WorldWideScience

Sample records for hugo gene nomenclature

  1. Activities of Human Gene Nomenclature Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-16

    The objective of this project, shared between NIH and DOE, has been and remains to enable the medical genetics communities to use common names for genes that are discovered by different gene hunting groups, in different species. This effort provides consistent gene nomenclature and approved gene symbols to the community at large. This contributes to a uniform and consistent understanding of genomes, particularly the human as well as functional genomics based on comparisons between homologous genes in related species (human and mice).

  2. Naming 'junk': Human non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA gene nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Mathew W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, the majority of the human genome was thought to be 'junk' DNA with no functional purpose. Over the past decade, the field of RNA research has rapidly expanded, with a concomitant increase in the number of non-protein coding RNA (ncRNA genes identified in this 'junk'. Many of the encoded ncRNAs have already been shown to be essential for a variety of vital functions, and this wealth of annotated human ncRNAs requires standardised naming in order to aid effective communication. The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC is the only organisation authorised to assign standardised nomenclature to human genes. Of the 30,000 approved gene symbols currently listed in the HGNC database (http://www.genenames.org/search, the majority represent protein-coding genes; however, they also include pseudogenes, phenotypic loci and some genomic features. In recent years the list has also increased to include almost 3,000 named human ncRNA genes. HGNC is actively engaging with the RNA research community in order to provide unique symbols and names for each sequence that encodes an ncRNA. Most of the classical small ncRNA genes have now been provided with a unique nomenclature, and work on naming the long (> 200 nucleotides non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs is ongoing.

  3. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  4. HUGO (FNDC3A): a new gene overexpressed in human odontoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrouel, F; Couble, M-L; Vanbelle, C; Staquet, M-J; Magloire, H; Bleicher, F

    2008-02-01

    Previously, we established a subtractive cDNA library enriched in odontoblast-specific genes and hypothesized that new, previously unidentified, markers would be present, associated with the odontoblast phenotype. In this paper, we report the first characterization of a new gene we have named HUGO, and its associated deduced protein sequence. This gene expression is under the control of two alternative promoters, resulting in the synthesis of two proteins, one of which, HUGO2, is included in the other, HUGO1. HUGO proteins are mainly composed of a proline-rich region at the N-terminus, 8 type III-fibronectin modules, and a transmembranous helix at the C-terminus. In odontoblasts, the proteins are located in Golgi vesicles. However, they display a broader expression pattern, since they are also expressed by nerve fibers in the dental pulp and other tissues (e.g., trachea, brain, kidney), as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and qPCR, respectively. Their location in odontoblasts suggests a role in collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis.

  5. Gene and protein nomenclature in public databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer Ralf

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequently, several alternative names are in use for biological objects such as genes and proteins. Applications like manual literature search, automated text-mining, named entity identification, gene/protein annotation, and linking of knowledge from different information sources require the knowledge of all used names referring to a given gene or protein. Various organism-specific or general public databases aim at organizing knowledge about genes and proteins. These databases can be used for deriving gene and protein name dictionaries. So far, little is known about the differences between databases in terms of size, ambiguities and overlap. Results We compiled five gene and protein name dictionaries for each of the five model organisms (yeast, fly, mouse, rat, and human from different organism-specific and general public databases. We analyzed the degree of ambiguity of gene and protein names within and between dictionaries, to a lexicon of common English words and domain-related non-gene terms, and we compared different data sources in terms of size of extracted dictionaries and overlap of synonyms between those. The study shows that the number of genes/proteins and synonyms covered in individual databases varies significantly for a given organism, and that the degree of ambiguity of synonyms varies significantly between different organisms. Furthermore, it shows that, despite considerable efforts of co-curation, the overlap of synonyms in different data sources is rather moderate and that the degree of ambiguity of gene names with common English words and domain-related non-gene terms varies depending on the considered organism. Conclusion In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of data contained in different databases allows the generation of gene and protein name dictionaries that contain significantly more used names than dictionaries obtained from individual data sources. Furthermore, curation of

  6. The POU-er of gene nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankenberg, Stephen R; Frank, Dale; Harland, Richard

    2014-01-01

    this family provides insight into the evolution of early embryonic potency. Here, we seek to clarify the relationship between POU5F1 homologues in the vertebrate lineage, both phylogenetically and functionally. We resolve the confusion over the identity of the zebrafish gene, which was originally named pou2...

  7. A revised nomenclature for transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Jens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established, transcribed ERV loci are of particular interest. As more transcribed ERV loci are likely to be identified in the near future, the development of a systematic nomenclature is important to ensure that all information on each locus can be easily retrieved. Results Here we present a revised nomenclature of transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci that sorts loci into groups based on Repbase classifications. Each symbol is of the format ERV + group symbol + unique number. Group symbols are based on a mixture of Repbase designations and well-supported symbols used in the literature. The presented guidelines will allow newly identified loci to be easily incorporated into the scheme. Conclusions The naming system will be employed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for naming transcribed human ERV loci. We hope that the system will contribute to clarifying a certain aspect of a sometimes confusing nomenclature for human endogenous retroviruses. The presented system may also be employed for naming transcribed loci of human non-ERV repeat loci.

  8. Elegantselt korrektne Hugo Boss / Maria Viidalepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viidalepp, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Meeste- ja naisterõivaid tootvast kaubamärgist Hugo Boss (Boss Black, Boss Green, Boss Selection, Boss Orange, Hugo Red). Hugo Bossi Eesti esinduskaupluse (Tallinn, Roosikrantsi kvartal) kaubavalikust

  9. Elegantselt korrektne Hugo Boss / Maria Viidalepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viidalepp, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Meeste- ja naisterõivaid tootvast kaubamärgist Hugo Boss (Boss Black, Boss Green, Boss Selection, Boss Orange, Hugo Red). Hugo Bossi Eesti esinduskaupluse (Tallinn, Roosikrantsi kvartal) kaubavalikust

  10. A reticular rhapsody: phylogenic evolution and nomenclature of the RTN/Nogo gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertle, Thomas; Klinger, Michael; Stuermer, Claudia A O; Schwab, Martin E

    2003-07-01

    Reticulon (RTN) genes code for a family of proteins relatively recently described in higher vertebrates. The four known mammalian paralogues (RTN1, -2, -3, and -4/Nogo) have homologous carboxyl termini with two characteristic large hydrophobic regions. Except for RTN4-A/Nogo-A, thought to be an inhibitor for neurite outgrowth, restricting the regenerative capabilities of the mammalian CNS after injury, the functions of other family members are largely unknown. The overall occurrence of RTNs in different phyla and the evolution of the RTN gene family have hitherto not been analyzed. Here we expound data showing that the RTN family has arisen during early eukaryotic evolution potentially concerted to the establishment of the endomembrane system. Over 250 reticulon-like (RTNL) genes were identified in deeply diverging eukaryotes, fungi, plants, and animals. A systematic nomenclature for all identified family members is introduced. The analysis of exon-intron arrangements and of protein homologies allowed us to isolate key steps in the history of these genes. Our data corroborate the hypothesis that present RTNs evolved from an intron-rich reticulon ancestor mainly by the loss of different introns in diverse phyla. We also present evidence that the exceptionally large RTN4-A-specific exon 3, which harbors a potent neurite growth inhibitory region, may have arisen de novo approximately 350 MYA during transition to land vertebrates. These data emphasize on the one hand the universal role of reticulons in the eukaryotic system and on the other hand the acquisition of putative new functions through acquirement of novel amino-terminal exons.

  11. An update to polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal synthetase genes and nomenclature in Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Frederik T; Gardiner, Donald M; Lysøe, Erik; Fuertes, Patricia Romans; Tudzynski, Bettina; Wiemann, Philipp; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Giese, Henriette; Brodersen, Ditlev E; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2015-02-01

    Members of the genus Fusarium produce a plethora of bioactive secondary metabolites, which can be harmful to humans and animals or have potential in drug development. In this study we have performed comparative analyses of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) from ten different Fusarium species including F. graminearum (two strains), F. verticillioides, F. solani, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, F. fujikuroi, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. equiseti, and F. oxysporum (12 strains). This led to identification of 52 NRPS and 52 PKSs orthology groups, respectively, and although not all PKSs and NRPSs are assumed to be intact or functional, the analyses illustrate the huge secondary metabolite potential in Fusarium. In our analyses we identified a core collection of eight NRPSs (NRPS2-4, 6, 10-13) and two PKSs (PKS3 and PKS7) that are conserved in all strains analyzed in this study. The identified PKSs and NRPSs were named based on a previously developed classification system (www.FusariumNRPSPKS.dk). We suggest this system be used when PKSs and NRPSs have to be classified in future sequenced Fusarium strains. This system will facilitate identification of orthologous and non-orthologous NRPSs and PKSs from newly sequenced Fusarium genomes and will aid the scientific community by providing a common nomenclature for these two groups of genes/enzymes.

  12. Victor Hugo, Marie Tudor

    OpenAIRE

    Sabourin, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Dans la collection de poche qui rend aisément accessibles les grandes pièces du répertoire français, Clélia Anfray donne, avec une introduction (pp. 7-42), une notice sur la genèse, la rédaction et la parution, un historique des représentations, une chronologie, des indications bibliographiques et des notes, le texte du drame consacré par Hugo à cette «reine qui soit une femme. Grande comme une reine, vraie comme une femme» qu’il veut voir en Marie Tudor («Préface», p. 47). La documentation h...

  13. Victor Marie Hugo

    OpenAIRE

    Ρέντζος, Όθων; Rentzos, Othon

    2011-01-01

    Βιογραφία του Hugo, κριτική αποτίμηση του έργο του, οι πολιτικές του θέσεις, η συμβολή του στη γαλλική γραμματολογία. Φέρει εικονογράφηση.

  14. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Gibbons, Ian R.; Hays, Thomas S.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Porter, Mary E.; Schroer, Trina A.; Vaughan, Kevin T.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of names has been used in the literature for the subunits of cytoplasmic dynein complexes. Thus, there is a strong need for a more definitive consensus statement on nomenclature. This is especially important for mammalian cytoplasmic dyneins, many subunits of which are encoded by multiple genes. We propose names for the mammalian cytoplasmic dynein subunit genes and proteins that reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the genes and the published studies clarifying the functions of the polypeptides. This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms. PMID:16260502

  15. Hurricane Hugo Poster (September 21, 1989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Hugo poster. Multi-spectral image from NOAA-11 captures Hurricane Hugo slamming into South Carolina coast on September 21, 1989. Poster size is 36"x36".

  16. Hugo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Bijl, van der M.; Lamaker, A.; Stravers, T.; Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kroon, B.; Knol, J.; Dhaene, M.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Bakker, T.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Our earlier robots have not solved the Field Robot Event’s row-following problem with a sufficient degree of robustness. The objective of the work presented here was to build a robot that can detect rows consisting of small or large maize plants by using a camera system; and to provide this robot wi

  17. Obituary: Hugo Schwarz, 1953-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Hugo Schwarz died in a motorcycle accident on 20 October 2006 near his home in La Serena, Chile. At the time of his death he was a staff astronomer at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and President of IAU Commission 50 (The Protection of Existing and Potential Observatory Sites). After Hugo's half-brother Frans died when Hugo was an infant, he effectively grew up as an only child. One consequence was that Hugo became an avid reader. He once estimated that he had read between 3,000 and 4,000 books. He also moved around a great deal. For most of the first seven years of his life, Hugo lived in Venezuela because his father worked for Shell Oil Company. According to Hugo's count, he had a total of 43 different addresses in his life. This gave him experience with different cultures and a facility with several languages. He was fluent in Dutch, German, Spanish, and English, and knew some French. He was very fond of quoting his father's sayings in Dutch and liked to relate stories filled with Chilean-slang to people who understood neither, providing translations that retained the cleverness of the originals. While on holiday in Scotland in 1974, Hugo decided to enroll in the Glasgow College of Technology, as it was then known. A year later he transferred to the University of Glasgow, where he earned his BSc (1979) and PhD (officially in 1984). From 1982 to 1986 he worked on X-ray detectors for X-ray astronomy at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, south of London. In 1986 Hugo, his first wife Catriona (Cat), and their two children departed for Chile, where Hugo worked as a staff astronomer for the European Southern Observatory. Over the next nine years he spent over 1,300 nights at La Silla. A big change occurred in 1995 when Hugo moved to La Palma in the Canary Islands to be Astronomer in Charge of the Nordic Optical Telescope. He was very proud of having organized a team of astronomers and technicians who made the NOT into a valuable research facility with minimal

  18. Naivist Hugo Sturm mässab Kondases / Aime Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Aime, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Naivist Hugo Sturmi elust. Hugo Sturmi looming on deponeeritud Kondase keskusesse ja sellest seatakse sügisel üles püsiekspositsioon. Juuli alguseni on Kondase keskuses Hugo Sturmi maalide ja pisiskulptuuride näitus. Mari Vallikivi kommentaar

  19. Naivist Hugo Sturm mässab Kondases / Aime Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Aime, 1958-

    2005-01-01

    Naivist Hugo Sturmi elust. Hugo Sturmi looming on deponeeritud Kondase keskusesse ja sellest seatakse sügisel üles püsiekspositsioon. Juuli alguseni on Kondase keskuses Hugo Sturmi maalide ja pisiskulptuuride näitus. Mari Vallikivi kommentaar

  20. Hugo Osula ennustab Eesti bussiveondusele raskeid aegu / Hugo Osula ; interv. Irina Kiviselg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Hugo, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota, 11. dets. 2004, lk. 3. Hugo Osula juhib nii Eesti kui ka mitme Euroopa riigi suurimat ning Venemaad ja Valgevenet haaravat reisijateveo võrku. Vt. samas: 13 küsimust

  1. Hugo Osula ennustab Eesti bussiveondusele raskeid aegu / Hugo Osula ; interv. Irina Kiviselg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Hugo, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota, 11. dets. 2004, lk. 3. Hugo Osula juhib nii Eesti kui ka mitme Euroopa riigi suurimat ning Venemaad ja Valgevenet haaravat reisijateveo võrku. Vt. samas: 13 küsimust

  2. Hugo Bossi kunstiauhind / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    Guggenheimi muuseum New Yorgis annab 2002. a. sügisel taas välja Hugo Bossi kunstiauhinna: 50000 dollarit ja isiknäitus Guggenheimis 2003. a. alguses. Kandidaadid: Francis Alys, Olafur Eliasson, Hachiya Kazuhiko, Koo Jeong-a, Pierre Huyghe, Anri Sala

  3. Hugo Bossi kunstiauhind / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    Guggenheimi muuseum New Yorgis annab 2002. a. sügisel taas välja Hugo Bossi kunstiauhinna: 50000 dollarit ja isiknäitus Guggenheimis 2003. a. alguses. Kandidaadid: Francis Alys, Olafur Eliasson, Hachiya Kazuhiko, Koo Jeong-a, Pierre Huyghe, Anri Sala

  4. A simplified laminin nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumailley, Monique; Bruckner-Tudermann, Leena; Carter, William G.

    2005-01-01

    is named laminin 4a (L4a), domain IVa of alpha chains is named L4b, domain IV of gamma chains is named L4, and domain IV of beta chains is named laminin four (LF). The two coiled-coil domains I and II are now considered one laminin coiled-coil domain (LCC). The interruption in the coiled-coil of beta...... chains is named laminin beta-knob (Lbeta) domain. The chain origin of a domain is specified by the chain nomenclature, such as alpha1L4a. The abbreviation LM is suggested for laminin. Otherwise, the nomenclature remains unaltered....... for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the alpha, beta and gamma chain numbers. For example, the laminin with the chain composition alpha5beta1gamma1 is termed laminin-511, and not laminin-10. The current practice is also to mix two overlapping domain and module nomenclatures. Instead of the older...

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human kinase gene, PDIK1L

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lingchen Guo; Chaoneng Ji; Shaohua Gu; Kang Ying; Haipeng Cheng; Xiaoghua Ni; Jianping Liu; Yi Xie; Yumin Mao

    2003-04-01

    We isolated a 4301-bp cDNA from a human foetal brain cDNA library by high-throughput cDNA sequencing. It encodes a protein of 341 amino acids, which shows 69% identity with the human kinase CLIK1 (AAL99353), which was suggested to be the CLP-36 interacting kinase. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the putative kinase may interact with PDZ and LIM domain proteins. Therefore the protein and its cDNA were named ‘PDLIM1 interacting kinase 1 like’ (PDIK1L; nomenclature approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee). Ensembl Genome Browser located PDIK1L to human chromosome 1p35.3. It spans about 13.7 kb and consists of four exons and three introns. Multiple-tissue cDNA panel PCR revealed that the gene is expressed widely in human tissues: liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus and prostate. The protein appears to be localized to the nucleus.

  6. Introduction to Polymer Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jarm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Presented is a condensed review of the current state of polymer nomenclature according to IUPAC recommendations. Two nomenclature systems, the source-based and the structurebased, differ on the viewpoint of how the structure of a polymer is represented and named. In the simpler and traditionally more popular source-based nomenclature, a polymer is named by attaching the prefix “poly” to the name of the starting monomer, e.g. polystyrene. This system suffers from the lack of clear definitions or rules. The more complex structure-based system consists of naming a polymer as poly(constitutional repeating unit, e.g. poly(1-phenyletane-1,2-diil. However, for the identification, orientation and naming of the preferred constitutional repeating unit, a number of principles and rules, according to the IUPAC recommended nomenclature of organic compounds, should be known and used. Application of both systems to certain polymer structures and their illustration with numerous examples are described.

  7. „Moment elegijny” Victora Hugo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Siwiec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to define the place of elegiac modality in the literary output of Victor Hugo. The starting point for the discussion and at the same time appropriate interpretative tool is the definition of elegy derived from the writings of German theoreticians of Romanticism: Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Schlegel. The thing is question is the elegiac attitude based on exposing of what is ideal and lost at the same time. The above, indeed, constitutes an answer to the questions of the experience of crisis so inherent to Romanticism. Analyses of the early poetical volumes written by the author show a particular evolution of Hugo’s conception of poetry. Politically committed The Odes, being anti-elegiac by assumption, are discussed, as well as purely poetical Eastern poems overtly promoting limitless freedom which characterizes the creative imagination. The interpretation of individual poems from these volumes proves, however, that one can discern a certain elegiac tone in them, though the tone is never dominant. The volume that distinctively enhances the elegy (thus far discredited by Hugo and from then on permanently occurring in his works turns out to be Autumn Leaves — a collection of poems of contemplative, melancholic, visionary and self-reflective character.

  8. Hugo lecteur de Byron: un contre-sens volontaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sibona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho trata do complexo sistema de relações entre o poema de Victor Hugo “Mazeppa”, extraído da coletânea Les orientales, ao conto oriental de Lord Byron de mesmo nome, o qual inspirou o jovem Hugo, e a sua tradução por Amédée Pichot, uma vez que Hugo não pôde ter lido o texto em inglês. Será utilizada a metodologia intertextual e comparativa inspirada pela obra de Harold Bloom, The anxiety of influence, bem como os conceitos teóricos de Gilles Deleuze e Félix Guattari expostos em Mille plateaux.Palavras-chave: Literatura francesa; Victor Hugo; Mazeppa; literatura inglesa; Lord Byron; Harold Bloom; Gilles Deleuze; Félix Guattari.Résumé: Il s’agit dans cet article du complexe système d’agrafes qui relie le poème de Victor Hugo ‘Mazeppa’, extrait de son recueil Les orientales, au conte oriental de Lord Byron du même nom, qui a inspiré le jeune Hugo, et à sa traduction par Amédée Pichot, Hugo n’ayant pu lire le texte anglais. J’utiliserais pour ce faire une méthodologie intertextuelle et comparative inspirée par l’ouvrage de Harold Blomm, The anxiety of influence et les outils théoriques de Gilles Deleuze et Félix Guattari tels qu’ils sont exponsés dans Mille plateaux.Mots-clés: Littérature française; Victor Hugo; Mazeppa; littérature anglaise; Lord Byron; Harold Bloom; Gilles Deleuze; Félix Guattari.Keywords: French literature; Victor Hugo; Mazeppa; English literature; Lord Byron; Harold Bloom; Gilles Deleuze; Félix Guattari.

  9. Nomenclature of chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kaczmarek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the mechanisms of the inorganic chemistry nomenclature formation in French language. It shows the structure and the way of presenting the names of chemical compounds either descriptively or by giving the structural formulas’ characteristics, their transcription and order of reading the letters. The text specifies the rules of naming a chemical compound, according to the criteria of IUPAC (Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the organisation responsible for digesting the chemical nomenclature. The article contains the transcription chart and the manner of reading the structural formula, also called latero-numerical. Additionally, there is information conceming the usage of the common names given, still remaining in use next to the names compatible with those of IUPAC. Particular types of chemical compounds have served as models for description of other nomenclature formation rules from the simplest structures to the complicated compound ones. A short summary presents the relations and similarities between the names of particular types of chemical compounds.

  10. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  11. Hugo Chaves v otsherednoi raz progrozil SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Naftaeksportöör Venezuela sõlmis 13 Kariibi mere riigiga energeetikakoostöö leppe, mis tugevdas president Hugo Chavezi poliitilist positsiooni USA mõju vastu regioonis. USA ja Venezuela suhetest

  12. Hugo Chaves v otsherednoi raz progrozil SShA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Naftaeksportöör Venezuela sõlmis 13 Kariibi mere riigiga energeetikakoostöö leppe, mis tugevdas president Hugo Chavezi poliitilist positsiooni USA mõju vastu regioonis. USA ja Venezuela suhetest

  13. The Invention of "The Invention of Hugo Cabret"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Brian

    2008-01-01

    "The Invention of Hugo Cabret" is a story about Georges Melies that the author began thinking about over 15 years ago and took about two-and-a-half years to complete. The book is about a boy named Hugo Cabret, an orphan living secretly in the walls of a train station in Paris who becomes involved in a mystery that ties him together with a mean old…

  14. The Invention of "The Invention of Hugo Cabret"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selznick, Brian

    2008-01-01

    "The Invention of Hugo Cabret" is a story about Georges Melies that the author began thinking about over 15 years ago and took about two-and-a-half years to complete. The book is about a boy named Hugo Cabret, an orphan living secretly in the walls of a train station in Paris who becomes involved in a mystery that ties him together with a mean old…

  15. Physical aspects of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatena, F.N.; Larsen, Matthew C.

    1991-01-01

    On 18 September 1989 the western part ofHurricane Hugo crossed eastern Puerto Rico and the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF). Storm-facing slopes on the northeastern part of the island that were within 15 km of the eye and received greater than 200 mm of rain were most affected by the storm. In the LEF and nearby area, recurrence intervals associated with Hurricane Hugo were 50 yr for wind velocity, 10 to 31 yr for stream discharge, and 5 yr for rainfall intensity. To compare the magnitudes of the six hurricanes to pass over PuertoRico since 1899, 3 indices were developed using the standardized values of the product of: the maximum sustained wind speed at San Juan squared and storm duration; the square of the product of the maximum sustained wind velocity at San Juan and the ratio of the distance between the hurricane eye and San Juan to the distance between the eye and percentage of average annual rainfall delivered by the storm. Based on these indices, HurricaneHugo was of moderate intensity. However, because of the path of Hurricane Hugo, only one of these six storms (the 1932 storm) caused more damage to the LEF than Hurricane Hugo. Hurricanes of Hugo's magnitude are estimated to pass over the LEF once every 50-60 yr, on average. 

  16. Finding one's way in proteomics: a protein species nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzhütter Hermann-Georg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of proteins has greatly improved in recent years, driven by new technologies in the fields of molecular biology and proteome research. It has become clear that from a single gene not only one single gene product but many different ones - termed protein species - are generated, all of which may be associated with different functions. Nonetheless, an unambiguous nomenclature for describing individual protein species is still lacking. With the present paper we therefore propose a systematic nomenclature for the comprehensive description of protein species. The protein species nomenclature is flexible and adaptable to every level of knowledge and of experimental data in accordance with the exact chemical composition of individual protein species. As a minimum description the entry name (gene name + species according to the UniProt knowledgebase can be used, if no analytical data about the target protein species are available.

  17. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  18. Satire and Utopian Vision in Hugo, Dickens, and Zamiatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kathryn M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines Victor Hugo's "Ninety-three," Charles Dickens'"Tale of Two Cities," and Eugene Zamiatin's "We" as examples of romantic satire, considering in each work the quest motif, the oedipal themes, the dystopian vision, and the role of love. (AYC)

  19. Satire and Utopian Vision in Hugo, Dickens, and Zamiatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Kathryn M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines Victor Hugo's "Ninety-three," Charles Dickens'"Tale of Two Cities," and Eugene Zamiatin's "We" as examples of romantic satire, considering in each work the quest motif, the oedipal themes, the dystopian vision, and the role of love. (AYC)

  20. Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film": A Psychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicclair, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study" is one of the earliest essays in the area of film theory. Unfortunately, it has remained relatively unknown since its publication in 1916. The author discusses two concepts raised by Munsterberg: the contrast between films in the theatrical mode and films in the cinematic mode.…

  1. Hugo Munsterberg's Attack on the Application of Scientific Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    No individual in the early history of American psychology is more identified with the promotion of applied psychology than Hugo Munsterberg, whose books and articles on applied topics such as industrial psychology, forensic psychology, psychotherapy, and educational psychology made him one of the most visible psychologists of his day. But there is…

  2. Casein nomenclature, structure and association

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter of the Encyclopedia of Dairy Science deals with the recent developments in the nomenclature, classification, structures, and associations of the major milk proteins: the caseins. Identification of the caseins continues to be based upon their primary structures. Significant findings re...

  3. Auditory Hallucinations Nomenclature and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an

  4. Auditory Hallucinations Nomenclature and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Introduction: The literature on the possible neurobiologic correlates of auditory hallucinations is expanding rapidly. For an adequate understanding and linking of this emerging knowledge, a clear and uniform nomenclature is a prerequisite. The primary purpose of the present article is to provide an

  5. Nomenclature and placental mammal phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgen Kristofer M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An issue arising from recent progress in establishing the placental mammal Tree of Life concerns the nomenclature of high-level clades. Fortunately, there are now several well-supported clades among extant mammals that require unambiguous, stable names. Although the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature does not apply above the Linnean rank of family, and while consensus on the adoption of competing systems of nomenclature does not yet exist, there is a clear, historical basis upon which to arbitrate among competing names for high-level mammalian clades. Here, we recommend application of the principles of priority and stability, as laid down by G.G. Simpson in 1945, to discriminate among proposed names for high-level taxa. We apply these principles to specific cases among placental mammals with broad relevance for taxonomy, and close with particular emphasis on the Afrotherian family Tenrecidae. We conclude that no matter how reconstructions of the Tree of Life change in years to come, systematists should apply new names reluctantly, deferring to those already published and maximizing consistency with existing nomenclature.

  6. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  7. Developing a community-based genetic nomenclature for anole lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumi Kenro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative studies of amniotes have been hindered by a dearth of reptilian molecular sequences. With the genomic assembly of the green anole, Anolis carolinensis available, non-avian reptilian genes can now be compared to mammalian, avian, and amphibian homologs. Furthermore, with more than 350 extant species in the genus Anolis, anoles are an unparalleled example of tetrapod genetic diversity and divergence. As an important ecological, genetic and now genomic reference, it is imperative to develop a standardized Anolis gene nomenclature alongside associated vocabularies and other useful metrics. Results Here we report the formation of the Anolis Gene Nomenclature Committee (AGNC and propose a standardized evolutionary characterization code that will help researchers to define gene orthology and paralogy with tetrapod homologs, provide a system for naming novel genes in Anolis and other reptiles, furnish abbreviations to facilitate comparative studies among the Anolis species and related iguanid squamates, and classify the geographical origins of Anolis subpopulations. Conclusions This report has been generated in close consultation with members of the Anolis and genomic research communities, and using public database resources including NCBI and Ensembl. Updates will continue to be regularly posted to new research community websites such as lizardbase. We anticipate that this standardized gene nomenclature will facilitate the accessibility of reptilian sequences for comparative studies among tetrapods and will further serve as a template for other communities in their sequencing and annotation initiatives.

  8. Eesti mees aitab Hugo Bossi käivet kasvatada / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Vaatamata sellele, et Hugo Bossi müük USA-s ja koduturul Saksamaal kahaneb, kipub Bossi meesterõivaste nõudlus Eesti turul pakkumist ületama. Diagramm: Hugo Bossi aktsia hinna muutused 30. juuli 2002-30. juuli 2003.

  9. Proteoglycan form and function: A comprehensive nomenclature of proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iozzo, Renato V; Schaefer, Liliana

    2015-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive classification of the proteoglycan gene families and respective protein cores. This updated nomenclature is based on three criteria: Cellular and subcellular location, overall gene/protein homology, and the utilization of specific protein modules within their respective protein cores. These three signatures were utilized to design four major classes of proteoglycans with distinct forms and functions: the intracellular, cell-surface, pericellular and extracellular proteoglycans. The proposed nomenclature encompasses forty-three distinct proteoglycan-encoding genes and many alternatively-spliced variants. The biological functions of these four proteoglycan families are critically assessed in development, cancer and angiogenesis, and in various acquired and genetic diseases where their expression is aberrant.

  10. Nomenclature and Terminology of Organic Chemistry. I. Sixty Years of Croatian Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapić, V; Varga-Defterdarović, L

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the history and development of the Croatian nomenclature of organic chemistry from the publication of the first translation of international nomenclature recommendations to the present age...

  11. Nomenclature for factors of the SLA class-I system, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D M; Lunney, J K; Martens, G W; Ando, A; Lee, J-H; Ho, C-S; Schook, L; Renard, C; Chardon, P

    2005-02-01

    A systematic nomenclature for the genes and alleles of the swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to the development and communication of research in swine immunology. The Swine Leucocyte Antigen (SLA) Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics has reviewed all of the DNA sequence information for MHC class-I genes, available in GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases, and the associated published reports in order to develop such a systematic nomenclature. This report summarizes the proposed nomenclature, which parallels the World Health Organization's nomenclature for factors of the human MHC. The classical class-I SLA genes are designated as SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3; the non-classical as SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8. Nomenclature assignments for all SLA class-I GenBank sequences are now noted. The Committee will add new SLA class-I allele designations, as they are discovered, and will maintain a publicly available list of all recognized genes and alleles by using the International ImMunoGeneTics Project and its Immuno Polymorphism Database/MHC (IPD/MHC) sequence database for MHC sequences in veterinary species.

  12. The Daughters of Fire: Walter Hugo Khouri's female gothic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Serravalle de Sá

    2012-11-01

    This article seeks to investigate the connections between WalterHugo Khouri’s film As Filhas do Fogo (1978 and the Gothicstressing matters of gender, race and nationality. More than asimple re-classification, this Gothic framework of study seeks todemonstrate that the representation of necromancy, mysteriousdeaths and female imprisonment in a tropical manor suggest issueslinked to Brazilian cultural identity and concerns. By associatingKhouri’s film to a form that is representative of popularentertainment this article seeks to establish a case in point ofhow the notion of Gothic can be a useful concept in the investigationof Brazilian film history.

  13. New nomenclatural combinations in Pseuduvaria (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Yvonne C.F.; Saunders, Richard M.K.

    2001-01-01

    New nomenclatural combinations are validated for Pseuduvaria oxycarpa (transferred from Mitrephora) and P. luzonensis, P. unguiculata and P. pamattonis (all transferred from Orophea). All names are lectotypified.

  14. La Psicologia y su ensenanza en Argentina. Entrevista con Hugo Klappenbach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calabresi, Corina; Polanco, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Dialogamos con el reconocido investigador de la historia y ensenanza de la Psicologia, Hugo Klappenbach, quien presenta una mirada critica sobre la ensenanza de esta ciencia en Argentina, donde tiene...

  15. Hugo Osula : kriisi põhjustasid erastamine ja vaba konkurents / Arved Breidaks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Breidaks, Arved, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Bussifirma Sebe põhiomaniku Hugo Osula hinnangul on Eesti ühistranspordi arengus kolm murdepunkti: riigile kuulunud transportiettevõtete erastamine, kaugliinide avamine 2000. aastal vabaks konkurentsiks ning 2002. aastast maakonnaliinide teenindamiseks konkursside korraldamine

  16. Hugo Bossi kaupluste omanik plaanib avada üle saja poe / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Hugo Bossi ja Joop!ì kaupluste omanikud kavandavad laienemist Ukrainasse ja Valgevenesse ning luksuskaubamaja rajamist Tallinna. Lisa: Endisest tööandjast sai konkurent; Majanduse jahenemine annab tunda

  17. Espacio y tiempo: creatividad actoral en "La bufadora" de Hugo Salcedo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duhalt, Francisco Beverido

    1999-01-01

    Explores the notions of spatial and temporal juxtaposition in Hugo Salcedo's play "La bufadora," addressing these themes in a specifically intertextual context by relating them to the work of Mexican...

  18. Hugo Bossi kaupluste omanik plaanib avada üle saja poe / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Hugo Bossi ja Joop!ì kaupluste omanikud kavandavad laienemist Ukrainasse ja Valgevenesse ning luksuskaubamaja rajamist Tallinna. Lisa: Endisest tööandjast sai konkurent; Majanduse jahenemine annab tunda

  19. Concentrations of selected elements in the Kiamichi River above Hugo Reservoir

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bulk element concentrations in soil collected from undisturbed forested sites throughout the Kiamichi River watershed above Hugo Reservoir were significantly higher...

  20. Kebijakan Politik Hugo Chavez Dalam Penanggulangan Krisis Ekonomi Venezuela (1998-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinem, Try Edo Ati

    2015-01-01

    Hugo Chavez is the President of Venezuela who has an important role for change of political direction to resolve economic crisis in Venezuela with his Bolivarian Revolution. His political and economic policies able to cope with the bad condition in Venezuela. The purpose of this study was (1) to describe the condition of Venezuela when the economic crisis (2) Describe the Bolivarian Revolution (3) Describe the policies of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela tackling the economic crisis...

  1. Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justification for a Standardised Zoological Nomenclature: The Fascinating World of Animal Common Names. ... Ghana Journal of Science ... by the beginning of the 19th century, became the final authority on naming animals worldwide.

  2. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  3. HUGO HÄRING, ESPACIOS COREOGRÁFICOS DEL DEVENIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El espacio puede leerse como el escenario para el despliegue de lo cotidiano o de acciones rituales. La arquitectura puede negociar forma y uso en el espacio desde lo protésico y desde lo coreográfico. Lo protésico opera como una disciplina ergonómica en la que la forma depende de usos previamente asignados. Lo coreográfico trabaja con y a través de formas que no responden directamente a ningún uso específico, sino que "esperan" la asignación de tal uso. Ambas estrategias parten del cuerpo como dato. Partiendo de lo orgánico y las prótesis, Hugo Häring desarrolló un corpus teórico muy rico dirigido a la propuesta de espacios coreográficos del devenir y conectado con la cultura alemana de la modernidad. Sin embargo, en sus propios proyectos, operó en el régimen protésico, proyectando espacios que funcionan como guiones teatrales para el despliegue de la vida. Para Häring, la metáfora orgánica debía culminar en una forma de espacio de los acontecimientos como estado de culminación de la cultura de las prótesis.SUMMARY. Space can be read as the scene for the unfolding of the day-to-day or of ritual actions. Architecture can negotiate form and use in space from the prosthetic and the choreographed. The prosthetic operates as an ergonomic discipline in which the form depends on previously assigned uses. The choreographed works with and through forms which do not directly respond to any specific use, but which "wait" for the allocation of such use. Both strategies come from the body as data. Starting off from the organic and the prostheses, Hugo Häring developed a very rich theoretical corpus directed to the proposal of choreographic spaces of becoming and connected with the German culture of modernity. Nevertheless, in his own projects, he operated in the prosthetic regime, projecting spaces that work as theatre scripts for the unfolding of life. For Häring, the organic metaphor had to culminate in a form of space

  4. Nomenclatural adjustments in African plants 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Manning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ongoing systematic studies in the African flora necessitate periodic nomenclatural adjustments and corrections. Objectives: To effect requisite nomenclatural changes. Method: Relevant literature was surveyed and type material located and examined. Results: Nomenclatural corrections are published in Mairia Nees (Asteraceae and Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, nom illeg. (Iridaceae. Conclusions: Cineraria purpurata L. (1771 (Asteraceae is recognised as the earliest name for Mairia hirsuta DC. (1836 and the new combination M. purpurata (L. J.C.Manning is provided for the species. Psilosiphon Welw. ex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (2015 (Iridaceae is a later homonym for Psilosiphon Entwisle (1989. The replacement name Afrosolen Goldblatt & J.C.Manning is proposed and the necessary new combinations for the 16 taxa currently recognised in the genus are provided.

  5. Nomenclature and Terminology of Organic Chemistry. I. Sixty Years of Croatian Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapić, V.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and development of the Croatian nomenclature of organic chemistry from the publication of the first translation of international nomenclature recommendations to the present age. In the Introduction, trivial, common, systematic (rational, and semisystematic names are defined, and the etymology and meaning of terms nomenclature and terminology are clarified.At the beginning of the central part of this article, attention is focused on the need to create our national nomenclature. The very first such project, initiated by the Croatian Chemical Society (CCS, was the translation of the Geneva (1892 and Lie`ge rules (1930 published in 1954. In 1979 comprehensive general IUPAC rules appeared, and the Croatian Society of Chemical Engineers (CSCE in two volumes printed the Croatian edition of this important document, known as the Blue Book, in 1985 and 1988. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds (1993 expanded the main principles and rules from the Blue Book, and introduced a higher degree of organic nomenclature systematization. The Croatian translation of the Guide was published in 2002. In the last six decades, almost fifty translations of international rules have been issued, and almost all of them represented the official recommendations of the CCS/CSCE. Finally, the nomenclature in the translations of five comprehensive textbooks fororganic chemistry is analysed.In conclusion, readers are informed that the Croatian version of IUPAC rules is applied in our secondary school and university education, in Croatian encyclopaedism and mass media, as well.

  6. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...

  7. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  8. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by Röh

  9. Nomenclatural novelties and notes in Penstemon (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Craig C

    2017-01-01

    Seven nomenclatural novelties in Penstemon (Plantaginaceae) are proposed for taxa that will be included in the forthcoming treatment of the genus in the Flora of North America North of Mexico series. Three additional novelties are made for Mexican taxa outside the flora area. Penstemon xylus A. Nelson is determined to be the correct name for the species heretofore called P. tusharensis N. Holmgren.

  10. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  11. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  12. The nomenclature of the Orang Utan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the nomenclature of the Orang Utan recently proposed by Röhrer-Ertl are shown to be unnecessary. The generic name Pongo Van Wurmb, 1784, for the genus, P.s. satyrus Linnaeus, 1758, for the Sumatran subspecies, and P.s. borneensis Van Wurmb, 1784, for the Bornean subspecies, as used by

  13. Nomenclature notes on Phoebe chekiangensis (Lauraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By combing through taxonomic literature on the name Phoebe chekiangensis in relation to the International Code of Nomenclature, we found that this name, whose publication has been attempted on three different occasions, should be ascribed to C.B. Shang, the author of the second attempt at publicatio...

  14. Recommendations for standardized human pedigree nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, R.L.; O`Sullivan, C.K.; Uhrich, S.B.; Hamanishi, J. [Univ. of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Resta, R.G. [Center for Perinatal Studies, Seattle, WA (United States); Lochner-Doyle, D. [Genetics Services Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Steinhaus, K.A. [Univ. of California, Irvine (United States); Markel, D.S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Vincent, V. [Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The construction of an accurate family pedigree is a fundamental component of a clinical genetic evaluation and of human genetic research. Previous surveys of genetic counselors and human genetic publications have demonstrated significant inconsistencies in the usage of common pedigree symbols representing situations such as pregnancy, termination of pregnancy, miscarriage, and adoption, as well as less common scenarios such as pregnancies conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. The Pedigree Standardization Task Force (PSTF) was organized through the Professional Issues of Committee of the National Society of Genetic Counselors, to establish recommendations for universal standards in human pedigree nomenclature. Nomenclature was chosen based on current usage, consistency among symbols, computer compatibility, and the adaptability of symbols to reflect the rapid technical advances in human genetics. Preliminary recommendations were presented for review at three national meetings of human genetic professionals and sent to <100 human genetic professionals for review. On the basis of this review process, the recommendations of the PSTF for standardized human pedigree are presented here. By incorporating these recommendations into medical genetics professional training programs, board examinations, genetic publications, and pedigree software, the adoption of uniform pedigree nomenclature can begin. Usage of standardized pedigree nomenclature will reduce the chances for incorrect interpretation of patient and family medical and genetic information. It may also improve the quality of patient care provided by genetic professionals and facilitate communication between researchers involved with genetic family studies. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.;

    2011-01-01

    to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible...

  16. The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.; Crous, P.W.; Redhead, S.A.; Reynolds, D.R.; Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Taylor, J.E.; Wingfield, M.J.; Abaci, Ö.; Aime, C.; Asan, A.; Bai, F.H.; de Beer, Z.W.; Begerow, D.; Berikten, D.; Boekhout, T.; Buchanan, P.K.; Burgess, T.I.; Buzina, W.; Cai, L.; Cannon, P.F.; Crane, J.L.; Damm, U.; Daniel, H.M.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Druzhinina, I.; Dyer, P.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Fell, J.W.; Frisvad, J.C.; Geiser, D.M.; Geml, J.; Glienke, C.; Gräfenhan, T.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; de Gruyter, J.; Guého-Kellermann, E.; Guo, L-D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Hong, S.B.; de Hoog, G.S.; Houbraken, J.; Huhndorf, S.M.; Hyde, K.D.; Ismail, A.; Johnston, P.R.; Kadaifciler, D.G.; Kirk, P.M.; Kõljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Lagneau, P-E.; Lévesque, C.A.; Liu, X.S.; Lombard, L.; Meyer, W.; Miller, A.N.; Minter, D.W.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Norvell, L.L.; Ozerskaya, S.M.; Öziç, R.; Pennycook, S.R.; Peterson, S.W.; Pettersson, O.V.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Robert, V.; Ruibal, C.; Schnürer, J.; Schroers, H.J.; Shivas, R.G.; Slippers, B.; Spierenburg, H.; Takashima, M.; Taşkın, E.; Thines, M.; Thrane, U.; Uztan, A.H.; van Raak, M.; Varga, J.; Vasco, A.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Videira, S.I.R.; de Vries, R.P.; Weir, B.S.; Yilmaz, N.; Yurkov, A.; Zhang, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current

  17. Contemporary Nomenclatures of Suicidal Behaviors: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Benjamin; Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego

    2017-05-09

    Addressing the lack of comparability of research results around the world, a systematic literature review of existing nomenclatures was conducted. After distinguishing the concepts of nomenclature and classification, 13 contributions to nomenclature of suicidal behavior are described and summarized using outcome and intent as guiding concepts for analysis. The issue of what is being defined in nomenclatures is fundamental and impacts the way intent and outcome are used. The existing confusion between classification and nomenclature stems from conflicting purposes of the nature of definition; that is, to communicate concepts versus to be descriptive of reality. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. The Quality of the Venezuelan Demoracy under Hugo Chavez (1999-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corrales

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the work of Morlino (2012 and Katz and Morlino (2012, we evaluate the quality of democracy in Venezuela under Hugo Chávez. We argue that by the end of this administration, Venezuela became a hybrid regime. In those instances in which operated as a democracy, institutional quality was low; in other instances, the regime exhibited clear autocratic features.

  19. CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan Mourns over the Death of President Hugo Chavez

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On the morning of March 7, CPAFFC Vice President Xie Yuan went to the Embassy of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela in China to mourn over the passing away of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez on behalf of the CPAFFC. He presented the letter of condolence from President Li Xiaolin to Ambassador Rocio Maneiro

  20. Alfven, Hugo. Die drei Schwedischen Rhapsodien op. 19, 24 und 47 / Andreas Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Alfven, Hugo. Die drei Schwedischen Rhapsodien op. 19, 24 und 47, En skärgardssägen op. 20, Suite aus Der Berkönig. Königliche Stockholmer Philharmoniker, Neeme Järvi". AD: 1987-1992. BIS?Disco-Center CD 725 (WD: 77'00")

  1. Nomenclature for factors of the SLA system, update 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-S; Lunney, J K; Ando, A; Rogel-Gaillard, C; Lee, J-H; Schook, L B; Smith, D M

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the new swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) allele sequences and haplotypes designated by the SLA Nomenclature Committee of the International Society for Animal Genetics. There have been 74 new SLA alleles, comprising 18 SLA-1 alleles, 11 SLA-2 alleles, six SLA-3 alleles, two SLA-6 alleles, one SLA-DRA allele, 20 SLA-DRB1 alleles, three SLA-DQA alleles and 13 SLA-DQB1 alleles. Twelve new SLA class I and four new class II haplotypes have also been designated. This is the first official update since the 2005 reports on the nomenclature for factors of the SLA class I and II systems. This report also summarizes recent updates to the Immunopolymorphism Database-Major Histocompatibility Complex (IPD-MHC) website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/sla/). All information has now been integrated to the SLA section of the IPD-MHC database, which serves as the repository for maintaining a list of all recognized SLA genes and their allelic sequences.

  2. Stratégies de captation et de persuasion du sujet communicant Victor Hugo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo propõe uma abordagem discursiva de um texto ficcional, mais especificamente, de um texto literário: trata-se do poema “Souvenir de la nuit du quatre” de Victor Hugo. Partindo desse enfoque, quisemos mostrar como foram elaboradas estratégias linguareiras que visam seduzir e persuadir o leitor; entre elas destacamos os diferentes papéis e a ironia amarga que está em sua base.Palavras-chave: Literatura francesa; Victor Hugo; Souvenir de la nuit du quatre; análise do discurso; persuasão; ironia.Résumé: Cet article propose une approche discursive d’un texte de fiction, plus spécifiquement, d’un texte littéraire: il s’agit du poème “Souvenir de la nuit du quatre” de Victor Hugo. Dans cette perspective, nous avons voulu montrer comment ont été mises en place des stratégies langagières visant la captation du lecteur, parmi elles, nous soulignons les différents rôles assumés par les voix qui “parlent” dans le poème et l’ironie amère qui s’en dégage.Mots-clés: Littérature française; Victor Hugo; Souvenir de la nuit du quatre; analyse du discours; persuasion; ironie.Keywords: French literature; Victor Hugo; Souvenir de la nuit du quatre; discourse analysis; persuasion; irony.

