Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements
Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun
2016-11-01
It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.
Continuous Sound Velocity Measurements along the Shock Hugoniot Curve of Quartz
Li, Mu; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Hongping; Zhang, Gongmu; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei; Jeanloz, Raymond
2018-05-01
We report continuous measurements of the sound velocity along the principal Hugoniot curve of α quartz between 0.25 and 1.45 TPa, as determined from lateral release waves intersecting the shock front as a function of time in decaying-shock experiments. The measured sound velocities are lower than predicted by prior models, based on the properties of stishovite at densities below ˜7 g /cm3 , but agree with density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations and an empirical wide-regime equation of state presented here. The Grüneisen parameter calculated from the sound velocity decreases from γ ˜1 .3 at 0.25 TPa to 0.66 at 1.45 TPa. In combination with evidence for increased (configurational) specific heat and decreased bulk modulus, the values of γ suggest a high thermal expansion coefficient at ˜0. 25 - 0 .65 TPa , where SiO2 is thought to be a bonded liquid. From our measurements, dissociation of the molecular bonds persists to ˜0. 65 - 1 .0 TPa , consistent with estimates by other methods. At higher densities, the sound velocity is close to predictions from previous models, and the Grüneisen parameter approaches the ideal gas value.
Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.
2009-01-01
The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.
Rarefaction shock waves and Hugoniot curve in the presence of free and trapped particles
Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Shokri, B.; Rouhani, M. R.
2009-12-01
The effects of the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles in the presence of ponderomotive force on the rarefaction shock waves are investigated. The ponderomotive force alters the electron density distribution. This force and relativistic mass affect the plasma frequency. These physical parameters modify the total pressure and the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. Furthermore, the trapping of particles by the high frequency electromagnetic field considerably changes the existence condition of the rarefaction shock wave. The total pressure and Hugoniot curve are obtained by considering the relativistic ponderomotive force and trapped particles.
Fractals control in particle's velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan
2009-01-01
Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.
Investigation on Mie-Grüneisen type shock Hugoniot equation of state for concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Katayama
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper ascertains that the bilinear shock Hugoniot equation of state (EOS can model the plasticizing process of the porous media like concrete material for high-velocity impact problems successfully. The negative slope of the bilinear Hugoniot for low particle velocity regime can simulate the process that the porosity of concrete may be compressed to form shock wave in concrete, through a series of numerical analyses over the investigation on the physical phenomena. The results of particle velocity for the concrete material are also discussed to be compared with those of non-porous aluminum alloy for 100 and 1000 m/s impact velocities. All the numerical simulations were carried out by applying the bilinear shock Hugoniot EOS to concrete which was linked to the binary object of a hydrocode: ANSYS Autodyn®[1−3] through a user’s subroutine.
Hugoniot measurements near 50 MBAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragan, C.E. III.
1979-01-01
A planar shock generated in the vicinity of an underground nuclear explosion was used to obtain Hugoniot data at 6.7 TPa for uranium relative to a molybdenum standard in an impedance matching experiment. Twenty-seven electrical contact pins were used to measure shock velocities of 27.0 and 22.8 km/s (+- 1%) in the molybdenum and uranium, respectively. The measurement differs from theory by more than 2.5 times the experimental uncertainty and represents the highest pressure at which Hugoniot data have been obtained
Effect of shear strength on Hugoniot-compression curve and the equation of state of tungsten (W)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mashimo, Tsutomu, E-mail: mashimo@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Liu, Xun [Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kodama, Masao [Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Zaretsky, Eugene [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Katayama, Masahide [Itochu Techno-Solutions Corporation, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Nagayama, Kunihiko [Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)
2016-01-21
The Hugoniot data for highly dense polycrystalline tungsten were obtained for pressures above 200 GPa, and the equation of state (EOS) was determined taking into account shear strength effects. For this study, we have made some improvements in measurement system and analyses of the shock wave data. Symmetric-impact Hugoniot measurements were performed using the high-time resolution streak camera system equipped on a one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun, where the effects of tilting and bowing of flyer plate on the Hugoniot data were carefully considered. The shock velocity–particle velocity (U{sub S}–U{sub P}) Hugoniot relation in the plastic regime was determined to be U{sub S} = 4.137 + 1.242U{sub P} km/s (U{sub P} < 2 km/s). Ultrasonic and Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also performed in this study. The zero-intercept value of the U{sub S}–U{sub P} Hugoniot relation was found to be slightly larger than the ultrasonic bulk sound velocity (4.023 km/s). The hypothetical hydrostatic isothermal U{sub s}–U{sub p} Hugoniot curve, which corresponds to the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve derived from the Hugoniot data using the strength data, converged to the bulk sound velocity, clearly showing shear strength dependence in the Hugoniot data. The EOS for tungsten is derived from the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve using the strength data.
Effect of shear strength on Hugoniot-compression curve and the equation of state of tungsten (W)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashimo, Tsutomu; Liu, Xun; Kodama, Masao; Zaretsky, Eugene; Katayama, Masahide; Nagayama, Kunihiko
2016-01-01
The Hugoniot data for highly dense polycrystalline tungsten were obtained for pressures above 200 GPa, and the equation of state (EOS) was determined taking into account shear strength effects. For this study, we have made some improvements in measurement system and analyses of the shock wave data. Symmetric-impact Hugoniot measurements were performed using the high-time resolution streak camera system equipped on a one-stage powder gun and two-stage light gas gun, where the effects of tilting and bowing of flyer plate on the Hugoniot data were carefully considered. The shock velocity–particle velocity (U S –U P ) Hugoniot relation in the plastic regime was determined to be U S = 4.137 + 1.242U P km/s (U P < 2 km/s). Ultrasonic and Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measurements were also performed in this study. The zero-intercept value of the U S –U P Hugoniot relation was found to be slightly larger than the ultrasonic bulk sound velocity (4.023 km/s). The hypothetical hydrostatic isothermal U s –U p Hugoniot curve, which corresponds to the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve derived from the Hugoniot data using the strength data, converged to the bulk sound velocity, clearly showing shear strength dependence in the Hugoniot data. The EOS for tungsten is derived from the hydrostatic isothermal compression curve using the strength data
On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dandache, H.
1986-11-01
We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs
Hugoniot and refractive indices of bromoform under shock compression
Liu, Q. C.; Zeng, X. L.; Zhou, X. M.; Luo, S. N.
2018-01-01
We investigate physical properties of bromoform (liquid CHBr3) including compressibility and refractive index under dynamic extreme conditions of shock compression. Planar shock experiments are conducted along with high-speed laser interferometry. Our experiments and previous results establish a linear shock velocity-particle velocity relation for particle velocities below 1.77 km/s, as well as the Hugoniot and isentropic compression curves up to ˜21 GPa. Shock-state refractive indices of CHBr3 up to 2.3 GPa or ˜26% compression, as a function of density, can be described with a linear relation and follows the Gladstone-Dale relation. The velocity corrections for laser interferometry measurements at 1550 nm are also obtained.
Hugoniot and refractive indices of bromoform under shock compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Q. C. Liu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate physical properties of bromoform (liquid CHBr3 including compressibility and refractive index under dynamic extreme conditions of shock compression. Planar shock experiments are conducted along with high-speed laser interferometry. Our experiments and previous results establish a linear shock velocity−particle velocity relation for particle velocities below 1.77 km/s, as well as the Hugoniot and isentropic compression curves up to ∼21 GPa. Shock-state refractive indices of CHBr3 up to 2.3 GPa or ∼26% compression, as a function of density, can be described with a linear relation and follows the Gladstone-Dale relation. The velocity corrections for laser interferometry measurements at 1550 nm are also obtained.
The shock Hugoniot of the intermetallic alloy Ti-46.5Al-2Nb-2Cr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Millett, Jeremy; Gray, George T. Rusty III; Bourne, Neil
2000-01-01
Plate impact experiments were conducted on a γ-titanium aluminide (TiAl) based ordered intermetallic alloy. Stress measurements were recorded using manganin stress gauges supported on the back of TiAl targets using polymethylmethacrylate windows. The Hugoniot in stress-particle velocity space for this TiAl alloy was deduced using impedance matching techniques. The results in this study are compared to the known Hugoniot data of the common alpha-beta engineering Ti-based alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of the current study on the intermetallic alloy TiAl support that TiAl possesses a significantly higher stress for a given particle velocity than the two-phase Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
The Microflown, an acoustic particle velocity sensor
de Bree, H.E.
2003-01-01
The Microflown is an acoustic sensor directly measuring particle velocity instead of sound pressure, which is usually measured by conventional microphones. Since its invention in 1994 it is mostly used for measurement purposes (broadband1D and 3D-sound intensity measurement and acoustic impedance).
Hugoniot-based equations of state for two filled EPDM rubbers
Pacheco, Adam; Dattelbaum, Dana; Orler, E.; Gustavsen, R.
2013-06-01
The shock response of silica filled and Kevlar filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubbers was studied using gas gun-driven plate impact experiments. Both materials are proprietary formulations made by Kirkhill-TA, Brea CA USA, and are used for ablative internal rocket motor insulation. Two types of experiments were performed. In the first, the filled-EPDM sample was mounted on the front of the projectile and impacted a Lithium Fluoride (LiF) window. The Hugoniot state was determined from the measured projectile velocity, the EPDM/LiF interface velocity (measured using VISAR) and impedance matching to LiF. In the second type of experiment, electromagnetic particle velocity gauges were embedded between layers of filled-EPDM. These provided in situ particle velocity and shock velocity measurements. Experiments covered a pressure range of 0.34 - 14 GPa. Hugoniot-based equations of state were obtained for both materials, and will be compared to those of other filled elastomers such as silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane and adiprene. Work performed while at Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Thermal particle image velocity estimation of fire plume flow
Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun; Shankar Mahalingam; David R. Weise
2003-01-01
For the purpose of studying wildfire spread in living vegetation such as chaparral in California, a thermal particle image velocity (TPIV) algorithm for nonintrusively measuring flame gas velocities through thermal infrared (IR) imagery was developed. By tracing thermal particles in successive digital IR images, the TPIV algorithm can estimate the velocity field in a...
A comparative study of calculated and measured particle velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tariq, S.M.
2005-01-01
After an explosive is detonated in a blast hole, seismic waves are generated in the ground surrounding the blast hole. These waves cause the particles of rock to oscillate about its position. As the wave attenuate, the particles come back to their original position. The rapidity with which the particles move is called the particle velocity. The peak or maximum velocity is the value which is of prime concern. This value of peak particle velocity can be estimated by the equations determined by the United States Bureau of Mines and by the DUPONT. A research program was conducted by the author at the 'Beck Materials Quarry' situated near Rolla, Missouri, USA. The purpose was to draw a comparison between the predicted and measured particle velocities. It was generally found that the predicted peak particle velocities were quite high as compared to the velocities measured by the Seismographs. (author)
Patch near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yong-Bin; Jacobsen, Finn; Bi, Chuan-Xing
2009-01-01
Patch near field acoustic holography (PNAH) based on sound pressure measurements makes it possible to reconstruct the source field near a source by measuring the sound pressure at positions on a surface. that is comparable in size to the source region of concern. Particle velocity is an alternative...... examines the use of particle velocity as the input of PNAH. Because the particle velocity decays faster toward the edges of the measurement aperture than the pressure does and because the wave number ratio that enters into the inverse propagator from pressure to velocity amplifies high spatial frequencies...
Velocity persistence of Brownian particles generated in a glow discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurd, A.J.; Ho, P.
1989-01-01
Quasielastic light scattering from Brownian particles in the rarefied environment of a glow discharge exhibits Gaussianlike intensity correlation functions owing to the long mean free paths of the particles. The shape of the correlation function depends on the particles' average thermal velocity and friction coefficient, which can be related to aggregate mass and structure, and indicates a crossover from kinetic to hydrodynamic behavior
Measurement of particle velocity using a mutual inductance technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerr, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Douglas; Garden, Steven
2004-01-01
Preliminary work on the development of a novel method for the measurement of particle velocity is described. The technique relies on measurement of the mutual inductance between two coaxial coils, one stationary and the other perturbed by the shock wave. The moving coil is the gauge and is deposited on thin film. The method was developed to assist in the study of particle velocities in large samples of porous media surrounding an explosive charge. The technique does not require measurements to be taken in a region of uniform magnetic field and therefore dispenses with the need for Helmholtz coils, the size and cost of which can become prohibitive for large experiments. This has the added advantage of allowing measurements to be taken at points widely dispersed through a sample with relative ease. Measurements of particle velocity in porous media have been compared with those from co-located conventional electromagnetic particle velocity gauges with reasonable agreement
Measurements of phoretic velocities of aerosol particles in microgravity conditions
Prodi, F.; Santachiara, G.; Travaini, S.; Vedernikov, A.; Dubois, F.; Minetti, C.; Legros, J. C.
2006-11-01
Measurements of thermo- and diffusio-phoretic velocities of aerosol particles (carnauba wax, paraffin and sodium chloride) were performed in microgravity conditions (Drop Tower facility, in Bremen, and Parabolic Flights, in Bordeaux). In the case of thermophoresis, a temperature gradient was obtained by heating the upper plate of the cell, while the lower one was maintained at environmental temperature. For diffusiophoresis, the water vapour gradient was obtained with sintered plates imbued with a water solution of MgCl 2 and distilled water, at the top and at the bottom of the cell, respectively. Aerosol particles were observed through a digital holographic velocimeter, a device allowing the determination of 3-D coordinates of particles from the observed volume. Particle trajectories and consequently particle velocities were reconstructed through the analysis of the sequence of particle positions. The experimental values of reduced thermophoretic velocities are between the theoretical values of Yamamoto and Ishihara [Yamamoto, K., Ishihara, Y., 1988. Thermophoresis of a spherical particle in a rarefied gas of a transition regime. Phys. Fluids. 31, 3618-3624] and Talbot et al. [Talbot, L., Cheng, R.K., Schefer, R.W., Willis, D.R., 1980. Thermophoresis of particles in a heated boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech. 101, 737-758], and do not show a clear dependence on the thermal conductivity of the aerosol. The existence of negative thermophoresis is not confirmed in our experiments. Concerning diffusiophoretic experiments, the results obtained show a small increase of reduced diffusiophoretic velocity with the Knudsen number.
Particle velocity measurements in laser irradiated foils using ORVIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheffield, S.A.; Fisk, G.A.
1983-01-01
Aluminum foils from 2- to 200-μm thick have been subjected to a Nd:YAG laser pulse of low irradiance (10 9 W/cm 2 , approx. 10 ns pulse) to produce laser-driven shocks in the foils. The particle velocity history of the foil side opposite the laser deposition was monitored with nanosecond resolution by a velocity interferometer system called ORVIS. These histories indicate a shock reverberation process accelerates the foil. Peak foil velocities can be adequately calculated using a ricket propulsion model developed from experiments at much higher irradiances. A velocity of 1 km/s was developed in a 2-μm-thick free foil in a time of 50 ns. Water-confined foils attained peak particle velocities about three times higher than those of free foils
Copper Hugoniot measurements to 2.8 TPa on Z.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furnish, Michael D.; Haill, Thomas A
2018-04-01
We conducted three Hugoniot and release experiments on copper on the Z machine at Hugoniot stress levels of 0.34 and 2.6 TPa, using two-layer copper/aluminum impactors travelling at 8 and 27 km/s and Z-quartz windows. Velocity histories were recorded for 4 samples of different thicknesses and 5 locations on the flyer plate (3 and 4 for the first two experiments). On-sample measurements provided Hugoniot points (via transit time) and partial release states (via Z-quartz wavespeed). Fabrication of the impactor required thick plating and several diamond-machining steps. The lower-pressure test was planned as a 2.5 TPa test, but a failure on the Z machine degraded its performance; however, these results corroborated earlier Cu data in the same stress region. The second test suffered from significant flyer plate bowing, but the third did not. The Hugoniot data are compared with the APtshuler/Nellis nuclear-driven data, other data from Z and elsewhere, and representative Sesame models.
Shock Hugoniot measurements on Ta to 0.78 TPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froeschner, K.E.; Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Weingart, R.C.
1983-01-01
Symmetric impact shock Hugoniot measurements have been made on Ta with an electrically exploded foil gun system. The results obtained to date for the Hugoniot of Ta cover the range 0.19 to 0.78 TPa (impact velocities from 4.0 to 9.7 km/s) and agree with data obtained by other researchers to within 2.7% rms. Recent improvements in the system include electromagnetic shielding of impactor and target, continuous measurement of impactor velocity with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and computer-aided analysis of shot film. Conservative extrapolation from current operating conditions indicate that pressures of 1.1 to 1.5 TPa could be achieved with little difficulty
Simultaneous measurement of particle and fluid velocities in particle-laden flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, D. X.; Lee, D. Y.
2009-01-01
For the velocity measurement in a particle-laden fluid flow, the fluid velocity and the inherently dispersed particle velocity can be analyzed by using PIV and PTV, respectively. Since the PIV result statistically represents the average displacement of all the particles in a PIV image, it is inevitable that the PIV result includes the influence of the dispersed particles' displacement if a single CCD camera is used to simultaneously measure the fluid velocity and the dispersed particle velocity. The influence of dispersed particles should be excluded before the PIV analysis in order to evaluate the fluid velocity accurately. In this study, the optimum replacement brightness of dispersed particles to minimize the false influence of dispersed particles on the PIV analysis was theoretically derived. Simulation results show that the modification of dispersed particle brightness can significantly reduce the PIV error caused by the dispersed particles. This modification method was also verified in the analysis of an actual experimental case of the particle-laden fluid flow in a triangular grooved channel
Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.
1990-01-01
A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude
On the theory of high-velocity particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordeyev, G.V.
1979-01-01
The equations of mechanics and electrodynamics are presented in a form which is covariant for Galileo transformations in Euclidean space. The author shows that Galileo transformations in the Euclidean space are valid for particles with velocities approaching that of light. (author)
Active Brownian particles with velocity-alignment and active fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Großmann, R; Schimansky-Geier, L; Romanczuk, P
2012-01-01
We consider a model of active Brownian particles (ABPs) with velocity alignment in two spatial dimensions with passive and active fluctuations. Here, active fluctuations refers to purely non-equilibrium stochastic forces correlated with the heading of an individual active particle. In the simplest case studied here, they are assumed to be independent stochastic forces parallel (speed noise) and perpendicular (angular noise) to the velocity of the particle. On the other hand, passive fluctuations are defined by a noise vector independent of the direction of motion of a particle, and may account, for example, for thermal fluctuations. We derive a macroscopic description of the ABP gas with velocity-alignment interaction. Here, we start from the individual-based description in terms of stochastic differential equations (Langevin equations) and derive equations of motion for the coarse-grained kinetic variables (density, velocity and temperature) via a moment expansion of the corresponding probability density function. We focus here on the different impact of active and passive fluctuations on onset of collective motion and show how active fluctuations in the active Brownian dynamics can change the phase-transition behaviour of the system. In particular, we show that active angular fluctuations lead to an earlier breakdown of collective motion and to the emergence of a new bistable regime in the mean-field case. (paper)
Near field acoustic holography with particle velocity transducers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Finn; Liu, Yang
2005-01-01
of the pressure measured in a plane further away, high spatial frequency components corresponding to evanescent modes are not only amplified by the distance but also by the wave number ratio (kz/k). By contrast, when the pressure is predicted close to the source on the basis of the particle velocity measured...
Spherical wave particle velocities in geologic materials from laboratory experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cizek, J.C.; Florence, A.L.
1983-01-01
Particle velocity records that describe spherical waves in rock simulants, tuffs, salt, and granite have been obtained in laboratory experiments. The records aid the modeling of constitutive equations for continuum mechanics codes used in DNA containment research. The technique has also been applied to investigate containment-related problems involving material poperties, failure criteria, scaling, decoupling, and residual strain field relaxation. 22 figures
A generalized transport-velocity formulation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-05-15
The standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method suffers from tensile instability. In fluid-dynamics simulations this instability leads to particle clumping and void regions when negative pressure occurs. In solid-dynamics simulations, it results in unphysical structure fragmentation. In this work the transport-velocity formulation of Adami et al. (2013) is generalized for providing a solution of this long-standing problem. Other than imposing a global background pressure, a variable background pressure is used to modify the particle transport velocity and eliminate the tensile instability completely. Furthermore, such a modification is localized by defining a shortened smoothing length. The generalized formulation is suitable for fluid and solid materials with and without free surfaces. The results of extensive numerical tests on both fluid and solid dynamics problems indicate that the new method provides a unified approach for multi-physics SPH simulations.
Maximum mass-particle velocities in Kantor's information mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sverdlik, D.I.
1989-01-01
Kantor's information mechanics links phenomena previously regarded as not treatable by a single theory. It is used here to calculate the maximum velocities υ m of single particles. For the electron, υ m /c ∼ 1 - 1.253814 x 10 -77 . The maximum υ m corresponds to υ m /c ∼ 1 -1.097864 x 10 -122 for a single mass particle with a rest mass of 3.078496 x 10 -5 g. This is the fastest that matter can move. Either information mechanics or classical mechanics can be used to show that υ m is less for heavier particles. That υ m is less for lighter particles can be deduced from an information mechanics argument alone
Gas and particle velocity measurements in an induction plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesinski, J.; Gagne, R.; Boulos, M.I.
1981-08-01
Laser doppler anemometry was used for the measurements of the plasma and particle velocity profiles in the coil region of an inductively coupled plasma. Results are reported for a 50 mm ID induction torch operated at atmospheric pressure with argon as the plasma gas. The oscillator frequency was 3 MHz and the power in the coil was varied between 4.6 and 10.5 kW. The gas velocity measurements were made using a fine carbon powder as a tracer (dp approx. = 1 μm). Measurements were also made with larger silicon particles (dp = 33 μm and sigma = 13 μm) centrally injected in the plasma under different operating conditions
A new approach for modeling dry deposition velocity of particles
Giardina, M.; Buffa, P.
2018-05-01
The dry deposition process is recognized as an important pathway among the various removal processes of pollutants in the atmosphere. In this field, there are several models reported in the literature useful to predict the dry deposition velocity of particles of different diameters but many of them are not capable of representing dry deposition phenomena for several categories of pollutants and deposition surfaces. Moreover, their applications is valid for specific conditions and if the data in that application meet all of the assumptions required of the data used to define the model. In this paper a new dry deposition velocity model based on an electrical analogy schema is proposed to overcome the above issues. The dry deposition velocity is evaluated by assuming that the resistances that affect the particle flux in the Quasi-Laminar Sub-layers can be combined to take into account local features of the mutual influence of inertial impact processes and the turbulent one. Comparisons with the experimental data from literature indicate that the proposed model allows to capture with good agreement the main dry deposition phenomena for the examined environmental conditions and deposition surfaces to be determined. The proposed approach could be easily implemented within atmospheric dispersion modeling codes and efficiently addressing different deposition surfaces for several particle pollution.
Fluorescence-Doped Particles for Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Imaging
Danehy, Paul M.; Tiemsin, Pacita I.; Wohl, Chrostopher J.; Verkamp, Max; Lowe, T.; Maisto, P.; Byun, G.; Simpson, R.
2012-01-01
Polystyrene latex microspheres (PSLs) have been used for particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements for several decades. With advances in laser technologies, instrumentation, and data processing, the capability to collect more information about fluid flow beyond velocity is possible using new seed materials. To provide additional measurement capability, PSLs were synthesized with temperature-sensitive fluorescent dyes incorporated within the particle. These multifunctional PSLs would have the greatest impact if they could be used in large scale facilities with minimal modification to the facilities or the existing instrumentation. Consequently, several potential dyes were identified that were amenable to existing laser systems currently utilized in wind tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center as well as other wind and fluid (water) tunnels. PSLs incorporated with Rhodamine B, dichlorofluorescein (DCF, also known as fluorescein 548 or fluorescein 27) and other dyes were synthesized and characterized for morphology and spectral properties. The resulting particles were demonstrated to exhibit fluorescent emission, which would enable determination of both fluid velocity and temperature. They also would allow near-wall velocity measurements whereas laser scatter from surfaces currently prevents near-wall measurements using undoped seed materials. Preliminary results in a wind tunnel facility located at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) have verified fluorescent signal detection and temperature sensitivity of fluorophore-doped PSLs.
Velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in isothermal dissipative particle dynamics
Chaudhri, Anuj; Lukes, Jennifer R.
2010-02-01
The velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in a dissipative particle dynamics ideal fluid model is analyzed in this paper. The autocorrelation functions are calculated at three different friction parameters and three different time steps using the well-known Groot/Warren algorithm and newer algorithms including self-consistent leap-frog, self-consistent velocity Verlet and Shardlow first and second order integrators. At low friction values, the velocity autocorrelation function decays exponentially at short times, shows slower-than exponential decay at intermediate times, and approaches zero at long times for all five integrators. As friction value increases, the deviation from exponential behavior occurs earlier and is more pronounced. At small time steps, all the integrators give identical decay profiles. As time step increases, there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the integrators. The stress correlation behavior is markedly different for the algorithms. The self-consistent velocity Verlet and the Shardlow algorithms show very similar stress autocorrelation decay with change in friction parameter, whereas the Groot/Warren and leap-frog schemes show variations at higher friction factors. Diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are calculated using Green-Kubo integration of the velocity and stress autocorrelation functions. The diffusion coefficients match well-known theoretical results at low friction limits. Although the stress autocorrelation function is different for each integrator, fluctuates rapidly, and gives poor statistics for most of the cases, the calculated shear viscosities still fall within range of theoretical predictions and nonequilibrium studies.
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities
Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.
2016-02-01
Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.
Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K
2010-01-01
A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.
About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada
1995-12-01
Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs.
About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A.
1995-12-01
Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs
Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin
2012-01-01
separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...
Settling velocity of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles
Martins Afonso, Marco; Gama, Sílvio M. A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the sedimentation properties of quasi-neutrally buoyant inertial particles carried by incompressible zero-mean fluid flows. We obtain generic formulae for the terminal velocity in generic space-and-time periodic (or steady) flows, along with further information for flows endowed with some degree of spatial symmetry such as odd parity in the vertical direction. These expressions consist in space-time integrals of auxiliary quantities that satisfy partial differential equations of the advection-diffusion-reaction type, which can be solved at least numerically, since our scheme implies a huge reduction of the problem dimensionality from the full phase space to the classical physical space. xml:lang="fr"
A new rf structure for intermediate-velocity particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Billen, J.H.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Wood, R.L.; Young, L.M.
1994-01-01
This paper describes an rf structure with high shunt impedance and good field stability for particle velocities o.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. Traditionally, the drift-tube linac (DTL) has been the structure of choice for this velocity range. The new structure, called a coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL), combines features of the Alvarez DTL and the π-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). Each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between gaps is γλ. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a π/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. We will discuss 2-D and 3-D electromagnetic code calculations, and some initial measurements on a low-power model of a CCDTL. We will compare shunt impedance calculations for DTL, CCL, and CCDTL structures. The CCDTL has potential application for a wide range of ion linacs. For example, high-intensity proton linacs could use the CCDTL instead of a DTL up to an energy of about 200 MeV. Another example is a stand-alone, low-duty, low-current, very high gradient, proton, cancer therapy machine. The advantage for this application would be a saving in the cost of the machine because the linac would be short
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Xiaojing; Xie Li; Zhou Youhe
2005-01-01
The wind-blown sand saltating movement is mainly categorized into two mechanical processes, that is, the interaction between the moving sand particles and the wind in the saltation layer, and the collisions of incident particles with sand bed, and the latter produces a lift-off velocity of a sand particle moving into saltation. In this Letter a methodology of phenomenological analysis is presented to get probability density (distribution) function (pdf) of the lift-off velocity of sand particles from sand bed based on the stochastic particle-bed collision. After the sand particles are dealt with by uniform circular disks and a 2D collision between an incident particle and the granular bed is employed, we get the analytical formulas of lift-off velocity of ejected and rebound particles in saltation, which are functions of some random parameters such as angle and magnitude of incident velocity of the impacting particles, impact and contact angles between the collision particles, and creeping velocity of sand particles, etc. By introducing the probability density functions (pdf's) of these parameters in communion with all possible patterns of sand bed and all possible particle-bed collisions, and using the essential arithmetic of multi-dimension random variables' pdf, the pdf's of lift-off velocities are deduced out and expressed by the pdf's of the random parameters in the collisions. The numerical results of the distributions of lift-off velocities display that they agree well with experimental ones
CFD study of the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds
Wang, Junwu; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2010-01-01
The minimum bubbling velocity, which demarcates the homogeneous and heterogeneous fluidization regimes, plays a pivotal role in gas fluidization of Geldart A particles. We systematically study the effect of gas and particle properties on the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in
Velocity width of the resonant domain in wave-particle interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firpo, Marie-Christine; Doveil, Fabrice
2002-01-01
Wave-particle interaction is a ubiquitous physical mechanism exhibiting locality in velocity space. A single-wave Hamiltonian provides a rich model by which to study the self-consistent interaction between one electrostatic wave and N quasiresonant particles. For the simplest nonintegrable Hamiltonian coupling two particles to one wave, we analytically derive the particle velocity borders separating quasi-integrable motions from chaotic ones. These estimates are fully retrieved through computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. For the large-N particle self-consistent case, we numerically investigate the localization of stochasticity in velocity space and test a qualitative estimate of the borders of chaos
Structural properties of the Hugoniot curve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaisse, F.
2002-01-01
This report is devoted to the structural properties analysis of the HUGONIOT curve, independently of the equation of state (E 0 S) display. The general properties so coming out are applied to the shock waves interacting studies. When phase transitions are present we investigate the splitting of shock waves and also the rarefaction waves. To end with, we present the shock instabilities and the non-uniqueness of solutions when specific E 0 S are present. (author)
Recent Advances in Modeling Hugoniots with Cheetah
Glaesemann, K. R.; Fried, L. E.
2006-07-01
We describe improvements to the Cheetah thermochemical-kinetics code's equilibrium solver to enable it to find a wider range of thermodynamic states. Cheetah supports a wide range of elements, condensed detonation products, and gas phase reactions. Therefore, Cheetah can be applied to a wide range of shock problems involving both energetic and non-energetic materials. An improve equation of state is also introduced. New experimental validations of Cheetah's equation of state methodology have been performed, including both reacted and unreacted Hugoniots.
Low pressure hugoniot cusp in polymeric materials
Sheffield, S. A.; Bloomquist, D. D.
1982-04-01
It has previously been shown that polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) exhibits a cusp in the shock Hugoniot at about 2.0 GPa which corresponds with the beginning of shock-induced polarization and the beginning of an exothermic reaction measured in thermocouple and resistivity gauge temperature studies. We now report results we have recently obtained from an ongoing study which indicate that other polymers have similar behavior at about the same pressure. Quartz gauge impact experiments have been performed using polypyro-ellitimide (Vespel) and polysulfone impactors to obtain Hugoniot information and the stress history at the impact plane. In the case of Vespel a slight Hugoniot cusp was observed at about 1.8 GPa which coincides with the start of shock-induced polarization. Polysulfone does not appear to have a cusp but does show stress relaxation at the impact plane beginning at about 1.8 GPa, again coinciding with the start of shock-induced polarization. It has been suggested earlier that the abnormal behavior in PMMA is the result of a shock-induced chemical reaction. This new information suggests that a stress of about 2 GPa is a threshold for shock-induced chemical reaction in several polymers.
Effects of Turbulence on Settling Velocities of Synthetic and Natural Particles
Jacobs, C.; Jendrassak, M.; Gurka, R.; Hackett, E. E.
2014-12-01
For large-scale sediment transport predictions, an important parameter is the settling or terminal velocity of particles because it plays a key role in determining the concentration of sediment particles within the water column as well as the deposition rate of particles onto the seabed. The settling velocity of particles is influenced by the fluid dynamic environment as well as attributes of the particle, such as its size, shape, and density. This laboratory study examines the effects of turbulence, generated by an oscillating grid, on both synthetic and natural particles for a range of flow conditions. Because synthetic particles are spherical, they serve as a reference for the natural particles that are irregular in shape. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed imaging systems were used simultaneously to study the interaction between the fluid mechanics and sediment particles' dynamics in a tank. The particles' dynamics were analyzed using a custom two-dimensional tracking algorithm used to obtain distributions of the particle's velocity and acceleration. Turbulence properties, such as root-mean-square turbulent velocity and vorticity, were calculated from the PIV data. Results are classified by Stokes number, which was based-on the integral scale deduced from the auto-correlation function of velocity. We find particles with large Stokes numbers are unaffected by the turbulence, while particles with small Stokes numbers primarily show an increase in settling velocity in comparison to stagnant flow. The results also show an inverse relationship between Stokes number and standard deviation of the settling velocity. This research enables a better understanding of the interdependence between particles and turbulent flow, which can be used to improve parameterizations in large-scale sediment transport models.
Umeyama, Motohiko
2012-04-13
This paper investigates the velocity and the trajectory of water particles under surface waves, which propagate at a constant water depth, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The vector fields and vertical distributions of velocities are presented at several phases in one wave cycle. The third-order Stokes wave theory was employed to express the physical quantities. The PIV technique's ability to measure both temporal and spatial variations of the velocity was proved after a series of attempts. This technique was applied to the prediction of particle trajectory in an Eulerian scheme. Furthermore, the measured particle path was compared with the positions found theoretically by integrating the Eulerian velocity to the higher order of a Taylor series expansion. The profile of average travelling distance is also presented with a solution of zero net mass flux in a closed wave flume.
Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.
2016-01-01
This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.
Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren
of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...
Trajectory and velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lue Qieni; Chen Yiliang; Yuan Rui; Ge Baozhen; Gao Yan; Zhang Yimo
2009-12-20
We present a method for the trajectory and the velocity measurement of a particle in spray by digital holography. Based on multiple exposure digital in-line holography, a sequence of digital holograms of a dynamic spray particle field at different times are recorded with a CW laser and a high-speed CCD. The time evolution of the serial positions of particles, i.e., the motion trajectories of the particles, is obtained by numerically reconstructing the synthetic hologram of a sequence of digital holograms. The center coordinate (x,y) of each particle image can be extracted using a Hough transform and subpixel precision computing, and the velocity of an individual particle can also be obtained, which is then applied to measuring the velocity of diesel spray and alcohol spray. The research shows that the method presented in this paper for measuring spray field is feasible.
High velocity electromagnetic particle launcher for aerosol production studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benson, D.A.; Rader, D.J.
1986-05-01
This report describes the development of a new device for study of metal combustion, breakup and production of aerosols in a high velocity environment. Metal wires are heated and electromagnetically launched with this device to produce molten metal droplets moving at velocities ranging up to about Mach 1. Such tests are presently intended to simulate the behavior of metal streamers ejected from a high-explosive detonation. A numerical model of the launcher performance in terms of sample properties, sample geometry and pulser electrical parameters is presented which can be used as a tool for design of specific test conditions. Results from several tests showing the range of sample velocities accessible with this device are described and compared with the model. Photographic measurements showing the behavior of tungsten and zirconium metal droplets are presented. Estimates of the Weber breakup and drag on the droplets, as well as calculations of the droplet trajectories, are described. Such studies may ultimately be useful in assessing environmental hazards in the handling and storage of devices containing metallic plutonium
Hugoniot measurements of double-shocked precompressed dense xenon plasmas
Zheng, J.; Chen, Q. F.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Z. Y.
2012-12-01
The current partially ionized plasmas models for xenon show substantial differences since the description of pressure and thermal ionization region becomes a formidable task, prompting the need for an improved understanding of dense xenon plasmas behavior at above 100 GPa. We performed double-shock compression experiments on dense xenon to determine accurately the Hugoniot up to 172 GPa using a time-resolved optical radiation method. The planar strong shock wave was produced using a flyer plate impactor accelerated up to ˜6 km/s with a two-stage light-gas gun. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were acquired by using a multiwavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Shock velocity was measured and mass velocity was determined by the impedance-matching methods. The experimental equation of state of dense xenon plasmas are compared with the self-consistent fluid variational calculations of dense xenon in the region of partial ionization over a wide range of pressures and temperatures.
Machicoane, Nathanaël; López-Caballero, Miguel; Bourgoin, Mickael; Aliseda, Alberto; Volk, Romain
2017-10-01
We present a method to improve the accuracy of velocity measurements for fluid flow or particles immersed in it, based on a multi-time-step approach that allows for cancellation of noise in the velocity measurements. Improved velocity statistics, a critical element in turbulent flow measurements, can be computed from the combination of the velocity moments computed using standard particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) or particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques for data sets that have been collected over different values of time intervals between images. This method produces Eulerian velocity fields and Lagrangian velocity statistics with much lower noise levels compared to standard PIV or PTV measurements, without the need of filtering and/or windowing. Particle displacement between two frames is computed for multiple different time-step values between frames in a canonical experiment of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The second order velocity structure function of the flow is computed with the new method and compared to results from traditional measurement techniques in the literature. Increased accuracy is also demonstrated by comparing the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy measured from this function against previously validated measurements.
Effect of particle velocity fluctuations on the inertia coupling in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drew, D.A.
1989-01-01
Consistent forms for the interfacial force, the interfacial pressure, the Reynolds stresses and the particle stress have been derived for the inviscid, irrotational incompressible flow of fluid in a dilute suspension of spheres. The particles are assumed to have a velocity distribution, giving rise to an effective pressure and stress in the particle phase. The velocity fluctuations also contribute in the fluid Reynolds stress and in the (elastic) stress field inside the spheres. The relation of these constitutive equations to the force on an individual sphere is discussed
Velocity-space particle loss in field-reversed theta pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsiao, M.Y.
1983-01-01
A field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) is a compact device for magnetic fusion. It has attracted much attention in recent years since encouraging experimental results have been obtained. However, the definite causes for the observed particle loss rate and plasma rotation are not well known. In this work, we study the velocity-space particle loss (VSPL), i.e., particle loss due to the existence of a loss region in velocity space, in FRTP's in order to have a better understanding about the characteristics of this device
Deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrill, K.A.
1977-02-01
The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 0 to 90 0 C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 0 C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreted in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or inertial coasting step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number
Structural properties of the Hugoniot curve; Proprietes structurales de la courte d'Hugoniot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaisse, F
2002-07-01
This report is devoted to the structural properties analysis of the HUGONIOT curve, independently of the equation of state (E 0 S) display. The general properties so coming out are applied to the shock waves interacting studies. When phase transitions are present we investigate the splitting of shock waves and also the rarefaction waves. To end with, we present the shock instabilities and the non-uniqueness of solutions when specific E 0 S are present. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.
2003-01-01
The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)
The Hugoniot and chemistry of ablator plastic below 100 GPa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akin, M. C., E-mail: akin1@llnl.gov; Fratanduono, D. E.; Chau, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2016-01-28
The equation of state of glow discharge polymer (GDP) was measured to high precision using the two-stage light gas gun at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at pressures up to 70 GPa. Both absolute measurements and impedance matching techniques were used to determine the principal and secondary Hugoniots. GDP likely reacts at about 30 GPa, demonstrated by specific emission at 450 nm coupled with changes to the Hugoniot and reshock points. As a result of these reactions, the shock pressure in GDP evolves in time, leading to a possible decrease in pressure as compression increases, or negative compressibility, and causing complex pressure profiles within the plastic. Velocity wave profile variation was observed as a function of position on each shot, suggesting some internal variation of GDP may be present, which would be consistent with previous observations. The complex temporal and possibly structural evolution of GDP under shock compression suggests that calculations of compression and pressure based upon bulk or mean measurements may lead to artificially low pressures and high compressions. Evidence for this includes a large shift in calculating reshock pressures based on the reflected Hugoniot. These changes also suggest other degradation mechanisms for inertial confinement fusion implosions.
