence of a functional miR-216b-5p binding motif within the 3' untranslated regions of UGTs 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10. Overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimics significantly repressed UGT2B7 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.0018) mRNA levels in HuH-7 cells and UGT2B4 (P < 0.001) and UGT2B10 (P = 0.018) mRNA in Hep3B cells. UGT2B7 protein levels were repressed in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells in the presence of increasing miR-216b-5p concentrations, corresponding with significant (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively) decreases in glucuronidation activity against the UGT2B7-specific substrate epirubicin. Inhibition of endogenous miR-216b-5p levels significantly increased UGT2B7 mRNA levels in HuH-7 (P = 0.021) and Hep3B (P = 0.0068) cells, and increased epirubicin glucuronidation by 85% (P = 0.057) and 50% (P = 0.012) for HuH-7 and Hep3B cells, respectively. UGT2B4 activity against codeine and UGT2B10 activity against nicotine were significantly decreased in both HuH-7 and Hep3B cells (P < 0.001 and P = 0.0048, and P = 0.017 and P = 0.043, respectively) after overexpression of miR-216b-5p mimic. This is the first evidence that miRNAs regulate UGT 2B7, 2B4, and 2B10 expression, and that miR-216b-5p regulation of UGT2B proteins may be important in regulating the metabolism of UGT2B substrates.

  15. Callus and cell suspension cultures of carnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1972-01-01

    Callus cultures of carnation, Dianthus caryophyllus L. ev. G. J. Sim, were grown on a synthetic medium of half strength Murashige and Skoog salts, 3 % sucrose, 100 mg/l of myo-inositol, 0.5 mg/l each of thiamin, HCl, pyridoxin, HCl and nicotinic acid and 10 g/l agar. Optimal concentrations of gro......, but all attempts to induce formation of shoots or em-bryoids gave negative results....

  16. SIS3逆转多药耐药肝癌细胞的干性作用%Reversal of stemness in multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells by SIS3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严威; 文霆; 林素琼; 刘中财; 杨文超; 吴国洋

    2015-01-01

    ) hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods MDR HCC Huh7. 5. 1/ADM cell lines were developed by exposing parental cells to stepwise increasing concentrations of ADM. CCK⁃8 assay was used to determine the cellular sensitivity of various anticancer drugs. Flow cytometry ( FCM) was used to analyze the expression level of cancer stem cell marker CD133. Clone formation assay and mouse subcutaneous xenograft tumors were used to investigate the tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting ( WB) was used to analyze the changes of expressions of CD133, Smad3, Bcl⁃2, Bax and p⁃Smad3 in different conditions. Results ADM treatment of HCC cells in vitro resulted in a development of subline, Huh7. 5. 1/ADM cells, with CSC phenotypes: stable MDR phenotype ( besides ADMc Huh7.5.1/ADM cells were also more resistant to some other anticancer drugs including VCR, MMC and CTX ) (IC50:0.215±0.018 vs. 0.123± 0.004, 0.145±0.009 vs. 0.014±0.002, 1.021± 0.119 vs. 0.071± 0.006, 27.007±1.606 vs. 1.919±0.032)(unit: μg/ml)(P multidrug resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  17. In vitro methods to culture primary human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, Afshin; Sun, Yu Jia

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that much like leukemia, breast tumors are maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor cells that have stem cell properties. These cancer stem cells are envisaged to be responsible for tumor formation and relapse. Therefore, knowledge about their nature will provide a platform to develop therapies to eliminate these breast cancer stem cells. This concept highlights the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the normal functions of the breast stem cells and their immediate progeny as alterations to these same mechanisms can cause these primitive cells to act as cancer stem cells. The study of the primitive cell functions relies on the ability to isolate them from primary sources of breast tissue. This chapter describes processing of discarded tissue from reduction mammoplasty samples as sources of normal primary human breast epithelial cells and describes cell culture systems to grow single-cell suspensions prepared from these reduction samples in vitro.

  18. Metabolism Kinetics of Glucose in Anchorage-dependent Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙祥明; 张元兴

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic model of glucose metabolism was established and successfully applied to batchcultures of rCHO and rBHK cells. It was found that a large amount of glucose was utilized for cellmaintenance, and the overwhelming majority of maintenance energy from glucose was by its anaerobicmetabolism in both rBHK and rCHO cell cultures. The overall maintenance coefficients from aerobicmetabolism were 1.9×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rCHO cells and 7×10-13 mmol/(cell.h) for rBHK cells. Inaddition, all Go/T and Eo/T gradually increased with the same trend as the cell growth in the culture ofboth rCHO and rBHK cells. The overall molecule yield coefficients of lactate to glucose were 1.61 for rCHO cells and 1.38 for rBHK cells. The yield coefficients of cell to glucose were 4.5×108 cells/mmol for rCHO cells and 1.9 × 108 cells/mmol for rBHK cells, respectively.

  19. Challenges of culturing human norovirus in three-dimensional organoid intestinal cell culture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia Papafragkou

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Recently, cell culture systems have been described using either human embryonic intestinal epithelial cells (Int-407 or human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2 growing on collagen-I porous micro carrier beads in a rotating bioreactor under conditions of physiological fluid shear. Here, we describe the efforts from two independent laboratories to implement this three dimensional (3D cell culture system for the replication of norovirus. Int-407 and Caco-2 were grown in a rotating bioreactor for up to 28 days. Prior to infection, cells were screened for the presence of microvilli by electron microscopy and stained for junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and β-catenin. Differentiated 3D cells were transferred to 24-well plates and infected with bacteria-free filtrates of various norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GI.3, GI.8, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, and GII.8. At 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h post inoculation, viral RNA from both cells and supernatants were collected and analyzed for norovirus RNA by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Despite observations of high expression of junction proteins and microvilli development in stained thin sections, our data suggest no significant increase in viral titer based on norovirus RNA copy number during the first 48 h after inoculation for the different samples and virus culture conditions tested. Our combined efforts demonstrate that 3D cell culture models using Int-407 or Caco-2 cells do not support norovirus replication and highlight the complexity and difficulty of developing a reproducible in vitro cell culture system for human norovirus.

  20. Seed train optimization for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Björn

    2014-01-01

    For the production of biopharmaceuticals a seed train is required to generate an adequate number of cells for inoculation of the production bioreactor. This seed train is time- and cost-intensive but offers potential for optimization. A method and a protocol are described for the seed train mapping, directed modeling without major effort, and its optimization regarding selected optimization criteria such as optimal points in time for cell passaging. Furthermore, the method can also be applied for the set-up of a new seed train, for example for a new cell line. Although the chapter is directed towards suspension cell lines, the method is also generally applicable, e.g. for adherent cell lines.

  1. Characterisation and germline transmission of cultured avian primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian primordial germ cells (PGCs have significant potential to be used as a cell-based system for the study and preservation of avian germplasm, and the genetic modification of the avian genome. It was previously reported that PGCs from chicken embryos can be propagated in culture and contribute to the germ cell lineage of host birds. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm these results by demonstrating that PGCs from a different layer breed of chickens can be propagated for extended periods in vitro. We demonstrate that intracellular signalling through PI3K and MEK is necessary for PGC growth. We carried out an initial characterisation of these cells. We find that cultured PGCs contain large lipid vacuoles, are glycogen rich, and express the stem cell marker, SSEA-1. These cells also express the germ cell-specific proteins CVH and CDH. Unexpectedly, using RT-PCR we show that cultured PGCs express the pluripotency genes c-Myc, cKlf4, cPouV, cSox2, and cNanog. Finally, we demonstrate that the cultured PGCs will migrate to and colonise the forming gonad of host embryos. Male PGCs will colonise the female gonad and enter meiosis, but are lost from the gonad during sexual development. In male hosts, cultured PGCs form functional gametes as demonstrated by the generation of viable offspring. CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of in vitro cultures of germline competent avian PGCs offers a unique system for the study of early germ cell differentiation and also a comparative system for mammalian germ cell development. Primary PGC lines will form the basis of an alternative technique for the preservation of avian germplasm and will be a valuable tool for transgenic technology, with both research and industrial applications.

  2. Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, A.; Rossant, J.; Nagy, R.; Abramow-Newerly, W; Roder, J C

    1993-01-01

    Several newly generated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were tested for their ability to produce completely ES cell-derived mice at early passage numbers by ES cell tetraploid embryo aggregation. One line, designated R1, produced live offspring which were completely ES cell-derived as judged by isoenzyme analysis and coat color. These cell culture-derived animals were normal, viable, and fertile. However, prolonged in vitro culture negatively affected this initial totipotency of R1, and...

  3. Suspension culture of pluripotent stem cells: effect of shear on stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin C; Rodrigues, Beatriz; zur Nieden, Nicole I

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant promise, the routine usage of suspension cell culture to manufacture stem cell-derived differentiated cells has progressed slowly. Suspension culture is an innovative way of either expanding or differentiating cells and sometimes both are combined into a single bioprocess. Its advantages over static 2D culturing include a homogeneous and controllable culture environment and producing a large quantity of cells in a fraction of time. This feature makes suspension cell culture ideal for use in stem cell research and eventually ideal in the large-scale production of differentiated cells for regenerative medicine. Because of their tremendous differentiation capacities and unlimited growth properties, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in particular are considered potential sources for future cell-replacement therapies. Currently, expansion of PSCs is accomplished in 2D, which only permits a limited amount of cell growth per culture flask before cells need to be passaged. However, before stem cells can be applied clinically, several aspects of their expansion, such as directed growth, but also differentiation, need to be better controlled. This review will summarize recent advantages in suspension culture of PSCs, while at the same time highlighting current challenges.

  4. Imprinting of confining sites for cell cultures on thermoplastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, C. D.; Fleenor, E. N.

    1969-01-01

    Prevention of test cell migration beyond the field of observation involves confining cells or cultures in microlagoons made in either a layer of grease or a thermoplastic substrate. Thermoplastic films or dishes are easily imprinted with specifically designed patterns of microlagoons.

  5. Effect of Nanoparticles on Complement System in Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-15

    7 Primary endothelial cells isolated from human umbilical veins Aseptically taken umbilical cord, preferably abort 20...suspended in cell culture medium. Prepared suspensions were agitated with ultrasounds for 20 minutes at 37C, then stored at +4C and used for testing on the

  6. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in this the

  7. Process validation for cell culture-derived pharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, A S; Wiebe, M E; Builder, S E

    1990-01-01

    Principles of process validation are extremely powerful tools in assurance of product quality. They are especially useful for reducing those risks not easily measured routinely during production. When combined with effective process and facility design principles, characterization of cell banks and products, appropriate lot release tests, and adherence to cGMP, safe cell culture biologicals can be prepared in a reliable manner.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Poliovirus in Cell Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Bruce R; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and characterization of enteroviruses by cell culture was accepted as the "gold standard" by clinical virology laboratories. Methods for the direct detection of all enteroviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, targeting a conserved region of the genome, have largely supplanted cell culture as the principal diagnostic procedure. However, the World Health Organization's Global Polio Eradication Initiative continues to rely upon cell culture to isolate poliovirus due to the lack of a reliable sensitive genetic test for direct typing of enteroviruses from clinical specimens. Poliovirus is able to infect a wide range of mammalian cell lines, with CD155 identified as the primary human receptor for all three seroytpes, and virus replication leads to an observable cytopathic effect. Inoculation of cell lines with extracts of clinical specimens and subsequent passaging of the cells leads to an increased virus titre. Cultured isolates of poliovirus are suitable for testing by a variety of methods and remain viable for years when stored at low temperature.This chapter describes general procedures for establishing a cell bank and routine passaging of cell lines. While the sections on specimen preparation and virus isolation focus on poliovirus, the protocols are suitable for other enteroviruses.

  9. Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Isbach, Michael; Dirksen, Dieter; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Kemper, Björn

    2017-05-01

    The potential of quantitative phase imaging (QPI) with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for quantification of cell culture quality was explored. Label-free QPI of detached single cells in suspension was performed by Michelson interferometer-based self-interference DHM. Two pancreatic tumor cell lines were chosen as cellular model and analyzed for refractive index, volume, and dry mass under varying culture conditions. Firstly, adequate cell numbers for reliable statistics were identified. Then, to characterize the performance and reproducibility of the method, we compared results from independently repeated measurements and quantified the cellular response to osmolality changes of the cell culture medium. Finally, it was demonstrated that the evaluation of QPI images allows the extraction of absolute cell parameters which are related to cell layer confluence states. In summary, the results show that QPI enables label-free imaging cytometry, which provides novel complementary integral biophysical data sets for sophisticated quantification of cell culture quality with minimized sample preparation. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Cell cultures from the symbiotic soft coral Sinularia flexibilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalesi, M.K.; Vera-Jimenez, N.I.; Aanen, D.K.; Beeftink, H.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiotic octocoral Sinularia flexibilis is a producer of potential pharmaceuticals. Sustainable mass production of these corals as a source of such compounds demands innovative approaches, including coral cell culture. We studied various cell dissociation methodologies and the feasibility of cu

  11. Animal-cell culture in aqueous two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    In current industrial biotechnology, animal-cell culture is an important source of therapeutic protein products. The conventional animal-cell production processes, however, include many unit operations as part of the fermentation and downstream processing strategy. The research described in

  12. Replica-moulded polydimethylsiloxane culture vessel lids attenuate osmotic drift in long-term cell cultures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Axel Blau; Tanja Neumann; Christiane Ziegler; Fabio Benfenati

    2009-03-01

    An imbalance in medium osmolarity is a determinant that affects cell culture longevity. Even in humidified incubators, evaporation of water leads to a gradual increase in osmolarity overtime. We present a simple replica-moulding strategy for producing self-sealing lids adaptable to standard, small-size cell-culture vessels. They are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a flexible, transparent and biocompatible material, which is gas-permeable but largely impermeable to water. Keeping cell cultures in a humidified 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C, medium osmolarity increased by +6.86 mosmol/kg/day in standard 35 mm Petri dishes, while PDMS lids attenuated its rise by a factor of four to changes of +1.72 mosmol/kg/ day. Depending on the lid membrane thickness, pH drifts at ambient CO2 levels were attenuated by a factor of 4 to 9. Comparative evaporation studies at temperatures below 60°C yielded a 10-fold reduced water vapour flux of 1.75 g/day/dm2 through PDMS lids as compared with 18.69 g/day/dm2 with conventional Petri dishes. Using such PDMS lids, about 2/3 of the cell cultures grew longer than 30 days in vitro. Among these, the average survival time was 69 days with the longest survival being 284 days under otherwise conventional cell culture conditions.