  3. Human nomenclature: from race to racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.

  4. Proposed nomenclature for Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Q A; Parker, Quentin A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to identify and distinguish between the wide variety of celestial objects benefits from application of a systematic and logical nomenclature. This often includes value-added information within the naming convention which can aid in placing the object positionally either via an RA/DEC or l,b concatenation. All new nomenclatures should be created following IAU guidelines. However as the number density of specific object types on the sky increases, as in the case of PN in external galaxies, a useful positional identifier becomes problematic. This brief but timely paper attempts to progress the debate on this vexing issue for the case of extragalactic planetary nebulae (EPN). There is a clear need to rationalise the current ad-hoc system now that many thousands of Extragalactic PN are being discovered.

  5. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamosh, Ada; Scott, Alan F; Amberger, Joanna S; Bocchini, Carol A; McKusick, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders compiled to support human genetics research and education and the practice of clinical genetics. Started by Dr Victor A. McKusick as the definitive reference Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/) is now distributed electronically by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, where it is integrated with the Entrez suite of databases. Derived from the biomedical literature, OMIM is written and edited at Johns Hopkins University with input from scientists and physicians around the world. Each OMIM entry has a full-text summary of a genetically determined phenotype and/or gene and has numerous links to other genetic databases such as DNA and protein sequence, PubMed references, general and locus-specific mutation databases, HUGO nomenclature, MapViewer, GeneTests, patient support groups and many others. OMIM is an easy and straightforward portal to the burgeoning information in human genetics.

  6. Passions au miroir: Hugo et Garibaldi dans la solitude de l’Histoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nuti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mythic Imagery, a warrior is a hybrid man – a divine human being or a divinized mortal – who stands out of his own kind for his extraordinary skill to generate power. Being an undefined figure of man, equidistant from deity and humanity, the warrior hero represents the Human Community. Using his knowledge of what Giuseppe Garibaldi had done to unify Italy, Victor Hugo had the chance to annex to his political and literary fighting a contemporary hero who shared his own ideology. An amazing relationship put their destinies together, and the epistolary exchange Garibaldi (1863 strengthened this union. Giuseppe Garibaldi in Mentana (1867 is invested with the heroic legitimacy of a symbolical progressive movement. The experimental brotherhood between the poet and the warrior symbolized for Hugo a continuous questioning of the real power of poetical language.

  7. The amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; Crous, Pedro W; Redhead, Scott A; Reynolds, Don R; Samson, Robert A; Seifert, Keith A; Taylor, John W; Wingfield, Michael J; Abaci, Ozlem; Aime, Catherine; Asan, Ahmet; Bai, Feng-Yan; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Begerow, Dominik; Berikten, Derya; Boekhout, Teun; Buchanan, Peter K; Burgess, Treena; Buzina, Walter; Cai, Lei; Cannon, Paul F; Crane, J Leland; Damm, Ulrike; Daniel, Heide-Marie; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Druzhinina, Irina; Dyer, Paul S; Eberhardt, Ursula; Fell, Jack W; Frisvad, Jens C; Geiser, David M; Geml, József; Glienke, Chirlei; Gräfenhan, Tom; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; de Gruyter, Johannes; Guého-Kellermann, Eveline; Guo, Liang-Dong; Hibbett, David S; Hong, Seung-Beom; de Hoog, G Sybren; Houbraken, Jos; Huhndorf, Sabine M; Hyde, Kevin D; Ismail, Ahmed; Johnston, Peter R; Kadaifciler, Duygu G; Kirk, Paul M; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Lagneau, Paul-Emile; Lévesque, C André; Liu, Xingzhong; Lombard, Lorenzo; Meyer, Wieland; Miller, Andrew; Minter, David W; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Norvell, Lorelei; Ozerskaya, Svetlana M; Oziç, Rasime; Pennycook, Shaun R; Peterson, Stephen W; Pettersson, Olga V; Quaedvlieg, William; Robert, Vincent A; Ruibal, Constantino; Schnürer, Johan; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Shivas, Roger; Slippers, Bernard; Spierenburg, Henk; Takashima, Masako; Taşkın, Evrim; Thines, Marco; Thrane, Ulf; Uztan, Alev Haliki; van Raak, Marcel; Varga, János; Vasco, Aida; Verkley, Gerard; Videira, Sandra I R; de Vries, Ronald P; Weir, Bevan S; Yilmaz, Neriman; Yurkov, Andrey; Zhang, Ning

    2011-06-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented.

  8. Nomenclature101.com: A Free, Student-Driven Organic Chemistry Nomenclature Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alison B.; Caron, Jeanette; Laroche, Jamey; Daviau-Duguay, Melissa; Marcoux, Caroline; Richard, Gise`le

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to a student's understanding of organic chemistry is the ability to interpret and use its language, including molecules' names and other key terms. A learning gap exists in that students often struggle with organic nomenclature. Although many resources describe the rules for naming molecules, there is a paucity of resources…

  9. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. A bioinformatics analysis of the cell line nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Ade, Alexander S; Athey, Brian D; States, David J

    2008-12-01

    Cell lines are used extensively in biomedical research, but the nomenclature describing cell lines has not been standardized. The problems are both linguistic and experimental. Many ambiguous cell line names appear in the published literature. Users of the same cell line may refer to it in different ways, and cell lines may mutate or become contaminated without the knowledge of the user. As a first step towards rationalizing this nomenclature, we created a cell line knowledgebase (CLKB) with a well-structured collection of names and descriptive data for cell lines cultured in vitro. The objectives of this work are: (i) to assist users in extracting useful information from biomedical text and (ii) to highlight the importance of standardizing cell line names in biomedical research. This CLKB contains a broad collection of cell line names compiled from ATCC, Hyper CLDB and MeSH. In addition to names, the knowledgebase specifies relationships between cell lines. We analyze the use of cell line names in biomedical text. Issues include ambiguous names, polymorphisms in the use of names and the fact that some cell line names are also common English words. Linguistic patterns associated with the occurrence of cell line names are analyzed. Applying these patterns to find additional cell line names in the literature identifies only a small number of additional names. Annotation of microarray gene expression studies is used as a test case. The CLKB facilitates data exploration and comparison of different cell lines in support of clinical and experimental research. The web ontology file for this cell line collection can be downloaded at http://www.stateslab.org/data/celllineOntology/cellline.zip.

  11. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, C M; Houbraken, J; Frisvad, J C; Hong, S-B; Klaassen, C H W; Perrone, G; Seifert, K A; Varga, J; Yaguchi, T; Samson, R A

    2014-06-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.

  12. Disturbance effects of hurricane Hugo on a pristine coastal landscape: North Inlet, South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, L. R.; Michener, W. K.; Williams, T. M.; Blood, E. R.; Kjerve, B.; Smock, L. A.; Lipscomb, D. J.; Gresham, C.

    Despite its intensity and landfall at high tide, Hurricane Hugo (22 Sept. 1989) had only a modest impact on the geomorphology of the undeveloped coastal landscape at North Inlet, South Carolina. Pre- and post-Hugo aerial photographs (April 1987 and October 1989) showed no change in the salt-marsh creek network, nor could changes be seen in the size or shape of sand bars within the creeks. Several new, small washover fans formed on the adjacent barrier islands. These lobate fans extend 50 to 100 m from the dune line into the back barrier area and are deposited on older but recently formed fans in areas where the islands are thin and devoid of large shrubs and trees. Hugo's failure to have a more dramatic geomorphic effect was probably related to the rapid approach of the storm along a path perpendicular to the coast. This allowed minimal time for the surge to build and for wave attack to modify the shoreface. In contrast, the nearby coastal forest experienced extensive wind damage as well as tree mortality due to soil salinization by the surge. Wind damage was a function of tree species, diameter and soil type. The most severe damage occurred in mixed bottomland hardwood sites on Rutledge (sandy, silicious, thermic Typic Humaquepts) soils. Salt-induced foliage discoloration and defoliation became fully evident in the surge-inundated area by January 1990. Above-normal salt concentrations were found in shallow groundwater samples from sites up to the 3.0-m contour (MSL). Salt concentrations generally decreased inland from the forest-marsh boundary and with the passage of time. Trees standing along the forest-marsh boundary and in swales suffered the most severe salt-induced mortality. As of June 1991, new understory vegetation and pine seedlings appeared to be flourishing in the salt-affected area. Salinization also mobilized ammonium from soil storage as a result of ion exchange with seawater cations and disruption of nitrogen cycling processes. There was a virtual

  13. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40),

  14. Nomenclature and databases - The past, the present, and the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Tchervenkov, Christo I.; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G.; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Bacha, Emile A.; Walters, Henry L.; Elliott, Martin J.

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for congenital heart disease. Five areas will be reviewed: (1) common language = nomenclature, (2) mechanism of data collection (database or registry) with

  15. Chemical Alias: An Engaging Way to Examine Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushkin, Mikhail; Mikhaylenko, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An educational card game, "Chemical Alias," has been developed as an alternative method of reviewing students' knowledge of nomenclature. In contrast to conventional tests, this highly competitive activity is a fun and effective way to examine and reinforce nomenclature. The students play in pairs, using Clark's famous spiral arrangement…

  16. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40), a

  17. Nomenclatural Benchmarking: The roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process of nomenclatural benchmarking is the examination of type specimens of all available names to ascertain which currently accepted species the specimen bearing the name falls within. We propose a strategy for addressing four challenges for nomenclatural benchmarking. First, there is the mat...

  18. Nomenclature and databases - The past, the present, and the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Tchervenkov, Christo I.; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G.; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Bacha, Emile A.; Walters, Henry L.; Elliott, Martin J.

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for congenital heart disease. Five areas will be reviewed: (1) common language = nomenclature, (2) mechanism of data collection (database or registry) with

  19. Ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac in rat with a proposal for a new cell nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Klaus; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, endolymphatic sac, ultrastructure, rat, nomenclature, methods, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum......Anatomy, endolymphatic sac, ultrastructure, rat, nomenclature, methods, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum...

  20. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  1. A homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation suggests LINC00237 as a candidate gene for MOMO (macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phi Yen; Toutain, Jérôme; Cappellen, David; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Daoud, Hussein; El Moneim, Azza Abd; Barat, Pascal; Montaubin, Orianne; Bonnet, Françoise; Dai, Zong Qi; Philippe, Christophe; Tran, Cong Toai; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoît; Saura, Robert; Briault, Sylvain; Lacombe, Didier; Taine, Laurence

    2012-11-01

    Macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities syndrome (MOMO syndrome) has been reported in only four patients to date. In these sporadic cases, no chromosomal or molecular abnormality has been identified thus far. Here, we report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a child of healthy consanguineous parents suffering from MOMO syndrome. Conventional karyotyping revealed an inherited homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2). Uniparental disomy testing showed bi-parental inheritance for both derivative chromosomes 16 and 20. The patient's oligonucleotide array-comparative genomic hybridization profile revealed no abnormality. From the homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2), a positional cloning strategy, designed to narrow 16q21 and 20p11.2 breakpoints, revealed the disruption of a novel gene located at 20p11.23. This gene is now named LINC00237, according to the HUGO (Human Genome Organization) nomenclature. The gene apparently leads to the production of a non-coding RNA. We established that LINC00237 was expressed in lymphocytes of control individuals while normal transcripts were absent in lymphocytes of our MOMO patient. LINC00237 was not ubiquitously expressed in control tissues, but it was notably highly expressed in the brain. Our results suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of MOMO syndrome. LINC00237 could play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and could provide new insights into hyperphagia-related obesity and intellectual disability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. El profesor Hugo Biagini lee su artículo "Democracia e indianismo en Latinomérica"

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Hugo Biagini lee el artículo "Democracia e indianismo en Latinomérica", de 2010, en el que describe las democracias de la región en el Siglo XX, y dentro del sistema, la situación de las culturas originarias. Hugo BiaginiI: Nació en Buenos Aires en 1938. Es Dr. en Filosofía, docente universitario, investigador del CONICET. Autor de Entre la identidad y la globalización, La Reforma Universitaria. Antecedentes y consecuentes, Utopías juveniles: de la bohemia al Che, La Universidad de La Pl...

  3. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin Receptor Nomenclature, Distribution, and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Helen R.; Maguire, Janet J.; Colledge, William H.; Davenport, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the conventi...

  5. New Nomenclatures for Heat Treatments of Additively Manufactured Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrew H.; Collins, Peter C.; Williams, James C.

    2017-07-01

    The heat-treatment designations and microstructure nomenclatures for many structural metallic alloys were established for traditional metals processing, such as casting, hot rolling or forging. These terms do not necessarily apply for additively manufactured (i.e., three-dimensionally printed or "3D printed") metallic structures. The heat-treatment terminology for titanium alloys generally implies the heat-treatment temperatures and their sequence relative to a thermomechanical processing step (e.g., forging, rolling). These designations include: β-processing, α + β-processing, β-annealing, duplex annealing and mill annealing. Owing to the absence of a thermomechanical processing step, these traditional designations can pose a problem when titanium alloys are first produced via additive manufacturing, and then heat-treated. This communication proposes new nomenclatures for heat treatments of additively manufactured titanium alloys, and uses the distinct microstructural features to provide a correlation between traditional nomenclature and the proposed nomenclature.

  6. Improving the Quality of Published Chemical Names with Nomenclature Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot A. Eller

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of organic systematic nomenclature in scientific literature, its quality, and computerized methods for its improvement. Criteria for classification of systematic names in terms of quality/correctness are discussed and applied to a sample set of several hundred names extracted from the literature. The same structures are named with three popular state-of-the-art nomenclature programs – AutoNom 2000, ChemDraw 10.0, and ACD/Name 9.0. When comparing the results, all nomenclature tools show a significantly better performance than 'average chemists'. One program allows the generation not only of IUPAC names but also of CAS-like index names that are compared with the officially registered names. The scope and limitations of nomenclature software are discussed and a comparison of the programs' actual capabilities is given.

  7. Nomenclatural review of long digital forelimb flexors in carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, C F; Badoux, D M

    1986-12-01

    A hitherto-unknown atavistic muscle in the dog initiated a review of the literature on the homologies and nomenclature of the forelimb flexors in carnivores and man. A consequence is that we recommend a revision of the nomenclature in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Ithaca, New York, 1983) so that it is in agreement with the Nomina Anatomica (Wilkins, Baltimore, 1983). This revision mainly consists of the incorporation of the terms M. palmaris longus and Mm. flexores breves manus.

  8. Correct nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton, Kerala, southwestern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Rajesh

    2006-04-01

    The proper usage of modal composition and geochemical classification of granitoids is discussed for assigning a proper nomenclature for the Angadimogar pluton,Kerala,southwestern India.This discussion is mainly aimed at addressing questions concerning the nomenclature of Angadimogar pluton (syenite vs. granite).Modal composition and whole-rock XRD data clearly show that the pluton exposed near Angadimogar is a quartz-syenite and its geochemistry is typical of a ferroan, metaluminous,alkali (A-type)granitoid.

  9. Scleroderma: nomenclature, etiology, pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatments: facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Scleroderma refers to a heterogeneous group of autoimmune fibrosing disorders. The nomenclature of scleroderma has changed dramatically in recent years, with morphea (localized scleroderma), limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis, and systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma encompassing the currently accepted disease subtypes. Major advances have been made in the molecular studies of morphea and systemic sclerosis; however, their etiologies and pathogenesis remain incompletely understood. Although morphea and systemic sclerosis demonstrate activation of similar inflammatory and fibrotic pathways, important differences in signaling pathways and gene signatures indicate they are likely biologically distinct processes. Morphea can cause significant morbidity but does not affect mortality, whereas systemic sclerosis has the highest disease-specific mortality of all autoimmune connective tissue diseases. Treatment recommendations for morphea and systemic sclerosis are based on limited data and largely expert opinions. Current collaborative efforts in morphea and systemic sclerosis research will hopefully lead to better understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of these rare and varied diseases and improved treatment options.

  10. Chemical Nomenclature and Terminology in the Light of Nationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical nomenclature and terminology are not only determined by the development of chemistry, but also by linguistic policies of the nation which uses them. The first modern chemical nomenclature, developed in France at the end of the 18th century, had been intended for international usage, and thus the names of new elements were developed from Greek and Latin roots. Conversely, in Germany the names of elements were coined in strict reference to the German language. In Croatia, both tendencies were present. In the 19th century, when Croatia was part of the Austro- Hungarian Empire, the chemical language was established on the basis of purism, but many new words were actually bohemianisms and literal translations of German terms. In both Yugoslav states (Kingdom of Yugoslavia, 1918–1941, and Communist Yugoslavia, 1945–1991, unitaristic strivings were dominant, culminating in the Unified Yugoslav Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, published in 1966. As it is impossible to make one nomenclature out of terms in two languages (Croatian and Serbian, the “Yugoslav” nomenclature was actually a strange mixture of Serbian and “international” terms. The new nomenclature however was never fully developed, even less generally accepted. Eventually it became obsolete in 1991 by establishment of the independent Croatian state, the Republic of Croatia.

  11. 雨果青少年时代述评%L′enfance et la jeunesse de Victor Hugo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光荣

    2003-01-01

    L'enfance et la jeunesse exercent une influence d'importance primordiale, sinon decisive, sur le reste d'une vie. L'auteur de cet article se propose de révé1er l'impact de l' adolescence hugolienne sur le devenir de ce géant littéraire :Victor Hugo.

  12. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  13. Hugo Cowes, devoto esencialmente de Borges, que engendró a Pierre Menard, que engendró a Don Quijote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Neri Chiani

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The borgesian view runs in the works of Hugo Cowes on El Quijote two paralel roads: the itinerary of the hero as an epistemlogical experience and the raising circumnstances in that course as referentiality difficulties of the language.

  14. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  15. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  16. Automatic extraction of candidate nomenclature terms using the doublet method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New terminology continuously enters the biomedical literature. How can curators identify new terms that can be added to existing nomenclatures? The most direct method, and one that has served well, involves reading the current literature. The scholarly curator adds new terms as they are encountered. Present-day scholars are severely challenged by the enormous volume of biomedical literature. Curators of medical nomenclatures need computational assistance if they hope to keep their terminologies current. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method of rapidly extracting new, candidate terms from huge volumes of biomedical text. The resulting lists of terms can be quickly reviewed by curators and added to nomenclatures, if appropriate. The candidate term extractor uses a variation of the previously described doublet coding method. The algorithm, which operates on virtually any nomenclature, derives from the observation that most terms within a knowledge domain are composed entirely of word combinations found in other terms from the same knowledge domain. Terms can be expressed as sequences of overlapping word doublets that have more specific meaning than the individual words that compose the term. The algorithm parses through text, finding contiguous sequences of word doublets that are known to occur somewhere in the reference nomenclature. When a sequence of matching word doublets is encountered, it is compared with whole terms already included in the nomenclature. If the doublet sequence is not already in the nomenclature, it is extracted as a candidate new term. Candidate new terms can be reviewed by a curator to determine if they should be added to the nomenclature. An implementation of the algorithm is demonstrated, using a corpus of published abstracts obtained through the National Library of Medicine's PubMed query service and using "The developmental lineage classification and taxonomy of neoplasms" as a reference

  17. Labor Dystocia: Uses of Related Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Eduarda Mansilla y Victor Hugo: un breve intercambio epistolar marcando los inicios de la literatura francófona de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarado-Larroucau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Argentine francophone literature originates with Eduarda Mansilla’s novel Pablo ou la vie dans les Pampas, published in 1869; the author forwards a copy to Victor Hugo, generating a brief correspondence. In this article, we both present and analyze an unpublished letter by Eduarda Mansilla, addressed to Victor Hugo. Furthermore, we compare it to Victor Hugo‘s answer to confirm the existence of a letter exchange between the authors. The relevance of this entwine lies in the fact that Mansilla and Victor Hugo are two central literary figures around which revolve the Argentine francophone literature; a literature yet to be explored.

  19. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  20. Life course transitions and natural disaster: marriage, birth, and divorce following Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Catherine L; Cole, Steve W

    2002-03-01

    Change in marriage, birth, and divorce rates following Hurricane Hugo in 1989 were examined prospectively from 1975 to 1997 for all counties in South Carolina. Stress research and research on economic circumstances suggested that marriages and births would decline and divorces would increase in affected counties after the hurricane. Attachment theory suggested that marriages and births would increase and divorces would decline after the hurricane. Time-series analysis indicated that the year following the hurricane, marriage, birth, and divorce rates increased in the 24 counties declared disaster areas compared with the 22 other counties in the state. Taken together, the results suggested that a life-threatening event motivated people to take significant action in their close relationships that altered their life course.

  1. Hugo Chavez: a neo-populist phenomenon of the 21st century’s Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Acosta Zapata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neo-populism is a socio-political phenomenon, which is characteristic of Latin America in the 21st century, but it has a clear legacy of populism found throughout the entire region in the twentieth century. Hugo Chavez was a political and military figure recognized for his social policies and practices, marked by personalism and the appeal to a direct relationship with people while planting a leftist political discourse called “Socialism of the 21st century”. This paper aims to conceptualize, from the sociological and political theories, the present situation in Latin America, with a special focus on Venezuela, and argue that Chávez must be regarded as the most outstanding figure of the neo-populism of the early twenty-first century.

  2. 论巴金与雨果%On Ba Jin and Hugo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥霞

    1997-01-01

    @@ 维克多·雨果(Victor Hugo,1802~1885)是法国浪漫主义的先锋和领袖,是世界上拥有最多读者的法国作家之一.雨果的一生,几乎跨越了整个19世纪,随着法国历史的进程,他在诗歌、小说、戏剧、文艺理论、政治等方面都作出了卓越的贡献,给世人留下了一笔巨大的精神财富,享有极高的社会声誉和极广泛的社会影响.

  3. Hugo Chávez: una década en el poder

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Chacín, Neritza; Arellano Porras, Félix Gerardo; Aveledo, Ramón Guillermo; Azzellini, Dario; Bejarano, Ana María; Bisbal, Marcelino; Blanco, Carlos; Borges Guitian, Sayndra; Natalia BRANDLER; Marleny Bustamante, Ana; Buttó, Luís Alberto; Cadenas Gonzáles, José María; Corrales, Javier; Curiel Leidenz, Claudia; Chumaceiro Arreaza, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Una década de Hugo Chávez Frías y su proyecto político en Venezuela trajo consigo un cambio de paradigmas que llama la atención de la sociedad en general. Este libro es el resultado del esfuerzo conjunto de un grupo de académicos de distintas nacionalidades que desde sus líneas de investigación realizan análisis que le brindan al lector elementos para comprender de manera global lo que significa una década de gobierno del Presidente Chávez en Venezuela.Este libro es el resultado del esfuerzo ...

  4. The persistence of religious language in the political discourse. The case of Hugo Chavez.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rojas González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available From different perspectives there has been an attempt to put limits on the use of religious language in public discourse, with arguments like the defense of secularism or pluralism. The German philosopher Jürgen Habermas has argued that the religious discourse can share in the social debate after a translation of its principles into universally acceptable secular terms. However, the persistence of religious language in politics is still able to communicate successfully, and remains a valuable resource even in a socialist-style left like that of President Hugo Chavez. The purpose of this article is to analyze the discourse relationship between politics andreligion from the example of the Venezuelan government.

  5. Revision of the nomenclature of the differential host-pathogen interactions of Venturia inaequalis and Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Vincent G M; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Caffier, Valérie; Durel, Charles-Eric; Plummer, Kim M

    2011-01-01

    The apple scab (Venturia inaequalis-Malus) pathosystem was one of the first systems for which Flor's concept of gene-for-gene (GfG) relationships between the host plant and the pathogen was demonstrated. There is a rich resource of host resistance genes present in Malus germplasm that could potentially be marshalled to confer durable resistance against this most important apple disease. A comprehensive understanding of the host-pathogen interactions occurring in this pathosystem is a prerequisite for effectively manipulating these host resistance factors. An accurate means of identification of specific resistance and consistent use of gene nomenclature is critical for this process. A set of universally available, differentially resistant hosts is described, which will be followed by a set of defined pathogen races at a later stage. We review pertinent aspects of the history of apple scab research, describe the current status and future directions of this research, and resolve some outstanding issues.

  6. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Peck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.

  7. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael W.; Smith, Theresa J.; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W.; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W.; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Lúquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R.; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal Ram; Stringer, Sandra C.

    2017-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future. PMID:28106761

  8. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  9. Neisseria Adhesin A Variation and Revised Nomenclature Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini, Stefania; De Chiara, Matteo; Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Lucidarme, Jay; Brehony, Carina; Borrow, Ray; Masignani, Vega; Comanducci, Maurizio; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Jolley, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), involved in the adhesion and invasion of Neisseria meningitidis into host tissues, is one of the major components of Bexsero, a novel multicomponent vaccine licensed for protection against meningococcal serogroup B in Europe, Australia, and Canada. NadA has been identified in approximately 30% of clinical isolates and in a much lower proportion of carrier isolates. Three protein variants were originally identified in invasive meningococci and named NadA-1, NadA-2, and NadA-3, whereas most carrier isolates either lacked the gene or harbored a different variant, NadA-4. Further analysis of isolates belonging to the sequence type 213 (ST-213) clonal complex identified NadA-5, which was structurally similar to NadA-4, but more distantly related to NadA-1, -2, and -3. At the time of this writing, more than 89 distinct nadA allele sequences and 43 distinct peptides have been described. Here, we present a revised nomenclature system, taking into account the complete data set, which is compatible with previous classification schemes and is expandable. The main features of this new scheme include (i) the grouping of the previously named NadA-2 and NadA-3 variants into a single NadA-2/3 variant, (ii) the grouping of the previously assigned NadA-4 and NadA-5 variants into a single NadA-4/5 variant, (iii) the introduction of an additional variant (NadA-6), and (iv) the classification of the variants into two main groups, named groups I and II. To facilitate querying of the sequences and submission of new allele sequences, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences are available at http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/NadA/. PMID:24807056

  10. A general definition and nomenclature for alternative splicing events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammeth, Michael; Foissac, Sylvain; Guigó, Roderic

    2008-08-08

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of the transcriptome present in eukaryotic cells is one of the most challenging tasks in the postgenomic era. In this regard, alternative splicing (AS) is a key phenomenon contributing to the production of different mature transcripts from the same primary RNA sequence. As a plethora of different transcript forms is available in databases, a first step to uncover the biology that drives AS is to identify the different types of reflected splicing variation. In this work, we present a general definition of the AS event along with a notation system that involves the relative positions of the splice sites. This nomenclature univocally and dynamically assigns a specific "AS code" to every possible pattern of splicing variation. On the basis of this definition and the corresponding codes, we have developed a computational tool (AStalavista) that automatically characterizes the complete landscape of AS events in a given transcript annotation of a genome, thus providing a platform to investigate the transcriptome diversity across genes, chromosomes, and species. Our analysis reveals that a substantial part--in human more than a quarter-of the observed splicing variations are ignored in common classification pipelines. We have used AStalavista to investigate and to compare the AS landscape of different reference annotation sets in human and in other metazoan species and found that proportions of AS events change substantially depending on the annotation protocol, species-specific attributes, and coding constraints acting on the transcripts. The AStalavista system therefore provides a general framework to conduct specific studies investigating the occurrence, impact, and regulation of AS.

  11. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Mundry Marvin; Lott Paul-Ludwig; Sassenberg Christoph; Lorkowski Stefan; Fuellen Georg

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. Results We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in ...

  12. Sex therapy: advances in paradigms, nomenclature, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althof, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The author reviews the historical paradigms that have influenced the treatment of sexual problems, changes in the diagnostic nomenclature, and recent innovations in sex therapy. The author reviews the literature and provides expert opinion. The author gives a historical overview of how theoretical models of understanding human sexuality have influenced treatment, describes the changes in sexual dysfunction nomenclature, and focuses on the combined medical and psychological treatment of sexual dysfunction. Sex therapy continues to evolve with new paradigms and definitions for understanding and diagnosing sexual problems and innovative methods of treating sexual problems.

  13. A proposal for universal nomenclature in implant prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nase, John B

    2005-01-01

    Attempts have been made at formulating standardized nomenclature for implantology. Although these classification systems have advanced the concept of universal nomenclature in implantology, they can be improved upon. Most of them present terms in glossary form, which can limit their applicability. Others deviate significantly from accepted basic terminology and can be foreign or ambiguous to the average clinician. This article outlines the semiotic approach to language formulation, discusses slight changes to accepted conventional prosthodontic terminology to better encompass implant dentistry, and introduces the shortform and support-retention-connection-prosthesis classification systems.

  14. The intricate nomenclatural questions around Plantago holosteum (Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Duilio; Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2017-01-01

    A nomenclatural study on the names of the narrow-leaved plantains linked to Plantago holosteum is presented. The names P. carinata, P. gerardii, P. holosteum, P. maritima var. apennina, P. subulata sensu Wulfen, and P. wulfenii have been studied. The name P. holosteum is lectotypified on illustra......A nomenclatural study on the names of the narrow-leaved plantains linked to Plantago holosteum is presented. The names P. carinata, P. gerardii, P. holosteum, P. maritima var. apennina, P. subulata sensu Wulfen, and P. wulfenii have been studied. The name P. holosteum is lectotypified...

  15. A standard nomenclature for gene designation in the Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plant family Rosaceae is comprised of a highly diverse group of plants, with a wide range of ornamental and agricultural uses throughout the world. Comparative genomic analyses between rosaceous species are increasingly being used to assign putative function. With the wealth of new data there ...

  16. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations.

  17. On the nomenclature of coelom-derived body cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knospe, C

    2008-06-01

    A rationalization of terms about the body cavities is urgently needed. Students and practitioners have difficulty in understanding the contradictory terms prevalent at present. For many years, the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature has failed to bring it off; therefore some proposals for the anatomical instruction until the next edition of the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria are made.

  18. Cassini's Compositae genera: A nomenclatural and taxonomic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Greuter, W.; Hind, D.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Work on the Global Compositae Checklist has highlighted uncertainties and errors in the nomenclatural parameters of many genera and subgenera described by Henri Cassini. Problems concern rank (subgenus vs. genus); type designation; correct place of valid publication; alternative names; and other

  19. Soft Means and Hard Ends: Assessing Hugo Chavez’s Efforts to Counter United States’ Preponderance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    rebels represented a growing nationalist faction of 67 Quoted by Gabriel Garcia Marquez in Richard Gott, In the Shadow of the Liberator: Hugo Chavez...representative democracy and human 37 Martin, Michael R. and Gabriel H. Lovett, Encyclopedia of Latin-American History, (New York: The Bobbs-Merrill...Company, Inc., 1968), 222. 38 Martin, Michael R. and Gabriel H. Lovett, Encyclopedia of Latin-American History. 39 Atkins, G. Pope, Latin America and

  20. The Effect of Acupressure on Sanyinjiao and Hugo Points on Labor Pain in Nulliparous Women : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heshmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women. Methods:This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13. Results:There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm. Moreover, the Student’s independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.

  1. Vaccine nomenclature: the three-letter code. OMCL Vaccine Nomenclature Drafting Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, W

    2000-02-14

    With increasing worldwide use of combined vaccines a short and informative system of names or codes for vaccines is essential. In addition, within the EU eleven official languages exist and some more are used. Due to these facts an increasing risk of medication errors for vaccines is emerging. A three-letter code naming system was first developed as part of the Note for guidance on pharmaceutical and biological aspects of combined vaccines (CPMP/BWP/477/97), but was deleted there later. Then a second approach was initiated by the European OMCL Network in order to implement this three-letter code system in the common nomenclature guideline within the Ph. Eur. (Index of standard terms). Both activities have not been successful until now to implement this system. Therefore we now present the three-letter code system in order to initiate either its voluntary use by vaccine manufacturers or to accelerate the obligatory implementation within the EU legislative framework. This coding system is thought to be used in addition to the brand name of the vaccine on the label of the final vaccine container, in order to have a safe last minute check whether the appropriate antigens are given.

  2. Estado y nación durante el golpe contra Hugo Chávez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronil, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two objetives. In the first place, it is a discussion of the development of the coup d’etat against Hugo Chávez during April 11th at 14th of 2002, focusing on the competing views of the opposition and supporters of the government in relation to three processes: the march against the violation of “meritocracia” in the oil industry (corporate criteria for selecting the managers of the state’s oil company, the massacre that took place on April 11th, and the act of proclamation of Pedro Carmona as president on April 12th. The essay examines in particular the choreography of these events and the changing conceptions of the nation and the state involved in these processes. Secondly, on the basis of this examination, the essay concludes with some theoretical observations concerning the state, its constitution, and the manner in which it exerts its hegemony.

    Este ensayo tiene dos objetivos. En primer lugar, es una discusión sobre el golpe de Estado contra Hugo Chávez que se desarrolló entre el 11 y el 14 de abril de 2002. Se enfoca en las contrapuestas visiones de la oposición y de los partidarios del gobierno en relación con tres procesos: la marcha en protesta contra la violación de la meritocracia petrolera, la masacre del 11 de abril y el acto de proclamación de Pedro Carmona como presidente el 12 de abril. Examina en particular la coreografia de estos eventos y la transformación de las concepciones de la nación y el Estado involucradas en estos procesos. En segundo lugar, sobre la base de esta examinación, el ensayo concluye con algunas observaciones teóricas sobre el Estado, su constitución y la forma como ejerce su hegemonía.

  3. You can't do that! Hugo Münsterberg and misapplied psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Xuan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a false start in the application of psychology to the law. While there had been expert testimony from physicians in criminal and civil cases in America since the nineteenth century, forensic psychology first emerged in the early twentieth century. Following European traditions of experimental psychology, Hugo Münsterberg applied the nascent science of memory research to the assessment of witness credibility. A brilliant and popular Harvard professor, Münsterberg touted his technique of word-association to determine truth. Forensic psychology's development was stalled by resistance from within legal authorities, including John Henry Wigmore, the leading expert on evidence. However, Münsterberg was a sensation in popular media. In this article, the authors examine early attempts to import experimental psychology into the courtroom and the arguments against them. Not only were Münsterberg's findings premature, they touched on a forbidden domain for witnesses: fact finding. While sincere, he learned that the determination of truth lay within the province of juries and judges, not psychologists. Thus, the application of psychology to the law was delayed. The authors review the lessons from Münsterberg's false start and comment on developments in the admissibility of scientific testimony.

  4. [HUGO STEINHAUS--CO-FOUNDER OF THE LWÓW SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wócik, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the presentation of professor Hugo Steinhaus--co-founder of the Lwów School of Mathematics. It is indicated that had it not been for the scholar, the founding and development of the Lwów School of Mathematics would have been almost impossible. The analyses focus on his undertakings during the Lvov period in the early 1920s and those events that preceded the founding of the school (namely Steinhaus's education at the Göttingen University, various meetings and gatherings, discussions, first fascinations and mathematical dissertations). This paper, however, does not look into the scientific output of Steinhaus, only presents his method of scientific work and highlights the strategy that he chose in order to create the scientific community. An attempt has been also made to justify the effectiveness of the adopted strategy by describing the scientific atmosphere of Lvov and intellectual potential of the students of the school. Steinhaus's activities in the 1930s will be only marginally presented with an impact on particularly interesting cooperation with the alumni of the Lwów School of Mathematics--Marek Kac, Stefan Kaczmarz, Paweł Nikliborec and scholars from other fields of science (as part of the process of the application of mathematics).

  5. [Nature study and happiness in life: Hugo de Vries, Eli Heimans and Jac. P. Thijsse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, B

    1993-01-01

    This article analyses the backgrounds of Hugo de Vries' stance with regard to the Dutch nature study movement, which rapidly gained momentum in the 1890s. The movement has received little attention from historians until now. A short exposition of its aims and intentions, as envisioned by its main protagonists, Heimans and Thijsse, is provided. It is shown that De Vries' scientific ideas on the improvability of the human species and his liberal social views led him to conclude that both socialism and right-wing 'laisser-faire' ideologies were scientifically unsound. Hereditary theory implied that the human races were genetically stable entities which could not be improved by selection of any kind. The progress of society could only be furthered by placing the emphasis on the individual and its cognitive and social development. According to de Vries, the study of nature provided an excellent means to this end, since it contributed to the individual's personal development as well as to its happiness.

  6. Hugo Chavéz y la representación de la historia de Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo recoge los estudios realizados en el marco del proyecto de investigación denominado Espacio público, participación y militarismo en Venezuela (1998-2002, bajo los auspicios de la Universidad del Zulia a través del Consejo Científico y Humanístico (CONDES. Se parte de elementos teóricos derivados del análisis del discurso y la filosofía política, para aproximarnos a la reconstrucción de la naturaleza del pensamiento político de Hugo Chávez Frías. Particularmente se considera la idea de la historia manejada en relación con los actores y procesos del pasado, tanto en una noción de larga como de corta duración. Se establece que el manejo de la historia y los procesos históricos se hacen en tres planos esenciales: a como reconstrucción del pasado cercano y lejano; b como estrategia de deslegitimación de los actores políticos opositores y c como dinámica justificativa del desenvolvimiento político del llamado Proyecto Bolivariano. Se concluye estableciendo que las estrategias discursivas del chavismo, forman parte del intento de establecer una hegemonía política en el sentido gramsciano del término.

  7. Screening the psychological laboratory: Hugo Münsterberg, psychotechnics, and the cinema, 1892-1916.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    According to Hugo Münsterberg, the direct application of experimental psychology to the practical problems of education, law, industry, and art belonged by definition to the domain of psychotechnics. Whether in the form of pedagogical prescription, interrogation technique, hiring practice, or aesthetic principle, the psychotechnical method implied bringing the psychological laboratory to bear on everyday life. There were, however, significant pitfalls to leaving behind the putative purity of the early psychological laboratory in pursuit of technological utility. In the Vocation Bureau, for example, psychological instruments were often deemed too intimidating for a public unfamiliar with the inner workings of experimental science. Similarly, when psychotechnical means were employed by big business in screening job candidates, ethical red flags were raised about this new alliance between science and capital. This tension was particularly evident in Münsterberg's collaboration with the Paramount Pictures Corporation in 1916. In translating psychological tests into short experimental films, Münsterberg not only envisioned a new mass medium for the dissemination of psychotechnics, but a means by which to initiate the masses into the culture of experimental psychology.

  8. ON STANDARD NOMENCLATURE OF BASIC CHINESE MEDICAL TERMS (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢竹藩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Editorial Note Traditional Chinese medicine has aroused a worldwide interest. The need for TCM nomenclature to be internationalized and standardized is becoming pressing. The standardizing process involving the flow of culture between China and the Occident, serves as one of the arduous tasks of integrating TCM with Western medicine. CJIM is bound to make contributions to this task and is planning to start a special column regarding this issue. The author of the present serial, Professor XIE, has been assigned by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, P.R. China, a research project on the standardization of TCM nomenclature in English. He has made a comparative study on the English-language terms appearing in the publications in recent decades, and a proposal of the choice terms as the standard. We are looking forward to discussions and comments on this important topic.

  9. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system.

  10. [Vasculitis: New nomenclature of the Chapel Hill consensus conference 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl-Ulrich, K

    2014-11-01

    Within the last years, many advances have been made in the understanding of the etiopathology of vasculitis as well as of different disease courses. The revised 2012 Chapel Hill consensus conference (CHCC) nomenclature reflects current knowledge on the etiopathology in addition to the descriptive principles of vessel size and types of inflammation. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated forms of vasculitis have been separated as a group, as opposed to immune complex small vessel vasculitis. When consensus was achieved eponyms have been replaced by systematic names, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Moreover, clinically important but less well-known types of vasculitis have now been included in the CHCC nomenclature. This article presents the changes and summarizes the results of important new articles on the clinical picture and morphology of vasculitis.

  11. [Vasculitis. New nomenclature of the Chapel Hill consensus conference 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl-Ulrich, K

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, many advances have been made in our understanding of vasculitis etiopathology as well as of different disease courses. The revised Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC) 2012 nomenclature reflects current knowledge about etiopathology, in addition to the descriptive principles of vessel size and type of inflammation. Anti-neutrophil cyptoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides have been classified as a separate group, as opposed to immune complex small vessel vasculitis. In cases where consensus was achieved, eponyms have been replaced by systematic names, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome). Moreover, clinically important but less well-known types of vasculitis have now been included in the CHCC nomenclature. This article presents the changes, focussing on those types that are relevant to the histopathologist, and summarizes the results of important new articles on morphology and clinical picture of vasculitis.

  12. StomataStructure, Delimitation, Nomenclature and Classification of Stomata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MalveyPRABHAKAR

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews stomatal types observed in 500 species of angiosperms besides thosedescribed in the literature and deals with the problems of their structure, delimitation, nomenclature andclassification. In view of the varied definitions available in the literature for subsidiaries, stomatal types and,the definition and delimitations being variously interpreted by different workers, a modified definition forthe subsidiaries and stomata is presented. In accordance with the international code of nomenclature forplants, the names of the stomata widely in use are retained (rule of priority). They have been presentlyclassified as pericytic, desmocytic, paracytic, diacytic, anisocytic, anisotricytic, isotricytic, tetracytic,staurocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic and a good number of varieties under each type are presented. Thesestomatal types are recognised on the basis of their structure rather than its ontogenetic pathways.

  13. Structure,Delimitation,Nomenclature and Classification of Stomata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malvey PRABHAKAR

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews stomatal types observed in 500 species of angiosperms besides those described in the literature and deals with the problems of their structure, delimitation, nomenclature and classification. In view of the varied definitions available in the literature for subsidiaries, stomatal types and,the definition and delimitations being variously interpreted by different workers, a modified definition for the subsidiaries and stomata is presented. In accordance with the international code of nomenclature for plants, the names of the stomata widely in use are retained (rule of priority). They have been presently classified as pericytic, desmocytic, paracytic, diacytic, anisocytic, anisotricytic, isotricytic, tetracytic,staurocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic and a good number of varieties under each type are presented. These stomatal types are recognised on the basis of their structure rather than its ontogenetic pathways.

  14. IAU nomenclature for albedo features on the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, A.; Chapman, C. R.; Davies, M. E.; Gingerich, O.; Goldstein, R.; Guest, J.; Morrison, D.; Smith, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union has endorsed a nomenclature for the albedo features on Mercury. Designations are based upon the mythological names related to the god Hermes; they are expressed in Latin form. The dark-hued albedo features are associated with the generic term Solitudo. The light-hued areas are designated by a single name without generic term. The 32 names adopted are allocated on the Mercury map.

  15. International code for phytolith nomenclature 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madella, M; Alexandre, A; Ball, T

    2005-08-01

    Phytoliths (microscopic opal silica particles produced in and between the cells of many plants) are a very resilient, often-preserved type of microfossil and today, phytolith analysis is widely used in palaeoenvironmental studies, botany, geology and archaeology. To date there has been little standardization in the way phytoliths are described and classified. This paper presents the first International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature (ICPN), proposing an easy to follow, internationally accepted protocol to describe and name phytoliths.

  16. IAU nomenclature for albedo features on the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, A.; Chapman, C. R.; Davies, M. E.; Gingerich, O.; Goldstein, R.; Guest, J.; Morrison, D.; Smith, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    The International Astronomical Union has endorsed a nomenclature for the albedo features on Mercury. Designations are based upon the mythological names related to the god Hermes; they are expressed in Latin form. The dark-hued albedo features are associated with the generic term Solitudo. The light-hued areas are designated by a single name without generic term. The 32 names adopted are allocated on the Mercury map.

  17. An approach to the nomenclature of anuran musculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyos, Julio Mario

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un método particular para seleccionar, de los nombres ya existentes, el más apropiado para cada músculo, y un método general para escoger los nombres apropiados de las estructuras anatómicas. Estos nombres están basados en los Nomina Anatomica y en el Código de Nomenclatura Zoológica. Se utiliza la ley de prioridad para seleccionar el nombre del músculo, y se discuten los criterios de homología primaria, homología secundaria e identidad topográfica para reforzar la idea de estabilidad nomenclatural. Se sugiere una secuencia para establecer la correspondencia entre los nombres y la homología de las estructuras, comenzando con la identificación de la correspondencia topológica (homología primaria y terminando con el reconocimiento de la identidad topográfica y las homologías secundarias. A new nomenclature of anuran muscles and a general method to choose the appropriate names of anatomical structures are proposed. These names are based on the Nomina Anatomica and on the Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The law of priority is used to select the muscle name to adopt, and the criteria of primary homology, secondary homology, and topographic identity are discussed to encourage the idea of nomenclatural stability of anatomical structures. A sequence to establish a correspondence between names and the homology of structures is suggested, beginning with the identification of topological correspondence (primary homology and ending with the recognition of the topographic identity and secondary homologies.

  18. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    OpenAIRE

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inad...

  19. Nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis : A report of the international committee for nomenclature of the adenohypophysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1965-01-01

    The International Committee for Nomenclature of the Adenohypophysis calls attention to the necessity for improving the present chaotic situation in the nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis. A full description of the cell types must be based upon both morphological and

  20. Nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis : A report of the international committee for nomenclature of the adenohypophysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1965-01-01

    The International Committee for Nomenclature of the Adenohypophysis calls attention to the necessity for improving the present chaotic situation in the nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis. A full description of the cell types must be based upon both morphological and

  1. Nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis : A report of the international committee for nomenclature of the adenohypophysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    The International Committee for Nomenclature of the Adenohypophysis calls attention to the necessity for improving the present chaotic situation in the nomenclature of the hormone-producing cells in the adenohypophysis. A full description of the cell types must be based upon both morphological

  2. Unremitting problems with chlorogenic acid Nomenclature: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kremr

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes a problematic nomenclature of isomers belonging to chlorogenic acid family since its first occurrence until present. During decades, there have been a high number of articles dealing with the family. Unfortunately, researchers who want to get knowledge about this topic may be strongly confused after reading a few articles. Due to gradual discoveries and isolations of the individual isomers from plenty of matrices and because of the changing system of terminology after these discoveries, discrepancies among articles are common. The cause of this confusion is that the main compound of the family, 5-caffeoylquinic acid (also well-known as chlorogenic acid, was truly called as 3-caffeoylquinic acid before 1976, when new rules for nomenclature were published. Many researchers and also chemicals suppliers, however, keep using the "pre-IUPAC" nomenclature and wrongly call 3-caffeoylquinic acid as chlorogenic acid, the main substituent of the family. Despite there have been some works struggling with this issue, the problem is still appearing. Therefore, the present work was written.