Stopping power for arbitrary angle between test particle velocity and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cereceda, Carlo; Peretti, Michel de; Deutsch, Claude
2005-01-01
Using the longitudinal dielectric function derived previously for charged test particles in helical movement around magnetic field lines, the numerical convergence of the series involved is found and the double numerical integrations on wave vector components are performed yielding the stopping power for arbitrary angle between the test particle velocity and magnetic field. Calculations are performed for particle Larmor radius larger and shorter than Debye length, i.e., for protons in a cold magnetized plasma and for thermonuclear α particles in a dense, hot, and strongly magnetized plasma. A strong decrease is found for the energy loss as the angle varies from 0 to π/2. The range of thermonuclear α particles as a function of the velocity angle with respect to the magnetic field is also given
Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.
Particle image velocimetry measurements of 2-dimensional velocity field around twisted tape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Measurements of the flow field in a pipe with twisted tape were conducted by particle image velocimetry (PIV). • A novel matching index of refraction technique utilizing 3D printing and oil mixture was adopted to make the test section transparent. • Undistorted particle images were clearly captured in the presence of twisted tape. • 2D flow field in the pipe with twisted tape revealed the characteristic two-peak velocity profile. - Abstract: Twisted tape is a passive component used to enhance heat exchange in various devices. It induces swirl flow that increases the mixing of fluid. Thus, ITER selected the twisted tape as one of the candidates for turbulence promoting in the divertor cooling. Previous study was mainly focused on the thermohydraulic performance of the twisted tape. As detailed data on the velocity field around the twisted tape was insufficient, flow visualization study was performed to provide fundamental data on velocity field. To visualize the flow in a complex structure, novel matching index of refraction technique was used with 3-D printing and mixture of anise and mineral oil. This technique enables the camera to capture undistorted particle image for velocity field measurement. Velocity fields at Reynolds number 1370–9591 for 3 different measurement plane were obtained through particle image velocimetry. The 2-dimensional averaged velocity field data were obtained from 177 pair of instantaneous velocity fields. It reveals the characteristic two-peak flow motion in axial direction. In addition, the normalized velocity profiles were converged with increase of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the uncertainty of the result data was analyzed.
Analysis of sediment particle velocity in wave motion based on wave flume experiments
Krupiński, Adam
2012-10-01
The experiment described was one of the elements of research into sediment transport conducted by the Division of Geotechnics of West-Pomeranian University of Technology. The experimental analyses were performed within the framework of the project "Building a knowledge transfer network on the directions and perspectives of developing wave laboratory and in situ research using innovative research equipment" launched by the Institute of Hydroengineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdańsk. The objective of the experiment was to determine relations between sediment transport and wave motion parameters and then use the obtained results to modify formulas defining sediment transport in rivers, like Ackers-White formula, by introducing basic parameters of wave motion as the force generating bed material transport. The article presents selected results of the experiment concerning sediment velocity field analysis conducted for different parameters of wave motion. The velocity vectors of particles suspended in water were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) apparatus registering suspended particles in a measurement flume by producing a series of laser pulses and analysing their displacement with a high-sensitivity camera connected to a computer. The article presents velocity fields of suspended bed material particles measured in the longitudinal section of the wave flume and their comparison with water velocity profiles calculated for the definite wave parameters. The results presented will be used in further research for relating parameters essential for the description of monochromatic wave motion to basic sediment transport parameters and "transforming" mean velocity and dynamic velocity in steady motion to mean wave front velocity and dynamic velocity in wave motion for a single wave.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iguchi, H.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.
1994-01-01
Radial particle transport has been experimentally studied in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron device CHS. A non-diffusive outward particle flow (inverse pinch) is observed in the magnetic configuration with the magnetic axis shifted outward, while an inward pinch, like in tokamaks, is observed with the magnetic axis shifted inward. This change in the direction of anomalous particle flow is not due to the reversal of temperature gradient nor the radial electric field. The observation suggests that the particle pinch velocity is sensitive to the magnetic field structure. (author)
Estimation of settling velocity of sediment particles in estuarine and coastal waters
Nasiha, Hussain J.; Shanmugam, Palanisamy
2018-04-01
A model for estimating the settling velocity of sediment particles (spherical and non-spherical) in estuarine and coastal waters is developed and validated using experimental data. The model combines the physical, optical and hydrodynamic properties of the particles and medium to estimate the sediment settling velocity. The well-known Stokes law is broadened to account for the influencing factors of settling velocity such as particle size, shape and density. To derive the model parameters, laboratory experiments were conducted using natural flaky seashells, spherical beach sands and ball-milled seashell powders. Spectral light backscattering measurements of settling particles in a water tank were made showing a distinct optical feature with a peak shifting from 470-490 nm to 500-520 nm for particle populations from spherical to flaky grains. This significant optical feature was used as a proxy to make a shape determination in the present model. Other parameters experimentally determined included specific gravity (ΔSG) , Corey shape factor (CSF) , median grain diameter (D50) , drag coefficient (Cd) and Reynolds number (Re) . The CSF values considered ranged from 0.2 for flaky to 1.0 for perfectly spherical grains and Reynolds numbers from 2.0 to 105 for the laminar to turbulent flow regimes. The specific gravity of submerged particles was optically derived and used along with these parameters to estimate the sediment settling velocity. Comparison with the experiment data showed that the present model estimated settling velocities of spherical and non-spherical particles that were closely consistent with the measured values. Findings revealed that for a given D50, the flaky particles caused a greater decrease in settling velocity than the spherical particles which suggests that the particle shape factor has a profound role in influencing the sediment settling velocity and drag coefficients, especially in transitional and turbulent flow regimes. The present model can
Terry, K. N.; Turner, V.; Hackett, E.
2017-12-01
Aquatic animals' morphology provides inspiration for human technological developments, as their bodies have evolved and become adapted for efficient swimming. Lemon sharks exhibit a uniquely large second dorsal fin that is nearly the same size as the first fin, the hydrodynamic role of which is unknown. This experimental study looks at the drag forces on a scale model of the Lemon shark's unique two-fin configuration in comparison to drag forces on a more typical one-fin configuration. The experiments were performed in a recirculating water flume, where the wakes behind the scale models are measured using particle image velocimetry. The experiments are performed at three different flow speeds for both fin configurations. The measured instantaneous 2D distributions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity components are ensemble averaged to generate streamwise velocity vertical profiles. In addition, velocity deficit profiles are computed from the difference between these mean streamwise velocity profiles and the free stream velocity, which is computed based on measured flow rates during the experiments. Results show that the mean velocities behind the fin and near the fin tip are smallest and increase as the streamwise distance from the fin tip increases. The magnitude of velocity deficits increases with increasing flow speed for both fin configurations, but at all flow speeds, the two-fin configurations generate larger velocity deficits than the one-fin configurations. Because the velocity deficit is directly proportional to the drag force, these results suggest that the two-fin configuration produces more drag.
Variation in angular velocity and angular acceleration of a particle in rectilinear motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashood, K K; Singh, V A
2012-01-01
We discuss the angular velocity and angular acceleration associated with a particle in rectilinear motion with constant acceleration. The discussion was motivated by an observation that students and even teachers have difficulty in ascribing rotational motion concepts to a particle when the trajectory is a straight line. We present some details of our observations. A formal derivation of ω and α is presented which reveals ‘surprising’ and non-intuitive aspects, namely non-monotonic behaviour with an associated extremum. The special case of constant velocity is studied and we find that angular acceleration associated with it also has an extremum. We discuss a plausible source of difficulty. (paper)
Particle fluxes in the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins: the role of ocean vertical velocities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Patara
2009-03-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between deep sedimentary fluxes and ocean current vertical velocities in an offshore area of the Ionian Sea, the deepest basin of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Sediment trap data are collected at 500 m and 2800 m depth in two successive moorings covering the period September 1999–May 2001. A tight coupling is observed between the upper and deep traps and the estimated particle sinking rates are more than 200 m day^{−1}. The current vertical velocity field is computed from a 1/16°×1/16° Ocean General Circulation Model simulation and from the wind stress curl. Current vertical velocities are larger and more variable than Ekman vertical velocities, yet the general patterns are alike. Current vertical velocities are generally smaller than 1 m day^{−1}: we therefore exclude a direct effect of downward velocities in determining high sedimentation rates. However we find that upward velocities in the subsurface layers of the water column are positively correlated with deep particle fluxes. We thus hypothesize that upwelling would produce an increase in upper ocean nutrient levels – thus stimulating primary production and grazing – a few weeks before an enhanced vertical flux is found in the sediment traps. High particle sedimentation rates may be attained by means of rapidly sinking fecal pellets produced by gelatinous macro-zooplankton. Other sedimentation mechanisms, such as dust deposition, are also considered in explaining large pulses of deep particle fluxes. The fast sinking rates estimated in this study might be an evidence of the efficiency of the biological pump in sequestering organic carbon from the surface layers of the deep Eastern Mediterranean basins.
Novel Volumetric Size and Velocity Measurement of Particles Using Interferometric Laser Imaging
Gunawardana, R.; Zarzecki, M.; Diez, F. J.
2008-11-01
Global Sizing Velocimetry (GSV) is a recently developed technique for characterizing the particle size distribution and flow velocity in a plane and in this research we extend this measurement to a volume through a laser scanning system. In GSV, a LASER sheet is used to illuminate translucent particles in a spray or flow field and the camera image is de-focused a known distance to create interference patterns. The diameters of the particles in the flow field are calculated by measuring the inter-fringe spacing in the resulting interferogram. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) techniques are used to compute velocity by measuring the particle displacement over a known short time interval. Researchers have recently begun applying GSV techniques to characterize sprays in a plane as it offers a larger area of investigation than other well known techniques such as Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). In this paper we extend GSA techniques from the current planar measurements to a volumetric measurement. The approach uses a high speed camera to acquire GSA images by scanning multiple planes in a volume of the flow field within a short period of time and obtain particle size distribution and velocity measurements in the entire volume.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massing, J; Kähler, C J; Cierpka, C; Kaden, D
2016-01-01
The simultaneous and non-intrusive measurement of temperature and velocity fields in flows is of great scientific and technological interest. To sample the velocity and temperature, tracer particle based approaches have been developed, where the velocity is measured using PIV or PTV and the temperature is obtained from the intensity (LIF, thermographic phosphors) or frequency (TLC) of the light emitted or reflected by the tracer particles. In this article, a measurement technique is introduced, that relates the luminescent intensity ratio of individual dual-color luminescent tracer particles to temperature. Different processing algorithms are tested on synthetic particle images and compared with respect to their accuracy in estimating the intensity ratio. Furthermore, polymer particles which are doped with the temperature sensitive dye europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) and the nearly temperature insensitive reference dye perylene are characterized as valid tracers. The results show a reduction of the temperature measurement uncertainty of almost 40% (95% confidence interval) compared to previously reported luminescent particle based measurement techniques for microfluidics. (paper)
Instantaneous axial velocity of a radioactive tracer determined with radioactive particle tracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fraguio, Maria Sol; Cassanello, Miryan C., E-mail: miryan@di.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Programa de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Fuentes Alternativas de Materias Primas y Energia (PINMATE); Cardona, Maria Angelica; Hojman, Daniel, E-mail: cardona@tandar.cnea.gov.a [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Somacal, Hector [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes. Dept. de Fisica
2009-07-01
Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) is a technique that has been successfully used to get features of the liquid and/or the solid motion in multiphase contactors. It is one of the rare techniques able to provide experimental data in dense and strongly turbulent multiphase media. Validation of the technique has always been based on comparing the estimated mean velocity to an imposed mean velocity although the extracted features are frequently related to the instantaneous velocities. The present work pursues the analysis, through calibration experiments, of the ability of RPT to get the actual tracer instantaneous velocities. With this purpose, the motion of a radioactive tracer attached to a moving rod driven by a pneumatic system is reconstructed from the combined response of an array of 10 NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. Simultaneously, the tracer motion is registered through an encoder able to establish the axial tracer coordinate with high precision and high time resolution. The tracer is a gold particle, activated by neutron bombardment. The rod is moved at different velocities and it travels upwards and downwards close to the column centre. A mini-pilot scale bubble column is used as the test facility. The model liquid is tap water in batch mode and the gas is air, flowing at different gas velocities, spanning the homogeneous and the heterogeneous flow regimes. Time series of the entirety response of all the detectors, while the rod is moving at different imposed velocities within the two phase emulsion, are measured with a sampling period of 0.03 s during about 2 minutes. The instantaneous tracer positions and velocities reconstructed from RPT and the one obtained from the encoder response are compared under different operating conditions and for different tracer velocities. (author)
Magnetic particle imaging for in vivo blood flow velocity measurements in mice
Kaul, Michael G.; Salamon, Johannes; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald; Adam, Gerhard; Weller, Horst; Jung, Caroline
2018-03-01
Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging technology. It is a potential candidate to be used for angiographic purposes, to study perfusion and cell migration. The aim of this work was to measure velocities of the flowing blood in the inferior vena cava of mice, using MPI, and to evaluate it in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A phantom mimicking the flow within the inferior vena cava with velocities of up to 21 cm s‑1 was used for the evaluation of the applied analysis techniques. Time–density and distance–density analyses for bolus tracking were performed to calculate flow velocities. These findings were compared with the calibrated velocities set by a flow pump, and it can be concluded that velocities of up to 21 cm s‑1 can be measured by MPI. A time–density analysis using an arrival time estimation algorithm showed the best agreement with the preset velocities. In vivo measurements were performed in healthy FVB mice (n = 10). MRI experiments were performed using phase contrast (PC) for velocity mapping. For MPI measurements, a standardized injection of a superparamagnetic iron oxide tracer was applied. In vivo MPI data were evaluated by a time–density analysis and compared to PC MRI. A Bland–Altman analysis revealed good agreement between the in vivo velocities acquired by MRI of 4.0 ± 1.5 cm s‑1 and those measured by MPI of 4.8 ± 1.1 cm s‑1. Magnetic particle imaging is a new tool with which to measure and quantify flow velocities. It is fast, radiation-free, and produces 3D images. It therefore offers the potential for vascular imaging.
Rainbow particle imaging velocimetry for dense 3D fluid velocity imaging
Xiong, Jinhui
2017-07-21
Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. In this work we tackle this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a
Regularity of particle velocity decrease with scale d distance for rockbursts and shot holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana
2015-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-85 ISSN 1335-1788 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rockburst * hole shot * particle velocity * scaled distance * cylindrical and spherical waveforms Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.390, year: 2015 http://actamont.tuke.sk/pdf/2015/n2/2holub.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nor Azizi Mohamed
2000-01-01
The high resolution velocity profiles of a uniform steady channel flow and a flow beneath waves were obtained using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The velocity profiles for each flow were calculated for both components. It is shown that the profiles obtained are very precise, displaying the point velocities from a few millimeters from the bottom of the channel up to the water surface across the water depth. In the case of the wave-induced flow, the profiles are shown under the respective wave phases and given in a plane representation. High resolution measurement of point velocities in a flow is achievable using PIV and invaluable when applied to a complex flow. (Author)
Rebound mechanics of micrometre-scale, spherical particles in high-velocity impacts.
Yildirim, Baran; Yang, Hankang; Gouldstone, Andrew; Müftü, Sinan
2017-08-01
The impact mechanics of micrometre-scale metal particles with flat metal surfaces is investigated for high-velocity impacts ranging from 50 m s -1 to more than 1 km s -1 , where impact causes predominantly plastic deformation. A material model that includes high strain rate and temperature effects on the yield stress, heat generation due to plasticity, material damage due to excessive plastic strain and heat transfer is used in the numerical analysis. The coefficient of restitution e is predicted by the classical work using elastic-plastic deformation analysis with quasi-static impact mechanics to be proportional to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for the low and moderate impact velocities that span the ranges of 0-10 and 10-100 m s -1 , respectively. In the elastic-plastic and fully plastic deformation regimes the particle rebound is attributed to the elastic spring-back that initiates at the particle-substrate interface. At higher impact velocities (0.1-1 km s -1 ) e is shown to be proportional to approximately [Formula: see text]. In this deeply plastic deformation regime various deformation modes that depend on plastic flow of the material including the time lag between the rebound instances of the top and bottom points of particle and the lateral spreading of the particle are identified. In this deformation regime, the elastic spring-back initiates subsurface, in the substrate.
The deposition of magnetite particles from high velocity water onto isothermal tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burrill, K.A.
1977-02-01
The deposition rate of magnetite particles from a high velocity water slurry onto isothermal metal tubes was measured. The effects of velocity (5 to 100 m/s), slurry concentration (200 to 1000 mg Fe/kg H 2 O), temperature (25 to 90 deg C), pH (4 to 10 at 25 deg C), and tube material (nickel, Zircaloy-4) on deposition rate were studied. The data are interpreteω in terms of two steps in series for deposition: a mass transfer step followed by a deposition or ''inertial coasting'' step. Mass transfer of particles through the bulk water phase apparently limits the deposition of particles at high Reynolds number (10 5 ). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Chuanlong; Tang, Guanghua; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Shimin
2009-01-01
The spatial filtering method for particle velocity measurement has the advantages of simplicity of the measurement system and convenience of data processing. In this paper, the relationship between solid particles mean velocity in a pneumatic pipeline and the power spectrum of the output signal of an electrostatic sensor was mathematically modeled. The effects of the length of the sensor, the thickness of the dielectric pipe and its length on the spatial filtering characteristics of the sensor were also investigated using the finite element method. As for the roughness of and the difficult determination of the peak frequency f max of the power spectrum characteristics of the output signal of the sensor, a wavelet analysis based filtering method was applied to smooth the curve, which can accurately determine the peak frequency f max . Finally, experiments were performed on a pilot dense phase pneumatic conveying rig at high pressure to test the performance of the velocity measurement system. The experimental results show that the system repeatability is within ±4% over a gas superficial velocity range of 8.63–18.62 m s −1 for a particle concentration range of 0.067–0.130 m 3 m −3
High Dynamic Velocity Range Particle Image Velocimetry Using Multiple Pulse Separation Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadhg S. O’Donovan
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS technique (i records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods.
High dynamic velocity range particle image velocimetry using multiple pulse separation imaging.
Persoons, Tim; O'Donovan, Tadhg S
2011-01-01
The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV) is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets) still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS) technique (i) records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii) processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii) yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods.
The influence of swarm deformation on the velocity behavior of falling swarms of particles
Mitchell, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Nitsche, L.
2017-12-01
Cohesive particle swarms have been shown to exhibit enhanced sedimentation in fractures for an optimal range of fracture apertures. Within this range, swarms travel farther and faster than a disperse (particulate) solution. This study aims to uncover the physics underlying the enhanced sedimentation. Swarm behavior at low Reynolds number in a quiescent unbounded fluid and between smooth rigid planar boundaries is investigated numerically using direct-summation, particle-mesh (PM) and particle-particle particle-mesh (P3M) methods - based upon mutually interacting viscous point forces (Stokeslet fields). Wall effects are treated with a least-squares boundary singularity method. Sub-structural effects beyond pseudo-liquid behavior (i.e., particle-scale interactions) are approximated by the P3M method much more efficiently than with direct summation. The model parameters are selected from particle swarm experiments to enable comparison. From the simulations, if the initial swarm geometry at release is unaffected by the fracture aperture, no enhanced transport occurs. The swarm velocity as a function of apertures increases monotonically until it asymptotes to the swarm velocity in an open tank. However, if the fracture aperture affects the initial swarm geometry, the swarm velocity no longer exhibits a monotonic behavior. When swarms are released between two parallel smooth walls with very small apertures, the swarm is forced to reorganize and quickly deform, which results in dramatically reduced swarm velocities. At large apertures, the swarm evolution is similar to that of a swarm in open tank and quickly flattens into a slow speed torus. In the optimal aperture range, the swarm maintains a cohesive unit behaving similarly to a falling sphere. Swarms falling in apertures less than or greater than the optimal aperture range, experience a level of anisotropy that considerably decreases velocities. Unraveling the physics that drives swarm behavior in fractured porous
Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2-9 Mbar range
Aglitskiy, Y.; Velikovich, A. L.; Karasik, M.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.; Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Cochrane, K. R.
2018-03-01
Absolute Hugoniot measurements for empty plastic foams at ˜10% of solid polystyrene density and supporting rad-hydro simulation results are reported. Planar foam slabs, ˜400 μm thick and ˜500 μm wide, some of which were covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator, were directly driven by 4 ns long Nike krypton-fluoride 248 nm wavelength laser pulses that produced strong shock waves in the foam. The shock and mass velocities in our experiments were up to 104 km/s and 84 km/s, respectively, and the shock pressures up to ˜9 Mbar. The motion of the shock and ablation fronts was recorded using side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. The steadiness of the observed shock and ablation fronts within ˜1% has been verified. The Hugoniot data inferred from our velocity measurements agree with the predictions of the SESAME and CALEOS equation-of-state models near the highest pressure ˜9 Mbar and density compression ratio ˜5. In the lower pressure range 2-5 Mbar, a lower shock density compression is observed than that predicted by the models. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.
Dynamic strength properties and alpha-phase shock Hugoniot of iron and steel
Thomas, S. A.; Hawkins, M. C.; Matthes, M. K.; Gray, G. T.; Hixson, R. S.
2018-05-01
The properties of iron and steel are of considerable interest scientifically to the dynamic materials properties' community, as well as to a broader audience, for many applications. This is true in part because of the existence of a solid-solid phase (α-ɛ) transition at relatively modest stress (13 GPa). Because of this, there is a significant amount of data on iron and steel alloy shock compression properties at stresses above 13 GPa, but much less fundamental data under stress conditions lower than that, where the metals are in the α-phase. New data have been obtained under relatively low stress (below 10 GPa) conditions in which samples are subjected to low-velocity symmetric impact on the order of 0.2 to 0.4 km/s. We used well-developed flyer plate impact methods combined with velocity interferometry to measure wave speeds and strength properties in compression and tension. The shock α-phase Hugoniot data reported here are compared with literature values. A comparison of spall strength and Hugoniot elastic limit is made between different types of steel studied and for pure iron.
Experimental study of a particle velocity immersed in a fluid in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesar, S.B.G.
1981-12-01
An incompressible viscous fluid is confined within a circular cylinder whose wall and top are fixed while the botton rotates with constant angular speed. The velocity components of a particule immersed in the fluid above, was determined. The method utilized employs filming the particle during its motion. Experimental measurements were made at rotational speeds between 50 and 190 rps, at inter-disc spacing between 10 and 40 cm, and the particle is let loose at distances between static disc and 5 cm above the inferior disc. The results show that the method utilized is valid in a radial region within the cylinder between 1.0 [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Yasuo; Shimada, Jun; Ohtake, Hiroyasu
1999-01-01
The velocity of a single air plug rising through a stagnant water column in a pipe with updrifting particles has been examined at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The particles used were polymer balls with a diameter of 3.18 mm and a density of 0.835 x 10 -3 kg/m 3 . The water velocity in a film around the plug and a wake region behind the plug was measured by a laser Doppler velocimeter. The thickness of the film was also measured with a dye-fluoresce-method by a laser ray. When the updrifting particles were introduced, the rising velocity of the plug became fast a little. However, the velocity was considerably slower than that in the falling particle case and independent on the particle introduction rate. The film around the plug was thicker a little than that in the no particle case, however considerably thinner than that in the falling particle case. The water velocity in the film around the plug was slower a little than that in the no particle case, and not dependent on the particle introduction rate contrary to that in the falling particle case. The vortex size behind the plug was almost the same as that in the no particle case although the vortex region was spread downward in the falling particle case. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ihle, Thomas
2008-01-01
Detailed calculations of the transport coefficients of a recently introduced particle-based model for fluid dynamics with a non-ideal equation of state are presented. Excluded volume interactions are modeled by means of biased stochastic multi-particle collisions which depend on the local velocities and densities. Momentum and energy are exactly conserved locally. A general scheme to derive transport coefficients for such biased, velocity-dependent collision rules is developed. Analytic expressions for the self-diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity are obtained, and very good agreement is found with numerical results at small and large mean free paths. The viscosity turns out to be proportional to the square root of temperature, as in a real gas. In addition, the theoretical framework is applied to a two-component version of the model, and expressions for the viscosity and the difference in diffusion of the two species are given
Statistics of the relative velocity of particles in bidisperse turbulent suspensions
Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gustavsson, Kristian; Mehlig, Bernhard; Mitra, Dhrubaditya
2017-11-01
We calculate the joint probability distribution function (JPDF) of relative distances (R) and velocities (V with longitudinal component VR) of a pair of bidisperse heavy inertial particles in homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations (DNS). A recent paper (J. Meibohm, et. al. 2017), using statistical-model simulations and mathematical analysis of an one-dimensional white-noise model, has shown that the JPDF, P (R ,VR) , for two particles with Stokes numbers, St1 and St2 , can be interpreted in terms of StM , the harmonic mean of St1 and St2 and θ ≡ | St1 - St2 | / (St1 + St2) . For small θ there emerges a small-scale cutoff Rc and a small-velocity cutoff Vc such that for VR Foundation, Dnr. KAW 2014.0048.
Rainbow Particle Imaging Velocimetry for Dense 3D Fluid Velocity Imaging
Xiong, Jinhui
2017-04-11
Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. In this work we tackle this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a “rainbow”), such that each depth corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. A diffractive component in the camera optics ensures that all planes are in focus simultaneously. For reconstruction, we derive an image formation model for recovering stationary 3D particle positions. 3D velocity estimation is achieved with a variant of 3D optical flow that accounts for both physical constraints as well as the rainbow image formation model. We evaluate our method with both simulations and an experimental prototype setup.
Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry
Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.
2003-11-01
Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.
Two-phase velocity measurements around cylinders using particle image velocimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Y.A.; Philip, O.G.; Schmidl, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1995-09-01
The particle Image Velocimetry flow measurement technique was used to study both single-phase flow and two-phase flow across a cylindrical rod inserted in a channel. First, a flow consisting of only a single-phase fluid was studied. The experiment consisted of running a laminar flow over four rods inserted in a channel. The water flow rate was 126 cm{sup 3}/s. Then a two-phase flow was studied. A mixture of water and small air bubbles was used. The water flow rate was 378 cm{sup 3}/s and the air flow rate was approximately 30 cm{sup 3}/s. The data are analyzed to obtain the velocity fields for both experiments. After interpretation of the velocity data, forces acting on a bubble entrained by the vortex were calculated successfully. The lift and drag coefficients were calculated using the velocity measurements and the force data.
Romanelli, N.; Mazelle, C.; Meziane, K.
2018-02-01
Seen from the solar wind (SW) reference frame, the presence of newborn planetary protons upstream from the Martian and Venusian bow shocks and SW protons reflected from each of them constitutes two sources of nonthermal proton populations. In both cases, the resulting proton velocity distribution function is highly unstable and capable of giving rise to ultralow frequency quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic plasma waves. When these instabilities take place, the resulting nonlinear waves are convected by the SW and interact with nonthermal protons located downstream from the wave generation region (upstream from the bow shock), playing a predominant role in their dynamics. To improve our understanding of these phenomena, we study the interaction between a charged particle and a large-amplitude monochromatic circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to a background magnetic field, from first principles. We determine the number of fix points in velocity space, their stability, and their dependence on different wave-particle parameters. Particularly, we determine the temporal evolution of a charged particle in the pitch angle-gyrophase velocity plane under nominal conditions expected for backstreaming protons in planetary foreshocks and for newborn planetary protons in the upstream regions of Venus and Mars. In addition, the inclusion of wave ellipticity effects provides an explanation for pitch angle distributions of suprathermal protons observed at the Earth's foreshock, reported in previous studies. These analyses constitute a mean to evaluate if nonthermal proton velocity distribution functions observed at these plasma environments present signatures that can be understood in terms of nonlinear wave-particle processes.
Gurgiolo, Chris; Vinas, Adolfo F.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a spherical harmonic analysis of the plasma velocity distribution function using high-angular, energy, and time resolution Cluster data obtained from the PEACE spectrometer instrument to demonstrate how this analysis models the particle distribution function and its moments and anisotropies. The results show that spherical harmonic analysis produced a robust physical representation model of the velocity distribution function, resolving the main features of the measured distributions. From the spherical harmonic analysis, a minimum set of nine spectral coefficients was obtained from which the moment (up to the heat flux), anisotropy, and asymmetry calculations of the velocity distribution function were obtained. The spherical harmonic method provides a potentially effective "compression" technique that can be easily carried out onboard a spacecraft to determine the moments and anisotropies of the particle velocity distribution function for any species. These calculations were implemented using three different approaches, namely, the standard traditional integration, the spherical harmonic (SPH) spectral coefficients integration, and the singular value decomposition (SVD) on the spherical harmonic methods. A comparison among the various methods shows that both SPH and SVD approaches provide remarkable agreement with the standard moment integration method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Huttunen-Heikinmaa, K.; Valtonen, E.
2015-01-01
To understand the origin of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), we must study their injection time relative to other solar eruption manifestations. Traditionally the injection time is determined using the Velocity Dispersion Analysis (VDA) where a linear fit of the observed event onset times at 1 AU to the inverse velocities of SEPs is used to derive the injection time and path length of the first-arriving particles. VDA does not, however, take into account that the particles that produce a statistically observable onset at 1 AU have scattered in the interplanetary space. We use Monte Carlo test particle simulations of energetic protons to study the effect of particle scattering on the observable SEP event onset above pre-event background, and consequently on VDA results. We find that the VDA results are sensitive to the properties of the pre-event and event particle spectra as well as SEP injection and scattering parameters. In particular, a VDA-obtained path length that is close to the nominal Parker spiral length does not imply that the VDA injection time is correct. We study the delay to the observed onset caused by scattering of the particles and derive a simple estimate for the delay time by using the rate of intensity increase at the SEP onset as a parameter. We apply the correction to a magnetically well-connected SEP event of 2000 June 10, and show it to improve both the path length and injection time estimates, while also increasing the error limits to better reflect the inherent uncertainties of VDA
Moreno-Casas, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2015-12-01
A 3D Lagrangian particle tracking model is coupled to a 3D channel velocity field to simulate the saltation motion of a single sediment particle moving in saltation mode. The turbulent field is a high-resolution three dimensional velocity field that reproduces a by-pass transition to turbulence on a flat plate due to free-stream turbulence passing above de plate. In order to reduce computational costs, a decoupled approached is used, i.e., the turbulent flow is simulated independently from the tracking model, and then used to feed the 3D Lagrangian particle model. The simulations are carried using the point-particle approach. The particle tracking model contains three sub-models, namely, particle free-flight, a post-collision velocity and bed representation sub-models. The free-flight sub-model considers the action of the following forces: submerged weight, non-linear drag, lift, virtual mass, Magnus and Basset forces. The model also includes the effect of particle angular velocity. The post-collision velocities are obtained by applying conservation of angular and linear momentum. The complete model was validated with experimental results from literature within the sand range. Results for particle velocity time series and distribution of particle turbulent intensities are presented.
Hugoniot curve of vitreous silica and crystallisation under shock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viard, Jean
1959-01-01
The Hugoniot curve of vitreous silica shows a discontinuity of slope towards 135 kb, a sign of the passage, from the vitreous state to a crystalline structure in the shock wave. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 249, p. 820-822, sitting of 10 August 1959 [fr
Evolution of Proton and Alpha Particle Velocities through the Solar Cycle
Ďurovcová, T.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Richardson, J. D.
2017-12-01
Relative properties of solar wind protons and α particles are often used as indicators of a source region on the solar surface, and analysis of their evolution along the solar wind path tests our understanding of physics of multicomponent magnetized plasma. The paper deals with the comprehensive analysis of the difference between proton and α particle bulk velocities at 1 au with a special emphasis on interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). A comparison of about 20 years of Wind observations at 1 au with Helios measurements closer to the Sun (0.3-0.7 au) generally confirms the present knowledge that (1) the differential speed between both species increases with the proton speed; (2) the differential speed is lower than the local Alfvén speed; (3) α particles are faster than protons near the Sun, and this difference decreases with the increasing distance. However, we found a much larger portion of observations with protons faster than α particles in Wind than in Helios data and attributed this effect to a preferential acceleration of the protons in the solar wind. A distinct population characterized by a very small differential velocity and nearly equal proton and α particle temperatures that is frequently observed around the maximum of solar activity was attributed to ICMEs. Since this population does not exhibit any evolution with increasing collisional age, we suggest that, by contrast to the solar wind from other sources, ICMEs are born in an equilibrium state and gradually lose this equilibrium due to interactions with the ambient solar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goharzadeh, Afshin; Molki, Arman
2015-01-01
In this paper we present a non-intrusive experimental approach for obtaining a two-dimensional velocity distribution around a 22 mm diameter circular cylinder mounted in a water tunnel. Measurements were performed for a constant Reynolds number of 7670 using a commercial standard particle image velocimetry (PIV) system. Different flow patterns generated behind the circular cylinder are discussed. Both instantaneous and time-averaged velocity distributions with corresponding streamlines are obtained. Key concepts in fluid mechanics, such as contra-rotating vortices, von Kármán vortex street, and laminar-turbulent flow, are discussed. In addition, brief historical information pertaining to the development of flow measurement techniques—in particular, PIV—is described. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard-Michel, G.
2001-01-01
This work follows previous experiments from Nicolai et al. (95), Peysson and Guazzelli (98) and Segre et al. (97), which consisted in measures of the velocity of particles sedimenting in a liquid at low particular Reynolds numbers. Our goal, introduced in the first part with a bibliographic study, is to determinate the particles velocity fluctuations properties. The fluctuations are indeed of the same order as the mean velocity. We are proceeding with PIV Eulerian measures. The method is described in the second part. Its originality comes from measures obtained in a thin laser light sheet, from one side to the other of the cells, with a square section: the measures are therefore spatially localised. Four sets of cells and three sets of particles were used, giving access to ratios 'cell width over particle radius' ranging from about 50 up to 800. In the third part, we present the results concerning the velocity fluctuations structure and their spatial distribution. The intrinsic convection between to parallel vertical walls is also studied. The velocity fluctuations are organised in eddy structures. Their size (measured with correlation length) is independent of the volume fraction, contradicting the results of Segre et al. (97). The results concerning the velocity fluctuations spatial profiles - from one side to the other of the cell - confirm those published by Peysson and Guazzelli (98) in the case of stronger dilution. The evolution of the spatial mean velocity fluctuations confirms the results obtained by Segre et al. (97). The intrinsic convection is also observed in the case of strong dilutions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craig, J.E.; Parker, R.A.; Lee, D.Y.; Biancaniello, F.; Ridder, S.
1999-01-01
An imaging pyrometer has been developed to measure the surface temperature of hot metal objects and to measure particle temperature, velocity and size in thermal spray, spray-fonning and atomization processes. The two-wavelength surface imaging pyrometer provides true temperature measurement with high resolution, even when the surface has emissivity variation caused by roughness or oxidation. The surface imaging pyrometer has been calibrated for use in a material processing lab calibration over the range of 1000 to 3000 deg K, and these results are described. The particle imaging pyrometer has a field of view that spans the entire particle stream in typical thermal spray devices, and provides continuous measurement of the entire particle stream. Particle temperature and velocity are critical parameters for producing high quality spray coatings efficiently and reliably. The software locates the particle streaks in the image, and determines the intensity ratio for each particle streak pair to obtain the temperature. The dimensions of the particle streak image are measured to determine the velocity and size. Because the vision-based sensor samples the entire particle stream in every video frame, the particle temperature, velocity and size data are updated at 30 Hz at all points in the particle stream. Particle measurements in a plasma spray at NIST are described. In this paper, we will describe our experiments with ceramic powders, in which measurements have been made at several positions along the particle stream. The particle data are represented as profiles across the particle stream, histograms of the full particle stream or time histories of the full-stream average. The results are compared and calibrated with other temperature and diagnostic measurement systems. (author)
Effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.; Eliseev, S.M.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.
1997-01-01
The effects arising from accelerated and decelerated motion of the charged point particle inside the medium are studied. It is shown explicitly that in addition to the Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov shock wave, the electromagnetic shock wave arising from the charge overcoming the light velocity in the medium should be observed. This shock wave has the same singularity as the Cherenkov one and, therefore, it is more singular than the Bremsstrahlung shock wave. The space-time regions where these shock waves exist and conditions under which they appear are determined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Min, Young Uk; Kim, Kyung Chun
2011-01-01
The conventional two-dimensional (2D) micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique has inherent bias error due to the depth of focus along the optical axis to measure the velocity field near the wall of a microfluidics device. However, the far-field measurement of velocity vectors yields good accuracy for micro-scale flows. Nano-PIV using the evanescent wave of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy can measure near-field velocity vectors within a distance of around 200 nm from the solid surface. A micro-/nano-hybrid PIV system is proposed to measure both near- and far-field velocity vectors simultaneously in microfluidics. A near-field particle image can be obtained by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy using nanoparticles, and the far-field velocity vectors are measured by three-hole defocusing micro-particle tracking velocimetry (micro-PTV) using micro-particles. In order to identify near- and far-field particle images, lasers of different wavelengths are adopted and tested in a straight microchannel for acquiring the three-dimensional three-component velocity field. We found that the new technique gives superior accuracy for the velocity profile near the wall compared to that of conventional nano-PIV. This method has been successfully applied to precisely measure wall shear stress in 2D microscale Poiseulle flows
The Principal Hugoniot of Forsterite to 950 GPa
Root, Seth; Townsend, Joshua P.; Davies, Erik; Lemke, Raymond W.; Bliss, David E.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.; Kraus, Richard G.; Millot, Marius; Spaulding, Dylan K.; Shulenburger, Luke; Stewart, Sarah T.; Jacobsen, Stein B.
2018-05-01
Forsterite (Mg2SiO4) single crystals were shock compressed to pressures between 200 and 950 GPa using independent plate-impact steady shocks and laser-driven decaying shock compression experiments. Additionally, we performed density functional theory-based molecular dynamics to aid interpretation of the experimental data and to investigate possible phase transformations and phase separations along the Hugoniot. We show that the experimentally obtained Hugoniot cannot distinguish between a pure liquid Mg2SiO4 and an assemblage of solid MgO plus liquid magnesium silicate. The measured reflectivity is nonzero and increases with pressure, which implies that the liquid is a poor electrical conductor at low pressures and that the conductivity increases with pressure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Fevre, A.
1997-01-01
This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E * =12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seiji Kuroda et al
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, coating processes based on the impact of high-velocity solid particles such as cold spraying and aerosol deposition have been developed and attracting much industrial attention. A novel coating process called 'warm spraying' has been developed, in which coatings are formed by the high-velocity impact of solid powder particles heated to appropriate temperatures below the melting point of the powder material. The advantages of such process are as follows: (1 the critical velocity needed to form a coating can be significantly lowered by heating, (2 the degradation of feedstock powder such as oxidation can be significantly controlled compared with conventional thermal spraying where powder is molten, and (3 various coating structures can be realized from porous to dense ones by controlling the temperature and velocity of the particles. The principles and characteristics of this new process are discussed in light of other existing spray processes such as high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying and cold spraying. The gas dynamics of particle heating and acceleration by the spraying apparatus as well as the high-velocity impact phenomena of powder particles are discussed in detail. Several examples of depositing heat sensitive materials such as titanium, metallic glass, WC–Co cermet and polymers are described with potential industrial applications.
Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.
Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A
2009-01-01
In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aringazin, A.K.; Mazhitov, M.I.
2003-01-01
We describe a formal procedure to obtain and specify the general form of a marginal distribution for the Lagrangian acceleration of fluid particle in developed turbulent flow using Langevin type equation and the assumption that velocity fluctuation u follows a normal distribution with zero mean, in accord to the Heisenberg-Yaglom picture. For a particular representation, β=exp[u], of the fluctuating parameter β, we reproduce the underlying log-normal distribution and the associated marginal distribution, which was found to be in a very good agreement with the new experimental data by Crawford, Mordant, and Bodenschatz on the acceleration statistics. We discuss on arising possibilities to make refinements of the log-normal model
Superconducting accelerating structure for particle velocities from 0.12 to 0.23 c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.
1983-01-01
A split-ring resonator has been designed for an optimum particle velocity #betta# = v/c = 0.16 and a frequency of 145.5 MHz. The ratio of peak-surface electric field to effective accelerating field in the resonator has been reduced 20% from the value obtained in previously developed split-ring resonators. The improved design results from the use of elliptically-sectioned loading arms and drift tubes, which have been enlarged to reduce peak-surface fields and also shaped to eliminate beam-steering effects in the resonator. All fabrication problems presented by the more-complex geometry have been solved, and a prototype superconducting niobium resonator has been completed. An accelerating field of 3.3 MV/m at 4 watts rf input has been so far achieved, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1.17 MV per resonator
Yield estimation based on calculated comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rambo, J.
1993-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of optimizing the yield estimation process if some of the material properties are known from geophysical measurements and others are inferred from in-situ dynamic measurements. The material models and 2-D simulations of the event are combined to determine the yield. Other methods of yield determination from peak particle velocity data have mostly been based on comparisons of nearby events in similar media at NTS. These methods are largely empirical and are subject to additional error when a new event has different properties than the population being used for a basis of comparison. The effect of material variations can be examined using LLNL's KDYNA computer code. The data from an NTS event provide the instructive example for simulation
Caparanga, Alvin R.; Reyes, Rachael Anne L.; Rivas, Reiner L.; De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Retnasamy, Vithyacharan; Aris, Hasnizah
2017-11-01
This study utilized the 3k factorial design with k as the two varying factors namely, temperature and air velocity. The effects of temperature and air velocity on the drying rate curves and on the average particle diameter of the arrowroot starch were investigated. Extracted arrowroot starch samples were dried based on the designed parameters until constant weight was obtained. The resulting initial moisture content of the arrowroot starch was 49.4%. Higher temperatures correspond to higher drying rates and faster drying time while air velocity effects were approximately negligible or had little effect. Drying rate is a function of temperature and time. The constant rate period was not observed for the drying rate of arrowroot starch. The drying curves were fitted against five mathematical models: Lewis, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Midili. The Midili Model was the best fit for the experimental data since it yielded the highest R2 and the lowest RSME values for all runs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for qualitative analysis and for determination of average particle diameter of the starch granules. The starch granules average particle diameter had a range of 12.06 - 24.60 μm. The use of ANOVA proved that particle diameters for each run varied significantly with each other. And, the Taguchi Design proved that high temperatures yield lower average particle diameter, while high air velocities yield higher average particle diameter.
Ni, Zhi; Wu, Sean F
2010-09-01
This paper presents experimental validation of an alternate integral-formulation method (AIM) for predicting acoustic radiation from an arbitrary structure based on the particle velocities specified on a hypothetical surface enclosing the target source. Both the normal and tangential components of the particle velocity on this hypothetical surface are measured and taken as the input to AIM codes to predict the acoustic pressures in both exterior and interior regions. The results obtained are compared with the benchmark values measured by microphones at the same locations. To gain some insight into practical applications of AIM, laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) and double hotwire sensor (DHS) are used as measurement devices to collect the particle velocities in the air. Measurement limitations of using LDA and DHS are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani
2017-01-01
Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)
Shen, Y.; Shen, Z. J.; Shen, G. T.; Yang, B. C.
1996-01-01
By the measurement theory of quantum mechanics and the method of Fourier transform,we proved that the wave function psi(x,y,z,t)= (8/((2(pi)(2L(exp (1/2)))(exp 3))(Phi(L,t,x)Phi(L,t,y)Phi(L,t,z)). According to the theory that the velocity of any particle can not be larger than the velocity of light and the Born interpretation, when absolute value of delta greater than (ct+ L),Phi(L,t,delta) = 0. But according to the calculation, we proved that for some delta, even if absolute value of delta is greater than (ct+L), Phi(L,t,delta) is not equal to 0.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Jianxin; Mei, Deqing; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei
2014-01-01
In existing ultrasonic transportation methods, the long-range transportation of micro-particles is always realized in step-by-step way. Due to the substantial decrease of the driving force in each step, the transportation is lower-speed and stair-stepping. To improve the transporting velocity, a non-stepping ultrasonic transportation approach is proposed. By quantitatively analyzing the acoustic potential well, an optimal region is defined as the position, where the largest driving force is provided under the condition that the driving force is simultaneously the major component of an acoustic radiation force. To keep the micro-particle trapped in the optimal region during the whole transportation process, an approach of optimizing the phase-shifting velocity and phase-shifting step is adopted. Due to the stable and large driving force, the displacement of the micro-particle is an approximately linear function of time, instead of a stair-stepping function of time as in the existing step-by-step methods. An experimental setup is also developed to validate this approach. Long-range ultrasonic transportations of zirconium beads with high transporting velocity were realized. The experimental results demonstrated that this approach is an effective way to improve transporting velocity in the long-range ultrasonic transportation of micro-particles
Raangs, R.; Schlicke, Ted; Barham, Richard
2005-01-01
In this paper, a new method of calibrating an acoustic particle velocity sensor using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) is discussed. The results were compared and were in good agreement with the results obtained by conventional methods, where the sensitivity of the microflown is obtained with the use
Size and Velocity Distributions of Particles and Droplets in Spray Combustion Systems.
1984-11-01
34Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Techniques," Liquid Particle Size _Mjur-mentTechnjgjwi, ASTM publications STP848, ed. by J. MI. Tishkoff, R. D... Optical Nonimaging predictions do not account for nonideal lens effects. Techniques," in Liquid Particle Size Measurement Techniques, J.M.Tishkoff, ed...4S E. Dan Hirleman’ Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Techniques REFERENCE: Hieleman, E. D., "Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Tech- niques
PDV-based estimation of ejecta particles' mass-velocity function from shock-loaded tin experiment
Franzkowiak, J.-E.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.; Lauriot, S.; Dubreuil, E.; Berthe, L.
2018-03-01
A metallic tin plate with a given surface finish of wavelength λ ≃ 60 μm and amplitude h ≃ 8 μm is explosively driven by an electro-detonator with a shock-induced breakout pressure PSB = 28 GPa (unsupported). The resulting dynamic fragmentation process, the so-called "micro-jetting," is the creation of high-speed jets of matter moving faster than the bulk metallic surface. Hydrodynamic instabilities result in the fragmentation of these jets into micron-sized metallic particles constituting a self-expanding cloud of droplets, whose areal mass, velocity, and particle size distributions are unknown. Lithium-niobate-piezoelectric sensor measured areal mass and Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) was used to get a time-velocity spectrogram of the cloud. In this article, we present both experimental mass and velocity results and we relate the integrated areal mass of the cloud to the PDV power spectral density with the assumption of a power law particle size distribution. Two models of PDV spectrograms are described. The first one accounts for the speckle statistics of the spectrum and the second one describes an average spectrum for which speckle fluctuations are removed. Finally, the second model is used for a maximum likelihood estimation of the cloud's parameters from PDV data. The estimated integrated areal mass from PDV data is found to agree well with piezoelectric results. We highlight the relevance of analyzing PDV data and correlating different diagnostics to retrieve the physical properties of ejecta particles.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nakhaei, Mohammadhadi; Lessani, B.
2016-01-01
and particles, and the scatter plotsof fluid-particle temperature differences are presented. In addition, the variations of different budgetterms for the turbulent kinetic energy equation and fluctuating temperature variance equation in thepresence of particles are reported. The fluid turbulent heat flux...... is reduced by the presence of particles,and in spite of the additional heat exchange between the carrier fluid and the particles, the total heattransfer rate stays always lower for particle-laden flows. To further clarify this issue, the total Nusseltnumber is split into a turbulence contribution...... and a particle contribution, and the effects of particles inertiaon fluid turbulent heat flux and fluid-particle heat transfer are examined in detail...
RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index Γ < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.
Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang
2017-12-01
Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009)10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.
Furbish, David; Schmeeckle, Mark; Schumer, Rina; Fathel, Siobhan
2016-01-01
We describe the most likely forms of the probability distributions of bed load particle velocities, accelerations, hop distances, and travel times, in a manner that formally appeals to inferential statistics while honoring mechanical and kinematic constraints imposed by equilibrium transport conditions. The analysis is based on E. Jaynes's elaboration of the implications of the similarity between the Gibbs entropy in statistical mechanics and the Shannon entropy in information theory. By maximizing the information entropy of a distribution subject to known constraints on its moments, our choice of the form of the distribution is unbiased. The analysis suggests that particle velocities and travel times are exponentially distributed and that particle accelerations follow a Laplace distribution with zero mean. Particle hop distances, viewed alone, ought to be distributed exponentially. However, the covariance between hop distances and travel times precludes this result. Instead, the covariance structure suggests that hop distances follow a Weibull distribution. These distributions are consistent with high-resolution measurements obtained from high-speed imaging of bed load particle motions. The analysis brings us closer to choosing distributions based on our mechanical insight.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Bo; Blanke, Mogens; Skjetne, Roger
2012-01-01
This paper presents a fault tolerant navigation system for a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The navigation system uses hydro-acoustic position reference (HPR) and Doppler velocity log (DVL) measurements to achieve an integrated navigation. The fault tolerant functionality is based on a modied...... particle lter. This particle lter is able to run in an asynchronous manner to accommodate the measurement drop out problem, and it overcomes the measurement outliers by switching observation models. Simulations with experimental data show that this fault tolerant navigation system can accurately estimate...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana
2011-01-01
Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 104-114 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/
Simultaneous velocity and particle size measurement in two phase flows by Laser Anemometry
Ungut, A.; Yule, A. J.; Taylor, D. S.; Chigier, N. A.
1978-01-01
A technique for particle size measurement by using Laser Doppler Anemometry is discussed. An additional gate photomultiplier has been introduced at right angles to the optical axis in order to select only those particles passing through the central region of the measurement control volume. Particle sizing measurements have been made in sprays of glass particles using the modified Laser Anemometry system. Measurements in fuel sprays are also reported and compared with the results obtained by a photographic technique. The application of the particle sizing technique to opaque particles is investigated and suitable optical arrangements are suggested. Light scattering characteristics of Laser Anemometry systems for different optical geometries are calculated to select the optimum optical arrangement for the particle sizing measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amanifard, N.; Haghighat Namini, V.
2012-01-01
In this study a Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method is introduced which is applicable in problems involving shock wave structures and elastic-plastic deformations of solids. As a matter of fact, algorithm of the method is based on an approach which descritizes the momentum equation into three parts and solves each part separately and calculates their effects on the velocity field and displacement of particles. The most exclusive feature of the method is exactly removing artificial viscosity of the formulations and representing good compatibility with other reasonable numerical methods without any rigorous numerical fractures or tensile instabilities while Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics does not use any extra modifications. Two types of problems involving elastic-plastic deformations and shock waves are presented here to demonstrate the capability of Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in simulation of such problems and its ability to capture shock. The problems that are proposed here are low and high velocity impacts between aluminum projectiles and semi infinite aluminum beams. Elastic-perfectly plastic model is chosen for constitutive model of the aluminum and the results of simulations are compared with other reasonable studies in these cases.
Silveira, L. L.; Sucharski, G. B.; Pukasiewicz, A. G. M.; Paredes, R. S. C.
2018-02-01
The cavitation wear process is one of the major wear mechanisms in turbines and rotors of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. An effective way to increase the cavitation resistance is the use of coatings, applied by thermal spraying. The high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) is one of the most used thermal spraying processes, and it is widely adopted for applying coatings for protection against wear and in maintenance components. A FeCrMnSiB experimental alloy was deposited onto SAE 1020 substrate by HVOF process, in order to evaluate the influence of the powder particle size range on the morphology and cavitation resistance of the coatings. The morphology of the coatings showed an increase in oxide content with powder size reduction. The increase in the powder particle size reduced the wettability of the particles, observed by the increase in the quantity of non-melted particles. Higher particle size distribution led to an increase in erosion rate, due to higher presence of non-melted particles in the coatings and consequently reduction of splats adhesion. The cavitation damage was perceived mainly by the mechanism of lamellae detachment; however, part of the damage was also absorbed by strain hardening due to the γ-ɛ martensitic transformation.
Silveira, L. L.; Sucharski, G. B.; Pukasiewicz, A. G. M.; Paredes, R. S. C.
2018-04-01
The cavitation wear process is one of the major wear mechanisms in turbines and rotors of hydroelectric power plants in Brazil. An effective way to increase the cavitation resistance is the use of coatings, applied by thermal spraying. The high-velocity oxy-fuel process (HVOF) is one of the most used thermal spraying processes, and it is widely adopted for applying coatings for protection against wear and in maintenance components. A FeCrMnSiB experimental alloy was deposited onto SAE 1020 substrate by HVOF process, in order to evaluate the influence of the powder particle size range on the morphology and cavitation resistance of the coatings. The morphology of the coatings showed an increase in oxide content with powder size reduction. The increase in the powder particle size reduced the wettability of the particles, observed by the increase in the quantity of non-melted particles. Higher particle size distribution led to an increase in erosion rate, due to higher presence of non-melted particles in the coatings and consequently reduction of splats adhesion. The cavitation damage was perceived mainly by the mechanism of lamellae detachment; however, part of the damage was also absorbed by strain hardening due to the γ- ɛ martensitic transformation.
Measurement of fast-changing low velocities by photonic Doppler velocimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song Hongwei; Wu Xianqian; Huang Chenguang; Wei Yangpeng; Wang Xi [Key Laboratory for Hydrodynamics and Ocean Engineering, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2012-07-15
Despite the increasing popularity of photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) in shock wave experiments, its capability of capturing low particle velocities while changing rapidly is still questionable. The paper discusses the performance of short time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) in processing fringe signals of fast-changing low velocities measured by PDV. Two typical experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance. In the laser shock peening test, the CWT gives a better interpretation to the free surface velocity history, where the elastic precursor, main plastic wave, and elastic release wave can be clearly identified. The velocities of stress waves, Hugoniot elastic limit, and the amplitude of shock pressure induced by laser can be obtained from the measurement. In the Kolsky-bar based tests, both methods show validity of processing the longitudinal velocity signal of incident bar, whereas CWT improperly interprets the radial velocity of the shocked sample at the beginning period, indicating the sensitiveness of the CWT to the background noise. STFT is relatively robust in extracting waveforms of low signal-to-noise ratio. Data processing method greatly affects the temporal resolution and velocity resolution of a given fringe signal, usually CWT demonstrates a better local temporal resolution and velocity resolution, due to its adaptability to the local frequency, also due to the finer time-frequency product according to the uncertainty principle.
Dou, Zhongwang; Ireland, Peter J.; Bragg, Andrew D.; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance R.; Meng, Hui
2018-02-01
The radial relative velocity (RV) between particles suspended in turbulent flow plays a critical role in droplet collision and growth. We present a simple and accurate approach to RV measurement in isotropic turbulence—planar 4-frame particle tracking velocimetry—using routine PIV hardware. It improves particle positioning and pairing accuracy over the 2-frame holographic approach by de Jong et al. (Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332; de Jong et al., Int J Multiphas Flow 36:324-332, 2010) without using high-speed cameras and lasers as in Saw et al. (Phys Fluids 26:111702, 2014). Homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow ({R_λ }=357) in a new, fan-driven, truncated iscosahedron chamber was laden with either low-Stokes (mean St=0.09, standard deviation 0.05) or high-Stokes aerosols (mean St=3.46, standard deviation 0.57). For comparison, DNS was conducted under similar conditions ({R_λ }=398; St=0.10 and 3.00, respectively). Experimental RV probability density functions (PDF) and mean inward RV agree well with DNS. Mean inward RV increases with St at small particle separations, r, and decreases with St at large r, indicating the dominance of "path-history" and "inertial filtering" effects, respectively. However, at small r, the experimental mean inward RV trends higher than DNS, possibly due to the slight polydispersity of particles and finite light sheet thickness in experiments. To confirm this interpretation, we performed numerical experiments and found that particle polydispersity increases mean inward RV at small r, while finite laser thickness also overestimates mean inward RV at small r, This study demonstrates the feasibility of accurately measuring RV using routine hardware, and verifies, for the first time, the path-history and inertial filtering effects on particle-pair RV at large particle separations experimentally.
Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.
2018-01-01
Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kwok, Y.C.; Eijkel, J.C.T.
2003-01-01
A microfabricated capillary electrophoresis device for velocity measurements of flowing particles is presented. It consists of a 1 x 128 planar waveguide beam splitter monolithically integrated with an electrically insulated fluidic channel network for fluorescence excitation at multiple points...... optics. The integrated planar waveguide beam splitter was, furthermore, permanently connected to the light source by a glued-on optical fiber, to achieve a robust and alignment-free operation of the system. The velocity was measured using a Fourier transformation with a Shah function, since the response...... of the fight array was designed to approximate a square profile. Deviations from this response were observed as a result of the multimode nature of the integrated waveguides....
Cheng, David; Yoshinaka, Akio
2014-11-01
Electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauges are a class of film gauges which permit the direct in-situ measurement of shocked material flow velocity. The active sensing element, typically a metallic foil, requires exposure to a known external magnetic field in order to produce motional electromotive force (emf). Due to signal distortion caused by mutual inductance between sample and EMV gauge, this technique is typically limited to shock waves in non-conductive materials. In conductive samples, motional emf generated in the EMV gauge has to be extracted from the measured signal which results from the combined effects of both motional emf and voltage changes from induced currents. An electromagnetic technique is presented which analytically models the dynamics of induced current between a copper disk moving as a rigid body with constant 1D translational velocity toward an EMV gauge, where both disk and gauge are exposed to a uniform external static magnetic field. The disk is modelled as a magnetic dipole loop where its Foucault current is evaluated from the characteristics of the fields, whereas the EMV gauge is modelled as a circuit loop immersed in the field of the magnetic dipole loop, the intensity of which is calculated as a function of space and, implicitly, time. Equations of mutual induction are derived and the current induced in the EMV gauge loop is solved, allowing discrimination of the motional emf. Numerical analysis is provided for the step response of the induced EMV gauge current with respect to the Foucault current in the moving copper sample.
Chen, Y. L.
2015-12-01
Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.com [Institute for Multiscale Simulations, Friedrich-Alexander Universität, D-91052, Erlangen (Germany); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatística, Matemática Aplicada e Computação, UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, 13506-900, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
2012-11-01
We study some dynamical properties for the problem of a charged particle in an electric field considering both the low velocity and relativistic cases. The dynamics for both approaches is described in terms of a two-dimensional and nonlinear mapping. The structure of the phase spaces is mixed and we introduce a hole in the chaotic sea to let the particles to escape. By changing the size of the hole we show that the survival probability decays exponentially for both cases. Additionally, we show for the relativistic dynamics, that the introduction of dissipation changes the mixed phase space and attractors appear. We study the parameter space by using the Lyapunov exponent and the average energy over the orbit and show that the system has a very rich structure with infinite family of self-similar shrimp shaped embedded in a chaotic region.
McDonell, VG; Samuelsen, GS
1989-01-01
The application of two-component interferometry is described for the spatially-resolved measurement of particle size, velocity and mass flux as well as continuous phase velocity. Such a capability is important to develop an understanding of the physical processes attendant to two-phase flow systems, especially those involving liquid atomization typical of a wide class of combustion systems. Adapted from laser anemometry, the technique (phase Doppler interferometry) measures single particle ev...
Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.
2009-01-01
The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Motohiko; Kamide, Hideki; Hishida, Koichi
1999-10-01
Noise reduction system was developed to improve applicability of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to complicated configure bounded flows. For fast reactor safety and thermal hydraulic studies, experiments are performed in scale models which usually have rather complicated geometry and structures such as fuel subassemblies, heat exchangers, etc. The structures and stuck dusts on the view window of the models obscure the particle image. Thus the image except the moving particles can be regarded as a noise. In the present study, two noise reduction techniques are proposed. The one is the Time-averaged Light Intensity Subtraction method (TIS) which subtracts the time-averaged light intensity of each pixel in the sequential images from the each corresponding pixel. The other one is the Minimum Light Intensity Subtraction method (MIS) which subtracts the minimum light intensity of each pixel in the sequential images from the each corresponding pixel. Both methods are examined on their capabilities of noise reduction. As for the original 'bench mark' image, the image made from Large Eddy Simulation was used. To the bench mark image, noises are added which are referred as sample images. Both methods reduce the rate of vector with the error of more than one pixel from 90% to less than 5%. Also, more than 50% of the vectors have the error of less than 0.2 pixel. The analysis of uncertainty shows that these methods enhances the accuracy of vector measurement 3 ∼ 12 times if the image with noise were processed, and the MIS method has 1.1 ∼ 2.1 times accuracy compared to the TIS. Thus the present noise reduction methods are quite efficient to enhance the accuracy of flow velocity fields measured with particle images including structures and deposits on the view window. (author)
Alderman, Steven L; Parsons, Michael S; Hogancamp, Kristina U; Waggoner, Charles A
2008-11-01
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are widely used to control particulate matter emissions from processes that involve management or treatment of radioactive materials. Section FC of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers AG-1 Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment currently restricts media velocity to a maximum of 2.5 cm/sec in any application where this standard is invoked. There is some desire to eliminate or increase this media velocity limit. A concern is that increasing media velocity will result in higher emissions of ultrafine particles; thus, it is unlikely that higher media velocities will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of ultrafine particles. In this study, the performance of nuclear grade HEPA filters, with respect to filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size, was evaluated as a function of media velocity. Deep-pleat nuclear grade HEPA filters (31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm) were evaluated at media velocities ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 cm/sec using a potassium chloride aerosol challenge having a particle size distribution centered near the HEPA filter most penetrating particle size. Filters were challenged under two distinct mass loading rate regimes through the use of or exclusion of a 3 microm aerodynamic diameter cut point cyclone. Filter efficiency and most penetrating particle size measurements were made throughout the duration of filter testing. Filter efficiency measured at the onset of aerosol challenge was noted to decrease with increasing media velocity, with values ranging from 99.999 to 99.977%. The filter most penetrating particle size recorded at the onset of testing was noted to decrease slightly as media velocity was increased and was typically in the range of 110-130 nm. Although additional testing is needed, these findings indicate that filters operating at media velocities up to 4.5 cm/sec will meet or exceed current filter efficiency requirements. Additionally
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar, E-mail: chandrasekhar.shukla@gmail.com; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2016-08-15
We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
Shock Hugoniot and temperature data for polystyrene obtained with quartz standard
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozaki, N.; Kimura, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Endo, T.; Sano, T.; Shigemori, K.; Azechi, H.; Hironaka, Y.; Kadono, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Nakai, M.; Norimatsu, T.; Otani, K.; Shiroshita, A.; Sunahara, A.; Ikoma, M.; Hori, Y.; Vinci, T.; Ree, F. H.; Iwamoto, A.
2009-01-01
Equation-of-state data, not only pressure and density but also temperature, for polystyrene (CH) are obtained up to 510 GPa. The region investigated in this work corresponds to an intermediate region, bridging a large gap between available gas-gun data below 60 GPa and laser shock data above 500 GPa. The Hugoniot parameters and shock temperature were simultaneously determined by using optical velocimeters and pyrometers as the diagnostic tools and the α-quartz as a new standard material. The CH Hugoniot obtained tends to become stiffer than a semiempirical chemical theoretical model predictions at ultrahigh pressures but is consistent with other models and available experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, T.; Su, Y.Y. [McGill University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)
2012-11-15
The small magnitude lift forces generated by both a NACA 0012 airfoil and a thin flat plate at Re = 29,000 and 54,000 were determined through the line integral of velocity, obtained with particle image velocimetry, via the application of the Kutta-Joukowsky theorem. Surface pressure measurements of the NACA0012 airfoil were also obtained to validate the lift coefficient C{sub l}. The bound circulation was found to be insensitive to the size and aspect ratio of the rectangular integration loop for pre-stall angles. The present C{sub l} data were also found to agree very well with the surface pressure-determined lift coefficient for pre-stall conditions. A large variation in C{sub l} with the loop size and aspect ratio for post-stall conditions was, however, observed. Nevertheless, the present flat-plate C{sub l} data were also found to collectively agree with the published force-balance measurements at small angles of attack, despite the large disparity exhibited among the various published data at high angles. Finally, the ensemble-averaged wake velocity profiles were also used to compute the drag coefficient and, subsequently, the lift-to-drag ratio. (orig.)
Quantum dynamics of a particle with a spin-dependent velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslangul, Claude
2005-01-01
We study the dynamics of a particle in continuous time and space, the displacement of which is governed by an internal degree of freedom (spin). In one definite limit, the so-called quantum random walk is recovered but, although quite simple, the model possesses a rich variety of dynamics and goes far beyond this problem. Generally speaking, our framework can describe the motion of an electron in a magnetic sea near the Fermi level when linearization of the dispersion law is possible, coupled to a transverse magnetic field. Quite unexpected behaviours are obtained. In particular, we find that when the initial wave packet is fully localized in space, the J z angular momentum component is frozen; this is an interesting example of an observable which, although it is not a constant of motion, has a constant expectation value. For a non-completely localized wave packet, the effect still occurs although less pronounced, and the spin keeps for ever memory of its initial state. Generally speaking, as time goes on, the spatial density profile looks rather complex, as a consequence of the competition between drift and precession, and displays various shapes according to the ratio between the Larmor period and the characteristic time of flight. The density profile gradually changes from a multimodal quickly moving distribution when the scattering rate is small, to a unimodal standing but flattening distribution in the opposite case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datskos, P.G.
1991-01-01
We have measured the gas-density, N, normalized effective ionization coefficient, bar a/N, and the electron drift velocity, w, as a function of the density-reduced electric field, E/N, and obtained the limiting, (E/N) lim , value of E/N for the unitary gases Ar, CO 2 , and CF 4 , the binary gas mixtures CO 2 :Ar (20: 80), CO 2 :CH 4 (20:80), and CF 4 :Ar (20:80), and the ternary gas mixtures CO 2 :CF 4 :Ar (10:10:80) and H 2 O: CF 4 :Ar (2:18:80). Addition of the strongly electron thermalizing gas CO 2 or H 2 O to the binary mixture CF 4 :Ar (1)''cools'' the mixture (i.e., lowers the electron energies), (2) has only a small effect on the magnitude of w(E/N) in the E/N range employed in the particle detectors, and (3) increases bar a/N for E/N ≥ 50 x 10 -17 V cm 2 . The increase in bar a/N, even though the electron energies are lower in the ternary mixture, is due to the Penning ionization of CO 2 (or H 2 O) in collisions with excited Ar* atoms. The ternary mixtures -- being fast, cool, and efficient -- have potential for advanced gas-filled particle detectors such as those for the SCC muon chambers. 17 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.
The principal Hugoniot of Mg2SiO4 to 950 GPa
Townsend, J. P.; Root, S.; Shulenburger, L.; Lemke, R. W.; Kraus, R. G.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Spaulding, D.; Davies, E.; Stewart, S. T.
2017-12-01
We present new measurements and ab-initio calculations of the principal Hugoniot states of forsterite Mg2SiO4 in the liquid regime between 200-950 GPa.Forsterite samples were shock compressed along the principal Hugoniot using plate-impact shock compression experiments on the Sandia National Laboratories Z machine facility.In order to gain insight into the physical state of the liquid, we performed quantum molecular dynamics calculations of the Hugoniot and compare the results to experiment.We show that the principal Hugoniot is consistent with that of a single molecular fluid phase of Mg2SiO4, and compare our results to previous dynamic compression experiments and QMD calculations.Finally, we discuss how the results inform planetary accretion and impact models.Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koullapis, P. G.; Kassinos, S. C.; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova
2016-01-01
of inlet flow conditions, particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. While most computer simulations assume a uniform velocity at the mouth inlet, we found that using a more realistic inlet profile based on Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements resulted in enhanced deposition, mostly on the tongue...... between particle size, electrostatic charge, and flowrate. Our results suggest that in silico models should be customized for specific applications, ensuring all relevant physical effects are accounted for in a self-consistent fashion....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mothilal, T.; Pitchandi, K.
2015-01-01
Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mothilal, T. [T. J. S. Engineering College, Gummidipoond (India); Pitchandi, K. [Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur (India)
2015-10-15
Present work elaborates the effect of inlet velocity of air and solid particle feed rate on holdup mass and heat transfer characteristics in a cyclone heat exchanger. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was adopted for modeling high turbulence flow and Discrete phase model (DPM) to track solid particles in a cyclone heat exchanger by ANSYS FLUENT software. The effect of inlet air velocity (5 to 25 m/s) and inlet solid particle feed rate of (0.2 to 2.5 g/s) at different particle diameter (300 to 500 μm) on holdup mass and heat transfer rate in cyclone heat exchanger was studied at air inlet temperature of 473 K. Results show that holdup mass and heat transfer rate increase with increase in inlet air velocity and inlet solid particle feed rate. Influence of solid particle feed rate on holdup mass has more significance. Experimental setup was built for high efficiency cyclone. Good agreement was found between experimental and simulation pressure drop. Empirical correlation was derived for dimensionless holdup mass and Nusselt number based on CFD data by regression technique. Correlation predicts dimensional holdup mass with +5% to -8% errors of experimental data and Nusselt number with +9% to -3%.
Hugoniot elastic limits and compression parameters for brittle materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gust, W.H.
1979-01-01
The physical properties of brittle materials are of interest because of the rapidly expanding use of these material in high-pressure and shock wave techology, e.g., geophysics and explosive compaction as well as military applications. These materials are characterized by unusually high sonic velocities, have large dynamic impedances and exhibit large dynamic yield strengths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gatternig, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gatternig@cbi.uni-erlangen.de; Karl, Jürgen [Chair of Energy Process Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg (Germany)
2014-11-19
Agglomeration of the bed material is one of the main obstacles for biomass utilization in fluidized bed combustors. Especially, high-potential fuels such as fast growing energy crops or biogeneous residues are affected because of their high content of alkaline metals. Despite ongoing research efforts, the knowledge base on what fuels are affected is still limited. This paper describes the design and installation of two lab-scale reactors for the experimental determination of agglomeration temperatures. The reactor concept and measurement method were developed under consideration of experiences from existing test rigs published in literature. Preliminary tests confirmed a reproducibility of ±5°C for both new reactors. The results of an extended measurement campaign (156 test runs of 25 fuel species at a wide range of the operational parameters “bed particle size,” “gas velocity,” and “bed ash accumulation”), based on “design of experiment” (DoE) criteria, showed high-agglomeration tendencies for residues (e.g., dried distillery grains, corn cobs) while woody energy crops (e.g., willow, alder) exhibited very stable combustion behavior. The operating parameters influenced the agglomeration behavior to a lesser degree than different ash compositions of fuel species tested. An interpolation within the DoE factor space allowed for a subsequent comparison of our results with experiments reported in literature. Good agreement was reached for fuels of comparable ash composition considering the interpolation errors of ±32°C on average.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sang Yong; Song, Si Hong; Koh, Kwang Woong; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Chul Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1995-08-01
The main objective is to develop a high performance software routine to process the output signals from the phase/Doppler device for simultaneous measurement of drop sizes and two-dimensional velocities of spray drops/particles. The present work has been carried out as an extension work of the first year`s research, where the principles and the limitation of this measuring technique have been thoroughly reviewed. In order to verify the performance and reliability of this software for simultaneous measurement of sizes and velocities of spray drops with two-dimensional motions, the results were compared with those from commercial signal processor DSA by Aerometrics, and concluded to be satisfactory. The routine developed throughout this project is applicable not only to the DCH model experiments but also to the measurements of sizes and velocities of drops/particles in combustors, dryers, humidifiers, and in various two-phase equipments. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gélain, T., E-mail: thomas.gelain@irsn.fr; Rondeau, A.; Peillon, S.; Sabroux, J.C.; Gensdarmes, F.
2015-11-15
During a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), dusts that will be present in the future tokamak ITER are likely to be re-suspended. Such aerosols formed may present a risk for explosion and airborne contamination. This article presents parameters that govern the forces affecting particles deposited on a wall and subject to airflow. It is shown the influence of three parameters in the dust mobilization mechanism, i.e.: the particles diameter, the fluid density and the friction velocity. From numerical simulations, it is determined the evolution of wall friction velocities in the vacuum vessel (VV) of ITER during a LOVA. The numerical calculations performed with ANSYS CFX code provide average friction velocities in the lower part of the tokamak between 12 m s{sup −1} at a pressure of 150 Pa, and 0.5 m s{sup −1} at a pressure of 10{sup 5} Pa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreau, C.; Gougeon, P.; Lamontagne, M.; Lacasse, V.; Vaudreuil, G.; Cielo, P.
1994-01-01
This paper describes a new optical sensing device for on-line monitoring of the temperature, velocity and trajectory of in-flight particles during industrial coating production. Thermal radiation emitted by the in-flight particles is collected by a small and robust sensing head that can be attached to the plasma gun providing continuous monitoring of the spray process. The collected radiation is transmitted through optical fibers to a detection cabinet located away from the dusty environment around the operating plasma gun. On-line measurement of the particle velocity, temperature and trajectory can provide an efficient diagnostic tool to maintain optimum spraying conditions leading to a better reproducibility of the coating properties
Frydel, Derek; Rice, Stuart A
2007-12-01
We report a hydrodynamic analysis of the long-time behavior of the linear and angular velocity autocorrelation functions of an isolated colloid particle constrained to have quasi-two-dimensional motion, and compare the predicted behavior with the results of lattice-Boltzmann simulations. Our analysis uses the singularity method to characterize unsteady linear motion of an incompressible fluid. For bounded fluids we construct an image system with a discrete set of fundamental solutions of the Stokes equation from which we extract the long-time decay of the velocity. For the case that there are free slip boundary conditions at walls separated by H particle diameters, the time evolution of the parallel linear velocity and the perpendicular rotational velocity following impulsive excitation both correspond to the time evolution of a two-dimensional (2D) fluid with effective density rho_(2D)=rhoH. For the case that there are no slip boundary conditions at the walls, the same types of motion correspond to 2D fluid motions with a coefficient of friction xi=pi(2)nu/H(2) modulo a prefactor of order 1, with nu the kinematic viscosity. The linear particle motion perpendicular to the walls also experiences an effective frictional force, but the time dependence is proportional to t(-2) , which cannot be related to either pure 3D or pure 2D fluid motion. Our incompressible fluid model predicts correct self-diffusion constants but it does not capture all of the effects of the fluid confinement on the particle motion. In particular, the linear motion of a particle perpendicular to the walls is influenced by coupling between the density flux and the velocity field, which leads to damped velocity oscillations whose frequency is proportional to c_(s)/H , with c_(s) the velocity of sound. For particle motion parallel to no slip walls there is a slowing down of a density flux that spreads diffusively, which generates a long-time decay proportional to t(-1) .
Hugoniot measurements in vanadium using the LNL two-stage light-gas gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gathers, G.R.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.
1983-01-01
Hugoniot measurements on vanadium have been made using the LLNL two-stage light-gas gun. The direct collision method with electrical pins and a tantalum flyer accelerated to 6.28 km/s was used. Alt'shuler, et. al., have reported Hugoniot measurements in vanadium using explosives and the impedance match method. They reported a kink in the U/sub s/ - U/sub p/ relationship at 183 GPa, and attribute it to electronic transitions. The upper portion of their curve is based on a single point at 339 GPa. The present work was performed to further investigate the equation-of-state in the high-pressure range
Sheppard, Daniel; Kress, Joel D; Crockett, Scott; Collins, Lee A; Desjarlais, Michael P
2014-12-01
The shock Hugoniot for lithium 6 deuteride ((6)LiD) was calculated via first principles using Kohn-Sham density-functional theory molecular dynamics (KSMD) for temperatures of 0.5-25 eV. The upper limit of 25 eV represents a practical limit where KSMD is no longer computationally feasible due to the number of electronic bands which are required to be populated. To push the Hugoniot calculations to higher temperatures we make use of orbital-free density-functional theory molecular dynamics (OFMD). Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-based OFMD gives a poor description of the electronic structure at low temperatures so the initial state is not well defined. We propose a method of bootstrapping the Hugoniot from OFMD to the Hugoniot from KSMD between 10 and 20 eV, where the two methods are in agreement. The combination of KSMD and OFMD allows construction of a first-principles Hugoniot from the initial state to 1000 eV. Theoretical shock-compression results are in good agreement with available experimental data and exhibit the appropriate high-temperature limits. We show that a unified KSMD-OFMD Hugoniot can be used to assess the quality of the existing equation-of-state (EOS) models and inform better EOS models based on justifiable physics.
Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations
Furnish, Michael; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei
2017-06-01
We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite, providing insight into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions in conjunction with predictions from density-functional theory modeling. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Recent research on stishovite: Hugoniot and partial release Z experiments and DFT EOS calculations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furnish, Michael D.; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Fei, Yingwei
2018-04-01
We have conducted a series of ride-along experiments on the Z facility to ascertain the Hugoniot of silica centered in the stishovite phase over a range 0.4 - 1.0 TPa, together with partial release states produced at the interface between the sample and a fused silica window. The stishovite samples were synthesized in a large-volume multi-anvil press at 15 GPa and 1773 K, with an initial density of 4.29 gm/cc. The new Z experiments on stishovite fill in a gap between gas gun experiments and NIF experiments. The states are compared with the Hugoniots of quartz and fused silica for inferences as to EOS. They are generally consistent with Sesame 7360 predictions. Sound speed constraints from these data are discussed. The new Hugoniot data cross over the melting curve of stishovite; together with the partial-release data and predictions from density-functional theory modeling, they provide insights into the properties of solid and liquid under extreme conditions. These data are fundamentally important for understanding the interior of silicate-based super-Earths.
Absolute Hugoniot measurements from a spherically convergent shock using x-ray radiography
Swift, Damian C.; Kritcher, Andrea L.; Hawreliak, James A.; Lazicki, Amy; MacPhee, Andrew; Bachmann, Benjamin; Döppner, Tilo; Nilsen, Joseph; Collins, Gilbert W.; Glenzer, Siegfried; Rothman, Stephen D.; Kraus, Dominik; Falcone, Roger W.