  13. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: I. Lepidoptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-10-01

    The radiosensitivity of five lepidopteran insect cell lines representing five different genera has been investigated. These lines are: (1) TN-368, Trichoplusia ni; (2) IPLB-SF-1254, Spodoptera frugiperda; (3) IPLB-1075, Heliothis zea; (4) MRRL-CHl, clone GVl, Manduca sexta; and (5) IAL-PID2, Plodia interpunctella. The cell lines grew at different rates and had population doubling times that ranged from 19 to 52 hr. All of the lines are highly heteroploid and have approximate chromosome numbers near or above 100. The chromosomes are very small. All of the lines are extremely radioresistant; cell populations are able to recover from 260 kVp X-ray exposures up to and including 400 Gy, the highest dose examined. Cell survival curves were obtainable for only the TN-368 and IPLB-SF-1254 lines. The TN-368 cells displayed a biphasic survival response with D/sub 0/, d/sub q/, and n values of 65.7 and 130.2 Gy, 9.0 and -36.1 Gy, and 1.2 and 0.8, respectively, for the steep and shallow portions of the curve. The IPLB-SF-1254 cells had a D/sub 0/ of 63.9 Gy. D/sub q/ of 19.0 Gy, and n value of 1.4. These studies provide definitive evidence of the radioresistance of lepidopteran cells, and suggest that this radioresistance is a characteristic of lepidopteran insects.

  14. Phenotypic changes in satellite glial cells in cultured trigeminal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Vitali; Shraer, Nathanael; Hanani, Menachem

    2010-11-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) are specialized cells that form a tight sheath around neurons in sensory ganglia. In recent years, there is increasing interest in SGCs and they have been studied in both intact ganglia and in tissue culture. Here we studied phenotypic changes in SGCs in cultured trigeminal ganglia from adult mice, containing both neurons and SGCs, using phase optics, immunohistochemistry and time-lapse photography. Cultures were followed for up to 14 days. After isolation virtually every sensory neuron is ensheathed by SGCs, as in the intact ganglia. After one day in culture, SGCs begin to migrate away from their parent neurons, but in most cases the neurons still retain an intact glial cover. At later times in culture, there is a massive migration of SGCs away from the neurons and they undergo clear morphological changes, and at 7 days they become spindle-shaped. At one day in culture SGCs express the glial marker glutamine synthetase, and also the purinergic receptor P2X7. From day 2 in culture the glutamine synthetase expression is greatly diminished, whereas that of P2X7 is largely unchanged. We conclude that SGCs retain most of their characteristics for about 24 h after culturing, but undergo major phenotypic changes at later times.

  15. Schwann cell cultures from human fetal dorsal root ganglia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Feng; Hui Zhu; Jiang Hao; Xinmin Wang; Shengping Wu; Li Bai; Xiangming Li; Yun Zha

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Previous studies have used many methods for in vitro Schwann cells (SCs) cul-tures and purification,such as single cell suspension and cytosine arabinoside.However,it has been difficult to obtain sufficient cellular density,and the procedures have been quite tedious.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility of culturing high-density SCs using fetal human dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:Cell culture and immunohistochemistry were performed at the Cen-tral Laboratory of Kunming General Hospital of Chinese PLA between March 2001 and October 2008.MATERIALS:Culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum,as well as 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin were purchased from Gibco,USA;mouse anti-human S-100 monoclonal antibody and goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with horseradish peroxidase were provided by Beijing Institute of Bi-ological Products,China.METHODS:Primarily cultured SCs were dissociated from dorsal root ganglia of human aborted fe-tuses at 4-6 months pregnancy.Following removal of the dorsal root ganglion perineurium,the gan-glia were dissected into tiny pieces and digested with 0.2% collagenase and 0.25% trypsin (volume ratio 1:1),then explanted and cultured.SC purification was performed with 5 mL 10% fetal bovine serum added to the culture media,followed by differential adhesion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:SCs morphology was observed under inverted phase contrast light microscopy.SC purity was evaluated according to percentage of S-100 immunostained cells.RESULTS:SCs were primarily cultured for 5-6 days and then subcultured for 4-5 passages.The highly enriched SC population reached > 95% purity and presented with normal morphology.CONCLUSION:A high purity of SCs was obtained with culture methods using human fetal dorsal root ganglion tissue explants.

  16. Proper design of silica nanoparticles combines high brightness, lack of cytotoxicity and efficient cell endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, Enrico; Voltan, Rebecca; Petrizza, Luca; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Prodi, Luca; Casciano, Fabio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2013-08-01

    Silica-based luminescent nanoparticles (SiNPs) show promising prospects in nanomedicine in light of their chemical properties and versatility. In this study, we have characterized silica core-PEG shell SiNPs derivatized with PEG moieties (NP-PEG), with external amino- (NP-PEG-amino) or carboxy-groups (NP-PEG-carbo), both in cell cultures as well as in animal models. By using different techniques, we could demonstrate that these SiNPs were safe and did not exhibit appreciable cytotoxicity in different relevant cell models, of normal or cancer cell types, growing either in suspension (JVM-2 leukemic cell line and primary normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells) or in adherence (human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 and umbilical vein endothelial cells). Moreover, by multiparametric flow cytometry, we could demonstrate that the highest efficiency of cell uptake and entry was observed with NP-PEG-amino, with a stable persistence of the fluorescence signal associated with SiNPs in the loaded cell populations both in vitro and in vivo settings suggesting this as an innovative method for cell traceability and detection in whole organisms. Finally, experiments performed with the endocytosis inhibitor Genistein clearly suggested the involvement of a caveolae-mediated pathway in SiNP endocytosis. Overall, these data support the safe use of these SiNPs for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.Silica-based luminescent nanoparticles (SiNPs) show promising prospects in nanomedicine in light of their chemical properties and versatility. In this study, we have characterized silica core-PEG shell SiNPs derivatized with PEG moieties (NP-PEG), with external amino- (NP-PEG-amino) or carboxy-groups (NP-PEG-carbo), both in cell cultures as well as in animal models. By using different techniques, we could demonstrate that these SiNPs were safe and did not exhibit appreciable cytotoxicity in different relevant cell models, of normal or cancer cell types, growing either in suspension (JVM-2

  17. Growth and Plating of Cell Suspension Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Datura innoxia Mill, were successfully grown on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium with 2,4–D, NAA or BAP as growth substances, provided the micronutrient levels were reduced to 1/10. Normal amounts of micronutrients were toxic. Attempts to identify the toxic elements did...... malate) or on NO3−-N alone. Dry weight yield was proportional to the amount of nitrate-N added (47 mg/mg N). Filtered suspension cultures containing single cells (plating cultures) could be grown in agar in petri dishes when NAA or 2,4-D were used as growth substances. Cells grew at densities above 500...... units/ml in the agar. Most colonies grew from cell aggregates but division in single cells was observed. The highest plating efficiency was about 50% on 10−6 M 2,4-D + 1 g/1 casein hydrolysate....

  18. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  19. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  20. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012: implications for disease pathogenesis and clinical manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Tse, Herman; Cai, Jian-Piao; Yeung, Man Lung; Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Chen, Honglin; Che, Xiao-Yan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-06-01

    The emerging novel human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC) was recently isolated from patients with severe pneumonia and renal failure and was associated with an unexplained high crude fatality rate of 56%. We performed a cell line susceptibility study with 28 cell lines. HCoV-EMC was found to infect the human respiratory tract (polarized airway epithelium cell line Calu-3, embryonic fibroblast cell line HFL, and lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549), kidney (embryonic kidney cell line HEK), intestinal tract (colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2), liver cells (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7), and histiocytes (malignant histiocytoma cell line His-1), as evident by detection of high or increasing viral load in culture supernatants, detection of viral nucleoprotein expression by immunostaining, and/or detection of cytopathic effects. Although an infected human neuronal cell line (NT2) and infected monocyte and T lymphocyte cell lines (THP-1, U937, and H9) had increased viral loads, their relatively lower viral production corroborated with absent nucleoprotein expression and cytopathic effects. This range of human tissue tropism is broader than that for all other HCoVs, including SARS coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63, which may explain the high mortality associated with this disease. A recent cell line susceptibility study showed that HCoV-EMC can infect primate, porcine, and bat cells and therefore may jump interspecies barriers. We found that HCoV-EMC can also infect civet lung fibroblast and rabbit kidney cell lines. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and transmission of HCoV-EMC.

  1. Culture of isolated single cells from Taxus suspensions for the propagation of superior cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naill, Michael C; Roberts, Susan C

    2005-11-01

    Single cells isolated from aggregated Taxus cuspidata cultures via enzymatic digestion were grown in suspension culture. High seeding density (4 x 10(5 )cells/ml) and the addition of cell-free conditioned medium were essential for growth. Doubling the concentration of the nutrients [ascorbic acid (150 g/l), glutamine (6.25 mM: ), and citric acid (150 g/l)] had no effect on single cell growth or viability. A specific growth rate of 0.11 days(-1) was achieved, which is similar to the observed growth rate of aggregated Taxus suspensions. The biocide, Plant Preservative Mixture, added at 0.2% (v/v) to all single cell cultures to prevent microbial contamination, had no significant effect on growth or viability. Following cell sorting, single cell cultures can be used to establish new cell lines for biotechnology applications or provide cells for further study.

  2. Establishing a stem cell culture laboratory for clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elíseo Joji Sekiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem/progenitor cells are found in different human tissues. An in vitro cell culture is needed for their isolation or for their expansion when they are not available in a sufficient quantity to regenerate damaged organs and tissues. The level of complexity of these new technologies requires adequate facilities, qualified personnel with experience in cell culture techniques, assessment of quality and clear protocols for cell production. The rules for the implementation of cell therapy centers involve national and international standards of good manufacturing practices. However, such standards are not uniform, reflecting the diversity of technical and scientific development. Here standards from the United States, the European Union and Brazil are analyzed. Moreover, practical solutions encountered for the implementation of a cell therapy center appropriate for the preparation and supply of cultured cells for clinical studies are described. Development stages involved the planning and preparation of the project, the construction of the facility, standardization of laboratory procedures and development of systems to prevent cross contamination. Combining the theoretical knowledge of research centers involved in the study of cells with the practical experience of blood therapy services that manage structures for cell transplantation is presented as the best potential for synergy to meet the demands to implement cell therapy centers.

  3. Cell death in mammalian cell culture: molecular mechanisms and cell line engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Britta; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    Cell death is a fundamentally important problem in cell lines used by the biopharmaceutical industry. Environmental stress, which can result from nutrient depletion, by-product accumulation and chemical agents, activates through signalling cascades regulators that promote death. The best known key regulators of death process are the Bcl-2 family proteins which constitute a critical intracellular checkpoint of apoptosis cell death within a common death pathway. Engineering of several members of the anti-apoptosis Bcl-2 family genes in several cell types has extended the knowledge of their molecular function and interaction with other proteins, and their regulation of cell death. In this review, we describe the various modes of cell death and their death pathways at molecular and organelle level and discuss the relevance of the growing knowledge of anti-apoptotic engineering strategies to inhibit cell death and increase productivity in mammalian cell culture.

  4. Cell division and differentiation in protoplasts from cell cultures of Glycine species and leaf tissue of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamborg, O L; Davis, B P; Stahlhut, R W

    1983-08-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from cell cultures of G. soja and G. tabacina, respectively. The isolation procedure employed Percoll for the separation and concentration of protoplasts. The cultured protoplasts formed cells which developed into embryo-like structures. Protoplasts also were isolated from leaf tissue of soybean cv. Williams 82. Upon culture, the protoplasts regenerated cell walls and divided to form cell cultures.

  5. Cytopathogenicity of Naegleria for cultured neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulford, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The cytopathic activity of live Naegleria amoebae and cell-free lysates of Naegleria for B-103 rat neuroblastoma cells was investigated using a /sup 51/Cr release assay. Live amoebae and cell-free lysates of N. fowleri, N. australiensis, N. lovaniensis, and N. gruberi all induced sufficient damage to radiolabeled B-103 cells to cause a significant release of chromium. The cytotoxic activity present in the cell-free lysates of N. fowleri can be recovered in the supernatant fluid following centrifugation at 100,000xg and precipitation of the 100,000xg supernatant fluid with ammonium sulfate. Initial characterization of the cytotoxic factor indicates that it is a heat labile, pH sensitive, soluble protein. The cytotoxic activity is abolished by either extraction, unaffected by repeated freeze-thawing, and is not sensitive to inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes. Phospholipase A activity was detected in the cytotoxic ammonium sulfate precipitable material, suggesting that this enzyme activity may have a role in the cytotoxic activity of the cell-free lysates.

  6. Alternative endocytosis pathway for productive entry of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mami; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kataoka, Chikako; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatic cells through interaction with a series of cellular receptors, followed by clathrin-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HCV entry into multiple HCV-permissive human hepatocyte-derived cells using trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp). Knockdown of CD81 and claudin-1, or treatment with bafilomycin A1, reduced infection in Huh-7 and Huh7.5.1 cells, suggesting that HCV entered both cell types via receptor-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Interestingly, knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain or dynamin-2 (Dyn2), as well as expression of the dominant-negative form of Dyn2, reduced infection of Huh-7 cells with HCVtcp, whereas infectious entry of HCVtcp into Huh7.5.1 cells was not impaired. Infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) via a clathrin-independent pathway was also observed. Knockdown of caveolin-1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), flotillin, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the PAK1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A had no inhibitory effects on HCVtcp infection into Huh7.5.1 cells, thus suggesting that the infectious entry pathway of HCV into Huh7.5.1 cells was not caveolae-mediated, or Arf6- and flotillin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but rather may have occurred via an undefined endocytic pathway. Further analysis revealed that HCV entry was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent in ORL8c and HepCD81/miR122 cells, but productive entry of HCV was clathrin- and dynamin-independent in Hep3B/miR122 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that HCV entered different target cells through different entry routes.