  3. Toward a consensus nomenclature for insect neuropeptides and peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Geoffrey M; Schooley, David A

    2011-03-01

    The nomenclature currently in use for insect neuropeptide and peptide hormone families is reviewed and suggestions are made as to how it can be rationalized. Based upon this review, a number of conventions are advanced as a guide to a more rationale nomenclature. The scheme that is put forward builds upon the binomial nomenclature scheme proposed by Raina and Gäde in 1988, when just over 20 insect neuropeptides had been identified. Known neuropeptides and peptide hormones are assigned to 32 structurally distinct families, frequently with overlapping functions. The names given to these families are those that are currently in use, and describe a biological function, homology to known invertebrate/vertebrate peptides, or a conserved structural motif. Interspecific isoforms are identified using a five-letter code to indicate genus and species names, and intraspecific isoforms are identified by Roman or Arabic numerals, with the latter used to signify the order in which sequences are encoded on a prepropeptide. The proposed scheme is sufficiently flexible to allow the incorporation of novel peptides, and could be extended to other arthropods and non-arthropod invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accurate nomenclature for forefoot nerve entrapment: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ethan E; Barrett, Stephen L; Battiston, Bruno; Maloney, Christopher T; Dellon, A Lee

    2005-01-01

    Current medical nomenclature is often based on the early history of the condition, when the true etiology of the disease or condition was not known. Sadly, this incorrect terminology can become inextricably woven into the lexicon of mainstream medicine. More important, when this is the case, the terminology itself can become integrated into current clinical decision making and ultimately into surgical intervention for the condition. "Morton's neuroma" is perhaps the most striking example of this nomenclature problem in foot and ankle surgery. We aimed to delineate the historical impetus for the terminology still being used today for this condition and to suggest appropriate terminology based on our current understanding of its pathogenesis. We concluded that this symptom complex should be given the diagnosis of nerve compression and be further distinguished by naming the involved nerve, such as compression of the interdigital nerve to the third web space or compression of the third common plantar digital nerve. Although the nomenclature becomes longer, the pathogenesis is correct, and treatment decisions can be made accordingly.

  5. Attitudes towards "disorders of sex development" nomenclature among affected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Finlayson, Courtney; Chen, Diane; Yerkes, Elizabeth B; Madonna, Mary Beth; Holl, Jane L; Baratz, Arlene B; Davis, Georgiann; Cheng, Earl Y

    2017-05-08

    Although now commonly used in medicine, the updated "disorders of sex development" (DSD) nomenclature formally introduced in 2006 has never been universally accepted by members of the affected community, particularly advocacy groups. Use of this nomenclature by medical professionals may unintentionally negatively affect access to healthcare and research for individuals with DSD conditions. Among individuals affected by various DSD diagnoses, this study sought to (1) evaluate attitudes towards potentially controversial DSD terminology, (2) determine potential impact of terminology on how affected individuals access healthcare, and (3) explore alternate terms. A web-based survey was developed in collaboration with the AIS-DSDSG (Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome-DSD Support Group) leadership. AIS-DSDSG members (caregivers and affected individuals) were surveyed about attitudes towards DSD, potential impact on healthcare utilization, and alternate terms. A qualitative analysis of reasons for using/avoiding specific terms was performed. Surveys were completed by 202 out of 580 (35%) AIS-DSDSG members (61% affected, 39% caregivers; 16% non-gender binary; age range of affected individuals 0-86 years). Only 24% use disorder of sex development to describe themselves/their child. A majority (69%) had a negative emotional experience because of clinical use of nomenclature; 81% changed their care because of it. Preferred and non-preferred terms for clinical care and research are illustrated in the figure. Preferred diagnostic terms were intersex, variation in sex development, and difference of sex development (55%, 52%, and 50% liked/strongly liked, respectively). Disorder of sex development was not preferred (17% liked/strongly liked). About one-third reported that they would not attend a clinic named the Disorder of Sex Development Clinic. Overall, 81% provided qualitative comments; flexible terminology use was a key theme. These study findings are consistent with previous

  6. Erosive effects of the storms HELENA (1963) and HUGO (1989) on Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe - Lesser Antilles Arc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bivic, Rejanne; Allemand, Pascal; Delacourt, Christophe; Quiquerez, Amélie

    2014-05-01

    Basse-Terre is a volcanic island which belongs to the archipelago of Guadeloupe located in the Lesser Antilles Arc (Caribbean Sea). As a mountainous region in the tropical belt, Basse-Terre is affected by intense sediment transport due to extreme meteorological events. During the last fifty years, eight major tropical storms and hurricanes with intense rainfalls induced landslides and scars in the weathered layers. The purpose of this study is to compare two major meteorological events within a period of 26 years (HELENA in 10/1963 and HUGO in 09/1989) in order to qualify the parameters responsible of the spatial distribution of landslides and scars. The storm HELENA affected Basse-Terre between the 23rd and the 25th of October, 1963. The maximal daily rainfall reached 300 mm in Baillif which is located on the leeward coast at the altitude of 650 m while the maximum wind velocity reached 50 km/h. A similar exceptional event happened when the hurricane HUGO slammed the island in September 17, 1989. The maximum daily rainfall recorded in Sainte-Rose (on the northern coast) was 250 mm while it reached 208 mm in Petit-Bourg and the maximum wind speed was 60 km/h. Aerial images were acquired by the IGN (French Geographical Institute) before and a few weeks after the extreme events: less than three months after the event HELENA and less than a month after the event HUGO. Those images have been orthorectified at a metric resolution and combined in a GIS with a 10 m resolution DEM. Scars and landslides were digitalized and their surface area and mean slope were measured for both HELENA and HUGO. This work confirms several results proposed by a previous study related to the HELENA event: (1) the landslides occurred mainly in the center of the island and (2) the slope is the main parameter for the initiation of landslides, since all of them occurred with a slope superior to 30°. Furthermore, the resiliency of the surface affected by the landslides induced by HELENA was

  7. Hugo Chávez y la crisis de representación político-partidaria en Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Arias García

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la actual situación política de Venezuela como una consecuencia directa del colapso del sistema de partidos, cuyos actores tradicionales fueron el AD y el COPEI. Presenta el régimen populista de Hugo Chávez como un “autoritarismo competitivo”, en la medida en que la crisis de representación no pasa necesariamente por la contienda electoral, sino que se basa en la cooptación del ejecutivo de otras arenas de poder como la legislativa, la judicial y la regulación de los med...

  8. Asedios a una poética del espacio. Pretérito Perfecto de Hugo Foguet

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Araoz

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la poética del espacio en la novela Pretérito perfecto (1983) del escritor argentino Hugo Foguet (1923-1985). A partir de esta idea distinguiremos el diseño de espacios interiores y públicos que entraman el argumento y revelan una multiplicidad de temporalidades yuxtapuestas. La novela enlaza el relato familiar y configura la imagen de una nación periférica. El relato de la historia de una ciudad provinciana es inseparable de un linaje aristocrátic...

  9. Los dibujos arquitectónicos de Víctor Hugo: entre la realidad y la ensoñación

    OpenAIRE

    Llopis Verdú, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Victor Hugo was not a painter nor an architect, so the search developed in his drawings was rather conceptual than formal. His drawings seek to go into detail about the creative soul of the artist through the experimentation and the chance; intrusion into the inner world that lies beneath the creative myth. They are reflection of the world in which his literary work is developed, not in a literal but in a symbolic way. Victor Hugo does not draw architecture, he draws the chaos, the exalt...

  10. Systematic Nomenclature for GGDEF and EAL Domain-Containing Cyclic Di-GMP Turnover Proteins of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengge, Regine; Galperin, Michael Y; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Gomelsky, Mark; Green, Jeffrey; Hughes, Kelly T; Jenal, Urs; Landini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Escherichia coli has served as one of a few model bacterial species for studying cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling. The widely used E. coli K-12 laboratory strains possess 29 genes encoding proteins with GGDEF and/or EAL domains, which include 12 diguanylate cyclases (DGC), 13 c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE), and 4 "degenerate" enzymatically inactive proteins. In addition, six new GGDEF and EAL (GGDEF/EAL) domain-encoding genes, which encode two DGCs and four PDEs, have recently been found in genomic analyses of commensal and pathogenic E. coli strains. As a group of researchers who have been studying the molecular mechanisms and the genomic basis of c-di-GMP signaling in E. coli, we now propose a general and systematic dgc and pde nomenclature for the enzymatically active GGDEF/EAL domain-encoding genes of this model species. This nomenclature is intuitive and easy to memorize, and it can also be applied to additional genes and proteins that might be discovered in various strains of E. coli in future studies.

  11. Is the PhyloCode better than Linnaean system?-- New development and debate on biological nomenclatural issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Linnaean system provides ultimate means governing biological nomenclature and classification. With series of modification, this system has admirably served biological sciences for some 250 years. The new PhyloCode, however, advocates the phylogenetic nomenclature that radically alternates the current nomenclatural rules. The new proposals upset many systematic biologists and have provoked hot debate on nomenclatural issues. Binomial nomenclature and hierarchical classification are the key components of the Linnaean system. Proposed abandonment of these in the PhyloCode is widely criticized for it would not help to promote systematics but create chaos. It is not the Linnaean system but the phylogenetic nomenclature that should be abandoned.

  12. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Quentin; Bourgoin, Thierry; Coddington, Jonathan; Gostony, Timothy; Hamilton, Andrew; Larimer, Roy; Polaszek, Andrew; Schauff, Michael; Solis, M Alma

    2012-01-01

    Nomenclatural benchmarking is the periodic realignment of species names with species theories and is necessary for the accurate and uniform use of Linnaean binominals in the face of changing species limits. Gaining access to types, often for little more than a cursory examination by an expert, is a major bottleneck in the advance and availability of biodiversity informatics. For the nearly two million described species it has been estimated that five to six million name-bearing type specimens exist, including those for synonymized binominals. Recognizing that examination of types in person will remain necessary in special cases, we propose a four-part strategy for opening access to types that relies heavily on digitization and that would eliminate much of the bottleneck: (1) modify codes of nomenclature to create registries of nomenclatural acts, such as the proposed ZooBank, that include a requirement for digital representations (e-types) for all newly described species to avoid adding to backlog; (2) an "r" strategy that would engineer and deploy a network of automated instruments capable of rapidly creating 3-D images of type specimens not requiring participation of taxon experts; (3) a "K" strategy using remotely operable microscopes to engage taxon experts in targeting and annotating informative characters of types to supplement and extend information content of rapidly acquired e-types, a process that can be done on an as-needed basis as in the normal course of revisionary taxonomy; and (4) creation of a global e-type archive associated with the commissions on nomenclature and species registries providing one-stop-shopping for e-types. We describe a first generation implementation of the "K" strategy that adapts current technology to create a network of Remotely Operable Benchmarkers Of Types (ROBOT) specifically engineered to handle the largest backlog of types, pinned insect specimens. The three initial instruments will be in the Smithsonian Institution

  13. Basics of compounding sterile preparations: nomenclature and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Loyd V

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on sterile dosage forms and serves as a review for those trained in compounding sterile preparations, as well as to educate those that have not received any formal training on the topics of nomenclature and composition. The use of proper terminology is important for proper/accurate communications among healthcare practitioners. Proper terminology also has potential legal/liability implications. In addition to terminology considerations, it is important to be aware of the different routes of administration of sterile formulations and their different compositions and uses.

  14. Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong

    2013-01-01

    International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry: Nomenclature, Symbols, Units and their Usage in Spectrochemical Analysis-III: Analytical Flame Spectroscopy and Associated Non-Flame Procedures covers the analytical application of flame spectroscopy and related procedures, which is not encompassed in the first two parts of the series. Parts I and II of the series deal with general recommendations. Section 1 of this document presents a classification of the methods and instruments used in the different branches of analytical flame spectroscopy. Section 2 lists terms and symbols for common quan

  15. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  16. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Wheeler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural benchmarking is the periodic realignment of species names with species theories and is necessary for the accurate and uniform use of Linnaean binominals in the face of changing species limits. Gaining access to types, often for little more than a cursory examination by an expert, is a major bottleneck in the advance and availability of biodiversity informatics. For the nearly two million described species it has been estimated that five to six million name-bearing type specimens exist, including those for synonymized binominals. Recognizing that examination of types in person will remain necessary in special cases, we propose a four-part strategy for opening access to types that relies heavily on digitization and that would eliminate much of the bottleneck: (1 modify codes of nomenclature to create registries of nomenclatural acts, such as the proposed ZooBank, that include a requirement for digital representations (e-types for all newly described species to avoid adding to backlog; (2 an “r” strategy that would engineer and deploy a network of automated instruments capable of rapidly creating 3-D images of type specimens not requiring participation of taxon experts; (3 a “K” strategy using remotely operable microscopes to engage taxon experts in targeting and annotating informative characters of types to supplement and extend information content of rapidly acquired e-types, a process that can be done on an as-needed basis as in the normal course of revisionary taxonomy; and (4 creation of a global e-type archive associated with the commissions on nomenclature and species registries providing one-stop-shopping for e-types. We describe a first generation implementation of the “K” strategy that adapts current technology to create a network of Remotely Operable Benchmarkers Of Types (ROBOT specifically engineered to handle the largest backlog of types, pinned insect specimens. The three initial instruments will be in the

  17. Asedios a una poética del espacio. Pretérito Perfecto de Hugo Foguet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Araoz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la poética del espacio en la novela Pretérito perfecto (1983 del escritor argentino Hugo Foguet (1923-1985. A partir de esta idea distinguiremos el diseño de espacios interiores y públicos que entraman el argumento y revelan una multiplicidad de temporalidades yuxtapuestas. La novela enlaza el relato familiar y configura la imagen de una nación periférica. El relato de la historia de una ciudad provinciana es inseparable de un linaje aristocrático en decadencia.The aim of this work is to analyze the poetics of spaces in the novel Pretérito perfecto (1983, created by the argentinian writer Hugo Foguet (1923-1985. Starting from this main idea, we are going to distinguish the designs of interior and public spaces, which constitute the plot, and reveal multiple and yuxtaposed temporalities. The novel connects the family narrative and configures the imagery of a peripheral nation. The telling of the history about a provincial city cannot be torn apart from an aristocratic lineage which is in decadence.

  18. Why the Rediscoverer Ended up on the Sidelines: Hugo De Vries's Theory of Inheritance and the Mendelian Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamhuis, Ida H.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years before the "rediscovery" in 1900 of Mendel's work, Hugo De Vries published his theory of heredity. He expected his theory to become a big success, but it was not well-received. To find supporting evidence for this theory De Vries started an extensive research program. Because of the parallels of his ideas with the…

  19. Enne külvi surfa netis : [internetipõhise geoinfosüsteemi loomisest] / Hugo Roostalu; kirja pannud Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roostalu, Hugo, 1941-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikooli professor Hugo Roostalu sõnul plaanib EMÜ AS-i Kesko Agro toel luua internetipõhise geoinfosüsteemi, mis koondab Eesti põllumajandusteadlaste tehtud katsete tulemusi ning aitab tootjail maakasutust tõhusamalt planeerida

  20. Why the Rediscoverer Ended up on the Sidelines: Hugo De Vries's Theory of Inheritance and the Mendelian Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamhuis, Ida H.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years before the "rediscovery" in 1900 of Mendel's work, Hugo De Vries published his theory of heredity. He expected his theory to become a big success, but it was not well-received. To find supporting evidence for this theory De Vries started an extensive research program. Because of the parallels of his ideas with the…

  1. Enne külvi surfa netis : [internetipõhise geoinfosüsteemi loomisest] / Hugo Roostalu; kirja pannud Sirje Pärismaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roostalu, Hugo, 1941-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikooli professor Hugo Roostalu sõnul plaanib EMÜ AS-i Kesko Agro toel luua internetipõhise geoinfosüsteemi, mis koondab Eesti põllumajandusteadlaste tehtud katsete tulemusi ning aitab tootjail maakasutust tõhusamalt planeerida

  2. Standardization of Nomenclature in Acupuncture Research (SoNAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter White

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As more clinical acupuncture trials for pain are published, it becomes increasingly difficult to compare and evaluate the merits and shortcomings of such studies. A major contributory factor to this centers on the description of, and the assumptions made about, the control intervention used. In considering an acupuncture control, it is important to evaluate its physiological activity and thus far, this has not been done. A variety of different and sometimes very novel controls have been tried and used in the research setting and the inevitable consequence of this is confusion, particularly when attempting to interpret the results of trials. Researchers and other interested parties such as patients, primary care practitioners, funding agencies etc., searching for evidence in the literature are likely to be misled or confused by such variability. There is therefore a need to define and standardize many of these terms, to clarify reporting and to convey the correct information in a way that it is not misleading. This paper details the background and need for this and is primarily intended to assist those who intend to publish primary and secondary acupuncture research. However, standardization of reporting will be of benefit to anybody who will need to examine the literature for evidence. This article proposes and recommends a nomenclature when reporting future acupuncture clinical research. This nomenclature arose through discussion at a meeting convened by the World Health Organisation (Western Pacific Regional Office and will be incorporated into their policy document later this year.

  3. A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbert Paul B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

  4. Taxonomic utility of old names in current fungal classification and nomenclature: Conflicts, confusion & clarifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dayarathne, M.C.; Boonmee, S.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Daranagama, D.A.; Dissanayake, A.J.; Ekanayaka, H.; Jayawardena, R.; Jones, E.B.G.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N.; Perera, R.H.; Phillips, A.J.L.; Stadler, M.; Thambugala, K.M.; Wanasinghe, D.N.; Zhao, Q.; Hyde, K.D.; Jeewon, R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal taxonomy has a long history and nomenclatural type specimens constitute an integral part of fungal classification and nomenclature. To date, type specimens/old names have served as excellent exemplars and references and have been the pillar for a stable classification and appropriate nomencla

  5. A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature…

  6. Evaluating Students' Learning Gains and Experiences from Using Nomenclature101.com

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodé, Nicholas E.; Caron, Jeanette; Flynn, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    Skill in organic chemistry nomenclature is fundamental for communicating more complex concepts. Interpreting and using functional group names is particularly important. With nomenclature101.com, students can create tailored interactive quizzes according to their learning needs; the tool is free and available in English and French. The present…

  7. A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent molecular research has confirmed that Cenchrus and Pennisetum (Gramineae) should be united. For nomenclatural, not practical, reasons, Cenchrus is accepted as the correct name. In Malesia there are 16 species. A key, descriptions, and notes are provided. Observations on the nomenclature are g

  8. A Need for Logical and Consistent Anatomical Nomenclature for Cutaneous Nerves of the Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Thomas R.; Burkel, William E.; Cortright, Gerald W.

    2009-01-01

    The system of anatomical nomenclature needs to be logical and consistent. However, variations in translation to English of the Latin and Greek terminology used in Nomina Anatomica and Terminologia Anatomica have led to some inconsistency in the nomenclature of cutaneous nerves in the limbs. An historical review of cutaneous nerve nomenclature…

  9. Hugo Chavez : le renouveau du populisme vénézuélien ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Folz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Pour aborder la problématique du populisme en tant que phénomène politique, nous avons choisi de nous placer dans une perspective latino-américaine en nous intéressant au cas particulier du Venezuela et de son Président Hugo Chavez. La crise généralisée qui, à partir des années quatre-vingts, s’est abattue sur le pays a mis un terme à quarante années de bipartisme et a considérablement affaibli le modèle de démocratie représentative mis en place par les partis politiques Action Démocratique et Copei. Profitant de ce vide, de nouveaux acteurs politiques, indépendants des partis traditionnels, émergèrent dans le panorama politique vénézuélien et parmi eux Hugo Chavez. Ex-putschiste et leader incontesté des secteurs défavorisés, il construisit sa victoire aux élections présidentielles de 1998 en s’appuyant sur un discours virulent envers les partis et l’ancienne classe politique. Grâce à cette technique, Chavez sut capter l’attention des laissés-pour-compte et des déçus du système en s’imposant comme le candidat de la rupture, du changement en faveur d’une démocratie participative et du retour à l’âge d’or, inspiré de Bolivar, jugé plus à même de conduire le Venezuela vers un avenir meilleur.Afin d’appréhender les principales caractéristiques de ce leader charismatique, dans un premier temps, après une brève étude du populisme vénézuélien des années cinquante, nous nous concentrerons sur le personnage, puis, à travers ses déclarations et ses écrits, nous examinerons le diagnostic qu’il porte sur la crise que traverse le Venezuela, la nature de son programme électoral et, enfin, son rapport au peuple. Grâce à ces différents axes de recherches et à leur analyse, nous verrons si Hugo Chavez est ou non un leader populiste.Con el propósito de abordar la problemática del populismo como fenómeno político, hemos decidido ubicarnos en una perspectiva latinoamericana interes

  10. Nomenclature of genetic movement disorders: Recommendations of the international Parkinson and movement disorder society task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Connie; Lang, Anthony; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Sue, Carolyn M; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Bertram, Lars; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Warner, Thomas T; Durr, Alexandra; Assmann, Birgit; Lohmann, Katja; Kostic, Vladimir; Klein, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The system of assigning locus symbols to specify chromosomal regions that are associated with a familial disorder has a number of problems when used as a reference list of genetically determined disorders,including (I) erroneously assigned loci, (II) duplicated loci, (III) missing symbols or loci, (IV) unconfirmed loci and genes, (V) a combination of causative genes and risk factor genes in the same list, and (VI) discordance between phenotype and list assignment. In this article, we report on the recommendations of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society Task Force for Nomenclature of Genetic Movement Disorders and present a system for naming genetically determined movement disorders that addresses these problems. We demonstrate how the system would be applied to currently known genetically determined parkinsonism, dystonia, dominantly inherited ataxia, spastic paraparesis, chorea, paroxysmal movement disorders, neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, and primary familial brain calcifications. This system provides a resource for clinicians and researchers that, unlike the previous system, can be considered an accurate and criterion-based list of confirmed genetically determined movement disorders at the time it was last updated.

  11. Evaluating three methods that contribute to the learning of inorganic chemical nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeno, Joseph Samuel

    The majority of students about to complete a first year chemistry course have a poor working knowledge of inorganic chemical nomenclature (average quiz scores are less than 60% correct). Usually, the chemical nomenclature topic is not emphasized in a first year chemistry class, and a minimum amount of time is devoted to it. The traditional assignment for chemical nomenclature involves having students work practice problems at the end of the chapter. Students are not very receptive to this approach. The minimal exposure to chemical nomenclature in class along with the ineffective approach of a traditional assignment results in students having a poor working knowledge of chemical nomenclature. Studies have claimed that students are more receptive to learning when game playing is combined with the learning activity. Therefore two educational games were created to help students develop a working knowledge of inorganic chemical nomenclature: the Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix. This study compared the learning of inorganic chemical nomenclature by three different methods; one was the traditional method where students worked problems at the end of a chapter, and the other two methods used a game format to learn chemical nomenclature. The statistical analysis of student performance was evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. The analysis revealed that the game format methods were more effective in helping students develop a working knowledge of chemical nomenclature. The ANOVA test indicate that both the Rainbow Wheel and Rainbow Matrix post-assignment mean scores differ significantly from the traditional group's post-assignment mean scores (p game format groups' mean scores. The results of this study indicate that students will learn chemical nomenclature more effectively when the subject is presented in a game format. The game format methods used in this study encouraged students to visualize the process of writing chemical formulas correctly, while

  12. Estudos comparados, projeto histórico e análise de políticas públicas: entrevista com Hugo Zemelman Compared studies, historical project and a public policies analysis: an interview with Hugo Zemelman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Conhecido pelo seu vasto conhecimento e experiência nas áreas da epistemologia e das políticas sociais, o professor Hugo Zemelmam aborda nesta entrevista os problemas metodológicos envolvidos nas análises políticas que trabalham com a noção de comparação nos processos históricos. Salienta o desafio da construção de um conhecimento sobre a realidade latino-americana que incorpore a historicidade dos diferentes processos nacionais, isto é, a complexidade dos fenômenos políticos, sociais, culturais e/ou econômicos no momento em que eles são abordados, e que não se restrinja à comparação de indicadores ou à elaboração de analogias, tentação, a seu ver, enganadora, na qual teriam caído muitos estudos comparados produzidos nos últimos anos.Renowned for his huge knowledge and experience in the fields of epistemology and social policies, professor Hugo Zemelmam tackles the methodological problems involved in the political analyses that compare historical processes. As for the Latin American reality, he highlights how challenging it is to build knowledge that takes in consideration the historicity of the different national processes, that is, the complexity of the political, social, cultural and/or economical phenomena of the moment they are dealt with. Such knowledge should not limit to comparing indicators or elaborating analogies, a temptation he considers as deceiving and that spoils many compared studies produced lately.

  13. Short notes and reviews Zoological nomenclature – reflections on the recent past and ideas for our future agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks after the start of my service as President of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, a paper of mine appeared in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature (Minelli, 1995) in which I outlined some major challenges to be faced by biological nomenclature in response to

  14. Short notes and reviews Zoological nomenclature – reflections on the recent past and ideas for our future agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks after the start of my service as President of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, a paper of mine appeared in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature (Minelli, 1995) in which I outlined some major challenges to be faced by biological nomenclature in response to

  15. Hugo Chávez y la crisis de representación político-partidaria en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Arias García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la actual situación política de Venezuela como una consecuencia directa del colapso del sistema de partidos, cuyos actores tradicionales fueron el AD y el COPEI. Presenta el régimen populista de Hugo Chávez como un “autoritarismo competitivo”, en la medida en que la crisis de representación no pasa necesariamente por la contienda electoral, sino que se basa en la cooptación del ejecutivo de otras arenas de poder como la legislativa, la judicial y la regulación de los medios de comunicación.

  16. El populismo de Hugo Chávez: ¿revirtiendo la democracia venezolana? (2004-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Arenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo intenta comprender el régimen populista de Hugo Chávez en el período 2004-2006 lapso en el cual el gobierno, a partir de sus victorias tanto en el referéndum del 2004 como en las elecciones presidenciales de 2006, amplió y profundizó su hegemonía en todos los espacios del poder nacional. La reconcentración de poder en manos del Presidente desplegada en esos tres años, puso al descubierto la cara autoritaria del régimen, colocando en riesgo los haberes de la democracia venezolana.

  17. Why the Rediscoverer Ended up on the Sidelines: Hugo De Vries's Theory of Inheritance and the Mendelian Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamhuis, Ida H.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years before the `rediscovery' in 1900 of Mendel's work, Hugo De Vries published his theory of heredity. He expected his theory to become a big success, but it was not well-received. To find supporting evidence for this theory De Vries started an extensive research program. Because of the parallels of his ideas with the Mendelian laws and because of his use of statistics, he became one of the rediscoverers. However, the Mendelian laws, which soon became the foundation of a new discipline of genetics, presented a problem. De Vries was the only one of the early Mendelians who had developed his own theory of heredity. His theory could not be brought in line with the Mendelian laws. But because his original theory was still very dear to him, something important was at stake and he was unwilling to adapt his ideas to the new situation. He belittled the importance of the Mendelian laws and ended up on the sidelines.

  18. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic...... data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species......, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision...

  19. Potential Ambiguity Translation Performances within Legal Language Institutional Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oţăt Diana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature. The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. on the one hand, arise dining the translation process, generated by the translator’s lack of competence, i.e. inadequate use of English regarding the special nature of legal language, or. on the other hand, they may be simply transferred from the source language into the target language without even noticing the potential ambiguous situation, i.e. culture-bound ambiguities. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts.

  20. Indices of Regional Brain Atrophy: Formulae and Nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of brain atrophy helps to discriminate normal age-related changes from neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit indices of regional brain atrophy have proven to be a parameter useful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of some neurodegenerative diseases, indices of absolute regional atrophy still have some important limitations. We propose using indices of relative atrophy for representing how the volume of a given region of interest (ROI) changes over time in comparison to changes in global brain measures over the same time. A second problem in morphometric studies is terminology. There is a lack of systematization naming indices and the same measure can be named with different terms by different research groups or imaging softwares. This limits the understanding and discussion of studies. In this technological report, we provide a general description on how to compute indices of absolute and relative regional brain atrophy and propose a standardized nomenclature. PMID:26261753

  1. Virus nomenclature below the species level: a standardized nomenclature for filovirus strains and variants rescued from cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H; Bào, Yīmíng; Bavari, Sina; Becker, Stephan; Bradfute, Steven; Brauburger, Kristina; Rodney Brister, J; Bukreyev, Alexander A; Caì, Yíngyún; Chandran, Kartik; Davey, Robert A; Dolnik, Olga; Dye, John M; Enterlein, Sven; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Formenty, Pierre; Freiberg, Alexander N; Hensley, Lisa E; Hoenen, Thomas; Honko, Anna N; Ignatyev, Georgy M; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Karl M; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Kobinger, Gary; Lackemeyer, Matthew G; Leroy, Eric M; Lever, Mark S; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V; Olinger, Gene G; Palacios, Gustavo; Patterson, Jean L; Paweska, Janusz T; Pitt, Louise; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Shestopalov, Aleksandr M; Smither, Sophie J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Swanepoel, Robert; Takada, Ayato; Towner, Jonathan S; van der Groen, Guido; Volchkov, Viktor E; Volchkova, Valentina A; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Warren, Travis K; Warfield, Kelly L; Weidmann, Manfred; Nichol, Stuart T

    2014-05-01

    Specific alterations (mutations, deletions, insertions) of virus genomes are crucial for the functional characterization of their regulatory elements and their expression products, as well as a prerequisite for the creation of attenuated viruses that could serve as vaccine candidates. Virus genome tailoring can be performed either by using traditionally cloned genomes as starting materials, followed by site-directed mutagenesis, or by de novo synthesis of modified virus genomes or parts thereof. A systematic nomenclature for such recombinant viruses is necessary to set them apart from wild-type and laboratory-adapted viruses, and to improve communication and collaborations among researchers who may want to use recombinant viruses or create novel viruses based on them. A large group of filovirus experts has recently proposed nomenclatures for natural and laboratory animal-adapted filoviruses that aim to simplify the retrieval of sequence data from electronic databases. Here, this work is extended to include nomenclature for filoviruses obtained in the laboratory via reverse genetics systems. The previously developed template for natural filovirus genetic variant naming, virus name> (/)///-, is retained, but we propose to adapt the type of information added to each field for cDNA clone-derived filoviruses. For instance, the full-length designation of an Ebola virus Kikwit variant rescued from a plasmid developed at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention could be akin to "Ebola virus H.sapiens-rec/COD/1995/Kikwit-abc1" (with the suffix "rec" identifying the recombinant nature of the virus and "abc1" being a placeholder for any meaningful isolate designator). Such a full-length designation should be used in databases and the methods section of publications. Shortened designations (such as "EBOV H.sap/COD/95/Kik-abc1") and abbreviations (such as "EBOV/Kik-abc1") could be used in the remainder of the text, depending on how critical it is to convey information

  2. Phylogenetic nomenclature and evolution of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietz Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin gene (MBL2 affect the concentration and functional efficiency of the protein. We recently used haplotype-specific sequencing to identify 23 MBL2 haplotypes, associated with enhanced susceptibility to several diseases. Results In this work, we applied the same method in 288 and 470 chromosomes from Gabonese and European adults, respectively, and found three new haplotypes in the last group. We propose a phylogenetic nomenclature to standardize MBL2 studies and found two major phylogenetic branches due to six strongly linked polymorphisms associated with high MBL production. They presented high Fst values and were imbedded in regions with high nucleotide diversity and significant Tajima's D values. Compared to others using small sample sizes and unphased genotypic data, we found differences in haplotyping, frequency estimation, Fu and Li's D* and Fst results. Conclusion Using extensive testing for selective neutrality, we confirmed that stochastic evolutionary factors have had a major role in shaping this polymorphic gene worldwide.

  3. Proposal to change General Consideration 5 and Principle 2 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2014-01-01

    A proposal is submitted to the ICSP to change the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), deleting the words Schizophycetes, Cyanophyceae and Cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is covered by the Code. It is further proposed to change the terms Zoological Code and International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in General Consideration 5 and in Principle 2 to International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, respectively.

  4. Community intelligence in knowledge curation: an application to managing scientific nomenclature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dai

    Full Text Available Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn. ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.

  5. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on the flora of Serbia and the Balkan Peninsula, I: Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niketić M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclatural analysis included 12 autochthonous and mostly endemic species from the genera Atocion Adans., Cerastium L., Heliosperma (Rchb. Rchb., and Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae. In conformity with ICBN, 12 new infra­specific taxa are described with locus classicus on the territory of Serbia. Also presented are 24 new nomenclatural combi­nations, including several for endemic taxa not present in Serbia. The nomenclature of certain taxa is supplemented by a short taxonomic-chorological review. Results of these studies will be incorporated in the next volume of "Flora of Serbia".

  6. Development of a new nomenclature for Salmonella Typhimurium multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, JT; Torpdahl, M; Petersen, RF

    2009-01-01

    to easily compare MLVA results between laboratories there is a need for a simple and definitive nomenclature for MLVA profiles. Based on MLVA results for all human S. Typhimurium isolates in Denmark from the last five years and sequence analysis of a selection of these isolates, we propose a MLVA...... nomenclature that indicates the actual number of repeat units in each locus. This nomenclature is independent of the equipment used for fragment analysis and, in principle, independent of the primers used. A set of reference strains is developed that can be used for easy normalisation of fragment sizes in each...

  7. TCOF1 mutation database: novel mutation in the alternatively spliced exon 6A and update in mutation nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendore, Alessandra; Fanganiello, Roberto D; Masotti, Cibele; Morganti, Lucas S C; Passos-Bueno, M Rita

    2005-05-01

    Recently, a novel exon was described in TCOF1 that, although alternatively spliced, is included in the major protein isoform. In addition, most published mutations in this gene do not conform to current mutation nomenclature guidelines. Given these observations, we developed an online database of TCOF1 mutations in which all the reported mutations are renamed according to standard recommendations and in reference to the genomic and novel cDNA reference sequences (www.genoma.ib.usp.br/TCOF1_database). We also report in this work: 1) results of the first screening for large deletions in TCOF1 by Southern blot in patients without mutation detected by direct sequencing; 2) the identification of the first pathogenic mutation in the newly described exon 6A; and 3) statistical analysis of pathogenic mutations and polymorphism distribution throughout the gene.

  8. THE FACTORS THAT LEAD NAMIK KEMAL TO VICTOR HUGO ABSTRACT NAMIK KEMAL’İ VICTOR HUGO’YA GÖTÜREN ETKENLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalim AYDIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In terms of or literary history, Tanzimat literature has a special place. This, undoubtedly, is resulted form its being the beginning of modernization process. However, there is another important and distinctive feature of the artists of that period. That is their approach style to literature. Şinasi, Kemal, Hamid, Ekrem and others regarded literature not only to produce literature, to produce an art work and to create a new literature against classical approach but also to support Tanzimat Movement that was newly born through literature, to contribute to that social transformation project both as an intellectual and an artist. One of the ones who fulfilled this was Namık Kemal. Our poet performed that by following French poet Victor Hugo whom he saw mainly as a master and model. While Hugo was the opening of a new literature for art and literature for him, in terms of his ideas about society and social order that we mention he had been the source of social transformation. In this respect, the ideas of Hugo that he supported in his works, especially in his drama, was followed with great interest and attention by Kemal. In this study, in this context, the factors that lead Kemal to Hugo will be tried to be asserted. Edebiyat tarihimiz açısından Tanzimat edebiyatının özel bir yeri vardır. Bu, kuşkusuz modernleşme sürecinin başlangıcı olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Ancak bu dönem sanatçılarının bir önemli ve ayırıcı özellikleri daha vardır. O da, edebiyata yaklaşım tarzlarıdır. Şinasi, Kemal, Hamid, Ekrem ve diğerleri edebiyatı yalnızca edebi üretim yapmak, sanat eseri meydana getirmek ve klasik anlayışa karşı yeni bir edebiyat yaratmak değil, fakat aynı zamanda başlamış olan Tanzimat Hareketine edebiyat aracılığıyla destek vermek, bu toplumsal dönüşüm projesine hem aydın, hem de sanatçı kimliğiyle katkı sunmak olmuştur. Bunu yapanlardan biri de Namık Kemal olmuştur. Şairimiz bunu b

  9. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micranthus (Pers. Eckl., has traditionally been treated as comprising three species, all with virtually identical, bilaterally symmetric, deep or pale blue to white flowers arranged in crowded, 2-ranked spikes and with divided style branches, but differing in their foliage. Examination of plants in the field and herbarium shows that there are four additional species. M. filifolius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Caledon District of the southwestern Western Cape, has up to six, filiform leaves, the blades of at least the lowermost terete and cross-shaped in section, and usually pale blue-mauve flowers. M. simplex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from high elevations on Zebrakop, Piketberg, has the smallest flowers in the genus, white but tinged lilac as they age, linear leaves up to 1.5 mm wide, and undivided style branches. M. cruciatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the northern Cedarberg and Bokkeveld Mtns, has up to four leaves, the lower with linear or terete blades with heavily thickened margins and central vein and relatively large flowers, unusual in having the style dividing at the mouth of the perianth tube into particularly long branches, these deeply divided as is typical of the genus. M. thereianthoides Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Paardeberg south of Malmesbury, is unique in the genus in having flowers with an elongate perianth tube. We also document the occurrence of large populations of putative hybrids at some sites. We provide a complete revision of Micranthus with original observations on leaf anatomy, pollen morphology and reproductive biology and discuss its confused taxonomic and nomenclatural history and that of the three common species of the genus, known for over 150 years. In so doing, we neotypify Gladiolus alopecuroides L. (1756 [= Micranthus alopecuroides (L. Eckl. (1827], type of the genus, and choose lectotypes for M. plantagineus Eckl. var. junceus Baker (1892 and Gladiolus fistulosus Jacq. Now with seven

  10. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature: Moon: 1:1 million-scale maps of the Moon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the lunar maps is to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive depiction on lunar nomenclature approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).

  11. Recommendations for a nomenclature system for reporting methylation aberrations in imprinted domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monk, David; Morales, Joannella; den Dunnen, Johan T

    2017-01-01

    by the lack of consistency in reporting sites of methylation evaluated. To avoid confusion surrounding nomenclature, special care is needed to communicate results accurately, especially between scientists and other health care professionals. Within the European Network for Human Congenital Imprinting...

  12. HUNGARIAN PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE (COENODATRE F): SAMPLING METHODOLOGY, NOMENCLATURE AND ITS ACTUAL STAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J CSIKY; F. HORVATH; Z. BOTTA-DUK; K LAJER

    2007-01-01

    The article contains the methodological guide of the national phytocoenological database, called CoenoDat Reference Database, which was prepared to build up the first Hungarian reference databank of the natural and semi-natural vegetation types in 2003. Nomenclature of plants follows Dobolyi (2002). Syntaxonomical nomenclature follows Borhidi & Sánta (1999) and Borhidi (2003). For databasing the authors used TurboVeg for Windows. Up to now, CoenoDatRef contains some 9,000 r...

  13. Biological nomenclature terms for facilitating communication in the naming of organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John David

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of terms recommended for use in facilitating communication in biological nomenclature is presented as a table showing broadly equivalent terms used in the traditional Codes of nomenclature. These terms are intended to help those engaged in naming across organism groups, and are the result of the work of the International Committee on Bionomenclature, whose aim is to promote harmonisation and communication amongst those naming life on Earth.

  14. Nonoriginal Malappropriate Eponymous Nomenclature: examples relevant to paediatric orthopaedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, Nick; Ramachandran, Manoj

    2012-11-01

    Eponyms are widely used in medicine and their use has been the subject of much debate recently. Advocates stress their historical significance, their ability to simplify complex terminology and their addition of character to science. Opponents cite the controversy among those eponyms and highlight the lack of both scientific and historical accuracy. The law of Nonoriginal Malappropriate Eponymous Nomenclature (NOMEN) suggests that no phenomenon is named after the individual(s) who originally described it. We aimed to determine whether this law is applicable to various clinical conditions and signs relevant to paediatric orthopaedics. We selected a series of 10 eponyms and performed a thorough literature review. In all cases, a description was identified preceding that from whom the disease received its eponymous name. We were also able to identify what we believe to be the earliest recorded description of each disease and sign. Our examples confirm the law of NOMEN in the field of paediatric orthopaedics. We suggest that irregularities in the descriptions and meanings of eponyms are identified and updated. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  15. Osteogenesis imperfecta: clinical diagnosis, nomenclature and severity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, F S; Sillence, D O

    2014-06-01

    Recently, the genetic heterogeneity in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), proposed in 1979 by Sillence et al., has been confirmed with molecular genetic studies. At present, 17 genetic causes of OI and closely related disorders have been identified and it is expected that more will follow. Unlike most reviews that have been published in the last decade on the genetic causes and biochemical processes leading to OI, this review focuses on the clinical classification of OI and elaborates on the newly proposed OI classification from 2010, which returned to a descriptive and numerical grouping of five OI syndromic groups. The new OI nomenclature and the pre-and postnatal severity assessment introduced in this review, emphasize the importance of phenotyping in order to diagnose, classify, and assess severity of OI. This will provide patients and their families with insight into the probable course of the disorder and it will allow physicians to evaluate the effect of therapy. A careful clinical description in combination with knowledge of the specific molecular genetic cause is the starting point for development and assessment of therapy in patients with heritable disorders including OI. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  16. Words matter: Recommendations for clarifying coral disease nomenclature and terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Coral diseases have caused significant losses on Caribbean reefs and are becoming a greater concern in the Pacific. Progress in coral disease research requires collaboration and communication among experts from many different disciplines. The lack of consistency in the use of terms and names in the recent scientific literature reflects the absence of an authority for naming coral diseases, a lack of consensus on the meaning of even some of the most basic terms as they apply to corals, and imprecision in the use of descriptive words. The lack of consensus partly reflects the complexity of this newly emerging field of research. Establishment of a nomenclature committee under the Coral Disease and Health Consortium (CDHC) could lead to more standardized definitions and could promote use of appropriate medical terminology for describing and communicating disease conditions in corals. This committee could also help to define disease terminology unique to corals where existing medical terminology is not applicable. These efforts will help scientists communicate with one another and with the general public more effectively. Scientists can immediately begin to reduce some of the confusion simply by explicitly defining the words they are using. In addition, digital photographs can be posted on the CDHC website and included in publications to document the macroscopic (gross) signs of the conditions observed on coral colonies along with precisely written characterizations and descriptions.

  17. Protein families: implications for allergen nomenclature, standardisation and specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiteneder, Heimo

    2009-01-01

    Allergens are embedded into the protein universe as members of large families and superfamilies of related proteins which is a direct consequence of their shared evolution. The classification of allergens by protein families offers a valuable frame of reference that allows the design of experiments to study cross-reactivity and allergenic potency of proteins. Information on protein family membership also complements the current official IUIS allergen nomenclature. All presently known allergens belong to one of 140 (1.4%) of the 10,340 protein families currently described by version 23.0 of the Pfam database. This is indicative of a strong bias among allergens towards certain protein architectures that are able to induce an IgE response in an atopic immune system. However, even small variations in the structure of a protein alter its immunological characteristics. Various isoforms of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were shown to possess highly variant immunogenic and allergenic properties. Ber e 1 and SFA8, two 2S albumins, were revealed to display differential capacities to polarise an immune response. Such data will be exploited in the future for the design of allergy vaccines.

  18. Nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of obligate methanol utilizing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercel, M

    1999-01-01

    In a screening program, a number of different bacterial strains with the ability to utilize methanol as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated and described. They are well known methanol utilizing genera Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Methylomonas or, on the contrary, the new, unknown genera and species of methylotrophic bacteria. In the last category, Acinetobacter and Alcaligenes are the new reported genera of organisms able to use methanol as a sole carbon and energy source. The present paper reports the very complex physiological and biochemical modifications when very versatile bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus are cultured on methanol and when the obligate methylotrophic state is compared with the facultative methylotrophic state of the same bacterial strain. Based on experiments and comparisons with literature data, it seems that Methylomonas methanica is the obligate methylotrophic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and that Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is the facultative methylotrophic state of Methylococcus capsulatus, an obligate methylotroph. The relationship of the obligate to the facultative and of the facultative to the obligate methylotrophy were established. These new methylotrophic genera and species, the profound physiological and biochemical modifications as well as the new data concerning nature, nomenclature and taxonomy of methanol utilizing bateria were reported for the first time in 1983.

  19. SEM-Cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion study of quartz veins in Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit,South Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjaa, M.; Fujimaki, H.; Ken-Ichiro, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Hugo Dummett porphyry copper-gold deposit in Oyu Tolgoi, South Mongolia is a high-sulfidation type deposit which consists of Cu-Au bearing quartz veins. Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluid inclusion microthermometer were performed to elucidate the relationship between CL structures, fluid inclusion microthermometer of different quartz generations, and ore forming process of the Hugo Dummett deposit. Hydrothermal quartz from quartz-sulfide veins in the porphyry Cu-Au deposit in Hugo Dummett, revealing the following textures: (1) euhedral growth zones (2) embayed and rounded CL-bright cores, with CL-dark and CL-gray overgrowths, (3) concentric and non concentric growth zones, and (4) CL dark/bright microfractures. These textures indicate that many veins have undergone fracturing, growth of quartz into fluid-filled space and quartz dissolution of quartz. SEM-CL imaging indicates vein quartz in the Hugo Dummett deposit, initially grew as individual CL-bright crystals 356 ± 10°C liquid-reservoir (average Th value for fluid inclusions in the crystal cores is 359°C). In contract, SEM-CL imaging shows the edges of the micron-scale growth zones of varying CL intensity, reflecting quartz precipitation at some later time, when the Hugo Dummett deposit hydrothermal system had cooled, when reservoir conditions were about 211 ± 25°C (average Th value of 212°C). Crystal growth is SEM-CL evidence of the vein quartz having been partly dissolved. Pressure change has a large effect on quartz solubility and may have been responsible for quartz dissolution and precipitation textures in the cooling hydrothermal system. CL-dark microfractures homogenization temperatures lower 169 ± 16°C (average Th value 170°C) than CL bright and CL gray. Temperature and pressure of the mineralized fluid estimates a pressure of formation of 0.3-0.5 kbar (lithostatic), was formed at approximately 2 km depth, as well as a formation temperature

  20. The Rise and Development of Physics in Cuba: An Interview with Hugo Pérez Rojas in May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracca, Angelo

    Hugo Celso Pérez Rojas was born in 1938, and works as a senior researcher at the Institute of Cybernetics, Mathematics and Physics, at the Ministry of Science and Technology, Cuba. Pérez Rojas is emeritus member of the Academy of Sciences of Cuba, member of the Latin American Academy of Sciences and Fellow TWAS since 1994. He was one of the founders of the School of Physics in the University of Havana in 1962, and moved in 1971 to the Cuban Academy of Sciences. His national awards include the Rafael Maria Mendive and Carlos J. Finlay Medals. He was awarded in 2011 the National Prize in Physics from the Cuban Physical Society. His interests include quantum field theory and its applications to finite temperature problems in high-energy physics and condensed matter. Among these, Pérez Rojas has devoted special attention to quantum electrodynamics in matter and in vacuum in the presence of external fields, phase transitions in electroweak theory, relativistic quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation in magnetic fields, and applications of physics to social sciences. He is interviewed here by Angelo Baracca in May 2009.