2018-05-01
The canonical high pressure equation of state measurement is to induce a shock wave in the sample material and measure two mechanical properties of the shocked material or shock wave. For accurate measurements, the experiment is normally designed to generate a planar shock which is as steady as possible in space and time, and a single state is measured. A converging shock strengthens as it propagates, so a range of shock pressures is induced in a single experiment. However, equation of state measurements must then account for spatial and temporal gradients. We have used x-ray radiography of spherically converging shocks to determine states along the shock Hugoniot. The radius-time history of the shock, and thus its speed, was measured by radiographing the position of the shock front as a function of time using an x-ray streak camera. The density profile of the shock was then inferred from the x-ray transmission at each instant of time. Simultaneous measurement of the density at the shock front and the shock speed determines an absolute mechanical Hugoniot state. The density profile was reconstructed using the known, unshocked density which strongly constrains the density jump at the shock front. The radiographic configuration and streak camera behavior were treated in detail to reduce systematic errors. Measurements were performed on the Omega and National Ignition Facility lasers, using a hohlraum to induce a spatially uniform drive over the outside of a solid, spherical sample and a laser-heated thermal plasma as an x-ray source for radiography. Absolute shock Hugoniot measurements were demonstrated for carbon-containing samples of different composition and initial density, up to temperatures at which K-shell ionization reduced the opacity behind the shock. Here we present the experimental method using measurements of polystyrene as an example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hobbs, M.L.
1997-12-01
Determination of product species, equations-of-state (EOS) and thermochemical properties of high explosives and pyrotechnics remains a major unsolved problem. Although, empirical EOS models may be calibrated to replicate detonation conditions within experimental variability (5--10%), different states, e.g. expansion, may produce significant discrepancy with data if the basic form of the EOS model is incorrect. A more physically realistic EOS model based on intermolecular potentials, such as the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler (JCZ3) EOS, is needed to predict detonation states as well as expanded states. Predictive capability for any EOS requires a large species data base composed of a wide variety of elements. Unfortunately, only 20 species have known JCZ3 molecular force constants. Of these 20 species, only 10 have been adequately compared to experimental data such as molecular scattering or shock Hugoniot data. Since data in the strongly repulsive region of the molecular potential is limited, alternative methods must be found to deduce force constants for a larger number of species. The objective of the present study is to determine JCZ3 product species force constants by using a corresponding states theory. Intermolecular potential parameters were obtained for a variety of gas species using a simple corresponding states technique with critical volume and critical temperature. A more complex, four parameter corresponding state method with shape and polarity corrections was also used to obtain intermolecular potential parameters. Both corresponding state methods were used to predict shock Hugoniot data obtained from pure liquids. The simple corresponding state method is shown to give adequate agreement with shock Hugoniot data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian Ming; Niu Lili; Jiang Bo; Jin Qiaofeng; Jiang Chunxiang; Zheng Hairong; Wang Yanping
2010-01-01
Determining a multidimensional velocity field within microscale opaque fluid flows is needed in areas such as microfluidic devices, biofluid mechanics and hemodynamics research in animal studies. The ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV) technique is appropriate for measuring opaque flows by taking advantage of PIV and B-mode ultrasound contrast imaging. However, the use of clinical ultrasound systems for imaging flows in small structures or animals has limitations associated with spatial resolution. This paper reports on the development of a high-resolution EchoPIV technique (termed as micro-EPIV) and its application in measuring flows in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals. Phantom experiments demonstrate the validity of the technique, providing velocity estimates within 4.1% of the analytically derived values with regard to the flows in a small straight vessel-mimic phantom, and velocity estimates within 5.9% of the computationally simulated values with regard to the flows in a small stenotic vessel-mimic phantom. Animal studies concerning arterial and venous flows of living rats and rabbits show that the micro-EPIV-measured peak velocities within several cardiac cycles are about 25% below the values measured by the ultrasonic spectral Doppler technique. The micro-EPIV technique is able to effectively measure the flow fields within microscale opaque fluid flows.
Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Wang, Yanping; Jiang, Bo; Jin, Qiaofeng; Jiang, Chunxiang; Zheng, Hairong
2010-10-21
Determining a multidimensional velocity field within microscale opaque fluid flows is needed in areas such as microfluidic devices, biofluid mechanics and hemodynamics research in animal studies. The ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV) technique is appropriate for measuring opaque flows by taking advantage of PIV and B-mode ultrasound contrast imaging. However, the use of clinical ultrasound systems for imaging flows in small structures or animals has limitations associated with spatial resolution. This paper reports on the development of a high-resolution EchoPIV technique (termed as micro-EPIV) and its application in measuring flows in small vessel-mimic phantoms and vessels of small animals. Phantom experiments demonstrate the validity of the technique, providing velocity estimates within 4.1% of the analytically derived values with regard to the flows in a small straight vessel-mimic phantom, and velocity estimates within 5.9% of the computationally simulated values with regard to the flows in a small stenotic vessel-mimic phantom. Animal studies concerning arterial and venous flows of living rats and rabbits show that the micro-EPIV-measured peak velocities within several cardiac cycles are about 25% below the values measured by the ultrasonic spectral Doppler technique. The micro-EPIV technique is able to effectively measure the flow fields within microscale opaque fluid flows.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, E. S.; Chang, C. S., E-mail: cschang@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, DaeJeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-15
An approximate two-dimensional solver of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator has been developed using the assumption that the particle probability distribution function is independent of gyroangle in the limit of strong magnetic field. The isotropic one-dimensional scheme developed for nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Buet and Cordier [J. Comput. Phys. 179, 43 (2002)] and for linear Fokker-Planck-Landau equation by Chang and Cooper [J. Comput. Phys. 6, 1 (1970)] have been modified and extended to two-dimensional nonlinear equation. In addition, a method is suggested to apply the new velocity-grid based collision solver to Lagrangian particle-in-cell simulation by adjusting the weights of marker particles and is applied to a five dimensional particle-in-cell code to calculate the neoclassical ion thermal conductivity in a tokamak plasma. Error verifications show practical aspects of the present scheme for both grid-based and particle-based kinetic codes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Perinati, E.; Diebold, S.; Kendziorra, E.
2012-01-01
and hyper-velocity dust particles off X-ray mirror shells. These activities have been identified as a goal in the context of a number of ongoing space projects in order to assess the risk posed by environmental radiation and dust and qualify the adopted instrumentation with respect to possible damage...... or performance degradation. In this paper we focus on tests for the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) used aboard the LOFT space mission. We use the Van de Graaff accelerators at the University of T\\"ubingen and at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK) in Heidelberg, for soft proton and hyper...
Patalano, Antoine; García, Carlos Marcelo; Rodríguez, Andrés
2017-12-01
LSPIV (Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry) and LSPTV (Large Scale Particle Tracking Velocimetry) are used as relatively low-cost and non-intrusive techniques for water-surface velocity analysis and flow discharge measurements in rivers or large-scale hydraulic models. This paper describes a methodology based on state-of-the-art tools (for example, that apply classical PIV/PTV analysis) resulting in large-scale surface-flow characterization according to the first operational version of the RIVeR (Rectification of Image Velocity Results). RIVeR is developed in Matlab and is designed to be user-friendly. RIVeR processes large-scale water-surface characterization such as velocity fields or individual trajectories of floating tracers. This work describes the wide range of application of the techniques for comparing measured surface flows in hydraulic physical models to flow discharge estimates for a wide range of flow events in rivers (for example, low and high flows).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jorda, Michel.
1976-01-01
The dissolution of a solid in an aqueous phase is studied, the solid consisting of dispersed particles. A continuous colorimetric analysis method is developed to study the dissolution process and a two-parameter optimization method is established to investigate the kinetic curves obtained. This method is based on the differential equation dx/dt=K(1-x)sup(n). (n being the decrease in the dissolution velocity when the dissolved part increases and K a velocity parameter). The dissolution of SO 4 Cu and MnO 4 K in water and UO 3 in SO 4 H 2 is discussed. It is shown that the dissolution velocity of UO 3 is proportional to the concentration of the H + ions in the solution as far as this one is not higher than 0.25N. The study of the temperature dependence of the UO 3 dissolution reaction shows that a transition phase takes place from 25 to 65 0 C between a phase in which the dissolution is controlled by the diffusion of the H + ions and the chemical reaction at the interface and a phase in which the kinetics is only controlled by the diffusion [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennion, F.
1966-06-01
A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f oi = 1 / (2*π*α p e i *α p a i ) * λ(ν p e - α p e i ) * e -(v p a 2 /α p a i 2 ) . The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy (τ) and electron temperature (T e ). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Fevre, A. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)
1997-05-14
This work is focused on the study of fragment and light particle production mechanisms in the multifragmentation process of hot nuclei, which are formed in the central collisions of Xe+Sn at 50 MeV/u. The experiment has been performed with the INDRA multidetector. The central collision events, selected via the flow angle variable, exhibit the presence of a heavy (Z=90) and highly excited (E{sup *}=12.5 MeV/u) isotropic emission source. The comparison of the data with a statistical multifragmentation model (MMMC) and a dynamical model (BNV) makes us conclude that the multifragmentation can only be explained in the frame of a relatively cold process, around 6 MeV/u of thermal excitation energy, preceded by a primary emission stage of the expanding source, during which nearly one third of the excitation energy is dissipated. In addition, it appears that the fragment energy spectra are not explained by a purely thermal process, and that one has to put forward an expansion collective motion, of 2 MeV/u of energy, following the compression of the compound system. In order to precise the existence of a two-step particle emission (primary and secondary), we have developed and applied an original method of reduced velocity correlations between particles and fragments. It has allowed us to underline two distinct origins for the particle production: one corresponding to secondary emissions, coming from the fragments, and the other one, associated with emissions which occur prior to the fragment production. At last, it has allowed us, also to bring out a hierarchy in the emission time in the decay process, with respect to the particle type. (author) 90 refs.
On the Existence of Shock Instabilities at Hugoniot Pressures Beyond the Minimum Volume
Heuzé, Olivier; Pain, Jean-Christophe; Salin, Gwenael
2009-12-01
Flow instabilities are among the main issues of ICF studies. Heterogeneities and defects of the material or the geometry are generally considered among the sources of instabilities which are strongly amplified in spherical geometries. According to the theory of D'yakov, some ranges of the Equation of State (EOS) also generate or amplify instabilities in shock waves, which can be considered among the origin of Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. It is well known that, on the Hugoniot curve of most materials, the volume decreases versus pressure down to a minimum and then increases with ionization towards an asymptotic value. Recent results in this range of pressure allow us to investigate now the stability conditions. The first question to raise is the possibility of existence of such instabilities. We focus here on the properties of several elements (aluminium, iron, copper) in this range of pressure to try to give a first answer to this question.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)
2014-02-15
Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.
2014-01-01
Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result
Chen, Chia-Yuan; Antón, Raúl; Hung, Ming-yang; Menon, Prahlad; Finol, Ender A.; Pekkan, Kerem
2014-01-01
The pathology of the human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and its relationship to the later complication of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) formation remains unclear. The hemodynamics in the diseased abdominal aorta are hypothesized to be a key contributor to the formation and growth of ILT. The objective of this investigation is to establish a reliable 3D flow visualization method with corresponding validation tests with high confidence in order to provide insight into the basic hemodynamic features for a better understanding of hemodynamics in AAA pathology and seek potential treatment for AAA diseases. A stereoscopic particle image velocity (PIV) experiment was conducted using transparent patient-specific experimental AAA models (with and without ILT) at three axial planes. Results show that before ILT formation, a 3D vortex was generated in the AAA phantom. This geometry-related vortex was not observed after the formation of ILT, indicating its possible role in the subsequent appearance of ILT in this patient. It may indicate that a longer residence time of recirculated blood flow in the aortic lumen due to this vortex caused sufficient shear-induced platelet activation to develop ILT and maintain uniform flow conditions. Additionally, two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling codes (Fluent and an in-house cardiovascular CFD code) were compared with the two-dimensional, three-component velocity stereoscopic PIV data. Results showed that correlation coefficients of the out-of-plane velocity data between PIV and both CFD methods are greater than 0.85, demonstrating good quantitative agreement. The stereoscopic PIV study can be utilized as test case templates for ongoing efforts in cardiovascular CFD solver development. Likewise, it is envisaged that the patient-specific data may provide a benchmark for further studying hemodynamics of actual AAA, ILT, and their convolution effects under physiological conditions for clinical applications. PMID:24316984
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, Morgan; Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Applied Physics and Electronics; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2004-11-01
Studies on the effect of bed particle size and fluidization velocity on the agglomeration/defluidization risk during biomass combustion in BFB/CFB plants have not previously been published. Therefore, the objective of this project has been to determine the influence of these two parameters on the risk for agglomeration in typical biofuel fired fluidized beds. The study has also resulted in information on how variations in the coating characteristics of the bed particles are depending on the fuel ash content and the particle size of the bed material. Furthermore, the conditions at large scale commercial plants have been surveyed with respect to the choice of bed material, fluidization velocity, bed sand consumption etc. Bed materials have been sampled from seven full-scale boilers, four CFB and three BFB. The samples have been sieved to achieve sieve curves, analyzed with respect to the coating characteristics, and studied by experiments in a bench-scale fluidized bed. It could be concluded from the analyses that there are no significant differences in the coating thickness or the coating composition between fine and coarse particles in the bed samples. The bench-scale agglomeration experiments showed that increased fluidization velocity results in bed agglomeration at a higher temperature. This effect was stronger at relatively low fluidization velocities. The fluidization velocity has probably no significant effect on the risk for agglomeration at normal gas velocities in a commercial CFB boiler. Though, it could have an influence on the agglomeration in for example the recycling part of a CFB, where the gas velocity is relatively low. Also in BFB-boilers the fluidization velocity is often low enough to have a significant effect on the risk for agglomeration. By the experiments in this project it has not been possible to determine if the bed particle size has an influence on the agglomeration. Further studies with modified methods are required to find out if the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.
1999-01-01
The alpha particles in a fusion reactor play a key role in the sustaining the fusion reaction. It is the heating provided by the alpha particles that help a fusion reactor operating in the ignition regime. It is, therefore, essential to understand the behavior of the alpha population both in real space and velocity space in order to design the optimal confinement device for fusion application. Moreover, the alphas represent a strong source of free energy that may generate plasma instabilities. Theoretical studies has identified the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) as an instability that can be excited by the alpha population in a toroidal device. Since the alpha has an energy of 3.5 MeV, a good confinement device will retain it in the interior of the plasma. Therefore, alpha measurement system need to probe the interior of a high density plasma. Due to the conducting nature of a plasma, wave with frequencies below the plasma frequency can not penetrate into the interior of the plasma where the alphas reside. This project uses a wave that can interact with the perpendicular motion of the alphas to probe its characteristics. However, this wave (the lower hybrid wave) is below the plasma frequency and can not be directly launched from the plasma edge. This project was designed to non-linearly excite the lower hybrid in the interior of a magnetized plasma and measure its interaction with a fast ion population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.Q.; Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.
1995-01-01
The alpha particle population from fusion reactions in a DT tokamak reactor can have dramatic effects on the pressure profiles, energetic particle confinement, and the overall stability of the plasma; thus leading to important design consideration of a fusion reactor based on the tokamak concept. In order to fully understand the effects of the alpha population, a non-invasive diagnostic technique suitable for use in a reacting plasma environment needs to be developed to map out both the spatial and velocity distribution of the alphas. The proposed experimental goals for the eventual demonstration of LH wave interaction with a fast ion population is given in the reduced 3 year plan in table 1. At present time the authors are approaching the 8th month in their first year of this project. Up to now, their main effort has been concentrated in the operation of the two beat wave sources in burst mode. The second priority in the experimental project is the probe diagnostics and computer aided data acquisition system. The progress made so far is given, and they are ready to perform the beat-wave generated lower hybrid wave experiment. Some theoretical calculation had been reported at APS meetings. More refined theoretical models are being constructed in collaboration with Drs. J. Rogers and E. Valeo at PPPL
Measured Hugoniot states of a two-element fluid, O2 + N2, near 2 Mg/m3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schott, G.L.
1983-01-01
Measured single-shock Hugoniot quantities are reported for a 1:1 atomic mixture of the elements oxygen and nitrogen in each of two liquid initial states. One of these is the inert equimolar solution O 2 + N 2 , at T approx. = 85K, v approx. = 1.06 m 3 /Mg; the other is the pure explosive compound nitric oxide, NO, at T approx. = 122K, v approx. = 0.79 m 3 /Mg. First-shock pressures are in the range 10 to 30 GPa. The two Hugoniots have common values of specific volumes and energies near 20 GPa; that is, they intersect. This permits a novel test of attainment of steady waves with equilibrium composition, such that a single equation of state may describe the shocked reactive fluid. 5 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, W.C.
1985-01-01
Quasi-isentropic (QI) compression can be achieved by loading a specimen with a low strain rate, long rise time uniaxial strain wave. Recent experimental data show that the quasi-isentrope of 6061-T6 aluminum lies a few percent above the principal Hugoniot, that is, at a given specific volume, the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress. It has been suggested that this effect is due to material strength. Using Hugoniot data, shock-reshock, and shock-unload data for beryllium and 6061-T6 aluminum, we have constructed the quasi-isentropes as functions of specific volume. Our results show that the QI stress exceeds the principal Hugoniot stress above a Hugoniot stress of 8.4 GPa in beryllium, and between Hugoniot stresses of 3.8 and 21.4 GPa in aluminum. The effect is due to strength and implies that the QI yield strength can be large. Our calculations show that the QI yield strength is 0.9 GPa in aluminum at a QI stress of 9 GPa, and 5.2 GPa in beryllium at a QI stress of 35 GPa
The Microflown particle velocity sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Finn; de Bree, Hans-Elias
2008-01-01
The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook will pr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail
2005-01-01
Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 μm) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibson, L L; Bartram, B D; Sheffield, S A; Gustavsen, R L; Brown, G W; Sandstrom, M M; Giambra, A M; Dattelbaum, D M; Handley, C A
2014-01-01
A series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments were performed on vacuum melt-cast Composition B to obtain new Hugoniot states and shock sensitivity (run-distance-to-detonation) information. The Comp B (ρ 0 = 1.713 g/cm 3 ) consisted of 59.5% RDX, 39.5% TNT, and 1% wax, with ∼ 6.5% HMX in the RDX. The measured Hugoniot states were found to be consistent with earlier reports, with the compressibility on the shock adiabat softer than that of a 63% RDX material reported by Marsh.[4] The shock sensitivity was found to be more sensitive (shorter run distance to detonation at a given shock input condition) than earlier reports for Comp B-3 and a lower density (1.68-1.69 g/cm 3 ) Comp B formulation. The reactive flow during the shock-to-detonation transition was marked by heterogeneous, hot spot-driven growth both in and behind the leading shock front.
Settling velocities in batch sedimentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.
1982-10-01
The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu
2008-01-01
We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction
E. Camporeale (Enrico); G.L. Delzanno; B.K. Bergen; J.D. Moulton
2016-01-01
htmlabstractWe describe a spectral method for the numerical solution of the Vlasov–Poisson system where the velocity space is decomposed by means of an Hermite basis, and the configuration space is discretized via a Fourier decomposition. The novelty of our approach is an implicit time
Repetto, P.; Martínez-García, E. E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.
2018-06-01
In this paper, we derive a novel circular velocity relation for a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential applicable to every system of curvilinear coordinates, suitable to be reduced to orthogonal form. As an illustration of the potentiality of the determined circular velocity expression, we perform the rotation curves analysis of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 and we estimate the total and dark matter mass of these two galaxies under the assumption that their respective dark matter haloes have spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions. We employ stellar population synthesis models and the total H I density map to obtain the stellar and H I+He+metals rotation curves of both galaxies. The subtraction of the stellar plus gas rotation curves from the observed rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 generates the dark matter circular velocity curves of both galaxies. We fit the dark matter rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 through the newly established circular velocity formula specialized to the spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions, considering the Navarro, Frenk, and White, Burkert, Di Cintio, Einasto, and Stadel dark matter haloes. Our principal findings are the following: globally, cored dark matter profiles Burkert and Einasto prevail over cuspy Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Di Cintio. Also, spherical/oblate dark matter models fit better the dark matter rotation curves of both galaxies than prolate dark matter haloes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becret, Claude.
1979-01-01
This report presents the calibration of a neutron detection set, fitted with an NE 213 organic scintillator. This calibration uses the associated particle method, by means of the 3 T(p,n) 3 He reaction producing 750 keV neutrons. A separator device, of the velocity filter type, is employed for separating the heliums -emitted during the 3 T(p,n) 3 He neutron generating reaction- from the charged particles emanating from competing or spurious reactions. The calibration of this set enables neutron fluences of between 700 keV and 1 MeV in energy to be determined. The knowledge of such fluences is essential for dosimetry studies and for determining the sensitivity of weapons systems or components to nuclear radiation effects [fr
Li, Zhe; Chang, Wenhan; Gao, Chengchen; Hao, Yilong
2018-04-01
In this paper, a novel five-wire micro-fabricated anemometer with 3D directionality based on calorimetric principle is proposed, which is capable of measuring low speed airflow. This structure is realized by vertically bonding two different dies, which can be fabricated on the same wafer resulting in a simple fabrication process. Experiments on speed lower than 200 mm s-1 are conducted, showing good repeatability and directionality. The speed of airflow is controlled by the volumetric flow rate. The measured velocity sensitivity is 9.4 mV · s m-1, with relative direction sensitivity of 37.1 dB. The deviation between the expected and the measured directivity is analyzed by both theories and simulations. A correction procedure is proposed and turns out to be useful to eliminate this deviation. To further explore the potential of our device, we expose it to acoustic plane waves in a standing wave tube, showing consistent planar directivity of figure of eight. The measured velocity sensitivity at 1 kHz and 120 dBC is 4.4 mV · s m-1, with relative direction sensitivity of 27.0 dB. By using the correction method proposed above, the maximum angle error is about ±2°, showing its good directionality accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalo Salinas-Salas
2007-12-01
Full Text Available La velocidad de sedimentación de las partículas presentes en una suspensión sufre una caída monótona en función de la concentración volumétrica de éstas, por efecto de las fuerzas hidrodinámicas y electroquímicas que se presentan en una suspensión. El valor efectivo que alcanza la velocidad de sedimentación puede evaluarse a partir de la velocidad de sedimentación teórica de una partícula única, multiplicada por la denominada función de corrección de velocidad o función obstáculo, la que considera tanto el régimen de escurrimiento como la concentración volumétrica de partículas. Los valores determinados para esta función por Richardson y Zaki en 1954 [14] son los más utilizados actualmente, donde el valor propuesto para el caso de regímenes de escurrimiento del fluido por sobre las partículas, cuyos números de Reynolds sean menores a 0,25, se establece un valor único de 4,65, independientemente del tamaño de las partículas. El presente artículo muestra los resultados alcanzados a partir de un trabajo experimental desarrollado con micro partículas calibradas de óxido de silicio (SiO2, que indica que el valor del exponente de la función de corrección depende inversamente del tamaño, para el caso de partículas de orden micrométrico, lo que daría lugar a un nuevo valor para el exponente.The sedimentation velocity of micro-particles in suspension decreases with increasing concentration due to hydrodynamic and electrostatic forces. This velocity can be estimated on the basis of the theoretical velocity of a single particle, multiplied by a correction factor which depends on the flow regime as well as the volumetric concentration of the particles. The most commonly used values are those determined by Richardson and Zaki in 1954 [14]. For flow regimes characterized by a Reynolds' number less than 0,25, a constant value of 4,65 is used which does not depend on the particle size. The present article presents
Mandroyan, A; Doche, M L; Hihn, J Y; Viennet, R; Bailly, Y; Simonin, L
2009-01-01
Sonoelectrochemical experiments differ from sonochemical ones by the introduction of electrodes in the sonicated reaction vessel. The aim of the study is to characterize the changes in the ultrasonic activity induced by the presence of an electrode located in front of the transducer. The scope of our investigations concerns two low frequency vibration modes: 20 and 40 kHz. For this purpose, two laser visualization techniques have been used. The first part of the study, described in a previous paper (Part I), deals with the laser tomography technique which provides an accurate picture of the reactor active zones, related to numerous cavitation events. The second part of the paper (Part II) will describe the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique used to measure the velocity vector field in the fluid portion between the horn and the electrode. As for the previous study, two parameters were studied: the electrical power supplied to the transducer and the electrode/transducer distance. The velocity vector fields show a main flow in the reactor axis. This flow seems to correspond to the conical cavitation bubbles structure which is observed on the laser tomography pictures. When an electrode is introduced into the reactor, two additional symmetric transversal flows can be quantified on both sides of the electrode.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangama, J.
2002-11-01
Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of projectile charge and velocity. Auger electron spectroscopy is used for an experimental investigation of ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by ions (Kr34 + and Ar18 + ) and electrons at high impact velocities (from 6 to 60 a.u.). In particular, relative contributions of the mechanisms responsible for lithium K-shell ionization-excitation are determined for various projectile charges Zp and velocities vp. A large range of perturbation parameters |Zp|/vp is explored (|Zp|/vp = 0,05 - 0,7 a.u.). From single K-shell excitation results, it appears that the projectile-electron interaction gives mainly rise to a dipole-like transition 1s -> np Concerning K-shell ionization-excitation, the separation of the TS2 (two independent projectile-electron interactions) and TS1 (one projectile-electron interaction) mechanisms responsible for the formation of the 2snp 1,3P and 2sns 1,3S lithium states is performed. In TS1 process, the projectile-electron interaction can be followed by an electron-electron interaction (dielectronic process) or by an internal rearrangement of the residual target after a sudden potential change (shake process). From Born theory, ab initio calculations are performed. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results confirms the mechanism identification. For the production of P states, TS1 is found to be strongly dominant for small |Zp|/vp values and TS2 is found to be most important for large |Zp|/vp values. Since P states cannot be formed significantly via a shake process, the TS1 and TS2 separation provides a direct signature of the dielectronic process. On the other hand, the TS1 process is shown to be the unique process for producing the S states. At the moment, only the shake aspect of the TS1 process can explain the fact that the 2s3s configuration is preferentially
Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moustafa, Sayed S. R.; Al-Arifi, Nassir S.
2018-01-01
Rayleigh waves often propagate according to complex mode excitation so that the proper identification and separation of specific modes can be quite difficult or, in some cases, just impossible. Furthermore, the analysis of a single component (i.e., an inversion procedure based on just one objective function) necessarily prevents solving the problems related to the non-uniqueness of the solution. To overcome these issues and define a holistic analysis of Rayleigh waves, we implemented a procedure to acquire data that are useful to define and efficiently invert the three objective functions defined from the three following "objects": the velocity spectra of the vertical- and radial-components and the Rayleigh-wave particle motion (RPM) frequency-offset data. Two possible implementations are presented. In the first case we consider classical multi-offset (and multi-component) data, while in a second possible approach we exploit the data recorded by a single three-component geophone at a fixed offset from the source. Given the simple field procedures, the method could be particularly useful for the unambiguous geotechnical exploration of large areas, where more complex acquisition procedures, based on the joint acquisition of Rayleigh and Love waves, would not be economically viable. After illustrating the different kinds of data acquisition and the data processing, the results of the proposed methodology are illustrated in a case study. Finally, a series of theoretical and practical aspects are discussed to clarify some issues involved in the overall procedure (data acquisition and processing).
Low-velocity superconducting accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delayen, J.R.
1990-01-01
The present paper reviews the status of RF superconductivity as applied to low-velocity accelerating properties. Heavy-ion accelerators must accelerate efficiently particles which travel at a velocity much smaller than that of light particles, whose velocity changes along accelerator, and also different particles which have different velocity profiles. Heavy-ion superconducting accelerators operate at frequencies which are lower than high-energy superconducting accelerators. The present paper first discusses the basic features of heavy-ion superconducting structures and linacs. Design choices are then addressed focusing on structure geometry, materials, frequency, phase control, and focusing. The report also gives an outline of the status of superconducting booster projects currently under way at the Argonne National Laboratory, SUNY Stony Brook, Weizmann Institute, University of Washington, Florida State, Saclay, Kansas State, Daresbury, Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Legnaro, Bombay, Sao Paulo, ANU (Canberra), and Munich. Recent developments and future prospects are also described. (N.K.) 68 refs
Video measurements of fluid velocities and water levels in breaking waves
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Govender, K
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The cost-effective measurement of the velocity flow fields in breaking water waves, using particle and correlation image velocimetry, is described. The fluid velocities are estimated by tracking the motion of neutrally buoyant particles and aeration...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geller, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
A DC ion current of 50 mA/cm{sup 2} has been obtained with approximately 100 volts extraction from the plasma created by the CIRCE device, and a still stronger electron current was obtained with a still lower extraction. These results are an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary characteristics. In the neutral plasma beam produced in the CIRCE device, the ions have mainly longitudinal energy whereas the electron energy is transverse. This situation makes the charge separation easier. In the present paper one tries to explain partially the result on a basis of current increase due to the initial velocity of the particles. (author) [French] On a verifie qu'il etait possible d'extraire, en regime continu, du plasma fourni par la machine CIRCE des courants de protons d'environ 50 mA/cm{sup 2} avec des tensions d'extraction d'environ 100 volts et des courants d'electrons d'une intensite encore plus forte avec quelques volts d'extraction. Ces resultats sont d'un ordre de grandeur superieur aux performances des sources classiques. Dans le faisceau neutre produit par CIRCE les ions sont doues d'une energie essentiellement longitudinale alors que l'energie des electrons est surtout transverse. Cette situation est favorable a une separation. Dans le present rapport nous essayons de donner une explication du mecanisme physique d'une partie du phenomene: celle concernant l'accroissement du courant de protons, du a leur vitesse dirigee. (auteur)
Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items. Volume 7. H2 to Lysol
1975-01-01
29, 263 (1934) 11) Dr. (Ref 10) Konrad, Nitrocellulose 5, 124 (1934) Impact Sensitivity, it is v sens to impact even 12) Nuevos Explosivos Industriales...INTERACTION 1a) PRESSURE-DISTANCE PROFILE BEFORE INTERACTION HUGONIOT FOR MATERIAL R / MIRROR LINE- A HUGNOT FOR HUGONIOT FOR I MATERIALL (P2 u 2) STATE2...CHARACTERISTIC ’.| ’$,"(P u REFLECTION FOR MATERIAL L / 2" " 2- CHARACTERISTIC MIRROR LINE FOR MATERIALL STATE PARTICLE VELOCITY, u PARTICLE VELOCITY. u (b
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cernuschi, Federico; Rothleitner, Christian; Clausen, Sønnik
2017-01-01
Accurate particle mass and velocity measurement is needed for interpreting test results in erosion tests of materials and coatings. The impact and damage of a surface is influenced by the kinetic energy of a particle, i.e. particle mass and velocity. Particle mass is usually determined with optic...
Particle acceleration by plasma waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, C.
2006-01-01
In an advanced particle accelerator particles are driven near by light velocity through ionized gas. Such plasma devices are compact, cost efficient and usable in many fields. Examples are given in detail. (GL)
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, R.T.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Chen; Vasilevskis, Sandijs; Kozlowski, Bartosz
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive, whole filed optical method providing instantaneous velocity information in fluids. The flow is seeded with tracer particles. The particles are illuminated in the target area with a light sheet at least twice within a short time interval....... The camera images the target area and captures each light pulse in separate image frames. The displacement of the particle between the light pulses can be used to determine the velocity vectors. This guideline introduces the principle of the PIV system and the system configuration. The measurement procedure...
Velocity Memory Effect for polarized gravitational waves
Zhang, P.-M.; Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.
2018-05-01
Circularly polarized gravitational sandwich waves exhibit, as do their linearly polarized counterparts, the Velocity Memory Effect: freely falling test particles in the flat after-zone fly apart along straight lines with constant velocity. In the inside zone their trajectories combine oscillatory and rotational motions in a complicated way. For circularly polarized periodic gravitational waves some trajectories remain bounded, while others spiral outward. These waves admit an additional "screw" isometry beyond the usual five. The consequences of this extra symmetry are explored.
Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.
1987-02-01
It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures
Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo
2017-03-01
The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra—2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is 17 ± 4% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright (m< {m}* -0.5) cluster galaxies is 11 ± 4% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.
Flocculation and Settling Velocity Estimates for Reservoir Sedimentation Analysis
2016-02-01
viscosity ). Stokes’ law is commonly used to describe settling velocity of a single particle and is applicable when the particle Reynolds number (Rep...fluid viscosity , and ν is kinematic viscosity . Several researchers recognize that large, fast-settling particles disobey the laminar boundary...interparticle attraction caused by electrostatic and physiochemical forces. These properties give clays their stickiness and control essential
Karimipour, Arash; D'Orazio, Annunziata; Shadloo, Mostafa Safdari
2017-02-01
The forced convection of nanofluid flow in a long microchannel is studied numerically according to the finite volume approach and by using a developed computer code. Microchannel domain is under the influence of a magnetic field with uniform strength. The hot inlet nanofluid is cooled by the heat exchange with the cold microchannel walls. Different types of nanoparticles such as Al2O3 and Ag are examined while the base fluid is considered as water. Reynolds number are chosen as Re=10 and Re=100. Slip velocity and temperature jump boundary conditions are simulated along the microchannel walls at different values of slip coefficient for different amounts of Hartmann number. The investigation of magnetic field effect on slip velocity and temperature jump of nanofluid is presented for the first time. The results are shown as streamlines and isotherms; moreover the profiles of slip velocity and temperature jump are drawn. It is observed that more slip coefficient corresponds to less Nusselt number and more slip velocity especially at larger Hartmann number. It is recommended to use Al2O3-water nanofluid instead of Ag-water to increase the heat transfer rate from the microchannel walls at low values of Re. However at larger amounts of Re, the nanofluid composed of nanoparticles with higher thermal conductivity works better.
Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.
1970-01-01
Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallick, Ritam
2011-01-01
The Rankine-Hugoniot condition has been solved to study phase transition in an astrophysical scenario mainly in the case of phase transition from a neutron star (NS) to a quark star (QS). The equations of state and temperature play a huge role in determining the nature of the front propagation, which brings about the phase transition in a NS. The shock jump conditions can be solved analytically, but the situation changes drastically by the inclusion of the magnetic field. High magnetic fields, which are always associated with a NS play a huge role in determining the structure and evolution of a NS. So, a magnetic field has been introduced in the shock jump condition in the de Hoffmann-Teller frame. The modified conservation condition for the perpendicular and oblique shocks is obtained in this frame. Numerical solution of the perpendicular shock has been obtained, which shows considerable deviation from the nonmagnetic case. The results show that the magnetic field helps in shock generation. It also indirectly hints at the instability of the matter and thereby the NS for very high magnetic field, implying that NSs can only support a magnetic field of some finite strength.
Knudson, Marcus
2013-06-01
The past several years have seen tremendous increase in the number of identified extra-solar planetary systems. Our understanding of the formation of these systems is tied to our understanding of the internal structure of these exoplanets, which in turn rely upon equations of state of light elements and compounds such as water and hydrogen. Here we present shock compression data for water with unprecedented accuracy that shows commonly used models for water in planetary modeling significantly overestimate the compressibility at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Furthermore, we show that its behavior at these conditions, including reflectivity and isentropic response, is well described by a recent first-principles based equation of state. These findings advocate the use of this model as the standard for modeling Neptune, Uranus, and ``hot Neptune'' exoplanets, and should contribute to improved understanding of the interior structure of these planets, and perhaps improved understanding of formation mechanisms of planetary systems. We also present very recent experiments on deuterium that have taken advantage of continued improvements in both experimental configuration and the understanding of the quartz shock standard to obtain Hugoniot data with a significant increase in precision. These data will prove to provide a stringent test for the equation of state of hydrogen and its isotopes. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-ACO4-94AL85000.
On free fall of a relativistic particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.
2005-01-01
The free fall of a relativistic particle is considered: the well-known fact of the light velocity constancy is taken into account in the Galilean problem about the movement of a particle from nongravitational forces and its fall onto the ground. The velocity hodograph and the world line of the particle are found
Imaging chemical reactions - 3D velocity mapping
Chichinin, A. I.; Gericke, K.-H.; Kauczok, S.; Maul, C.
Visualising a collision between an atom or a molecule or a photodissociation (half-collision) of a molecule on a single particle and single quantum level is like watching the collision of billiard balls on a pool table: Molecular beams or monoenergetic photodissociation products provide the colliding reactants at controlled velocity before the reaction products velocity is imaged directly with an elaborate camera system, where one should keep in mind that velocity is, in general, a three-dimensional (3D) vectorial property which combines scattering angles and speed. If the processes under study have no cylindrical symmetry, then only this 3D product velocity vector contains the full information of the elementary process under study.
The effect of fog on radionuclide deposition velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibb, R.; Carson, P.; Thompson, W.
1997-01-01
Current nuclear power station release models do not evaluate deposition under foggy atmospheric conditions. Deposition velocities and scavenging coefficients of radioactive particles entrained in fog are presented for the Point Lepreau area of the Bay of Fundy coast. It is recommended to calculate deposition based on fog deposition velocities. The deposition velocities can be calculated from common meteorological data. The range of deposition velocities is approximately 1 - 100 cm/s. Fog deposition is surface roughness dependent with forests having larger deposition and deposition velocities than soil or grasses. (author)
Smith, James A.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Scott, Clark L.; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Lévesque, Daniel; Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Lord, Martin
2018-04-01
As part of the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor program, a laser shock test system is being developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to characterize interface strength in innovative plate fuel for research reactors around the world. The INL has been working with National Research Council Canada (NRC) on this project for the last five years. One of the concerns is the difficulty of calibrating and standardizing the laser shock technique. A recent analytical study and testing support the use of the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) in materials as a robust and simple benchmark to compare stresses generated by different laser shock systems. Using a non-contact laser velocimeter based on a solid Fabry-Perot etalon, the systems at NRC and INL show that the back-surface velocity reached at the HEL is consistent, and independent of the laser power used. In this work, the laser velocimeter of the NRC system is tested against a fast rotating wheel to verify accuracy and determine best operating conditions. A round robin test between the two laser shock systems on plates of different aluminum alloys is presented that shows the consistent characterization of the aluminum alloys based on the HEL velocities as well as determines the bias between the systems. The effects of setup parameters on other characteristics of the back-surface velocity trace and corresponding stress wave are also discussed.
Analysis of particle kinematics in spheronization via particle image velocimetry.
Koester, Martin; Thommes, Markus
2013-02-01
Spheronization is a wide spread technique in pellet production for many pharmaceutical applications. Pellets produced by spheronization are characterized by a particularly spherical shape and narrow size distribution. The particle kinematic during spheronization is currently not well-understood. Therefore, particle image velocimetry (PIV) was implemented in the spheronization process to visualize the particle movement and to identify flow patterns, in order to explain the influence of various process parameters. The spheronization process of a common formulation was recorded with a high-speed camera, and the images were processed using particle image velocimetry software. A crosscorrelation approach was chosen to determine the particle velocity at the surface of the pellet bulk. Formulation and process parameters were varied systematically, and their influence on the particle velocity was investigated. The particle stream shows a torus-like shape with a twisted rope-like motion. It is remarkable that the overall particle velocity is approximately 10-fold lower than the tip speed of the friction plate. The velocity of the particle stream can be correlated to the water content of the pellets and the load of the spheronizer, while the rotation speed was not relevant. In conclusion, PIV was successfully applied to the spheronization process, and new insights into the particle velocity were obtained. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn
2011-01-01
of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...