  7. Transient mTOR inhibition facilitates continuous growth of liver tumors by modulating the maintenance of CD133+ cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojuan Yang

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR pathway, which drives cell proliferation, is frequently hyperactivated in a variety of malignancies. Therefore, the inhibition of the mTOR pathway has been considered as an appropriate approach for cancer therapy. In this study, we examined the roles of mTOR in the maintenance and differentiation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs, the conversion of conventional cancer cells to CSCs and continuous tumor growth in vivo. In H-Ras-transformed mouse liver tumor cells, we found that pharmacological inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin greatly increased not only the CD133+ populations both in vitro and in vivo but also the expression of stem cell-like genes. Enhancing mTOR activity by over-expressing Rheb significantly decreased CD133 expression, whereas knockdown of the mTOR yielded an opposite effect. In addition, mTOR inhibition severely blocked the differentiation of CD133+ to CD133- liver tumor cells. Strikingly, single-cell culture experiments revealed that CD133- liver tumor cells were capable of converting to CD133+ cells and the inhibition of mTOR signaling substantially promoted this conversion. In serial implantation of tumor xenografts in nude BALB/c mice, the residual tumor cells that were exposed to rapamycin in vivo displayed higher CD133 expression and had increased secondary tumorigenicity compared with the control group. Moreover, rapamycin treatment also enhanced the level of stem cell-associated genes and CD133 expression in certain human liver tumor cell lines, such as Huh7, PLC/PRC/7 and Hep3B. The mTOR pathway is significantly involved in the generation and the differentiation of tumorigenic liver CSCs. These results may be valuable for the design of more rational strategies to control clinical malignant HCC using mTOR inhibitors.

  8. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  9. Foetal hepatic progenitor cells assume a cholangiocytic cell phenotype during two-dimensional pre-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazuya; Chikada, Hiromi; Tsuruya, Kota; Ida, Kinuyo; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Inagaki, Yutaka; Mine, Tesuya; Kamiya, Akihide

    2016-06-23

    Liver consists of parenchymal hepatocytes and other cells. Liver progenitor cell (LPC) is the origin of both hepatocytes and cholangiocytic cells. The analyses of mechanism regulating differentiation of LPCs into these functional cells are important for liver regenerative therapy using progenitor cells. LPCs in adult livers were found to form cysts with cholangiocytic characteristics in 3D culture. In contrast, foetal LPCs cannot form these cholangiocytic cysts in the same culture. Thus, the transition of foetal LPCs into cholangiocytic progenitor cells might occur during liver development. Primary CD45(-)Ter119(-)Dlk1(+) LPCs derived from murine foetal livers formed ALBUMIN (ALB)(+)CYTOKERATIN (CK)19(-) non-cholangiocytic cysts within 3D culture. In contrast, when foetal LPCs were pre-cultured on gelatine-coated dishes, they formed ALB(-)CK19(+) cholangiocytic cysts. When hepatocyte growth factor or oncostatin M, which are inducers of hepatocytic differentiation, was added to pre-culture, LPCs did not form cholangiocytic cysts. These results suggest that the pre-culture on gelatine-coated dishes changed the characteristics of foetal LPCs into cholangiocytic cells. Furthermore, neonatal liver progenitor cells were able to form cholangiocytic cysts in 3D culture without pre-culture. It is therefore possible that the pre-culture of mid-foetal LPCs in vitro functioned as a substitute for the late-foetal maturation step in vivo.

  10. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  11. Wave characterization for mammalian cell culture: residence time distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Costa, Ana Rita; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2012-02-15

    The high dose requirements of biopharmaceutical products led to the development of mammalian cell culture technologies that increase biomanufacturing capacity. The disposable Wave bioreactor is one of the most promising technologies, providing ease of operation and no cross-contamination, and using an innovative undulation movement that ensures good mixing and oxygen transfer without cell damage. However, its recentness demands further characterization. This study evaluated the residence time distribution (RTD) in Wave, allowing the characterization of mixing and flow and the comparison with ideal models and a Stirred tank reactor (STR) used for mammalian cell culture. RTD was determined using methylene blue with pulse input methodology, at three flow rates common in mammalian cell culture (3.3×10(-5)m(3)/h, 7.9×10(-5)m(3)/h, and 1.25×10(-4)m(3)/h) and one typical of microbial culture (5×10(-3)m(3)/h). Samples were taken periodically and the absorbance read at 660nm. It was observed that Wave behavior diverted from ideal models, but was similar to STR. Therefore, the deviations are not related to the particular Wave rocking mechanism, but could be associated with the inadequacy of these reactors to operate in continuous mode or to a possible inability of the theoretical models to properly describe the behavior of reactors designed for mammalian cell culture. Thus, the development of new theoretical models could better characterize the performance of these reactors.

  12. Isolation and Culture of Postnatal Stem Cells from Deciduous Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Olávez, Daniela; Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Los Andes; Salmen, Siham; Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Universidad de Los Andes.; Padrón, Karla; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Lobo, Carmine; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Díaz, Nancy; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Doctora en Inmunología por Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela.; Solorzanio, Eduvigis; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, degenerative diseases represent a public health problem; therefore, the development and implementation of strategies to fully or partially recover of damaged tissues has a special interest in the biomedical field. Therapeutic strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells transplantation from dental pulp have been proposed as an alternative. Purpose: To develop a mesenchymal stem cells culture isolated from dental pulp of deciduous teeth. Methods: The mesenchymal stem cells...

  13. Culture of Neural Stem Cells in Calcium-alginate Microbeads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Song YAO; Tian-Qing LIU; Dan GE; Xue-Hu MA; Zhan-Feng CUI

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Recent research shows that neural stem cells may play an important role in the nerve injury reparation and nerve disease treatment. The shortage of the source and the number of NSCs, however, is the main challenge for its clinic application. In this situation, expansion of NSCs in large scale and culture in three dimensional environment are very worth of exploration. Notablely, the shear stress existed in bioreactors can cause serious cell injury especially for the shear sensitive cells like NSCs.

  14. Isolation and Culture of Postnatal Stem Cells from Deciduous Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Olávez, Daniela; Facultad de Odontología Universidad de Los Andes; Salmen, Siham; Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Universidad de Los Andes.; Padrón, Karla; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Lobo, Carmine; Facultad de Odontología. Univerisdad de Los Andes.; Díaz, Nancy; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Doctora en Inmunología por Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC). Instituto de Inmunología Clínica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela.; Solorzanio, Eduvigis; Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Currently, degenerative diseases represent a public health problem; therefore, the development and implementation of strategies to fully or partially recover of damaged tissues has a special interest in the biomedical field. Therapeutic strategies based on mesenchymal stem cells transplantation from dental pulp have been proposed as an alternative. Purpose: To develop a mesenchymal stem cells culture isolated from dental pulp of deciduous teeth. Methods: The mesenchymal stem cells...

  15. A novel closed cell culture device for fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Moriya, Noboru; Mizutani, Manabu; Kan, Kazutoshi; Nozaki, Takayuki; Saitoh, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-11-01

    Automation technology for cell sheet-based tissue engineering would need to optimize the cell sheet fabrication process, stabilize cell sheet quality and reduce biological contamination risks. Biological contamination must be avoided in clinical settings. A closed culture system provides a solution for this. In the present study, we developed a closed culture device called a cell cartridge, to be used in a closed cell culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured on the surface of a porous membrane with 3T3 feeder cells, which are separate from the epithelial cells in the cell cartridges and in the cell-culture inserts as a control. To fabricate the stratified cell sheets, five different thicknesses of the membranes which were welded to the cell cartridge, were examined. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated in cell cartridges that were welded to a 25 µm-thick gas-permeable membrane, which was similar to the results with the cell-culture inserts. However, stratification of corneal epithelial cell sheets did not occur with cell cartridges that were welded to 100-300 µm-thick gas-permeable membranes. The fabricated cell sheets were evaluated by histological analyses to examine the expression of corneal epithelial-specific markers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that a putative stem cell marker, p63, a corneal epithelial differentiation maker, CK3, and a barrier function marker, Claudin-1, were expressed in the appropriate position in the cell sheets. These results suggest that the cell cartridge is effective for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets.

  16. A biocompatible micro cell culture chamber (microCCC) for the culturing and on-line monitoring of eukaryote cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Petronis, Sarunas; Jørgensen, A M

    2006-01-01

    We have previously shown that a polymeric (PMMA) chip with medium perfusion and integrated heat regulation provides sufficiently precise heat regulation, pH-control and medium exchange to support cell growth for weeks. However, it was unclear how closely the cells cultured in the chip resembled c...

  17. Experiments on tissue culture in the genus Lycopersicon miller : Shoot formation from protoplasts of tomato long-term cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblitz, H; Koblitz, D

    1982-06-01

    Callus cultures from cotyledon explants were established and maintained in culture for more than two years. After several months callus cultures were transferred into liquid medium and cultured as cell suspensions. Protoplasts were isolated from these cell suspension cultures and cultured in a liquid medium. After formation of new cell walls the cells were further cultured in liquid medium and afterwards transferred to an agar-solidified medium to give a vigorously growing callus culture. In the case of the cultivar 'Lukullus' shoots were recovered from callus. All efforts to root these shoots failed and this, in addition to variations in appearence, suggests that the shoots are changed genetically possibly due to the prolonged culture period.

  18. Comparison of human nasal epithelial cells grown as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jian; Meng, Na; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Luo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cell growth characteristics, ciliated cell differentiation, and function of human nasal epithelial cells established as explant outgrowth cultures or dissociated tissue cultures. Human nasal mucosa of the uncinate process was obtained by endoscopy and epithelial cell cultures were established by explant outgrowth or dissociated tissue culture methods. Epithelial cell growth characteristics were observed by inverted phase contrast microscopy. Ciliated cell differentiation was detected by β-tubulin IVand ZO-1 immunocytochemistry. Basal and ATP-stimulated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured using a highspeed digital microscopic imaging system. Both the explant and dissociated tissue cultures established as monolayers with tight junctions and differentiated cell composition, with both types of cultures comprising ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells. Fibroblasts were also frequently found in explant cultures but rarely seen in dissociated tissue cultures. In both culture systems, the highest ciliated cell density appeared at 7th-10th culture day and declined with time, with the lifespan of ciliated cells ranging from 14 to 21 days. Overall, 10% of the cells in explant cultures and 20% of the cells in the dissociated tissue cultures were ciliated. These two cultures demonstrated similar ciliary beat frequency values at baseline (7.78 ± 1.99 Hz and 7.91 ± 2.52 Hz, respectively) and reacted equivalently following stimulation with 100 μM ATP. The results of this study indicate that both the explant outgrowth and dissociated tissue culture techniques are suitable for growing well-differentiated nasal ciliated and non-ciliated cells, which have growth characteristics and ciliary activity similar to those of nasal epithelial cells in vivo.

  19. Metabolic measurements in cell culture and tissue constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2008-10-01

    This paper concerns the study and use of biological cells in which there is a need for sensors and assemblies for the measurement of a diverse range of physical and chemical variables. In this field cell culture is used for basic research and for applications such as protein and drug synthesis, and in cell, tissue and organ engineering. Metabolic processes are fundamental to cell behaviour and must therefore be monitored reliably. Basic metabolic studies measure the transport of oxygen, glucose, carbon dioxide, lactic acid to, from, or within cells, whilst more advanced research requires examination of energy storage and utilisation. Assemblies are designed to incorporate bioreactor functions for cell culture together with appropriate sensing devices. Oxygen consumption by populations of cells is achieved in a flowthrough assembly that incorporates O2 micro-sensors based on either amperometry or fluorescence. Measurements in single cell are possible with intra-cellular fluorophores acting as biosensors together with optical stimulation and detection. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is used for analysis within culture fluid, for example for estimation of glucose levels, as well as within cell populations, for example to study the respiratory enzymes.Â#

  20. Cellular interactions regulate stem cell differentiation in tri-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ning E; Bogdanowicz, Danielle R; Mitroo, Siddarth; Shan, Jing; Kala, Sonam; Lu, Helen H

    2016-11-01

    Currently, the mechanism governing the regeneration of the soft tissue-to-bone interface, such as the transition between the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and bone, is not known. Focusing on the ACL-to-bone insertion, this study tests the novel hypothesis that interactions between cells from the ligament (fibroblasts) and bone (osteoblasts) initiate interface regeneration. Specifically, these heterotypic cell interactions direct the fibrochondrogenic differentiation of interface-relevant cell populations, defined here as ligament fibroblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). The objective of this study is to examine the effects of heterotypic cellular interactions on BMSC or fibroblast growth and biosynthesis, as well as expression of fibrocartilage-relevant markers in tri-culture. The effects of cell-cell physical contact and paracrine interactions between fibroblasts and osteoblasts were also determined. It was found that, in tri-culture with fibroblasts and osteoblasts, BMSC exhibited greater fibrochondrogenic potential than ligament fibroblasts. The growth of BMSC decreased while proteoglycan production and TGF-β3 expression increased. Moreover, tri-culture regulated BMSC response via paracrine factors, and interestingly, fibroblast-osteoblast contact further promoted proteoglycan and TGF-β1 synthesis as well as induced SOX9 expression in BMSC. Collectively, the findings of this study suggest that fibroblast-osteoblast interactions play an important role in regulating the stem cell niche for fibrocartilage regeneration, and the mechanisms of these interactions are directed by paracrine factors and augmented with direct cell-cell contact.

  1. Hydroxyapatite incorporated into collagen gels for mesenchymal stem cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laydi, F; Rahouadj, R; Cauchois, G; Stoltz, J-F; de Isla, N

    2013-01-01

    Collagen gels could be used as carriers in tissue engineering to improve cell retention and distribution in the defect. In other respect hydroxyapatite could be added to gels to improve mechanical properties and regulate gel contraction. The aim of this work was to analyze the feasibility to incorporate hydroxyapatite into collagen gels and culture mesenchymal stem cells inside it. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-BM) were used in this study. Gels were prepared by mixing rat tail type I collagen, hydroxyapatite microparticles and MSCs. After polymerization gels were kept in culture while gel contraction and mechanical properties were studied. In parallel, cell viability and morphology were analyzed. Gels became free-floating gels contracted from day 3, only in the presence of cells. A linear rapid contraction phase was observed until day 7, then a very slow contraction phase took place. The incorporation of hydroxyapatite improved gel stability and mechanical properties. Cells were randomly distributed on the gel and a few dead cells were observed all over the experiment. This study shows the feasibility and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite supplemented collagen gels for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used as scaffolds for cell delivery in osteoarticular regenerative medicine.