  1. Novelties on taxonomy and nomenclature of Spanish vascular hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Manuel B.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature of some Iberian hybrids is revised and several new combinations are proposed: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii and Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Besides, a new nothosubspecies: Sideritis x paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata, is described for the mountains of Valencia Province (E of Spain.

    Se revisa la nomenclatura de algunos híbridos vasculares ibéricos, proponiéndose algunas nuevas combinaciones: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii y Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Además, se describe una nueva notosubespecie de las montañas de la provincia de Valencia: Sideritis X paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata.

  2. HEREDITARY CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS: NOMENCLATURE AND DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Klemenov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary connective tissue disorders (HCTDs are a genetically and clinically diverse group of diseases, which encompasses common congenital disorders of fibrous connective tissue structures. Out of the whole variety of the clinical manifestations of NCTDs, only differentiated monogenic syndromes with the agreed guidelines for their diagnosis have been long the focus of the medical community’s attention. Many unclassified forms of the pathology (dysplasia phenotypes have been disregarded while assessing a person’s prognosis and defining treatment policy. With no clear definition of NCTDs or their approved diagnostic algorithm, it is difficult to study their real prevalence in the population, to compare literature data, and to constructively discuss various scientific and practical aspects of this disease. Efforts to systematize individual clinical types of NCTD and to formulate their diagnostic criteria are set forth in the All-Russian Research Society Expert Committee national guidelines approved in 2009 and revised in 2012. The paper gives current views on the nomenclature of NCTDs, considers diagnostic criteria for both classified monogenic syndromes (Marfan's syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos' syndrome, MASS phenotype, primary mitral valve prolapse, joint hypermobility syndrome and unclassified dysplasia phenotypes (MASS-like phenotype, marfanoid appearance, Ehlers–Danlos-like phenotype, benign joint hypermobility syndrome, unclassified phenotype. The above abnormalities are presented as a continuous list drawn up in the decreasing order of the degree of their clinical manifestations and prognostic value (the phenotypic continuum described by M.J. Glesby and R.E. Pyentz: from monogenic syndromes through dysplasia phenotypes to an unclassified phenotype. Emphasis is laid on the clinical NCTD identification difficulties associated with the lack of specificity of external and visceral markers of connective tissue asthenia and with the certain

  3. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR) Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    YE, RICHARD D.; BOULAY, FRANÇOIS; WANG, JI MING; DAHLGREN, CLAES; GERARD, CRAIG; PARMENTIER, MARC; SERHAN, CHARLES N.; MURPHY, PHILIP M.

    2009-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions. PMID:19498085

  4. Senior high school chemistry students performance in IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Adu-Gyamfi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the performance of Chemistry students in IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds from two school types. The study focused on senior high school (SHS students’ performance in IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. A cross-sectional survey provided the study with quantitative data. Stratified random sampling procedure was used to select 245 students from four out of 18 schools who offer elective science for 2010/2011 academic year in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. An achievement test of 30 items was used for collection of the quantitative data. The results from the study showed that the SHS Chemistry students had showed low performance in IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. The independent-samples t-test analyses of the results show that there were no statistical significant differences between the scores of students from well- endowed and less-endowed schools on both naming and writing structural formulae of organic compounds using the IUPAC nomenclature system. It is therefore recommended that any assistant provided by the Ministry of Education and the Ghana Education Service to help students to improve on their performance in IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds should be independent of the school - type.

  5. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-02-11

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945.

  6. A autonomia do direito como imanência interdisciplinar: reflexões a partir da querela entre Gustav Hugo e Hegel = The autonomy of law as interdisciplinary immanence: reflections from the Hegel-Hugo debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos, André Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Na querela entre os membros da Escola Histórica do Direito (Hugo e Savigny e Hegel acerca de quem tem o título legítimo para pensar o direito, para os primeiros a Filosofia do Direito é uma inerência à própria ciência sistemática do direito, enquanto para o segundo o conceito de direito passa inevitavelmente por uma dialética transsistemática (o sistema jurídico opera como infrassistema de filosofia. Existiria assim como que uma distinção entre a “Filosofia do Direito dos juristas” e a “Filosofia do Direito dos filósofos”, coexistindo sem interação. A partir desta querela, será demonstrado que uma releitura de ambos os lados da barricada levará à anulação da possibilidade de uma tal bifurcação da Filosofia do Direito entre juristas e filósofos. A “filosofia do direito dos juristas” não existe precisamente porque a normatividade e a aplicação constitutiva são apenas um dos momentos da natureza do direito: ser jurista é formar-se em e produzir-se em direito continuamente nas várias etapas da natureza do direito. A atitude do direito neste sentido amplo é uma de inclusão: autonomia disciplinar aqui decorre na imanência interdisciplinar do direito

  7. ERS/ELS/ACCP 2013 international consensus conference nomenclature on inducible laryngeal obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille M. Christensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting episodes of breathing problems caused by re-occurring variable airflow obstructions in the larynx have been described in an increasing number of publications, with more than 40 different terms being used without consensus on definitions. This lack of an international consensus on nomenclature is a serious obstacle for the development of the area, as knowledge from different centres cannot be matched, pooled or readily utilised by others. Thus, an international Task Force has been created, led by the European Respiratory Society/European Laryngological Society/American College of Chest Physicians. This review describes the methods used to reach an international consensus on the subject and the resulting nomenclature, the 2013 international consensus conference nomenclature.

  8. [Thoughts and strategies of developing an international standard of nomenclature and location of auricular acupuncture points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhou, Li-Qun; Zhao, Bai-Xiao

    2011-02-01

    The new development on the international standard of nomenclature and location of auricular acupoints (AAP) was stated in this paper. The similarities and differences of the auricular acupuncture system in various countries were compared in this paper in order to provide suggestions and strategies for international standard of no menclature and location of AAP. In this paper, the international standard of AAP as a common language for international academic exchanges, the guidance for beginners and a basis for further research was mentioned. There were similarities and differences in the nomenclature and location of AAP in China and abroad. It was worthwhile to clarify the similarities and differences in order to promote the process of international standard of AAP. The five basic principles for the international standard of AAP are the basic research of auricular anatomy, the total auricular acupuncture points, principles for nomenclature, the practicality and the accuracy.

  9. Development of a new nomenclature for Salmonella Typhimurium multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, JT; Torpdahl, M; Petersen, RF;

    2009-01-01

    Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) has recently become a widely used highly discriminatory molecular method for typing of the foodborne pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. This method is based on amplification and fragment size analysis of five repeat loci. To be able...... to easily compare MLVA results between laboratories there is a need for a simple and definitive nomenclature for MLVA profiles. Based on MLVA results for all human S. Typhimurium isolates in Denmark from the last five years and sequence analysis of a selection of these isolates, we propose a MLVA...... nomenclature that indicates the actual number of repeat units in each locus. This nomenclature is independent of the equipment used for fragment analysis and, in principle, independent of the primers used. A set of reference strains is developed that can be used for easy normalisation of fragment sizes in each...

  10. “The dangerous classes”: Hugo Grotius and seventeenth-century piracy as a primitive anti-systemic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wilson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the historical and textual representations of piracy in the writings of Hugo Grotius, primarily De Indis/De iure praedae(1603-1608 and the Commentarius in Theses XI (c. 1600. Contrary to popular belief, Grotius, in stark contrast to Jean Bodin, was not an advocate of the constitutionally homogenous Nation-State. Rather, his central concept of divisible sovereignty, the lynchpin of the constitutional theory of his early writings, unambiguously presents us with the object of the heterogeneousState. In Grotian theory, the State may be “read” as a composite construction, with a residual degree of inalienable sovereignty accruing at each unit-level. Even if only unconsciously, Grotius describes a concurrent para-political sub-division of the state between institutional Government (the “magistrates”and civil society, one that constitutes an operational system of governance within the Nation-State. Like his contemporary Johannes Althusius, Grotius’theory allows for the emergence of a wholly “private,” albeit lawful, mode of authority. This is most apparent in Grotius’ treatment of the mercantile trading Company and its Privateering operations. The corporatist theory of sovereignty permits the Company’s private agents of violence, the legally ambivalent Privateer/Pirate, to be invested with a requisite degree of sovereignty. The Grotian theory of divisible sovereignty, investing the seventeenth-century Pirate band with legal personality, serves as a vital historical precursor to the quasi-statist (trans- national criminal cartels of the twenty-first century. The Grotian Pirate/Privateer/Just Avenger, therefore, is a “nomad”: a liminal entity that simultaneously transverses both geographical and juro-political spaces, rendering him or herselfin-determinable.

  11. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Hugo Dummett Cu-Au porphyry deposit (Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Seltmann, R.; Armstrong, R.; Belousova, E.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Kavalieris, I.

    2013-04-01

    Major and trace element geochemistry including Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data are presented for a representative sample suite of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Hugo Dummett deposit of the giant Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district in South Gobi, Mongolia. Sr and Nd isotopes (whole-rock) show restricted ranges of initial compositions, with positive ɛNdt mainly between + 3.4 and + 7.4 and (87Sr/86Sr)t predominantly between 0.7037 and 0.7045 reflecting magma generation from a relatively uniform juvenile lithophile-element depleted source. Previously dated zircons from the plutonic rocks exhibit a sample-averaged range of ɛHft values of + 11.6 to + 14.5. Depleted-mantle model ages of 420-830 (Nd) and 320-730 Ma (zircon Hf) limit the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the petrogenesis of the intermediate to felsic calc-alkaline magmas to, at most, a minor role. Pb isotopes (whole-rock) show a narrow range of unradiogenic initial compositions: 206Pb/204Pb 17.40-17.94, 207Pb/204Pb 15.43-15.49 and 208Pb/204Pb 37.25-37.64, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes indicating the dominance of a mantle component. All four isotopic systems suggest that the magmas from which the large Oyu Tolgoi porphyry system was generated originated predominantly from juvenile material within the subduction-related setting of the Gurvansayhan terrane.

  12. HUNGARIAN PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE (COENODATRE F: SAMPLING METHODOLOGY, NOMENCLATURE AND ITS ACTUAL STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J CSIKY

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the methodological guide of the national phytocoenological database, called CoenoDat Reference Database, which was prepared to build up the first Hungarian reference databank of the natural and semi-natural vegetation types in 2003. Nomenclature of plants follows Dobolyi (2002. Syntaxonomical nomenclature follows Borhidi & Sánta (1999 and Borhidi (2003. For databasing the authors used TurboVeg for Windows. Up to now, CoenoDatRef contains some 9,000 relevés of app. 400 natural and/or semi-natural associations. The number of entered relevés of different vegetation classes is included.

  13. HUNGARIAN PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL DATABASE (COENODATRE F: SAMPLING METHODOLOGY, NOMENCLATURE AND ITS ACTUAL STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K LAJER

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the methodological guide of the national phytocoenological database, called CoenoDat Reference Database, which was prepared to build up the first Hungarian reference databank of the natural and semi-natural vegetation types in 2003. Nomenclature of plants follows Dobolyi (2002. Syntaxonomical nomenclature follows Borhidi & Sánta (1999 and Borhidi (2003. For databasing the authors used TurboVeg for Windows. Up to now, CoenoDatRef contains some 9,000 relevés of app. 400 natural and/or semi-natural associations. The number of entered relevés of different vegetation classes is included.

  14. The nomenclature of the Athenian Artists of Dionysus in IG II2 1132-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the earliest nomenclature of the Athenian artists of Dionysus, which I will argue is not only unique among the overall evidence on Dionysiac artists available to us at this point, but also evinces a recognized political potential in the newly organized association...... this adjective has been coupled with the adjective ἱερός, an equally unique appellation for individual Dionysiac artists so far. Finally, I will hypothesize about reasons for this unique nomenclature of the Athenian artists at this particular historical period....

  15. Evaluation of the Complex Nomenclature of the Clinically and Veterinary Significant Pathogen Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella encompasses a vast and highly related population of clinically and veterinary significant pathogens. The genus is responsible for an array of diseases such as typhoid fever and salmonellosis (a variety of illnesses including gastroenteritis, which cause public health issues globally. Even with the global recognition of Salmonella as a significant human and veterinary pathogen, the highly complex and evolving nomenclature system of Salmonella is problematic for clinicians, veterinarians, and microbiologists to comprehend. The present paper offers a review of the ever developing nomenclature for this bacterial species.

  16. Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain; Crochet, Pierre-André; Dickinson, Edward C; Nemésio, André; Aescht, Erna; Bauer, Aaron M; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Bour, Roger; De Carvalho, Marcelo R; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure; Frétey, Thierry; Jäger, Peter; Koyamba, Victoire; Lavilla, Esteban O; Löbl, Ivan; Louchart, Antoine; Malécot, Valéry; Schatz, Heinrich; Ohler, Annemarie

    2013-11-11

    In zoological nomenclature, to be potentially valid, nomenclatural novelties (i.e., new nomina and nomenclatural acts) need first to be made available, that is, published in works qualifying as publications as defined by the International Code of zoological Nomenclature ("the Code"). In September 2012, the Code was amended in order to allow the recognition of works electronically published online after 2011 as publications available for the purpose of zoological nomenclature, provided they meet several conditions, notably a preregistration of the work in ZooBank. Despite these new Rules, several of the long-discussed problems concerning the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts have not been resolved. The publication of this amendment provides an opportunity to discuss some of these in detail. It is important to note that: (1) all works published only online before 2012 are nomenclaturally unavailable; (2) printed copies of the PDFs of works which do not have their own ISSN or ISBN, and which are not obtainable free of charge or by purchase, do not qualify as publications but must be seen as facsimiles of unavailable works and are unable to provide nomenclatural availability to any nomenclatural novelties they may contain; (3) prepublications online of later released online publications are unavailable, i.e., they do not advance the date of publication; (4) the publication dates of works for which online prepublications had been released are not those of these prepublications and it is critical that the real release date of such works appear on the actual final electronic publication, but this is not currently the case in electronic periodicals that distribute such online prepublications and which still indicate on their websites and PDFs the date of release of prepublication as that of publication of the work; (5) supplementary online materials and subsequent formal corrections of either paper or electronic publications distributed only

  17. Grammatical objections to the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, adopted at Cambridge in 1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1935-01-01

    It is generally known that botanical nomenclature, though sprung from mediaeval scientific Latin, and agreeing, in its orthography for the greater part, in its grammar as much as possible, with classical Latin, shows countless forms which not only from a classical-grammatical, but also from a mediae

  18. Methodology for the construction of a disease nomenclature and classification system for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Ohashi, Y; Sato, H; Kaihara, S

    1995-12-01

    The nature and problems of the linguistic representation of clinical data are discussed, using the linguistic theory of Ferdinand de Saussure. Based on the conclusions, a methodology for the construction of a disease nomenclature and a classification system, suitable for use in clinical information systems, is developed using set theory.

  19. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three closely related species of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, D.J.; Hatch, S.L.; Carter, R.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis and review of nomenclature is provided for Eleocharis cellulosa, E. mutata, and E. spiralis, three closely related species belonging to subgenus Limnochloa. One heterotypic synonym of E. mutata and the basionym and a heterotypic synonym of E. spiralis are lectotypified. The taxo

  20. Developments in Pedagogic Nomenclature in Australian Vocational Education: Evolution of Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Over recent decades the nomenclature of "innovative" pedagogic approaches in vocational education and training (VET) has undergone a number of changes. In almost all cases "traditional face-to-face" teaching is set as the comparative benchmark and painted in pejorative terms. Using aspects of Basil Bernstein's theoretical…

  1. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three closely related species of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen, D.J.; Hatch, S.L.; Carter, R.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic synopsis and review of nomenclature is provided for Eleocharis cellulosa, E. mutata, and E. spiralis, three closely related species belonging to subgenus Limnochloa. One heterotypic synonym of E. mutata and the basionym and a heterotypic synonym of E. spiralis are lectotypified. The

  2. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3...

  3. La nomenclature au service de la Botanique Systématique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robyns, W.

    1966-01-01

    La systématique scientifique, qui classe tous les êtres vivants, actuels et fossiles, d’après leurs affinités naturelles ou présumées telles, doit pouvoir donner à chaque taxon un nom stable, permettant de le désigner avec son rang taxonomique et de l’identifier facilement. La nomenclature botanique

  4. PenBase, the shrimp antimicrobial peptide penaeidin database: sequence-based classification and recommended nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Yannick; Garnier, Julien; Robert, Lorenne; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Mougenot, Isabelle; de Lorgeril, Julien; Janech, Michael; Gross, Paul S; Warr, Gregory W; Cuthbertson, Brandon; Barracco, Margherita A; Bulet, Philippe; Aumelas, André; Yang, Yinshan; Bo, Dong; Xiang, Jianhai; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Piquemal, David; Bachère, Evelyne

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides play a major role in innate immunity. The penaeidins, initially characterized from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, are a family of antimicrobial peptides that appear to be expressed in all penaeid shrimps. As of recent, a large number of penaeid nucleotide sequences have been identified from a variety of penaeid shrimp species and these sequences currently reside in several databases under unique identifiers with no nomenclatural continuity. To facilitate research in this field and avoid potential confusion due to a diverse number of nomenclatural designations, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyse, and classify all the penaeidin sequences available in every database. We have identified a common penaeidin signature and subsequently established a classification based on amino acid sequences. In order to clarify the naming process, we have introduced a 'penaeidin nomenclature' that can be applied to all extant and future penaeidins. A specialized database, PenBase, which is freely available at , has been developed for the penaeidin family of antimicrobial peptides, to provide comprehensive information about their properties, diversity and nomenclature.

  5. 26 CFR 1.338-2 - Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. 1.338-2 Section 1.338-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election. (a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating...

  6. A matter of scale: damage from Hurricane Hugo (1989) to U.S. Virgin Islands reefs at the colony, community and whole reef level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    1993-01-01

    Studies at Buck Island Reef National Monument (St. Croix) and Virgin Islands National Park (St. John) by scientists in the U.S. National Park Service Coral Reef Assessment Program re- vealed the effects of Humcane Hugo on individual coral species, community parameters, and overall reef structure. Effects of the storm varied with depth, coral species, location relative to the storm path, character of the pre-storm communities, and ecological history. Live coral cover, initially less than 30% at all sites, dropped by 40 to 73%. Cover by the dominant species Montastrea annularis de- clined about 35% on the St. John reefs. At Buck Island, Acropora palmata cover, already reduced from 85% to 5% by white band disease and storms, fell to 0.8% after Hugo. Some areas on the south side of Buck Island were reduced to rubble pave- ment while other areas escaped serious damage. Data from cores at Buck Island reveal the influence of wave energy and storm frequency on overall reef character. Patchiness and variation in the responses of different species, zones, and entire reefs to the storm suggest that assessment of long-term trends in reef structure and composition requires analysis of changes at permanent study sites distributed over large areas.

  7. Schiff and pseudo-Schiff reagents: the reactions and reagents of Hugo Schiff, including a classification of various kinds of histochemical reagents used to detect aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, R W

    2016-11-01

    During the 1860's, Hugo Schiff studied many reactions between amines and aldehydes, some of which have been used in histochemistry, at times without credit to Schiff. Much controversy has surrounded the chemical structures and reaction mechanisms of the compounds involved, but modern analytical techniques have clarified the picture. I review these reactions here. I used molecular modeling software to investigate dyes that contain primary amines representing eight chemical families. All dyes were known to perform satisfactorily for detecting aldehydes in tissue sections. The models verified the correct chemical structures at various points in their reactions and also determined how decolorization occurred in those with "leuco" forms. Decolorization in the presence of sulfurous acid can occur by either adduction or reduction depending on the dye. The final condensation product with aldehyde was determined to be either a C-sulfonic acid adduct on the carbonyl carbon atom or an aminal at the same atom. Based on the various outcomes, I have placed the dyes and their reactions into five categories. Because Hugo Schiff studied the reactions between aldehydes and amines with and without various acids or alcohol, it is only proper to call each of them Schiff reactions that used various types of Schiff reagents.

  8. Expresiones de duelo ante la muerte del Presidente Hugo Chávez. Obituarios y Visitas al difunto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Montero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los dos últimos años de la vida del presidente de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez Frías, fueron de sufrimiento, porque confiando en la medicina cubana, ignoró el diagnóstico de cáncer dado en Venezuela. La discreción y el secreto marcaron ese periodo, hasta el punto qu e el día de su muerte está en entredicho. En Venezuela se anunció formalmente su muerte en cadena nacional el día 5 de marzo de 2013, y diferentes expresiones de dolor se manifestaron. En este artículo se analizan dos importantes expresiones de duelo en d os grupos sociales: obituarios y visita al lugar donde se exhibió el féretro (Academia Militar en la ciudad de Caracas. Seleccionamos y clasificamos obituarios aparecidos desde el 6 al 12 de marzo de 2013, en los dos principales periódicos de circulación nacional: El Universal y El Nacional . Partimos del análisis crítico del discurso, de Teun van Dijk (1997, haciendo un análisis pragmático del discurso de los obituarios desde dos dimensiones: 1. frecuencia, tamaño y costo y, 2. el contenido del texto. Se creó un corpus de 612 obituarios, en el cual fueron identificadas las características de mensajes emitidos por instituciones públicas y privadas en relación con el hecho ocurrido. Asimismo, estructuras y funciones del texto tales como: cortesía y forma s del adiós al difunto. Respecto de las visitas al catafalco se describe el ambiente mediante observación, en la cual se evidenciaron vínculos emocionales, intereses y compromiso político. Este análisis muestra diferentes expresiones de dolor, que van de la formalidad de quienes envían costosos obituarios y la afectividad de quienes demostraron tristeza.

  9. SU-E-P-22: AAPM Task Group 263 Tackling Standardization of Nomenclature for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuszak, M; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mayo, C; Miller, R [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Bosch, W [Washington Univ, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Popple, R [Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Marks, L [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Molineu, A; Martel, M [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Yock, T [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); McNutt, T [Johns Hopkins University, Severna Park, MD (United States); Brown, N [Baptist Medical Center, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Purdie, T [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yorke, E [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Santanam, L [Washington University School of Medicine, St.louis, MO (United States); Gabriel, P [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Michalski, J [Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (United States); and others

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: There is growing recognition of need for increased clarity and consistency in the nomenclatures used for body and organ structures, DVH metrics, toxicity, dose and volume units, etc. Standardization has multiple benefits; e.g. facilitating data collection for clinical trials, enabling the pooling of data between institutions, making transfers (i.e. hand-offs) between centers safer, and enabling vendors to define “default” settings. Towards this goal, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) formed a task group (TG263) in July of 2014, operating under the Work Group on Clinical Trials to develop consensus statements. Guiding principles derived from the investigation and example nomenclatures will be presented for public feedback. Methods: We formed a multi-institutional and multi-vendor collaborative group of 39 physicists, physicians and others involved in clinical use and electronic transfer of information. Members include individuals from IROC, NRG, IHE-RO, DICOM WG-7, ASTRO and EORTC groups with overlapping interests to maximize the quality of the consensus and increase the likelihood of adoption. Surveys of group and NRG members were used to define current nomenclatures and requirements. Technical requirements of vendor systems and the proposed DICOM standards were examined. Results: There is a marked degree of inter and intra institutional variation in current approaches, resulting from inter-vendor differences in capabilities, clinic specific conceptualizations and inconsistencies. Using a consensus approach, the group defined optimal formats for the naming of targets and normal structures. A formal objective assessment of 13 existing clinically-used software packages show that all had capabilities to accommodate these recommended nomenclatures. Conclusions: A multi-stakeholder effort is making significant steps forward in developing a standard nomenclature that will work across platforms. Our current working list includes > 550

  10. Genomic cartography and proposal of nomenclature for the repeated, interspersed elements of the Leishmania major SIDER2 family and identification of SIDER2-containing transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Jose M; Rastrojo, Alberto; Garde, Esther; López, Manuel C; Thomas, M Carmen; Aguado, Begoña

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of most eukaryotic organisms contain a large number of transposable elements that are able to move from one genomic site to another either by transferring of DNA mobile elements (transposons) or transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate (retroposons). An exception to this rule is found in protists of the subgenus Leishmania, in which active retroposons degenerated after a flourishing era, leaving only retroposon remains; these have been classified into two families: SIDER1 and SIDER2. In this work, we have re-examined the elements belonging to the family SIDER2 present in the genome of Leishmania major with the aim of providing a nomenclature that will facilitate a future reference to particular elements. According to sequence conservation, the 1100 SIDER2 elements have been grouped into subfamilies, and the inferred taxonomic relationships have also been incorporated into the nomenclature. Additionally, we are providing detailed data regarding the genomic distribution of these elements and their association with specific transcripts, based on the recently established transcriptome for L. major. Thus, the presented data can help to study and better understand the roles played by these degenerated retroposons in both regulation of gene expression and genome plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An update on MyoD evolution in teleosts and a proposed consensus nomenclature to accommodate the tetraploidization of different vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Macqueen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MyoD is a muscle specific transcription factor that is essential for vertebrate myogenesis. In several teleost species, including representatives of the Salmonidae and Acanthopterygii, but not zebrafish, two or more MyoD paralogues are conserved that are thought to have arisen from distinct, possibly lineage-specific duplication events. Additionally, two MyoD paralogues have been characterised in the allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis. This has lead to a confusing nomenclature since MyoD paralogues have been named outside of an appropriate phylogenetic framework. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we initially show that directly depicting the evolutionary relationships of teleost MyoD orthologues and paralogues is hindered by the asymmetric evolutionary rate of Acanthopterygian MyoD2 relative to other MyoD proteins. Thus our aim was to confidently position the event from which teleost paralogues arose in different lineages by a comparative investigation of genes neighbouring myod across the vertebrates. To this end, we show that genes on the single myod-containing chromosome of mammals and birds are retained in both zebrafish and Acanthopterygian teleosts in a striking pattern of double conserved synteny. Further, phylogenetic reconstruction of these neighbouring genes using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods supported a common origin for teleost paralogues following the split of the Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii. CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that myod was duplicated during the basal teleost whole genome duplication event, but was subsequently lost in the Ostariophysi (zebrafish and Protacanthopterygii lineages. We propose a sensible consensus nomenclature for vertebrate myod genes that accommodates polyploidization events in teleost and tetrapod lineages and is justified from a phylogenetic perspective.

  12. Based on Local Linear Transformation HUGO Image Steganography Detection%基于局部线性变换的HUGO图像隐写检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓裕; 袁晓红; 秦姣华

    2014-01-01

    Since Pevný put forward a kind of the most advanced Highly Undetectable Steganography in 2010,which approximately preserves the joint distribution of the ifrst-order differences between four neighboring pixels and has a strong resistance to detection performance.Now there is a lack of effective methods in HUGO detection at home and abroad. Steganographic embedding with HUGO changed parts of the textural feature,this paper proposes a new detection method,which is ifrst obtained textural residual image by local linear transformation,to get 22130 dimensionality co-occurrence matrix feature vector,ifnal y using the ensemble classiifer to classify.The experimental results show that when the embedding rate is 0.4 bit per pixel,we obtain a detection rate of 82.71%on average using BOSSRank Image Sets,which is better than 80.3%of Hugobreakers,76.8%of Guel, also in less than 0.4 bit per pixel,the detection effect also improved.%Pevný等人2010年提出一种最先进的高度不可检测的自适应空域隐写算法HUGO(Highly Undetectable Steganography),其保护了相邻四个像素的一阶统计特性,具有很强的抗检测性能,目前国内外针对HUGO检测缺乏有效的方法。由于用HUGO隐写算法进行隐写嵌入时改变部分纹理特征,本文提出一种新的检测方法,利用局部线性变换得到纹理残差图像,计算共生矩阵得到22130维特征向量,最后使用集成分类器进行分类。实验结果表明:在嵌入率为0.4bpp时,针对BOSSRank图像集,获得平均82.71%的检测率,优于Hugobreaker的80.3%和Guel的76.8%,并在低于0.4bpp嵌入率时,其检测效果有所提高。

  13. Namık Kemal’in Sanat/Sanatçı Algısında Romantizm ve Victor Hugo Etkisi Influence of Romanticism and Victor Hugo on Namık Kemal’s Perception of Art/Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalim AYDIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As is known, the Tanzimat movement is the restructuring period during which Turkish society turned its face towards the West for the need of modernization and renewal. And the Tanzimat literature has formed the literary side of this process. It is known that the influence of Romanticism and especially Hugo, just like on the other authors, on N. Kemal, one of the greatest literary figures of the period, is of great extent. Besides reading the poems of Hugo, N. Kemal was fond of theplays and novels of his master and this fondness immediately showsitself. In his works, the result of his great admiration for Hugo, theinfluence of Romanticism and his master is in fact not limited to nowcommonly known "Hernani-Poor Child" and "Cromwell Foreword-Jalaluddin Foreword". But in this study, what we actually want toconcentrate on is the nature of the influence or the contribution ofRomanticism and Hugo on N. Kemal’s perception of the art and artist.Hugo, through the romantic school which was a revolution againstrationality, prescriptivism and elitism in the discourse adopted byclassical school, perceived the literature both as expansion of theliterature to a broad perspective, and as the defence of a thesis(litterature engagee, and on this basis how effective was Hugo’sinfluence and/or direction on our author will be the main question towhich our study will try to find an answer. As is well emphasized in thisresearch, there was a large agreement between the expectations ofKemal of literature and art and between Hugo’s style of literature. Afterall, like Hugo, Kemal was also persuaded to the great role of literaturein the creation of a new society. In this context, "Had he turned toRealism and its representatives, would we today find the same Kemal?How should we reconcile the popular full-toned sound of Kemal with hisromantic individualism?" are the questions that will engage us in thepresent study. Bilindiği gibi, Tanzimat hareketi Türk toplumunun

  14. Responding to Hugo Chavez

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 03-05-2010 2. REPORT TYPE...the end of 2008 Venezuela had failed in adhering to international narcotics control agreements for a fourth year in a row. 9 Shortly after that...there was discussion about Chavez purchasing Russian diesel submarines, missile launchers, patrol crafts, hovercraft , coastal defense missile

  15. Doktorikraad eestlasele / Hugo Mitt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitt, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    31. märtsil sai James Cooki nimelises ülikoolis, Townsvilles doktorikraadi Ingrid Mitt. Tema väitekirja pealkiri on : Dominant Masculinity Discourse in the Decisions of Early Shool Leaving boys in Queensland

  16. Doktorikraad eestlasele / Hugo Mitt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitt, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    31. märtsil sai James Cooki nimelises ülikoolis, Townsvilles doktorikraadi Ingrid Mitt. Tema väitekirja pealkiri on : Dominant Masculinity Discourse in the Decisions of Early Shool Leaving boys in Queensland

  17. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2014-12-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As producer of organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes it is widely applied in food industry and biotechnology. Using a set of 82 strains we studied phylogenetic and biological species boundaries within Rhizopus arrhizus s.l. to test the taxonomic status of R. delemar that was recently separated from R. arrhizus. Sequence analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, the gene of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II, a part of the actin gene, and the translation elongation factor 1-α as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed. Phenotypic characters such as enzyme profiles and growth kinetics were examined and the mating behavior was tested. Molecular analyses supported the existence of two phylogenetic species. However, the results of the mating test suggest that the mating barrier is still not complete. No physiological, ecological or epidemiological distinction could be found beside the difference in the production of organic acids. Consequently the status of varieties is proposed for the two phylogenetic species. Because the description of the first described R. arrhizus is considered to be conclusive we recommend the use of Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus and var. delemar.

  18. Toward a More Evidence-Based Nosology and Nomenclature for Female Sexual Dysfunctions-Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parish, Sharon J; Goldstein, Andrew T; Goldstein, Sue W

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) definitions of sexual dysfunction do not identify all sexual problems experienced clinically by women and are not necessarily applicable for biologic or biopsychosocial management of female sexual...... dysfunction. A unified nomenclature system enables clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies to use the same language and criteria for determining clinical end points, assessing research results, and managing patients. AIM: To develop nomenclature with classification systems for female sexual desire...... sexuality educator, representing an array of societies working within the various areas of sexual function and dysfunction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A unified set of definitions was developed and accepted for use by the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and members of other...

  19. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  20. Taxonomy of fungi causing mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis (zygomycosis) and nomenclature of the disease: molecular mycologic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon-Chung, Kyung J

    2012-02-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the phylum Zygomycota to be polyphyletic, and the taxa conventionally classified in Zygomycota are now distributed among the new phylum Glomeromycota and 4 subphyla incertae sedis (uncertain placement). Because the nomenclature of the disease zygomycosis was based on the phylum Zygomycota (Zygomycetes) in which the etiologic agents had been classified, the new classification profoundly affects the name of the disease. Zygomycosis was originally described as a convenient and inclusive name for 2 clinicopathologically different diseases, mucormycosis caused by members of Mucorales and entomophthoramycosis caused by species in the order Entomophthorales of Zygomycota. Without revision of original definition, the name "zygomycosis," however, has more often been used as a synonym only for mucormycosis. This article reviews the progress and changes in taxonomy and nomenclature of Zygomycota and the disease zygomycosis. The article also reiterates the reasons why the classic names "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis" are more appropriate than "zygomycosis."

  1. The Working Group on Meteor Showers Nomenclature: a History, Current Status and a Call for Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopek, T. J.; Jenniskens, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    During the IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro in 2009, the members of Commission 22 established the Working Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature, from what was formerly the Task Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature. The Task Group had completed its mission to propose a first list of established meteor showers that could receive officially names. At the business meeting of Commission 22 the list of 64 established showers was approved and consequently officially accepted by the IAU. A two-step process is adopted for showers to receive an official name from the IAU: i) before publication, all new showers discussed in the literature are first added to the Working List of Meteor Showers, thereby receiving a unique name, IAU number and three-letter code; ii) all showers which come up to the verification criterion are selected for inclusion in the List of Established Meteor Showers, before being officially named at the next IAU General Assembly.

  2. Cambios socio-políticos e institucionales de la democracia venezolana en el gobierno de Hugo Chá vez (1998-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una aproximación teórica a los problemas actuales de la democracia, la ampliación de los espacios de acción pública del ciudadano y los cambios generados por las transiciones en los sistemas democráticos, se analiza el proceso político en Venezuela desde el ascenso al poder de Hugo Chávez en 1998. Se plantea que el fenómeno del chavismo encaja dentro de una transición dentro del modelo de democracia establecida en Venezuela desde 1958, y que asume en su momento actual una serie de modificaciones en el accionar político del ciudadano a través de una mayor presencia en el espacio público, generando los conflictos y dinamismos que se observan en el país en los actuales momentos.

  3. The nomenclature of publishing activities within the framework of creative and cultural industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nives Tomašević

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the nomenclature basis of publishing activities in the Republic of Croatia and the EU, and deals with the challenges of future comparative studies dealing with the structure of classifications. Creative and cultural industries are trying to find the optimal classification to define, track and direct creative/cultural activities. In some EU countries, the classification frames are in line with the stated classification, although some countries are still searching for nomenc...

  4. A new standard nomenclature for proteins related to Apx and Shroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staub Olivier

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shroom is a recently-described regulator of cell shape changes in the developing nervous system. This protein is a member of a small family of related proteins that are defined by sequence similarity and in most cases by some link to the actin cytoskeleton. At present these proteins are named Shroom, APX, APXL, and KIAA1202. In light of the growing interest in this family of proteins, we propose here a new standard nomenclature.

  5. Visual documentation of neoplasms as part of the REGISTRY Nomenclature Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawietz, G; Rittinghausen, S; Mohr, U

    1992-12-01

    The REGISTRY Nomenclature Information system (RENI) is a program which runs on IBM-compatible personal computers. It includes internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for tumors and pre-neoplastic lesions in the rat to be used in toxicologic pathology. A video disk system, connected to the computer, provides colored pictures of histopathological reference slides, which are used for a visual documentation of the written criteria.

  6. Nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gerardo; Nakahara, Shinichi

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this note is to clarify the nomenclatural status of Euptychia mollina Hübner, 1818, the type species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818, as there seems to be confusion regarding its year of publication. Due to an unfortunate oversight, Lamas (2004) listed the name as Euptychia mollina (Hübner, [1813]), and this mistake has been repeated in the subsequent literature (e.g. Brévignon 2005; Warren et al. 2014; Neild et al. 2014).

  7. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner’s phenomenon (KP); and ‘autoimmune vitiligo’. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geogr...

  8. How really extensive is the original material of Juncus kochii (Juncaceae? - A taxonomic and nomenclatural revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Proćków

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identity of the original material of Juncus kochii F. W. Schultz (Juncaceae is discussed. The taxon at present is best regarded as Juncus bulbosus L. subsp. kochii (F. W. Schultz Reichg. The relevant literature (protologue and references therein was searched and details of all original elements were compiled. Nomenclatural and taxonomic remarks are given. Juncus welwitschii Hochst. ex Steud. is here excluded as a synonym of Juncus bulbosus subsp. kochii.

  9. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) progress to date and future plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Charlotte M; Baker, Julia F; Bradley, Alys E; Goodman, Dawn G; Harada, Takanori; Herbert, Ronald; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kellner, Rupert; Mahler, Beth; Meseck, Emily; Nolte, Thomas; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Vahle, John; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The INHAND Proposal (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) has been operational since 2005. A Global Editorial Steering Committee (GESC) manages the overall objectives of the project and the development of harmonized terminology for each organ system is the responsibility of the Organ Working Groups (OWG), drawing upon experts from North America, Europe and Japan.Great progress has been made with 9 systems published to date - Respiratory, Hepatobiliary, Urinary, Central/Peripheral Nervous Systems, Male Reproductive and Mammary, Zymbals, Clitoral and Preputial Glands in Toxicologic Pathology and the Integument and Soft Tissue and Female Reproductive System in the Journal of Toxicologic Pathology as supplements and on a web site - www.goreni.org. INHAND nomenclature guides offer diagnostic criteria and guidelines for recording lesions observed in rodent toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The guides provide representative photo-micrographs of morphologic changes, information regarding pathogenesis, and key references. During 2012, INHAND GESC representatives attended meetings with representatives of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) to begin incorporation of INHAND terminology as preferred terminology for SEND (Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data) submissions to the FDA. The interest in utilizing the INHAND nomenclature, based on input from industry and government toxicologists as well as information technology specialists, suggests that there will be wide acceptance of this nomenclature. The purpose of this publication is to provide an update on the progress of INHAND.

  10. Characterization and Proposed Nomenclature of Epidemic Strains of MRSA in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AE Simor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been increasing in many Canadian hospitals over the past few years. Some strains may be considered ‘epidemic’, in that they are clinically or epidemiologically significant, and have been identified in patients from multiple hospitals and geographic regions across the country. This paper describes phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of four epidemic MRSA strains in Canada and proposes standardized nomenclature.

  11. Review of the Nomenclature of the Retaining Ligaments of the Cheek: Frequently Confused Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeui Seok Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of its inception within facial anatomy, wide variability in the terminology as well as the location and extent of retaining ligaments has resulted in confusion over nomenclature. Confusion over nomenclature also arises with regard to the subcutaneous ligamentous attachments, and in the anatomic location and extent described, particularly for zygomatic and masseteric ligaments. Certain historical terms—McGregor’s patch, the platysma auricular ligament, parotid cutaneous ligament, platysma auricular fascia, temporoparotid fasica (Lore’s fascia, anterior platysma-cutaneous ligament, and platysma cutaneous ligament—delineate retaining ligaments of related anatomic structures that have been conceptualized in various ways. Confusion around the masseteric cutaneous ligaments arises from inconsistencies in their reported locations in the literature because the size and location of the parotid gland varies so much, and this affects the relationship between the parotid gland and the fascia of the masseter muscle. For the zygomatic ligaments, there is disagreement over how far they extend, with descriptions varying over whether they extend medially beyond the zygomaticus minor muscle. Even the ‘main’ zygomatic ligament’s denotation may vary depending on which subcutaneous plane is used as a reference for naming it. Recent popularity in procedures using threads or injectables has required not only an accurate understanding of the nomenclature of retaining ligaments, but also of their location and extent. The authors have here summarized each retaining ligament with a survey of the different nomenclature that has been introduced by different authors within the most commonly cited published papers.

  12. Reflections on a systematic nomenclature for antimicrobial peptides from the skins of frogs of the family Ranidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Frogs belonging to the extensive family Ranidae represent a valuable source of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential but there is currently no consistent system of nomenclature to describe these peptides. Terminology based solely on species name does not reflect the evolutionary relationships existing between peptides encoded by orthologous and paralogous genes. On the basis of limited structural similarity, at least 14 well-established peptide families have been identified (brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, japonicin-1, japonicin-2, nigrocin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranalexin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, temporin). It is proposed that terms that are synonymous with these names should no longer be used. Orthologous peptides from different species may be characterized by the initial letter of that species, set in upper case, with paralogs belonging to the same peptide family being assigned letters set in lower case, e.g. brevinin-1Pa, brevinin-1Pb, etc. When two species begin with the same initial letter, two letters may be used, e.g. P for pipiens and PL for palustris. Species names and assignments to genera may be obtained from Amphibian Species of the World Electronic Database, accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  13. Nomenclatural instability in the venomous snakes of the Bothrops complex: Implications in toxinology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Paola Andrea; Venegas, Pablo Javier; Chaparro, Juan Carlos; Scrocchi, Gustavo José

    2016-09-01

    Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90´s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the long-standing paraphyly of the group. Here we review the toxinological literature on the Bothrops complex to estimate the impact of recent proposals of classification in non-systematic research. This assessment revealed moderate levels of nomenclatural instability in the last five years, and the recurrence of some practices discussed in previous studies regarding the use of classifications and the information provided about the origin of venom samples. We briefly comment on a few examples and the implications of different proposals of classifications for the Bothrops complex. The aim of this review is to contribute to the reduction of adverse effects of current taxonomic instability in a group of medical importance in the Americas.

  14. Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

    2014-01-01

    The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species.

  15. Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Gondwanan homoxylous woods: a nomenclatural revision of the genera with taxonomic notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, M K.; Philippe, M

    2001-04-01

    The homoxylous fossil woods occurring in the Gondwanan continents of South America, Australia, Africa, India and Antarctica during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous period are considered here. Original descriptions of the genera and wherever possible, the type material, have been consulted. Applying the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the generic names of the homoxylous woods have been revised from a nomenclatural point of view. According to this review, out of 31 generic names used for woods from the given time interval and area, 6 are illegitimate later nomenclatural synonyms, 1 is a later homonym, and 5 can be considered as taxonomical synonyms. Moreover, 9 genera have been used erroneously. We propose one new generic name (Protaxodioxylon n. gen.) and elsewhere we will propose for conservation, with a conserved type one of the illegitimate names and one of the taxonomic synonyms. As a result, we consider that there are only eighteen generic names correctly quoted for the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous of Gondwana, and we provide a taxonomic key for the corresponding genera. This revision is the first step in systematically comparing northern and southern hemisphere woods.

  16. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  17. RGST - Rat Gene Symbol Tracker, a database for defining official rat gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhl Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The names of genes are central in describing their function and relationship. However, gene symbols are often a subject of controversy. In addition, the discovery of mammalian genes is now so rapid that a proper use of gene symbol nomenclature rules tends to be overlooked. This is currently the situation in the rat and there is a need for a cohesive and unifying overview of all rat gene symbols in use. Based on the experiences in rat gene symbol curation that we have gained from running the "Ratmap" rat genome database, we have now developed a database that unifies different rat gene naming attempts with the accepted rat gene symbol nomenclature rules. Description This paper presents a newly developed database known as RGST (Rat Gene Symbol Tracker. The database contains rat gene symbols from three major sources: the Rat Genome Database (RGD, Ensembl, and NCBI-Gene. All rat symbols are compared with official symbols from orthologous human genes as specified by the Human Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC. Based on the outcome of the comparisons, a rat gene symbol may be selected. Rat symbols that do not match a human ortholog undergo a strict procedure of comparisons between the different rat gene sources as well as with the Mouse Genome Database (MGD. For each rat gene this procedure results in an unambiguous gene designation. The designation is presented as a status level that accompanies every rat gene symbol suggested in the database. The status level describes both how a rat symbol was selected, and its validity. Conclusion This database fulfils the important need of unifying rat gene symbols into an automatic and cohesive nomenclature system. The RGST database is available directly from the RatMap home page: http://ratmap.org.

  18. Cytogenetic studies and karyotype nomenclature of three wild canid species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowska-Schelling, A; Schelling, C; Zawada, M; Yang, F; Bugno, M; Ferguson-Smith, M

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the chromosomes of three wild and endangered canid species: the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and the fennec fox (Fennecuszerda) using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. For the first time detailed and encompassing descriptions of the chromosomes are presented including the chromosomal assignment of nucleolar organizer regions and the 5S rRNA gene cluster. We propose a karyotype nomenclature with ideograms including more than 300 bands per haploid set for each of these three species which will form the basis for further research. In addition, we propose four basic different patterns of karyotype organization in the family Canidae. A comparison of these patterns with the most recent molecular phylogeny of Canidae revealed that the karyotype evolution of a species is not always strongly connected with its phylogenetic position. Our findings underline the need and justification for basic cytogenetic work in rare and exotic species.