Correcting for particle size effects on plasma actuator particle image velocimetry measurements
Masati, A.; Sedwick, R. J.
2018-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is often used to characterize plasma actuator flow, but particle charging effects are rarely taken into account. A parametric study was conducted to determine the effects of particle size on the velocity results of plasma actuator PIV experiments. Results showed that smaller particles more closely match air flow velocities than larger particles. The measurement uncertainty was quantified by deconvolving the particle image diameter from the correlation diameter. The true air velocity was calculated by linearly extrapolating to the zero-size particle diameter.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiu Choi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.
The critical ionization velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raadu, M.A.
1980-06-01
The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)
1988-01-01
A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.
Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.
There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...
Temperature dependence of sound velocity in yttrium ferrite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L'vov, V.A.
1979-01-01
The effect of the phonon-magnon and phonon-phonon interoctions on the temperature dependence of the longitudinal sound velocity in yttrium ferrite is considered. It has been shown that at low temperatures four-particle phonon-magnon processes produce the basic contribution to renormalization of the sound velocity. At higher temperatures the temperature dependence of the sound velocity is mainly defined by phonon-phonon processes
A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox
Broda, Boguslaw
2011-01-01
In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniguchi, H. (Science Education Institute of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan)); Kamata, K.; Sange, K. (Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Science); Nakada, S. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science); Kamata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Osaka Office, Osaka (Japan))
1992-08-01
This paper describes development of a penetrator intended of measuring temperatures, pressures, and particle velocities of air blasts and pyroclastic surges occurring in volcanos, and its airdropping experiment. This device forms a spear with a total length of 150 cm to 160 cm disposed with wings at the tail, and a stopper to prevent the spear from penetrating into ground deeper than 60 cm. The device for measuring temperatures suspends metal pieces of 16 kinds in total including such metals as lead and tin, and such alloys as eutectic solders and type lead to enable measuring a temperature range from 100[degree]C to 810[degree]C . The device for measuring pressures consists of a square pipe with a length little shorter than one meter, twisted to 22.5[degree] at three locations, each of the 16 faces made from the twisting being attached with two blast meters (using lead and copper foils, serving also as particle velocity meters). Twelve prototype devices have been dropped (not having been recovered yet) on five points of the east side slope of Mt. Unzen using a helicopter. 5 refs., 3 figs.
Particle correlations at ALICE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Yu.; Stavinsky, A.; Werner, K
1998-12-31
The ability of the ALICE detector for determination of the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation functions of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities is discussed. The possibility to use the correlations of non-identical particles for a direct determination of the delays in emission of various particle species at time scales as small as 10{sup -23} s is demonstrated. The influence of the multi-boson effects on pion multiplicities, single-pion spectra and two-pion correlation functions is discussed. (author) 63 refs.
Modified circular velocity law
Djeghloul, Nazim
2018-05-01
A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.
Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence
Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan
2014-11-01
Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.
The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars
Arzoumanian, Z.; Chernoff, D. F.; Cordes, J. M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars based on large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys. We do so by modelling evolution of the locations, velocities, spins, and radio luminosities of pulsars; calculating pulsed flux according to a beaming model and random orientation angles of spin and beam; applying selection effects of pulsar surveys; and comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. The surveys analyzed have well-defined characteristics and cover approx. 95% of the sky. We maximize the likelihood in a 6-dimensional space of observables P, dot-P, DM, absolute value of b, mu, F (period, period derivative, dispersion measure, Galactic latitude, proper motion, and flux density). The models we test are described by 12 parameters that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as E(exp 1/2) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/ s and 500 km/ s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution; this preference is largely immune to variations in other population parameters, such as the luminosity or distance scale, or the assumed spin-down law. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (1) roughly 50% of pulsars in the solar neighborhood will escape the Galaxy, while approx. 15% have velocities greater than 1000 km/ s (2) observational bias against high velocity pulsars is relatively unimportant for surveys that reach high Galactic absolute value of z distances, but is severe for
HIGH VELOCITY THERMAL GUN FOR SURFACE PREPARATION AND TREATMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.A. Gorlach
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Many surface preparation and treatment processes utilise compressed air to propel particles against surfaces in order to clean and treat them. The effectiveness of the processes depends on the velocity of the particles, which in turn depends on the pressure of the compressed air. This paper describes a thermal gun built on the principles of High Velocity Air Fuel (HVAF and High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF processes. The designed apparatus can be used for abrasive blasting, coating of surfaces, cutting of rocks, removing rubber from mining equipment, cleaning of contaminations etc.
Turbulent diffusion of small particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Margolin, L.G.
1977-11-01
The diffusion of small, spherical, rigid particles suspended in an incompressible turbulent fluid, but not interacting with each other, was studied. As a stochastic process, the turbulent fluid velocity field is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic and stationary. Assuming the Stokes regime, a particle of equation of motion is used which includes only the effects of Stokes drag and a virtual mass force and an exact solution is found for the particle velocity correlation function, for all times and initial conditions, in terms of a fluid velocity correlation function measured along the motion of the particle. This shows that for times larger than a certain time scale, the particle velocity correlation becomes stationary. The effect of small shears in the fluid velocity was considered, under the additional restrictions of a certain high frequency regime for the turbulence. The shears convected past the particle much faster than the growth of the boundary layer. New force terms due to the presence of such shears are calculated and incorporated into the equation of motion. A perturbation solution to this equation is constructed, and the resultant particle velocity correlation function and diffusion coefficient are calculated. To lowest order, the particle diffusivity is found to be unaltered by the presence of small mean flow shears. The last model treated is one in which particles traverse a turbulent fluid with a large mean velocity. Among other restrictions, linearized form drag is assumed. The diffusion coefficient for such particles was calculated, and found to be much smaller than the passive scalar diffusion coefficient. This agrees within 5 percent with the experimental results of Snyder and Lumley
The Prescribed Velocity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...
Multidisc neutron velocity selector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.
1987-12-01
The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konstandin, Thomas; Rues, Ingo; Nardini, Germano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA
2014-07-01
By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, R.C.; Jones, B.G.
1986-01-01
An experimental study of particles suspended in fully developed turbulent water flow in a vertical pipe was done. Three series of experiments were conducted to investigate the statistical behaviour of particles in nondilute turbulent suspension flow, for two particle densities and particle sizes, and for several particle volume loadings ranging from 0 to 1 percent. The mean free fall velocity of the particles was determined at these various particle volume loadings, and the phenomenon of cluster formation was observed. The precise volume loading which gives the maximum relative settling velocity was observed to depend on particle density and size. (E.G.) [pt
Measurement bias of fluid velocity in molecular simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tysanner, Martin W.; Garcia, Alejandro L.
2004-01-01
In molecular simulations of fluid flow, the measurement of mean fluid velocity is considered to be a straightforward computation, yet there is some ambiguity in its definition. We show that in systems far from equilibrium, such as those with large temperature or velocity gradients, two commonly used definitions give slightly different results. Specifically, a bias can arise when computing the mean fluid velocity by measuring the mean particle velocity in a cell and averaging this mean over samples. We show that this bias comes from the correlation of momentum and density fluctuations in non-equilibrium fluids, obtain an analytical expression for predicting it, and discuss what system characteristics (e.g., number of particles per cell, temperature gradients) reduce or magnify the error. The bias has a physical origin so although we demonstrate it by direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) computations, the same effect will be observed with other particle-based simulation methods, such as molecular dynamics and lattice gases
Dispersion upscaling from a pore scale characterization of Lagrangian velocities
Turuban, Régis; de Anna, Pietro; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Tabuteau, Hervé; Méheust, Yves; Le Borgne, Tanguy
2013-04-01
Mixing and reactive transport are primarily controlled by the interplay between diffusion, advection and reaction at pore scale. Yet, how the distribution and spatial correlation of the velocity field at pore scale impact these processes is still an open question. Here we present an experimental investigation of the distribution and correlation of pore scale velocities and its relation with upscaled dispersion. We use a quasi two-dimensional (2D) horizontal set up, consisting of two glass plates filled with cylinders representing the grains of the porous medium : the cell is built by soft lithography technique, wich allows for full control of the system geometry. The local velocity field is quantified from particle tracking velocimetry using microspheres that are advected with the pore scale flow. Their displacement is purely advective, as the particle size is chosen large enough to avoid diffusion. We thus obtain particle trajectories as well as lagrangian velocities in the entire system. The measured velocity field shows the existence of a network of preferential flow paths in channels with high velocities, as well as very low velocity in stagnation zones, with a non Gaussian distribution. Lagrangian velocities are long range correlated in time, which implies a non-fickian scaling of the longitudinal variance of particle positions. To upscale this process we develop an effective transport model, based on correlated continous time random walk, which is entirely parametrized by the pore scale velocity distribution and correlation. The model predictions are compared with conservative tracer test data for different Peclet numbers. Furthermore, we investigate the impact of different pore geometries on the distribution and correlation of Lagrangian velocities and we discuss the link between these properties and the effective dispersion behavior.
... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...
A review of velocity-type PSO variants
Ivo Sousa-Ferreira; Duarte Sousa
2017-01-01
This paper presents a review of the particular variants of particle swarm optimization, based on the velocity-type class. The original particle swarm optimization algorithm was developed as an unconstrained optimization technique, which lacks a model that is able to handle constrained optimization problems. The particle swarm optimization and its inapplicability in constrained optimization problems are solved using the dynamic-objective constraint-handling method. The dynamic-objective constr...
Viscosity of particle laden films
Timounay, Yousra; Rouyer, Florence
2017-06-01
We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational) of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.
Multidisk neutron velocity selectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammouda, B.
1992-01-01
Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hennion, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1966-06-01
A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}). The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy ({tau}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [French] L'etude est faite en choisissant une fonction de distribution des ions de la forme f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}) et en supposant une conductivite infinie sur les limites du plasma de dimensions finies. L'etude theorique et numerique de la stabilite marginale determine les domaines de stabilite qui sont etudies en fonction de plusieurs parametres: longueur du plasma, anisotropie des ions ({tau}), temperature electronique (T{sub e}). Il apparait une longueur limite du plasma au-dessous de laquelle le plasma est stable, independemment de la densite. L'application faite avec les valeurs des parametres de l'experience d'injection M.M.I.I, a Fontenay-aux-Roses permet de conclure a la non existence dans cet appareil du type d'instabilite etudie ici. (auteur)
Lagrangian multi-particle statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lüthi, Beat; Berg, Jacob; Ott, Søren
2007-01-01
Combined measurements of the Lagrangian evolution of particle constellations and the coarse-grained velocity derivative tensor. partial derivative(u) over tilde (i) /partial derivative x(j) are presented. The data are obtained from three-dimensional particle tracking measurements in a quasi isotr...
L. Sun; X. Zhou; S.M. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise
2005-01-01
We investigated a simultaneous temporally and spatially resolved 2-D velocity field above a burning circular pan of alcohol using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results obtained from PIV were used to assess a thermal particle image velocimetry (TPIV) algorithm previously developed to approximate the velocity field using the temperature field, simultaneously...
Simultaneous measurements with 3D PIV and Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler
Blanckaert, K.J.F.; McLelland, S.J.
2009-01-01
Simultaneous velocity measurements were taken using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profiler (ADVP) in a sharp open-channel bend with an immobile gravel bed. The PIV measures 3D velocity vectors in a vertical plane (~40cm x 20cm) at a frequency of 7.5 Hz, whereas
An experimental study of low concentration sludge settling velocity under turbulent condition.
Guo, Lisha; Zhang, Daijun; Xu, Danyu; Chen, Yuan
2009-05-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to study the settling of activated sludge flocs under turbulent flow conditions. Experimental results showed that a larger particle diameter led to a higher settling velocity while the higher turbulence intensity led to lower settling velocity. Based on the measurements a mathematical relation has been derived which correlates the settling velocity for individual sludge flocs under turbulent conditions through a modified Vesilind equation. Settling velocity shows a power-type relation to sludge particle diameter and an exponential-type relation with turbulence intensity and sludge concentration.
Experimental analysis of turbulence effect in settling velocity of suspended sediments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Salinas–Tapia
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Settling velocities of sediment particles for different size ranges were measured in this work using PIV with the help of discriminatory filters. An experimental channel 10x15 cm cross section was used in order to obtain two set of turbulent characteristics corresponding with two different flow rates. The purpose was to analyze the effect of turbulence on the solids settling velocity. The technique allowed us to measure the individual settling velocity of the particles and the flow velocity field of the fluid. Capture and image analysis was performed with digital cameras (CCD using the software Sharp–provision PIV and the statistical cross correlation technique. Results showed that settling velocity of particles is affected by turbulence which enhances the fluid drag coefficient. Physical explanation of this phenomenon is related with the magnitude of the vertical fluctuating velocity of the fluid. However, more research is needed in order to define settling velocity formulas that takes into account this effect
Particle displacement tracking for PIV
Wernet, Mark P.
1990-01-01
A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Jicha Miroslav; Lizal Frantisek; Jedelsky Jan
2012-01-01
Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused...
Superluminal Velocities in the Synchronized Space-Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medvedev S. Yu.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of the non-gravitational generalization of the special relativity, a problem of possible superluminal motion of particles and signals is considered. It has been proven that for the particles with non-zero mass the existence of anisotropic light barrier with the shape dependent on the reference frame velocity results from the Tangherlini transformations. The maximal possible excess of neutrino velocity over the absolute velocity of light related to the Earth (using th e clock with instantaneous synchronization has been estimated. The illusoriness of t he acausality problem has been illustrated and conclusion is made on the lack of the upper limit of velocities of signals of informational nature.
A phenomenological retention tank model using settling velocity distributions.
Maruejouls, T; Vanrolleghem, P A; Pelletier, G; Lessard, P
2012-12-15
Many authors have observed the influence of the settling velocity distribution on the sedimentation process in retention tanks. However, the pollutants' behaviour in such tanks is not well characterized, especially with respect to their settling velocity distribution. This paper presents a phenomenological modelling study dealing with the way by which the settling velocity distribution of particles in combined sewage changes between entering and leaving an off-line retention tank. The work starts from a previously published model (Lessard and Beck, 1991) which is first implemented in a wastewater management modelling software, to be then tested with full-scale field data for the first time. Next, its performance is improved by integrating the particle settling velocity distribution and adding a description of the resuspension due to pumping for emptying the tank. Finally, the potential of the improved model is demonstrated by comparing the results for one more rain event. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cerenkov detector for heavy-ion velocity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, D.L.; Baumgartner, M.; Dufour, J.P.; Girard, J.G.; Greiner, D.E.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Symons, T.J.M.; Crawford, H.J.
1984-08-01
We have developed a highly sensitive velocity measuring detector using total-internal-reflection Cerenkov counters of a type mentioned by Jelly in 1958. If the velocity of the particle is above the threshold for total-internal-reflection these counters have a charge resolution of sigma = 0.18e for a 3mm thick glass radiator. For the velocity measurement we use a fused silica radiator so that the velocity of the particles are near the threshold for total-internal reflection. For momentum-analyzed projectile fragments of 1.6 GeV/nucleon 40 Ar, we have measured a mass resolution of sigma = 0.1u for isotope identification
Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.
2011-01-01
To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...
Particle acceleration in modified shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O'C.; Axford, W.I.; Summers, D.
1982-01-01
Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed. (author)
Particle acceleration in modified shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Axford, W.I. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.)); Summers, D. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada))
1982-03-01
Efficient particle acceleration in shocks must modify the shock structure with consequent changes in the particle acceleration. This effect is studied and analytic solutions are found describing the diffusive acceleration of particles with momentum independent diffusion coefficients in hyperbolic tangent type velocity transitions. If the input particle spectrum is a delta function, the shock smoothing replaces the truncated power-law downstream particle spectrum by a more complicated form, but one which has a power-law tail at high momenta. For a cold plasma this solution can be made completely self-consistent. Some problems associated with momentum dependent diffusion coefficients are discussed.
Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...
Dense velocity reconstruction from tomographic PTV with material derivatives
Schneiders, Jan F. G.; Scarano, Fulvio
2016-09-01
A method is proposed to reconstruct the instantaneous velocity field from time-resolved volumetric particle tracking velocimetry (PTV, e.g., 3D-PTV, tomographic PTV and Shake-the-Box), employing both the instantaneous velocity and the velocity material derivative of the sparse tracer particles. The constraint to the measured temporal derivative of the PTV particle tracks improves the consistency of the reconstructed velocity field. The method is christened as pouring time into space, as it leverages temporal information to increase the spatial resolution of volumetric PTV measurements. This approach becomes relevant in cases where the spatial resolution is limited by the seeding concentration. The method solves an optimization problem to find the vorticity and velocity fields that minimize a cost function, which includes next to instantaneous velocity, also the velocity material derivative. The velocity and its material derivative are related through the vorticity transport equation, and the cost function is minimized using the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. The procedure is assessed numerically with a simulated PTV experiment in a turbulent boundary layer from a direct numerical simulation (DNS). The experimental validation considers a tomographic particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiment in a similar turbulent boundary layer and the additional case of a jet flow. The proposed technique (`vortex-in-cell plus', VIC+) is compared to tomographic PIV analysis (3D iterative cross-correlation), PTV interpolation methods (linear and adaptive Gaussian windowing) and to vortex-in-cell (VIC) interpolation without the material derivative. A visible increase in resolved details in the turbulent structures is obtained with the VIC+ approach, both in numerical simulations and experiments. This results in a more accurate determination of the turbulent stresses distribution in turbulent boundary layer investigations. Data from a jet
Thought experiments at superluminal relative velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corben, H.C.
1976-01-01
It is imagined that our World is being examined from a similar world which is moving relative to us with a velocity greater than that of light. The two worlds are supposed to be similar in that the particles in each appear to any observer in that world to have real measurable properties. However, the enormous relative velocity so distorts the observations that each world makes on the other that the squares of certain real quantities appear to the other observer to be negative. Neglect of this fact has led to the erroneous belief that a free charged tachyon would emit Cherenkov radiation and that the existence of tachyons would lead to logical paradoxes. (author)
Leading-Edge Velocities and Lifted Methane Jet Flame Stability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Wang
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Current interest exists in understanding reaction-zone dynamics and mechanisms with respect to how they counterpropagate against incoming reactants. Images of flame position and flow-field morphology are presented from flame chemiluminescence and particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements. In the present study, PIV experiments were carried out to measure the methane jet lifted-flame flow-field velocities in the vicinity of the flame leading edge. Specifically, velocity fields within the high-temperature zone were examined in detail, which complements previous studies, whose prime focus is the flow-field upstream of the high-temperature boundary. PIV data is used not only to determine the velocities, but, along with chemiluminescence images, to also indicate the approximate location of the reaction zone (further supported by/through the leading-edge flame velocity distributions. The velocity results indirectly support the concept that the flame is anchored primarily through the mechanism of partially premixed flame propagation.
Superconducting spoke cavities for high-velocity applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopper, Christopher S. [Old Dominion U.; Delayen, Jean R. [Old Dominion U., JLAB
2013-10-01
To date, superconducting spoke cavities have been designed, developed, and tested for particle velocities up to {beta}{sub 0}~0.6, but there is a growing interest in possible applications of multispoke cavities for high-velocity applications. We have explored the design parameter space for low-frequency, high-velocity, double-spoke superconducting cavities in order to determine how each design parameter affects the electromagnetic properties, in particular the surface electromagnetic fields and the shunt impedance. We present detailed design for cavities operating at 325 and 352 MHz and optimized for {beta}{sub 0}~=0.82 and 1.
Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.
1986-01-01
Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared
About the kinematics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.; Recami, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan; Campinas State Univ., SP
1995-06-01
Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v 2 . The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) P μ v μ =m is here derived in a self-consistent way
Shock compression parameters for a boron-loaded, silicone-rubber composite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gust, W.H.; Van Thiel, M.; Gathers, G.R.
1975-01-01
Hugoniot parameters under uniaxial-shock-wave-loading from 0.03 to 0.6 Mbar are presented for a composite with 70 wt percent boron loaded in a silicone-rubber matrix. The plot of shock velocity vs particle velocity was found to be nonlinear. Equations that describe fits of the data are presented. (U.S.)
Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.
Movement of heavy particles in tornadoes
Ingel, L. Kh.
2017-07-01
The horizontal movement of inertial particles in the intensive vortices, where the centrifugal force can be substantially higher than the gravity, is studied analytically. A similar problem was studied earlier for small (Stokes) particles at low Reynolds number, which allow one to be limited to the linear resistance law. It is shown that the previous results to a great extent can be extrapolated to the case of considerably heavier particles (e.g., water droplets with a diameter up to 1 mm at Reynolds numbers up to 103). The nonlinear nature of the resistance, i.e., its dependence on the particle velocity relative to the medium, should be taken into account for such particles. Some general laws are established for particle dynamics. In particular, their tangential velocity is close to the velocity of the medium, while the radial velocity is substantially lower (it is close on the order of magnitude to the geometric mean of the particle tangential velocity and the difference between the latter and the tangential velocity of the medium). The limits of applicability of the results are found, i.e., the restrictions to the size and mass/density of particles.
Velocity measurements in a rigid ceramic filter in a parallel-flow arrangement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Hajeri, M.H.; Aroussi, A.; Witry, A.
2002-01-01
Rigid ceramic filters have been developed for cleaning the hot combustion gas streams upstream of the turbine in a combined cycle power plant. To obtain continues operation a periodic cleaning is necessary and the cleaning efficiency depends on the distribution of the filtration cake. Consequently uniform particle deposition on the filter element surface is desired. The flow around three filter elements in cross flow is investigated computationally using the commercial code FLUENT. Three filter elements are placed in a two-dimensional rectangle duct with fixed face velocity and varying the velocity ratio between the approach and face velocity. Particle trajectories are obtained for a number of particle diameters and different inlet (approach) velocity to face filtration velocity ratios to investigate the behavior of particles around the filter element. (author)
Measurement and analysis of abrasive particles velocities in AWSJ
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zeleňák, Michal; Foldyna, Josef; Linde, M.; Pude, F.; Rentsch, T.; Fernolendt, J.; Poort, H. U.
2016-01-01
Roč. 149, July 2016 (2016), s. 77-86 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials, ICMEM 2016. Nový Smokovec, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : AWSJ * PIV * LIF Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705816311493
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.
1986-01-01
This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction
Polarization particle drift and quasi-particle invariants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.P.
1995-01-01
The second-order approximation in quasi-particle description of magnetized plasmas is studied. Reduced particle and guiding-centre velocities are derived taking account of the second-order renormalization and polarization drift modified owing to finite-Larmor-radius effects. The second-order adiabatic invariant of quasi-particle motion is found. Global adiabatic invariants for the magnetized plasma are revealed, and their possible role in energy exchange between particles and fields, nonlinear mode cascades and global plasma stability is shown. 49 refs
Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David
2010-01-01
We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ai, Bao-Quan; He, Ya-Feng; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2014-01-01
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction
Entropic Ratchet transport of interacting active Brownian particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ai, Bao-Quan, E-mail: aibq@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); He, Ya-Feng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China); Zhong, Wei-Rong, E-mail: wrzhong@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Siyuan Laboratory, College of Science and Engineering, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China)
2014-11-21
Directed transport of interacting active (self-propelled) Brownian particles is numerically investigated in confined geometries (entropic barriers). The self-propelled velocity can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the interaction between active particles can greatly affect the ratchet transport. For attractive particles, on increasing the interaction strength, the average velocity first decreases to its minima, then increases, and finally decreases to zero. For repulsive particles, when the interaction is very weak, there exists a critical interaction at which the average velocity is minimal, nearly tends to zero, however, for the strong interaction, the average velocity is independent of the interaction.
Potential of the test particle in the magnetic field. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sestak, B.
1980-01-01
The problem of the test particle potential in an external homogeneous magnetic field is solved in an unmagnetized plasma. It is shown that for the case when the parallel velocity component of the test particle is greater than the thermal velocity of the background particles, the potential is of a Coulomb character while for the case where the parallel velocity component is less than the thermal velocity the potential is of a Debye character. The Larmor radius of the test particle appears as an additional parameter in these potentials. (author)
Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury
Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.
2011-01-01
The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.
Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-01
Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non
Introduction to vector velocity imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov
Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...
Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Xu
2008-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006
Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab
2008-01-01
This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.
Scanning tomographic particle image velocimetry applied to a turbulent jet
Casey, T. A.; Sakakibara, J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T
2013-01-01
planes in the depth direction by maintaining optimal particle image density and limiting the number of ghost particles. The total measurement volumes contain between 1 ×106 and 3 ×106 velocity vectors calculated from up to 1500 reconstructed depthwise
Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha, Abhishek [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Ranganathan, E-mail: ranganathan.kumar@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)
2012-10-01
The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.
Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan
2012-01-01
The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.
Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation
Decker, Luke
2014-08-05
We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.
Factorization Procedure for Harmonically Bound Brownian Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omolo, JK.
2006-01-01
The method of factorization to solve the problem of the one-dimensional harmonically bound Brownian particle was applied. Assuming the the rapidily fluctuating random force is Gaussian and has an infinitely short correlation time, explicit expressions for the position-position,velocity-velocity, and the position-velocity correlation functions, which are also use to write down appropriate distribution functions were used. The correlation and distribution functions for the complex quantity (amplititude) which provides the expressions for the position and velocity of the particle are calculated. Finally, Fokker-Planck equations for the joint probability distribution functions for the amplititude and it's complex conjugate as well as for the position and velocity of the particle are obtained. (author)
Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axnaes, I.
1988-10-01
The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)
Computational Fluid-Particle Dynamics for the Flame Synthesis of Alumina Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Tue; Pratsinis, Sotirie E.; Livbjerg, Hans
2000-01-01
A mathematical model for the dynamics of particle growth during synthesis of ultra fine particles in diffusion flames is presented. The model includes the kinetics of particle coalescence and coagulation, and when combined with a calculation of the temperature, velocity and gas composition distri...
The ongoing saga surrounding the velocity fluctuations in sedimentation
Brenner, Michael P.
2002-11-01
Particles moving through a viscous fluid interact with each other, because each individual particle drags fluid along with it, which then pulls on other particles. In a low Reynolds number sediment, such hydrodynamic interactions are extremely strong, even when the particles are well separated. Despite more than a century of research, the character of the particle motions in a dilute suspension of heavy particles is highly controversial: In 1985, Caflisch and Luke presented an extremely simple argument indicating that the velocity fluctuations in such a sediment should diverge with the system size. Experiments have mainly contradicted this conclusion, leading to the hope that there is a (perhaps universal) ''screening mechanism'' controlling the size of the fluctuations. In this lecture I will review the history of this problem, and then present the results of our recent research which indicates that the velocity fluctuations are highly nonuniversal and system size dependent, depending subtley on both the shape of the container holding the sediment and any particle stratification that develops during an experiment. Experiments, numerical simulations and theory are presented that quantitatively support this point of view. This work is in collaboration with P. J. Mucha and the experimental group of D. A. Weitz: (S. Tee, S. Manley and L. Cippelletti).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutschera, W.
1984-01-01
The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references
Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.
2006-01-01
We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.
1978-01-01
Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)
Lemke, Raymond
2015-06-01
The focus of this talk is on magnetically driven, liner implosion experiments on the Z machine (Z) in which a solid, metal tube is shocklessly compressed to multi-megabar pressure. The goal of the experiments is to collect velocimetry data that can be used in conjunction with a new optimization based analysis technique to infer the principal isentrope of the tube material over a range of pressures. For the past decade, shock impact and ramp loading experiments on Z have used planar platforms exclusively. While producing state-of-the-art results for material science, it is difficult to produce drive pressures greater than 6 Mbar in the divergent planar geometry. In contrast, a cylindrical liner implosion is convergent; magnetic drive pressures approaching 50 Mbar are possible with the available current on Z (~ 20 MA). In our cylindrical experiments, the liner comprises an inner tube composed of the sample material (e.g., Ta) of unknown equation of state, and an outer tube composed of aluminum (Al) that serves as the current carrying cathode. Internal to the sample are fielded multiple PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry) probes that measure velocity of the inner free surface of the imploding sample. External to the composite liner, at much larger radius, is an Al tube that is the return current anode. VISAR (velocity interferometry system for any reflector) probes measure free surface velocity of the exploding anode. Using the latter, MHD and optimization codes are employed to solve an inverse problem that yields the current driving the liner implosion. Then, the drive current, PDV velocity, MHD and optimization codes, are used to solve another inverse problem that yields pressure vs. density on approximately the principal isentrope of the sample material. Results for Ta, Re, and Cu compressed to ~ 10 Mbar are presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin
Application of particle imaging velocimetry in windtunnels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kompenhans, J.; Reichmuth, J.
1987-01-01
Recently the instantaneous and nonintrusive measurement of the flow velocity in a large area of the flow field (two-dimensional plane) became possible by means of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Up to now PIV has mainly been used for model experiments at low flow velocities in order to test and to improve the measuring technique. The present aim is the application of PIV in large wind tunnels at high flow velocities. 7 references
Measurement of sound velocity profiles in fluids for process monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, M; Kühnicke, E; Lenz, M; Bock, M
2012-01-01
In ultrasonic measurements, the time of flight to the object interface is often the only information that is analysed. Conventionally it is only possible to determine distances or sound velocities if the other value is known. The current paper deals with a novel method to measure the sound propagation path length and the sound velocity in media with moving scattering particles simultaneously. Since the focal position also depends on sound velocity, it can be used as a second parameter. Via calibration curves it is possible to determine the focal position and sound velocity from the measured time of flight to the focus, which is correlated to the maximum of averaged echo signal amplitude. To move focal position along the acoustic axis, an annular array is used. This allows measuring sound velocity locally resolved without any previous knowledge of the acoustic media and without a reference reflector. In previous publications the functional efficiency of this method was shown for media with constant velocities. In this work the accuracy of these measurements is improved. Furthermore first measurements and simulations are introduced for non-homogeneous media. Therefore an experimental set-up was created to generate a linear temperature gradient, which also causes a gradient of sound velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.
1974-01-01
A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ress, T I; Nolde, G V
1974-11-25
A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.
Tracking Lagrangian trajectories in position–velocity space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Haitao
2008-01-01
Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithms are susceptible to intermittent loss of particle images on the sensors. The measured trajectories are often interrupted into short segments and the long-time Lagrangian statistics are difficult to obtain. We present an algorithm to connect the segments of Lagrangian trajectories from common particle-tracking algorithms. Our algorithm tracks trajectory segments in the six-dimensional position and velocity space. We describe the approach to determine parameters in the algorithm and demonstrate the validity of the algorithm with data from numerical simulations and the improvement of long-time Lagrangian statistics on experimental data. The algorithm has important applications in measurements with high particle seeding density and in obtaining multi-particle Lagrangian statistics
Heavy Metal and PAH Concentrations in Highway Runoff Deposits Fractionated on Settling Velocities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben
2009-01-01
The correlation between settling velocity and associated pollutant concentrations is of major importance for best management practice in designing, redesigning, or evaluation of the efficiency of existing pond facilities for retaining unwanted pollutants. The prospect of this note is to state...... the relationship between the settling velocity of the runoff particles and the corresponding metal and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration directly instead of dealing with two unknowns-the density and the shape of a single particle fraction in a settling velocity calculations. The measurements show...... and copper and there is no significant correlation between PAH concentration and settling velocity. The largest mass of metals and PAH within each pond can be found on the particle fraction with a settling velocity of 5.5-2.5 mm/s....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan
2012-01-01
The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration
Optical Particle Characterization in Flows
Tropea, Cameron
2011-01-01
Particle characterization in dispersed multiphase flows is important in quantifying transport processes both in fundamental and applied research: Examples include atomization and spray processes, cavitation and bubbly flows, and solid particle transport in gas and liquid carrier phases. Optical techniques of particle characterization are preferred owing to their nonintrusiveness, and they can yield information about size, velocity, composition, and to some extent the shape of individual particles. This review focuses on recent advances for measuring size, temperature, and the composition of particles, including several planar methods, various imaging techniques, laser-induced fluorescence, and the more recent use of femtosecond pulsed light sources. It emphasizes the main sources of uncertainty, the achievable accuracy, and the outlook for improvement of specific techniques and for specific applications. Some remarks are also directed toward the computational tools used to design and investigate the performance of optical particle diagnostic instruments.
Suppression of thermal noise in a non-Markovian random velocity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Masahiko
2016-01-01
We study the diffusion of Brownian particles in a Gaussian random velocity field with short memory. By extending the derivation of an effective Fokker–Planck equation for the Lanvegin equation with weakly colored noise to a random velocity-field problem, we find that the effect of thermal noise on particles is suppressed by the existence of memory. We also find that the renormalization effect for the relative diffusion of two particles is stronger than that for single-particle diffusion. The results are compared with those of molecular dynamics simulations. (paper: classical statistical mechanics, equilibrium and non-equilibrium)
Concentration and size distribution of particles in abstracted groundwater.
van Beek, C G E M; de Zwart, A H; Balemans, M; Kooiman, J W; van Rosmalen, C; Timmer, H; Vandersluys, J; Stuyfzand, P J
2010-02-01
Particle number concentrations have been counted and particle size distributions calculated in groundwater derived by abstraction wells. Both concentration and size distribution are governed by the discharge rate: the higher this rate the higher the concentration and the higher the proportion of larger particles. However, the particle concentration in groundwater derived from abstraction wells, with high groundwater flow velocities, is much lower than in groundwater from monitor wells, with minimal flow velocities. This inconsistency points to exhaustion of the particle supply in the aquifer around wells due to groundwater abstraction for many years. The particle size distribution can be described with the help of a power law or Pareto distribution. Comparing the measured particle size distribution with the Pareto distribution shows that particles with a diameter >7 microm are under-represented. As the particle size distribution is dependent on the flow velocity, so is the value of the "Pareto" slope beta. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.
Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin
2018-02-01
In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, P.
1993-01-01
The limiting bubble wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is demonstrated that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas limit
One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, P.
1993-01-01
The limiting bubble-wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. I demonstrate that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas (''thin-wall'') limit
Deposition and Resuspension of Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lengweiler, P.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, A.
To investigate the physical process of deposition and resuspension of particles in the indoor environment, scale experiments are used and a sampling method is established. The influences of surface orientation and turbulence and velocity of the air on the dust load on a surface are analysed....
Crucial role of sidewalls in velocity distributions in quasi-two-dimensional granular gases
van Zon, J.S.; Kreft, J.; Goldman, D.L.; Miracle, D.; Swift, J. B.; Swinney, H. L.
2004-01-01
The significance of sidewalls which yield velocity distributions with non-Gaussian tails and a peak near zero velocity in quasi-two-dimensional granular gases, was investigated. It was observed that the particles gained energy only through collisions with the bottom of the container, which was not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charpak, G.
2000-01-01
In this article G.Charpak presents the principles on which particle detection is based. Particle accelerators are becoming more and more powerful and require new detectors able to track the right particle in a huge flux of particles. The gigantic size of detectors in high energy physics is often due to the necessity of getting a long enough trajectory in a magnetic field in order to deduce from the curvature an accurate account of impulses in the reaction. (A.C.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey PLOTNIKOV
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The simulation from the motion of flat particle revealed that the fall depends on the height of the drop, the thickness and density of the particles and does not depend on its length and width. The drop in air is about 20% longer than in vacuum. During orientation from angular particles the velocity of rotating particles with a length of 150mm is reduced by 18%, for particles with a length of 75mm by 12%. This reduction increases linearly with decreasing density of particles. A velocity field acting on the particle in the fall and rotation was presented. The results of the study prove the possibility to reduce the scatter of the particles during the mat's formation, that in turns can increase the board’s bending strength.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chinowsky, W.
1989-01-01
Work done in the mid 1950s at Brookhaven National Laboratory on strange particles is described. Experiments were done on the Cosmotron. The author describes his own and others' work on neutral kaons, lambda and theta particles and points out the theoretical gap between predictions and experimental findings. By the end of the decade, the theory of strange particles was better understood. (UK)
Approaching space-time through velocity in doubly special relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aloisio, R.; Galante, A.; Grillo, A.F.; Luzio, E.; Mendez, F.
2004-01-01
We discuss the definition of velocity as dE/d vertical bar p vertical bar, where E, p are the energy and momentum of a particle, in doubly special relativity (DSR). If this definition matches dx/dt appropriate for the space-time sector, then space-time can in principle be built consistently with the existence of an invariant length scale. We show that, within different possible velocity definitions, a space-time compatible with momentum-space DSR principles cannot be derived
Neoclassical rotation velocities in multispecies plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houlberg, W.A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Shaing, K.C.
1996-01-01
We examine the relationships between the poloidal, toroidal and parallel rotation velocities for typical plasma conditions in existing tokamak experiments. The radial force balance, neoclassical solution to the poloidal flow from the parallel force balance, and anomalous toroidal rotation axe included. A full multispecies formulation of the neoclassical transport theory is implemented in the NCLASS code (which includes arbitrary axisymmetric geometries and plasma collisionalities) to determine the poloidal rotation velocities. Comparisons are made with analytic relationships derived from a single impurity formulation of the problem. The roles of the radial electric field and species density and pressure gradients are evaluated. The determination of the radial electric field using the NCLASS solution for poloidal rotation and a local measurement of the toroidal rotation in conjunction with measured plasma profiles is discussed; it has been used in analysis of TFTR enhanced reverse shear plasmas. The ordering of banana orbit size small relative to local minor radius and gradients (as incorporated into initial versions of NCLASS) are examined for typical negative shear plasmas. We show the degree to which these constraints axe violated and demonstrate that finite orbit corrections axe required for better determination of the bootstrap current, particle fluxes and ion heat fluxes, i.e., the conditions r much-lt Δ b much-lt r n , r T , r E are significantly violated. Progress in relaxing these constraints is discussed
Velocity distribution in snow avalanches
Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.
1997-12-01
In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.
Rainbow Particle Imaging Velocimetry
Xiong, Jinhui
2017-04-27
Despite significant recent progress, dense, time-resolved imaging of complex, non-stationary 3D flow velocities remains an elusive goal. This work tackles this problem by extending an established 2D method, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, to three dimensions by encoding depth into color. The encoding is achieved by illuminating the flow volume with a continuum of light planes (a “rainbow”), such that each depth corresponds to a specific wavelength of light. A diffractive component in the camera optics ensures that all planes are in focus simultaneously. With this setup, a single color camera is sufficient to track 3D trajectories of particles by combining 2D spatial and 1D color information. For reconstruction, this thesis derives an image formation model for recovering stationary 3D particle positions. 3D velocity estimation is achieved with a variant of 3D optical flow that accounts for both physical constraints as well as the rainbow image formation model. The proposed method is evaluated by both simulations and an experimental prototype setup.
Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McLaren, Scott A
2008-01-01
.... A velocity estimator (VEST) algorithm was developed to combine the inertial and wind velocities to provide an estimate of the aircraft's current true velocity to be used for command path gain scheduling and for display in the cockpit...
Effects of Particles Collision on Separating Gas–Particle Two-Phase Turbulent Flows
Sihao, L. V.