  2. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  3. 40 CFR 798.5300 - Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cells in culture. 798.5300 Section 798.5300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5300 Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture. (a) Purpose. Mammalian cell culture... selected by resistance to ouabain. (2) Description. Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to...

  4. 21 CFR 864.2240 - Cell and tissue culture supplies and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2240 Cell and tissue culture supplies and equipment. (a) Identification. Cell and tissue culture... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cell and tissue culture supplies and...

  5. Effects of diluents on cell culture viability measured by automated cell counter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aaron Chen; Matthew Leith; Roger Tu; Gurpreet Tahim; Anish Sudra; Swapnil Bhargava

    2017-01-01

      Commercially available automated cell counters based on trypan blue dye-exclusion are widely used in industrial cell culture process development and manufacturing to increase throughput and eliminate...

  6. HCV Infection Induces Autocrine Interferon Signaling by Human Liver Endothelial Cell and Release of Exosomes, Which Inhibits Viral Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Silvia; Kriss, Michael; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Stone, Amy E.L.; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mitchell, Angela; Khetani, Salman R.; Yamane, Daisuke; Stoddard, Mark; Li, Hui; Shaw, George M.; Edwards, Michael G.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Gale, Michael; Shah, Vijay H.; Rosen, Hugo R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) make up a large proportion of the non-parenchymal cells in the liver. LSECs are involved in induction of immune tolerance, but little is known about their functions during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Primary human LSECs (HLSECs) and immortalized liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1) were exposed to various forms of HCV, including full-length transmitted/founder virus, sucrose-purified Japanese Fulminant Hepatitis-1 (JFH-1), a virus encoding a luciferase reporter, and the HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules. Cells were analyzed by confocal immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical, and PCR assays. Results HLSECs internalized HCV, independent of cell–cell contacts; HCV RNA was translated but not replicated. Through pattern recognition receptors (TLR7 and retinoic acid inducible gene 1), HCV RNA induced consistent and broad transcription of multiple interferons (IFNs); supernatants from primary HLSECs transfected with HCV-specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules increased induction of IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes in HLSECs. Recombinant type I and type III IFNs strongly up-regulated HLSEC transcription of interferon λ 3 (IFNL3) and viperin (RSAD2), which inhibit replication of HCV. Compared to CD8+ T cells, HLSECs suppressed HCV replication within Huh7.5.1 cells, also inducing IFN-stimulated genes in co-culture. Conditioned media from IFN-stimulated HLSECs induced expression of antiviral genes by uninfected primary human hepatocytes. Exosomes, derived from HLSECs following stimulation with either type I or type III IFNs, controlled HCV replication in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions Cultured HLSECs produce factors that mediate immunity against HCV. HLSECs induce self-amplifying IFN-mediated responses and release of exosomes with antiviral activity. PMID:25447848

  7. Hollow fiber clinostat for simulating microgravity in cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A clinostat for simulating microgravity on cell systems carried in a fiber fixedly mounted in a rotatable culture vessel is disclosed. The clinostat is rotated horizontally along its longitudinal axis to simulate microgravity or vertically as a control response. Cells are injected into the fiber and the ends of the fiber are sealed and secured to spaced end pieces of a fiber holder assembly which consists of the end pieces, a hollow fiber, a culture vessel, and a tension spring with three alignment pins. The tension spring is positioned around the culture vessel with its ends abutting the end pieces for alignment of the spring. After the fiber is secured, the spring is decompressed to maintain tension on the fiber while it is being rotated. This assures that the fiber remains aligned along the axis of rotation. The fiber assembly is placed in the culture vessel and culture medium is added. The culture vessel is then inserted into the rotatable portion of the clinostat and subjected to rotate at selected rpms. The internal diameter of the hollow fiber determines the distance the cells are from the axis of rotation.

  8. Experimental study of bioartificial liver with cultured human liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To establish an extracorporeal bioartificial liver support system (EBLSS) using cultured human liver cells and to study its support effect for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).METHODS The liver support experiment of EBLSS consisting of aggregates cultured human liver cells, hollow fiber bioreactor, and circulation unit was carried out in dizhepatic dogs.RESULTS The viability of isolated hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells reached 96%. These cells were successfully cultured as multicellular spheroids with synthetic technique. The typical morphological appearance was retained up to the end of the artificial liver experiment. Compared with the control dogs treated with EBLSS without liver cells, the survival time of artificial liver support dogs was significantly prolonged. The changes of blood pressure, heart rate and ECG were slow. Both serum ammonia and lactate levels were significantly lowered at the 3rd h and 5th h. In addition, a good viability of human liver cells was noted after 5 h experiment.CONCLUSION EBLSS playing a metabolic role of cultured human hepatocytes, is capable of compensating the function of the liver, and could provide effective artificial liver support and therapy for patients with FHF.

  9. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "Humanized" stem cell culture techniques: the animal serum controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkatte, Chandana; Gunasingh, Gency Ponrose; Cherian, K M; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Cellular therapy is reaching a pinnacle with an understanding of the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to regenerate damaged tissue in the body. The limited numbers of these hMSCs in currently identified sources, like bone marrow, adipose tissue, and so forth, bring forth the need for their in vitro culture/expansion. However, the extensive usage of supplements containing xenogeneic components in the expansion-media might pose a risk to the post-transplantation safety of patients. This warrants the necessity to identify and develop chemically defined or "humanized" supplements which would make in vitro cultured/processed cells relatively safer for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this paper, we outline the various caveats associated with conventionally used supplements of xenogenic origin and also portray the possible alternatives/additives which could one day herald the dawn of a new era in the translation of in vitro cultured cells to therapeutic interventions.

  11. [In vitro cell culture technology in cosmetology research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojniczek, Katarzyna; Garncarczyk, Agnieszka; Pytel, Agata

    2005-01-01

    For ages the humanity has been looking for all kind of active substances, which could be used in improving the health and the appearance of our skin. People try to find out how to protect the skin from harmful, environmental factors. Every year a lot of new natural and synthetic, chemical substances are discovered. All of them potentially could be used as a cosmetic ingredient. In cosmetology research most of new xenobiotics were tested in vivo on animals. Alternative methods to in vivo tests are in vitro tests with skin cell culture system. The aim of this work was to describe two-dimensional and tree-dimensional skin cell cultures. Additionally, in this work we wanted to prove the usefulness of in vitro skin cell cultures in cosmetology research.

  12. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  13. A novel feeder-free culture system for human pluripotent stem cell culture and induced pluripotent stem cell derivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Vuoristo

    Full Text Available Correct interactions with extracellular matrix are essential to human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC to maintain their pluripotent self-renewal capacity during in vitro culture. hPSCs secrete laminin 511/521, one of the most important functional basement membrane components, and they can be maintained on human laminin 511 and 521 in defined culture conditions. However, large-scale production of purified or recombinant laminin 511 and 521 is difficult and expensive. Here we have tested whether a commonly available human choriocarcinoma cell line, JAR, which produces high quantities of laminins, supports the growth of undifferentiated hPSCs. We were able to maintain several human pluripotent stem cell lines on decellularized matrix produced by JAR cells using a defined culture medium. The JAR matrix also supported targeted differentiation of the cells into neuronal and hepatic directions. Importantly, we were able to derive new human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC lines on JAR matrix and show that adhesion of the early hiPSC colonies to JAR matrix is more efficient than to matrigel. In summary, JAR matrix provides a cost-effective and easy-to-prepare alternative for human pluripotent stem cell culture and differentiation. In addition, this matrix is ideal for the efficient generation of new hiPSC lines.

  14. Biological Effects of Culture Substrates on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been commonly cultured in feeder-free conditions, a number of cell culture substrates have been applied or developed. However, the functional roles of these substrates in maintaining hPSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here in this review, we summarize the types of these substrates and their effect on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression has been shown to be crucial in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. These ECM molecules interact with integrin cell-surface receptors and transmit their cellular signaling. We discuss the possible effect of integrin-mediated signaling pathways on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK, which transmits ECM-integrin signaling to AKT (also known as protein kinase B, has been shown to be critical in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Also, since naïve pluripotency has been widely recognized as an alternative pluripotent state of hPSCs, we discuss the possible effects of culture substrates and integrin signaling on naïve hPSCs based on the studies of mouse embryonic stem cells. Understanding the role of culture substrates in hPSC self-renewal and differentiation enables us to control hPSC behavior precisely and to establish scalable or microfabricated culture technologies for regenerative medicine and drug development.

  15. Aragonite precipitation by "proto-polyps" in coral cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Mass

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of coral calcification at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels are poorly understood. In this study, we examine calcium carbonate precipitation using novel coral tissue cultures that aggregate to form "proto-polyps". Our goal is to establish an experimental system in which calcification is facilitated at the cellular level, while simultaneously allowing in vitro manipulations of the calcifying fluid. This novel coral culturing technique enables us to study the mechanisms of biomineralization and their implications for geochemical proxies. Viable cell cultures of the hermatypic, zooxanthellate coral, Stylophora pistillata, have been maintained for 6 to 8 weeks. Using an enriched seawater medium with aragonite saturation state similar to open ocean surface waters (Ω(arag~4, the primary cell cultures assemble into "proto-polyps" which form an extracellular organic matrix (ECM and precipitate aragonite crystals. These extracellular aragonite crystals, about 10 µm in length, are formed on the external face of the proto-polyps and are identified by their distinctive elongated crystallography and X-ray diffraction pattern. The precipitation of aragonite is independent of photosynthesis by the zooxanthellae, and does not occur in control experiments lacking coral cells or when the coral cells are poisoned with sodium azide. Our results demonstrate that proto-polyps, aggregated from primary coral tissue culture, function (from a biomineralization perspective similarly to whole corals. This approach provides a novel tool for investigating the biophysical mechanism of calcification in these organisms.

  16. Isolated Cells of Porphyra yezoensis Cultured on Solid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颂东; 戴继勋

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative cells of Porphyra yezoensis are isolated with sea snail enzyme and cultured on the solidified agar medium. The results of experiments show that the isolated cells can survive,divide and regenerate well on the medium solidified with agar. The first division on the solid medium starts after 7 days' culture, 4 days later than the liquid culture. The survival rate of isolated cells is 71.3% on the solid medium, lower than the 86.2% of that in seawater.Thalli, thalloids,conchocelis, spermatangia and multicellular masses are developed on the solid/medium in the first month, slowly but normally. Spermatangia sacs disappear within 4 weeks. Without adding nutrient liquid onto the surface of solid medium or injecting seawater under the agar layer in order to keep moisture, the thalli and cell groups release monospores to form new thalli instead of enlarging their areas after 5 weeks' culturing. Some monospores regenerate new thalli. Other monospores lose their pigments and minimize their volume and divide quickly to form light pink calli. After 16 weeks, numerous calli can be seen on the solid medium and after 24 weeks' culturing, almost only calli and conchocelis can be seen. If the calli are immersed in seawater, the monospores are released and may develop into young thallus.

  17. Differential oligonucleotide activity in cell culture versus mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, E; Tyson, F L

    1997-01-01

    The usual course of drug discovery begins with the demonstration of compound activity in cells and, usually, a lower level of activity in animals. Successive rounds of drug design may result in a compound with sufficient activity in animals to justify clinical trials. The basic endpoints of therapeutic oligonucleotide experiments include target antigen reduction, target messenger reduction and inhibition of transformed cell proliferation or viral replication. However, one should expect oligonucleotides to exhibit pleiotropic behaviour, as do all other drugs. In an animal oligonucleotides will necessarily bind to and dissociate from all macromolecules encountered in the blood, in tissues, on cell surfaces and within cellular compartments. Contrary to expectations, oligonucleotides designed to be complementary to certain transcripts have sometimes been found moderately effective in cell-free extracts, more effective in cell culture and most effective in animal models. If greater potency against standard endpoints is reported in mouse models than was observed in cell culture, critical examination must consider alternate modes of action in animals that may not apply in cell culture. This counterintuitive paradox will be examined, based on studies of Ha-ras expression in bladder cancer, Ki-ras expression in pancreatic cancer, erbB2 expression in ovarian cancer and c-myc expression in B cell lymphoma.

  18. Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this contamination and ensure complete recovery of the target protein. Currently published protocols involve time consuming centrifugation steps which may require expensive equipment and commercially available kits can be prohibitively expensive when handling large or multiple samples. Findings We have established a protocol to sequentially extract proteins from cultured mammalian cells in fractions enriched for cytosolic, membrane bound organellar, nuclear and insoluble proteins. All of the buffers used can be made inexpensively and easily and the protocol requires no costly equipment. While the method was optimized for a specific cell type, we demonstrate that the protocol can be applied to a variety of commonly used cell lines and anticipate that it can be applied to any cell line via simple optimization of the primary extraction step. Conclusion We describe a protocol for the crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cells that is both straightforward and cost effective and may facilitate the more accurate study of recombinant proteins and the generation of purer preparations of said proteins from cell extracts.

  19. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-28

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  20. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP, were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine.

  1. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture...

  2. Effects of rotational culture on morphology, nitric oxide production and cell cycle of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaojun; Wu, Xue; Ye, Linqi; Xie, Xiang; Wang, Guixue

    2012-12-01

    Devices for the rotational culture of cells and the study of biological reactions have been widely applied in tissue engineering. However, there are few reports exploring the effects of rotational culture on cell morphology, nitric oxide (NO) production, and cell cycle of the endothelial cells from human umbilical vein on the stent surface. This study focuses on these parameters after the cells are seeded on the stents. Results showed that covering of stents by endothelial cells was improved by rotational culture. NO production decreased within 24 h in both rotational and static culture groups. In addition, rotational culture significantly increased NO production by 37.9% at 36 h and 28.9% at 48 h compared with static culture. Flow cytometry showed that the cell cycle was not obviously influenced by rotational culture. Results indicate that rotational culture may be helpful for preparation of cell-seeded vascular grafts and intravascular stents, which are expected to be the most frequently implanted materials in the future.