  19. A few problems in the generic nomenclature of insects and amphibians, with recommendations for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy and comments on taxonomic and nomenclatural databases and websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2017-02-26

    Dahanukar et al. (2016a) proposed the nomen Walkerana for a new genus of amphibians, but shortly after (2016b) they replaced it by the new nomen Sallywalkerana, believing that their nomen Walkerana was preoccupied by a generic nomen of orthopterans. This was unjustified because the orthopteran nomen 'Walkerella' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009a and its new replacement nomen 'Walkerana' Otte & Perez-Gelabert, 2009b were both nomina nuda. These recent examples of nomenclatural errors in generic nomenclature are just a few among many in recent zootaxonomic publications. This opportunity is taken to make some general methodological recommendations, in several domains (availability, homonymy, synonymy, neonymy, length and palatability of nomina), for the publication of new generic nomina in zootaxonomy. However, the absence of a comprehensive database and website providing all the relevant information necessary to establish the nomenclatural status of all zoological generic and subgeneric nomina is a brake on the efforts that can be made to avoid nomenclatural errors in zoological generic nomenclature. The international community of taxonomists should seek at establishing such a database and website.

  20. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs, like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system. Pneumatic signatures in the vertebral column of fossil saurischians include complex branching chambers within the bone (internal pneumaticity and large chambers visible externally that are bounded by neural arch laminae (external pneumaticity. Although general aspects of internal pneumaticity are synapomorphic for saurischian subgroups, the individual internal pneumatic spaces cannot be homologized across species or even along the vertebral column, due to their variability and absence of topographical landmarks. External pneumatic structures, in contrast, are defined by ready topological landmarks (vertebral laminae, but no consistent nomenclatural system exists. This deficiency has fostered confusion and limited their use as character data in phylogenetic analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a simple system for naming external neural arch fossae that parallels the one developed for the vertebral laminae that bound them. The nomenclatural system identifies fossae by pointing to reference landmarks (e.g., neural spine, centrum, costal articulations, zygapophyses. We standardize the naming process by creating tripartite names from "primary landmarks," which form the zygodiapophyseal table, "secondary landmarks," which orient with respect to that table, and "tertiary landmarks," which further delineate a given fossa. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed nomenclatural system for lamina-bounded fossae adds clarity to descriptions of complex vertebrae and allows these structures to be sourced as character data for phylogenetic analyses. These anatomical terms denote potentially homologous pneumatic structures within Saurischia, but they could be applied to any vertebrate with vertebral laminae that enclose spaces, regardless of their developmental

  1. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  2. "Just as the Structural Formula Does": Names, Diagrams, and the Structure of Organic Chemistry at the 1892 Geneva Nomenclature Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler-Smith, Evan

    2015-02-01

    At the Geneva Nomenclature Congress of 1892, some of the foremost organic chemists of the late nineteenth century crafted a novel relationship between chemical substances, chemical diagrams, and chemical names that has shaped practices of chemical representation ever since. During the 1880s, the French chemist Charles Friedel organised the nomenclature reform effort that culminated in the Geneva Congress; in the disorderly nomenclature of German synthetic chemistry, Friedel saw an opportunity to advance French national interests and his own pedagogical goals. Friedel and a group of close colleagues reconceived nomenclature as a unified field, in which all chemical names ought to relate clearly to one another and to the structure of the compounds they represented. The German chemist Adolf von Baeyer went a step farther, arguing for names that precisely and uniquely corresponded to the structural formula of each compound, tailored for use in chemical dictionaries and handbooks. Baeyer's vision prevailed at the Geneva Congress, which consequently codified rules for rigorously mapping structural formulas into names, resulting in names that faithfully represented the features of these diagrams but not always the chemical behaviour of the compounds themselves. This approach ultimately limited both the number of chemical compounds that the Geneva rules were able to encompass and the breadth of their application. However, the relationship between diagram and name established at the Geneva Congress became the foundation not only of subsequent systems of chemical nomenclature but of methods of organising information that have supported the modern chemical sciences.

  3. The nomenclature of the Athenian Artists of Dionysus in IG II2 1132-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the earliest nomenclature of the Athenian artists of Dionysus, which I will argue is not only unique among the overall evidence on Dionysiac artists available to us at this point, but also evinces a recognized political potential in the newly organized association...... of the Athenian artists. First, I argue that the adjective  πολυπραγμόνητος carries an active meaning, i.e. not being meddlesome; second, that this adjective has retained its political meaning from the earlier centuries in inscriptions connected with Athenian politics; third, I discuss the possible reasons why...

  4. [Psychoses of physical origin--traditional interpretation and DSM III nomenclature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A

    1986-10-01

    Classification of organic psychoses according to the revised version of DSM III and in accordance with the terminology used in traditional German psychopathology, are compared. In DSM III, organic Psychoses are presented as a heterogeneous group divided into psychoses of known or suspected origin and in psychoses of unknown aetiology. Relevant differences in the use of diagnostic terms such as delir are noticeable, whereas known syndromes such as Korsakoff's syndrome (Korsakoff's psychosis or alcoholic psychosis) are not considered and incorporated into larger categories in DSM nomenclature.

  5. A proposal of a standardised nomenclature for terminal minute sister chromatid exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo E. Drets

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We described spontaneous minute sister chromatid exchanges (SCE in telomeric regions of human and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO chromosomes more than 10 years ago. These structures, which we called t-SCE, were detected by means of highly precise quantitative microphotometrical scanning and computer graphic image analysis. Recently, several authors using the CO-FISH method also found small SCEs in telomeric regions and called them T-SCE. The use of different terms for designating the same phenomenon should be avoided. We propose ter SCE as a uniform nomenclature for minute telomeric SCEs.

  6. Access to planetary science for the broad public: a more familiar planetary nomenclature and terminology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    The Planetary Sciences in the last decades has accumulated an amount of knowledge that is comparable to other Earth Sciences. The study of planets is not any more a computation of orbital data, but the investigation and description of surface features of dozens of planetary bodies, including our own Earth. This way, it is only an extention of the present Earth sciences like geography, geology, geophisics, meteorolgy etc. In Hungary, Planetary Science studies has been made for decades, but especially today, numerous popular scientific works are published, and the subject of planetology (and also exobiology linked to it) is taught in more and more secondary schools and universities. This ma kes a demand for a Hungarian language terminology and nomenclature in the relatively new discipline of Planetology. It is needed because the present terminology of geosciences is not adequeate for the description of the surface conditions and structures in other planetary bodies. In the mean time it has to be in accord with the Earth-based system. Since this is areal discipline in its subject, it is of high importance that the areas studied be identifiable easily, unambiguously and descriptively. This make s the translation/transcription of IAU's nomenclature our second goal. This is not a simple transliteration of the proper names used in planetary body nomenclatures, but the task is also the setting of the basic rules used in the making of Hungarian nomenclature system. It would be useful, if the system would be useable for any body of the solar system. It has to fit into the system of both the IAU's nomenlcature and the Hungarian geographic name system [1]. This makes a double task: to make a system that is appropriate both linguistically and scientifically. At the same time, in popular science and elementary education, the planetary features' common names and some basic terms should be in the mother languages of the readers, and not in latin or English (outside the anglophone

  7. Venezuela: debate y conflicto en torno a la idea de democracia durante el gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1998-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Romero

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de un adelanto de investigación denominado Espacio Público, participación y militarismo en Venezuela (1998-2002, adscrito al LITEP y financiado por el CONDES de la Universidad del Zulia. A partir de una aproximación teórica a los problemas actuales de la democracia, la ampliación de los espacios de acción pública del ciudadano y los cambios generados por las transiciones en los sistemas democráticos, se analiza el proceso político en Venezuela desde el ascenso al poder de Hugo Chávez en 1998. Se plantea que el fenómeno del chavismo encaja dentro de una transición dentro del modelo de democracia establecida en Venezuela desde 1958, y que asume en su momento actual una serie de modificaciones en el accionar político del ciudadano a través de una mayor presencia en el espacio público, generando los conflictos y dinamismos que se observan en el país en los actuales momentos._________________ABSTRACT:This article forms part of an advance of the investigation denominated Space Public, participation and militarism in Venezuela (1998-2002, attributed to the LITEP and financed by the COUNTS of the University of the Zulia. Starting from a theoretical approach to the current problems of the democracy, the amplification of the spaces of the citizen's public action and the changes generated by the transitions in the democratic systems, the political process is analyzed in Venezuela from the ascent to Hugo's power Chávez in 1998. He/she thinks about that the phenomenon of the chavismo fits inside a transition inside the pattern of established democracy in Venezuela from 1958, and that it assumes in its current moment a series of modifications in working political of the citizen through a bigger presence in the public space, generating the conflicts and dynamisms that are observed in the country in the current moments.

  8. Ambiguity of human gene symbols in LocusLink and MEDLINE: creating an inventory and a disambiguation test collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Weeber (Marc); R.J.A. Schijvenaars (Bob); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); B. Mons (Barend); R. Jelier (Rob); C.C. van der Eijk (Christiaan); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractGenes are discovered almost on a daily basis and new names have to be found. Although there are guidelines for gene nomenclature, the naming process is highly creative. Human genes are often named with a gene symbol and a longer, more descriptive term; the short form is

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian kallikrein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Premzl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study made attempts to update and revise eutherian kallikrein genes implicated in major physiological and pathological processes and in medical molecular diagnostics. Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and free available genomic sequence assemblies, the tests of reliability of eutherian public genomic sequences annotated most comprehensive curated third party data gene data set of eutherian kallikrein genes including 121 complete coding sequences among 335 potential coding sequences. The present analysis first described 13 major gene clusters of eutherian kallikrein genes, and explained their differential gene expansion patterns. One updated classification and nomenclature of eutherian kallikrein genes was proposed, as new framework of future experiments.

  10. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ivo de Sena; Read, V Morley St J; Mayer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  11. A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms, with notes on nomenclature and status of names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the number of valid species of Onychophora is uncertain. To facilitate taxonomic work on this understudied animal group, we present an updated checklist for the two extant onychophoran subgroups, Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, along with an assessment of the status of each species. According to our study, 82 species of Peripatidae and 115 species of Peripatopsidae have been described thus far. However, among these 197 species, 20 are nomina dubia due to major taxonomic inconsistencies. Apart from nomina dubia, many of the valid species also require revision, in particular representatives of Paraperipatus within the Peripatopsidae, and nearly all species of Peripatidae. In addition to extant representatives, the record of unambiguous fossils includes three species with uncertain relationship to the extant taxa. For all species, we provide a list of synonyms, information on types and type localities, as well as remarks on taxonomic and nomenclatural problems and misspellings. According to recent evidence of high endemism and cryptic speciation among the Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae, previous synonyms are revised. Putative mutations, subspecies and variations are either raised to the species status or synonymised with corresponding taxa. In our revised checklist, we follow the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to clarify previous inconsistencies.

  12. Does DSM-5 nomenclature for inhalant use disorder improve upon DSM-IV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Ty A; Halliburton, Amanda E; Bray, Bethany C

    2015-03-01

    Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared DSM-IV versus DSM-5 nomenclatures, testing whether 4 traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% White, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD = 2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Current and future perspectives on the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of testate amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakyan, Anush; Gomaa, Fatma; Lara, Enrique; Lahr, Daniel J G

    2016-09-01

    Testate amoebae are a polyphyletic assemblage of at least three major, unrelated taxonomic groups of unicellular amoeboid eukaryotes exhibiting a test. The focus on testate amoebae in scientific research has greatly increased in the past 20 years: from an average of about 5 papers a year in the mid-1990s to the current rate of more than 50 papers published yearly. The application range of these organisms is rapidly expanding as well: from the traditional fields of environmental monitoring and paleoecology, to forensic sciences and ecotoxicology studies. These developments are nevertheless strongly dependent on reliable taxonomy and nomenclature. However, scientometric data reveal that despite an ever-increasing necessity for the use of names (the product of taxonomy), the corresponding effort has not been achieved for improving testate amoebae systematics. As a consequence, inaccurate taxonomy yields to misinterpretations in the diversity of the organisms and to potentially incorrect conclusions. These and related problems are discussed in this study, highlighting the outcome of poor taxonomic expertise in accurate classification and phylogeny of testate amoebae, and the consequences derived from it. Additionally, this study is aimed to discuss the current status of testate amoebae classification, and to present all nomenclature and taxonomic changes in higher and lower taxonomic levels of testate amoebae, as a result of recent molecular reconstructions. Finally, we conclude with a list of the needs and suggestions toward a unified and modernized taxonomy of testate amoebae.

  14. What is in a name? The need for accurate scientific nomenclature for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Allkin, Robert; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-03-28

    To avoid ambiguities and error, ethnopharmacological and any other research on plants requires precise and appropriate use of botanical scientific nomenclature. This paper explores problems and impacts of ambiguous or erroneous use of botanical scientific nomenclature in ethnopharmacological studies. It suggests how the frequency and impact of such errors can be reduced. We assessed 214 articles published in the three first volumes of the Journal of Ethnopharmacology in 2012: 140(1) to 141 (3) and 214 articles in Phytomedicine (2012-2013): 19 (5) to 20 (7). Amongst the articles reviewed 308 articles cited plant names incorrectly. Among the articles studied 9178 Latin scientific names were cited and 3445 were incorrect in some respect. Simple principles applied in a systematic way and used together with open-access reference resources could help authors, referees and editors of ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and clinical studies to reduce ambiguity about the identity and name of the species involved and thus significantly improve the quality of the final publication. We have identified a series of key steps needed to solve the taxonomic ambiguities and errors. Aside from reinforcing existing policies, journals will have to implement better tools to ensure the proper authentication of materials. The new electronic publishing environments offer novel ways to develop such botanical-taxonomic tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sistema para la gestión de nomencladores System for managing nomenclatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mojena Alpizar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la necesidad de gestionar información común y poco variable en el tiempo se crea el Sistema Nomenclador del sistema Balance y Planificación de Insumos Médicos (alas BAP, con el objetivo de centralizar la gestión de los nomencladores. Dicho módulo presentaba deficiencias en su funcionamiento: no existían servicios Web que permitieran acceso a la información de los nomencladores por otros sistemas y presentaba una dependencia total del sistema alas BAP, por lo que se dio la tarea de desarrollar un sistema que eliminara las deficiencias existentes en el mismo. Para el desarrollo del sistema se utilizó Symfony como framework de desarrollo de aplicaciones Web que implementa el patrón de arquitectura de software Modelo Vista Controlador (MVC. Como lenguaje de programación se utilizó Hypertext Pre-processor (PHP, el cual incluye el Mapeador de Objetos Relacional (ORM por sus siglas en inglés Doctrine para el acceso a datos. Como herramienta de modelado se empleó Enterprise Architect (EA; herramienta de análisis y diseño con Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (UML. Como Sistema de Gestión de Base de Datos (SGBD se utilizó PostgreSQL y para el manejo de datos la herramienta pgAdmin. From the need to manage common information and relatively constant over time creates the Nomenclature System Evaluation and Planning System of Medical Supplies (wings BAP, in order to centralize the management of nomenclatures. This module was deficient in its operation: there were no Web services that allow access to information from other systems and nomenclatures presented total dependence wings BAP system, so the task was to develop a system that would eliminate the existing shortcomings therein. To develop the system was used as a development framework Symfony web application that implements the software design pattern Model-View-Controller (MVC. As a programming language used Hypertext Pre-processor (PHP, which includes the Object Relational

  16. System for managing nomenclatures Sistema para la gestión de nomencladores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renán Vázquez Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available From the need to manage common information and relatively constant over time creates the Nomenclature System Evaluation and Planning System of Medical Supplies (wings BAP, in order to centralize the management of nomenclatures. This module was deficient in its operation: there were no Web services that allow access to information from other systems and nomenclatures presented total dependence wings BAP system, so the task was to develop a system that would eliminate the existing shortcomings therein. To develop the system was used as a development framework Symfony web application that implements the software design pattern Model-View-Controller (MVC. As a programming language used Hypertext Pre-processor (PHP, which includes the Object Relational Mapper (ORM for its acronym in English Doctrine for data access. As a modeling tool was used Enterprise Architect (EA tool for analysis and design with Unified Modeling Language (UML. As Base Management System (DBMS was used for PostgreSQL data management tool pgAdmin.The developed solution will provide a configurable and flexible system for possible changes that allow the storage and management of nomenclatures and serve as a support mechanism for other applications to the management and use of nomenclatures, providing such information through XML Web services, speeding up this Thus the time development of these systems. A partir de la necesidad de gestionar información común y poco variable en el tiempo se crea el Sistema Nomenclador del sistema Balance y Planificación de Insumos Médicos (alas BAP, con el objetivo de centralizar la gestión de los nomencladores. Dicho módulo presentaba deficiencias en su funcionamiento: no existían servicios Web que permitieran acceso a la información de los nomencladores por otros sistemas y presentaba una dependencia total del sistema alas BAP, por lo que se dio la tarea de desarrollar un sistema que eliminara las deficiencias existentes en el mismo. Para el

  17. Report on corrections and future considerations for Appendices II–VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the first time, the main text and Appendices II–VIII of the International Code of Nomenclature were separately published following decisions of the Melbourne Nomenclature Section, which contributed to subsequent development of an online resource capable of producing the Appendices in real time. ...

  18. Perspectivas de la descentralización y la participación ciudadana en el Gobierno de Hugo Chávez (1999-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangel Mariela Alvarez Itriago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela los procesos de Reforma del Estado y la Descentralización impulsados en la década de los ochenta están inconclusos. De hecho en la descentralización fue donde se avanzó a partir de un conjunto de leyes que entraron en vigencia en el año 1989, mostrando resultados políticos favorables. En la actualidad existen fuertes tensiones entre los postulados que acompañan la descentralización y las orientaciones que tiene el proyecto político que apuntala el Presidente Hugo Chávez. Este artículo examina, a partir del análisis de diversas fuentes de información, cómo a partir del conjunto de trasformaciones legales y las orientaciones de la política pública en esta década, se afecta el carácter democratizante que porta la descentralización y se coloca en perspectiva las prácticas participativas autónomas y el empoderamiento social que deriva del ejercicio de la ciudadanía.

  19. Hugo Chávez:construcción hegemónica del poder y desplazamiento de los actores tradicionales en Venezuela (1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Romero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la llegada al poder de Hugo Chávez, en las elecciones de 1998, comenzó la configuración de unas nuevas relaciones de poder en el sistema político venezolano (SPV. Estas relaciones estaban determinadas por la naturaleza de los actores políticos que accedieron al poder, el funcionamiento institucional implementado a partir de la convocatoria a una Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC, la formulación de una nueva Carta Magna y la implementación de un Régimen de Transición del poder Público. Chávez, a través de estructuras políticas como el Movimiento Quinta República (MVR y los partidos agrupados en torno al Polo Patriótico (PP ejecutaron un proceso que los llevo a construir una hegemonía dentro del sistema político que tiene como base la Constitución de 1999, relegando a las organizaciones políticas tradicionales.

  20. Mineralogy, textures, and whole-rock geochemistry of advanced argillic alteration: Hugo Dummett porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Oyu Tolgoi mineral district, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashgerel, Bat-Erdene; Kavalieris, Imants; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-11-01

    Advanced argillic (AA) alteration is developed over a vertical interval of 500 m, above (and enclosing) Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite intrusions that accompany porphyry-style Cu-Au mineralization at the Hugo Dummett deposit. The AA alteration is mainly in basaltic rocks and locally extends into the overlying dacitic ash-flow tuff for about 100 m. The AA zone overprints porphyry-style quartz veins associated with quartz monzodiorite intrusions, but at least partly precedes high-grade porphyry-style bornite mineralization. Mineralogically, it consists of andalusite, corundum, residual quartz, titanium oxides, diaspore, alunite, aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals, zunyite, pyrophyllite, topaz, kaolinite, and dickite, as well as anhydrite and gypsum, but is dominated by residual quartz and pyrophyllite. Alteration zonation is not apparent, except for an alunite-bearing zone that occurs approximately at the limit of strong quartz veining. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the AA alteration removes most major elements except Si, Al, Ti, and P, and removes the trace elements Sc, Cs, and Rb. V, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th are relatively immobile, whilst light REEs (La to Nd), Sr, Ba, and Ga can be enriched. Middle REEs (Sm to Gd) are moderately depleted; Y and heavy REEs (Tb to Lu) are strongly depleted except in two unusual samples where middle to heavy REEs are enriched.

  1. Nomenclature of magnetic, incommensurate, composition-changed morphotropic, polytype, transient-structural and quasicrystalline phases undergoing phase transitions. II. Report of an IUCr Working Group on Phase Transition Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolédano, J C; Berry, R S; Brown, P J; Glazer, A M; Metselaar, R; Pandey, D; Perez-Mato, J M; Roth, R S; Abrahams, S C

    2001-09-01

    A general nomenclature applicable to the phases that form in any sequence of transitions in the solid state has been recommended by an IUCr Working Group [Acta Cryst. (1998). A54, 1028-1033]. The six-field notation of the first Report, hereafter I, was applied to the case of structural phase transitions, i.e. to transformations resulting from temperature and/or pressure changes between two crystalline (strictly periodic) phases involving modifications to the atomic arrangement. Extensive examples that illustrate the recommendations were provided. This second Report considers, within the framework of a similar six-field notation, the more complex nomenclature of transitions involving magnetic phases, incommensurate phases and transitions that occur as a function of composition change. Extension of the nomenclature to the case of phases with less clearly established relevance to standard schemes of transition in equilibrium systems, namely polytype phases, radiation-induced and other transient phases, quasicrystalline phases and their transitions is recommended more tentatively. A uniform notation for the translational periodicity, propagation vector or wavevector for magnetic and/or incommensurate substances is specified. The notation adopted for incommensurate phases, relying partly on the existence of an average structure, is also consistent with that for commensurate phases in a sequence. The sixth field of the nomenclature is used to emphasize the special features of polytypes and transient phases. As in I, illustrative examples are provided for each category of phase sequence.

  2. Nomenclature,categorization and usage of formulae to adjust QT interval for heart rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon; W; Rabkin; Xin; Bo; Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the QT interval on a standard 12 lead electrocardiogram is of value in the recognition of a number of conditions. A critical part of its use is the adjustment for the effect of heart rate on QT interval. A systematic search was conducted to identify studiesthat proposed formulae to standardize the QT interval by heart rate. A nomenclature was developed for current and subsequent equations based on whether they are corrective(QTc) or predictive(QTp). QTc formulae attempt to separate the dependence of the length of the QT interval from the length of the RR interval. QTp formulae utilize heart rate and the output QTp is compared to the uncorrected QT interval. The nomenclature consists of the first letter of the first author’s name followed by the next two consonance(whenever possible) in capital letters; with subscripts in lower case alphabetical letter if the first author develops more than one equation. The single exception was the Framingham equation,because this cohort has developed its own "name" amongst cardiovascular studies. Equations were further categorized according to whether they were linear,rational,exponential,logarithmic,or power based. Data show that a person’s QT interval adjusted for heart rate can vary dramatically with the different QTc and QTp formulae depending on the person’s heart rate and QT interval. The differences in the QT interval adjustment equations encompasses values that are considered normal or significant prolonged. To further compare the equations,we considered that the slope of QTc versus heart rate should be zero if there was no correlation between QT and heart rate. Reviewing a sample of 107 patient ECGs from a hospital setting,the rank order of the slope- from best(closest to zero) to worst was QTc DMT,QTc RTHa,QTc HDG,QTc GOT,QTcF RM,QTcF RD,QTcB ZT and QTcM YD. For two recent formulae based on large data sets specifically QTcD MT and QTcR THa,there was no significant deviation of the slope from zero. In

  3. Circumscription and nomenclature of Hiraea barclayana, H. reclinata, and H. ternifolia (Malpighiaceae), and of seven species misassigned to them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.

    2016-01-01

    A review of collections from Mexico to northern South America that had been primarily determined as H. barclayana, H. reclinata, and H. ternifolia, or synonyms, showed them to include ten species. Misinterpretations were caused by superficial morphological similarities and traditional nomenclatural

  4. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products : overview and recommendations for a universal nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnison, Paul G.; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Bowers, Albert A.; Bugni, Tim S.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Camarero, Julio A.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Challis, Gregory L.; Clardy, Jon; Cotter, Paul D.; Craik, David J.; Dawson, Michael; Dittmann, Elke; Donadio, Stefano; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Fischbach, Michael A.; Garavelli, John S.; Goeransson, Ulf; Gruber, Christian W.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Hertweck, Christian; Hill, Colin; Horswill, Alexander R.; Jaspars, Marcel; Kelly, Wendy L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Link, A. James; Liu, Wen; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Moll, Gert N.; Moore, Bradley S.; Mueller, Rolf; Nair, Satish K.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Norris, Gillian E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Patchett, Mark L.; Piel, Joern; Reaney, Martin J. T.; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Ross, R. Paul; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schmidt, Eric W.; Selsted, Michael E.; Severinov, Konstantin; Shen, Ben; Sivonen, Kaarina; Smith, Leif; Stein, Torsten; Suessmuth, Roderich D.; Tagg, John R.; Tang, Gong-Li; Truman, Andrew W.; Vederas, John C.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Wenzel, Silke C.; Willey, Joanne M.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Müller, Rolf; Süssmuth, Roderich D.

    2013-01-01

    This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and c

  5. Circumscription and nomenclature of Hiraea barclayana, H. reclinata, and H. ternifolia (Malpighiaceae), and of seven species misassigned to them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.

    2016-01-01

    A review of collections from Mexico to northern South America that had been primarily determined as H. barclayana, H. reclinata, and H. ternifolia, or synonyms, showed them to include ten species. Misinterpretations were caused by superficial morphological similarities and traditional nomenclatural

  6. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide natural products : overview and recommendations for a universal nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnison, Paul G.; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Bowers, Albert A.; Bugni, Tim S.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Camarero, Julio A.; Campopiano, Dominic J.; Challis, Gregory L.; Clardy, Jon; Cotter, Paul D.; Craik, David J.; Dawson, Michael; Dittmann, Elke; Donadio, Stefano; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Entian, Karl-Dieter; Fischbach, Michael A.; Garavelli, John S.; Goeransson, Ulf; Gruber, Christian W.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Hertweck, Christian; Hill, Colin; Horswill, Alexander R.; Jaspars, Marcel; Kelly, Wendy L.; Klinman, Judith P.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Link, A. James; Liu, Wen; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Moll, Gert N.; Moore, Bradley S.; Mueller, Rolf; Nair, Satish K.; Nes, Ingolf F.; Norris, Gillian E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Onaka, Hiroyasu; Patchett, Mark L.; Piel, Joern; Reaney, Martin J. T.; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Ross, R. Paul; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Schmidt, Eric W.; Selsted, Michael E.; Severinov, Konstantin; Shen, Ben; Sivonen, Kaarina; Smith, Leif; Stein, Torsten; Suessmuth, Roderich D.; Tagg, John R.; Tang, Gong-Li; Truman, Andrew W.; Vederas, John C.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Wenzel, Silke C.; Willey, Joanne M.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Müller, Rolf; Süssmuth, Roderich D.

    2013-01-01

    This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and c

  7. Biologically relevant oxidants and terminology, classification and nomenclature of oxidatively generated damage to nucleobases and 2-deoxyribose in nucleic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cadet, Jean; Loft, Steffen; Olinski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    A broad scientific community is involved in investigations aimed at delineating the mechanisms of formation and cellular processing of oxidatively generated damage to nucleic acids. Perhaps as a consequence of this breadth of research expertise, there are nomenclature problems for several of the ...

  8. The status of the Notes in the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes: proposal to emend General Consideration 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M

    2016-09-01

    The International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes contains 48 Notes to the General Considerations, the Principles, the Rules and the Recommendations. However, the formal status of these Notes is not defined in the Code. Therefore, we here propose an emendation of General Consideration 6 stating that the Notes are intended to clarify the preceding text and are an integral part of that text.

  9. Nomenclatural corrections, neotype designation and new subspecies description in the genus Suiriri (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Guy M; Steinheimer, Frank D; Raposo, Marcos A; Zimmer, Kevin J

    2014-03-28

    Zimmer et al. (2001) documented two morphological and vocal forms within what was then known as Suiriri suiriri affinis, and described the short-billed form as Suiriri islerorum. However, studies of the Burmeister type material held at the Natural History Collections of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany, revealed the types of Suiriri s. affinis (Burmeister, 1856) to be the same taxon as Suiriri islerorum, which name therefore becomes a junior synonym. No published name is available for the long-billed form. A new name is therefore introduced by an original description in accordance with the International code on zoological nomenclature. The original type material of S. s. bahiae (Berlepsch, 1893) is confirmed to be lost; a neotype is designated.

  10. New insights into the classification and nomenclature of cortical GABAergic interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F.; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R.; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G.; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A.; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J.; Meyer, Hanno S.; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B.; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts’ assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus. PMID:23385869

  11. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type I: A case report with literature review on nomenclature system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, D; Devi, Bk Yashoda; Vasudevan, Vijeev; Manjunath, V

    2014-09-01

    Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI) is an inherited disorder affecting dentin. Defective dentin formation results in discolored teeth that are prone to attrition and fracture. Mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) has been found to cause the dentin disorders DI - I and II (shields II and III). Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is recommended as it may prevent or intercept deterioration of the teeth and occlusion and improve esthetics. Here, we report a case with characteristic clinical, radiological and histological features of DI-I. The etiology and classification followed in literature is confusing since dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) in DI seems to be structurally and functionally normal and DI is clearly a disorder distinct from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), but we still relate etiology of DI to DEJ and follow Shields classification. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed etiology and nomenclature system of DI.

  12. Review of nomenclature revision of fibro-ossous lesions in the maxillofacial region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do [Wonkwang Univ. School of Dentistry, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Fibro-osseous lesions are composed of connective tissue and varying amount of mineralized substances, which may be bony or cementum-like structures. It is necessary for oral radiologist to differentiate due to the tendency of these fibro-osseous lesions to show similar histopathologic appearances, while the management of each lesion is different. However we often encounter a little difficulty in judgement because there are some overlaps between concept of each lesions. So recently I suggest, we face a need to review basic concept and classification of several fibro-osseous jaw lesions. In this article, several fibro-osseous lesions, such as fibrous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma and cemento-osseous dysplasia, will be discussed basing on the review of literature. Particular emphasis will be made on the nomenclature revision of WHO's classification in 1992.

  13. Dentinogenesis imperfecta type I: A case report with literature review on nomenclature system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Devaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI is an inherited disorder affecting dentin. Defective dentin formation results in discolored teeth that are prone to attrition and fracture. Mutation in dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP has been found to cause the dentin disorders DI - I and II (shields II and III. Early diagnosis and treatment of DI is recommended as it may prevent or intercept deterioration of the teeth and occlusion and improve esthetics. Here, we report a case with characteristic clinical, radiological and histological features of DI-I. The etiology and classification followed in literature is confusing since dentinoenamel junction (DEJ in DI seems to be structurally and functionally normal and DI is clearly a disorder distinct from osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, but we still relate etiology of DI to DEJ and follow Shields classification. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed etiology and nomenclature system of DI.

  14. Nomenclatural notes about the names in Amaranthaceae published by Roberto de Visiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico Duilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The names in Amaranthaceae published by R. de Visiani are investigated. Amaranthus gangeticus var. cuspidatus is a nomen nudum and thus invalid according to Art. 38.1a of the ICN. Amaranthus hierichuntinus, Atriplex patula var. hastifolia, and Chenopodium album var. oblongum are lectotypified, respectively, on a specimen preserved at PAD, and illustrations by Scopoli and Vahl. We here propose to synonymyze the three names (new synonymies respectively with Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans, Atriplex patula subsp. patula, and the type subspecies of C. album. For nomenclatural purposes, also the name C. lanceolatum Willd. (heterotypic synonym of C. album subsp. album is investigated and lectotypified, on a specimen preserved at B.

  15. ExplorEnz: a MySQL database of the IUBMB enzyme nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss Gerard P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the database ExplorEnz, which is the primary repository for EC numbers and enzyme data that are being curated on behalf of the IUBMB. The enzyme nomenclature is incorporated into many other resources, including the ExPASy-ENZYME, BRENDA and KEGG bioinformatics databases. Description The data, which are stored in a MySQL database, preserve the formatting of chemical and enzyme names. A simple, easy to use, web-based query interface is provided, along with an advanced search engine for more complex queries. The database is publicly available at http://www.enzyme-database.org. The data are available for download as SQL and XML files via FTP. Conclusion ExplorEnz has powerful and flexible search capabilities and provides the scientific community with the most up-to-date version of the IUBMB Enzyme List.

  16. Women, anxiety and mood: a review of nomenclature, comorbidity and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Kotz, Krista; Richardson, Gregg

    2007-11-01

    Women experience a high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is highly prevalent. Both mood and anxiety disorders disturb sleep, attention and, thereby, cognitive function. They result in a variety of somatic complaints. The mood disorder continuum includes minor depression, dysthymia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Chronobiological disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder as well as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, occur in some women, with comorbid seasonal affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in just under half of these individuals [1] . Early life experience, heritability, gender, other psychiatric illness, stress and trauma all interact dynamically in the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The epidemiology, nomenclature and clinical diagnostic issues of these illnesses in midlife woman are reviewed.

  17. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imagen de Hugo Chávez y su gobierno: Tomás Eloy Martínez, Mario Vargas Llosa y Carlos Fuentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Casella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El 2002 puede ser considerado un año crítico en la vida política venezolana. La promulgación inconsulta de más de 40 leyes por parte del Poder Ejecutivo a finales del año 2001 inició una sucesión de hechos que concluyeron en una huelga general que se inició en diciembre de 2002 y se suspendió al año siguiente. Estos hechos produjeron opiniones en todo el mundo. Entre tales opiniones encontramos la de tres renombrados escritores latinoamericanos: Tomás Eloy Martínez, Mario Vargas Llosa y Carlos Fuentes. El presente trabajo intenta reconstruir a partir del análisis semántico - pragmático la imagen que estos escritores poseían de Hugo Chávez y de su gobierno para ese momento. El corpus analizado lo constituyen el artículo de opinión La soga al cuello, del primer escritor mencionado; la charla titulada ¿Por qué fracasa América Latina? dictada por Vargas Llosa y una declaración de prensa ofrecida por Carlos Fuentes en Barcelona España y que el periodista tituló Carlos Fuentes no aboga por una salida militar. Estos textos fueron producidos en tres momentos diferentes de ese año y por lo tanto responden de una u otra forma a los momentos específicos en los que se produjeron.

  19. Airport solid waste generation and its interfaces with tourism: Hugo Cantergiani Airport’s case, Caxias do Sul-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The tourism phenomenon cannot be separated of transport systems and it needs to be examined in the light of the environmental dimension, in particular the air mode. The aim of this research was to investigate the situation of solid waste generation at Hugo Cantergiani Airport, located in Caxias do Sul-RS. The research, which applied a descriptive and exploratory approach, involved document survey, direct observation and solid waste characterization. The period of the sample was of 18 and a half days, spread over three weeks/months in 2012. The operational movimentation at the airport during the conduct of the research was of 15,543 passengers. At the time of the sample 878.76 kg of waste were weighed of which 606.83 kg were segregated and characterized. In relation to this amount around 70% were derived from services undertaken at the airport site and around 30% came from the aircraft itself. The results revealed that there was a production by passenger at the aircraft of 30g/passenger/trip and at the airport site a per capita production of 40g/person/day. The most representative components were as follows: biological contaminant (29.54%, putrescible organic matter (27.16%, plastic (19.15% and paper and paperboard (14.04%. These types of studies contribute to fill gaps in knowledge related to the gravimetric composition of solid waste in the context of airports, to assess the environmental impacts caused by the generation of such wastes and to provide guidelines for the management plan of solid waste at airports, tourism supporting infrastructures.

  20. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) is National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene maintains records from genomes which have been completely sequenced, which have an active research community to submit gene-specific information, or which are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content represents the integration of curation and automated processing from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology and other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  1. Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

    2010-07-01

    The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard.

  2. New proposals for naming lower-ranked taxa within the frame of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2006-10-01

    The recent multiplication of cladistic hypotheses for many zoological groups poses a challenge to zoological nomenclature following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: in order to account for these hypotheses, we will need many more ranks than currently allowed in this system, especially in lower taxonomy (around the ranks genus and species). The current Code allows the use of as many ranks as necessary in the family-series of nomina (except above superfamily), but forbids the use of more than a few ranks in the genus and species-series. It is here argued that this limitation has no theoretical background, does not respect the freedom of taxonomic thoughts or actions, and is harmful to zoological taxonomy in two respects at least: (1) it does not allow to express in detail hypothesized cladistic relationships among taxa at lower taxonomic levels (genus and species); (2) it does not allow to point taxonomically to low-level differentiation between populations of the same species, although this would be useful in some cases for conservation biology purposes. It is here proposed to modify the rules of the Code in order to allow use by taxonomists of an indeterminate number of ranks in all nominal-series. Such an 'expanded nomenclatural system' would be highly flexible and likely to be easily adapted to any new finding or hypothesis regarding cladistic relationships between taxa, at genus and species level and below. This system could be useful for phylogeographic analysis and in conservation biology. In zoological nomenclature, whereas robustness of nomina is necessary, the same does not hold for nomenclatural ranks, as the latter are arbitrary and carry no special biological, evolutionary or other information, except concerning the mutual relationships between taxa in the taxonomic hierarchy. Compared to the Phylocode project, the new system is equally unambiguous within the frame of a given taxonomic frame, but it provides more explicit and

  3. A SPG3A mutation with a novel foot phenotype of hereditary spastic paraplegia in a Chinese Han family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xun-hua; SONG Chun; CHEN Su-qin; ZHOU Yan; GUO Hui; ZHOU Chun-long; YANG Zhi-yun; LIANG Yin-xing; WANG Yi-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) (MIM#182600) is a group of heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders, with 35 underlying loci recognized by the HGNC (HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee;http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/) and 10 identified genes ( http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/nomenclature/searchgenes.pl plus NIPA1, last search July 2006). The mode of inheritance may be autosomal dominant,autosomal recessive or X-linked. Among these, autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is the most common type, accounting for 70%-80% of all families.1The disease is characterized by lower limb spasticity,hyperreflexia, progressive spastic gait and an extensor plantar response. Pes cavus is one of the commonly reported foot phenotypes.2

  4. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey B. Read

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym H. rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23, and personal names (16 make up more than a third (36% of the species names, with most of the remainder (68 being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54. All species, except H. norvegica (63°N, have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54 from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31 are those first found on

  5. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae) is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Geoffrey B.; ten Hove, Harry A.; Sun, Yanan; Kupriyanova, Elena K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23), and personal names (16) make up more than a third (36%) of the species names, with most of the remainder (68) being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54). All species, except Hydroides norvegica (63°N), have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54) from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31) are those

  6. Nomenclatural issues in ornithology: the incredible controversy on the identity of a long overlooked Brazilian bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, André; Rasmussen, Claus; Aguiar, Alexandre P; Pombal, José P; Dubois, Alain

    2013-11-06

    The identity of Scytalopus speluncae (Ménétriés, 1835) (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae), a tapaculo from southeastern Brazil, has been the matter of debate during the last eight years. A group of ornithologists considers that the nomen Scytalopus speluncae should be attributed to a species endemic to coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil, whereas another group considers it a species from the drier environments of another mountain belt in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Both research groups disagree on the identity of the still extant but damaged alleged holotype, deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, on the identity of the holotype specimen illustration from a plate accompanying the species description, and even on the type locality. To further complicate this matter of identity, members of each research group, based on their own interpretations of the identity of Scytalopus speluncae, described and named again the two species with different nomina, erecting at least one unnecessary nomen. After almost ten years of a debate, there is still no consensus on the identity of the species, and there are now at least three available nomina for apparently only two distinct biological species. As taxonomists belonging to fields of zoology other than ornithology, and realizing the above situation is mainly a nomenclatural one, we herein present a summary of the contentious issue, try to distinguish what seems to be facts and speculation and based on these we consider the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) whenever appropriate, in the hope of bringing some objectivity to the debate. We conclude that no unequivocal evidence was presented to decide to which species the type specimen belongs solely based on its morphological characters, since the holotype presents considerable damage. On the other hand, the original designation of the type locality by Ménétriés (1835) as S

  7. Mixed epithelial-stromal tumor (MEST) of seminal vesicle: a proposal for unified nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikie, Brian A; Yilmaz, Asli; Medlicott, Shaun; Trpkov, Kiril

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the common tumors of the prostate, seminal vesicle demonstrates low potential for neoplastic proliferation. Of the rare primary seminal vesicle tumors, adenocarcinoma is the most common, but there are also rare seminal vesicle neoplasms which demonstrate epithelial and stromal components. These neoplasms have been described in the literature under various names, including "epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystic epithelial-stromal tumor," "cystadenoma," "cystomyoma," "mesenchymoma," "Müllerian adenosarcoma-like tumor," "phyllodes tumor," and "cystosarcoma phyllodes." The spectrum of reported mixed epithelial-stromal tumors (MEST) of seminal vesicle encompasses low, intermediate and high-grade tumors, but the precise distinction and nomenclature for these tumors remain unsettled. We propose a common nomenclature for these tumors, based on the review of published cases and 2 index cases from our practice, which represent the low-grade category. The first patient was 46 years old and presented with seminal vesicle neoplasm detected on routine rectal examination. The neoplasm measured 4 cm in greatest dimension, and completely replaced the left seminal vesicle. The tumor was circumscribed and consisted of multiple cysts separated by spindle-cell stroma. The second patient was a 60-year-old man, who had an incidental seminal vesicle neoplasm, which was discovered when he underwent a radical prostatectomy for a prostatic adenocarcinoma, (Gleason score 3+4, stage 3a). Both neoplasms contained hypercellular stroma, which was composed of uniform spindle cells, arranged in fascicles and interspersed between the glands. Both tumors lacked worrisome morphology, such as infiltrative borders, cell atypia, increased mitotic activity, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The stromal cells were reactive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and desmin. The cysts and dilated glands were lined by epithelial cells, which were positive for cytokeratin 7 and were negative for

  8. El espectáculo político del acuerdo humanitario y la mediación de Hugo Chávez durante el segundo mandato de Álvaro Uribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Constain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During Alvaro Uribe's second term in power, diplomatic relations between Colombia and Venezuela were marked by severe difficulties that triggered several crises. With the arrival of Juan Manuel Santos to power, however, these difficulties seem to have been resolved unexpectedly fast. Hence, rather than being a crisis caused by some structural aspects of bilateral relations, the dispute was about misunderstandings and tensions that can be linked to specific dynamics of the relationship between Hugo Chávez and Alvaro Uribe. The authors use the concept of political spectacle proposed by Edelman (1988 in order to examine the relationship in question. From this perspective, the unsuccessful attempt to reach a humanitarian agreement with the mediation of Hugo Chávez that took place during the second half of 2007 can be considered as the first relevant event to analyze in the Venezuelan and Colombian leaders' conflictive interactions at the time. The article examines the way in which the political developments of this period were interpreted and transmitted by the El Tiempo newspaper immersed in a political spectacle that was based on a government-media relationship and aimed at generating support of the government in the public opinion through the symbolic use of the kidnapping issue.

  9. Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2016-02-01

    'Type' in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93-119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. 'Type' was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber's analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an important dimension of early nineteenth century 'type talk.' Farber's taxonomy of type concepts passes over the fact that certain uses of 'type' began to take on a new meaning in this period. At the closing of the eighteenth century, terms like 'type specimen,' 'type species,' and 'type genus' were universally recognized as referring to typical, model members of their encompassing taxa. But in the course of the nineteenth century, the same terms were co-opted for a different purpose. As part of an effort to drive out nomenclatural synonymy - the confusing state of a taxon being known to different people by different names - these terms started to signify the fixed and potentially atypical name-bearing elements of taxa. A new type concept was born: the nomenclatural type. In this article, I retrace this perplexing nineteenth century shift in meaning of 'type.' I uncover the nomenclatural disorder that the new nomenclatural type concept dissolved, and expose the conceptual confusion it left in its tracks. What emerges is an account of how synonymy was suppressed through the coinage of a homonym.

  10. Phane Nomenclature. Part II: Modification of the Degree of Hydrogenation and Substitution Derivatives of Phane Parent Hydrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumanovac Ramljak, T.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclophane and linear phane systems are considered as parent hydrides. Their derivatives are named in conformity with the principles, rules, and conventions prescribed for naming organic compounds. The following nomenclatural features are described: indicated and added hydrogen, order of seniority for numbering, substituents expressed as suffixes, substituents cited as prefixes, phane parent hydrides modified by addition or subtraction of hydrogen atoms, and polyfunctional derivatives.

  11. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundry Marvin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. Results We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in the gene tree. Such a simplification may fail, for example, due to genes in the gene tree that are misplaced. In this way, misplaced genes can be identified. Optionally, our tool glosses over a limited degree of "paraphyly" in a further simplification step. In both simplification steps, species can be summarized into groups and treated as equivalent. In the present study we used our tool to derive a simplified tree of 397 leaves from a tree of 1138 leaves. Comparing the simplified tree to a "cartoon tree" created manually, we note that both agree to a high degree. Conclusion Our automatic simplification tool for gene trees is fast, accurate, and effective. It yields results of similar quality as manual simplification. It should be valuable in phylogenetic studies of large protein families. The software is available at http://www.uni-muenster.de/Bioinformatics/services/treesim/.

  12. Simplifying gene trees for easier comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Paul-Ludwig; Mundry, Marvin; Sassenberg, Christoph; Lorkowski, Stefan; Fuellen, Georg

    2006-04-27

    In the genomic age, gene trees may contain large amounts of data making them hard to read and understand. Therefore, an automated simplification is important. We present a simplification tool for gene trees called TreeSimplifier. Based on species tree information and HUGO gene names, it summarizes "monophyla". These monophyla correspond to subtrees of the gene tree where the evolution of a gene follows species phylogeny, and they are simplified to single leaves in the gene tree. Such a simplification may fail, for example, due to genes in the gene tree that are misplaced. In this way, misplaced genes can be identified. Optionally, our tool glosses over a limited degree of "paraphyly" in a further simplification step. In both simplification steps, species can be summarized into groups and treated as equivalent. In the present study we used our tool to derive a simplified tree of 397 leaves from a tree of 1138 leaves. Comparing the simplified tree to a "cartoon tree" created manually, we note that both agree to a high degree. Our automatic simplification tool for gene trees is fast, accurate, and effective. It yields results of similar quality as manual simplification. It should be valuable in phylogenetic studies of large protein families. The software is available at http://www.uni-muenster.de/Bioinformatics/services/treesim/.