2013-10-10
A second-order moment two-phase turbulence model incorporating a particle temperature model based on the kinetic theory of granular flow is applied to investigate the effects of particles collision on separating gas–particle two-phase turbulent flows. In this model, the anisotropy of gas and solid phase two-phase Reynolds stresses and their correlation of velocity fluctuation are fully considered using a presented Reynolds stress model and the transport equation of two-phase stress correlation. Experimental measurements (Xu and Zhou in ASME-FED Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Paper FEDSM99-7909, 1999) are used to validate this model, source codes and prediction results. It showed that the particles collision leads to decrease in the intensity of gas and particle vortices and takes a larger effect on particle turbulent fluctuations. The time-averaged velocity, the fluctuation velocity of gas and particle phase considering particles colli-sion are in good agreement with experimental measurements. Particle kinetic energy is always smaller than gas phase due to energy dissipation from particle collision. Moreover, axial– axial and radial–radial fluctuation velocity correlations have stronger anisotropic behaviors. © King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2013
Viscosity of particle laden films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timounay Yousra
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We perform retraction experiments on soap films where large particles bridge the two interfaces. Local velocities are measured by PIV during the unstationnary regime. The velocity variation in time and space can be described by a continuous fluid model from which effective viscosity (shear and dilatational of particulate films is measured. The 2D effective viscosity of particulate films η2D increases with particle surface fraction ϕ: at low ϕ, it tends to the interfacial dilatational viscosity of the liquid/air interfaces and it diverges at the critical particle surface fraction ϕc ≃ 0.84. Experimental data agree with classical viscosity laws of hard spheres suspensions adapted to the 2D geometry, assuming viscous dissipation resulting from the squeeze of the liquid/air interfaces between the particles. Finally, we show that the observed viscous dissipation in particulate films has to be considered to describe the edge velocity during a retraction experiment at large particle coverage.
Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces
Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.
1995-01-01
Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many
Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.
1987-02-01
We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Angle independent velocity spectrum determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....
Measurements of Terminal Velocities of Cirrus Clouds in the Upper Trosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nee Jan Bai
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are composed of ice crystals condensed from humidity due to low temperature condition in the upper atmosphere. The microphysics of cirrus clouds including sizes and shapes of ice particles are not well understood but are important in climate modeling. Ice crystal will fall under gravitational sedimentation to reach terminal velocities which depend on the size, mass, and ice habit. We studied here the terminal velocity of cirrus clouds by using lidar observations at Chungli (25N, 121E. The terminal velocities for a few cases of stable cirrus clouds are measured to determine the ice particle sizes and processes in the upper atmosphere.
Collisional activation by the fast particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiraoka, Kenzo
1996-01-01
Collisional activation of the matter induced by the bombardment of the fast particle is summarized. The particle with the velocity higher than the Bohr velocity (transit time through 5A shorter than 2.5x10 -16 s) experiences the electronic stopping power when it passes through the matter and induces dense electronic excitations and ionizations which results in the heavy sputtering of the matter. This kind of activation is usefully applied in the PDMS. When the particle velocity becomes lower than the Bohr velocity, the energy is mainly deposited to the matter by the nuclear stopping power, i.e., energy loss is governed by the screened Coulombic collisions of the atoms giving rise to the momentum transfer to the target nuclei. When the transit time of the particle through 5A is between 2.5x10 -16 -10 -14 s, the electronic excitation and ionization take place by the collision. These phenomena are fully utilized in the FAB/SIMS and CID techniques. With the transit time in the range of 10 -14 -2.5x10 -13 s, the velocity is not high enough for the electronic excitation and the particle loses its energy mainly by the vibrational and phonon excitation of the target. This range of the velocity corresponds to that of the massive cluster impact ionization. With the velocity equal to or lower than 2.5x10 -13 s, the energy of the incident particle is consumed mainly by the phonon excitation and the collision results in the modest heating of the colliding interface between the projectile and the target. This range of the velocity is successfully used in the ionized cluster beam technique developed by Takagi of the Kyoto University. (author). 59 refs
Development of a particle method of characteristics (PMOC) for one-dimensional shock waves
Hwang, Y.-H.
2018-03-01
In the present study, a particle method of characteristics is put forward to simulate the evolution of one-dimensional shock waves in barotropic gaseous, closed-conduit, open-channel, and two-phase flows. All these flow phenomena can be described with the same set of governing equations. The proposed scheme is established based on the characteristic equations and formulated by assigning the computational particles to move along the characteristic curves. Both the right- and left-running characteristics are traced and represented by their associated computational particles. It inherits the computational merits from the conventional method of characteristics (MOC) and moving particle method, but without their individual deficiencies. In addition, special particles with dual states deduced to the enforcement of the Rankine-Hugoniot relation are deliberately imposed to emulate the shock structure. Numerical tests are carried out by solving some benchmark problems, and the computational results are compared with available analytical solutions. From the derivation procedure and obtained computational results, it is concluded that the proposed PMOC will be a useful tool to replicate one-dimensional shock waves.
Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shepard, K.W.
1987-01-01
Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction.
Development of a very-low-velocity superconducting linac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shepard, K.W.
1987-01-01
Four types of superconducting accelerator structures are being developed for use in a low velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS heavy-ion accelerator. Prototypes of the first two of these have been tested. The structures are all variants of a quarter-wave line terminated with a four-gap interdigital drift-tube array. The two structure types so far tested operate at 48.5 mHz and have an active length of 10 cm (for the particle velocity - .008c type) and 16.5 cm (for the velocity - .014c type). Effective accelerating fields of 10 MV/m have been achieved with the 10 cm structure, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1 MV. The 16.5 cm structure has been operated at field levels of 6 MV/m, also giving an effective potential of 1 MV. Prototypes of the remaining two resonant geometries are under construction
VeLoc: Finding Your Car in Indoor Parking Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruipeng Gao
2018-05-01
Full Text Available While WiFi-based indoor localization is attractive, there are many indoor places without WiFi coverage with a strong demand for localization capability. This paper describes a system and associated algorithms to address the indoor vehicle localization problem without the installation of additional infrastructure. In this paper, we propose VeLoc, which utilizes the sensor data of smartphones in the vehicle together with the floor map of the parking structure to track the vehicle in real time. VeLoc simultaneously harnesses constraints imposed by the map and environment sensing. All these cues are codified into a novel augmented particle filtering framework to estimate the position of the vehicle. Experimental results show that VeLoc performs well when even the initial position and the initial heading direction of the vehicle are completely unknown.
VeLoc: Finding Your Car in Indoor Parking Structures.
Gao, Ruipeng; He, Fangpu; Li, Teng
2018-05-02
While WiFi-based indoor localization is attractive, there are many indoor places without WiFi coverage with a strong demand for localization capability. This paper describes a system and associated algorithms to address the indoor vehicle localization problem without the installation of additional infrastructure. In this paper, we propose VeLoc, which utilizes the sensor data of smartphones in the vehicle together with the floor map of the parking structure to track the vehicle in real time. VeLoc simultaneously harnesses constraints imposed by the map and environment sensing. All these cues are codified into a novel augmented particle filtering framework to estimate the position of the vehicle. Experimental results show that VeLoc performs well when even the initial position and the initial heading direction of the vehicle are completely unknown.
Velocity Statistics and Spectra in Three-Stream Jets
Ecker, Tobias; Lowe, K. Todd; Ng, Wing F.; Henderson, Brenda; Leib, Stewart
2016-01-01
Velocimetry measurements were obtained in three-stream jets at the NASA Glenn Research Center Nozzle Acoustics Test Rig using the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry technique. These measurements afford exceptional frequency response, to 125 kHz bandwidth, in order to study the detailed dynamics of turbulence in developing shear flows. Mean stream-wise velocity is compared to measurements acquired using particle image velocimetry for validation. Detailed results for convective velocity distributions throughout an axisymmetric plume and the thick side of a plume with an offset third-stream duct are provided. The convective velocity results exhibit that, as expected, the eddy speeds are reduced on the thick side of the plume compared to the axisymmetric case. The results indicate that the time-resolved Doppler global velocimetry method holds promise for obtaining results valuable to the implementation and refinement of jet noise prediction methods being developed for three-stream jets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raju, M.R.
1993-09-01
Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raju, M.R.
1993-01-01
Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics
Cosmological imprints of pre-inflationary particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fialkov, Anastasia; Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@gmail.com, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: elykovetz@gmail.com [Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2010-02-01
We study some of the cosmological imprints of pre-inflationary particles. We show that each such particle provides a seed for a spherically symmetric cosmic defect. The profile of this cosmic defect is fixed and its magnitude is linear in a single parameter that is determined by the mass of the pre-inflationary particle. We study the CMB and peculiar velocity imprints of this cosmic defect and suggest that it could explain some of the large scale cosmological anomalies.
Cosmological imprints of pre-inflationary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialkov, Anastasia; Itzhaki, Nissan; Kovetz, Ely D.
2010-01-01
We study some of the cosmological imprints of pre-inflationary particles. We show that each such particle provides a seed for a spherically symmetric cosmic defect. The profile of this cosmic defect is fixed and its magnitude is linear in a single parameter that is determined by the mass of the pre-inflationary particle. We study the CMB and peculiar velocity imprints of this cosmic defect and suggest that it could explain some of the large scale cosmological anomalies
ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.
2009-01-01
We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard
1979-01-01
The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single-particl...
Diffusion with intrinsic trapping in 2-d incompressible stochastic velocity fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.; Balescu, R.
1998-10-01
A new statistical approach that applies to the high Kubo number regimes for particle diffusion in stochastic velocity fields is presented. This 2-dimensional model describes the partial trapping of the particles in the stochastic field. the results are close to the numerical simulations and also to the estimations based on percolation theory. (authors)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
The understanding of the Universe at the largest and smallest scales traditionally has been the subject of cosmology and particle physics, respectively. Studying the evolution of the Universe connects today's large scales with the tiny scales in the very early Universe and provides the link between the physics of particles and of the cosmos. This series of five lectures aims at a modern and critical presentation of the basic ideas, methods, models and observations in today's particle cosmology.
The Intermediate Velocity Source in the 40Ca + 197Au Reaction at 35 AMeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Planeta, R.; Sosin, Z.; Hachaj, P.
2001-01-01
The creation of hot Ca-like fragments and the emission of intermediate velocity particles was studied in the 40 Ca+ 197 Au reaction at 35 AMeV. For peripheral collisions the primary projectile-like fragment was reconstructed using the AMPHORA 4π detector system. The particle distributions are compared with the predictions of a Monte Carlo code which calculates the nucleon transfer and clustering probabilities according to the system density of states. The velocity distributions of charged particles projected on the beam direction can be explained if emissions from the hot projectile-like fragment and the target-like fragment are supplemented by an emission from an intermediate velocity source located between them. The properties of the intermediate velocity source are properly described, including the 2 D/ 3 T/ 3 He effect. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamal, Anwar
2014-01-01
Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook teaches particle physics very didactically. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams lead to a better understanding of the explanations. The content of the book covers all important topics of particle physics: Elementary particles are classified from the point of view of the four fundamental interactions. The nomenclature used in particle physics is explained. The discoveries and properties of known elementary particles and resonances are given. The particles considered are positrons, muon, pions, anti-protons, strange particles, neutrino and hadrons. The conservation laws governing the interactions of elementary particles are given. The concepts of parity, spin, charge conjugation, time reversal and gauge invariance are explained. The quark theory is introduced to explain the hadron structure and strong interactions. The solar neutrino problem is considered. Weak interactions are classified into various types, and the selection rules are stated. Non-conservation of parity and the universality of the weak interactions are discussed. Neutral and charged currents, discovery of W and Z bosons and the early universe form important topics of the electroweak interactions. The principles of high energy accelerators including colliders are elaborately explained. Additionally, in the book detectors used in nuclear and particle physics are described. This book is on the upper undergraduate level.
Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goharzadeh, A; Rodgers, P
2009-01-01
This paper presents an experimental study of gas-liquid slug flow on solid particle transport inside a horizontal pipe with two types of experiments conducted. The influence of slug length on solid particle transportation is characterized using high speed photography. Using combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Refractive Index Matching (RIM) and fluorescent tracers (two-phase oil-air loop) the velocity distribution inside the slug body is measured. Combining these experimental analyses, an insight is provided into the physical mechanism of solid particle transportation due to slug flow. It was observed that the slug body significantly influences solid particle mobility. The physical mechanism of solid particle transportation was found to be discontinuous. The inactive region (in terms of solid particle transport) upstream of the slug nose was quantified as a function of gas-liquid composition and solid particle size. Measured velocity distributions showed a significant drop in velocity magnitude immediately upstream of the slug nose and therefore the critical velocity for solid particle lifting is reached further upstream.
Boltzmann Solver with Adaptive Mesh in Velocity Space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolobov, Vladimir I.; Arslanbekov, Robert R.; Frolova, Anna A.
2011-01-01
We describe the implementation of direct Boltzmann solver with Adaptive Mesh in Velocity Space (AMVS) using quad/octree data structure. The benefits of the AMVS technique are demonstrated for the charged particle transport in weakly ionized plasmas where the collision integral is linear. We also describe the implementation of AMVS for the nonlinear Boltzmann collision integral. Test computations demonstrate both advantages and deficiencies of the current method for calculations of narrow-kernel distributions.
The properties of tagged lattice fluids: II. Velocity correlation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binder, P.M.; d'Humieres, D.; Poujol, L.
1988-01-01
We report preliminary measurements of the velocity autocorrelation function for a tagged particle in a lattice gas. These measurements agree with the Boltzmann-level theory. The Green-Kubo integration of these measurements agrees with theoretical predictions for the diffusion coefficient. To within the error bars of the simulations (3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/3/) we observe no long-time tails. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on the bubbling fluidized bed incinerator.
Wang, Feng-Jehng; Chen, Suming; Lei, Perng-Kwei; Wu, Chung-Hsing
2007-12-01
Since performance and operational conditions, such as superficial velocity, pressure drop, particles viodage, and terminal velocity, are difficult to measure on an incinerator, this study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine numerical solutions. The effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator (BFBI) were evaluated. Analytical results indicated that simulation models were able to effectively predict the relationship between superficial velocity and pressure drop over bed height in the BFBI. Second, the models in BFBI were simplified to simulate scale-up beds without excessive computation time. Moreover, simulation and experimental results showed that minimum fluidization velocity of the BFBI must be controlled in at 0.188-3.684 m/s and pressure drop was mainly caused by bed particles.
Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.
Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M
2015-07-01
Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors.
Measurement of pressure distributions and velocity fields of water jet intake flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Eun Ho; Yoon, Sang Youl; Kwon, Seong Hoon; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Mun Chan; Kim, Kyung Chun
2002-01-01
Waterjet propulsion system can avoid cavitation problem which is being arised conventional propeller propulsion system. The main issue of designing waterjet system is the boundary layer separation at ramp and lib of water inlet. The flow characteristics are highly depended on Jet to Velocity Ratio(JVR) as well as the intake geometry. The present study is conducted in a wind tunnel to provide accurate pressure destribution at the inlet wall and velocity field of the inlet and exit planes. Particle image velocimetry technique is used to obtain detail velocity fields. Pressure distributions and velocity field are discussed with accelerating and deaccelerating flow zones and the effect of JVR
Velocity ratio measurement using the frequency of gyro backward wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muggli, P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.
1990-10-01
The operating diagram of a low quality factor, 8GHz TE 01 0 gyrotron exhibits oscillations between 6.8 and 7.3GHz. These oscillations are identified as the backward wave component of the TE 21 0 traveling mode. As the resonance condition of this mode depends on the average parallel velocity [ > of the beam electrons (ω BW ≅Ω C /γ - k [ [ >), the measurement of ω BW for given Ω C and γ, is used as a diagnostic for the beam electrons velocity ratio α= / [ >. The values of α, deduced from ω BW through the linear dispersion relation for the electron cyclotron instability in an infinite waveguide, are unrealistic. A non-linear simulation code gives α values which are in very good agreement with the ones predicted by a particle trajectory code (+10% to +20%). We find numerically that the particles' velocity dispersion in vperpendicular and v [ increases ω BW . This effect explains part of the discrepancy between the values of α inferred from ω BW without velocity dispersion and the expected values. (author) 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ress, R.I.
1976-01-01
Charged particles are entrained in a predetermined direction, independent of their polarity, in a circular orbit by a magnetic field rotating at high speed about an axis in a closed cylindrical or toroidal vessel. The field may be generated by a cylindrical laser structure, whose beam is polygonally reflected from the walls of an excited cavity centered on the axis, or by high-frequency energization of a set of electromagnets perpendicular to the axis. In the latter case, a separate magnetostatic axial field limits the orbital radius of the particles. These rotating and stationary magnetic fields may be generated centrally or by individual magnets peripherally spaced along its circular orbit. Chemical or nuclear reactions can be induced by collisions between the orbiting particles and an injected reactant, or by diverting high-speed particles from one doughnut into the path of counterrotating particles in an adjoining doughnut
Colver, Gerald M.; Goroshin, Samuel; Lee, John H. S.
2001-01-01
A cooperative study is being carried out between Iowa State University and McGill University. The new study concerns wall and particle quenching effects in particle-gas mixtures. The primary objective is to measure and interpret flame quenching distances, flammability limits, and burning velocities in particulate suspensions. A secondary objective is to measure particle slip velocities and particle velocity distribution as these influence flame propagation. Two suspension techniques will be utilized and compared: (1) electric particle suspension/EPS; and (2) flow dispersion. Microgravity tests will permit testing of larger particles and higher and more uniform dust concentrations than is possible in normal gravity.
Resonant acceleration of alpha particles by ion cyclotron waves in the solar wind
Gomberoff, L.; Elgueta, R.
1991-06-01
Preferential acceleration of alpha particles interacting with left-hand polarized ion cyclotron waves is studied. It is shown that a small positive drift velocity between alpha particles and protons can lead to alpha particle velocities well in excess of the proton bulk velocity. During the acceleration process, which is assumed to take place at heliocentric distances less than 0.3 AU, the alpha particle drift velocity should exceed the proton bulk velocity, and then the gap which exists around the alpha particle gyrofrequency should disappear. It is also shown that for proton thermal anisotropies of the order of those observed in fast solar wind, the waves either grow or are not damped excessively, so that the waves can exist and might thus lead to the observed differential speeds. However, the way in which the alpha particles exceed the proton velocity remains unexplained.
Massoudieh, A.; Dentz, M.; Le Borgne, T.
2017-12-01
In heterogeneous media, the velocity distribution and the spatial correlation structure of velocity for solute particles determine the breakthrough curves and how they evolve as one moves away from the solute source. The ability to predict such evolution can help relating the spatio-statistical hydraulic properties of the media to the transport behavior and travel time distributions. While commonly used non-local transport models such as anomalous dispersion and classical continuous time random walk (CTRW) can reproduce breakthrough curve successfully by adjusting the model parameter values, they lack the ability to relate model parameters to the spatio-statistical properties of the media. This in turns limits the transferability of these models. In the research to be presented, we express concentration or flux of solutes as a distribution over their velocity. We then derive an integrodifferential equation that governs the evolution of the particle distribution over velocity at given times and locations for a particle ensemble, based on a presumed velocity correlation structure and an ergodic cross-sectional velocity distribution. This way, the spatial evolution of breakthrough curves away from the source is predicted based on cross-sectional velocity distribution and the connectivity, which is expressed by the velocity transition probability density. The transition probability is specified via a copula function that can help construct a joint distribution with a given correlation and given marginal velocities. Using this approach, we analyze the breakthrough curves depending on the velocity distribution and correlation properties. The model shows how the solute transport behavior evolves from ballistic transport at small spatial scales to Fickian dispersion at large length scales relative to the velocity correlation length.
Initial response of a rock penetrator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longcope, D.B.; Grady, D.E.
1977-12-01
An analysis based on elastic rod theory is given for the early-time axisymmetric response of pointed penetrators. Results of measurements by laser interferometry of the back surface particle velocity of laboratory scale penetrators impacted by sandstone targets are presented. Values of the initial pressure on the penetrator tip are determined which give good agreement between the analytical and experimental results. These initial tip pressures are found to be approximated by the stress-particle velocity Hugoniot for the target material
Velocity measurement accuracy in optical microhemodynamics: experiment and simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chayer, Boris; Cloutier, Guy; L Pitts, Katie; Fenech, Marianne
2012-01-01
Micro particle image velocimetry (µPIV) is a common method to assess flow behavior in blood microvessels in vitro as well as in vivo. The use of red blood cells (RBCs) as tracer particles, as generally considered in vivo, creates a large depth of correlation (DOC), even as large as the vessel itself, which decreases the accuracy of the method. The limitations of µPIV for blood flow measurements based on RBC tracking still have to be evaluated. In this study, in vitro and in silico models were used to understand the effect of the DOC on blood flow measurements using µPIV RBC tracer particles. We therefore employed a µPIV technique to assess blood flow in a 15 µm radius glass tube with a high-speed CMOS camera. The tube was perfused with a sample of 40% hematocrit blood. The flow measured by a cross-correlating speckle tracking technique was compared to the flow rate of the pump. In addition, a three-dimensional mechanical RBC-flow model was used to simulate optical moving speckle at 20% and 40% hematocrits, in 15 and 20 µm radius circular tubes, at different focus planes, flow rates and for various velocity profile shapes. The velocity profiles extracted from the simulated pictures were compared with good agreement with the corresponding velocity profiles implemented in the mechanical model. The flow rates from both the in vitro flow phantom and the mathematical model were accurately measured with less than 10% errors. Simulation results demonstrated that the hematocrit (paired t tests, p = 0.5) and the tube radius (p = 0.1) do not influence the precision of the measured flow rate, whereas the shape of the velocity profile (p < 0.001) and the location of the focus plane (p < 0.001) do, as indicated by measured errors ranging from 3% to 97%. In conclusion, the use of RBCs as tracer particles makes a large DOC and affects the image processing required to estimate the flow velocities. We found that the current µPIV method is acceptable to estimate the flow rate
Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?
Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.
2017-08-01
Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the
Hydrodynamics of multi-sized particles in stable regime of a swirling bed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miin, Chin Swee; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay Raj; Heikal, Morgan Raymond; Naz, Muhammad Yasin [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak (Malaysia)
2015-11-15
Using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV), we observed particle motion within the stable operating regime of a swirling fluidized bed with an annular blade distributor. This paper presents velocity profiles of particle flow in an effort to determine effects from blade angle, particle size and shape and bed weight on characteristics of a swirling fluidized bed. Generally, particle velocity increased with airflow rate and shallow bed height, but decreased with bed weight. A 3 .deg. increase in blade angle reduced particle velocity by approximately 18%. In addition, particle shape, size and bed weight affected various characteristics of the swirling regime. Swirling began soon after incipience in the form of a supra-linear curve, which is the characteristic of a swirling regime. The relationship between particle and gas velocities enabled us to predict heat and mass transfer rates between gas and particles.
Sound velocity of tantalum under shock compression in the 18–142 GPa range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi, Feng, E-mail: xifeng@caep.cn; Jin, Ke; Cai, Lingcang, E-mail: cai-lingcang@aliyun.com; Geng, Huayun; Tan, Ye; Li, Jun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Waves and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102 Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)
2015-05-14
Dynamic compression experiments of tantalum (Ta) within a shock pressure range from 18–142 GPa were conducted driven by explosive, a two-stage light gas gun, and a powder gun, respectively. The time-resolved Ta/LiF (lithium fluoride) interface velocity profiles were recorded with a displacement interferometer system for any reflector. Sound velocities of Ta were obtained from the peak state time duration measurements with the step-sample technique and the direct-reverse impact technique. The uncertainty of measured sound velocities were analyzed carefully, which suggests that the symmetrical impact method with step-samples is more accurate for sound velocity measurement, and the most important parameter in this type experiment is the accurate sample/window particle velocity profile, especially the accurate peak state time duration. From these carefully analyzed sound velocity data, no evidence of a phase transition was found up to the shock melting pressure of Ta.
Effects of Velocity-Dependent Force on the Magnetic Form Factors of Odd-Z Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tie-Kuang, Dong; Zhong-Zhou, Ren
2008-01-01
We investigate the effects of the velocity-dependent force on the magnetic form factors and magnetic moments of odd-Z nuclei. The form factors are calculated with the harmonic-oscillator wavefunctions. It is found that the contributions of the velocity-dependent force manifest themselves in the very large momentum transfer region (q ≥ 4fm- 1 ). In the low and medium q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are very small compared with those without this force. However, in the high-q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are larger than the normal form factors. The diffraction structures beyond the existing experimental data are found after the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are included. The formula of the correction to the single particle magnetic moment due to the velocity-dependent force is reproduced exactly in the long-wavelength limit (q = 0) of the M1 form factor
Interaction and deformation of viscoelastic particles: Nonadhesive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attard, Phil
2001-01-01
A viscoelastic theory is formulated for the deformation of particles that interact with finite-ranged surface forces. The theory generalizes the static approach based upon classic continuum elasticity theory to account for time-dependent effects, and goes beyond contact theories such as Hertz and that given by Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts by including realistic surface interactions. Common devices used to measure load and deformation are modeled and the theory takes into account the driving velocity of the apparatus and the relaxation time of the material. Nonadhesive particles are modeled by an electric double layer repulsion. Triangular, step, and sinusoidal trajectories are analyzed in a unified treatment of loading and unloading. The load-deformation and the load-contact area curves are shown to be velocity dependent and hysteretic
Saint-Michel, Brice; Georgelin, Marc; Deville, Sylvain; Pocheau, Alain
2017-06-13
The interaction of solidification fronts with objects such as particles, droplets, cells, or bubbles is a phenomenon with many natural and technological occurrences. For an object facing the front, it may yield various fates, from trapping to rejection, with large implications regarding the solidification pattern. However, whereas most situations involve multiple particles interacting with each other and the front, attention has focused almost exclusively on the interaction of a single, isolated object with the front. Here we address experimentally the interaction of multiple particles with a solidification front by performing solidification experiments of a monodisperse particle suspension in a Hele-Shaw cell with precise control of growth conditions and real-time visualization. We evidence the growth of a particle layer ahead of the front at a close-packing volume fraction, and we document its steady-state value at various solidification velocities. We then extend single-particle models to the situation of multiple particles by taking into account the additional force induced on an entering particle by viscous friction in the compacted particle layer. By a force balance model this provides an indirect measure of the repelling mean thermomolecular pressure over a particle entering the front. The presence of multiple particles is found to increase it following a reduction of the thickness of the thin liquid film that separates particles and front. We anticipate the findings reported here to provide a relevant basis to understand many complex solidification situations in geophysics, engineering, biology, or food engineering, where multiple objects interact with the front and control the resulting solidification patterns.
Shock-wave compression of lithium niobate from 2.4 to 44 GPa
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanton, P.L.; Graham, R.A.
1979-01-01
Shock compression of lithium niobate above the Hugoniot elastic limit (about 2.5 GPa) reveals a succession of unusual features. Just above the Hugoniot elastic limit, the shock velocity is observed to be well below the bulk sound speed, indicative of a drastic reduction of shear strength. The shock velocity is observed to increase with particle velocity at an unusually large rate due to the reduction of strength in a very stiff material and an anomalously large pressure derivative of the bulk modulus. This later behavior may be due to the effects of localized shock heating resulting from heterogeneous shear deformation in ferroelectrics like lithium niobate and lithium tantalate in which increases in temperature are shown to have a strong effect on bulk modulus. A shock-induced polymorphic phase transition occurs at 13.9 GPa. Above the transition point the slope of the Hugoniot curve relating shock velocity and particle velocity is unusually low, indicative of a broad mixed phase region of undetermined extent. Limited work is reported on the isomorphous crystal, lithium tantalate, which exhibits features similar to lithium niobate with a Hugoniot elastic limit of 4 GPa and a phase transition in the vicinity of 19 GPa
Evaluation of StereoPIV Measurement of Droplet Velocity in an Effervescent Spray
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina Ghaemi
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Particle image velocimetry (PIV is a well known technique for measuring the instantaneous velocity field of flows. However, error may be introduced when measuring the velocity field of sprays using this technique when the spray droplets are used as the seed particles. In this study, the effect of droplet number density, droplet velocity profile, and droplet size distribution of a spray produced by an effervescent atomizer on velocity measurement using a StereoPIV has been investigated. A shadowgraph-particle tracking velocimetry (S-PTV system provided measurement of droplet size and velocity for comparison. This investigation demonstrated that the StereoPIV under-estimates velocity at near-field dense spray region where measurement accuracy is limited by multi-scattering of the laser sheet. In the dilute far-field region of the spray, StereoPIV measurement is mostly in agreement with velocity of the droplet size-class which is close to the mean diameter based on droplet number frequency times droplet cross sectional area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rastello
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.
Development of Hydroxyl Tagging Velocimetry for Low Velocity Flows
Andre, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.; Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.
2016-01-01
Hydroxyl tagging velocimetry (HTV) is a molecular tagging technique that relies on the photo-dissociation of water vapor into OH radicals and their subsequent tracking using laser induced fluorescence. Velocities are then obtained from time-of-flight calculations. At ambient temperature in air, the OH species lifetime is relatively short (<50 µs), making it suited for high speed flows. Lifetime and radicals formation increases with temperature, which allows HTV to also probe low-velocity, high-temperature flows or reacting flows such as flames. The present work aims at extending the domain of applicability of HTV, particularly towards low-speed (<10 m/s) and moderate (<500 K) temperature flows. Results are compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements recorded in identical conditions. Single shot and averaged velocity profiles are obtained in an air jet at room temperature. By modestly raising the temperature (100-200 degC) the OH production increases, resulting in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Use of nitrogen - a non-reactive gas with minimal collisional quenching - extends the OH species lifetime (to over 500 µs), which allows probing of slower flows or, alternately, increases the measurement precision at the expense of spatial resolution. Instantaneous velocity profiles are resolved in a 100degC nitrogen jet (maximum jet-center velocity of 6.5 m/s) with an uncertainty down to 0.10 m/s (1.5%) at 68% confidence level. MTV measurements are compared with particle image velocimetry and show agreement within 2%.
Hilke, Hans Jürgen
1992-01-01
We shall discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection (including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a few ideas on future developments.
Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts
Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi
1992-01-01
Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.
Full-field particle velocimetry with a photorefractive optical novelty filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woerdemann, Mike; Holtmann, Frank; Denz, Cornelia
2008-01-01
We utilize the finite time constant of a photorefractive optical novelty filter microscope to access full-field velocity information of fluid flows on microscopic scales. In contrast to conventional methods such as particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry, not only image acquisition of the tracer particle field but also evaluation of tracer particle velocities is done all-optically by the novelty filter. We investigate the velocity dependent parameters of two-beam coupling based optical novelty filters and demonstrate calibration and application of a photorefractive velocimetry system. Theoretical and practical limits to the range of accessible velocities are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.S.
1987-01-01
The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries
Faroughi, S. A.; Huber, C.
2015-12-01
Crystal settling and bubbles migration in magmas have significant effects on the physical and chemical evolution of magmas. The rate of phase segregation is controlled by the force balance that governs the migration of particles suspended in the melt. The relative velocity of a single particle or bubble in a quiescent infinite fluid (melt) is well characterized; however, the interplay between particles or bubbles in suspensions and emulsions and its effect on their settling/rising velocity remains poorly quantified. We propose a theoretical model for the hindered velocity of non-Brownian emulsions of nondeformable droplets, and suspensions of spherical solid particles in the creeping flow regime. The model is based on three sets of hydrodynamic corrections: two on the drag coefficient experienced by each particle to account for both return flow and Smoluchowski effects and a correction on the mixture rheology to account for nonlocal interactions between particles. The model is then extended for mono-disperse non-spherical solid particles that are randomly oriented. The non-spherical particles are idealized as spheroids and characterized by their aspect ratio. The poly-disperse nature of natural suspensions is then taken into consideration by introducing an effective volume fraction of particles for each class of mono-disperse particles sizes. Our model is tested against new and published experimental data over a wide range of particle volume fraction and viscosity ratios between the constituents of dispersions. We find an excellent agreement between our model and experiments. We also show two significant applications for our model: (1) We demonstrate that hindered settling can increase mineral residence time by up to an order of magnitude in convecting magma chambers. (2) We provide a model to correct for particle interactions in the conventional hydrometer test to estimate the particle size distribution in soils. Our model offers a greatly improved agreement with
New apparatus of single particle trap system for aerosol visualization
Higashi, Hidenori; Fujioka, Tomomi; Endo, Tetsuo; Kitayama, Chiho; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio
2014-08-01
Control of transport and deposition of charged aerosol particles is important in various manufacturing processes. Aerosol visualization is an effective method to directly observe light scattering signal from laser-irradiated single aerosol particle trapped in a visualization cell. New single particle trap system triggered by light scattering pulse signal was developed in this study. The performance of the device was evaluated experimentally. Experimental setup consisted of an aerosol generator, a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), an optical particle counter (OPC) and the single particle trap system. Polystylene latex standard (PSL) particles (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μm) were generated and classified according to the charge by the DMA. Singly charged 0.5 and 1.0 μm particles and doubly charged 2.0 μm particles were used as test particles. The single particle trap system was composed of a light scattering signal detector and a visualization cell. When the particle passed through the detector, trigger signal with a given delay time sent to the solenoid valves upstream and downstream of the visualization cell for trapping the particle in the visualization cell. The motion of particle in the visualization cell was monitored by CCD camera and the gravitational settling velocity and the electrostatic migration velocity were measured from the video image. The aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was in good agreement with Stokes diameter calculated from the electrostatic migration velocity for individual particles. It was also found that the aerodynamic diameter obtained from the settling velocity was a one-to-one function of the scattered light intensity of individual particles. The applicability of this system will be discussed.
Electron velocity and momentum density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, G.A.
1978-01-01
A null 4-vector eta + sigma/sub μ/based on Dirac's relativistic electron equation, is shown explicitly for a plane wave and various Coulomb states. This 4-vector constitutes a mechanical ''model'' for the electron in those staes, and expresses the important spinor quantities represented conventionally by n, f, g, m, j, kappa, l, and s. The model for a plane wave agrees precisely with the relation between velocity and phase gradient customarily used in quantum theory, but the models for Coulomb states contradict that relation
Elementary particles and particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bethge, K.; Schroeder, U.E.
1986-01-01
This book is a textbook for an introductory course of elementary particle physics. After a general introduction the symmetry principles governing the interactions of elementary particles are discussed. Then the phenomenology of the electroweak and strong interactions are described together with a short introduction to the Weinberg-Salam theory respectively to quantum chromodynamics. Finally a short outlook is given to grand unification with special regards to SU(5) and cosmology in the framework of the current understanding of the fundamental principles of nature. In the appendix is a table of particle properties and physical constants. (HSI) [de
Charged particle acceleration with plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravo O, A.
1989-01-01
Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 10 7 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs
Acceleration of superparamagnetic particles with magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stange, R., E-mail: Robert.stange@tu-dresden.de; Lenk, F.; Bley, T.; Boschke, E.
2017-04-01
High magnetic capture efficiency in the context of Biomagnetic Separation (BMS) using superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) requires efficient mixing and high relative velocities between cellular and other targets and SMPs. For this purpose, batch processes or microfluidic systems are commonly used. Here, we analyze the characteristics of an in-house developed batch process experimental setup, the Electromagnetic Sample Mixer (ESM) described earlier. This device uses three electromagnets to increase the relative velocity between SMPs and targets. We carry out simulations of the magnetic field in the ESM and in a simpler paradigmatic setup, and thus were able to calculate the force field acting on the SMPs and to simulate their relative velocities and fluid dynamics due to SMP movement. In this way we were able to show that alternate charging of the magnets induces a double circular stream of SMPs in the ESM, resulting in high relative velocities of SMPs to the targets. Consequently, due to the conservation of momentum, the fluid experiences an acceleration induced by the SMPs. We validated our simulations by microscopic observation of the SMPs in the magnetic field, using a homemade apparatus designed to accommodate a long working-distance lens. By comparing the results of modeling this paradigmatic setup with the experimental observations, we determined that the velocities of the SMPs corresponded to the results of our simulations. - Highlights: • Investigation of a batch process setup for complex forming at Biomagnetic Separation. • Simulation of fluid flow characteristics in this Electro Magnetic Samplemixer. • Simulation of relative velocities between magnetic particles and fluid in the setup. • Simulation of fluid flow induced by the acceleration of magnet particles. • Validation of magnetic fields and flow characteristics in paradigmatic setups. • Reached relative velocity is higher than the sedimentation velocity of the particles • Alternating
Exploiting LSPIV to assess debris-flow velocities in the field
Theule, Joshua I.; Crema, Stefano; Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco
2018-01-01
The assessment of flow velocity has a central role in quantitative analysis of debris flows, both for the characterization of the phenomenology of these processes and for the assessment of related hazards. Large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) can contribute to the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows, provided that the specific features of these processes (e.g. fast stage variations and particles up to boulder size on the flow surface) are taken into account. Three debris-flow events, each of them consisting of several surges featuring different sediment concentrations, flow stages, and velocities, have been analysed at the inlet of a sediment trap in a stream in the eastern Italian Alps (Gadria Creek). Free software has been employed for preliminary treatment (orthorectification and format conversion) of video-recorded images as well as for LSPIV application. Results show that LSPIV velocities are consistent with manual measurements of the orthorectified imagery and with front velocity measured from the hydrographs in a channel recorded approximately 70 m upstream of the sediment trap. Horizontal turbulence, computed as the standard deviation of the flow directions at a given cross section for a given surge, proved to be correlated with surface velocity and with visually estimated sediment concentration. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of LSPIV in the assessment of surface velocity of debris flows and permit the most crucial aspects to be identified in order to improve the accuracy of debris-flow velocity measurements.
Measurement of thermal plasma jet temperature and velocity by laser light lineshape analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, S.C.; Reynolds, L.D.
1991-01-01
Two important parameters of thermal plasma jets are kinetic or gas temperatures and flow velocity. Gas temperatures have been traditionally measured using emission spectroscopy, but this method depends on either the generally unrealistic assumption of the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) within the plasma, or the use of various non-LTE or partial LTE models to relate the intensity of the emission lines to the gas temperature. Plasma jet velocities have been measured using laser Doppler velocimetry on particles injected into the plasma. However, this method is intrusive and it is not known how well the particle velocities represent the gas velocity. Recently, plasma jet velocities have been measured from the Doppler shift of laser light scattered by the plasma. In this case, the Doppler shift was determined from the difference in the transmission profile of a high resolution monochromator between red shifted and blue shifted scattered light. A direct approach to measuring localized temperatures and velocities is afforded by high resolution scattered light lineshape measurements. The linewidth of laser light scattered by atoms and ions can be related to the kinetic temperature without LTE assumptions, while a shift in the peak position relative to the incident laser lineshape yields the gas velocity. We report in this paper work underway to measure gas temperatures and velocities in an argon thermal plasma jet using high resolution lineshape analysis of scattered laser light
Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice
Spannuth, Melissa
2011-01-01
We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high particle density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. The particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion, with a characteristic velocity that increased with temperature. This ballistic motion is coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function. We suggest that this behavior could result from ice grain boundary migration. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Instrument for measuring flow velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffo, J.