  3. A Simple Hydrophilic Treatment of SU-8 Surfaces for Cell Culturing and Cell Patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Stangegaard, Michael; Dufva, Hans Martin;

    2005-01-01

    SU-8, an epoxy-based photoresist, widely used in constitution different mTAS systems, is incompatible with mammalian cell adhesion and culture in its native form. Here, we demonstrate a simple, cheap and robust two-step method to render a SU-8 surface hydrophilic and compatible with cell culture...

  4. Distinguishing between linear and exponential cell growth during the division cycle: Single-cell studies, cell-culture studies, and the object of cell-cycle research

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Two approaches to understanding growth during the cell cycle are single-cell studies, where growth during the cell cycle of a single cell is measured, and cell-culture studies, where growth during the cell cycle of a large number of cells as an aggregate is analyzed. Mitchison has proposed that single-cell studies, because they show variations in cell growth patterns, are more suitable for understanding cell growth during the cell cycle, and should be preferred over cultur...

  5. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described.

  6. Polyamines in relation to growth in carrot cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K M; Phillips, R

    1988-09-01

    Changes in polyamine metabolism were investigated in relation to growth of cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota, cv Chantenay). Changes in levels of the major amines putrescine and spermidine throughout the culture period correlated poorly with changes in fresh weight, but a closer correlation with the minor component spermine was observed. The arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) strongly and specifically inhibited ADC activity in the supernatant, reduced the major amine (putrescine) by 95% and the total amine content by 80%. It had no effect on cell number and stimulated fresh weight by over 25% through increased cell expansion. Spermine content, in contrast, increased with DFMA concentration in parallel with fresh weight increases. Difluoromethylornithine strongly inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity in the pellet, but had little effect on either polyamine levels or culture growth. It was concluded that little evidence for a correlation between free polyamines and cell number in carrot cultures could be detected, but that a possible correlation between spermine content and cell expansion was observed.

  7. Polyamines in Relation to Growth in Carrot Cell Cultures 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Kevin M.; Phillips, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Changes in polyamine metabolism were investigated in relation to growth of cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota, cv Chantenay). Changes in levels of the major amines putrescine and spermidine throughout the culture period correlated poorly with changes in fresh weight, but a closer correlation with the minor component spermine was observed. The arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) strongly and specifically inhibited ADC activity in the supernatant, reduced the major amine (putrescine) by 95% and the total amine content by 80%. It had no effect on cell number and stimulated fresh weight by over 25% through increased cell expansion. Spermine content, in contrast, increased with DFMA concentration in parallel with fresh weight increases. Difluoromethylornithine strongly inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity in the pellet, but had little effect on either polyamine levels or culture growth. It was concluded that little evidence for a correlation between free polyamines and cell number in carrot cultures could be detected, but that a possible correlation between spermine content and cell expansion was observed. PMID:16666271

  8. A self-feeding roller bottle for continuous cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, R Eric; Friederichs, Goetz

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a self-feeding roller bottle that delivers a continuous supply of fresh media to cells in culture, which is mechanically simplistic and works with existing roller apparatuses, is presented here. A conventional roller bottle is partitioned into two chambers; one chamber contains the fresh culture media reservoir, and the other contains the cell culture chamber. A spiroid of tubing inside the fresh media reservoir acts as a pump when the bottle rotates on its horizontal axis, continuously delivering fresh media through an opening in the partition to the cell culture chamber. The modified bottle proved capable of maintaining steady-state cell densities of a hybridoma cell line over the 10-day period tested, although at lower densities than reached during batch operation due to the continuous volume dilution. Steady-state density proved to be controllable by adjusting the perfusion rate, which changes with the rotation rate of the bottle. Specific antibody production rate is as much as 3.7 times the rate in conventional roller bottles operating with intermittent batch feeding.

  9. Cell culture systems for the hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gilles Duverlie; Czeslaw Wychowski

    2007-01-01

    Since the discovery of HCV in 1989, the lack of a cell culture system has hampered research progress on this important human pathogen. No robust system has been obtained by empiric approaches, and HCV cell culture remained hypothetical until 2005. The construction of functional molecular clones has served as a starting point to reconstitute a consensus infectious cDNA that was able to transcribe infectious HCV RNAs as shown by intrahepatic inoculation in a chimpanzee. Other consensus clones have been selected and established in a human hepatoma cell line as replicons, i.e. self-replicating subgenomic or genomic viral RNAs. However, these replicons did not support production of infectious virus. Interestingly, some full-length replicons could be established without adaptive mutations and one of them was able to replicate at very high levels and to release virus particles that are infectious in cell culture and in vivo. This new cell culture system represents a major breakthrough in the HCV field and should enable a broad range of basic and applied studies to be achieved.

  10. A single-cell and feeder-free culture system for monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kato, Yosuke; Fujita, Risako; Araki, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Tomoko; Kato, Hidemasa; Torii, Ryuzo; Sato, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Primate pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hold great potential for research and application in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. To maximize primate PSC potential, a practical system is required for generating desired functional cells and reproducible differentiation techniques. Much progress regarding their culture systems has been reported to date; however, better methods would still be required for their practical use, particularly in industrial and clinical fields. Here we report a new single-cell and feeder-free culture system for primate PSCs, the key feature of which is an originally formulated serum-free medium containing FGF and activin. In this culture system, cynomolgus monkey ESCs can be passaged many times by single-cell dissociation with traditional trypsin treatment and can be propagated with a high proliferation rate as a monolayer without any feeder cells; further, typical PSC properties and genomic stability can be retained. In addition, it has been demonstrated that monkey ESCs maintained in the culture system can be used for various experiments such as in vitro differentiation and gene manipulation. Thus, compared with the conventional culture system, monkey ESCs grown in the aforementioned culture system can serve as a cell source with the following practical advantages: simple, stable, and easy cell maintenance; gene manipulation; cryopreservation; and desired differentiation. We propose that this culture system can serve as a reliable platform to prepare primate PSCs useful for future research and application.

  11. Continuous perfusion microfluidic cell culture array for high-throughput cell-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Paul J; Lee, Philip J; Sabounchi, Poorya; Lin, Robert; Lee, Luke P

    2005-01-05

    We present for the first time a microfluidic cell culture array for long-term cellular monitoring. The 10 x 10 array could potentially assay 100 different cell-based experiments in parallel. The device was designed to integrate the processes used in typical cell culture experiments on a single self-contained microfluidic system. Major functions include repeated cell growth/passage cycles, reagent introduction, and real-time optical analysis. The single unit of the array consists of a circular microfluidic chamber, multiple narrow perfusion channels surrounding the main chamber, and four ports for fluidic access. Human carcinoma (HeLa) cells were cultured inside the device with continuous perfusion of medium at 37 degrees C. The observed doubling time was 1.4 +/- 0.1 days with a peak cell density of approximately 2.5*10(5) cells/cm(2). Cell assay was demonstrated by monitoring the fluorescence localization of calcein AM from 1 min to 10 days after reagent introduction. Confluent cell cultures were passaged within the microfluidic chambers using trypsin and successfully regrown, suggesting a stable culture environment suitable for continuous operation. The cell culture array could offer a platform for a wide range of assays with applications in drug screening, bioinformatics, and quantitative cell biology. (c) 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Acquired resistance to auranofin in cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennås, A; Rugstad, H E

    1985-01-01

    A substrain (HEAF) of cultured human epithelial cells, grown as monolayers, was selected for resistance to auranofin (AF), a gold-containing anti-arthritic drug, by growing the parental HE cells with stepwise increased concentrations of AF in the medium. HEAF cells acquired resistance to 2 mumol AF/l, twice the concentration tolerated by the sensitive HE cells. Resistance to AF was also demonstrated in another substrain (HE100) originally selected for by its cadmium resistance, and characterized by a high cytosolic metallothionein (MT) content. Following continuous exposure to 2 mumol AF/l for 4 days, 58% of the HEAF cells, 67% of the HE100 cells, and 16% of the HE cells remained adherent to the flasks, compared with non-treated controls. Following 24 h AF exposure to living cells, HEAF cells had one-half and HE100 cells twice the cellular and cytosolic gold concentration per mg protein, as compared with HE cells. Gel filtration of cell cytosols revealed gold-binding proteins with a mol. wt. of about 10 000 apparently occurring on AF exposure in HEAF and HE cells. They bound 10-15% of cytosolic gold. MT in HE100 cells bound AF-gold to about the same extent. We suggest that the ability of cells to maintain the gold concentration at a low level (HEAF) and trapping of gold by MT (HE100) or low molecular weight proteins occurring on AF treatment (HEAF) may be mechanisms contributing to the observed cellular resistance to AF.

  13. Allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid progenitor cells without immunosuppression: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Ireneusz; Woźniewicz, Bogdan; Tołłoczko, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Andrzej; Górski, Andrzej; Chudziński, Witold; Wojtaszek, Mikołaj; Grzesiuk, Wiesław; Sladowski, Dariusz; Karwacki, Jerzy; Zawitkowska, Teresa; Szmidt, Jacek

    2007-03-27

    Hypoparathyroidism is a well-known consequence of extensive thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Allotransplantation of cultured parathyroid cells can be considered as an alternative to vitamin D3 and calcium supplementation in treatment of hypoparathyroidism. We present the long-term allotransplant activity in 85 patients who had undergone cellular allotransplantation for surgical hypoparathyroidism. Also, a modified technique to prepare parathyroid explants is described for obtaining a new nonimmunogenic cell population. From March 1990 to December 2004, 85 patients underwent 116 allotransplantations of cultured parathyroid cells. Mean recipient age was 46.2+/-11.1 years. Donors were selected from patients undergoing parathyroidectomy for secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. After 6 weeks of cultivation and freezing, the parathyroid cells decreased their normal human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ABC expression and were free of HLA class II positive cells. The viability of cultured cells was 95.15+/-2.94%. Eighty-five patients underwent primary allotransplantation. Of these, 25 patients subsequently underwent a repeat procedure. In six cases, the parathyroid cells were obtained from the same donor and in 19 cases from a different donor. For all patients, the mean cellular allograft survival was 6.35+/-13.08 months. In 64 patients (55.1%), the allografts retained their endocrine function for more than 2 months. The present study has shown that in some patients parathyroid cell allotransplantation may be considered a method of treatment for permanent hypoparathyroidism after thyroid surgery. Graft function and/or survival did not depend on the baseline viability or secretory activity of cultured cells used for transplantation.

  14. Testing of serum atherogenicity in cell cultures: questionable data published

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large series of studies was reported that culturing of smooth muscle cells with serum from atherosclerosis patients caused intracellular lipid accumulation, while serum from healthy controls had no such effect. Cultures were used for evaluation of antiatherogenic drugs. Numerous substances were reported to lower serum atherogenicity: statins, trapidil, calcium antagonists, garlic derivatives etc. On the contrary, beta-blockers, phenothiazines and oral hypoglycemics were reported to be pro-atherogenic. Known antiatherogenic agents can influence lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis, intestinal absorption or endothelium-related mechanisms. All these targets are absent in cell monocultures. Inflammatory factors, addressed by some antiatherogenic drugs, are also not reproduced. In vivo, relationship between cholesterol uptake by cells and atherogenesis must be inverse rather than direct: in familial hypercholesterolemia, inefficient clearance of LDL-cholesterol by cells predisposes to atherosclerosis. Accordingly, if a pharmacological agent reduces cholesterol uptake by cells in vitro, it should be expected to elevate cholesterol in vivo. Validity of clinical recommendations, based on serum atherogenicity testing in cell monocultures, is therefore questionable. These considerations pertain also to the drugs developed on the basis of the cell culture experiments.

  15. Cell culture media impact on drug product solution stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Jennifer L; Kowle, Ronald L; Langland, Amie L; Patel, Chetan N; Ouyang, Anli; Olson, Donald J

    2016-07-08

    To enable subcutaneous administration of monoclonal antibodies, drug product solutions are often needed at high concentrations. A significant risk associated with high drug product concentrations is an increase in aggregate level over the shelf-life dating period. While much work has been done to understand the impact of drug product formulation on aggregation, there is limited understanding of the link between cell culture process conditions and soluble aggregate growth in drug product. During cell culture process development, soluble aggregates are often measured at harvest using cell-free material purified by Protein A chromatography. In the work reported here, cell culture media components were evaluated with respect to their impact on aggregate levels in high concentration solution drug product during accelerated stability studies. Two components, cysteine and ferric ammonium citrate, were found to impact aggregate growth rates in our current media (version 1) leading to the development of new chemically defined media and concentrated feed formulations. The new version of media and associated concentrated feeds (version 2) were evaluated across four cell lines producing recombinant IgG4 monoclonal antibodies and a bispecific antibody. In all four cell lines, the version 2 media reduced aggregate growth over the course of a 12 week accelerated stability study compared with the version 1 media, although the degree to which aggregate growth decreased was cell line dependent. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:998-1008, 2016.