  13. Hydatid cyst/cystic echinococcosis: anatomical and surgical nomenclature and method to quantify the cyst content solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Menezes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The terminology related to the hydatid cyst is sometimes inappropriate and wrong designations are used, based on incorrect concepts. "Hydatid cyst" is the larval form of the tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus granulosus, a parasite found in the small intestine of carnivores. The disease, called cystic echinococcosis, is among the most neglected parasitic diseases despite the development of new drugs and other treatment modalities. Although all of us know the vital cycle of the parasite and the different aspects of the disease, the designations around the parasite, its evolution and some therapeutic procedures are not uniform. It would be useful, for all of us, to use the same nomenclature and it is absolutely necessary that the nomenclature is correct and universally accepted. In this paper I remember the correct terms related to all aspects of the hydatid cyst's nomenclature, including especially the anatomical and surgical terminology, as well as the criteria to define the cyst inactivity and the way to know when the cyst range the inactive stage after therapy.

  14. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RATIONAL NUMBER OF THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THEIR GEOGRAPHY AND NOMENCLATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to calculate number of the centers of transplantation according to real requirement of the population and a donor resource, to prove their geography and the nomenclature, providing with donor organs. Methods and results. The analysis and comparison of statistical data on population, number of the centers of transplantation, their transplant activity in Russia and abroad are made. Calculation of number of the centers of transplantation is carried out and justification of their geography is offered. The analysis of statistical data on hospitals in the Russia is made, calculation of a rational number of donor hospitals according to need for a donor resource is carried out. Justification of transplant coordination in territorial subjects of the Russia, in federal districts is offered. Justification of the nomenclature of the centers of transplantation and donor hospitals is offered.Conclusion. Settlement data on a rational number of the centers of transplantation, their geography and the nomenclature, providing with the donor organs, suitable developments for planning of the hi-tech medical care in territorial subjects of the Russia are obtained. 

  15. Prospective cross-sectional study using questionnaire to assess the effect of a different nomenclature for psychiatric illnesses on the perception of these diseases by university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jerome; Kam, L S; Tsang, Y M; Chow, Boris C K; Fang, Y Y; Lam, K W; Lam, Y T; Li, Y Y; Wong, Cally H S

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. To assess the effect of a difference in nomenclature for psychiatric illness on perceptions of university students. DESIGN. Cross-sectional study. SETTING. Three local universities in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 201 university students (undergraduates or postgraduates) were interviewed with a questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Score difference between the new and old nomenclature of each disease for each question of the questionnaire, using a 5-point Likert scale and an integrated score difference for each disease. RESULTS. Of the seven diseases investigated, six yielded a significant yet mild increase in positive perceptions with the new nomenclature. These diseases included schizophrenia (integrated score difference: +0.158, Pperception with its new nomenclature (integrated score difference: -0.119, Pperceptions among the university students than the old nomenclature. Epilepsy was the exception for which the old nomenclature conferred a more positive perception. Further studies on this topic involving a more general population should be advocated to confirm the improvements in perception with the new naming system for psychiatric diseases.

  16. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  17. New species, nomenclatural changes and recent taxonomic studies in the genus Stylosanthes (Leguminosae: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodardo Calles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the last taxonomic overview during the 1982 Stylosanthes Symposium in Townsville, Australia, 10 new species: S. falconensis, S. longicarpa, S. maracajuensis, S. nunoi, S. quintanarooensis, S. recta, S. salina, S. seabrana, S. vallsii and S. venezuelensis; and 1 botanical variety: S. guianensis var. pauciflora; have been validly described. Furthermore, 2 nomenclatural changes have been proposed, both being elevations of botanical varieties to the rank of species: S. gracilis and S. rostrata. In the major taxonomic databases, The Plant List and GRIN, the taxonomic status (“accepted” vs. “synonym” vs. “unresolved” of some of these new taxa, however, differs. In addition, this paper reports on Stylosanthes names that can be found in the post-symposium literature but have not been validly published, and on recent regional studies of Stylosanthes taxonomy. Suggested research needs as perceived by non-botanists include an updated Stylosanthes monograph and taxonomic studies within the S. guianensis, S. hamata and S. scabra species complexes. Keywords: Taxonomy, validly published names.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4122-128

  18. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: consensus on conceptual definition, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Ian J; Perkes, Iain E; Fernandez-Ortega, Juan-Francisco; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Dolce, Giuliano; Hendricks, Henk T

    2014-09-01

    A syndrome of paroxysmal, episodic sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury has been recognized for almost 60 years. This project sought to simplify the confused nomenclature for the condition (>31 eponyms) and simplify the nine overlapping sets of diagnostic criteria. A consensus-developed questionnaire based on a systematic review of the literature was circulated to a widely representative, international expert group utilizing a Delphi approach. Diagnostic criteria were dropped if group consensus failed to agree on their relative importance, with a goal of reaching a Cronbach α of 0.8 (suitable for research purposes). The resulting criteria were combined into an assessment measure for clinical and research settings. The consensus group recommend that the term "paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity" replace previous terms to describe the "syndrome, recognised in a subgroup of survivors of severe acquired brain injury, of simultaneous, paroxysmal transient increases in sympathetic [elevated heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sweating] and motor [posturing] activity." An 11 point probabilistic diagnostic scale was developed with reference to published criteria, yielding an acceptable Cronbach α of 0.8. These 11 items were proceduralized and combined with a symptom severity index to produce a diagnostic tool for use with adults (the paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity assessment measure [PSH-AM]). Development of a pediatric version of the scale and further research into the validity of the PSH-AM is recommended. The consensus position builds on previous literature to establish diagnostic definitions and criteria, an important move to standardize research and management of this condition.

  19. MIRD pamphlet No. 21: a generalized schema for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry--standardization of nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Stephen R

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  20. The Case for Adopting the “Species Complex” Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung J. Kwon-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease of humans/animals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Distinction between the two species is based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that C. neoformans be divided into two species and C. gattii into five species based on a phylogenetic analysis of 115 isolates. While this proposal adds to the knowledge about the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptococcosis agents, the published genotypes of 2,606 strains have already revealed more genetic diversity than is encompassed by seven species. Naming every clade as a separate species at this juncture will lead to continuing nomenclatural instability. In the absence of biological differences between clades and no consensus about how DNA sequence alone can delineate a species, we recommend using “Cryptococcus neoformans species complex” and “C. gattii species complex” as a practical intermediate step, rather than creating more species. This strategy recognizes genetic diversity without creating confusion.

  1. Nursing interventions classification in systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms: a cross-mapping validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Tae; Lu, Der-Fa; Konicek, Debra; Delaney, Connie

    2007-01-01

    The Systemized Nomenclature of Medical Clinical Terms, or SNOMED-CT, was developed to create a comprehensive clinical healthcare reference terminology. Standardized nursing language concepts and terminologies recognized by the American Nurses Association have been added to SNOMED-CT and include the NANDA's Taxonomy II, NIC, NOC, the Omaha System, and CCC. The relationship link between terminologies and SNOMED-CT is provided in a mapping table, which identifies the source terminology. The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of the cross-mapping between the source system (NIC) and the target system (SNOMED-CT) using the methodology developed by Lu and colleagues to detect misassigned concepts. Knowledge representation concepts in the NIC and SNOMED-CT systems were compared using expert human judgment. Of 514 NIC concepts, 14 (2.7%) were identified as misassigned in SNOMED-CT. Two inappropriate representations of concepts were discovered in NIC. Results and recommendations were given to NIC and to SNOMED-CT.

  2. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications. PMID:22313950

  3. Alien taxa of the tribe Senecioneae (Asteraceae in Italy: a nomenclatural synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico Duilio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A nomenclatural synopsis of the alien species belonging to the tribe Senecioneae currently recorded in Italy (8 species is presented. The occurrence at the regional level, as well as the level of naturalization and ecological notes for each taxon are provided. A diagnostic key of the non-native Italian species is also given. The names Cineraria petasitis (now Senecio petasitis, Delairea odorata, Eupatorium auriculatum (now Senecio deltoideus, E. fulvum, Mikania ternifolia var. senecioides, Senecio andryaloides, S. angulatus, and S. leucanthemifolius subsp. vernalis are typified on specimens preserved at E, F, P, SBT, and UPS, and on images by Lamarck, Lemaire, Sims, and Waldstein & Kitaibel. The type of the name S. pterophorus, as indicated by Iamonico in 2015, was wrongly reported as holotype and need to be corrected to lectotype according to the Art. 9.9 of ICN. The names Cacalia auriculata, Cacalia fimbrillifera (nom. nov., nom. superfl. et illeg. pro Eupatorium auriculatum, Cacalia scandens by Thunberg, Cineraria crassiflora, Eupatorium scandens by Link (nom. illeg., Mikania senecioides (nom. illeg., Senecio auriculatum, and Senecio mikanioides are also investigated and discussed.

  4. Revised classification/nomenclature of vitiligo and related issues: the Vitiligo Global Issues Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzedine, K; Lim, H W; Suzuki, T; Katayama, I; Hamzavi, I; Lan, C C E; Goh, B K; Anbar, T; Silva de Castro, C; Lee, A Y; Parsad, D; van Geel, N; Le Poole, I C; Oiso, N; Benzekri, L; Spritz, R; Gauthier, Y; Hann, S K; Picardo, M; Taieb, A

    2012-05-01

    During the 2011 International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC), the Vitiligo European Taskforce (VETF) convened a consensus conference on issues of global importance for vitiligo clinical research. As suggested by an international panel of experts, the conference focused on four topics: classification and nomenclature; definition of stable disease; definition of Koebner's phenomenon (KP); and 'autoimmune vitiligo'. These topics were discussed in seven working groups representing different geographical regions. A consensus emerged that segmental vitiligo be classified separately from all other forms of vitiligo and that the term 'vitiligo' be used as an umbrella term for all non-segmental forms of vitiligo, including 'mixed vitiligo' in which segmental and non-segmental vitiligo are combined and which is considered a subgroup of vitiligo. Further, the conference recommends that disease stability be best assessed based on the stability of individual lesions rather than the overall stability of the disease as the latter is difficult to define precisely and reliably. The conference also endorsed the classification of KP for vitiligo as proposed by the VETF (history based, clinical observation based, or experimentally induced). Lastly, the conference agreed that 'autoimmune vitiligo' should not be used as a separate classification as published evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of all forms of vitiligo likely involves autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms.

  5. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapone, Anna; Bai, Julio C; Ciacci, Carolina; Dolinsek, Jernej; Green, Peter H R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Kaukinen, Katri; Rostami, Kamran; Sanders, David S; Schumann, Michael; Ullrich, Reiner; Villalta, Danilo; Volta, Umberto; Catassi, Carlo; Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-07

    A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD) appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US) in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy), autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia) and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity), and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.

  6. Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapone Anna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A decade ago celiac disease was considered extremely rare outside Europe and, therefore, was almost completely ignored by health care professionals. In only 10 years, key milestones have moved celiac disease from obscurity into the popular spotlight worldwide. Now we are observing another interesting phenomenon that is generating great confusion among health care professionals. The number of individuals embracing a gluten-free diet (GFD appears much higher than the projected number of celiac disease patients, fueling a global market of gluten-free products approaching $2.5 billion (US in global sales in 2010. This trend is supported by the notion that, along with celiac disease, other conditions related to the ingestion of gluten have emerged as health care concerns. This review will summarize our current knowledge about the three main forms of gluten reactions: allergic (wheat allergy, autoimmune (celiac disease, dermatitis herpetiformis and gluten ataxia and possibly immune-mediated (gluten sensitivity, and also outline pathogenic, clinical and epidemiological differences and propose new nomenclature and classifications.

  7. The Importance of Nomenclature for Congenital Heart Disease: Implications for Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Matthew J; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Reller, Mark D; Mahle, William T; Botto, Lorenzo D; Tolbert, Paige E; Jacobs, Marshall L; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Mavroudis, Constantine; Correa, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background Administrative databases are often used for congenital heart disease research and evaluation, with little validation of the accuracy of the diagnostic codes. Methods Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program surveillance records were reviewed and classified using a version of the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. Using this clinical nomenclature as the referent, we report the sensitivity and false positive fraction (1 – positive predictive value) of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Results We identified 4918 infants and foetuses with congenital heart disease from the surveillance records. Using only the International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes, there were 280 records with tetralogy, 317 records with transposition, and 192 records with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Based on the International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, 330 records were classified as tetralogy, 163 records as transposition, and 179 records as hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The sensitivity of International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes was 83% for tetralogy, 100% for transposition, and 95% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The false positive fraction was 2% for tetralogy, 49% for transposition, and 11% for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Conclusions Analyses based on International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes may have substantial misclassification of congenital heart disease. Isolating the major defect is difficult, and certain codes do not differentiate between variants that are clinically and developmentally different. PMID:19063779

  8. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery dermatologic surgery drug and device nomenclature recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2013-08-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate nomenclature for drugs and devices used in surgical and cosmetic dermatology. To develop a rules-based system for naming drugs and devices commonly used in dermatologic surgery that generates identifiers and modifiers that are clear, complete, and brief. Using an iterative modified consensus process, five subject-area work groups of the ASDS Lexicon Task Force were charged with developing standard terminology for the drugs and devices subsumed under their topic. A subcommittee comprising the chairs of the workgroups initially developed the general rules that guided the consensus process; subsequently, this subcommittee merged the 5 resulting documents into a single work product. Two external reviewers with expertise in dermatologic drugs and devices reviewed the final document for errors and omissions. General characteristics sought in systematic names included: brevity, clarity, non-overlapping (mutually exclusive) nature, within-class similarity, preservation of current usage when possible, and potential for inclusion of future refinements. Naming of drugs and devices in dermatologic surgery can be improved to increase comprehensibility and utility in both clinical and research contexts. Particularly for devices, the use of systematic names can reduce repeated mention of proprietary names in scientific discourse. Any naming system should be amenable to modification, correction, and the continual incorporation of novel agents. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. MIRD Pamphlet No. 21: A Generalized Schema for Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry-Standardization of Nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, W E [University of Florida, Gainesville; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Sgouros, George [Johns Hopkins University; Thomas, Steven R. [University of Cincinnati

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  10. The Case for Adopting the “Species Complex” Nomenclature for the Etiologic Agents of Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, John E.; Wickes, Brian L.; Meyer, Wieland; Wollenburg, Kurt R.; Bicanic, Tihana A.; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Chang, Yun C.; Chen, Jianghan; Cogliati, Massimo; Dromer, Françoise; Ellis, David; Filler, Scott G.; Harrison, Thomas S.; Holland, Steven M.; Kohno, Shigeru; Kronstad, James W.; Lazera, Marcia; Levitz, Stuart M.; Lionakis, Michail S.; Ngamskulrongroj, Popchai; Pappas, Peter G.; Perfect, John R.; Rickerts, Volker; Sorrell, Tania C.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Williamson, Peter R.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is a potentially lethal disease of humans/animals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Distinction between the two species is based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that C. neoformans be divided into two species and C. gattii into five species based on a phylogenetic analysis of 115 isolates. While this proposal adds to the knowledge about the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptococcosis agents, the published genotypes of 2,606 strains have already revealed more genetic diversity than is encompassed by seven species. Naming every clade as a separate species at this juncture will lead to continuing nomenclatural instability. In the absence of biological differences between clades and no consensus about how DNA sequence alone can delineate a species, we recommend using “Cryptococcus neoformans species complex” and “C. gattii species complex” as a practical intermediate step, rather than creating more species. This strategy recognizes genetic diversity without creating confusion. PMID:28101535

  11. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genera Themus Motschulsky and Lycocerus Gorham (Coleoptera, Cantharidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxia Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following taxonomic or nomenclatural changes are proposed: Themus (s.str. regalis (Gorham, 1889 nom. rest.; T. (s.str. scutulatus Wittmer, 1983 = T. (s.str. hmong Kazantsev, 2007, syn. n.; T. (Telephorops coelestis (Gorham, 1889 = T. violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992, syn. n.; T. (Telephorops uniformis Wittmer, 1983, stat. n. = T. (Telephorops cribripennis Wittmer, 1983, syn. n.; T. (Haplothemus licenti Pic, 1938, stat.rev., resurrected from synonymy with T. coriaceipennis (Fairmaire, 1889; Lycocerus aenescens (Fairmaire, 1889 = L. tcheonanus (Pic, 1922, syn. n.; L. asperipennis (Fairmaire, 1891 = L. wangi (Švihla,2004, syn. n.; L. borneoensis nom. n. for Athemellus atricolor (Wittmer, 1972; L. bilineatus (Wittmer, 1995 = L. amplus (Wittmer, 1995, syn. n.; L. fairmairei nom. n. et stat. rev. for Athemus dimidiaticrus (Fairmaire, 1889, originally in Telephorus, resurrected from synonymy with L. orientalis (Gorham,1889; L. confossicollis (Fairmaire, 1891, comb. n. hereby transferred from Cantharis = L. multiimpressus (Wittmer, 1997, syn. n.; L. inopaciceps (Pic, 1926 = Athemus (Athemellus bimaculicollis (Švihla, 2005, syn. n.; L. nigratus nom. n. for L. nigricolor (Wittmer, 1972, originally in Podabrinus; L. plebejus (Kiesenwetter, 1874 = L. brunneonotaticeps (Pic, 1922, syn. n. = Cantharis rufonotaticeps Pic, 1921, syn. n.; L. swampingatus (Pic, 1916, comb. n., hereby transferred from Cantharis. The neotypes of Themus violetipennis Wang & Yang, 1992 and Athemus (s.str. maculithorax Wang & Yang, 1992 are designated respectively.

  12. The tribe Acutalini Fowler (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae: new genera, new species and some nomenclatural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M Sakakibara

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Acutalini Fowler is redescribed as well as the genera Acutalis Fairmaire, Euritea Stål, and Thrasymedes Kirkaldy. The following new taxa and nomenclatural changes are presented: Thrasymedes mexicana sp.n. (from Mexico, Oaxaca; Bordonia gen.n., with B. venezuelana sp.n. (type-species (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, B. clypeata sp.n. (from Colombia, Cuesta Boba, B. majuscula sp.n. (from Venezuela, Portachuelo, and Cornutalis gen.n., with C. cauca sp.n. (type-species (from Colombia, Cauca, and C. validu sp.n. (from Ecuador, Sto. Domingo. Acutalis fusconervosa Fairmaire, 1846 = Horiola venosa Walker, 1858, syn.n.; Euritea munda (Walker, 1858 = Stictolobus nitidus Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Bordonia nigricosta (Goding, 1926, comb.n.; Bordonia virescens (Funkhouser, 1940, comb.n.. One species is transferred to Smiliinae-Ceresini: Tapinolobus curvispina (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Thrasymedes = Tapinolobus fasciatus Sakakibara, 1969, syn.n.; another one is transferred to Darninae-Cymbomorphini: Eumela darnioides (Walker, 1858, comb.n. (formerly in Euritea.

  13. Patient Safety in Medication Nomenclature: Orthographic and Semantic Properties of International Nonproprietary Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bryan

    Full Text Available Confusion between look-alike and sound-alike (LASA medication names (such as mercaptamine and mercaptopurine accounts for up to one in four medication errors, threatening patient safety. Error reduction strategies include computerized physician order entry interventions, and 'Tall Man' lettering. The purpose of this study is to explore the medication name designation process, to elucidate properties that may prime the risk of confusion.We analysed the formal and semantic properties of 7,987 International Non-proprietary Names (INNs, in relation to naming guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO INN programme, and have identified potential for errors. We explored: their linguistic properties, the underlying taxonomy of stems to indicate pharmacological interrelationships, and similarities between INNs. We used Microsoft Excel for analysis, including calculation of Levenshtein edit distance (LED. Compliance with WHO naming guidelines was inconsistent. Since the 1970s there has been a trend towards compliance in formal properties, such as word length, but longer names published in the 1950s and 1960s are still in use. The stems used to show pharmacological interrelationships are not spelled consistently and the guidelines do not impose an unequivocal order on them, making the meanings of INNs difficult to understand. Pairs of INNs sharing a stem (appropriately or not often have high levels of similarity (<5 LED, and thus have greater potential for confusion.We have revealed a tension between WHO guidelines stipulating use of stems to denote meaning, and the aim of reducing similarities in nomenclature. To mitigate this tension and reduce the risk of confusion, the stem system should be made clear and well ordered, so as to avoid compounding the risk of confusion at the clinical level. The interplay between the different WHO INN naming principles should be further examined, to better understand their implications for the problem of LASA

  14. Regulatory RNAs in the Less Studied Streptococcal Species: from Nomenclature to Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Zorgani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal species are Gram-positive bacteria involved in severe and invasive diseases in humans and animals. Although this group includes different pathogenic species involved in life-threatening infections for humans, it also includes beneficial species, such as Streptococcus thermophilus, which is used in yogurt production. In bacteria virulence factors are controlled by various regulatory networks including regulatory RNAs. For clearness and to develop logical thinking, we start this review with a revision of regulatory RNAs nomenclature. Previous reviews are mostly dealing with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae regulatory RNAs. We especially focused our analysis on regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus and other less studied Streptococcus species. Although S. agalactiae RNome remains largely unknown, sRNAs (small RNAs are supposed to mediate regulation during environmental adaptation and host infection. In the case of S. mutans, sRNAs are suggested to be involved in competence regulation, carbohydrate metabolism and Toxin-Antitoxin systems. A new category of miRNA-size small RNAs (msRNAs was also identified for the first time in this species. The analysis of S. thermophilus sRNome shows that many sRNAs are associated to the bacterial immune system known as CRISPR-Cas system. Only few of the other different Streptococcus species have been the subject of studies pointed toward the characterization of regulatory RNAs. Finally, understanding bacterial sRNome can constitute one step forward to the elaboration of new strategies in therapy such as substitution of antibiotics in the management of S. agalactiae neonatal infections, prevention of S. mutans dental caries or use of S. thermophilus CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing applications.

  15. Standardized terminology and nomenclature for pancreatobiliary cytology: the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Martha B; Centeno, Barbara A; Ali, Syed Z; Genevay, Muriel; Stelow, Ed; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Max Schmidt, C; Brugge, William; Layfield, Lester

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, techniques of EUS-FNA, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy treatment and management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology web site (www.papsociety.org). This document selectively presents the results of these discussions and focuses on a proposed standardized terminology scheme for pancreatobiliary specimens that correlate cytological diagnosis with biological behavior and increasingly conservative patient management of surveillance only. The proposed terminology scheme recommends a six-tiered system: Nondiagnostic, Negative, Atypical, Neoplastic (benign or other), Suspicious and Positive. Unique to this scheme is the "Neoplastic" category separated into "benign" (serous cystadenoma), or "Other" (premalignant mucinous cysts, neuroendocrine tumors, and solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms). The positive or malignant category is reserved for high-grade, aggressive malignancies including ductal adenocarcinoma, acinar cell carcinoma, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, pancreatoblastoma, lymphoma, and metastases. Interpretation categories do not have to be used. Some pathology laboratory information systems require an interpretation category, which places the cytological diagnosis into a general category. This proposed scheme provides terminology that standardizes the category of the various diseases of the pancreas, some of which are difficult to diagnose specifically by cytology. In addition, this terminology scheme attempts to provide maximum flexibility

  16. Novel femoral artery terminology: integrating anatomy and clinical procedures leading to standardized intuitive nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the terminology of the femoral artery and recommended alternative terminology that satisfies both anatomy and clinical arenas.The femoral artery (FA) is often defined as the continuation of the external iliac artery. Specifically, when the external iliac artery reaches directly beneath the inguinal ligament, it becomes the FA. Currently, Terminologia Anatomica (TA) records the profunda femoris or deep femoral as a terminal branch. Clinicians often use superficial femoral artery (SFA) rather than FA and profunda or deep FA. SFA is actually very deep and well protected for most of its journey. On observation, the terminology in current use is not intuitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the terminology associated with the anatomical and clinical anatomical interpretations of the FA and its terminal branches and to suggest a more appropriate terminology that addresses the points of view of the macro anatomist, as well as that of the clinician. Literature search was conducted regarding the nomenclature of the FA and its terminal branches. Dissection of 89 embalmed cadavers (49F, 40M, ages 47-89) was conducted to analyze the morphology of the FA and its branches. Perusal of the literature revealed a difference in terminology between anatomical and clinical textbooks/atlases/journals regarding the FA and its terminal branch. Our dissections suggested that the FA may be better defined vis-à-vis its relationship to the anterior and posterior compartments of the thigh. A difference in terminology exists between the anatomical and clinical arenas. A need for a standardized terminology is necessary because clinicians and their publishers have not adopted TA. This study suggests that the current FA be considered the common FA and the continuation of the FA, the SFA be renamed the anterior FA and the current profunda (the deep FA) be renamed the posterior FA, respectively. The proposed terminology mirrors the lower

  17. Pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava: an illustrated history of the nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Rowland, Scott K.; Villeneuve, Nicolas; Thordarson, Thor

    2017-01-01

    Lava flows occur worldwide, and throughout history, various cultures (and geologists) have described flows based on their surface textures. As a result, surface morphology-based nomenclature schemes have been proposed in most languages to aid in the classification and distinction of lava surface types. One of the first to be published was likely the nine-class, Italian-language description-based classification proposed by Mario Gemmellaro in 1858. By far, the most commonly used terms to describe lava surfaces today are not descriptive but, instead, are merely words, specifically the Hawaiian words `a`ā (rough brecciated basalt lava) and pāhoehoe (smooth glassy basalt lava), plus block lava (thick brecciated lavas that are typically more silicic than basalt). `A`ā and pāhoehoe were introduced into the Western geological vocabulary by American geologists working in Hawai`i during the 1800s. They and other nineteenth century geologists proposed formal lava-type classification schemes for scientific use, and most of them used the Hawaiian words. In 1933, Ruy Finch added the third lava type, block lava, to the classification scheme, with the tripartite system being formalized in 1953 by Gordon Macdonald. More recently, particularly since the 1980s and based largely on studies of lava flow interiors, a number of sub-types and transitional forms of all three major lava types have been defined. This paper reviews the early history of the development of the pāhoehoe, `a`ā, and block lava-naming system and presents a new descriptive classification so as to break out the three parental lava types into their many morphological sub-types.

  18. La enfermedad de Hugo Chávez en la agenda de medios y públicos. Análisis del hashtag #ElMundoEstaConChavez desde la teoría del 'framing'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez Fumero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades globalizadas y complejas de la actualidad, la intervención de las redes sociales es fundamental para propiciar un intercambio entre los ciudadanos y los líderes políticos sobre los temas más importantes que implican a la humanidad. La presente investigación propone un estudio de la red social Twitter, a través del análisis de los mensajes etiquetados con #ElMundoEstaConChavez, surgido a causa de la aparición de nuevas células cancerígenas en el fallecido presidente Hugo Chávez. A partir de los referentes de las teorías de agenda-setting, framing y priming, se reconoce el tipo de encuadre que realizaron los seguidores de @chavezcandanga.

  19. L'oracle du guerrier, le souverain et le sommet de l'OPEP: le Venezuela après la réelection du président Hugo Chávez

    OpenAIRE

    Frédérique Langue

    2005-01-01

    Peu de mandataires peuvent, sur le continent latino-américain et ailleurs dans le monde, se prévaloir d'une telle légitimité démocratique : depuis sa première victoire, Hugo Chávez a en effet remporté toutes les élections, anticipées ou non. Les dernières en date (présidentielles, législatives, et de gouverneurs des états), réalisées après l'adoption de la constitution bolivarienne le voient triompher à nouveau, dans un contexte de forte critique de ses adversaires et d'une bonne partie des m...

  20. Influências do Ativismo de Hugo Chávez nos Interesses Petrolíferos Norte-Americanos - 10.5102/uri.v0i0.409

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor de Freitas Vasconcelos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute em que medida o discurso nacionalista enunciado por Hugo Chávez, desde 1998, e seu estilo de condução política têm confrontado os interesses petrolíferos norte-americanos, observando-se a atuação venezuelana na Organização dos Países Exportadores de Petróleo. Percebe-se que Chávez tem formulado sua agenda bilateral com os Estados Unidos da América de maneira cada vez mais ideológica e menos pragmática, confrontando tanto os interesses do empresariado quanto do governo norte-americano.

  1. Sin pan y con trabajo en la Argentina de entresiglos (sobre las escenas de iniciación a las prácticas literarias en Lucio V. Mansilla, Horacio Quiroga y Hugo Wast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Laera

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a brief promenade through the writers professionalization history in Argentina, by examining three autobiographical writings produced between the end of 1880 and 1930: a causerie by Lucio V. Mansilla, the notes of a travel to Paris by Horacio Quiroga and the memoirs by Hugo Wast. Such choice aims to reading a transformation process with its own inflections, juxtapositions, emergences and residues, in order to asses the relationship between literature and money through diverse work modalities such as journalism, free-lance collaboration or best-sellers writing, all of them considered as a whole and encompassed by the conceptual value of hunger and its intimate relation with the initiation scenario of a literary career.

  2. Neotype designations and nomenclatural actions for Apionidae described by Johann Ludwig Christian Carl Gravenhorst in 1807 (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusto, Carlo

    2015-07-21

    In accordance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature with the express purpose of clarifying the systematic status of some species, neotypes are designated for Apion atratum Gravenhorst, 1807, Apion chloris Gravenhorst, 1807, Apion longirostre Gravenhorst, 1807 and Apion pilosellum Gravenhorst, 1807. Three new synonymies are proposed: Perapion hydrolapathi (Marsham, 1802) = Apion atratum Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n., Ischnopterapion virens (Herbst, 1797) = Apion chloris Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n. and Eutrichapion vorax (Herbst, 1797) = Apion longirostre Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n. The junior primary homonym Apion atratum Wagner, 1908 (non Gravenhorst, 1807) is replaced by Pseudopiezotrachelus gravenhorsti nom. n.

  3. A new species of Goniothalamus (Annonaceae from Palawan, and a new nomenclatural combination in the genus from Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Cheung Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Goniothalamus palawanensis C.C.Tang & R.M.K.Saunders, sp. nov. (Annonaceae, is described from Palawan, Philippines. Goniothalamus palawanensis is most closely related to G. amuyon (Blanco Merr., but differs in its shorter inner petals, hairy ovaries, and funnel-shaped stigmas. A new nomenclatural combination, G.angustifolius (A.C.Sm. B.Xue & R.M.K.Saunders, comb. nov., is furthermore validated to reflect the phylogenetic affinities of a Fijian species previously assigned to Polyalthia.

  4. A review of the Palaearctic species of Larinus Dejean (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in C. J. Schoenherr collection: nomenclature and lectotype designations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Gültekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The syntypes of 41 species of Larinus Dejean described by L. Gyllenhal and C. H. Boheman, housed at the C. J. Schoenherr collection in the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm and the Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, are examined. Lectotypes are designated, a nomenclatural review performed, many previous synonyms confirmed and three new synonyms proposed: Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792 (= Larinus rusticanus Gyllenhal, 1835 syn. nov.; Larinus carlinae (Olivier, 1807 (= Larinus sulphurifer Boheman, 1843 syn. nov.; Larinus minutus Gyllenhal, 1835 (= Larinus puncticollis Capiomont, 1874 syn. nov.. Colour images for 15 lectotypes are presented.

  5. Nomenclatura na língua portuguesa em cromatografia multidimensional abrangente Nomenclature for comprehensive multidimensional chromatography in portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin von Mühlen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive Multidimensional Chromatography is a relatively new analytic technique, which is receiving growing attention in many parts of the world, including recently in Brazil. This work presents terms in Portuguese which are commonly used in Comprehensive Multidimensional Chromatography in order to help standardize the vocabulary employed in this area in the scientific literature. It also includes some symbols, their nominations, and explanation of some terms, whenever necessary. This proposal does not intend to be comprehensive or definitive; on the contrary, it intends to be a first step in the process of establishing a standardized nomenclature, serving as a base for a further sound discussion in the scientific community realm.

  6. The human T cell receptor alpha variable (TRAV) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaviner, D; Lefranc, M P

    2000-01-01

    'Human T Cell Receptor Alpha Variable (TRAV) Genes', the eighth report of the 'IMGT Locus in Focus' section, comprises four tables: (1) 'Number of human germline TRAV genes at 14q11 and potential repertoire'; (2) 'Human germline TRAV genes at 14q11'; (3) 'Human TRAV allele table', and (4) 'Correspondence between the different human TRAV gene nomenclatures'. These tables are available at the IMGT Marie-Paule page of IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr:8104) created by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, France. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. New species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) from Indonesia, with comments on head papillae nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Erdmann, Mark V

    2015-06-17

    Three new species of the gobiid Trimma are described from Indonesian waters, and a partially reformulated nomenclature for the cephalic sensory papillae of members of this genus is provided. Trimma aturirii possesses two dark oblique stripes on either side of the pupil (blue, edged with red in life, dark brown in preservative), the lower of which continues posteriorly across the dorsal margin of the opercle, with the dorsal half of the body red and the ventral half abruptly white in life. The species has a narrow bony interorbital (≤50% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, no scales on the cheek, opercle or in the predorsal midline, no elongate spines in the first dorsal fin, 9-10 dorsal and 9 anal fin rays, 17-18 (7-11 branched) pectoral fin rays and an unbranched fifth pelvic fin ray. Trimma kardium has a pair of tapering oval red spots which join anteriorly over the anterior region of the hyoid arches, forming an approximate heart-shaped marking on the ventral surface of the head. It has a narrow bony interorbital (≤40% pupil width), a moderate interorbital trench with a slight groove posterodorsal to the eye, 17-18 unbranched pectoral fin rays, 1-5 cycloid scales in the predorsal midline confined to about the middle third of the nape, and a single row of 1-3 cycloid scales along the upper border of the opercle. Trimma trioculatum has a large (slightly greater than pupil diameter in width) round, black, ocellated spot in the first dorsal fin between spines 1 and 5, a second, much smaller black or dark red spot just posterior to the spine of the second dorsal fin and above the basal stripe, a yellow body with a dark purplish or gray head with two distinct red bars across the cheek, no round spots of any colour on the nape, opercle or cheek, a small dark (preserved) or white (alive) spot on the upper pectoral fin base, a narrow bony interorbital (<70% pupil diameter), no elongate spines in the first dorsal

  8. 运用数字差异展示方法克隆一个人类新的锌指蛋白基因ZNF474%Identification of a Novel Human Zinc Finger Protein Gene ZNF474 by Digital Differential Display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周畅; 师建明; 肖湘文; 李麓芸; 卢光琇

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to identify a novel testis overexpressed gene related to spermatogenesis by a new strategy of digital differential display (DDD). Based on the generation of expressed sequenced tags ( ESTs), comparing the testis libraries with other tissue or cell line libraries by the DDD program, we identified a new contig of the ESTs which were derived from testis libraries and represented a novel gene. A full-length cDNA sequence of the new gene named ZNF474 ( GeneBank accession number AY461732) by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee in human testis was identified. ZNF474 was 1972 bp in length, located in chromosome 5q23.2. The sequence of the opening reading frame was 377 bp ~ 1471 bp, as was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. The cDNA encodes a novel protein of 364amino acids protein that was 66 % identical to a mouse homologue. Northern blot analyses revealed that ZNF474 mRNA was exclusively expressed in testis and ovary and has one transcript. In situ hybridization revealed that ZNF474 high expressed in adult testis and seminoma. The brown granules of hybridization signal were found in spermatocyte, spermatids and spermatozoa, no expression in sertoli's cells and leydig's cells. We hypothesize that ZNF474 functions as a germ cell-specific transcription factor that plays important roles in spermatid differentiation and oocyte development.%运用数字差异展示方法,克隆一个与生精相关的睾丸高表达基因.借助公共ESTs数据库,利用DDD软件比较分析各种睾丸文库与其他组织或细胞系文库有差异表达的ESTs,成功克隆到一个在人类睾丸中高表达的新基因.结合实验获得新基因cDNA全长,该基因被国际人类基因命名委员会命名为ZNF474(GeneBank登陆号AY461732).ZNF474的cDNA全长为1 972 bp,定位在5q23.2.通过RT-PCR及测序验证,其开放阅读框的位置在377 bp~1 471 bp处,编码364个氨基酸,在氨基酸水平与小鼠同源基因有66%的一致性,而与其他已

  9. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  10. State of the art, nomenclature, and points of consensus and controversy concerning benign melanocytic lesions: outcome of an international workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Raymond L; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Cook, Martin; Elder, David E; Kerl, Helmut; LeBoit, Philip E; McCarthy, Stanley W; Mihm, Martin C; Mooi, Wolter J; Piepkorn, Michael W; Prieto, Victor G; Scolyer, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a one-day International Workshop focusing on the histology of benign melanocytic nevi. Areas of controversy identified in 6 focus sessions were the nomenclature and relationships among common nevi including nevi with halo reactions, traumatized nevi, "dysplastic" nevi, and nevi from particular anatomic sites; developmental biology and frequency of malignant transformation associated with congenital nevi; the characterization and biologic nature of atypical spitzoid neoplasms; the basic definition of particular melanocytic cellular phenotypes, and the nomenclature and biologic nature of many candidate blue nevi, combined nevi, and other controversial lesions such as deep penetrating nevus and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma. Concentrated data collection and follow-up, molecular characterization, and future consensus Workshops may facilitate the resolution of some of these problems. The Group recommended the description of ambiguous or "borderline" lesions as tumors with indeterminate or uncertain biologic/malignant potential. The participants also advised that such lesions at a minimum should be managed by complete excision with clear surgical margins.

  11. Skull and mandible formation in the cuckoo (Aves, Cuculidae): contributions to the nomenclature in avian osteology and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posso, Sérgio Roberto; Donatelli, Reginaldo José

    2005-01-01

    The study of the contributions of different bones to the formation of the skeleton in birds is necessary: (1) to establish homologies in comparative anatomy; (2) to delimit each bone structure correctly, mainly in relation to the skull and mandible where the bones are fused to each other in adults; and (3) to standardize nomenclature in avian osteology. In this paper at least one young specimen belonging to each sub-family of Cuculidae was examined in order to identify each bone in terms of boundaries and contributions to skull and mandible formation. These cuckoos specimens were also compared with adults and young of turacos and hoatzin. The results show little variation of skull and jaw among the young cuckoos studied compared with the variations among adult specimens. However, it provides new suggestions for the boundaries and nomenclature of certain osseous structures in the skull and mandible of birds, specifically fissura zona flexoria craniofacialis, prominetia frontoparietalis, crista temporalis transversa, processus squamosalis, fossa laterosphenoidalis, tuberculum laterosphenoidale and processus retroangularis. This study also provides more reliable homologies for use in cladistic analysis and above all it contributes to the phylogenetic position of Cuculidae within Neognathae, specifically the skull formation suggest that turacos and hoatzin are more similar to each other than either is to the cuckoos.

  12. Nomenclatural corrections to the taxonomic revision of The Old World species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmeriae) by Wilmot-Dear and Friis (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Govaerts, R. H. A.

    2014-01-01

    This nomenclatural note, a sequel to a recently published taxonomic revision of the Old World species of the genus Boehmeria (Urticaceae), establishes: (1) a holotype of B. maugeretii, synonym of taxon no. 8b in the revision (B. clidemioides var. diffusa), (2) B. 15 zollingeriana Wedd. var. blinii...... in the revision in synonymy of B. japonica (L. f.) Miq. and in an attached note, (4) a corrected synonymy 20 for B. splitgerbera Koidz. and the designation of a lectotype for Splitgerbera japonica Miq. and its nomenclatural synonyms, and (5) identifications of types for a number of excluded names: Boehmeria...

  13. Revised nomenclature, definitions, and correlations for the Cretaceous formations in USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, Dorchester County, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    The stratigraphy of the Cretaceous section in a continuously cored stratigraphic test hole, USGS-Clubhouse Crossroads #1, is reviewed and amended herein. Located in southern Dorchester County, S.C., the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core is one of the principal stratigraphic reference sections in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Traditional and revised systems of stratigraphic nomenclature for the outcropping Cretaceous formations of the Carolinas are reviewed for their applicability in defining subsurface Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. The revised nomenclature, exemplified by the formations proposed by J. P. Owens in 1989 and by N. F. Sohl and Owens in 1991, is preferred for this purpose over the traditional nomenclature established by D.J.P. Swift and S.D. Heron, Jr., in 1969. The revised nomenclature is selected because of its greater emphasis on the historical succession of entire sedimentary systems (timeparallel formations), in contrast to the emphasis placed on the physical continuity of individual facies through time (time-transgressive formations) in the traditional nomenclature. Physical relationships between the two types of formations are discerned by using K.E. Caster's 1934 facies model, in which the time-transgressive units of the traditional model are his magnafacies and the time-parallel units of the revised model are sets of his laterally contiguous parvafacies. In 1977, G.S. Gohn and others and J.E. Hazel and others provisionally delineated Cretaceous formations in the Clubhouse Crossroads #1 core by using Swift and Heron's traditional units. The publication of additional lithologic and paleontologic data since 1977 for Cretaceous units in the core and for Cretaceous units throughout the Carolinas provides a basis for reviewing and amending the original definitions of the Cretaceous formations at Clubhouse Crossroads. Ages assigned to the Cretaceous units at Clubhouse Crossroads by Hazel and others are also reviewed. The boundaries

  14. Reflexões sobre a poesia e seu tempo: “Ce siècle est grand et fort”, de Hugo, e “Au lecteur”, de Baudelaire, duas visões sobre o século XIX francês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Alves da Paixão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma leitura comparada dos poemas “Ce siècle est grand et fort”, de Victor Hugo, e “Au lecteur”, de Charles Baudelaire, a fim de analisar diferenças e correlações na maneira como cada eu lírico observa e poetiza o universo que o rodeia. Os poetas viveram na Paris do século XIX, época de grandes transformações intelectuais, tecnológicas e sociais que configuram um momento crucial na formação da vida moderna. Entretanto, tendo vivido no mesmo contexto social, apresentam características bastante diversas nessas peças, o que leva a refletir sobre as relações entre o sujeito, o mundo e a literatura, que expressa o encontro do sujeito com o mundo através de um olhar sempre subjetivo. Para tanto, quer-se também observar as posições dos próprios poetas sobre a realidade a partir dos textos críticos “Expositon Universelle” (BAUDELAIRE, 1855 e “Paris” (HUGO, 1867. Além disso, será de essencial interesse trazer à baila autores que se debruçaram sobre tais obras, como Pierre Albouy, Walter Benjamin, Léon Cellier, Antoine Compagnon, Hugo Friedrich, Max Milner, Henri Peyre, Gaetan Picon, Charles Renouvier, Raymond Trousson.Palavras-chave: Victor Hugo; Baudelaire; poesia francesa; literatura e sociedade. Abstract: In this article, we present a comparative reading of poems “Ce grand siècle et est fort”, Victor Hugo, and “Au lecteur”, Charles Baudelaire, in order to analyze correlations and differences in how each lyric observes and poet the universe. The poets lived in Paris of the century XIX, time of great transformations intellectual, techological and social, a crucial moment of the formation of the modern life. However, having lived in the same social context, They present very different characteristics, which leads to a reflection on the relations between the man and the world, and we also can think about the role of the literature, that expresses the subject

  15. Nomenclatural corrections to the taxonomic revision of The Old World species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmeriae) by Wilmot-Dear and Friis (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Govaerts, R. H. A.

    2014-01-01

    This nomenclatural note, a sequel to a recently published taxonomic revision of the Old World species of the genus Boehmeria (Urticaceae), establishes: (1) a holotype of B. maugeretii, synonym of taxon no. 8b in the revision (B. clidemioides var. diffusa), (2) B. 15 zollingeriana Wedd. var. blini...

  16. Nomenclatural corrections to the taxonomic revision of The Old World species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmerieae) by Wilmot-Dear & Friis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmot-Dear, C.M.; Friis, I.; Govaerts, R.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    This nomenclatural note, a sequel to a recently published taxonomic revision of the Old World species of the genus Boehmeria (Urticaceae), establishes: 1) a holotype of B. maugereti, synonym of taxon no. 8b in the revision (B. clidemioides var. diffusa); 2) B. zollingeriana Wedd. var. blinii (H.Lév.

  17. NOMENCLATURAL NOTES ON THE EURYTOMIDS (CHALCIDOIDEA: EURYTOMIDAE) DESCRIBED BY JEAN BRÈTHES HOUSED IN MUSEO ARGENTINO DE CIENCIAS NATURALES “BERNARDINO RIVADAVIA”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine species parasitic eurytomid wasps described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the National Insect Collection of Argentina, Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Prodecatoma parodii, Eudecatoma o...

  18. Revision and update of the Callovian-Ryazanian Stratigraphic Nomenclature in the northern Dutch offshore, i.e. Central Graben Subgroup and Scruff Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsterman, D.K.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Mijnlieff, H.F.; Witmans, N.; Kerstholt-Boegehold, S.; Abbink, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    Exploration in a mature basin requires a detailed classification and standardisation of rock stratigraphy to adequately comprehend the depositional history and prospect architecture. The pre-Quaternary Stratigraphic Nomenclature of the Netherlands compiled by Van Adrichem Boogaert &Kouwe in 1993 pro

  19. Nomenclature and databases for the surgical treatment of congenital cardiac disease - an updated primer and an analysis of opportunities for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl Lewis; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G.; Tchervenkov, Christo I.; Franklin, Rodney C. G.; Beland, Marie J.; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Walters, Hal; Bacha, Emile A.; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Krogmann, Otto N.; Aiello, Vera D.; Colan, Steven D.; Weinberg, Paul; Giroud, Jorge M.; Everett, Allen; Wernovsky, Gil; Elliott, Martin J.; Edwards, Fred H.

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis Of Outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay

  20. Nomenclature and databases for the surgical treatment of congenital cardiac disease - an updated primer and an analysis of opportunities for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Mavroudis, Constantine; Backer, Carl Lewis; Lacour-Gayet, Francois G.; Tchervenkov, Christo I.; Franklin, Rodney C. G.; Beland, Marie J.; Jenkins, Kathy J.; Walters, Hal; Bacha, Emile A.; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Clarke, David Robinson; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Stellin, Giovanni; Ebels, Tjark; Krogmann, Otto N.; Aiello, Vera D.; Colan, Steven D.; Weinberg, Paul; Giroud, Jorge M.; Everett, Allen; Wernovsky, Gil; Elliott, Martin J.; Edwards, Fred H.