1977-01-01
The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de
Simultaneous velocity and pressure quantification using pressure-sensitive flow tracers in air
Zhang, Peng; Peterson, Sean; Porfiri, Maurizio
2017-11-01
Particle-based measurement techniques for assessing the velocity field of a fluid have advanced rapidly over the past two decades. Full-field pressure measurement techniques have remained elusive, however. In this work, we aim to demonstrate the possibility of direct simultaneous planar velocity and pressure measurement of a high speed aerodynamic flow by employing novel pressure-sensitive tracer particles for particle image velocimetry (PIV). Specifically, the velocity and pressure variations of an airflow through a converging-diverging channel are studied. Polystyrene microparticles embedded with a pressure-sensitive phosphorescent dye-platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-are used as seeding particles. Due to the oxygen quenching effect, the emission lifetime of PtOEP is highly sensitive to the oxygen concentration, that is, the partial pressure of oxygen, in the air. Since the partial pressure of oxygen is linearly proportional to the air pressure, we can determine the air pressure through the phosphorescence emission lifetime of the dye. The velocity field is instead obtained using traditional PIV methods. The particles have a pressure resolution on the order of 1 kPa, which may be improved by optimizing the particle size and dye concentration to suit specific flow scenarios. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1332204.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rangama, J
2002-11-01
Ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by fast charged particle impact: identification of mechanisms for double K-shell vacancy production as a function of projectile charge and velocity. Auger electron spectroscopy is used for an experimental investigation of ionization and excitation of lithium atoms by ions (Kr34{sup +} and Ar18{sup +}) and electrons at high impact velocities (from 6 to 60 a.u.). In particular, relative contributions of the mechanisms responsible for lithium K-shell ionization-excitation are determined for various projectile charges Zp and velocities vp. A large range of perturbation parameters |Zp|/vp is explored (|Zp|/vp = 0,05 - 0,7 a.u.). From single K-shell excitation results, it appears that the projectile-electron interaction gives mainly rise to a dipole-like transition 1s -> np Concerning K-shell ionization-excitation, the separation of the TS2 (two independent projectile-electron interactions) and TS1 (one projectile-electron interaction) mechanisms responsible for the formation of the 2snp 1,3P and 2sns 1,3S lithium states is performed. In TS1 process, the projectile-electron interaction can be followed by an electron-electron interaction (dielectronic process) or by an internal rearrangement of the residual target after a sudden potential change (shake process). From Born theory, ab initio calculations are performed. The good agreement between theoretical and experimental results confirms the mechanism identification. For the production of P states, TS1 is found to be strongly dominant for small |Zp|/vp values and TS2 is found to be most important for large |Zp|/vp values. Since P states cannot be formed significantly via a shake process, the TS1 and TS2 separation provides a direct signature of the dielectronic process. On the other hand, the TS1 process is shown to be the unique process for producing the S states. At the moment, only the shake aspect of the TS1 process can explain the fact that the 2s3s configuration is
Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun
2017-01-01
Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)
An Approach to Predict Debris Flow Average Velocity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Cao
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Debris flow is one of the major threats for the sustainability of environmental and social development. The velocity directly determines the impact on the vulnerability. This study focuses on an approach using radial basis function (RBF neural network and gravitational search algorithm (GSA for predicting debris flow velocity. A total of 50 debris flow events were investigated in the Jiangjia gully. These data were used for building the GSA-based RBF approach (GSA-RBF. Eighty percent (40 groups of the measured data were selected randomly as the training database. The other 20% (10 groups of data were used as testing data. Finally, the approach was applied to predict six debris flow gullies velocities in the Wudongde Dam site area, where environmental conditions were similar to the Jiangjia gully. The modified Dongchuan empirical equation and the pulled particle analysis of debris flow (PPA approach were used for comparison and validation. The results showed that: (i the GSA-RBF predicted debris flow velocity values are very close to the measured values, which performs better than those using RBF neural network alone; (ii the GSA-RBF results and the MDEE results are similar in the Jiangjia gully debris flow velocities prediction, and GSA-RBF performs better; (iii in the study area, the GSA-RBF results are validated reliable; and (iv we could consider more variables in predicting the debris flow velocity by using GSA-RBF on the basis of measured data in other areas, which is more applicable. Because the GSA-RBF approach was more accurate, both the numerical simulation and the empirical equation can be taken into consideration for constructing debris flow mitigation works. They could be complementary and verified for each other.
Impact of manakin motion on particle transport in the breathing zone
The current experimental investigation is focused on particle measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) in the breathing zone of a seated, breathing, thermal manikin under stationary and rotational conditions. Particle size, concentration, flux, and velocity data were co...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Rong; Li, Yongdong; Liu, Chunliang; Wang, Hongguang
2016-01-01
The output power fluctuations caused by weights of macro particles used in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a backward wave oscillator and a travelling wave tube are statistically analyzed. It is found that the velocities of electrons passed a specific slow-wave structure form a specific electron velocity distribution. The electron velocity distribution obtained in PIC simulation with a relative small weight of macro particles is considered as an initial distribution. By analyzing this initial distribution with a statistical method, the estimations of the output power fluctuations caused by different weights of macro particles are obtained. The statistical method is verified by comparing the estimations with the simulation results. The fluctuations become stronger with increasing weight of macro particles, which can also be determined reversely from estimations of the output power fluctuations. With the weights of macro particles optimized by the statistical method, the output power fluctuations in PIC simulations are relatively small and acceptable.
Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity
Tin-Lam, Toh
2004-01-01
The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…
Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.
Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim
1984-01-01
If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)
Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon
1997-01-01
We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....
Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.
Yahalomi, E
2010-01-01
Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.
Moreno, P. A.; Bombardelli, F. A.
2012-12-01
Particles laying motionless at the bed of rivers, lakes and estuaries can be put into motion when the shear stress exerted by the flow on the particles exceeds the critical shear stress. When these particles start their motion they can either remain suspended by long periods of time (suspended load) or move close to the bed (bed load). Particles are transported as bed load in three different modes: Sliding, rolling and saltation. Saltation is usually described as the bouncing motion of sediment particles in a layer a few particle diameters thick. The amount of particles and the bed-load mode in which they move depend on the particle size and density, and the flow intensity, usually quantified by the shear velocity. The bottom shear stress in natural streams will most likely be large enough to set saltation as the most important bed-load transport mechanism among all three modes. Thus, studying the saltation process is crucial for the overall understanding of bed-load transport. Particularly, numerical simulations of this process have been providing important insight regarding the relative importance of the physical mechanisms involved in it. Several processes occur when particles are saltating near the bed: i) Particles collide with the bed, ii) they "fly" between collisions with the bed, as a result of their interaction with the fluid flow, iii) and they collide among themselves. These processes can be simulated using a three-dimensional Eulerian-Lagrangian model. In order to mimic these processes we have experimented with an averaged turbulent flow field represented by the logarithmic law of the wall, and with a more involved approach in which a computed turbulent velocity field for a flat plate was used as a surrogate of the three-dimensional turbulent conditions present close to stream beds. Since flat-plate and open-channel boundary layers are essentially different, a dynamic similarity analysis was performed showing that the highly-resolved three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki
2009-01-01
A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up core in a feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is of importance to obtain the flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. A 2.5 times enlarged 7-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in an inner subchannel surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consisted of a hexagonal acrylic duct tube and fluorinated resin pins which had nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. The velocity distribution in an inner subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through the front and lateral sides of the duct tube. In the vertical velocity distribution in a narrow space between the pins, the wrapping wire decreased the velocity downstream of the wire and asymmetric flow distribution was formed between the pin and wire. In the horizontal velocity distribution, swirl flow around the wrapping wire was obviously observed. The measured velocity data are useful for code validation of pin bundle thermalhydraulics. (author)
Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva
1991-01-01
Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samios, N.P.
1993-01-01
I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc
Critical velocities in He II for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baehr, M.L.
1984-01-01
Experiments were performed to measure the critical velocity in pure superflow and compare to the theoretical prediction; to measure the first critical velocity for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities; and to investigate the propagation of the second critical velocity from the thermal counterflow line through the V/sub n/,-V/sub s/ quadrant. The experimental apparatus employed a thermal counterflow heater to adjust the normal fluid velocity, a fountain pump to vary the superfluid velocity, and a level sensing capacitor to measure the superfluid velocity. The results of the pure superfluid critical velocity measurements indicate that this velocity is temperature independent contrary to Schwarz's theory. It was found that the first critical velocity for independently varied V/sub n/ and V/sub s/ could be described by a linear function of V/sub n/ and was otherwise temperature independent. It was found that the second critical velocity could only be distinguished near the thermal counterflow line
The new double energy-velocity spectrometer VERDI
Jansson, Kaj; Frégeau, Marc Olivier; Al-Adili, Ali; Göök, Alf; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Pomp, Stephan
2017-09-01
VERDI (VElocity foR Direct particle Identification) is a fission-fragment spectrometer recently put into operation at JRC-Geel. It allows measuring the kinetic energy and velocity of both fission fragments simultaneously. The velocity provides information about the pre-neutron mass of each fission fragment when isotropic prompt-neutron emission from the fragments is assumed. The kinetic energy, in combination with the velocity, provides the post-neutron mass. From the difference between pre- and post-neutron masses, the number of neutrons emitted by each fragment can be determined. Multiplicity as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy is one important ingredient, essential for understanding the sharing of excitation energy between fission fragments at scission, and may be used to benchmark nuclear de-excitation models. The VERDI spectrometer design is a compromise between geometrical efficiency and mass resolution. The spectrometer consists of an electron detector located close to the target and two arrays of silicon detectors, each located 50 cm away from the target. In the present configuration pre-neutron and post-neutron mass distributions are in good agreement with reference data were obtained. Our latest measurements performed with spontaneously fissioning 252Cf is presented along with the developed calibration procedure to obtain pulse height defect and plasma delay time corrections.
Martin, Brian R
2017-01-01
An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.
Point and planar LIF for velocity-concentration correlations in a jet in cross flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Larsen, Poul Scheel
2002-01-01
Simultaneous measurements of velocities and concentration with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescense (PLIF) combined with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are compared to similar measurements with pointwise Laser Induced Fluorescense (LIF) made with a slightly modified standard Laser Doppler Anemometer......, since these involve areas with high velocity- and concentration gradients, which in turn amplifies the effect of a finite measurement volume in the two measurement systems. In addition, the concentration measurement was realized by injecting clean water into the dye seeded main flow. This "inverse...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O'C.
1983-01-01
The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalised Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks; the possible time dependence is briefly discussed. (author)
Introduction to the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of energetic particles in tenuous plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drury, L.O. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))
1983-08-01
The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks; the possible time dependence is briefly discussed.
Introduction to the theory of diffusive shock acceleration of energetic particles in tenuous plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drury, L.Oc.
1983-08-01
The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock. The mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks. The possible time dependence is briefly discussed. 75 references.
Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrefah, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hohimer, Ryan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nigl, Franz [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toth, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokuda, Satoru T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2009-03-01
The WTP pipe plugging issue, as stated by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) Executive Summary, is as follows: “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” A strategy was employed to perform critical-velocity tests on several physical simulants. Critical velocity is defined as the point where a stationary bed of particles deposits on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry transport operations. Results from the critical velocity testing provide an indication of slurry stability as a function of fluid rheological properties and transport conditions. The experimental results are compared to the WTP design guide on slurry transport velocity in an effort to confirm minimum waste velocity and flushing velocity requirements as established by calculations and critical line velocity correlations in the design guide. The major findings of this testing is discussed below. Experimental results indicate that the use of the Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation in the design guide is conservative—Slurry viscosity has a greater affect on particles with a large surface area to mass ratio. The increased viscous forces on these particles result in a decrease in predicted critical velocities from this traditional industry derived equations that focus on particles large than 100 μm in size. Since the Hanford slurry particles generally have large surface area to mass ratios, the reliance on such equations in the Hall (2006) design guide is conservative. Additionally, the use of the 95% percentile particle size as an input to this equation is conservative. However, test results indicate that the use of an average particle density as an input to the equation is not conservative. Particle density has a large influence on the overall result returned by the correlation. Lastly, the viscosity
Energy transport in a shear flow of particles in a two-dimensional dusty plasma.
Feng, Yan; Goree, J; Liu, Bin
2012-11-01
A shear flow of particles in a laser-driven two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma is observed in a study of viscous heating and thermal conduction. Video imaging and particle tracking yields particle velocity data, which we convert into continuum data, presented as three spatial profiles: mean particle velocity (i.e., flow velocity), mean-square particle velocity, and mean-square fluctuations of particle velocity. These profiles and their derivatives allow a spatially resolved determination of each term in the energy and momentum continuity equations, which we use for two purposes. First, by balancing these terms so that their sum (i.e., residual) is minimized while varying viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ as free parameters, we simultaneously obtain values for η and κ in the same experiment. Second, by comparing the viscous heating and thermal conduction terms, we obtain a spatially resolved characterization of the viscous heating.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, K.D.; Rav, Amit S.; Gupta, Satish C.
2011-02-01
Velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) has been developed to study the dynamic mechanical properties of materials subjected to high strain rates. This instrument is essentially a wide angle Michelson interferometer for measuring the Doppler shift of the monochromatic light from a laser (in our case λ 0 = 532 nm) after it gets reflected off the free surface of the moving target. A fiber optical arrangement directs the laser beam to the target and transports the scattered light signal into the interferometer. The interferometer beats the light signals reflected from the target at the two different instant of time separated by the delay (τ) decided by the length of the etalon in one of the leg of the interferometer. The interferometer signal is fed to the photomultiplier tube, the output of which is recorded in a digital storage oscilloscope. The oscilloscope record is then analysed to deduce the velocity history of moving free surface of target which is then used to determine various important mechanical properties during high strain rate compression and decompression. This instrument has been used to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (σ HEL ), spall strength (σ s ) and dynamic yield strength (Y) of Al2024-T4 and SS304 alloys shocked to peak pressures of 4.4 GPa and 12 GPa, respectively in gas gun experiments. The σ HEL , σ s and Y determined from measured free surface velocity profiles of shocked Al2024-T4 target plate are 0.70 GPa, 1.46 GPa and 0.36 GPa, respectively. These values determined for SS304 target plate are 1.35 GPa, 2.6 GPa and 0.8 GPa, respectively. (author)
Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract
Elcner, J.; Jedelsky, J.; Lizal, F.; Jicha, M.
2013-04-01
This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.
Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jicha M.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.
Experimental determination of aerosol deposition velocity on vegetation and on other sampling areas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonas, R.; Vogt, K.J.
1982-04-01
The deposition velocity of aerosols with diameters between 0.4 and 17 μm, required for environmental exposure calculations, was experimentally determined in fifty-two field tests. The results of the deposition experiments on grass indicate that the deposition velocity is proportional to the friction velocity and depends on both the vegetation dry mass and on the aerosol diameter. The deposition velocity can be represented as an inverse polynominal function of the 3rd order as a function of the aerosol diameter. This demonstrated that the deposition velocity increases especially rapidly (by a factor of about 10) between diameters of 4 and 6 μm, for which turbulence deposition is characteristic, while the rise diminishes for larger particles, for which sedimentation is important. It can be assumed that in the normal operation of nuclear power stations and in the case of incidents in which radioactive substances are released in a filtered condition, a particle diameter of 3 μm is not exceeded and differences in friction velocity and dry mass are cancelled out in the temporal mean. At a mean friction velocity of 27 cm/s and a representative dry mass for grass of 0.017 g/cm 2 deposition velocities of 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.42 and 4.6 cm/s resulted, corresponding to particle diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 μm. This indicates that the reference value of 0.1 cm/s, given in the 'Allgemeine Berechnungsgrundlage' for the normal operation of nuclear power stations, is sufficiently conservative. The mean deposition velocity for clover was higher by a factor of approximately 2, for artificial interfaces (smooth and structured metals, filters) and soil by a factor of approximately 3 and thus 2 lower than for grass. (orig./HP)
Comparison of PIV measurements and a discrete particle model in a rectangular 3D spout-fluid bed
Link, J.M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2004-01-01
Particle image velocimetry and a 3D hard sphere discrete particle model were applied to determine particle velocity profiles in the plane around a spout in a spoutfluid bed for various initial bed heights, spout and background fluidization velocities. Comparison between experimental and numerical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidovich, Mikhail V
2009-01-01
Some paradoxes are discussed concerning the interpretation of the passage of particles and electromagnetic waves (pulses) across potential barriers and through nonuniform media, in particular, those with frequency dispersion and therefore dissipation. It is emphasized that a rigorous nonstationary approach does not entail any supraluminal velocities for the transfer of physical substances, although supraluminal velocities are indeed possible for several kinematically defined velocities, e.g., for the group velocity. (letters to the editors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prasad, R.
1984-01-01
Two previous monographs report on investigations into the extent to which a unified field theory can satisfactorily describe physical reality. The first, Unified field Theory, showed that the paths within a non-Riemannian space are governed by eigenvalue equations. The second, Fundamental Constants, show that the field tensors satisfy sets of differential equations with solutions which represent the evolution of the fields along the paths of the space. The results from the first two monographs are used in this one to make progress on the theory of elementary particles. The five chapters are as follows - Quantum mechanics, gravitation and electromagnetism are aspects of the Unified theory; the fields inside the particle; the quadratic and linear theories; the calculation of the eigenvalues and elementary particles as stable configurations of interacting fields. It is shown that it is possible to construct an internal structure theory for elementary particles. The theory lies within the framework of Einstein's programme-to identify physical reality with a specified geometrical structure. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, David J.
1987-01-01
The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mais, H.; Ripken, G.; Wrulich, A.; Schmidt, F.
1986-02-01
After a brief description of typical applications of particle tracking in storage rings and after a short discussion of some limitations and problems related with tracking we summarize some concepts and methods developed in the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. We show how these concepts can be applied to the proton ring HERA. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, David J.
1987-10-15
The Conference on Position-Sensitive Detectors held at London's University College from 7-11 September highlighted the importance and the growing applications of these precision devices in many branches of science, underlining once again the high spinoff potential for techniques developed inside particle physics.
2005-01-01
While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)
Uncertainty on PIV mean and fluctuating velocity due to bias and random errors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Brandon M; Smith, Barton L
2013-01-01
Particle image velocimetry is a powerful and flexible fluid velocity measurement tool. In spite of its widespread use, the uncertainty of PIV measurements has not been sufficiently addressed to date. The calculation and propagation of local, instantaneous uncertainties on PIV results into the measured mean and Reynolds stresses are demonstrated for four PIV error sources that impact uncertainty through the vector computation: particle image density, diameter, displacement and velocity gradients. For the purpose of this demonstration, velocity data are acquired in a rectangular jet. Hot-wire measurements are compared to PIV measurements with velocity fields computed using two PIV algorithms. Local uncertainty on the velocity mean and Reynolds stress for these algorithms are automatically estimated using a previously published method. Previous work has shown that PIV measurements can become ‘noisy’ in regions of high shear as well as regions of small displacement. This paper also demonstrates the impact of these effects by comparing PIV data to data acquired using hot-wire anemometry, which does not suffer from the same issues. It is confirmed that flow gradients, large particle images and insufficient particle image displacements can result in elevated measurements of turbulence levels. The uncertainty surface method accurately estimates the difference between hot-wire and PIV measurements for most cases. The uncertainty based on each algorithm is found to be unique, motivating the use of algorithm-specific uncertainty estimates. (paper)
Filtration of submicrometer particles by pelagic tunicates.
Sutherland, Kelly R; Madin, Laurence P; Stocker, Roman
2010-08-24
Salps are common in oceanic waters and have higher per-individual filtration rates than any other zooplankton filter feeder. Although salps are centimeters in length, feeding via particle capture occurs on a fine, mucous mesh (fiber diameter d approximately 0.1 microm) at low velocity (U = 1.6 +/- 0.6 cmxs(-1), mean +/- SD) and is thus a low Reynolds-number (Re approximately 10(-3)) process. In contrast to the current view that particle encounter is dictated by simple sieving of particles larger than the mesh spacing, a low-Re mathematical model of encounter rates by the salp feeding apparatus for realistic oceanic particle-size distributions shows that submicron particles, due to their higher abundances, are encountered at higher rates (particles per time) than larger particles. Data from feeding experiments with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-microm diameter polystyrene spheres corroborate these findings. Although particles larger than 1 microm (e.g., flagellates, small diatoms) represent a larger carbon pool, smaller particles in the 0.1- to 1-microm range (e.g., bacteria, Prochlorococcus) may be more quickly digestible because they present more surface area, and we find that particles smaller than the mesh size (1.4 microm) can fully satisfy salp energetic needs. Furthermore, by packaging submicrometer particles into rapidly sinking fecal pellets, pelagic tunicates can substantially change particle-size spectra and increase downward fluxes in the ocean.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2004-01-01
The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate letters on nonlocal chiral quark model with confinement, perturbation of finite-lattice spectral levels by nearby nuclear resonances, on the application of 'Z 0 + jet' events for determining the gluon distribution in a proton at the LHC, account of light velocity constancy in the Galilean problem on the free movement of a particle and its fall onto the ground, first results of crystal deflector investigations at the Nuclotron external beams, decay parameters of K mesons, measured at proton synchrotron U-70 using 'Hyperon' set-up and modern world data, prototype of atomic-emission spectrometer on the basis of one-electrode impulse RF discharge for analytical measurements, polarimeter for Nuclotron internal beam and primordial bubbles of colour superconducting quark matter
Optimizing parameter of particle damping based on Leidenfrost effect of particle flows
Lei, Xiaofei; Wu, Chengjun; Chen, Peng
2018-05-01
Particle damping (PD) has strongly nonlinearity. With sufficiently vigorous vibration conditions, it always plays excellent damping performance and the particles which are filled into cavity are on Leidenfrost state considered in particle flow theory. For investigating the interesting phenomenon, the damping effect of PD on this state is discussed by the developed numerical model which is established based on principle of gas and solid. Furtherly, the numerical model is reformed and applied to study the relationship of Leidenfrost velocity with characteristic parameters of PD such as particle density, diameter, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio. The results indicate that particle density and mass packing ratio can drastically improve the damping performance as opposed as particle diameter and diameter-length ratio, mass packing ratio and diameter-length ratio can low the excited intensity for Leidenfrost state. For discussing the application of the phenomenon in engineering, bound optimization by quadratic approximation (BOBYQA) method is employed to optimize mass packing ratio of PD for minimize maximum amplitude (MMA) and minimize total vibration level (MTVL). It is noted that the particle damping can drastically reduce the vibrating amplitude for MMA as Leidenfrost velocity equal to the vibrating velocity relative to maximum vibration amplitude. For MTVL, larger mass packing ratio is best option because particles at relatively wide frequency range is adjacent to Leidenfrost state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2015-04-28
The mass (volume and areal densities) versus velocity as well as the size versus velocity distributions of a shock-induced cloud of particles are investigated using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. A generic three-dimensional tin crystal with a sinusoidal free surface roughness (single wavelength) is set in contact with vacuum and shock-loaded so that it melts directly on shock. At the reflection of the shock wave onto the perturbations of the free surface, two-dimensional sheets/jets of liquid metal are ejected. The simulations show that the distributions may be described by an analytical model based on the propagation of a fragmentation zone, from the tip of the sheets to the free surface, in which the kinetic energy of the atoms decreases as this zone comes closer to the free surface on late times. As this kinetic energy drives (i) the (self-similar) expansion of the zone once it has broken away from the sheet and (ii) the average size of the particles which result from fragmentation in the zone, the ejected mass and the average size of the particles progressively increase in the cloud as fragmentation occurs closer to the free surface. Though relative to nanometric scales, our model may help in the analysis of experimental profiles.
Blood flow velocity measurements in chicken embryo vascular network via PIV approach
Kurochkin, Maxim A.; Stiukhina, Elena S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.
2018-04-01
A method for measuring of blood velocity in the native vasculature of a chick embryo by the method of micro anemometry from particle images (μPIV) is improved. A method for interrogation regions sorting by the mask of the vasculature is proposed. A method for sorting of the velocity field of capillary blood flow is implemented. The in vitro method was evaluated for accuracy in a glass phantom of a blood vessel with a diameter of 50 μm and in vivo on the bloodstream of a chicken embryo, by comparing the transverse profile of the blood velocity obtained by the PIV method with the theoretical Poiseuille laminar flow profile.
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observation of Plasma Velocity-Space Cascade Processes
Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chasapis, A.; Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.; Gershman, D. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Phan, T.; Burch, J.
2017-12-01
Plasma turbulence is investigated using high-resolution ion velocity distributions, measured by theMagnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. The particle distributionmanifests large fluctuations, suggesting a cascade-like process in velocity space, invoked by theoristsfor many years. This complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermitetransform that reveals a power law distribution of moments. A Kolmogorov approach leads directlyto a range of predictions for this phase-space cascade. The scaling theory is in agreement withobservations, suggesting a new path for the study of plasma turbulence in weakly collisional spaceand astrophysical plasmas.
Model-assisted measurements of suspension-feeding flow velocities.
Du Clos, Kevin T; Jones, Ian T; Carrier, Tyler J; Brady, Damian C; Jumars, Peter A
2017-06-01
Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis , measured using a direct method based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Past uses of PIV in suspension-feeding studies have been limited by strong laser reflections that interfere with velocity measurements proximate to the siphon. We used a new approach based on fitting PIV-based velocity profile measurements to theoretical profiles from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which allowed us to calculate inhalant siphon Reynolds numbers ( Re ). We used these inhalant Re and measurements of siphon diameters to calculate exhalant Re , pumping rates, and mean inlet and outlet velocities. For the three species studied, inhalant Re ranged from 8 to 520, and exhalant Re ranged from 15 to 1073. Volumetric pumping rates ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 l h -1 for M . arenaria , 0.3 to 3.6 l h -1 for M . m ercenaria and 0.07 to 0.97 l h -1 for C . intestinalis We also used CFD models based on measured pumping rates to calculate capture regions, which reveal the spatial extent of pumped water. Combining PIV data with CFD models may be a valuable approach for future suspension-feeding studies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poirier, M.R.
1999-01-01
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles
Sadek, Samir H; Pimenta, Francisco; Pinho, Fernando T; Alves, Manuel A
2017-04-01
In this work, we explore two methods to simultaneously measure the electroosmotic mobility in microchannels and the electrophoretic mobility of micron-sized tracer particles. The first method is based on imposing a pulsed electric field, which allows to isolate electrophoresis and electroosmosis at the startup and shutdown of the pulse, respectively. In the second method, a sinusoidal electric field is generated and the mobilities are found by minimizing the difference between the measured velocity of tracer particles and the velocity computed from an analytical expression. Both methods produced consistent results using polydimethylsiloxane microchannels and polystyrene micro-particles, provided that the temporal resolution of the particle tracking velocimetry technique used to compute the velocity of the tracer particles is fast enough to resolve the diffusion time-scale based on the characteristic channel length scale. Additionally, we present results with the pulse method for viscoelastic fluids, which show a more complex transient response with significant velocity overshoots and undershoots after the start and the end of the applied electric pulse, respectively. © 2016 The Authors. Electrophoresis published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Stereoscopic Feature Tracking System for Retrieving Velocity of Surface Waters
Zuniga Zamalloa, C. C.; Landry, B. J.
2017-12-01
The present work is concerned with the surface velocity retrieval of flows using a stereoscopic setup and finding the correspondence in the images via feature tracking (FT). The feature tracking provides a key benefit of substantially reducing the level of user input. In contrast to other commonly used methods (e.g., normalized cross-correlation), FT does not require the user to prescribe interrogation window sizes and removes the need for masking when specularities are present. The results of the current FT methodology are comparable to those obtained via Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry while requiring little to no user input which allowed for rapid, automated processing of imagery.
Assessing the velocity of the groundwater flow in bedrock fractures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taivassalo, V.; Poteri, A.
1994-10-01
Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is studying the crystalline bedrock in Finland for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel from its two reactors in Olkiluoto. Preliminary site investigations for five areas were carried out during 1987-1992. One part of the investigation programme was three-dimensional groundwater flow modelling. The numerical site-specific flow simulations were based on the concept of an equivalent porous continuum. The results include hydraulic head distributions, average groundwater flow rate routes. In this study, a novel approach was developed to evaluate the velocities of the water particles flowing in the fractured bedrock. (17 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.)
On the Velocity of Moving Relativistic Unstable Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Urbanowski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of freely moving relativistic quantum unstable systems cannot be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: it is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not defined. This effect can affect the form of the decay law of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems.
Characterization of the spray velocities from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler.
Crosland, Brian Michael; Johnson, Matthew Ronald; Matida, Edgar Akio
2009-06-01
Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used to deliver aerosolized medications to the lungs, most often to relieve the symptoms of asthma. Over the past decade, pMDIs have been modified in several ways to eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons in their manufacture while increasing efficacy. Numerical simulations are being used more frequently to predict the flow and deposition of particles at various locations, both inside the respiratory tract as well as in pMDIs and add-on devices. These simulations require detailed information about the spray generated by a pMDI to ensure the validity of their results. This paper presents detailed, spatially resolved velocity measurements of the spray emitted from salbutamol sulfate pMDIs obtained using optically triggered particle image velocimetry (PIV). Instantaneous planar velocity measurements were taken and ensemble-averaged at nine different times during the spray event ranging from 1.3 to 100 msec after a pneumatically controlled actuation. The mean spray velocities were shown to be bimodal in time, with two velocity peaks and velocity magnitudes found to be much lower than published data from instantaneous single point measurements. Planar velocity data at each time step were analyzed to produce prescriptive velocity profiles suitable for use in numerical simulations. Spray geometry data are also reported. Statistical comparisons from several thousand individual spray events indicate that there is no significant difference in measured velocity among (1) two brands of pMDI canisters, (2) two pMDIs of the same brand but having different lot numbers, and (3) a full pMDI versus an almost empty pMDI. The addition of a secondary air flow of 30 SLPM (to represent simultaneous inhalation and spray actuation) deflected the spray downward but did not have a significant effect on flow velocity. Further experiments with an added cylindrical spacer revealed that within the spacer, the spray direction and cone angle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Mohanarangam
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the numerical model, which was presented in the first paper (Mohanarangam & Tu; 2009 of this series of study, is employed to study the different particle responses under the influence of two carrier phases namely the gas and the liquid. The numerical model takes into consideration the turbulent behaviour of both the carrier and the dispersed phases, with additional equations to take into account the combined fluid particle behaviour, thereby effecting a two-way coupling. The first paper in this series showed the distinct difference in particulate response both at the mean as well as at the turbulent level for two varied carrier phases. In this paper further investigation has been carried out over a broad range of particle Stokes number to further understand their behaviour in turbulent environments. In order to carry out this prognostic study, the backward facing step geometry of Fessler and Eaton (1999 has been adopted, while the inlet conditions for the carrier as well as the particle phases correspond to that of the experiments of Founti and Klipfel (1998. It is observed that at the mean velocity level the particulate velocities increased with a subsequent increase in the Stokes number for both the GP (Gas-Particle as well as the LP (Liquid-Particle flow. It was also observed that across the Stokes number there was a steady increase in the particulate turbulence for the GP flows with successive increase in Stokes number. However, for the LP flows, the magnitude of the increase in the particulate turbulence across the increasing of Stokes number is not as characteristic as the GP flow. Across the same sections for LP flows the majority of the trend shows a decrease after which they remain more or less a constant.
Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony
2017-01-01
When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction fac...
Plasma physics via particle simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Birdsall, C.K.
1981-01-01
Plasmas are studied by following the motion of many particles in applied and self fields, analytically, experimentally and computationally. Plasmas for magnetic fusion energy devices are very hot, nearly collisionless and magnetized, with scale lengths of many ion gyroradii and Debye lengths. The analytic studies of such plasmas are very difficult as the plasma is nonuniform, anisotropic and nonlinear. The experimental studies have become very expensive in time and money, as the size, density and temperature approach fusion reactor values. Computational studies using many particles and/or fluids have complemented both theories and experiments for many years and have progressed to fully three dimensional electromagnetic models, albeit with hours of running times on the fastest largest computers. Particle simulation methods are presented in some detail, showing particle advance from acceleration to velocity to position, followed by calculation of the fields from charge and current densities and then further particle advance, and so on. Limitations due to the time stepping and use of a spatial grid are given, to avoid inaccuracies and instabilities. Examples are given for an electrostatic program in one dimension of an orbit averaging program, and for a three dimensional electromagnetic program. Applications of particle simulations of plasmas in magnetic and inertial fusion devices continue to grow, as well as to plasmas and beams in peripheral devices, such as sources, accelerators, and converters. (orig.)
Laser guidance of mesoscale particles
Underdown, Frank Hartman, Jr.
Mesoscale particles are guided and trapped in hollow optical fibers using radiation pressure forces. Laser light from a 0.4W, 780nm diode laser is guided in a low- loss fiber mode and used to generate the guidance forces. Laser scattering and absorption forces propels particles along the fiber and polarization gradient forces attract them to the fiber's axial center. Using two counter propagating laser beams, inside the fiber, particles can be trapped in three dimensions. Measuring the spring constant of the trap gives the gradient force. This dissertation describes Rayleigh and Mie scattering models for calculating guidance forces. Calculated forces as a function of particle size and composition (i.e. dielectric, semiconductor, and metals) will be presented. For example, under typical experimental conditions 100nm Au particles are guided by a 2 × 10-14 N propulsive force in a water filled fiber. In comparison, the measured force, obtained from the particle's velocity and Stokes' law, is 7.98 × 10-14 N.
Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E
2009-01-01
We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.
A multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking in single and multiphase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardwell, Nicholas D; Vlachos, Pavlos P; Thole, Karen A
2011-01-01
Multiphase flows (MPFs) offer a rich area of fundamental study with many practical applications. Examples of such flows range from the ingestion of foreign particulates in gas turbines to transport of particles within the human body. Experimental investigation of MPFs, however, is challenging, and requires techniques that simultaneously resolve both the carrier and discrete phases present in the flowfield. This paper presents a new multi-parametric particle-pairing algorithm for particle tracking velocimetry (MP3-PTV) in MPFs. MP3-PTV improves upon previous particle tracking algorithms by employing a novel variable pair-matching algorithm which utilizes displacement preconditioning in combination with estimated particle size and intensity to more effectively and accurately match particle pairs between successive images. To improve the method's efficiency, a new particle identification and segmentation routine was also developed. Validation of the new method was initially performed on two artificial data sets: a traditional single-phase flow published by the Visualization Society of Japan (VSJ) and an in-house generated MPF data set having a bi-modal distribution of particles diameters. Metrics of the measurement yield, reliability and overall tracking efficiency were used for method comparison. On the VSJ data set, the newly presented segmentation routine delivered a twofold improvement in identifying particles when compared to other published methods. For the simulated MPF data set, measurement efficiency of the carrier phases improved from 9% to 41% for MP3-PTV as compared to a traditional hybrid PTV. When employed on experimental data of a gas–solid flow, the MP3-PTV effectively identified the two particle populations and reported a vector efficiency and velocity measurement error comparable to measurements for the single-phase flow images. Simultaneous measurement of the dispersed particle and the carrier flowfield velocities allowed for the calculation of
Effect of flow velocity on erosion-corrosion behaviour of QSn6 alloy
Huang, Weijiu; Zhou, Yongtao; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Zhijun; Zheng, Ziqing
2018-05-01
The erosion-corrosion behaviour of QSn6 alloy used as propellers in marine environment was evaluated by erosion-corrosion experiments with/without cathodic protection, electrochemical tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The analysis was focused on the effect of flow velocity. The dynamic polarization curves showed that the corrosion rate of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased, due to the protective surface film removal at higher velocities. The lowest corrosion current densities of 1.26 × 10‑4 A cm‑2 was obtained at the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1. Because of the higher particle kinetic energies at higher flow velocity, the mass loss rate of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased. The mass loss rate with cathodic protection was lower than that without cathodic protection under the same conditions. Also, the lowest mass loss rate of 0.7 g m‑2 · h‑1 was acquired at the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1 with cathodic protection. However, the increase rate of corrosion rate and mass loss were decreased with increasing the flow velocity. Through observation the SEM morphologies of the worn surfaces, the main wear mechanism was ploughing with/without cathodic protection. The removal rates of the QSn6 alloy increased as the flow velocity increased in both pure erosion and erosion-corrosion, whereas the erosion and corrosion intensified each other. At the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1, the synergy rate (ΔW) exceeded by 5 times the erosion rate (Wwear). Through establishment and observation the erosion-corrosion mechanism map, the erosion-corrosion was the dominant regime in the study due to the contribution of erosion on the mass loss rate exceeded the corrosion contribution. The QSn6 alloy with cathodic protection is feasible as propellers, there are higher security at lower flow velocity, such as the flow velocity of 7 m s‑1 in the paper.
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.
2013-01-01
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, V. V. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)
2013-12-15
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles.
Geotail observations of FTE velocities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. I. Korotova
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew
2014-05-01
© 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.
High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.
1998-02-01
The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!
Group Velocity for Leaky Waves
Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo
2017-11-01
In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.
Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan
2017-01-01
This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...
On plasma coupling and turbulence effects in low velocity stopping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurilenkov, Yu K [Unified Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya Str., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Maynard, G [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, UMR-8578, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay (France); Barriga-Carrasco, M D [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, UMR-8578, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay (France); Valuev, A A [Unified Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, 13/19 Izhorskaya Str., 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-04-28
The problem of stopping power (SP) for projectile ions is analysed in terms of the dielectric function and effective collision frequency for moderately dense and strongly coupled plasmas (SCP). We consider several issues regarding the calculation of stopping power for correlated ensembles of particles and oscillators. In particular, effects of group (few particle) modes, transition from positive to negative dispersion and excitation of collective modes up to suprathermal level at plasma targets are addressed. Linear SP of dense suprathermal (nonlinear) plasma targets at different levels of target plasma turbulence is estimated. The force of suprathermal plasma oscillations on the projectile ions is mostly in the nature of increased frictional drag. The results obtained show the possibility of increasing low velocity stopping (up to 'turbulent' values) in comparison with losses in equilibrium dense plasma targets. Experimental conditions to create specific turbulent targets as well as some connection between stopping phenomena and SCP transport properties are discussed briefly.
On plasma coupling and turbulence effects in low velocity stopping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurilenkov, Yu K; Maynard, G; Barriga-Carrasco, M D; Valuev, A A
2006-01-01
The problem of stopping power (SP) for projectile ions is analysed in terms of the dielectric function and effective collision frequency for moderately dense and strongly coupled plasmas (SCP). We consider several issues regarding the calculation of stopping power for correlated ensembles of particles and oscillators. In particular, effects of group (few particle) modes, transition from positive to negative dispersion and excitation of collective modes up to suprathermal level at plasma targets are addressed. Linear SP of dense suprathermal (nonlinear) plasma targets at different levels of target plasma turbulence is estimated. The force of suprathermal plasma oscillations on the projectile ions is mostly in the nature of increased frictional drag. The results obtained show the possibility of increasing low velocity stopping (up to 'turbulent' values) in comparison with losses in equilibrium dense plasma targets. Experimental conditions to create specific turbulent targets as well as some connection between stopping phenomena and SCP transport properties are discussed briefly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.
1989-01-01
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures
Computing discharge using the index velocity method
Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.