  16. Testicular Sertoli cells influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ping, E-mail: fanpinggoodluck@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); He, Lan; Pu, Dan; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhou, Wenxu; Sun, Yining; Hu, Nan [Department of Rheumatism and Immunity, The First Affiliated Hospital Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710061 (China)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} The proliferation of dramatic increased by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} VEGF receptor-2 expression of ECs was up-regulated by co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} The MHC expression of ECs induced by INF-{gamma} and IL-6, IL-8 and sICAM induced by TNF-{alpha} decreased respectively after co-cultured with Sertoli cells. {yields} ECs co-cultured with Sertoli cells also didn't increase the stimulation index of spleen lymphocytes. -- Abstract: The major problem of the application of endothelial cells (ECs) in transplantation is the lack of proliferation and their immunogenicity. In this study, we co-cultured ECs with Sertoli cells to monitor whether Sertoli cells can influence the proliferation and immunogenicity of co-cultured ECs. Sertoli cells were isolated from adult testicular tissue. ECs were divided into the control group and the experimental group, which included three sub-groups co-cultured with 1 x 10{sup 3}, 1 x 10{sup 4} or 1 x 10{sup 5} cell/ml of Sertoli cells. The growth and proliferation of ECs were observed microscopically, and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) was examined by Western blotting. In another experiment, ECs were divided into the control group, the single culture group and the co-culture group with the optimal concentration of Sertoli cells. After INF-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} were added to the culture medium, MHC II antigen expression was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting; interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) were measured in the culture medium by ELISA. We demonstrated that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml Sertoli cells promoted the proliferation of co-cultured ECs more dramatically than that in other groups (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that 1 x 10{sup 4} cell/ml of the Sertoli cells was most effective in the up-regulation of KDR expression in the co-cultured ECs (P < 0.05). Sertoli

  17. Pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity to cell culture monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Pearlman, E

    1984-04-01

    Exposure of monolayer cultures of human urogenital and vaginal (HeLa), human epithelial (HEp-2), normal baboon testicular (NBT), and monkey kidney (Vero) cells to live pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis resulted in extensive disruption of monolayers. Trypan blue was taken up by all host cells released from cell monolayers, which indicated irreversible damage of these cell types by trichomonads. Time and dose related data on cytotoxicity kinetics were obtained using increasing ratios of parasites to cells. All cell types were most sensitive to trichomonads at a multiplicity of infection of one. Release of tritiated thymidine (3H-thymidine) of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of prelabelled host cells after incubation with T vaginalis corroborated that extensive cytotoxicity was caused by pathogenic trichomonads in man. Only living parasites were cytotoxic, and no trichomonal toxic products were implicated in disruption of the cell monolayer cultures. A pathogenic bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus KV-1, produced half as much cell damage as did T vaginalis. Trichomonas tenax, a non-pathogenic member of the normal flora of the oral cavity in man, produced no measurable cytotoxicity to HeLa cells when compared with the pathogenic human trichomonads.

  18. Effects of Visible Light on Cultured Bovine Trabecular Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; 郝风芹; 魏厚仁; 许德胜

    2004-01-01

    To explore the biological effects of light on trabecular cells, cultured bovine trabecular cells were exposed to visible light of different wavelength with different energy. Cellular morphology, structure, proliferation, and phagocytosis were observed. The cells showed no remarkable changes when the energy was low. When the exposure energy reached 1. 12 mW/cm2 , the cytoplasm showed a rough appearance, and cell proliferation and phagocytosis decreased. This phototoxicity was strong with white light (compound chromatic light), moderate with violet light or yellow light, and mild with red light.

  19. Reactivity of alveolar epithelial cells in primary culture with type I cell monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, S I; Zabski, S M; Crandall, E D

    1992-03-01

    An understanding of the process of alveolar epithelial cell growth and differentiation requires the ability to trace and analyze the phenotypic transitions that the cells undergo. This analysis demands specific phenotypic probes to type II and, especially, type I pneumocytes. To this end, monoclonal antibodies have been generated to type I alveolar epithelial cells using an approach designed to enhance production of lung-specific clones from a crude lung membrane preparation. The monoclonal antibodies were screened by a combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques, with the determination of type I cell specificity resting primarily on immunoelectron microscopic localization. Two of these new markers of the type I pneumocyte phenotype (II F1 and VIII B2) were used to analyze primary cultures of type II cells growing on standard tissue culture plastic and on a variety of substrata reported to affect the morphology of these cells in culture. On tissue culture plastic, the antibodies fail to react with early (days 1 to 3) type II cell cultures. The cells become progressively more reactive with time in culture to a plateau of approximately 6 times background by day 8, with a maximum rate of increase between days 3 and 5. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that type II cells in primary culture undergo at least partial differentiation into type I cells. Type II cells grown on laminin, which reportedly delays the loss of type II cell appearance, and on fibronectin, which has been reported to facilitate cell spreading and loss of type II cell features, develop the type I cell markers during cultivation in vitro with kinetics similar to those on uncoated tissue culture plastic. Cells on type I collagen and on tissue culture-treated Nuclepore filters, which have been reported to support monolayers with type I cell-like morphology, also increase their expression of the II F1 and VIII B2 epitopes around days 3 to 5. Taken

  20. Hepatitis B virus induces cell proliferation via HBx-induced microRNA-21 in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting programmed cell death protein4 (PDCD4 and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Damania

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B viral infection-induced hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major problems in the developing countries. One of the HBV proteins, HBx, modulates the host cell machinery via several mechanisms. In this study we hypothesized that HBV enhances cell proliferation via HBx-induced microRNA-21 in hepatocellular carcinoma. HBx gene was over-expressed, and miRNA-21 expression and cell proliferation were measured in Huh 7 and Hep G2 cells. miRNA-21 was over-expressed in these cells, cell proliferation and the target proteins were analyzed. To confirm the role of miRNA-21 in HBx-induced proliferation, Hep G 2.2.1.5 cells (a cell line that expresses HBV stably were used for miRNA-21 inhibition studies. HBx over-expression enhanced proliferation (3.7- and 4.5-fold increase; n = 3; p<0.01 and miRNA-21 expression (24- and 36-fold increase, normalized with 5S rRNA; p<0.001 in Huh 7 and Hep G2 cells respectively. HBx also resulted in the inhibition of miRNA-21 target proteins, PDCD4 and PTEN. miRNA-21 resulted in a significant increase in proliferation (2- and 2.3-fold increase over control cells; p<0.05 in Huh 7 and Hep G2 cells respectively and decreased target proteins, PDCD4 and PTEN expression. Anti-miR-21 resulted in a significant decrease in proliferation (p<0.05 and increased miRNA-21 target protein expression. We conclude that HBV infection enhances cell proliferation, at least in part, via HBx-induced miRNA-21 expression during hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

  1. Xeno-free culture of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Rosita; Ström, Susanne; Holm, Frida; Feki, Anis; Hovatta, Outi

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell culture systems that rely on undefined animal-derived components introduce variability to the cultures and complicate their therapeutic use. The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the development of methods to produce induced pluripotent stem cells combined with their potential to treat human diseases have accelerated the drive to develop xenogenic-free, chemically defined culture systems that support pluripotent self-renewal and directed differentiation. In this chapter, we describe four xeno-free culture systems that have been successful in supporting undifferentiated growth of hPSCs as well as methods for xeno-free subculture and cryopreservation of hPSCs. Each culture system consists of a xeno-free growth medium and xeno-free substratum: (1) TeSR2™ with human recombinant laminin (LN-511); (2) NutriStem™ with LN-511; (3) RegES™ with human foreskin fibroblasts (hFFs); (4) KO-SR Xeno-Free™/GF cocktail with CELLstart™ matrix.

  2. Cultured meat from stem cells: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Mark J

    2012-11-01

    As one of the alternatives for livestock meat production, in vitro culturing of meat is currently studied. The generation of bio-artificial muscles from satellite cells has been ongoing for about 15 years, but has never been used for generation of meat, while it already is a great source of animal protein. In order to serve as a credible alternative to livestock meat, lab or factory grown meat should be efficiently produced and should mimic meat in all of its physical sensations, such as visual appearance, smell, texture and of course, taste. This is a formidable challenge even though all the technologies to create skeletal muscle and fat tissue have been developed and tested. The efficient culture of meat will primarily depend on culture conditions such as the source of medium and its composition. Protein synthesis by cultured skeletal muscle cells should further be maximized by finding the optimal combination of biochemical and physical conditions for the cells. Many of these variables are known, but their interactions are numerous and need to be mapped. This involves a systematic, if not systems, approach. Given the urgency of the problems that the meat industry is facing, this endeavor is worth undertaking. As an additional benefit, culturing meat may provide opportunities for production of novel and healthier products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On-line characterization of a hybridoma cell culture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W; Hu, W S

    1994-06-20

    The on-line determination of the physiological state of a cell culture process requires reliable on-line measurements of various parameters and calculations of specific rates from these measurements. The cell concentration of a hybridoma culture was estimated on-line by measuring optical density (OD) with a laser turbidity probe. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was determined by monitoring dynamically dissolved oxygen concentration profiles and closing oxygen balances in the culture. The base addition for neutralizing lactate produced by cells was also monitored on-line via a balance. Using OD and OUR measurements, the specific growth and specific oxygen consumption rates were determined on-line. By combining predetermined stoichiometric relationships among oxygen and glucose consumption and lactate production, the specific glucose consumption and lactate production rates were also calculated on-line. Using these on-line measurements and calculations, the hybridoma culture process was characterized on-line by identifying the physiological states. They will also facilitate the implementation of nutrient feeding strategies for fed-batch and perfusion cultures. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. The biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13¬CD133¬liver cancer cells and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-long JIN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the biological difference between CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells in HuH7 cell line and its clinical significance. Methods The status of proliferation, phase of the cell cycle, tumor formation in vivo, differentiation, and their chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin of CD13+CD133+ and CD13-CD133-HCC cells were studied to analyze the clinical implication of CD13+CD133+HCC cell subset. Results The proliferation rate of CD13+CD133+HCC cells was significantly higher than that of CD13-CD133-HCC cells. The cell-cycle phase study showed that 78.45% of the CD13+CD133+HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 2.19% in G2/M phase, and 19.36% in S phase, while 62.18% CD13-CD133-HCC cells were in the G0/G1 phase, 11.88% in G2/M phase, and 25.95% in S phase. Limiting dilution analysis of HuH7 cells revealed that 1×103 CD13+CD133+ cells could form the tumor, while 1×105 CD13-CD133- cells did. CD13+CD133+ cells showed chemoresistance to 5-FU and pirarubicin, while other three subsets succumbed to the drugs. Conclusion CD13+CD133+ cancer cells in HuH7 showed the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs, which might contribute to the relapse and metastasis of liver cancer, and they may be the main target for chemotherapy in human liver cancer.

  5. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan;

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... proceeded via anthraquinone photochemistry to introduce amine functionalities at the surface followed by coupling of IL-4 through a bifunctional amine-reactive linker. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that undesirable multilayer formation of the photoactive compound could be avoided by reaction...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...

  6. Measurement and analysis of calcium signaling in heterogeneous cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gillian R; Jack, Andrew D; Platts, Amy; Simpson, Peter B

    2006-01-01

    High-content imaging platforms capable of studying kinetic responses at a single-cell level have elevated kinetic recording techniques from labor-intensive low-throughput experiments to potential high-throughput screening assays. We have applied this technology to the investigation of heterogeneous cell cultures derived from primary neural tissue. The neuronal cultures mature into a coupled network and display spontaneous oscillations in intracellular calcium, which can be modified by the addition of pharmacological agents. We have developed algorithms to perform Fourier analysis and quantify both the degree of synchronization and the effects of modulators on the oscillations. Functional and phenotypic experiments can be combined using this approach. We have used post-hoc immunolabeling to identify subpopulations of cells in cocultures and to dissect the calcium responses of these cells from the population response. The combination of these techniques represents a powerful tool for drug discovery.

  7. Chikungunya virus isolation using simplified cell culture technique in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, M N; Pursem, V; Meetoo, G; Daby, S; Ramuth, V; Bhinkah, P; Chuttoo, R; Paratian, U

    2012-03-01

    During the chikungunya outbreak of 2005 - 2006, the only laboratory facilities available in Mauritius were virus isolation in cell culture tubes and serology. The laboratory was submerged with large numbers of blood samples. Comparative isolation was made in human embryonic lung (HEL) and VERO cells grown in 96-well plate. Culture on HEL cells was found to be more sensitive and presence of cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed earlier than in VERO cells. Out of the 18 300 blood samples inoculated on HEL, 11 165 were positive. This virus isolation method was of great help for the surveillance and control of the vectors. In cases of an outbreak a cheap, rapid and simple method of isolating chikungunya virus is described.

  8. Microwell engineering characterization for mammalian cell culture process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Timothy A; Wu, Andrew; Zhang, Hu; Levy, M Susana; Lye, Gary J

    2010-02-01

    Experimentation in shaken microplate formats offers a potential platform technology for the rapid evaluation and optimization of cell culture conditions. Provided that cell growth and antibody production kinetics are comparable to those found in currently used shake flask systems then the microwell approach offers the possibility to obtain early process design data more cost effectively and with reduced material requirements. This work describes a detailed engineering characterization of liquid mixing and gas-liquid mass transfer in microwell systems and their impact on suspension cell cultures. For growth of murine hybridoma cells producing IgG1, 24-well plates have been characterized in terms of energy dissipation (P/V) (via Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD), fluid flow, mixing and oxygen transfer rate as a function of shaking frequency and liquid fill volume. Predicted k(L)a values varied between 1.3 and 29 h(-1); liquid-phase mixing time, quantified using iodine decolorization experiments, varied from 1.7 s to 3.5 h; while the predicted P/V ranged from 5 to 35 W m(-3). CFD simulations of the shear rate predicted hydrodynamic forces will not be detrimental to cells. For hybridoma cultures however, high shaking speeds (>250 rpm) were shown to have a negative impact on cell growth, while a combination of low shaking speed and high well fill volume (120 rpm, 2,000 microL) resulted in oxygen limited conditions. Based on these findings a first engineering comparison of cell culture kinetics in microwell and shake flask formats was made at matched average energy dissipation rates. Cell growth kinetics and antibody titer were found to be similar in 24-well microtiter plates and 250 mL shake flasks. Overall this work has demonstrated that cell culture performed in shaken microwell plates can provide data that is both reproducible and comparable to currently used shake flask systems while offering at least a 30-fold decrease in scale of operation and material

  9. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Paaske Utheim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC, which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  10. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-03-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells.

  11. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  12. Withaferin A from cell cultures of Withania somnifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciddi Veeresham

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension cultures of Withania somnifera cells were established and shown to produce withaferin A. The identification of withaferin A was done by TLC, UV absorption, HPLC and electron spray mass spectroscopy. These cultures could be strongly elicited by exposure to salacin. Addition of salacin at the concentration of 750 µM to the cultures in production medium enhanced production levels of withaferin A to 25±2.9 mg/l compared to 0.47±0.03 mg/l in unelicited controls. This report is the first to demonstrate withaferin A production in plant suspension cultures and provides prerequisites for commercial scale, controlled production of withaferin A.