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the historical aspects, current state of the art, and potential future advances in the areas of nomenclature and databases for the analysis Of Outcomes of treatments for patients with congenitally malformed hearts. We will consider the current state of analysis of outcomes, lay

  1. Agentes complexantes: podante, coronante e criptante classificação e nomenclatura Complexing agents: podands, coronands and cryptands classification and nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Lin Whei

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and practical interest in crown ethers as complexing agents for actions as well as for anions and neutral low molecular species is undeniable. New molecules with crown ether properties are constantly synthesized and new application discovered. This paper presents classification and nomenclature of the classical oligoethers (crown ethers: monocyclic coronands; oligocyclic spherical cryptands; and acyclic podands.

  2. Symmetry elements in space groups and point groups. Addenda to two IUCr reports on the nomenclature of symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, H D; Wondratschek, H; Hahn, T; Abrahams, S C

    2000-01-01

    The definition of 'symmetry element' given in the Report of the IUCr Ad-Hoc Committee on the Nomenclature of Symmetry by de Wolff et al. [Acta Cryst. (1989). A45, 494-499] is shown to contain an ambiguity in the case of space groups P6/m, P6/mmm, P6/mcc and point groups 6/m and 6/mmm. The ambiguity is removed by redefining the 'geometric element' as a labelled geometric item in which the label is related to the rotation angle of the rotation or rotoinversion symmetry operation. The complete set of different types of glide plane is shown to contain three more than the 15 that are illustrated in the 1992 Report by de Wolff et al. [Acta Cryst. (1992). A48, 727-732].

  3. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  4. The type specimens, type localities and nomenclature of Sarcoramphus vultures (Aves: Cathartidae), with a note on their speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2015-02-13

    A nomenclatural review of Sarcoramphus vultures resulted in the following: The genus Sarcoramphus was described by Duméril in 1805 rather than 1806. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, is the type of Sarcoramphus by subsequent monotypy (Froriep in Duméril 1806), not by Vigors's (1825) designation. The type of the genus Gypagus Vieillot, 1816, is, by monotypy, Vultur gryphus Linnaeus, 1758, not Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758. Due to this, Gypagus is a junior objective synonym of Vultur Linnaeus, 1758. Gyparchus was created by Gloger (1841) as a new genus for Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758, not as an emendation of Gypagus Vieillot, 1816. Vultur papa Linnaeus, 1758 was found to be possibly based on syntypes from two different taxa and a lectotype is here designated. The author of Vultur sacer is Zimmermann (in Bartram 1793), not Cassin (1853). Possible speciation events in the genus Sarcoramphus are also discussed.

  5. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neubauer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms.

  6. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  7. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manjunatha Kini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation.

  8. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Arthur; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Burris, Thomas P; Cidlowski, John A; Olsen, Richard W; Peters, John A; Neubig, Richard R; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sexton, Patrick M; Kenakin, Terry P; Ehlert, Frederick J; Spedding, Michael; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties.

  9. The MHC class I genes of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, Hayley; McConnell, Sean C; Yoder, Jeffrey A; de Jong, Jill L O

    2014-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the immune response and in the recognition of non-self. Found in all jawed vertebrate species, including zebrafish and other teleosts, MHC genes are considered the most polymorphic of all genes. In this review we focus on the multi-faceted diversity of zebrafish MHC class I genes, which are classified into three sequence lineages: U, Z, and L. We examine the polygenic, polymorphic, and haplotypic diversity of the zebrafish MHC class I genes, discussing known and postulated functional differences between the different class I lineages. In addition, we provide the first comprehensive nomenclature for the L lineage genes in zebrafish, encompassing at least 15 genes, and characterize their sequence properties. Finally, we discuss how recent findings have shed new light on the remarkably diverse MHC loci of this species.

  10. Identificación y análisis de los líderes de opinión en Twitter en torno a Hugo Chávez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Deltell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación interdisciplinar realizada por varias universidades y departamentos de materias y campos de estudio diversos. Objetivos. Los objetivos son descubrir a los líderes de opinión en torno a la figura de Hugo Chávez creados en Twitter durante el período de la muestra, analizar el comportamiento de los usuarios de este espacio de microblogging y demostrar si en la actualidad se desarrolla una ciberdemocracia plena o la autocomunicación de masas. Metodología. En ella se han monitorizado todos los tuits que incluían los identificadores Chávez, Chavez, @chávez y @chavez en Twitter; se ha analizado el flujo de tuits diariamente desde el 5 de enero hasta el 13 de abril de 2013 (UTC/GMT - 4 y se ha conformado el mayor corpus de estos mensajes en lengua española sobre un tema político latinoamericano presentados en estudios científicos, con un total de 16.943.709 tuits y de 8.450.049 usuarios. Conclusión. Este estudio plantea que aún no existe una autocomunicación de masas plena.

  11. Sin pan y con trabajo en la Argentina de entresiglos (sobre las escenas de iniciación a las prácticas literarias en Lucio V. Mansilla, Horacio Quiroga y Hugo Wast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Laera

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo propone un recorrido somero por la historia de la profesionalización del escritor en Argentina, a través de la lectura de tres textos autobiográficos escritos entre finales de la década de 1880 y 1930: una causerie de Lucio V. Mansilla, el diario del viaje a París de Horacio Quiroga y las memorias de Hugo Wast. La elección apunta a leer un proceso de transformación con sus inflexiones, superposiciones, emergencias y residuos, para revisar a partir de allí las relaciones que la literatura entabla con el dinero por medio de modalidades tan diversas como el trabajo periodístico, la colaboración free-lance o la escritura de best-sellers, aunque siempre reunidas bajo una figura común: el hambre en vinculación con la escena de iniciación al mundo de las letras.

  12. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garth R; Hem, Vichet; Katz, Kenneth S; Ovetsky, Michael; Wallin, Craig; Ermolaeva, Olga; Tolstoy, Igor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Pruitt, Kim D; Maglott, Donna R; Murphy, Terence D

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  13. Report on botanical nomenclature—Vienna 2005. XVII International Botanical Congress, Vienna: Nomenclature Section, 12–16 July 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Flann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available PrefaceThis is the official Report on the deliberations and decisions of the ten sessions of the Nomenclature Section of the XVII International Botanical Congress held in Vienna, Austria, from 12–16 July 2005. The meetings of the Section took place on these five consecutive days prior to the Congress proper. The Section meetings were hosted by the Institute of Botany, University of Vienna, Austria. Technical facilities included full electronic recording of all discussion spoken into the microphones. Text of all proposals to amend the Code was displayed on one screen allowing suggested amendments to be updated as appropriate. The team at the University of Vienna (Christopher Dixon, Jeong-Mi Park, Ovidiu Paun, Carolin A. Redernig and Dieter Reich ensured that the proceedings ran smoothly and enjoyably for all.A report of the decisions of the Section was published soon after the Congress (McNeill & al. in Taxon 54: 1057–1064. 2005. It includes a tabulation of the preliminary mail vote on the published proposals, specifying how the Section acted on each and detailing amendments and new proposals approved upon motions from the floor. It also includes the report of the Nominating Committee as well as the Congress resolution ratifying the Section’s decisions, neither reproduced here. The main result of the Section’s deliberations is the Vienna Code, which was published as Regnum Vegetabile 146, on 20 Sep 2006 (McNeill & al. in Regnum Veg. 146. 2006. It was also published online, on the same date (see http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php.The present report of the proceedings of the Vienna Nomenclature Section conveys, we believe, a true and lively picture of the event. It is primarily based on the MP3 electronic recordings, with, where necessary, supplementation by the comment slips submitted by most speakers and by reference to parallel tape-recording, particularly where there were gaps in the MP3 record. With these sources combined, and

  14. Nomenclatural changes in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae, with the description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclatural changes are made in three previously described genera in the planthopper tribe Hemisphaeriini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae: Issinae, viz Gergithus Stål, 1870, Mongoliana Distant, 1909 and Hemisphaeroides Melichar, 1903. In addition, a new genus, Gnezdilovius gen. nov., with Gergithus lineatus Kato, 1933 as its type species, is described for 40 species formerly included in Gergithus, and the generic characteristics of the latter genus is revised. One new species, Gergithus frontilongus sp. nov. from China (Yunnan, is described and illustrated. One additional Gergithus species, previously misidentified as G. signatifrons Melichar, 1906 from Siberut Island, is mentioned and illustrated. Gergithus contusus Walker, 1851 is transferred to Mongoliana and Hemisphaerius atromaculatus Distant, 1916 and H. fuscoclypeatus Distant, 1916 are transferred to Hemisphaeroides. Checklists for all four genera are provided detailing the nomenclatural changes and a key to the 19 genera of Hemisphaeriini is provided. Morphological diversity and distribution of the genera are briefly discussed.

  15. Isolation and characterization of MUC15, a novel cell membrane-associated mucin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Berglund, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Kjær

    2002-01-01

    The present work reports isolation and characterization of a highly glycosylated protein from bovine milk fat globule membranes, known as PAS III. Partial amino-acid sequencing of the purified protein allowed construction of degenerate oligonucleotide primers, enabling isolation of a full-length c......-like protein was named MUC15 by appointment of the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. The deduced amino-acid sequences of human and bovine MUC15 demonstrated structural hallmarks characteristic for other membrane-bound mucins, such as a serine, threonine, and proline-rich extracellular region with several...

  16. Electronic publication of new animal names - An interview with Frank-T. Krell, Commissioner of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and Chair of the ICZN ZooBank Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On the 4th September 2012 the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature announced an amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature allowing for electronic publication of the scientific names of animals. In this interview Frank-T. Krell discusses the implications of this amendment for authors wishing to publish descriptions of newly identified animal species in online and open access journals, and for the future of taxonomic science. PMID:22978411

  17. On the taxonomy and the nomenclature of Achillea ceretanica (Asteraceae, and its relationship with another microtaxon from the A. millefolium complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Soriano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the species and a subsequent nomenclatural combination are proposed for Achillea ceretanica, a diploid taxon endemic of eastern Pyrenees included in the A. millefolium complex. Synonymisation of A. monticola Martrin-Donos with A. ceretanica is refuted, given that the first is a clearly distinct octoploid lineage of the complex. Some comments on distribution, ecology and frequency of both are added.

  18. Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: A story of gene gain and gene loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paton Ian R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs perform a vital role in disease resistance through their recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Recent advances in genomics allow comparison of TLR genes within and between many species. This study takes advantage of the recently sequenced chicken genome to determine the complete chicken TLR repertoire and place it in context of vertebrate genomic evolution. Results The chicken TLR repertoire consists of ten genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that six of these genes have orthologs in mammals and fish, while one is only shared by fish and three appear to be unique to birds. Furthermore the phylogeny shows that TLR1-like genes arose independently in fish, birds and mammals from an ancestral gene also shared by TLR6 and TLR10. All other TLRs were already present prior to the divergence of major vertebrate lineages 550 Mya (million years ago and have since been lost in certain lineages. Phylogenetic analysis shows the absence of TLRs 8 and 9 in chicken to be the result of gene loss. The notable exception to the tendency of gene loss in TLR evolution is found in chicken TLRs 1 and 2, each of which underwent gene duplication about 147 and 65 Mya, respectively. Conclusion Comparative phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate TLR genes provides insight into their patterns and processes of gene evolution, with examples of both gene gain and gene loss. In addition, these comparisons clarify the nomenclature of TLR genes in vertebrates.

  19. Disorders of sex development in the dog-Adoption of a new nomenclature and reclassification of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, T; Breuer, W; Walter, B; Hecht, W; Hermanns, W

    2010-09-01

    Intersexuality is a rare congenital abnormality in domestic animals. It is reported in numerous species including the swine, goat, horse, cat, and dog. The present work provides an overview of the variety of intersexual conditions known in different dog breeds. Each case was reclassified based on the described gonadal constitution, reproductive tract abnormalities and karyogram, and categorised according to the stages normal sex development is undergoing resulting in three main categories: (1) sex chromosome disorders, (2) disorders of gonadal sex development, and (3) disorders of phenotypic sex development. Reclassification disclosed that the current classification scheme and terminology are inconsistently used in literature masking the real occurrence and frequency of various intersex conditions in dogs. For establishment of an individual, precise and definite diagnosis, introduction of a new nomenclature is proposed as recently recommended for humans. The new terminology is based on the gonosomal constellation and gonadal constitution, contributes to a systematic classification of canine intersex cases, and replaces the common but confusing diagnoses "true hermaphrodite" and "pseudohermaphrodite". The literature survey was supplemented by adding the results from own investigations in a German Pinscher and Berger Picard dog with bilateral ovotestes and ambiguous external genitalia. The diagnostic approach and clinical, pathomorphological and cytogenetic findings were described in detail.

  20. A conspectus of Combretum (Combretaceae in southern Africa, with taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on species and sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jordaan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two subgenera of Combretum Loefl. occur in the Flora of southern Africa (FSA region. Previous sectional classifications were assessed in view of molecular evidence and accordingly modified. Ten sections in subgen. Combretum, 25 species and eight subspecies are recognized. Subgen. Cacoucia (Aubl. Exell & Stace comprises four sections and seven species. C. engleri Schinz, C. paniculatum Vent. and C. tenuipes Engl. & Diels are reinstated as distinct species separate from C. schumannii Engl., C. microphyllum Klotzsch and C. padoides Engl. & Diels, respectively. C. schumannii occurs outside the FSA region. Records of C. adenogonium Steud. ex A.Rich., C. platypetalum Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. oatesii (Rolfe Exell and subsp. baumii (Engl. & Gilg Exell in Botswana are doubtful. C. celastroides Welw. ex M.A.Lawson subsp. orientale Exell is elevated to species level as C. patelliforme Engl. & Diels. C. grandifolium F.Hoffm. is reduced to C. psidioides Welw. subsp. grandifolium (F.Hoffm. Jordaan. Twenty-six names are lectotypified. The type, a full synonymy, other nomenclatural and taxonomic information, the full distribution range and a distribution map are provided for each taxon. Selected specimens examined are given for poorly known species. Keys to subgenera, sections and species are provided.

  1. The FIGO systems for nomenclature and classification of causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years: who needs them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Malcolm G; Critchley, Hilary O D; Fraser, Ian S

    2012-10-01

    In November 2010, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics formally accepted a new classification system for causes of abnormal uterine bleeding in the reproductive years. The system, based on the acronym PALM-COEIN (polyps, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia-coagulopathy, ovulatory disorders, endometrial causes, iatrogenic, not classified) was developed in response to concerns about the design and interpretation of basic science and clinical investigation that relates to the problem of abnormal uterine bleeding. A system of nomenclature for the description of normal uterine bleeding and the various symptoms that comprise abnormal bleeding has also been included. This article describes the rationale, the structured methods that involved stakeholders worldwide, and the suggested use of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics system for research, education, and clinical care. Investigators in the field are encouraged to use the system in the design of their abnormal uterine bleeding-related research because it is an approach that should improve our understanding and management of this often perplexing clinical condition.

  2. Review of the genus Lanchnophorus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae) with description of three new species and other nomenclatural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Carapezza, Attilio; Jindra, Zdeněk; Kondorosy, Előd

    2017-01-25

    The generic name Lanchnophorus Reuter, 1887, deemed for a long time to be unavailable as incorrect original spelling of Lachnophorus (in fact Lachnophorus Distant, 1903 is an unjustified emendation of the former), is restored as a valid name of the genus. Lachnesthus Bergroth, 1915, syn. nov. (new name for the preoccupied Lachnophorus Distant, 1903) is considered junior synonym of Lanchnophorus. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Lanchnophorus flavus (Scudder, 1971) comb. nov. = Lachnesthus chinai Scudder, nomen nudum; Lanchnophorus guttulatus Reuter, 1887, comb. restit. = Lachnophorus albidomaculatus Distant, 1913, syn. nov. = Lachnesthus rodriguezensis China, 1925, syn. nov.; Lanchnophorus leucospilus (Walker, 1872) comb. nov.; Lanchnophorus merula (Distant, 1903) comb. nov.; and Lanchnophorus singalensis (Dohrn, 1860) comb. nov. Three new species are described: Lanchnophorus gaoqingae Kment & Jindra sp. nov. from China (Yunnan), Lanchnophorus seminitens Kment & Carapezza sp. nov. from Socotra Island (Yemen), and Lanchnophorus webbi Kondorosy sp. nov. from India: Tamil Nadu. Bibliographies and known distribution of all the included species are reviewed. The following new country and state records are provided: L. flavus from Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Niger, Zambia and Zimbabwe; L. leucospilus from China (Yunnan) and Laos, L. merula from India (Kerala/Tamil Nadu) and Thailand; L. singalensis from Angola, Benin, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, China (Hainan), Iran (Sistan and Ba-luchestan), Oman, Pakistan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan), Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

  3. A New Nomenclature of Xenopus laevis Chromosomes Based on the Phylogenetic Relationship to Silurana/Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Kondo, Mariko; Gilchrist, Michael J; Zorn, Aaron M; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmid, Michael; Taira, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus laevis (XLA) is an allotetraploid species which appears to have undergone whole-genome duplication after the interspecific hybridization of 2 diploid species closely related to Silurana/Xenopus tropicalis (XTR). Previous cDNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments have identified 9 sets of homoeologous chromosomes in X. laevis, in which 8 sets correspond to chromosomes 1-8 of X. tropicalis (XTR1-XTR8), and the last set corresponds to a fusion of XTR9 and XTR10. In addition, recent X. laevis genome sequencing and BAC-FISH experiments support this physiological relationship and show no gross chromosome translocation in the X. laevis karyotype. Therefore, for the benefit of both comparative cytogenetics and genome research, we here propose a new chromosome nomenclature for X. laevis based on the phylogenetic relationship and chromosome length, i.e. XLA1L, XLA1S, XLA2L, XLA2S, and so on, in which the numbering of XLA chromosomes corresponds to that in X. tropicalis and the postfixes 'L' and 'S' stand for 'long' and 'short' chromosomes in the homoeologous pairs, which can be distinguished cytologically by their relative size. The last chromosome set is named XLA9L and XLA9S, in which XLA9 corresponds to both XTR9 and XTR10, and hence, to emphasize the phylogenetic relationship to X. tropicalis, XLA9_10L and XLA9_10S are also used as synonyms.

  4. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  5. Phylogeny and nomenclature of the genus Talaromyces and taxa accommodated in Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.;

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing that Talarom......The taxonomic history of anamorphic species attributed to Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium is reviewed, along with evidence supporting their relationship with teleomorphic species classified in Talaromyces. To supplement previous conclusions based on ITS, SSU and/or LSU sequencing...... that Talaromyces and subgenus Biverticillium comprise a monophyletic group that is distinct from Penicillium at the generic level, the phylogenetic relationships of these two groups with other genera of Trichocomaceae was further studied by sequencing a part of the RPB1 (RNA polymerase II largest subunit) gene....... Talaromyces species and most species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium sensu Pitt reside in a monophyletic clade distant from species of other subgenera of Penicillium. For detailed phylogenetic analysis of species relationships, the ITS region (incl. 5.8S nrDNA) was sequenced for the available type...

  6. Ancient signals: comparative genomics of plant MAPK and MAPKK gene families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Nicole, Marie-Claude; Sritubtim, Somrudee;

    2006-01-01

    MAPK signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants, and their components are encoded by highly conserved genes. The recent availability of genome sequences for rice and poplar now makes it possible to examine how well the previously described...... Arabidopsis MAPK and MAPKK gene family structures represent the broader evolutionary situation in plants, and analysis of gene expression data for MPK and MKK genes in all three species allows further refinement of those families, based on functionality. The Arabidopsis MAPK nomenclature appears sufficiently...... robust to allow it to be usefully extended to other well-characterized plant systems....

  7. Study of Two Colorectal Cancer Negatively Related Genes%两个大肠癌负相关新基因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑树; 曹江; 张苏展; 蔡心涵; 耿礼义; 方永明; 彭佳萍; 叶景佳; 胡晓晔; 董琦

    2001-01-01

    [Purpose]To search previously uncertained factors that correlatedwith the occurrence and development of human colorectal cancer.To study the structure and function of the two colorectal cancer negatively related genes.[Methods]Enhanced fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was used in chromosome localization.The function of novel genes were studied by Dot blot,Northern blot,RT-PCR-ELISA,in situ hybridization,immunohistochemistry and in vivo and in vitro transfection trial.[Result]The structure and function studies of SNC6 and SNC19 genes were carried out.The full length cDNA of SNC6 and SNC19 was 3168bp and 3152bp respectively.The chromosomal localization of SNC6 and SNC19 was in 22q13 and 11q24 respectively.There was 12 exons and 11 introns in the SNC6 gene.The SNC6 and SNC19 genes were respectively nominated as ST13 and ST14 by HUGO Nomenclature Committee,and were assigned to Human Genome Maps.The expression level of SNC6 was lower in colorectal cancer than that in normal intestinal mucosa,and was varied in different cancer cell lines and tissues.The mono-antibody of SNC6 was obtained.The similar results of the expression of SNC6 gene were detected by protein and nucleotide level.It is identified that SNC6 gene could inhibit growth of colorectal cancer cell in vivo and in vitro.It is elucidated that SNC19 encodes a novel human serine protease.[Conclusion] SNC6 and SNC19 gene can be further investigated as a novel colorectal negatively related gene.%[目的]在分子水平寻找与人大肠癌的发生发展相关的新的因素,研究两个大肠癌负相关基因的结构与功能。[方法]采用强化荧光原位杂交(FISH),进行两个新大肠癌基因染色体定位。通过Dotblot、Northern blot、RT-PCR-ELISA,免疫组化及体内外转染实验进行新基因功能研究。[结果]已完成两个新基因的全长cDNA序列分析及染色体定位等结构研究,并进行了两基因的核酸与蛋白表达研究及功能研究。SNC6

  8. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  9. Greengenes: Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible in ARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, T.Z.; Hugenholtz, P.; Larsen, N.; Rojas, M.; Brodie,E.L; Keller, K.; Huber, T.; Dalevi, D.; Hu, P.; Andersen, G.L.

    2006-02-01

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that incongruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3% of environmental sequences and 0.2% of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  10. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases——Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, TypeControlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅱ)——Multi-stage Continuity and Nomenclature by Main Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    The generation of natural gases involves several stages and the various stages are of continuous transition. This is another feature of natural gas generation. The term "multi-stage" is relative mainly to oil-generating threshold value and liquid window. The evolution of organic matter is affected by different epigene agencies and natural gases differing in geochemical properties such as biogenic gas (bacterial gas), thermocatalytic gas and pyrolytic gas could be produced at different stages of the evolution of organic matter. The proposal of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas presents a pattern of mutual linking and continuous transition of natural gases originated at different stages.In the genetic classification of natural gases, the nomenclature of a certain gas is based mainly on the epigene agency which is responsible for its formation, for example, biogenic gas, pyrolytic gas. That is the "nomenclature by the main stage" described in this study. On account of the continuity of gas generati

  11. Elucidating Article 45.6 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: a dichotomous key for the determination of subspecific or infrasubspecific rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingafelter, Steven W; Nearns, Eugenio H

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the difficulties sometimes encountered when determining whether a published name following a binomen is available or infrasubspecific and unavailable, following Article 45.6 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, 1999). We propose a dichotomous key that facilitates this determination and as a preferable method, given the convoluted and subordinate discussion, exceptions, and qualifications laid out in ICZN (1999: 49-50). Examples and citations are provided for each case one can encounter while making this assessment of availability status of names following the binomen.

  12. An update on the distribution and nomenclature of fleas (Order Siphonaptera) of bats (Order Chiroptera) and rodents (Order Rodentia) from La Rioja Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, M. Fernanda López; Sánchez, R. Tatiana; Barquez, Ruben M.; Díaz, M. Monica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina. PMID:28769701

  13. ANDRÉS BELLO Y SUS TRADUCCIONES DE VICTOR HUGO: UN EJEMPLO ILUSTRATIVO DEL PROCESO DE CONSTRUCCIÓN DE LAS NUEVAS LITERATURAS AMERICANAS EN EL PROCESO DE INDEPENDENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La doble condición de poeta-traductor de numerosos escritores latinoamericanos durante el proceso de Independencia de las Américas (principios siglo XIX propició una función activa en la creación de nuevos cánones literarios. Andrés Bello (Caracas, 1781-Santiago de Chile, 1865 es un ilustrativo ejemplo de ello. En efecto, su búsqueda de una autonomía literaria se manifestó no sólo en sus poemas originales, como en el caso de Alocución a la Poesía (1826 y La agricultura de la Zona Tórrida (1826 donde propone su proyecto e ideal poético, sino también en sus traducciones e imitaciones, especialmente las de poesía francesa. Siguiendo esta orientación, podría decirse que su actividad traductora fue, en cierto modo, un camino para construir una nueva literatura, pues con frecuencia usó el modelo original sólo como punto de partida para crear nueva obra. Palabras clave: Andrés Bello, Traducción literaria, Traducción e Independencia en Latinoamérica, Poeta-traductor. ANDRÉS BELLO AND HIS TRANSLATIONS OF VICTOR HUGO: AN ILLUSTRATIVE EXEMPLE OF THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS OF THE NEW LATINAMERICAN LITERATURES DURING THE INDEPENDENCE'S PROCESS. Summary The poet-translator dual role of many Latin American writers during the Independence of the Americas (early nineteenth century led to the creation of new literary canons. Andrés Bello (Caracas, 1781-Santiago de Chile, 1865 is an illustrative example. Indeed, his search for literary autonomy is manifested not only in his original poems, for example Alocución a la Poesía (1826 and La agricultura de la Zona Tórrida (1826 where he proposed his project and poetic ideal, but also in his translations and imitations, especially of French poetry. Following this approach, his translation activity was, in a sense, a way to build up a new literature, by using often the original model only as a starting point to create a new literary work. Keywords: Andrés Bello, literary translation

  14. Suggested nomenclature for landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, D.M.; Novograd, S.; Pilot, G.A.; Krauter, E.; Bhandari, R.K.; Cotecchia, V.; Nakamura, H.; Okagbue, C.O.; Zhuoyuan , Zhang; Hutchinson, J.N.; Varnes, D.J.; Ter-Stepanian, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEG Commission on Landslides and other Mass Movements on Slopes has proposed English and French names for 19 identifiable features of slope movements and for 7 dimensions of those features. The Commission intends to publish this list in other languages and to supplement and revise it from time to time.

  15. Contemporary soaring nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenko, S. O.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable technical progress took place during the past two decades in the field of soaring. In contrast, basic terminology in many languages is lagging seriously. English, one of the leading languages, is no exception. Because of this situation, misunderstandings occur which under some circumstances may result in undesirable consequences, hindering further technical developments as well as soaring activities. Definitions were established and compiled by mid-1973, followed by minor additions (1974 and 1977).

  16. Gene Ontology-Based Analysis of Zebrafish Omics Data Using the Web Tool Comparative Gene Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Fruzangohar, Mario; Moussavi Nik, Seyyed Hani; Newman, Morgan

    2017-09-05

    Gene Ontology (GO) analysis is a powerful tool in systems biology, which uses a defined nomenclature to annotate genes/proteins within three categories: "Molecular Function," "Biological Process," and "Cellular Component." GO analysis can assist in revealing functional mechanisms underlying observed patterns in transcriptomic, genomic, and proteomic data. The already extensive and increasing use of zebrafish for modeling genetic and other diseases highlights the need to develop a GO analytical tool for this organism. The web tool Comparative GO was originally developed for GO analysis of bacterial data in 2013 ( www.comparativego.com ). We have now upgraded and elaborated this web tool for analysis of zebrafish genetic data using GOs and annotations from the Gene Ontology Consortium.

  17. A report on Lecanidae (Rotifera: Monogononta from Andhra Pradesh, India, including six new distribution records with notes on their contemporary taxonomic nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Siddiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lecane-species complex taxonomy the world over, witnessed a state of flux, causing confusion and controversies, among world taxonomists over the treatment of various subgenera, taxa and sub and or infraspecific categories of the species rich genus Lecane Nitzsch 1827, on the basis of structure/shape of key, morphological features like foot/toes, lorica, etc. The taxonomic scenario in India, relying heavily on the classical, divergent taxonomic approaches presented a picture of more chaos/confusion, following poor accessibility to contemporary revisionary studies until the recent past. Despite revisionary studies across the world, a few notable Indian studies continued to be burdened with old nomenclature. This short communication reports for the first time ever, 33 valid species of lecanid rotifers (Lecanidae, including six new distributional records from Greater Hyderabad region and the entire state of Andhra Pradesh too with comments on their current nomenclature. Further, limnobiological correlation between five physicochemical parameters and rotifer associations revealed, L. bulla, L. closterocerca, L. hamata, L. ludwigi, L. luna and L. papuana as euryokous species, showing tolerance to a wide range of abiotic factors and habitats too.

  18. Nomenclature and diagnosis of gluten-related disorders: A position statement by the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Villalta, Danilo; Roncoroni, Leda; Barisani, Donatella; Ferrero, Stefano; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Valiante, Flavio; Tomba, Carolina; Carroccio, Antonio; Bellini, Massimo; Soncini, Marco; Cannizzaro, Renato; Leandro, Gioacchino

    2017-02-01

    "Gluten-related disorders" is a term that encompasses different diseases induced by the ingestion of gluten-containing food. Because of their incidence the scientific community has been intensively studying them. To support gastroenterologists with a correct nomenclature and diagnostic approach to gluten-related disorders in adulthood. The Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists (AIGO) commissioned a panel of experts to prepare a position statement clarifying the nomenclature and diagnosis of gluten-related disorders, focusing on those of gastroenterological interest. Each member was assigned a task and levels of evidence/recommendation have been proposed. The panel identified celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity as the gluten-related disorders of gastroenterological interest. Celiac disease has an autoimmune nature, wheat allergy is IgE-mediated while the pathogenesis of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still unknown as is the case of non-IgE mediated allergy. Diagnosis should start with the serological screening for celiac disease and wheat allergy. In case of normal values, the response to a gluten-free diet should be evaluated and a confirmatory blind food challenge carried out. Gluten-related disorders are clinically heterogeneous. Patients should be carefully managed and specific protocols applied for a correct differential diagnosis in gastroenterological setting. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. General Aspects and First Progress Report on a Frame of a Research on Specific Professional Knowledge of Chemistry Teachers Associated with the Notion of Chemical Nomenclature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Andrés Perafán Echeverri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of research about professional teacher’s knowledge, our business is to identify and to characterize with case study method, a kind of specific professional teacher´s knowledge of Chemistry professorate, associated to the chemical nomenclature notion. This kind of research guides the sight to the teaching contents, but it postulates the teacher as an essential actor of that knowledge, rather than ignore of the other actors (didactic community, researchers, specialists, students, etc. our research realizes the specific construction that the teacher makes, beyond the «spontaneous epistemologies» category, between others, which seems to deny an academic and discipline character of the built knowledge by the teachers. First, we show a brief reference to the research program on professional teacher´s knowledge which frames in the development of research line about Specific Professional Teacher´s Knowledge associated with Particular Categories, which belongs to the research group «Por las Aulas Colombianas- INVAUCOL». After that, we show a short justification about the choice of the particular category: chemical nomenclature, as a studied object, besides the historical importance that it has to the professional teaching consolidation, recognizing the teacher´s specific contributions to discipline body construction of school knowledge. Finally, weset in consideration some general methodological criteria defined in this research, and we show too, some preliminary reflections derived from field work in thepresent state of the project.

  20. 重视葡萄膜炎专业术语的规范化%Pay attention to the standardization of uveitis nomenclature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张婧

    2013-01-01

    Uveitis is multiple disease entities with complicated causes and various manifestations.To better understand and compare the severity and improve multi centers clinical research,standardized nomenclature and grade is needed.Based on the result of Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature working group,this paper briefly introduce the classification,onset and course,inflammation grading,diagnosis standard for complications.%葡萄膜炎是一组病因复杂表现各异的疾病,为统一诊断标准、促进多中心的临床研究,需要有规范化的专业术语及标准.本文以国际葡萄膜炎术语标准化工作组确定的描述标准为基础,从葡萄膜炎的分类、发病及病程、炎症严重程度、并发症的诊断标准等方面进行了简要介绍.

  1. Second generation sequencing of three STRs D3S1358, D12S391 and D21S11 in Danes and a new nomenclature for sequenced STR alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Chiara; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Dalsgaard, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) may revolutionize the field of forensic STR typing. Two of the essential requirements for implementation of an SGS based approach for forensic investigations are (1) establishment of adequate frequency databases and (2) adoption of a new STR nomenclature. We...... report the STR sequences and allele frequencies of three STR loci: D3S1358, D12S391 and D21S11 in 197 unrelated Danes. We used a new STR nomenclature that depicts the locus name used in forensic genetics, the length of the repeat region divided by the repeat length (typically 4 nucleotides) and detailed...

  2. El género Dasya (Rhodophyta, Dasyaceae) en la península Ibérica y las islas Baleares: revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural

    OpenAIRE

    Pena Martín, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión taxonómica y nomenclatural de las especies del género Dasya presentes en la península Ibérica y las islas Baleares. Dasya es un género complejo, en el que existe una gran confusión nomenclatural y taxonómica. Nuestro estudio ha permitido resolver estas cuestiones para las especies de la zona geográfica considerada. En primer lugar, se ha comprobado la validez de los nombres y precisado las sinonimias y tipificaciones para cada uno de los táxones citados...

  3. Foto, druzhba, Hugo Boss / Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Ars Baltica fototriennalist "Don't Worry - Be Curious" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Oma töid esitavad 20 kunstnikku Skandinaaviast ja Baltimaadest. Pikemalt Katrin Teesi, lätlase Kaspars Goba ja soomlase Anu Pennaneni töödest

  4. Foto, druzhba, Hugo Boss / Julia Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Ars Baltica fototriennalist "Don't Worry - Be Curious" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Oma töid esitavad 20 kunstnikku Skandinaaviast ja Baltimaadest. Pikemalt Katrin Teesi, lätlase Kaspars Goba ja soomlase Anu Pennaneni töödest

  5. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  6. Second generation sequencing of three STRs D3S1358, D12S391 and D21S11 in Danes and a new nomenclature for sequenced STR alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Chiara; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Dalsgaard, Sigrun;

    2014-01-01

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) may revolutionize the field of forensic STR typing. Two of the essential requirements for implementation of an SGS based approach for forensic investigations are (1) establishment of adequate frequency databases and (2) adoption of a new STR nomenclature. We...

  7. Nomenclatural notes on the genus Pteranthus (Caryophyllaceae) with lectotypification of the name Camphorosma pteanthus and Pteranthus trigynus, and comments on Forsskål's seeds sent from Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Dulio; Friis, Ib; Jarvis, Charles;

    2015-01-01

    The nomenclatural history of the genus Pteranthus ( Caryophyllaceae) is reviewed. Original material of Camphorosma pteranthus and Pteranthus dichotomus came from a single gathering made by Forsskål in the desert outside Cairo, Egypt, in March 1762. The original material of C. pteranthus was grown...

  8. Nomenclatural notes on the Eurytomids (Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae) described by Jean Brèthes housed in Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michael W

    2014-04-16

    Ten Eurytomidae (Hymenoptera) parasitic wasp species described by Jean Brèthes and deposited in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales in Buenos Aires are treated and their nomenclature stabilized. The condition of the type material is described. Lectotypes are designated for Decatoma cecidosiphaga Brèthes, Prodecatoma parodii Brèthes, Eudecatoma opposita Brèthes, and Eurytoma caridei Brèthes. One new generic synonymy, Xanthosomodes Brèthes with Tetramesa Walker, n. syn., and five new combinations are proposed: Tetramesa albiangulata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Phylloxeroxenus caridei (Brèthes), n. comb.; Aximopsis vulgata (Brèthes), n. comb.; Proseurytoma parodii (Brèthes), n. comb.; and Bruchophagus opposita (Brèthes), n. comb. Sycophila paranensis Brèthes is declared incertae sedis.

  9. The rediscovery of Youngia atripappa (Babc. N. Kilian in India after a century; its circumscription and nomenclature and the lectotypification of Crepis atripappa Babc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentu Kumar DEY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nomenclature and typification of Crepis gracilis Hook. f. & Thomson ex C.B. Clarke, C. atripappa Babc.,Youngia gracilis Hook. f. ex Babc. & Stebbins Youngia stebbinsiana S.Y. Hu and Y. atripappa (Babc. N. Kilian are discussed. Y. atripappa (Babc. N. Kilian is considered as correct name for the species following Kilian’s observation. The status of remaining names is also ascertained. Typification of Crepis atripappa Babc. is analyzed and the name is lectotypified following provisions of the present Code. Information on the rediscovery of the species after 105 years from India as well as of its type locality is provided. Population estimation was carried out in three successive years, from 2013 to 2015. Detailed description, illustrations, field photographs with related data are also provided for proper circumscription and to facilitate its correct as well as easy identification.

  10. Nomenclature- and Database-Compatible Names for the Two Ebola Virus Variants that Emerged in Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens H. Kuhn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV was identified as the etiological agent of a large and still expanding outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa and a much more confined EVD outbreak in Middle Africa. Epidemiological and evolutionary analyses confirmed that all cases of both outbreaks are connected to a single introduction each of EBOV into human populations and that both outbreaks are not directly connected. Coding-complete genomic sequence analyses of isolates revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by two novel EBOV variants, and initial clinical observations suggest that neither of them should be considered strains. Here we present consensus decisions on naming for both variants (West Africa: “Makona”, Middle Africa: “Lomela” and provide database-compatible full, shortened, and abbreviated names that are in line with recently established filovirus sub-species nomenclatures.

  11. Nomenclature- and Database-Compatible Names for the Two Ebola Virus Variants that Emerged in Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Baize, Sylvain; Bào, Yīmíng; Bavari, Sina; Berthet, Nicolas; Blinkova, Olga; Brister, J. Rodney; Clawson, Anna N.; Fair, Joseph; Gabriel, Martin; Garry, Robert F.; Gire, Stephen K.; Goba, Augustine; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Günther, Stephan; Happi, Christian T.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Kobinger, Gary; Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Leroy, Eric M.; Maganga, Gael Darren; Mbala, Placide K.; Moses, Lina M.; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; N’Faly, Magassouba; Nichol, Stuart T.; Omilabu, Sunday A.; Palacios, Gustavo; Park, Daniel J.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schieffelin, John S.; Schoepp, Randal J.; Sealfon, Rachel; Swanepoel, Robert; Towner, Jonathan S.; Wada, Jiro; Wauquier, Nadia; Yozwiak, Nathan L.; Formenty, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the etiological agent of a large and still expanding outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa and a much more confined EVD outbreak in Middle Africa. Epidemiological and evolutionary analyses confirmed that all cases of both outbreaks are connected to a single introduction each of EBOV into human populations and that both outbreaks are not directly connected. Coding-complete genomic sequence analyses of isolates revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by two novel EBOV variants, and initial clinical observations suggest that neither of them should be considered strains. Here we present consensus decisions on naming for both variants (West Africa: “Makona”, Middle Africa: “Lomela”) and provide database-compatible full, shortened, and abbreviated names that are in line with recently established filovirus sub-species nomenclatures. PMID:25421896

  12. Taxonomical and nomenclatural notes on Centaurea: A proposal of classification, a description of new sections and subsections, and a species list of the redefined section Centaurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilpold, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of our long-date research on the genus Centaurea. The first part of the paper deals with the overall classification of the genus, which we propose to divide into three subgenera: subgenus Centaurea, subgenus Cyanus and subgenus Lopholoma. The second part of this publication gives a recopilation of the species of the redefined section Centaurea, a group that includes former sections Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis and Willkommia, together with taxonomical, geographical, ecological and karyological considerations. Finally, new descriptions or nomenclatural combinations are proposed to correlate nomenclature to the new classification: a new combination (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus is proposed in subgenus Lopholoma; three new sections (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus, and Hyerapolitanae are described in subgenus Centaurea; two subsections (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia in sect. Centaurea; and three subsections (subsects. Exarata, Jacea, and Subtilis in sect. Phrygia.En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones de larga fecha en el género Centaurea. La primera parte del trabajo trata de la clasificación del género, que proponemos dividir en tres subgéneros: subgénero Centaurea, subgénero Cyanus y subgénero Lopholoma. La segunda parte es una recopilación de las especies de la redefinida sección Centaurea, que incluye las antiguas secciones Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis y Willkommia, junto con consideraciones geográficas, ecológicas y cariológicas. Por último, proponemos nuevas secciones, subsecciones y combinaciones para correlacionar nomenclatura y clasificación: proponemos una nueva (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus en el subgénero Lopholoma; se describen tres secciones nuevas (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus y Hyerapolitanae en el subgénero Centaurea; dos subsecciones (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia en la secci

  13. On Ancient Chinese Chinese-date Classification Plant Words Nomenclature%古汉语枣类植物词命名研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建莉; 任晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Chinese-date classification words have three situations :Express Chinese-date .Chinese-date expressed general term ,whose nomenclatures were Chinese-date branchs with pricks .Chinese-date classi-fication words Refered in particular to were much more .Ancient times Chinese-date classification words grounds included form , colour , taste , job operation , function .Express non Chinese-date .The words formed by “Chinese-date” expressed non Chinese-date classification plants .Nomenclature depended on near relation between other plants and Chinese-dates ,shapes .Fabricate Chinese-date .The words formed by“Chinese-date” expressed legendary Chinese-dates .Some depended on fruit colour or place of production , some depended on theory about yinyang and wuxing .%枣类词分三种情况:枣类实指枣。表示泛称的“枣”,命名在于枣树枝有刺。表示特称的枣名很多,上古枣名理据包括形状、颜色、味道、加工方式、功用等类;枣类非指枣。以“枣”构成的词表示非枣类植物,命名取于他类植物与枣形有一定的近似关系;枣类虚指枣。以“枣”构成的词表示传说中的枣,或从果实之色、产地等取名;或从阴阳五行之说取名。

  14. A Combined Random Forest and OBIA Classification Scheme for Mapping Smallholder Agriculture at Different Nomenclature Levels Using Multisource Data (Simulated Sentinel-2 Time Series, VHRS and DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Lebourgeois

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-2 images are expected to improve global crop monitoring even in challenging tropical small agricultural systems that are characterized by high intra- and inter-field spatial variability and where satellite observations are disturbed by the presence of clouds. To overcome these constraints, we analyzed and optimized the performance of a combined Random Forest (RF classifier/object-based approach and applied it to multisource satellite data to produce land use maps of a smallholder agricultural zone in Madagascar at five different nomenclature levels. The RF classifier was first optimized by reducing the number of input variables. Experiments were then carried out to (i test cropland masking prior to the classification of more detailed nomenclature levels, (ii analyze the importance of each data source (a high spatial resolution (HSR time series, a very high spatial resolution (VHSR coverage and a digital elevation model (DEM and data type (spectral, textural or other, and (iii quantify their contributions to classification accuracy levels. The results show that RF classifier optimization allowed for a reduction in the number of variables by 1.5- to 6-fold (depending on the classification level and thus a reduction in the data processing time. Classification results were improved via the hierarchical approach at all classification levels, achieving an overall accuracy of 91.7% and 64.4% for the cropland and crop subclass levels, respectively. Spectral variables derived from an HSR time series were shown to be the most discriminating, with a better score for spectral indices over the reflectances. VHSR data were only found to be essential when implementing the segmentation of the area into objects and not for the spectral or textural features they can provide during classification.

  15. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part IV: Charles Henry Tyler Townsend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel

    2015-06-25

    The Diptera genus-group names of Charles Henry Tyler Townsend are reviewed and annotated. A total of 1506 available genus-group names in 12 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically for each name, giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural and/or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Townsend (1595, of which 1574 are available names) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation. An appendix with a full bibliography of almost 650 papers written by Townsend is presented with accurate dates of publication.        Two new replacement names are proposed for preoccupied genus-group names and both are named to honor our good friend and colleague, James E. O'Hara, for his decades of work on tachinids: Oharamyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Lindigia Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Karsten, 1858); Jimimyia Evenhuis, Pont & Whitmore, n. name, for Siphonopsis Townsend, 1916 [Tachinidae] (preoccupied by Agassiz, 1846).        Earlier dates of availability are found for the following: Eucnephalia Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Gabanimyia Townsend, 1914 [Tachinidae]; Incamyia Townsend, 1912 [Tachinidae]; Muscopteryx Townsend, 1892 [Tachinidae]; Philippolophosia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Pseudokea Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae].        Corrected or clarified included species and/or corrected or clarified type-species and methods of typification are given for: Alitophasia Townsend, 1934 [Tachinidae]; Almugmyia Townsend, 1911 [Tachinidae]; Arachnidomyia Townsend, 1934 [Sarcophagidae]; Austenina Townsend, 1921 [Glossinidae]; Austrohartigia Townsend, 1937 [Sarcophagidae]; Awatia Townsend, 1921 [Muscidae

  16. Analysis of gene and protein name synonyms in Entrez Gene and UniProtKB resources

    KAUST Repository

    Arkasosy, Basil

    2013-05-11

    Ambiguity in texts is a well-known problem: words can carry several meanings, and hence, can be read and interpreted differently. This is also true in the biological literature; names of biological concepts, such as genes and proteins, might be ambiguous, referring in some cases to more than one gene or one protein, or in others, to both genes and proteins at the same time. Public biological databases give a very useful insight about genes and proteins information, including their names. In this study, we made a thorough analysis of the nomenclatures of genes and proteins in two data sources and for six different species. We developed an automated process that parses, extracts, processes and stores information available in two major biological databases: Entrez Gene and UniProtKB. We analysed gene and protein synonyms, their types, frequencies, and the ambiguities within a species, in between data sources and cross-species. We found that at least 40% of the cross-species ambiguities are caused by names that are already ambiguous within the species. Our study shows that from the six species we analysed (Homo Sapiens, Mus Musculus, Arabidopsis Thaliana, Oryza Sativa, Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas Fluorescens), rice (Oriza Sativa) has the best naming model in Entrez Gene database, with low ambiguities between data sources and cross-species.