2012-01-01
Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression
CFD-DEM Simulation of Minimum Fluidisation Velocity in Two Phase Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Khawaja
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics - discrete element method has been used to model the 2 phase flow composed of solid particle and gas in the fluidised bed. This technique uses the Eulerian and the Langrangian methods to solve fluid and particles respectively. Each particle is treated as a discrete entity whose motion is governed by Newton's laws of motion. The particle-particle and particle-wall interaction is modelled using the classical contact mechanics. The particles motion is coupled with the volume averaged equations of the fluid dynamics using drag law. In fluidised bed, particles start experiencing drag once the fluid is passing through. The solid particles response to it once drag experienced is just equal to the weight of the particles. At this moment pressure drop across the bed is just equal to the weight of particles divide by the cross-section area. This is the first regime of fluidization, also referred as ‘the regime of minimum fluidization’. In this study, phenomenon of minimum fluidization is studied using CFD-DEM simulation with 4 different sizes of particles 0.15 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1.2 mm diameters. The results are presented in the form of pressure drop across the bed with the fluid superficial velocity. The achieved results are found in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data available in literature.
Sediment motion and velocity in a glacier-fed stream
Mao, L.; Dell'Agnese, A.; Comiti, F.
2017-08-01
Current understanding of coarse sediment transport (e.g. threshold for motion, travel length and virtual velocity) in mountain rivers is still quite limited, and even less is known about glacial streams. However, the hydrological characteristics of these systems (strong daily discharge fluctuations, high water turbidity) pose challenges to the use of tracers to monitor bed sediment dynamics, as tagged clasts are usually located after bedload events when flow stage has receded, e.g. by means of portable antennas in the case of Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT). The use of stationary antennas, still scarcely in use worldwide, to detect PIT-tagged particles has potential advantages in glacier-fed streams. If water discharge is monitored continuously, a stationary antenna provides real time data on the actual discharge at the moment of tracer particles passage. This study focuses on incipient motion and virtual velocity of bed particles measured by a stationary antennas system in a steep mountain channel (Saldur River, drainage area 18.6 km2, Italian Alps) where significant daily discharge fluctuations and bedload transport occur as a result of a nivo-glacial regime. Four stationary antennas were installed 50-m apart in the study reach. A total of 629 PIT-tagged clasts were inserted in the studied reach between 2011 and 2014, ranging in size from 35 mm to 580 mm, with an overall recovery rate of around 44%. Critical discharge for sediment entrainment was obtained by detecting the movement of tracers placed immediately upstream of antennas. Virtual velocity was derived by knowing distances between the antennas and travel time of tracers. Results on initiation of motion show that the relationship between the size of transported tracers and the discharge measured at the time clasts were passing the stationary antenna is very weak. The influence of antecedent flows on incipient motion was thus investigated by dividing the highest discharge recorded between each PIT
Surface Friction of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Particles
Cuccia, Nicholas; Burton, Justin
Polyacrylamide hydrogel particles have recently become a popular system for modeling low-friction, granular materials near the jamming transition. Because a gel consists of a polymer network filled with solvent, its frictional behavior is often explained using a combination of hydrodynamic lubrication and polymer-surface interactions. As a result, the frictional coefficient can vary between 0.001 and 0.03 depending on several factors such as contact area, sliding velocity, normal force, and the gel surface chemistry. Most tribological measurements of hydrogels utilize two flat surfaces, where the contact area is not well-defined. We have built a custom, low-force tribometer to measure the single-contact frictional properties of spherical hydrogel particles on flat hydrogel surfaces under a variety of measurement conditions. At high velocities (> 1 cm/s), the friction coefficient depends linearly on velocity, but does not tend to zero at zero velocity. We also compare our measurements to solid particles (steel, glass, etc.) on hydrogel surfaces, which exhibit larger frictional forces, and show less dependence on velocity. A physical model for the friction which includes the lubrication layer between the deformed surfaces will be discussed. National Science Foundation Grant No. 1506446.
Evaluation of the effect of media velocity on HEPA filter performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogancamp, Kristina; Norton, O. Perry; Waggoner, Charles
2007-01-01
Section FC of the ASME AG-1 Code addresses glass fiber HEPA filters and restricts the media velocity to a maximum of 2.54 cm/s (5 ft/min). Advances in filter media technology allow glass fiber HEPA filters to function at significantly higher velocities and still achieve HEPA performance. However, diffusional capture of particles < 100 nm is reduced at higher media velocities due to shorter residence times within the media matrix. Therefore, it is unlikely that higher media velocities for HEPA filters will be allowed without data to demonstrate the effect of media velocity on removal of particles in the smaller size classes. In order to address this issue, static testing has been conducted to generate performance related data and a range of dynamic testing has provided data regarding filter lifetimes, loading characteristics, changes in filter efficiency and the most penetrating particle size over time. Testing was conducted using 31 cm x 31 cm x 29 cm deep pleat HEPA filters supplied from two manufacturers. Testing was conducted at media velocities ranging from 2.0-4.5 cm/s with a solid aerosol challenge composed of potassium chloride. Two set of media velocity data were obtained for each filter type. In one set of evaluations, the maximum aerosol challenge particle size was limited to 3 μm, while particles above 3 μm were not constrained in the second set. This provided for considerable variability in the challenge mass mean diameter and overall mass loading rate. Results of this testing will be provided to the ASME AG-1 FC Committee for consideration in future versions of the HEPA standard. In general, the initial filter efficiency decreased with increasing media velocity. However, initial filter efficiencies were generally good in all cases. Filter efficiency values averaged over the first ten minute of the loading cycle ranged from 99.970 to 99.996 %. Additionally, the most penetrating particle size was observed to decrease with increasing media velocity
Acceleration of particles by black holes: Kinematic explanation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaslavskii, O. B.
2011-01-01
A new simple and general explanation of the effect of acceleration of particles by black holes to infinite energies in the center of mass frame is suggested. It is based on kinematics of particles moving near the horizon. This effect arises when particles of two kinds collide near the horizon. For massive particles, the first kind represents a particle with the generic energy and angular momentum (I call them ''usual''). Near the horizon, such a particle has a velocity almost equal to that of light in the frame that corotates with a black hole (the frame is static if a black hole is static). The second kind (called ''critical'') consists of particles with the velocity v< c near the horizon due to special relationship between the energy and angular momentum (or charge). As a result, the relative velocity approaches the speed of light c, and the Lorentz factor grows unbound. This explanation applies both to generic rotating black holes and charged ones (even for radial motion of particles). If one of the colliding particles is massless (photon), the critical particle is distinguished by the fact that its frequency is finite near the horizon. The existence (or absence) of the effect is determined depending on competition of two factors--gravitational blue shift for a photon propagating towards a black hole and the Doppler effect due to transformation from the locally nonrotating frame to a comoving one. Classification of all possible types of collisions is suggested depending on whether massive or massless particle is critical or usual.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bubáková, Petra; Pivokonský, Martin
2012-01-01
Roč. 92, May (2012), s. 161-167 ISSN 1383-5866. [European Conference on Fluid-Particle Separation (FPS 2010). Lyon, 05.10.2010-07.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/11/0247 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : aggregation * fractal dimension * filtration * particle size distribution * velocity gradient Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2012
Thermal conduction by dark matter with velocity and momentum-dependent cross-sections
Vincent, Aaron C.; Scott, Pat
2013-01-01
We use the formalism of Gould and Raffelt to compute the dimensionless thermal conduction coefficients for scattering of dark matter particles with standard model nucleons via cross-sections that depend on the relative velocity or momentum exchanged between particles. Motivated by models invoked to reconcile various recent results in direct detection, we explicitly compute the conduction coefficients $\\alpha$ and $\\kappa$ for cross-sections that go as $v_{\\rm rel}^2$, $v_{\\rm rel}^4$, $v_{\\rm...
Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper
2006-01-01
Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...... search can also yield the direction, and the full velocity vector is thereby found. An examples from a flow rig is shown....
Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2000-01-01
Ultrasound has been used intensively for the last 15 years for studying the hemodynamics of the human body. Systems for determining both the velocity distribution at one point of interest (spectral systems) and for displaying a map of velocity in real time have been constructed. A number of schemes...... have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...... are parallel to the skin surface. Angling the transducer will often disturb the flow, and new techniques for finding transverse velocities are needed. The various approaches for determining transverse velocities will be explained. This includes techniques using two-dimensional correlation (speckle tracking...
Dynamic High-Pressure Behavior of Hierarchical Heterogeneous Geological Materials
2016-04-01
plate-impact experiments. The peak stress, particle velocity, or shock velocity, are measured using point diagnostics employing either stress gauges or...and porous geological materials. In this prior work, they obtained the Hugoniot states for a 60:40 volumetric mixture of ice and sand [8], to...in copper capsule, backed with PMMA. The instrumentation includes two PVDF stress gauges , VISAR, and ToA shorting pins. 44mm ø ~5mm thick sample
Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles
Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.
2017-09-01
When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.
Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T
2013-01-01
for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...
Demonstration of a Vector Velocity Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter Møller; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.
2011-01-01
With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60–70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner. In this pa......With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60–70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner...
On whistler-mode group velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazhin, S.S.
1986-01-01
An analytical of the group velocity of whistler-mode waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field in a hot anisotropic plasma is presented. Some simple approximate formulae, which can be used for the magnetospheric applications, are derived. These formulae can predict some properties of this group velocity which were not previously recognized or were obtained by numerical methods. In particular, it is pointed out that the anisotropy tends to compensate for the influence of the electron temperature on the value of the group velocity when the wave frequency is well below the electron gyrofrequency. It is predicted, that under conditions at frequencies near the electron gyrofrequency, this velocity tends towards zero
Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan
2002-01-01
A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.
Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.
Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P
1992-01-01
The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueki, Y.; Kunugi, T.; Hirabayashi, Masaru; Nagai, Keiichi; Saito, Junichi; Ara, Kuniaki; Morley, N.B.
2014-01-01
This paper describes a high-temperature ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (HT-UDV) technique that has been successfully applied to measure velocity profiles of the lead-lithium eutectic alloy (PbLi) flows. The impact of tracer particles is investigated to determine requirements for HT-UDV measurement of PbLi flows. The HT-UDV system is tested on a PbLi flow driven by a rotating-disk in an inert atmosphere. We find that a sufficient amount of particles contained in the molten PbLi are required to successfully measure PbLi velocity profiles by HT-UDV. An X-ray diffraction analysis is performed to identify those particles in PbLi, and indicates that those particles were made of the lead mono-oxide (PbO). Since the specific densities of PbLi and PbO are close to each other, the PbO particles are expected to be well-dispersed in the bulk of molten PbLi. We conclude that the excellent dispersion of PbO particles enables in HT-UDV to obtain reliable velocity profiles for operation times of around 12 hours. (author)
Safety distance for preventing hot particle ignition of building insulation materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiayun Song
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Trajectories of flying hot particles were predicted in this work, and the temperatures during the movement were also calculated. Once the particle temperature decreased to the critical temperature for a hot particle to ignite building insulation materials, which was predicted by hot-spot ignition theory, the distance particle traveled was determined as the minimum safety distance for preventing the ignition of building insulation materials by hot particles. The results showed that for sphere aluminum particles with the same initial velocities and diameters, the horizontal and vertical distances traveled by particles with higher initial temperatures were higher. Smaller particles traveled farther when other conditions were the same. The critical temperature for an aluminum particle to ignite rigid polyurethane foam increased rapidly with the decrease of particle diameter. The horizontal and vertical safety distances were closely related to the initial temperature, diameter and initial velocity of particles. These results could help update the safety provision of firework display.
Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.
1995-04-01
The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tkachev, Igor
1993-01-01
When the common ground between particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology started to become a developing area, the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of the Russian Academy of Sciences had the foresight in 1981 to institute the Baksan Schools on Particles and Cosmology. This now traditional event, held biannually in the Baksan Valley, has gone on to attract international participation. The site is close to the INR Baksan Neutrino Observatory with its underground and surface installations, including the SAGE gallium solar neutrino detector, the Underground Scintillation Telescope, and the 'Carpet' extensive air shower array. Participation is mainly from experimentalists working in non accelerator particle physics and particle astrophysics. The most recent School, held from April 21 to 28, began with an opening address by INR Director V. A. Matveev. J.Frieman reviewed standard big bang cosmology, emphasizing how the recent COBE results and the observations of large scale galaxy clustering fit into a standard cosmology framework. For inflationary cosmology, he showed how different models may be tested through their predictions for large-scale galactic structure and for cosmic microwave background anisotropy. A.Stebbins presented details of the large scale distribution of galaxies which, combined with velocity information and microwave background anisotropy data, provide strong constraints on theories of the origin of primordial inhomogeneities. Inflation requires, and theories of the large scale structure strongly favour the critical value for the cosmic mass density, while, as D.Seckel explained in his lecture on nucleosynthesis and abundances of the light elements, the baryon contribution to this density has to be tens of times smaller. A general review on the observational evidence for dark matter, dark matter particle candidates and the strategy of dark matter searches was given by I. Tkachev, who stressed the gravitational microlensing MACHO
The size distributions of fragments ejected at a given velocity from impact craters
O'Keefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.
1987-01-01
The mass distribution of fragments that are ejected at a given velocity for impact craters is modeled to allow extrapolation of laboratory, field, and numerical results to large scale planetary events. The model is semi-empirical in nature and is derived from: (1) numerical calculations of cratering and the resultant mass versus ejection velocity, (2) observed ejecta blanket particle size distributions, (3) an empirical relationship between maximum ejecta fragment size and crater diameter, (4) measurements and theory of maximum ejecta size versus ejecta velocity, and (5) an assumption on the functional form for the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity. This model implies that for planetary impacts into competent rock, the distribution of fragments ejected at a given velocity is broad, e.g., 68 percent of the mass of the ejecta at a given velocity contains fragments having a mass less than 0.1 times a mass of the largest fragment moving at that velocity. The broad distribution suggests that in impact processes, additional comminution of ejecta occurs after the upward initial shock has passed in the process of the ejecta velocity vector rotating from an initially downward orientation. This additional comminution produces the broader size distribution in impact ejecta as compared to that obtained in simple brittle failure experiments.
Flow Velocity Effects on Fe(III Clogging during Managed Aquifer Recharge Using Urban Storm Water
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinqiang Du
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Storm water harvesting and storage has been employed for nearly a hundred years, and using storm water to recharge aquifers is one of the most important ways to relieve water scarcity in arid and semi-arid regions. However, it cannot be widely adopted because of clogging problems. The risk of chemical clogging is mostly associated with iron oxyhydroxide precipitation; anhydrous ferric oxide (HFO clogging remains a problem in many wellfields. This paper investigates Fe(III clogging levels at three flow velocities (Darcy velocities, 0.46, 1.62 and 4.55 m/d. The results indicate that clogging increases with flow velocity, and is mostly affected by the first 0–3 cm of the column. The highest water velocity caused full clogging in 35 h, whereas the lowest took 53 h to reach an stable 60% reduction in hydraulic conductivity. For the high flow velocity, over 90% of the HFO was deposited in the 0–1 cm section. In contrast, the lowest flow velocity deposited only 75% in this section. Fe(III deposition was used as an approximation for Fe(OH3. High flow velocity may promote Fe(OH3 flocculent precipitate, thus increasing Fe(III deposition. The main mechanism for a porous matrix interception of Fe(III colloidal particles was surface filtration. Thus, the effects of deposition, clogging phenomena, and physicochemical mechanisms, are more significant at higher velocities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khare, A.
1980-07-01
Current state of art in the discovery of new elementary particles is reviewed. At present, quarks and mesons are accepted as the basic constituents of matter. The charmonium model (canti-c system), and the 'open charm' are discussed. Explanations are offered for the recent discovery of the heavy lepton tau. Quark states such as the beauty and taste are also dealt with at length. The properties of the tanti-t bound system are speculated. It is concluded that the understanding of canti-c and banti-b families is facilitated by the assumption of the quarkonium model. Implications at the astrophysical level are indicated.
Collinson, Chris
1995-01-01
* Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u
Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Coraline Brangbour
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.
Di-nuclear systems studied with the velocity filter SHIP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinz, S.; Hessberger, F.P.; Ackermann, D.; Burkhard, H.G.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Maurer, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Comas, V.; Heredia, J. [Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences, Habana (Cuba); Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany); Gan, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Sulignano, B. [DAPNIA / SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2008-11-15
Various nuclear reactions like quasi-fission, fusion-fission or particle and cluster evaporation from excited compound nuclei were studied in heavy-ion reactions at the velocity filter SHIP of GSI. The velocity filter offers the possibility to detect all reaction products under zero degree relative to the beam direction. Together with the measurement of the product velocity distribution this allows for an identification of the underlying reaction mechanism. This article is focussed on reactions of {sup 25}Mg and {sup 64}Ni beams on {sup 206,207}Pb targets at energies of 5.9 x A MeV and 8.7 x A MeV. Besides evaporation residues from {sup 25}Mg+{sup 206}Pb collisions we found evidence for rotation and quasi-fission of nuclear molecules formed in the entrance channel after the capture stage. The break-up of the systems showed a preferred clustering leading to isotopes in the region 84{<=}Z{<=}88 and 122{<=}N{<=}127 of the chart of nuclei. (orig.)
Velocities of gas and plasmas from real time holographic interferograms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deason, V.A.; Reynolds, L.D.; McIlwain, M.E.
1985-01-01
A truly noninvasive measurement technique for plasma velocity has not been demonstrated. Plasma velocities have been inferred using laser Doppler anemometry or photographic analysis of the position of smoke or small particles. This paper describes an alternate method based on the refractive index change created in a plasma by a gaseous probe material injected into the plasma. This disturbance of the refractive index can be monitored using interferometry. A multipass real time holographic interferometry system was used to follow the changes of the interferometric pattern, and the data was recorded using high speed cinematography. A transparent model of an industrial plasma torch was employed in these studies, and a number of different types of trace gas materials were used to track the plasma flow. Using a combination of multipass interferometry and a laser line absorbing gas, sufficient interferometric sensitivity was obtained to determine plasma velocities in the 100 m/s range. Based on these results, a working plasma torch was constructed. Further studies are planned using this torch and actual plasmas
Velocity field measurements on high-frequency, supersonic microactuators
Kreth, Phillip A.; Ali, Mohd Y.; Fernandez, Erik J.; Alvi, Farrukh S.
2016-05-01
The resonance-enhanced microjet actuator which was developed at the Advanced Aero-Propulsion Laboratory at Florida State University is a fluidic-based device that produces pulsed, supersonic microjets by utilizing a number of microscale, flow-acoustic resonance phenomena. The microactuator used in this study consists of an underexpanded source jet that flows into a cylindrical cavity with a single, 1-mm-diameter exhaust orifice through which an unsteady, supersonic jet issues at a resonant frequency of 7 kHz. The flowfields of a 1-mm underexpanded free jet and the microactuator are studied in detail using high-magnification, phase-locked flow visualizations (microschlieren) and two-component particle image velocimetry. These are the first direct measurements of the velocity fields produced by such actuators. Comparisons are made between the flow visualizations and the velocity field measurements. The results clearly show that the microactuator produces pulsed, supersonic jets with velocities exceeding 400 m/s for roughly 60 % of their cycles. With high unsteady momentum output, this type of microactuator has potential in a range of ow control applications.
Hydrodynamic Equations for Flocking Models without Velocity Alignment
Peruani, Fernando
2017-10-01
The spontaneous emergence of collective motion patterns is usually associated with the presence of a velocity alignment mechanism that mediates the interactions among the moving individuals. Despite of this widespread view, it has been shown recently that several flocking behaviors can emerge in the absence of velocity alignment and as a result of short-range, position-based, attractive forces that act inside a vision cone. Here, we derive the corresponding hydrodynamic equations of a microscopic position-based flocking model, reviewing and extending previous reported results. In particular, we show that three distinct macroscopic collective behaviors can be observed: i) the coarsening of aggregates with no orientational order, ii) the emergence of static, elongated nematic bands, and iii) the formation of moving, locally polar structures, which we call worms. The derived hydrodynamic equations indicate that active particles interacting via position-based interactions belong to a distinct class of active systems fundamentally different from other active systems, including velocity-alignment-based flocking systems.
Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, G.K.; Rajaram, R.
1981-01-01
The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 90 0 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)
Modeling pollutant transport using a meshless-lagrangian particle model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrington, D.B.; Pepper, D.W.
2002-01-01
A combined meshless-Lagrangian particle transport model is used to predict pollutant transport over irregular terrain. The numerical model for initializing the velocity field is based on a meshless approach utilizing multiquadrics established by Kansa. The Lagrangian particle transport technique uses a random walk procedure to depict the advection and dispersion of pollutants over any type of surface, including street and city canyons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz F. C. de Oliveira
2005-04-01
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma rotina computacional para a determinação da velocidade de deposição de partículas em suspensão no escoamento superficial, verificar sua aplicação por intermédio de modelo de transporte de sedimentos e comparar os resultados obtidos com dados experimentais. Empregou-se na rotina o processo iterativo de Newton-Rapshon para a solução das equações empregadas na determinação da velocidade de deposição de partículas em suspensão no escoamento superficial, e na solução da equação do transporte de sedimentos empregou-se a técnica das diferenças finitas. Essas rotinas foram empregadas na implementação do modelo MTSES (Modelo para Transporte de Solutos no Solo e no Escoamento Superficial. As velocidades de queda das partículas obtidas pela rotina desenvolvida, em média, foram superestimadas, com erro relativo médio de 0,63%, o que possibilitou a utilização da rotina desenvolvida no MTSES. O modelo MTSES superestimou o total de sedimentos transportados pelo escoamento superficial para todas as intensidades de precipitação empregadas neste estudo, com variações porcentuais de 15,6 a 58,3%.The present work had as objective to develop a computational routine for the determination of the sedimentation velocity in the drain and to verify its application through a model of transport of sediments and to compare the results obtained with experimental data. It was used in the routine the iterative process of Newton-Rapshon for the solution of the equations applied in the determination of the sedimentation velocity in the drain, and on the solution of the transport of sediments equation was applied the technique of the finite differences. Those routines were used in the implementation of the model MTSES (Model for solute transport in the soil and in the drain. The sedimentation velocities obtained by the developed routine were overestimated, with a medium relative error of 0
The effect of thermal velocities on structure formation in N-body simulations of warm dark matter
Leo, Matteo; Baugh, Carlton M.; Li, Baojiu; Pascoli, Silvia
2017-11-01
We investigate the impact of thermal velocities in N-body simulations of structure formation in warm dark matter models. Adopting the commonly used approach of adding thermal velocities, randomly selected from a Fermi-Dirac distribution, to the gravitationally-induced velocities of the simulation particles, we compare the matter and velocity power spectra measured from CDM and WDM simulations, in the latter case with and without thermal velocities. This prescription for adding thermal velocities introduces numerical noise into the initial conditions, which influences structure formation. At early times, the noise affects dramatically the power spectra measured from simulations with thermal velocities, with deviations of the order of ~ Script O(10) (in the matter power spectra) and of the order of ~ Script O(102) (in the velocity power spectra) compared to those extracted from simulations without thermal velocities. At late times, these effects are less pronounced with deviations of less than a few percent. Increasing the resolution of the N-body simulation shifts these discrepancies to higher wavenumbers. We also find that spurious haloes start to appear in simulations which include thermal velocities at a mass that is ~3 times larger than in simulations without thermal velocities.
Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau
Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.
2018-01-01
Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.
Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe
2014-01-01
The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...
Photoelectric Radial Velocities, Paper XIX Additional Spectroscopic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ian velocity curve that does justice to the measurements, but it cannot be expected to have much predictive power. Key words. Stars: late-type—stars: radial velocities—spectroscopic binaries—orbits. 0. Preamble. The 'Redman K stars' are a lot of seventh-magnitude K stars whose radial velocities were first observed by ...
Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frid, V.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.
2006-01-01
Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality
Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frid, V. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: vfrid@bgu.ac.il; Rabinovitch, A. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)
2006-07-31
Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality.
Estimation of blood velocities using ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
imaging, and, finally, some of the more recent experimental techniques. The authors shows that the Doppler shift, usually considered the way velocity is detected, actually, plays a minor role in pulsed systems. Rather, it is the shift of position of signals between pulses that is used in velocity...
Peculiar velocity measurement in a clumpy universe
Habibi, Farhang; Baghram, Shant; Tavasoli, Saeed
Aims: In this work, we address the issue of peculiar velocity measurement in a perturbed Friedmann universe using the deviations from measured luminosity distances of standard candles from background FRW universe. We want to show and quantify the statement that in intermediate redshifts (0.5 deviations from the background FRW model are not uniquely governed by peculiar velocities. Luminosity distances are modified by gravitational lensing. We also want to indicate the importance of relativistic calculations for peculiar velocity measurement at all redshifts. Methods: For this task, we discuss the relativistic correction on luminosity distance and redshift measurement and show the contribution of each of the corrections as lensing term, peculiar velocity of the source and Sachs-Wolfe effect. Then, we use the SNe Ia sample of Union 2, to investigate the relativistic effects, we consider. Results: We show that, using the conventional peculiar velocity method, that ignores the lensing effect, will result in an overestimate of the measured peculiar velocities at intermediate redshifts. Here, we quantify this effect. We show that at low redshifts the lensing effect is negligible compare to the effect of peculiar velocity. From the observational point of view, we show that the uncertainties on luminosity of the present SNe Ia data prevent us from precise measuring the peculiar velocities even at low redshifts (z < 0.2).
Radial velocities of RR Lyrae stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawley, S.L.; Barnes, T.G. III
1985-01-01
283 spectra of 57 RR Lyrae stars have been obtained using the 2.1-m telescope at McDonald Observatory. Radial velocities were determined using a software cross-correlation technique. New mean radial velocities were determined for 46 of the stars. 11 references
The measurement of low air flow velocities
Aghaei, A.; Mao, X.G.; Zanden, van der A.J.J.; Schaik, W.H.J.; Hendriks, N.A.
2005-01-01
Air flow velocity is measured with an acoustic sensor, which can be used especially for measuring low air flow velocities as well as the temperature of the air simultaneously. Two opposite transducers send a sound pulse towards each other. From the difference of the transit times, the air flow
Critical Landau Velocity in Helium Nanodroplets
Brauer, N.B.; Smolarek, S.; Loginov, E.; Mateo, D.; Hernando, A.; Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Buma, W.J.; Drabbels, M.
2013-01-01
The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective
Measurement of the near-wall velocity profile for a nanofluid flow inside a microchannel
Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza
2015-11-01
Hydrodynamics and anomalous heat transfer enhancements have been reported in the past for colloidal suspensions of nano-sized particles dispersed in a fluid (nanofluids). However, such augmentations may manifest itself by study of fluid flow characteristics near in the wall region. Present experimental study reports near-wall velocity profile for nanofluids (silicon dioxide nanoparticles in water) measured inside a microchannel. An objective-based nano-Particle Image Velocimetry (nPIV) technique is used to measure fluid velocity within three visible depths, O(100nm), from the wall. The near-wall fluid velocity profile is estimated after implementing the required corrections for optical properties and effects caused by hindered Brownian motion, wall-particle interactions, and non-uniform exponential illumination on the measurement technique. The fluid velocities of nanofluids at each of the three visible depths are observed to be higher than that of the base fluid resulting in a higher shear rate in this region. The relative increase in shear rates for nanofluids is believed to be the result of the near-wall shear-induced particle migration along with the Brownian motion of the nanoparticles. This research is funded by NPRP grant # 08-574-2-239 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn
2009-01-01
The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has recen...... generated by sources on the two sides of the hologram plane is also examined....
Planar measurements of velocity and concentration of turbulent mixing in a T-junction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, N. F.
Turbulent mixing of two isothermal air streams in a T-junction of square ducts are investigated. Three dimensional velocity fields and turbulent kinetic energy are measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concentration field is obtained with a planar Mie scattering technique...
Mechanical and chemical responses of low-velocity impacted RDX and HMX explosive powders
Wu, Yanqing; Guo, Hongfu; Huang, Fenglei; Bao, Xiaowei; Explosion; damage Team
2017-06-01
The experimental analyses of mechanical and chemical responses of RDX and HMX particles were performed based on the optimized drop-weight experimental system equipped with the High-Speed Camera (HSC). It has been found that Jetting phenomenon observed by HSC is the result of the energy released by gaseous products, which push the pulverized or melted explosives to splash radially. Jetting is the only and the most obvious difference between reactive and inert particles prior to combustion so that jetting can be regarded as the sign of ignition. Area expansion velocity, jetting velocity, and flame propagation velocity have been estimated via image processing, making it possible to characterize mechanical deformation and violence of reaction of each stage. Hot-spots coalescence promotes flame propagation whose velocity reflects the violence of deflagration reaction. Jetting appearance time can be used to determine time-to-ignition more accurately than other ways. For RDX, molten phase plays an important role to the formation of the hot-spots. Multiple particles experienced more severe burning reactions than an individual particle. China National Nature Science Foundation (11572045), ``Science Challenging Program'' (JCKY2016212A501),opening fund from Safety ammunition research and Development Center (RMC2015B03).
Velocity field measurements in an evaporating sessile droplet by means of micro-PIV technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yagodnitsyna Anna
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Velocity fields are measured in evaporating sessile droplets on two substrates with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis using micro resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Different flow patterns are observed in different stages of droplet evaporation: a flow with vortices and a radial flow. Flow structure is found to be similar for droplets on different substrates.
Temperature and velocity fields in natural convection by PIV and LIF
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meyer, Knud Erik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Westergaard, C. H.
2002-01-01
plate and cooled walls is 1.4×10^10. The flow is turbulent and is similar to some indoor room flows. Combined Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are used to measure local velocities and temperatures. Data measured in a symmetry plane parallel to a sidewall...
General particle transport equation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lafi, A.Y.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.
1994-12-01
The general objectives of this research are as follows: (1) To develop fundamental models for fluid particle coalescence and breakage rates for incorporation into statistically based (Population Balance Approach or Monte Carlo Approach) two-phase thermal hydraulics codes. (2) To develop fundamental models for flow structure transitions based on stability theory and fluid particle interaction rates. This report details the derivation of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for a distribution of spherical, chemically non-reacting fluid particles of variable size and velocity. To study the effects of fluid particle interactions on interfacial transfer and flow structure requires detailed particulate flow conservation equations. The equations are derived using a particle continuity equation analogous to Boltzmann's transport equation. When coupled with the appropriate closure equations, the conservation equations can be used to model nonequilibrium, two-phase, dispersed, fluid flow behavior. Unlike the Eulerian volume and time averaged conservation equations, the statistically averaged conservation equations contain additional terms that take into account the change due to fluid particle interfacial acceleration and fluid particle dynamics. Two types of particle dynamics are considered; coalescence and breakage. Therefore, the rate of change due to particle dynamics will consider the gain and loss involved in these processes and implement phenomenological models for fluid particle breakage and coalescence
Dark matter direct detection with non-Maxwellian velocity structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuhlen, Michael; Weiner, Neal; Diemand, Jürg; Moore, Ben; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Madau, Piero; Zemp, Marcel
2010-01-01
The velocity distribution function of dark matter particles is expected to show significant departures from a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. This can have profound effects on the predicted dark matter - nucleon scattering rates in direct detection experiments, especially for dark matter models in which the scattering is sensitive to the high velocity tail of the distribution, such as inelastic dark matter (iDM) or light (few GeV) dark matter (LDM), and for experiments that require high energy recoil events, such as many directionally sensitive experiments. Here we determine the velocity distribution functions from two of the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galactic dark matter structure (Via Lactea II and GHALO), and study the effects for these scenarios. For directional detection, we find that the observed departures from Maxwell-Boltzmann increase the contrast of the signal and change the typical direction of incoming DM particles. For iDM, the expected signals at direct detection experiments are changed dramatically: the annual modulation can be enhanced by more than a factor two, and the relative rates of DAMA compared to CDMS can change by an order of magnitude, while those compared to CRESST can change by a factor of two. The spectrum of the signal can also change dramatically, with many features arising due to substructure. For LDM the spectral effects are smaller, but changes do arise that improve the compatibility with existing experiments. We find that the phase of the modulation can depend upon energy, which would help discriminate against background should it be found
Natural tracer test simulation by stochastic particle tracking method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ackerer, P.; Mose, R.; Semra, K.
1990-01-01
Stochastic particle tracking methods are well adapted to 3D transport simulations where discretization requirements of other methods usually cannot be satisfied. They do need a very accurate approximation of the velocity field. The described code is based on the mixed hybrid finite element method (MHFEM) to calculated the piezometric and velocity field. The random-walk method is used to simulate mass transport. The main advantages of the MHFEM over FD or FE are the simultaneous calculation of pressure and velocity, which are considered as unknowns; the possibility of interpolating velocities everywhere; and the continuity of the normal component of the velocity vector from one element to another. For these reasons, the MHFEM is well adapted for particle tracking methods. After a general description of the numerical methods, the model is used to simulate the observations made during the Twin Lake Tracer Test in 1983. A good match is found between observed and simulated heads and concentrations. (Author) (12 refs., 4 figs.)
Design and construction of a Wien velocity filter for AMS facilities
Catana, D; Enachescu, M; Plostinaru, V D; Vata, I; Rohrer, L
2001-01-01
Many experiments in atomic and nuclear physics using accelerated particles require accurate ion beams with respect to their atomic number, mass number and ion charge. These requirements have special important for experiments of accelerated mass spectrometry. Double focussing analyzing magnets perform the mass selection of charged ions. However, the magnetic analyzer cannot distinguish between particles with equal charge and having the same mass-velocity product. A simple way of resolving this degeneracy is to use a Wien velocity filter, WVF, in conjunction with the magnet analyzers. The design and construction of a WVF is presented together with experiments performed to determine the separation power. A velocity separation DELTA v/v = 1/100 was obtained. The design in this separate arrangements of fields is simple and straightforward. The construction can be achieved in a usual workshop. The applications of the WVF are manifold, e.g., AMS, ERDA, RBS, etc. (authors)
Design and construction of a Wien velocity filter for AMS facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catana, D.; Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.; Plostinaru, D.; Vata, I.; Rohrer, L.
2001-01-01
Many experiments in atomic and nuclear physics using accelerated particles require accurate ion beams with respect to their atomic number, mass number and ion charge. These requirements have special important for experiments of accelerated mass spectrometry. Double focussing analyzing magnets perform the mass selection of charged ions. However, the magnetic analyzer cannot distinguish between particles with equal charge and having the same mass-velocity product. A simple way of resolving this degeneracy is to use a Wien velocity filter, WVF, in conjunction with the magnet analyzers. The design and construction of a WVF is presented together with experiments performed to determine the separation power. A velocity separation Δv/v = 1/100 was obtained. The design in this separate arrangements of fields is simple and straightforward. The construction can be achieved in a usual workshop. The applications of the WVF are manifold, e.g., AMS, ERDA, RBS, etc. (authors)
Statistics of a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian velocity increment in fully developed turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedrich, R; Kamps, O; Grauer, R; Homann, H
2009-01-01
We investigate the relationship between Eulerian and Lagrangian probability density functions obtained from numerical simulations of two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional turbulence. We show that in contrast to the structure functions of the Lagrangian velocity increment δ τ v(y)=u(x(y, τ), τ)- u(y, 0), where u(x, t) denotes the Eulerian velocity and x(y, t) the particle path initially starting at x(y, 0)=y, the structure functions of the velocity increment δ τ w(y)=u(x(y, τ), τ)- u(y, τ) exhibit a wide range of scaling behavior. Similar scaling indices are detected for the structure functions for particles diffusing in frozen turbulent fields. Furthermore, we discuss a connection to the scaling of Eulerian transversal structure functions.
Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures
Prokhorov, E. S.
2017-10-01
The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.
A glance at velocity structure of Izmir
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Özer, Çağlar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey); Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey)
2016-04-18
In this study; we investigated velocity structure of Izmir and surroundings. We used local earthquake data which was recorded by different type of instruments and obtained high resolution 3D sections. We selected more than 400 earthquakes which were occurred between 2010 and 2013. Examined tomographic sections especially in Izmir along coastal areas (Mavisehir-Inciraltı); revealed the low speed zone. Along this low-speed zone; it is consistent with the results obtained from the stratigraphic section and surface geology. While; low velocity zones are associated with faults and water content; high velocity is related to magmatic rocks or compact rocks. Along Karsıyaka, Seferihisar, Orhanlı, Izmir fault zones; low P velocity was observed. When examined higher elevations of the topography; which are composed of soured magmatic material is dominated by high P velocity. In all horizontal sections; resolution decreasing with increasing depth. The reason for this; the reduction of earthquakes causes ray tracing problems.
Dynamics and segregation of particles in a cyclone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mothes, H.
1982-01-01
In cyclone separator systems, the separation efficiency increases with increasing dust concentration, although the centripetal force, which is responsible for particle separation in a vortex, decreases with increasing particle concentration. This is demonstrated by laser-doppler-velocity-measurements. The measurements of separation efficiency together with the determination of particle size using stray radiation show that the effect of particle agglomeration is of major importance in the case of higher particle concentrations. Also smaller particles can be separated from the gas by agglomeration to larger particles, which can easily be separated. The calculations show that the improved separation at higher concentrations can be explained by this particle agglomeration effect. Finally different cyclone design models are discussed on the basis of the experimental results and the theoretical considerations on the particle dynamics in a cyclone. (orig./DG) [de
The stochastic dynamics of intermittent porescale particle motion
Dentz, Marco; Morales, Veronica; Puyguiraud, Alexandre; Gouze, Philippe; Willmann, Matthias; Holzner, Markus
2017-04-01
Numerical and experimental data for porescale particle dynamics show intermittent patterns in Lagrangian velocities and accelerations, which manifest in long time intervals of low and short durations of high velocities [1, 2]. This phenomenon is due to the spatial persistence of particle velocities on characteristic heterogeneity length scales. In order to systematically quantify these behaviors and extract the stochastic dynamics of particle motion, we focus on the analysis of Lagrangian velocities sampled equidistantly along trajectories [3]. This method removes the intermittency observed under isochrone sampling. The space-Lagrangian velocity series can be quantified by a Markov process that is continuous in distance along streamline. It is fully parameterized in terms of the flux-weighted Eulerian velocity PDF and the characteristic pore-length. The resulting stochastic particle motion describes a continuous time random walk (CTRW). This approach allows for the process based interpretation of experimental and numerical porescale velocity, acceleration and displacement data. It provides a framework for the characterization and upscaling of particle transport and dispersion from the pore to the Darcy-scale based on the medium geometry and Eulerian flow attributes. [1] P. De Anna, T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, A.M. Tartakovsky, D. Bolster, and P. Davy, "Flow intermittency, dispersion, and correlated continuous time random walks in porous media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 184502 (2013). [2] M. Holzner, V. L. Morales, M. Willmann, and M. Dentz, "Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three- dimensional porous medium flow," Phys. Rev. E 92, 013015 (2015). [3] M. Dentz, P. K. Kang, A. Comolli, T. Le Borgne, and D. R. Lester, "Continuous time random walks for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities," Phys. Rev. Fluids (2016).
Transport of the moving barrier driven by chiral active particles
Liao, Jing-jing; Huang, Xiao-qun; Ai, Bao-quan
2018-03-01
Transport of a moving V-shaped barrier exposed to a bath of chiral active particles is investigated in a two-dimensional channel. Due to the chirality of active particles and the transversal asymmetry of the barrier position, active particles can power and steer the directed transport of the barrier in the longitudinal direction. The transport of the barrier is determined by the chirality of active particles. The moving barrier and active particles move in the opposite directions. The average velocity of the barrier is much larger than that of active particles. There exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, the packing fraction, and the channel width) at which the average velocity of the barrier takes its maximal value. In particular, tailoring the geometry of the barrier and the active concentration provides novel strategies to control the transport properties of micro-objects or cargoes in an active medium.