  13. Evaluating hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for tumour samples using within-sample relative expression orderings of genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lu; Guo, You; Song, Xuekun; Guan, Qingzhou; Zheng, Weicheng; Zhang, Jiahui; Huang, Haiyan; Zou, Yi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2017-05-08

    Concerns are raised about the representativeness of cell lines for tumours due to the culture environment and misidentification. Liver is a major metastatic destination of many cancers, which might further confuse the origin of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand how well they can represent hepatocellular carcinoma. The HCC-specific gene pairs with highly stable relative expression orderings in more than 99% of hepatocellular carcinoma but with reversed relative expression orderings in at least 99% of one of the six types of cancer, colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma and ovarian carcinoma, were identified. With the simple majority rule, the HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma could exactly discriminate primary hepatocellular carcinoma samples from both primary colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma samples. Especially, they correctly classified more than 90% of liver metastatic samples from colorectal carcinoma and breast carcinoma to their original tumours. Finally, using these HCC-specific relative expression orderings from comparisons with six cancer types, we identified eight of 24 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (Huh-7, Huh-1, HepG2, Hep3B, JHH-5, JHH-7, C3A and Alexander cells) that are highly representative of hepatocellular carcinoma. Evaluated with a REOs-based prognostic signature for hepatocellular carcinoma, all these eight cell lines showed the same metastatic properties of the high-risk metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Caution should be taken for using hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Our results should be helpful to select proper hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines for biological experiments. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Holden Paul; Horton William A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this...

  15. Isolation of Cultured Endothelial Progenitor Cells in vitro from PBMCs and CD133~+ Enriched Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑伟红; 万亚峰; 马小鹏; 李兴睿; 杨志芳; 殷茜; 易继林

    2010-01-01

    Two isolation methods for sorting of endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs):from peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)and CD133+ enriched cells were compared,by defining the cell morphology,phenotype,reproductive activities and function in vitro,to provide a reference for clinical application of EPCs.PBMCs from healthy subjects were used either directly for cell culture or for CD133+ sorting.The two groups of cells were cultured in complete medium 199(M199)for 7 to 14 days and the phenotypes of EPCs were an...

  16. Effects of viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions on cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Hajib

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mild but significant inflammation probably attributable to viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions in cataract surgery was recently brought to the notice of the authors, and hence a study of the effects of these solutions available in India, on cell cultures was undertaken. We studied the effects of 6 viscoelastic ophthalmic solutions (2 sodium hyaluronate designated as A and B, and 4 hydroxypropylmethylcellulose designated as C, D, E and F on HeLa, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines in tissue culture microtitre plates using undiluted, 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the solutions, and in cover slip cultures using undiluted solutions. Phase contrast microscopic examination of the solutions was also done to determine the presence of floating particles. The products D and F produced cytotoxic changes in HeLa cell line and these products also showed the presence of floating particles under phase contrast microscopy. Other products did not have any adverse effects on the cell lines nor did they show floating particles. The viscoelastic ophthalmic pharmaceutical products designated D and F have cytotoxic effects on HeLa cell line which appears to be a useful cell line for testing these products for their toxicity. The presence of particulate materials in products D and F indicates that the methods used for purification of the solution are not effective.

  17. Characterization of tendon cell cultures of the human rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, S; Klatte, F; Strobel, C; Schmidmaier, G; Greiner, S; Scheibel, M; Wildemann, B

    2010-07-26

    Rotator cuff tears are common soft tissue injuries of the musculoskeletal system that heal by formation of repair tissue and may lead to high retear rates and joint dysfunction. In particular, tissue from chronic, large tendon tears is of such degenerative nature that it may be prone to retear after surgical repair. Besides several biomechanical approaches, biologically based strategies such as application of growth factors may be promising for increasing cell activity and production of extracellular tendon matrix at the tendon-to-bone unit. As a precondition for subsequent experimental growth factor application, the aim of the present study was to establish and characterize a human rotator cuff tendon cell culture. Long head biceps (LHB)- and supraspinatus muscle (SSP)- tendon samples from donor patients undergoing shoulder surgery were cultivated and examined at the RNA level for expression of collagen type-I, -II and -III, biglycan, decorin, tenascin-C, aggrecan, osteocalcin, tenomodulin and scleraxis (by Real-time PCR). Finally, results were compared to chondrocytes and osteoblasts as control cells. An expression pattern was found which may reflect a human rotator cuff tenocyte-like cell culture. Both SSP and LHB tenocyte-like cells differed from chondrocyte cell cultures in terms of reduced expression of collagen type-II (ptendon matrix and osteofibroblastic integration at the tendon-bone unit following tendon repair.

  18. Complementation of mutant phenotypes and genotypes of cultured mammalian cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.R. de Jonge

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation describes experiments aimed at the complementation of a genetic mutation in cultured mammalian cells in order to investigate several aspects of the structure and functioning of the human genome. Complementation is indicated by the correction of a biochemical function in

  19. Preparation of crude rough microsomes from tissue culture cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, David D

    2014-09-02

    There are various procedures for isolating microsomal fractions from tissue culture cells. The essential conditions for each step of one procedure are described here. Notes for special circumstances are included so that the procedure can be modified according to the experimental purpose.

  20. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  1. Morphological characteristics of cultured fresh and thawed pericardium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Olga; Fedevych, Oleg; Shuvalova, Nadiia; Deryabina, Olena; Zhovnir, Volodymyr; Novak, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The need for selection of the optimal material for the manufacturing of cardio-patches can be resolved by the use of cryostored autologous pericardial tissue. This short communication is a concise fragment of a large-scale research and demonstrates only the efficiency of cell culturing before and after pericardial preservation in the low temperature conditions.

  2. CYTOTOXICITY TESTING OF WOUND DRESSINGS USING METHYLCELLULOSE CELL-CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLUYN, MJA; VANWACHEM, PB; NIEUWENHUIS, P; JONKMAN, MF

    1992-01-01

    Wound dressings may induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we check several, mostly commercially available, wound dressings for cytotoxicity. We used our previously described, newly developed and highly sensitive 7 d methylcellulose cell culture with fibroblasts as the test system. Cytotoxicity is

  3. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    and establishment of synaptic transmission. Here, we used calcium imaging in slice cultures of the postnatal cerebellum, and observe spontaneous propagating calcium waves in NeuN-positive granule-like cells. Wave formation was blocked by TTX and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, but persisted after NMDA receptor blockade...

  4. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  5. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  6. Patterns of mitochondrial DNA instability in Brassica campestris cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzadegan, M; Palmer, J D; Christey, M; Earle, E D

    1991-01-01

    We previously showed that the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a Brassica campestris callus culture had undergone extensive rearrangements (i.e. large inversions and a duplication) relative to DNA of the control plant [54]. In this study we observed that after continued growth, the mtDNA of this culture continues to change, with rearranged forms amplifying and diminishing to varying proportions. Strikingly similar changes were detected in the mtDNA profiles of a variety of other long- and short-term callus and cell suspension lines. However, the proportions of parental ('unrearranged') and novel ('rearranged') forms varied in different cultured cell mtDNAs. To address the source of this heterogeneity, we compared the mtDNA organization of 28 individual plants from the parental seed stock. With the exception of one plant containing high levels of a novel plasmid-like mtDNA molecule, no significant variation was detected among individual plants and therefore source plant variation is unlikely to have contributed to the diversity of mitochondrial genomes observed in cultured cells. The source of this culture-induced heterogeneity was also investigated in 16 clones derived from single protoplasts. A mixed population of unrearranged and rearranged mtDNA molecules was apparent in each protoclone, suggesting that the observed heterogeneity in various cultures might reflect the genomic composition of each individual cell; however, the induction of an intercellular heterogeneity subsequent to the protoplast isolation was not tested and therefore cannot be ruled out. The results of this study support our earlier model that the rapid structural alteration of B. campestris mtDNA in vitro results from preferential amplification and reassortment of minor pre-existing forms of the genome rather than de novo rearrangement. Infrequent recombination between short dispersed repeated elements is proposed as the underlying mechanism for the formation of these minor mtDNA molecules.

  7. Dendrosomal curcumin nanoformulation modulate apoptosis-related genes and protein expression in hepatocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Maryam; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Zarghami, Faraz; Khodi, Samaneh; Mohaghegh, Mina; Sadeghzadeh, Hadi; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-07-25

    The side-effects observed in conventional therapies have made them unpromising in curing Hepatocellular carcinoma; therefore, developing novel treatments can be an overwhelming significance. One of such novel agents is curcumin which can induce apoptosis in various cancerous cells, however, its poor solubility is restricted its application. To overcome this issue, this paper employed dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) was employed to in prevent hepatocarcinoma in both RNA and protein levels. Hepatocarcinoma cells, p53 wild-type HepG2 and p53 mutant Huh7, were treated with DNC and investigated for toxicity study using MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed using Flow-cytometry and Annexin-V-FLUOS/PI staining. Real-time PCR and Western blot were employed to analyze p53, BAX, Bcl-2, p21 and Noxa in DNC-treated cells. DNC inhibited the growth in the form of time-dependent manner, while the carrier alone was not toxic to the cell. Flow-cytometry data showed the constant concentration of 20μM DNC during the time significantly increases cell population in SubG1 phase. Annexin-V-PI test showed curcumin-induced apoptosis was enhanced in Huh7 as well as HepG2, compared to untreated cells. Followed by treatment, mRNA expression of p21, BAX, and Noxa increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, and unlike HepG2, Huh7 showed down-regulation of p53. In summary, DNC-treated hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergo apoptosis by changing the expression of genes involved in the apoptosis and proliferation processes. These findings suggest that DNC, as a plant-originated therapeutic agent, could be applied in cancer treatment.

  8. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    microdevice was developed and successfully tested. The MCCS microdevice is fully reusable, i.e. it can be used several times for various cell culture and cytotoxic experiments. The suitability of designed MCCS for cell-based cytotoxicity assay application was verified using 1,4-dioxane as a model toxic agent....... The series of cytotoxicity tests in the microdevice as well as in classic way using 96-well cell culture plates were performed to compare results obtained in micro- and macroscale. Fluorescein dibutyrate (FDB) and iodide propidine (PI) were used as viable and dead cells' markers, respectively. Fabricated...... MCCS microdevices were reproducible and apart from cell culture for long period of time, including cell passaging, it allowed cell-based cytotoxicity assays performance. The MCCS can be applied in high-throughput cell-based assays providing important informations on potential drug targets, substances...

  9. Enzymatic Cell Isolation and Explant Cultures of Rat Calvarial Osteoblast Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Osteoblast cells were isolated from the calvarial bones of newborn Wistar rats and cultured in vitro via both collagenase digestion method and explant technique, and a comparative study was carried out on the two culture methods. The biologic characteristics of tbs osteoblast cells were studied via cell number counting,morphology observation, alkaline phosphatase staining of the cells and alizarine- red staining of the calcified nodules. The results show that osteoblast cells can be cultured in vitro via collagenase digestion method and explant technique, and the obtained cells are of good biologic characteristics. In comparison with the explant techniqne,the operative procedure of the enzymatic digestion method is more complicated. The digestion time must be carefully controlled. However, with this method, one can obtain a lager number of cells in a short time. The operative procedure of the explant technique is simpler, but it usually takes longer time to obtain cells of desirable number.

  10. Differential effect of culture temperature and specific growth rate on CHO cell behavior in chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Mauricio; Becerra, Silvana; Berrios, Julio; Osses, Nelson; Reyes, Juan; Rodríguez-Moyá, María; Gonzalez, Ramon; Altamirano, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Mild hypothermia condition in mammalian cell culture technology has been one of the main focuses of research for the development of breeding strategies to maximize productivity of these production systems. Despite the large number of studies that show positive effects of mild hypothermia on specific productivity of r-proteins, no experimental approach has addressed the indirect effect of lower temperatures on specific cell growth rate, nor how this condition possibly affects less specific productivity of r-proteins. To separately analyze the effects of mild hypothermia and specific growth rate on CHO cell metabolism and recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator productivity as a model system, high dilution rate (0.017 h(-1)) and low dilution rate (0.012 h(-1)) at two cultivation temperatures (37 and 33 °C) were evaluated using chemostat culture. The results showed a positive effect on the specific productivity of r-protein with decreasing specific growth rate at 33 °C. Differential effect was achieved by mild hypothermia on the specific productivity of r-protein, contrary to the evidence reported in batch culture. Interestingly, reduction of metabolism could not be associated with a decrease in culture temperature, but rather with a decrease in specific growth rate.

  11. Mefloquine damage vestibular hair cells in organotypic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongzhen; Ding, Dalian; Jiang, Haiyan; Stolzberg, Daniel; Salvi, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Mefloquine is an effective and widely used anti-malarial drug; however, some clinical reports suggest that it can cause dizziness, balance, and vestibular disturbances. To determine if mefloquine might be toxic to the vestibular system, we applied mefloquine to organotypic cultures of the macula of the utricle from postnatal day 3 rats. The macula of the utricle was micro-dissected out as a flat surface preparation and cultured with 10, 50, 100, or 200 μM mefloquine for 24 h. Specimens were stained with TRITC-conjugated phalloidin to label the actin in hair cell stereocilia and TO-PRO-3 to visualize cell nuclei. Some utricles were also labeled with fluorogenic caspase-3, -8, or -9 indicators to evaluate the mechanism of programmed cell death. Mefloquine treatment caused a dose-dependent loss of utricular hair cells. Treatment with 10 μM caused a slight reduction, 50 μM caused a significant reduction, and 200 μM destroyed nearly all the hair cells. Hair cell nuclei in mefloquine-treated utricles were condensed and fragmented, morphological features of apoptosis. Mefloquine-treated utricles were positive for the extrinsic initiator caspase-8 and intrinsic initiator caspase-9 and downstream executioner caspase-3. These results indicate that mefloquine can induce significant hair cell degeneration in the postnatal rat utricle and that mefloquine-induced hair cell death is initiated by both caspase-8 and caspase-9.

  12. Human disc cells in monolayer vs 3D culture: cell shape, division and matrix formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Edward N

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between cell shape, proliferation, and extracellular matrix (ECM production, important aspects of cell behavior, is examined in a little-studied cell type, the human annulus cell from the intervertebral disc, during monolayer vs three-dimensional (3D culture. Results Three experimental studies showed that cells respond specifically to culture microenvironments by changes in cell shape, mitosis and ECM production: 1 Cell passages showed extensive immunohistochemical evidence of Type I and II collagens only in 3D culture. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate were abundant in both monolayer and 3D cultures. 2 Cells showed significantly greater proliferation in monolayer in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor compared to cells in 3D. 3 Cells on Matrigel™-coated monolayer substrates became rounded and formed nodular colonies, a finding absent during monolayer growth. Conclusions The cell's in vivo interactions with the ECM can regulate shape, gene expression and other cell functions. The shape of the annulus cell changes markedly during life: the young, healthy disc contains spindle shaped cells and abundant collagen. With aging and degeneration, many cells assume a strikingly different appearance, become rounded and are surrounded by unusual accumulations of ECM products. In vitro manipulation of disc cells provides an experimental window for testing how disc cells from given individuals respond when they are grown in environments which direct cells to have either spindle- or rounded-shapes. In vitro assessment of the response of such cells to platelet-derived growth factor and to Matrigel™ showed a continued influence of cell shape even in the presence of a growth factor stimulus. These findings contribute new information to the important issue of the influence of cell shape on cell behavior.

  13. Electrolytic valving isolation of cell co-culture microenvironment with controlled cell pairing ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2014-12-21

    Cancer-stromal interaction is a critical process in tumorigenesis. Conventional dish-based co-culture assays simply mix two cell types in the same dish; thus, they are deficient in controlling cell locations and precisely tracking single cell behavior from heterogeneous cell populations. Microfluidic technology can provide a good spatial-temporal control of microenvironments, but the control has been typically realized by using external pumps, making long-term cultures cumbersome and bulky. In this work, we have presented a cell-cell interaction microfluidic platform that can accurately control the co-culture microenvironment by using a novel electrolytic cell isolation scheme without using any valves or pneumatic pumps. The proposed microfluidic platform can also precisely control the number of interacting cells and pairing ratios to emulate cancer niches. More than 80% of the chambers captured the desired number of cells. The duration of cell isolation can be adjusted by electrolytic bubble generation and removal. We have verified that the electrolytic process has a negligible effect on cell viability and proliferation in our platform. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to incorporate electrolytic bubble generation as a cell isolation method in microfluidics. For proof of feasibility, we have performed cell-cell interaction assays between prostate cancer (PC3) cells and myoblast (C2C12) cells. The preliminary results demonstrated the potential of using electrolysis for micro-environmental control during cell culture. Also, the ratio controlled cell-cell interaction assays were successfully performed which showed that the cell pairing ratios of PC3 to C2C12 affected the proliferation rate of myoblast cells due to increased secretion of growth factors from prostate cancer cells.

  14. Comparison of defined culture systems for feeder cell free propagation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, Veronika; Andrews, Peter W; Beil, Stephen; Benvenisty, Nissim; Brehm, Jennifer; Christie, Megan; Ford, Angela; Fox, Victoria; Gokhale, Paul J; Healy, Lyn; Holm, Frida; Hovatta, Outi; Knowles, Barbara B; Ludwig, Tenneille E; McKay, Ronald D G; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Nakatsuji, Norio; Oh, Steve K W; Pera, Martin F; Rossant, Janet; Stacey, Glyn N; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2010-04-01

    There are many reports of defined culture systems for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder cell support, but no previous study has undertaken a multi-laboratory comparison of these diverse methodologies. In this study, five separate laboratories, each with experience in human embryonic stem cell culture, used a panel of ten embryonic stem cell lines (including WA09 as an index cell line common to all laboratories) to assess eight cell culture methods, with propagation in the presence of Knockout Serum Replacer, FGF-2, and mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cell layers serving as a positive control. The cultures were assessed for up to ten passages for attachment, death, and differentiated morphology by phase contrast microscopy, for growth by serial cell counts, and for maintenance of stem cell surface marker expression by flow cytometry. Of the eight culture systems, only the control and those based on two commercial media, mTeSR1 and STEMPRO, supported maintenance of most cell lines for ten passages. Cultures grown in the remaining media failed before this point due to lack of attachment, cell death, or overt cell differentiation. Possible explanations for relative success of the commercial formulations in this study, and the lack of success with other formulations from academic groups compared to previously published results, include: the complex combination of growth factors present in the commercial preparations; improved development, manufacture, and quality control in the commercial products; differences in epigenetic adaptation to culture in vitro between different ES cell lines grown in different laboratories.

  15. Characterization of tendon cell cultures of the human rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pauly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available tator cuff tears are common soft tissue injuries of the musculoskeletal system that heal by formation of repair tissue and may lead to high retear rates and joint dysfunction. In particular, tissue from chronic, large tendon tears is of such degenerative nature that it may be prone to retear after surgical repair. Besides several biomechanical approaches, biologically based strategies such as application of growth factors may be promising for increasing cell activity and production of extracellular tendon matrix at the tendon-to-bone unit. As a precondition for subsequent experimental growth factor application, the aim of the present study was to establish and characterize a human rotator cuff tendon cell culture.Long head biceps (LHB- and supraspinatus muscle (SSP- tendon samples from donor patients undergoing shoulder surgery were cultivated and examined at the RNA level for expression of collagen type-I, -II and -III, biglycan, decorin, tenascin-C, aggrecan, osteocalcin, tenomodulin and scleraxis (by Real-time PCR. Finally, results were compared to chondrocytes and osteoblasts as control cells.An expression pattern was found which may reflect a human rotator cuff tenocyte-like cell culture. Both SSP and LHB tenocyte-like cells differed from chondrocyte cell cultures in terms of reduced expression of collagen type-II (p≤0.05 and decorin while higher levels of collagen type-I were seen (p≤0.05. With respect to osteoblasts, tenocyte-like cells expressed lower levels of osteocalcin (p≤0.05 as well as tenascin C, biglycan and collagen type-III. Expression of scleraxis, tenomodulin and aggrecan was similar between all cell types.This study represents a characterization of tenocyte-like cells from the human rotator cuff as close as possible. It helps analyzing their biological properties and allows further studies to improve production of tendon matrix and osteofibroblastic integration at the tendon-bone unit following tendon repair.

  16. An In Vitro Nematic Model for Proliferating Cell Cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Pai, Sunil; Green, Morgaine; Cordeiro, Christine; Cabral, Elise; Chen, Bertha; Baer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Confluent populations of elongated cells give rise to ordered patterns seen in nematic phase liquid crystals. We correlate cell elongation and intercellular distance with intercellular alignment using an amorphous spin glass model. We compare in vitro time-lapse imaging with Monte Carlo simulation results by framing a novel hard ellipses model in terms of Boltzmann statistics. Furthermore, we find a statistically distinct alignment energy at quasi-steady state among fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and pluripotent cell populations when cultured in vitro. These findings have important implications in both non-invasive clinical screening of the stem cell differentiation process and in relating shape parameters to coupling in active crystal systems such as nematic cell monolayers.

  17. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  18. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  19. Genotoxic Effects of Culture Media on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Bangalore, Megha; Adhikarla, Syama; Mukherjee, Odity; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2017-01-01

    Culture conditions play an important role in regulating the genomic integrity of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (HPSCs). We report that HPSCs cultured in Essential 8 (E8) and mTeSR, two widely used media for feeder-free culturing of HPSCs, had many fold higher levels of ROS and higher mitochondrial potential than cells cultured in Knockout Serum Replacement containing media (KSR). HPSCs also exhibited increased levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine, phospho-histone-H2a.X and p53, as well as increased sensitivity to γ-irradiation in these two media. HPSCs in E8 and mTeSR had increased incidence of changes in their DNA sequence, indicating genotoxic stress, in addition to changes in nucleolar morphology and number. Addition of antioxidants to E8 and mTeSR provided only partial rescue. Our results suggest that it is essential to determine cellular ROS levels in addition to currently used criteria i.e. pluripotency markers, differentiation into all three germ layers and normal karyotype through multiple passages, in designing culture media. PMID:28176872

  20. Differentiation of neuroepithelial stem cells into functional dopaminergic neurons in 3D microfluidic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Edinson Lucumi; Hachi, Siham; Hemmer, Kathrin; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Baumuratov, Aidos S; Hankemeier, Thomas; Vulto, Paul; Schwamborn, Jens C; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-06-07

    A hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We derived human neuroepithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells and successfully differentiated them into dopaminergic neurons within phase-guided, three-dimensional microfluidic cell culture bioreactors. After 30 days of differentiation within the microfluidic bioreactors, in situ morphological, immunocytochemical and calcium imaging confirmed the presence of dopaminergic neurons that were spontaneously electrophysiologically active, a characteristic feature of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Differentiation was as efficient as in macroscopic culture, with up to 19% of differentiated neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the penultimate enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine. This new microfluidic cell culture model integrates the latest innovations in developmental biology and microfluidic cell culture to generate a biologically realistic and economically efficient route to personalised drug discovery for Parkinson's disease.

  1. Effect of Micro Ridges on Orientation of Cultured Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Hino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of micro ridges on orientation of cultured cells has been studied in vitro. Several patterns of micro ridges have been fabricated on a transparent polydimethylsiloxane disk with the photo lithography technique. The ridges consist of several lines of rectangular column: the width of 0.003 mm, the interval of 0.007 mm. Variation has been made on the height of the ridge between 0.0003 mm and 0.0035 mm. C2C12 (mouse myoblast cell line originated with cross-striated muscle of C3H mouse was cultured on the disk with the micro ridges for one week and was observed with an inverted phase contrast microscope. The experimental results show that cells adhere on the top of the ridge and align to the longitudinal direction of the micro ridges with the height between 0.0015 mm and 0.0025 mm.

  2. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from chitosan-treated Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Beuerle, Till; Mitra, Adinpunya; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-09-01

    Cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia respond to the addition of chitosan with the accumulation of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin. The carbon skeleton of this inducible defense compound is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS) from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA. The formation of benzoyl-CoA proceeds via benzaldehyde as an intermediate. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BD), which converts benzaldehyde into benzoic acid, was detected in cell-free extracts from S. aucuparia cell cultures. BD and BIS were induced by chitosan treatment. The preferred substrate for BD was benzaldehyde (K(m)=49 microM). Cinnamaldehyde and various hydroxybenzaldehydes were relatively poor substrates. BD activity was strictly dependent on the presence of NAD(+) as a cofactor (K(m)=67 microM).

  3. Improved Cell Culture Method for Growing Contracting Skeletal Muscle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquette, Michele L.; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2013-01-01

    An improved method for culturing immature muscle cells (myoblasts) into a mature skeletal muscle overcomes some of the notable limitations of prior culture methods. The development of the method is a major advance in tissue engineering in that, for the first time, a cell-based model spontaneously fuses and differentiates into masses of highly aligned, contracting myotubes. This method enables (1) the construction of improved two-dimensional (monolayer) skeletal muscle test beds; (2) development of contracting three-dimensional tissue models; and (3) improved transplantable tissues for biomedical and regenerative medicine applications. With adaptation, this method also offers potential application for production of other tissue types (i.e., bone and cardiac) from corresponding precursor cells.

  4. Label-free classification of cultured cells through diffraction imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Feng, Yuanming; Jacobs, Kenneth M; Lu, Jun Q; Brock, R Scott; Yang, Li V; Bertrand, Fred E; Farwell, Mary A; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2011-06-01

    Automated classification of biological cells according to their 3D morphology is highly desired in a flow cytometer setting. We have investigated this possibility experimentally and numerically using a diffraction imaging approach. A fast image analysis software based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) algorithm has been developed to extract feature parameters from measured diffraction images. The results of GLCM analysis and subsequent classification demonstrate the potential for rapid classification among six types of cultured cells. Combined with numerical results we show that the method of diffraction imaging flow cytometry has the capacity as a platform for high-throughput and label-free classification of biological cells.

  5. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E.; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The studies of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation the embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder-layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture. PMID:25687301

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B; Wary, Kishore K

    2016-01-01

    The study of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming, and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation of embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture.

  7. Substrate properties influence calcification in valvular interstitial cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Julie A; Kern, Hanna B; Anseth, Kristi S

    2008-11-01

    Valvular calcification is an active, cell-mediated process that results in significant morbidity and mortality. In standard culture, valvular interstitial cells (VICs) elicit significant calcification as a result of myofibroblast activation, and this limits their use in characterization studies. The study aim was to identify culturing substrates that would suppress atypical VIC calcification, and to investigate culture substrates representing a more physiological system. Several culture platforms were selected to compare and contrast the influence of biochemical and mechanical properties on VIC calcification. Substrates investigated included: tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), TCPS coated with either fibronectin or fibrin, and an elastic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, also with fibronectin or fibrin coupled to the surface. Experiments were repeated with profibrotic growth factor transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1). VIC calcification was characterized by calcific nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium accumulation. Gene and protein expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (aSMA) and core binding factor-1 (CBFa-1) were analyzed with qRT-PCR and immunostaining. Unmodified TCPS substrates had an innate ability to promote the markers of calcification studied. The addition of TGF-beta1 enhanced levels of all osteoblastic markers studied. When TCPS surfaces were modified with fibronectin, all markers for calcification were repressed, but alphaSMA - a marker for myofibroblastic activity was unchanged. Meanwhile, fibrin-modified TCPS surfaces enhanced calcification over unmodified TCPS substrates. On soft PEG hydrogels, all markers for calcification were repressed, regardless of the surface chemistry, while alphaSMA expression remained unaffected. Collectively, VIC properties are highly linked to the culture microenvironment. Both, the biochemical and mechanical environment of tissue culture has an effect on the spontaneous calcification

  8. Characterization of aggregate size in Taxus suspension cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolewe, Martin E; Henson, Michael A; Roberts, Susan C

    2010-05-01

    Plant cells grow as aggregates in suspension culture, but little is known about the dynamics of aggregation, and no routine methodology exists to measure aggregate size. In this study, we evaluate several different methods to characterize aggregate size in Taxus suspension cultures, in which aggregate diameters range from 50 to 2,000 microm, includin