  17. A phylogeny-based global nomenclature system and automated annotation tool for H1 hemagglutinin genes from swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAV) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from non-swine hosts, swine H1 have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based...

  18. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part V: Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C

    2016-09-30

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species and method of fixation, current status of the name, family placement, and a list of any emendations of it that have been found in the literature. Remarks are given to clarify nomenclatural or taxonomic information. In addition, an index to all the species-group names of Diptera proposed by Macquart (3,611, of which 3,543 are available) is given with bibliographic reference (year and page) to each original citation.        The following type species are designated herein: Agculocera nigra Macquart, 1855 for Onuxicera Macquart, 1855, present designation [Tachinidae]; Trixa imhoffi Macquart, 1834, for Semiomyia Macquart, 1848, present designation [Tachinidae].        The following type species are designated herein with fixation under ICZN Code Art. 70.3.2: Azelia nebulosa Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Atomogaster Macquart, 1835, present designation [Muscidae]; Tachydromia vocatoria Fallén, 1816 for Chelipoda Macquart, 1835, present designation [Empididae]; Eriocera macquarti Enderlein, 1912 for Eriocera Macquart, 1838, present designation [Limoniidae]; Limosina acutangula Zetterstedt, 1847 for Heteroptera Macquart, 1835, present designation [Sphaeroceridae]; Phryxe pavoniae Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 for Masicera Macquart, 1834, present designation [Tachinidae]; Pachymyia macquartii Townsend, 1916 for Pachymyia Macquart, 1844, present designation [Tachinidae].        Earlier valid subsequent type-species designations have been found in this study for the following: Anisophysa Macquart, 1835 [Sepsidae]; Diphysa Macquart, 1838 [Stratiomyidae]; Pachyrhina Macquart, 1834 [Tipulidae]; Silbomyia Macquart, 1844 [Calliphoridae].        One name is raised from

  19. Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Spatial Planning%面向国土规划的空间评价标准地域单元划分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世发; 马梅; 蔡玉梅; 念沛豪

    2015-01-01

    国土规划是宏观尺度国土空间开发、保护与治理的政策性依据。为了便于国土规划政策的实施,一般采取某一级别的行政单元进行分区,但现有静态性行政区划体系不利于国土空间政策一致性和差异性表达。根据欧盟国土空间规划关于标准地区统计单元划分( NUTS )的启示,提出了国土空间标准地域单元划分理念,构建了标准地域单元划分的原则、依据和技术路线,并以中国中部地区湖南省为例,对省级尺度国土空间标准地域划分的具体实施途径进行了探讨。研究结果表明,标准地域划分是国土规划关于国土空间综合分区进行空间评价的基础,能为国土规划编制提供更好的单元选择服务。%Territorial spatial planning is an important strategy for developing and protecting the national land space .In general , the strategy of territorial spatial planning is implemented , controlled and supervised at the scale of administrative district .However , the administrative district-based units is not suitable for generating different regional policy and evaluating of planning implementation .Therefore , the framework of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Spatial Planning (NUTSP) was prosed according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) from Europe , which can be used to behave the spatial homogeneity and heterogeneity .Selecting Hunan Province as sample area, the principle and technique for NUTSP at provincial scale were discussed in details .Results demonstrate that NUTSP can provide a more reasonable unit for territorial spatial planning in comprehensive zoning .

  20. On the origin, homologies and evolution of primate facial muscles, with a particular focus on hominoids and a suggested unifying nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B A; Aziz, M A; Burrows, A

    2009-09-01

    The mammalian facial muscles are a subgroup of hyoid muscles (i.e. muscles innervated by cranial nerve VII). They are usually attached to freely movable skin and are responsible for facial expressions. In this study we provide an account of the origin, homologies and evolution of the primate facial muscles, based on dissections of various primate and non-primate taxa and a review of the literature. We provide data not previously reported, including photographs showing in detail the facial muscles of primates such as gibbons and orangutans. We show that the facial muscles usually present in strepsirhines are basically the same muscles that are present in non-primate mammals such as tree-shrews. The exceptions are that strepsirhines often have a muscle that is usually not differentiated in tree-shrews, the depressor supercilii, and lack two muscles that are usually differentiated in these mammals, the zygomatico-orbicularis and sphincter colli superficialis. Monkeys such as macaques usually lack two muscles that are often present in strepsirhines, the sphincter colli profundus and mandibulo-auricularis, but have some muscles that are usually absent as distinct structures in non-anthropoid primates, e.g. the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, levator labii superioris, nasalis, depressor septi nasi, depressor anguli oris and depressor labii inferioris. In turn, macaques typically lack a risorius, auricularis anterior and temporoparietalis, which are found in hominoids such as humans, but have muscles that are usually not differentiated in members of some hominoid taxa, e.g. the platysma cervicale (usually not differentiated in orangutans, panins and humans) and auricularis posterior (usually not differentiated in orangutans). Based on our observations, comparisons and review of the literature, we propose a unifying, coherent nomenclature for the facial muscles of the Mammalia as a whole and provide a list of more than 300 synonyms that have been used in the

  1. Second generation sequencing of three STRs D3S1358, D12S391 and D21S11 in Danes and a new nomenclature for sequenced STR alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, Chiara; Rockenbauer, Eszter; Dalsgaard, Sigrun; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2014-09-01

    Second generation sequencing (SGS) may revolutionize the field of forensic STR typing. Two of the essential requirements for implementation of an SGS based approach for forensic investigations are (1) establishment of adequate frequency databases and (2) adoption of a new STR nomenclature. We report the STR sequences and allele frequencies of three STR loci: D3S1358, D12S391 and D21S11 in 197 unrelated Danes. We used a new STR nomenclature that depicts the locus name used in forensic genetics, the length of the repeat region divided by the repeat length (typically 4 nucleotides) and detailed sequence information of possible sub-repeats and SNPs within the amplified fragment.

  2. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper.

  3. La nomenclature médicale de François Boissier de Sauvages en tant que pré-terminologie du XVIIIe siècle: point de vue linguistique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kacprzak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that modern technologies, as orderly collections of terms of respective disciplines, were formed just in the second half of the 20th century, alongside the dynamic development of sciences and technology, as well as their mass dissemination and world-spreading. It is evident however that vocabularies of individual sciences and crafts had existed long before, although through the centuries the need of systematization hadn’t been seen. Just the 18thcentury, introducing the concept of systems (e.g. in botany, zoology, medicine etc., simultaneously opened the road to forming corresponding nomenclatures which, on one hand call individuals affiliated to a certain discipline, and on the other hand define their position in the system. Many of those nomenclatures, e.g. the monumental work of a French botanist and physician of the Enlightenment epoch François Boissier de Sauvages, entitled .La nosologie méthodique[...] from year 1771, revolutionary for their times, have saved their meaning until nowadays. Our article, reminding of presumptions took by the author for his typology of diseases, focuses afterwards on the linguistic dimension of the proposed classification and reminds of its undisputed impact on the modern medical nomenclature.

  4. The O3-Vet project: integration of a standard nomenclature of clinical terms in a veterinary electronic medical record for veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data.

  5. A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base.

  6. Description and phylogenetic relationships of a new genus and two new species of lizards from Brazilian Amazonia, with nomenclatural comments on the taxonomy of Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Guarino R; Hoogmoed, Marinus S; Cannatella, David C; Cassimiro, José; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Gomes, Jerriane Oliveira; Ghellere, José Mário; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Pellegrino, Kátia C M; Salerno, Patricia; Souza, Sergio Marques De; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-08-18

    We describe a new genus and two new species of gymnophthalmid lizards based on specimens collected from Brazilian Amazonia, mostly in the "arc of deforestation". The new genus is easily distinguished from other Gymnophthalmidae by having very wide, smooth, and imbricate nuchals, arranged in two longitudinal and 6-10 transverse rows from nape to brachium level, followed by much narrower, strongly keeled, lanceolate, and mucronate scales. It also differs from all other Gymnophthalmidae, except Iphisa, by the presence of two longitudinal rows of ventrals. The new genus differs from Iphisa by having two pairs of enlarged chinshields (one in Iphisa); posterior dorsal scales lanceolate, strongly keeled and not arranged in longitudinal rows (dorsals broad, smooth and forming two longitudinal rows), and lateral scales keeled (smooth). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data indicate the new species form a clade that is most closely related to Iphisa. We also address several nomenclatural issues and present a revised classification of Gymnophthalmidae.

  7. Greengenes, a Chimera-checked 16S rRNA gene database and workbenchcompatible with ARB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, Todd Z.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Larsen, Neils; Rojas,Mark; Brodie, Eoin L.; Keller, Keith; Huber, Thomas; Dalevi, Daniel; Hu,Ping; Andersen, Gary L.

    2006-04-10

    A 16S rRNA gene database (http://greengenes.lbl.gov) addresses limitations of public repositories by providing chimera-screening, standard alignments and taxonomic classification using multiple published taxonomies. It was revealed that in congruent taxonomic nomenclature exists among curators even at the phylum-level. Putative chimeras were identified in 3 percent of environmental sequences and 0.2 percent of records derived from isolates. Environmental sequences were classified into 100 phylum-level lineages within the Archaea and Bacteria.

  8. Análisis del "Curso sobre la Evolución del Pensamiento Juslaboralista" del Profesor Emérito Héctor-Hugo Barbagelata (El espejo retrovisor del Derecho del Trabajo y los Principios del Dr. H. H. Barbagelata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helios Sarthou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los que sabíamos que el profesor Emérito de “Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social" Dr. Hector Hugo Barbagelata, tenía en preparación un libro sobre Evolución del pensamiento Juslaboralista –de algún modo en la senda del Curso que había fundado en nuestra Facultad de Derecho- lo considerábamos de altísima importancia, no sólo en el plano técnico-jurídico, sino también por las implicancias históricas, sociales y políticas que la temática implicaba.- Y esto es así en esta época, en que el pensamiento neoliberal no obstante el camino ya recorrido, continúa buscando incidir en el Derecho del Trabajo, recurriendo a excusas para el retorno al Derecho Civil, o para alcanzar la flexibilidad con mengua del respeto a los principios de tuitividad y justicia social que debe garantizar el Derecho del Trabajo o, en otros casos directamente promoviendo la irrelevancia técnica de la disciplina en beneficio del Derecho Civil o del Derecho Procesal, en su caso.-

  9. Crónica constitucional del proceso venezolano de transición gubernamental, ocasionado por la enfermedad y muerte del presidente Hugo Chávez, y de la instauración por el juez constitucional de un gobierno sin legitimidad democrática (diciembre 2012/abril 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Brewer-Carías

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the constitutional situation that developed in Venezuela between December 2012 and April 2013, resulting from the deterioration of the health and the death of President Hugo Chávez, and that is linked to the following events. First, on December 10, 2012 he left the country to be treated in La Habana Cuba, since then he was not seen in public anymore; second, he did not show up at his Inauguration and Oath Ceremony on January 10, 2013, to begin his new presidential term 2013-2019 for which he was elected in October 2012. Third, the Constitutional Jurisdiction ordered, without any logic, that the absent President nonetheless continued to be «in full charge of his office» along with his Ministers, imposing a non-elected official to be the Executive Vice-president and to exercise the Executive Power. Fourth, the same Constitutional Jurisdiction imposed, when the Vice-president announced the death of Chávez on March 5th, 2013, the same non elected Vice-president to be President in charge, without any democratic legitimacy, which gave him the opportunity to participate in the April 2013 presidential elections without having to leave the office.

  10. Hugo Pratt’ın Semerkant’taki Altın Yaldızlı Ev Adlı Çizgi Roman’ında Türk Osmanlı İzleri ve Enver Paşa Efsanesi

    OpenAIRE

    Ali YAĞLI

    2016-01-01

    Corto Maltese, Hugo Pratt’ın çizgi roman dünyasına kazandırdığı önemli ve sevilen bir kahramandır. Corto maceralarının anlatıldığı Corto çizgi roman serileri birçok dile çevrilmiştir. Dost Kitabevi de Corto çizgi romanlarını yayınlayarak Türk okuyucusunu bu sevilen çizgi romanla buluşturdu. Semerkant’daki Altın Yaldızlı Ev adlı çizgi roman’daki bazı olaylar Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun son dönem sınırlarındaki şehirlerde geçtiği için Türk okuyucusunun daha çok dikkatini çekmektedir. Semerkant’a u...

  11. Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekbib Firew

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations. Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.

  12. Annotating the Function of the Human Genome with Gene Ontology and Disease Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhou, Wenyang; Ren, Jun; Dong, Lixiang; Wang, Yadong; Jin, Shuilin; Cheng, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences indicated that function annotation of human genome in molecular level and phenotype level is very important for systematic analysis of genes. In this study, we presented a framework named Gene2Function to annotate Gene Reference into Functions (GeneRIFs), in which each functional description of GeneRIFs could be annotated by a text mining tool Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), and each Entrez gene could be mapped to Human Genome Organisation Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) gene symbol. After annotating all the records about human genes of GeneRIFs, 288,869 associations between 13,148 mRNAs and 7,182 terms, 9,496 associations between 948 microRNAs and 533 terms, and 901 associations between 139 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 297 terms were obtained as a comprehensive annotation resource of human genome. High consistency of term frequency of individual gene (Pearson correlation = 0.6401, p = 2.2e - 16) and gene frequency of individual term (Pearson correlation = 0.1298, p = 3.686e - 14) in GeneRIFs and GOA shows our annotation resource is very reliable.

  13. Fabrication and variation of the cut-out yield of beef carcasses in Venezuela: anatomical description of the process and equivalency of cut nomenclature to North American counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Montero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical processes of beef carcass fabrication in Venezuela are anatomically described and the equivalence in cut nomenclature with that of México and United States is provided. Additionally, 910 carcasses were fabricated to assess yield (kg and percentages of carcass weight in products (subprimals, subprimal groups of distinct commercial value (High, Medium, Low and by-products (bone, fat trimmings using mean values ± standard deviation (DE, coefficient of variation (CV and range of values. Once the carcass is ribbed at the 5th intercostal space, subprimals are obtained by deboning and dissecting the muscle masses (saw cutting is seldom used. In terms of yield, the top three (out of 18 individual subprimals were: Solomo Abierto (boneless Chuck Roll, 39.1± 10.88kg; 14.3± 2.84%, Costilla (bone-in Plate, 22kg± 4.15; 8.12± 0.88% and Solomo de Cuerito (boneless Rib and Loin, 21.6± 3.10kg; 8.0± 0.59%. Cutability values for High-Valued and Medium-Valued subprimal groups were 81.5± 10.3kg (30.2± 1.43% and 67.3± 14.57kg (24.8± 3.22%, respectively; the latter showing the highest CV (13.0%. Fat trimmings were the most variable by-product (10.1± 2.84%, CV = 28.0%. This report serves as a reference for future studies and could facilitate the commercial language for trading beef cuts between the countries involved

  14. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The Lipids or the Genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemer Georges M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common cause of premature cardiovascular disease and is often undiagnosed in young people. Although the disease is diagnosed clinically by high LDL cholesterol levels and family history, to date there are no single internationally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of FH. Several genes have been shown to be involved in FH; yet determining the implications of the different mutations on the phenotype remains a hard task. The polygenetic nature of FH is being enhanced by the discovery of new genes that serve as modifiers. Nevertheless, the picture is still unclear and many unknown genes contributing to the phenotype are most likely involved. Because of this evolving polygenetic nature, the diagnosis of FH by genetic testing is hampered by its cost and effectiveness. In this review, we reconsider the clinical versus genetic nomenclature of FH in the literature. After we describe each of the genetic causes of FH, we summarize the known correlation with phenotypic measures so far for each genetic defect. We then discuss studies from different populations on the genetic and clinical diagnoses of FH to draw helpful conclusions on cost-effectiveness and suggestions for diagnosis.

  15. Prevalence of cry2-type genes in Bacillus thuringiensis isolates recovered from diverse habitats in India and isolation of a novel cry2Af2 gene toxic to Helicoverpa armigera (cotton boll worm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katara, Jawahar Lal; Kaur, Sarvjeet; Kumari, Gouthami Krishna; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Insecticidal cry and vip genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used for control of lepidopteran insects in transgenic crops. However, novel genes are required for gene pyramiding to delay evolution of resistance to the currently deployed genes. Two PCR-based techniques were employed for screening of cry2-type genes in 129 Bt isolates from diverse habitats in India and 27 known Bt strains. cry2Ab-type genes were more prevalent than cry2Aa- and cry2Ac-type genes. Correlation between source of isolates and abundance of cry2-type genes was not observed. Full-length cry2A-type genes were amplified by PCR from 9 Bt isolates and 4 Bt strains. The genes from Bt isolates SK-758 from Sorghum grain dust and SK-793 from Chilli seeds warehouse, Andhra Pradesh, were cloned and sequenced. The gene from SK-758 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866915) was novel, while that from SK-793 (NCBI GenBank accession No. GQ866914) was identical to the cry2Ab1 gene. The Bacillus thuringiensis Nomenclature Committee ( http://www.lifesci.sussex.ac.uk/home/Neil_Crickmore/Bt/toxins2.html ) named these genes cry2Af2 and cry2Ab16, respectively. The cry2Af2 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and found to be toxic towards Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2Af2 gene will be useful for pyramiding in transgenic crops.

  16. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area Other Fact Sheets What are genes? Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions ...

  17. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen B. McGuire

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G negative euchromatic (light bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Obesity in Relationship to the Distribution of Protein-Coding Genes on Human Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Austen B; Rafi, Syed K; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-05-05

    Mammalian chromosomes are comprised of complex chromatin architecture with the specific assembly and configuration of each chromosome influencing gene expression and function in yet undefined ways by varying degrees of heterochromatinization that result in Giemsa (G) negative euchromatic (light) bands and G-positive heterochromatic (dark) bands. We carried out morphometric measurements of high-resolution chromosome ideograms for the first time to characterize the total euchromatic and heterochromatic chromosome band length, distribution and localization of 20,145 known protein-coding genes, 790 recognized autism spectrum disorder (ASD) genes and 365 obesity genes. The individual lengths of G-negative euchromatin and G-positive heterochromatin chromosome bands were measured in millimeters and recorded from scaled and stacked digital images of 850-band high-resolution ideograms supplied by the International Society of Chromosome Nomenclature (ISCN) 2013. Our overall measurements followed established banding patterns based on chromosome size. G-negative euchromatic band regions contained 60% of protein-coding genes while the remaining 40% were distributed across the four heterochromatic dark band sub-types. ASD genes were disproportionately overrepresented in the darker heterochromatic sub-bands, while the obesity gene distribution pattern did not significantly differ from protein-coding genes. Our study supports recent trends implicating genes located in heterochromatin regions playing a role in biological processes including neurodevelopment and function, specifically genes associated with ASD.

  19. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  20. Nomenclatural novelties in the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) for the Flora of China%为《Flora of China》提供的伞形科新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark F.WATSON; 佘孟兰; 溥发鼎; 潘泽惠

    2004-01-01

    The revision of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) for the Flora of China has demonstrated the need to formally publish the following 12 nomenclatural novelties: Acronema minus (M. F. Watson) M. F. Watson & Z. H. Pan, A. brevipedicellatum Z. H. Pan & M. F. Watson, Angelica sinensis var. wilsonii (H. Wolff) Z. H. Pan & M. F. Watson, Harrysmithia franchetii (M. Hiroe) M. L. Sheh, Heracleum candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, Hydrocotyle hookeri ssp. chinensis (Dunn ex R. H. Shan & S. L. Liou) M. F. Watson & M. L. Sheh, H. hookeri ssp. handelii (H. Wolff) M. F. Watson & M. L. Sheh, Libanotis grubovii (V. M. Vinogradova) M. L. Sheh & M. F. Watson, Ligusticum likiangense (H. Wolff) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, L. nematophyllum (Pimenov & Kljuykov) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, L. nullivittatum (K. T. Fu) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, Pleurospermum bicolor (Franch.) C. Norman ex Z. H. Pan & M. F. Watson. In addition, a lectotype is designated for P. govanianum (DC.) Benth. ex C. B. Clarke var. bicolor Franch. (P. bicolor).%在为编写伞形科而进行的修订工作中,提出了11个新组合,即矮小丝瓣芹Acronema minus (M. F. Watson) M. F. Watson & Z. H. Pan, 短柄丝瓣芹A. brevipedicellatum Z. H. Pan & M. F. Watson, 川西当归Angelica sinensis var. wilsonii (H. Wolff) Z. H. Pan & M. F. Watson, 云南细裂芹Harrysmithia franchetii (M. Hiroe) M. L. Sheh, 钝叶独活Heracleum candicans var. obtusifolium (Wall. ex DC.) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, 中华天胡荽Hydrocotyle hookeri ssp. chinensis (Dunn ex R. H. Shan & S. L. Liou) M. F. Watson & M. L. Sheh, 普渡天胡荽H. hookeri ssp. handelii (H. Wolff) M. F. Watson & M. L. Sheh, 锐棱岩风Libanotis grubovii (V. M. Vinogradova) M. L. Sheh & M. F. Watson, 美脉藁本Ligusticum likiangense (H. Wolff) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson和线叶藁本L. nematophyllum (Pimenov & Kljuykov) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson, 无管藁本L. nullivittatum (K. T. Fu) F. T. Pu & M. F. Watson

  1. Nomenclatura Zoológica: oportunidades y desafíos en la era digital Zoological Nomenclature: opportunities and challenges in the digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Acosta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de su historia, el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica necesitó adaptar sus reglas a realidades cambiantes, sin afectar las metas de universalidad y estabilidad de los nombres. En años recientes, los rápidos desarrollos en informática y el uso de Internet han promovido desafíos mayores, que renovaron las discusiones en aspectos fundamentales, como el concepto de publicación y los criterios de disponibilidad. En este artículo se presentan una breve reseña, un marco conceptual y algunos comentarios sobre propuestas de modificación al Código, que actualmente están en discusión. Éstas abarcan desde la validez de la publicación electrónica, hasta la obligatoriedad del registro de nombres en una base de datos de acceso abierto (el ZooBank, como requisito adicional de disponibilidad. Se analizan la utilidad, la necesidad y posibilidades de implementación de la iniciativa, su importancia para facilitar el conocimiento taxonómico, así como sus eventuales efectos sobre la libertad de pensamiento y acción del taxónomo.Along its history, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature has needed to adapt its rules to changing realities, without affecting the goals of universality and stability of names. In recent years, major challenges have been promoted by rapid developments in the field of information technology and the use of Internet, which renewed the discussions in some fundamental issues, like the concept of publication and the criteria of availability. This article provides a brief account, a conceptual framework and some comments on several proposed changes to the Code, currently under discussion. These proposals range from the validity of electronic publications, to the establishment of the mandatory register in an open-access data base, the ZooBank, as an additional requirement to availability. The usefulness, need and possibilities for the implementation of the initiative, its importance to help the

  2. Novel Systematics of Nomenclature and Classification of Female Functional Androgenization (Including Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Non-Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisthövel F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A novel nomenclature as well as a comprehensive, clearly defined classification of functional androgenization (FA from puberty well into postmenopause have been developed. Data are presented indicating the applicability of this algorithm. Design: Retrospective case-control study involving FA-patients, and controls (C. Methods: FA-patients were classified into five groups, functional cutaneous androgenization (FCA: skin as well as functional androgenizing syndrome (FAS I (ovary, II (adrenal, III (multi-organ-disorder with FA, obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and IV (residual FA dysfunctions using group-specific variable clusters. They are set up by primary (classifying variables such as cutaneous androgenetic symptoms (acne vulgaris, hirsutism, androgenetic alopecia, body mass index (BMI, testosterone, free androgen index (FAI, polyfollicular ovaries (PFOs, and 1-h-insulin (after oral glucose loading. Groups FCA and FAS I–III were sub-classified through classic full-blown (“a” and non-classic, minimum standard core/miscellaneous clusters (“b”. Variables were allocated as integral part of different clusters (e.g. enhanced BMI: in FCAb, FAS IIb, FAS IIIa/b, and FAS IV. Patients’ complete characterization was achieved additionally by using secondary (facultative variables, e.g. triglycerid levels. Results: The FA-groups included 6, 33, 10, 59, and 18 subjects. All FCA-patients presented cutaneous androgenetic symptoms, PFOs were visualized in all FAS I and III patients. Group FAS Ia showed highest LH levels, and testosterone was higher in FAS I vs. FCA, FAS II, FAS IV and C. Levels of DHEAS were found to be highest in group FAS II. BMI and triglycerids were higher in FAS III vs. FCA, FAS I, FAS II, and C, and one-hr-insulin in FAS III was higher vs. FCA, FAS I, and C. In FAS IV covering the residual FA-patients, several obese, hyperinsulinaemic individuals were classified who showed an increased FAI without the presence of PFOs

  3. The nomenclature of Delpya (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    The name Delpya, with the specific epithet muricata, was used for the first time in 1895 by Pierre under plate 328 of his ‘Flore forestière de la Cochitichine’ (in honour of his draughtsman E. Delpy, who was the illustrator of that flora). The generic name was invalid, however, as in the accompanyin

  4. Mixtec plant nomenclature and classification

    OpenAIRE

    de Avila, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Ñuu Savi (`Sacred Rain's collectivity'), the Mixtec people of southern Mexico, had createdsome of the most complex polities in the continent at the time of European contact. Fivehundred years later, they remain cohesive, culturally distinct communities, as increasingnumbers of individuals and families migrate to northern Mexico and the US for work in theagricultural and service sectors. In 2005, the Mexican Federal Government reported there weremore than 446,000 speakers of Tu'un Savi (`Sacre...

  5. Refractory headache: classification and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Morris

    2008-06-01

    There are a number of reasons to attempt to define and classify refractory headache disorders. Particularly important are the potential benefits in the areas of research, treatment, and medical cost reimbursement. There are challenges in attempting to classify refractory forms of headaches, including the lack of biological or other objective markers and a lack of consensus among practitioners as to what qualifies as refractoriness, or even if a separate category for refractory migraine and other refractory headaches needs to be established. A definition of refractory migraine has been proposed by Schulman et al in this issue ("Defining Refractory Migraine [RM] and Refractory Chronic Migraine [RCM]: Proposed Criteria for the Refractory Headache Special Interests Section of the American Headache Society"), which should be tested for validity and usefulness. It seems reasonable to consider adding this defined syndrome to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). In this article, options for adding refractory headache syndromes to the ICHD are discussed with pros and cons for each. Two "best" options for adding the disorder "refractory migraine" to the ICHD are presented along with an illustrative case example.

  6. [Professionalism: changes in nursing nomenclature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camaño Puig, Ramón; Felipe Cabañero, Rosa

    2004-11-01

    The nursing professional received different names until 1977 when the curriculum of nursing was established in the University. Up until that time, students enrolled in three different types of professional development designations: "Orderly", "Nurse" as such, and "Technical Health Assistant". From a professional perspective, the authors have made an analysis of the assimilation process of the new name and concept. The authors have studied the announcements of nursing events published in two professional magazines and have concluded that at the start, the adoption of this new name was very confusing among nursing professionals as well as the transmission and development of nursing subject matter.

  7. Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980) share the same nomenclatural type (ATCC 13048) on the Approved Lists and are homotypic synonyms, with consequences for the name Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, B J; Sutton, G; Garrity, G M

    2016-10-13

    Enterobacter aerogenes Hormaeche and Edwards 1960 (Approved Lists 1980) and Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980) were placed on the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names and were based on the same nomenclatural type, ATCC 13048. Consequently they are to be treated as homotypic synonyms. However, the names of homotypic synonyms at the rank of species normally are based on the same epithet. Examination of the Rules of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria in force at the time indicates that the name the epithet mobilis in Klebsiella mobilis Bascomb et al. 1971 (Approved Lists 1980) was illegitimate at the time the Approved Lists were published and according to the Rules of the current International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes continues to be illegitimate.

  8. Phytoglobin: a novel nomenclature for plant globins accepted by the globin community at the 2014 XVIII conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hill

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin (Hb is a heme-containing protein found in the red blood cells of vertebrates. For many years, the only known Hb-like molecule in plants was leghemoglobin (Lb. The discovery that other Hb-like proteins existed in plants led to the term “nonsymbiotic Hbs (nsHbs” to differentiate them from the Lbs. While this terminology was adequate in the early stages of research on the protein, the complexity of the research in this area necessitates a change in the definition of these proteins to delineate them from red blood cell Hb. At the 2014 XVIII Conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins, the group devoted to the study of heme-containing proteins, this issue was discussed and a consensus was reached on a proposed name change. We propose Phytoglobin (Phytogb as a logical, descriptive name to describe a heme-containing (Hb-like protein found in plants. It will be readily recognized by the research community without a prolonged explanation of the origin of the term. The classification system that has been established can essentially remain unchanged substituting Phytogb in place of nsHb. Here, we present a guide to the new nomenclature, with reference to the existing terminology and a phylogenetic scheme, placing the known Phytogbs in the new nomenclature.

  9. Immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

  10. Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Lluís; Grønskov, Karen; Wei, Ai-Hua; Martínez-García, Mónica; Fernández, Almudena; Arveiler, Benoît; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Riazuddin, Saima; Suzuki, Tamio; Ahmed, Zubair M; Rosenberg, Thomas; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Albinism is a rare genetic condition globally characterized by a number of specific deficits in the visual system, resulting in poor vision, in association with a variable hypopigmentation phenotype. This lack or reduction in pigment might affect the eyes, skin, and hair (oculocutaneous albinism, OCA), or only the eyes (ocular albinism, OA). In addition, there are several syndromic forms of albinism (e.g. Hermansky-Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi syndromes, HPS and CHS, respectively) in which the described hypopigmented and visual phenotypes coexist with more severe pathological alterations. Recently, a locus has been mapped to the 4q24 human chromosomal region and thus represents an additional genetic cause of OCA, termed OCA5, while the gene is eventually identified. In addition, two new genes have been identified as causing OCA when mutated: SLC24A5 and C10orf11, and hence designated as OCA6 and OCA7, respectively. This consensus review, involving all laboratories that have reported these new genes, aims to update and agree upon the current gene nomenclature and types of albinism, while providing additional insights from the function of these new genes in pigment cells.

  11. Genomic organization, annotation, and ligand-receptor inferences of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptor genes based on comparative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Sing-Hoi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in host defense, organogenesis, hematopoiesis, and neuronal communication. Forty-two chemokines and 19 cognate receptors have been found in the human genome. Prior to this report, only 11 chicken chemokines and 7 receptors had been reported. The objectives of this study were to systematically identify chicken chemokines and their cognate receptor genes in the chicken genome and to annotate these genes and ligand-receptor binding by a comparative genomics approach. Results Twenty-three chemokine and 14 chemokine receptor genes were identified in the chicken genome. All of the chicken chemokines contained a conserved CC, CXC, CX3C, or XC motif, whereas all the chemokine receptors had seven conserved transmembrane helices, four extracellular domains with a conserved cysteine, and a conserved DRYLAIV sequence in the second intracellular domain. The number of coding exons in these genes and the syntenies are highly conserved between human, mouse, and chicken although the amino acid sequence homologies are generally low between mammalian and chicken chemokines. Chicken genes were named with the systematic nomenclature used in humans and mice based on phylogeny, synteny, and sequence homology. Conclusion The independent nomenclature of chicken chemokines and chemokine receptors suggests that the chicken may have ligand-receptor pairings similar to mammals. All identified chicken chemokines and their cognate receptors were identified in the chicken genome except CCR9, whose ligand was not identified in this study. The organization of these genes suggests that there were a substantial number of these genes present before divergence between aves and mammals and more gene duplications of CC, CXC, CCR, and CXCR subfamilies in mammals than in aves after the divergence.

  12. The recent apple snails of Africa and Asia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae: Afropomus, Forbesopomus, Lanistes, Pila, Saulea): a nomenclatural and type catalogue. The apple snails of the Americas: addenda and corrigenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Robert H

    2015-03-27

    Ampullariidae are freshwater snails predominantly distributed in humid tropical and sub-tropical habitats in Africa, South and Central America and Asia. This catalogue is concerned only with the non-fossil Old World species, the majority of which are placed in the genera Pila and Lanistes, with a few species in Afropomus, Forbesopomus and Saulea. Pila occurs in Africa and Asia, Lanistes, Afropomus and Saulea only in Africa and Forbesopomus only in Asia. New World taxa were catalogued in a previous publication. The taxonomy of the group is heavily based on shell morphology but the true number of valid taxa remains unknown, pending revisionary work. This catalogue provides the rigorous nomenclatural base for this future work by bringing together all the available and unavailable genus-group and species-group names that have been applied to Recent Asian and African ampullariids, indicating their current nomenclatural status (species, subspecies, synonyms, etc.). Fossil taxa are not included. The catalogue lists 21 published genus-group and 244 published species-group names of Old World ampullariids, excluding 25 names that are incertae sedis and cannot be definitively determined as Old or New World. Of these 265 Old World names, five genus-group and 104 species-group (including 30 infraspecific) names are currently valid. There are 16 genus-group synonyms, 118 species-group synonyms and four species-group homonyms that are not treated as junior synonyms. Also listed are five unavailable family-group, one unavailable genus-group and 18 unavailable species-group names, and a number of unpublished names from museum labels. The catalogue provides bibliographic details for all published names, locations of type material, details of type localities and geographic distributions as far as can be ascertained given the confused state of the taxonomy. The catalogue is a work of nomenclature; it is not a revisionary work of taxonomy. Additional details and corrections to the

  13. Manual annotation and analysis of the defensin gene cluster in the C57BL/6J mouse reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougan Gordon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host defense peptides are a critical component of the innate immune system. Human alpha- and beta-defensin genes are subject to copy number variation (CNV and historically the organization of mouse alpha-defensin genes has been poorly defined. Here we present the first full manual genomic annotation of the mouse defensin region on Chromosome 8 of the reference strain C57BL/6J, and the analysis of the orthologous regions of the human and rat genomes. Problems were identified with the reference assemblies of all three genomes. Defensins have been studied for over two decades and their naming has become a critical issue due to incorrect identification of defensin genes derived from different mouse strains and the duplicated nature of this region. Results The defensin gene cluster region on mouse Chromosome 8 A2 contains 98 gene loci: 53 are likely active defensin genes and 22 defensin pseudogenes. Several TATA box motifs were found for human and mouse defensin genes that likely impact gene expression. Three novel defensin genes belonging to the Cryptdin Related Sequences (CRS family were identified. All additional mouse defensin loci on Chromosomes 1, 2 and 14 were annotated and unusual splice variants identified. Comparison of the mouse alpha-defensins in the three main mouse reference gene sets Ensembl, Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, and NCBI RefSeq reveals significant inconsistencies in annotation and nomenclature. We are collaborating with the Mouse Genome Nomenclature Committee (MGNC to establish a standardized naming scheme for alpha-defensins. Conclusions Prior to this analysis, there was no reliable reference gene set available for the mouse strain C57BL/6J defensin genes, demonstrating that manual intervention is still critical for the annotation of complex gene families and heavily duplicated regions. Accurate gene annotation is facilitated by the annotation of pseudogenes and regulatory elements. Manually curated gene

  14. S1 gene-based phylogeny of infectious bronchitis virus: An attempt to harmonize virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valastro, Viviana; Holmes, Edward C; Britton, Paul; Fusaro, Alice; Jackwood, Mark W; Cattoli, Giovanni; Monne, Isabella

    2016-04-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease that results in severe economic losses to the global poultry industry. The virus exists in a wide variety of genetically distinct viral types, and both phylogenetic analysis and measures of pairwise similarity among nucleotide or amino acid sequences have been used to classify IBV strains. However, there is currently no consensus on the method by which IBV sequences should be compared, and heterogeneous genetic group designations that are inconsistent with phylogenetic history have been adopted, leading to the confusing coexistence of multiple genotyping schemes. Herein, we propose a simple and repeatable phylogeny-based classification system combined with an unambiguous and rationale lineage nomenclature for the assignment of IBV strains. By using complete nucleotide sequences of the S1 gene we determined the phylogenetic structure of IBV, which in turn allowed us to define 6 genotypes that together comprise 32 distinct viral lineages and a number of inter-lineage recombinants. Because of extensive rate variation among IBVs, we suggest that the inference of phylogenetic relationships alone represents a more appropriate criterion for sequence classification than pairwise sequence comparisons. The adoption of an internationally accepted viral nomenclature is crucial for future studies of IBV epidemiology and evolution, and the classification scheme presented here can be updated and revised novel S1 sequences should become available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Taxonomía, Sistemática y Nomenclatura, herramientas esenciales en Zoología y Veterinaria.Taxonomy, Systematics and Nomenclature, essential tools in Zoology and Veterinary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arija, Carmen M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Taxonomía, la Sistemática, la Nomenclatura Zoológica y el uso de nombres científicos constituyen herramientas de gran utilidad para todas aquellas personas que tienen una relación directa con el estudio, el cuidado, el manejo o la conservación faunística, ya sean biólogos, veterinarios o profesionales de ciencias afines.AbstractTaxonomy, Systematics, Zoological Nomenclature and the use of scientific names are useful tools to all the people who have a direct relationship with the study, care, manage or conservation of the fauna, like Biologists, Veterinarians or similar professionals. However, the hard approach that we sometimes make from them can conceive them more a burden than a help.

  16. On two reports associated with James Wood-Mason and Alfred William Alcock published by the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey between 1890 and 1891: implications for malacostracan nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Rony; Low, Martyn E Y; De Grave, Sammy; Ng, Peter K L; Clark, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    Two rare documents associated with the Indian Museum and the Indian Marine Survey for the administrative year April 1890 to March 1891 have been examined and found to have nomenclatural consequences for malacostracan crustaceans. Even though they constitute available published works according to the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature, these reports have rarely been cited. Dating these two publications is of importance as they make decapod scientific names available and, in a few instances, describe the same taxa. After searching the collections deposited in the Asian and African Room, British Library, the Administration Report of the Indian Marine for the year April 1890 to March 1891 could be dated with some degree of certainty as 25 August 1891. In contrast, dating the Indian Museum Annual Report proved more difficult because after examination of copies held by the General Library in the Natural History Museum, London, it was evident that not all of these reports were consistently published on time to meet an end of year deadline. However, the publication of volume XXII of the Indian Museum Annual Report for the year April 1890 to March 1891 appeared to be contemporary with the year printed at the bottom of the title page. As no exact date could be established with confidence, the publication date for this volume was fixed as 31 December 1891 in accordance with ICZN Art. 21.3.2. Therefore the Administration Report of the Indian Marine (published 25 August 1891) is considered to take precedence over the Indian Museum Annual Report (published 31 December 1891) and as such the names made available in the former take priority. As original copies of the Administration Report of the Indian Marine are not readily available in most libraries and few scientists have actually had access to these publications, the relevant Appendix No. XIII, in which the names of several malacostracan taxa are made available, is reproduced here. Since the appendix is not

  17. A New Model for the Genesis of Natural Gases--Multi-source Overlap, Multi-stage Continuity, Type Controlled by Main Source and Nomenclature by Main Stage (Ⅰ)--Multi-source Overlap and Type Controlled by Main Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永昌; 沈平

    1994-01-01

    Based on the geochemical studies of natural gases in the past ten years in China, the authors have proposed a new model for their genesis--multi-source overlap, multi-stage continuity, main source-controlling type and nomenclature by the main stage.Multi-source refers to a diversity of material sources involved in the formation of natural gases, including abiogenic and biogenic material sources. In regard to biogenic sources, either oil-generating or coal-generating organic matter would produce gaseous hydrocarbon reservoirs of commercial importance. Generally, natural gases originating from these sources can overlap to form gas reservoirs. Under specific circumstances mantle-source abiogenic gases could overlap biogenic gases to form gas reservoirs. In nature, natural gases predominated by gaseous hydrocarbons may be formed from a single end-member source. However, multi-source overlap is more typical of the genesis of natural gases.

  18. Complexities of the herbal nomenclature system in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): lessons learned from the misuse of Aristolochia-related species and the importance of the pharmaceutical name during botanical drug product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K M; Farrelly, J G; Upton, R; Chen, J

    2007-04-01

    Herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have diverse cultural/historical backgrounds and are described based on complex nomenclature systems. Using the family Aristolochiaceae as an example, at least three categories of nomenclature could be identified: (1) one-to-one (one plant part from one species): the herb guan mutong refers to the root of Aristolochia manshuriensis; (2) multiple-to-one (multiple plant parts from the same species serve as different herbs): three herbs, madouling, qingmuxiang and tianxianteng, derived respectively from the fruit, root and stem of Aristolochia debilis; and (3) one-to-multiple (one herb refers to multiple species): the herb fangji refers to the root of either Aristolochia fangchi, Stephania tetrandra or Cocculus trilobus; in this case, the first belongs to a different family (Aristolochiaceae) than the latter two (Menispermaceae), and only the first contains aristolochic acid (AA), as demonstrated by independent analytical data provided in this article. Further, mutong (Akebia quinata) is allowed in TCM herbal medicine practice to be substituted with either guan mutong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) or chuan mutong (Clematis armandii); and mu fangji (Cocculus trilobus) by guang fanchi (Aristolochia fangchi) or hanzhong fangji (Aristolochia heterophylla), thereby increasing the risk of exposing renotoxic AA-containing Aristolochia species to patients. To avoid these and other confusions, we wish to emphasize the importance of a pharmaceutical name, which defines the species name, the plant part, and sometimes the special process performed on the herb, including cultivating conditions. The pharmaceutical name as referred to in this article is defined, and is limited to those botanicals that are intended to be used as drug. It is hoped that by following the pharmaceutical name, toxic herbs can be effectively identified and substitution or adulteration avoided.

  19. The rice B-box zinc finger gene family: genomic identification, characterization, expression profiling and diurnal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The B-box (BBX -containing proteins are a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The Arabidopsis BBX gene family has recently been re-identified and renamed. However, there has not been a genome-wide survey of the rice BBX (OsBBX gene family until now. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we identified 30 rice BBX genes through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Each gene was assigned a uniform nomenclature. We described the chromosome localizations, gene structures, protein domains, phylogenetic relationship, whole life-cycle expression profile and diurnal expression patterns of the OsBBX family members. Based on the phylogeny and domain constitution, the OsBBX gene family was classified into five subfamilies. The gene duplication analysis revealed that only chromosomal segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the OsBBX gene family. The expression profile of the OsBBX genes was analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays throughout the entire life-cycle of rice cultivar Zhenshan 97 (ZS97. In addition, microarray analysis was performed to obtain the expression patterns of these genes under light/dark conditions and after three phytohormone treatments. This analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the OsBBX genes could be classified into eight groups. Eight genes were regulated under the light/dark treatments, and eleven genes showed differential expression under at least one phytohormone treatment. Moreover, we verified the diurnal expression of the OsBBX genes using the data obtained from the Diurnal Project and qPCR analysis, and the results indicated that many of these genes had a diurnal expression pattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of the genome-wide identification and the expression and diurnal analysis of the OsBBX gene family should facilitate additional functional studies of the Os

  20. Mutations in the paralogous human alpha-globin genes yielding identical hemoglobin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Kamran; Préhu, Claude; Old, John; Henderson, Shirley; Balamitsa, Vera; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Poon, Man-Chiu; Chui, David H K; Wajcman, Henri; Patrinos, George P

    2009-06-01

    The human alpha-globin genes are paralogues, sharing a high degree of DNA sequence similarity and producing an identical alpha-globin chain. Over half of the alpha-globin structural variants reported to date are only characterized at the amino acid level. It is likely that a fraction of these variants, with phenotypes differing from one observation to another, may be due to the same mutation but on a different alpha-globin gene. There have been very few previous examples of hemoglobin variants that can be found at both HBA1 and HBA2 genes. Here, we report the results of a systematic multicenter study in a large multiethnic population to identify such variants and to analyze their differences from a functional and evolutionary perspective. We identified 14 different Hb variants resulting from identical mutations on either one of the two human alpha-globin paralogue genes. We also showed that the average percentage of hemoglobin variants due to a HBA2 gene mutation (alpha2) is higher than the percentage of hemoglobin variants due to the same HBA1 gene mutation (alpha1) and that the alpha2/alpha1 ratio varied between variants. These alpha-globin chain variants have most likely occurred via recurrent mutations, gene conversion events, or both. Based on these data, we propose a nomenclature for hemoglobin variants that fall into this category.

  1. Disorders of sex development: new genes, new concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Makoto; Harley, Vincent R

    2013-02-01

    Formerly known as 'intersex' conditions, disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical. A complete revision of the nomenclature and classification of DSDs has been undertaken, which emphasizes the genetic aetiology of these disorders and discards pejorative terms. Uptake of the new terminology is widespread. DSDs affecting gonadal development are perhaps the least well understood. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms underlying gonadal development has revealed new causes of DSDs, although a specific molecular diagnosis is made in only ∼20% of patients. Conversely, identification of the molecular causes of DSDs has provided insight into the mechanisms of gonadal development. Studies of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis in the mouse, and multigene diagnostic screening and genome-wide approaches, such as array-comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation sequencing, in patients with DSDs are accelerating the discovery of genes involved in gonadal development and DSDs. Furthermore, long-range gene regulatory mutations and multiple gene mutations are emerging as new causes of DSDs. Patients with DSDs, their parents and medical staff are confronted with challenging decisions regarding gender assignment, genital surgery and lifelong care. These advances are refining prognostic prediction and systematically improving the diagnosis and long-term management of children with DSDs.

  2. Comparative genomics and evolution of the HSP90 family of genes across all kingdoms of organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Monteiro, Antónia

    2006-01-01

    Background HSP90 proteins are essential molecular chaperones involved in signal transduction, cell cycle control, stress management, and folding, degradation, and transport of proteins. HSP90 proteins have been found in a variety of organisms suggesting that they are ancient and conserved. In this study we investigate the nuclear genomes of 32 species across all kingdoms of organisms, and all sequences available in GenBank, and address the diversity, evolution, gene structure, conservation and nomenclature of the HSP90 family of genes across all organisms. Results Twelve new genes and a new type HSP90C2 were identified. The chromosomal location, exon splicing, and prediction of whether they are functional copies were documented, as well as the amino acid length and molecular mass of their polypeptides. The conserved regions across all protein sequences, and signature sequences in each subfamily were determined, and a standardized nomenclature system for this gene family is presented. The proeukaryote HSP90 homologue, HTPG, exists in most Bacteria species but not in Archaea, and it evolved into three lineages (Groups A, B and C) via two gene duplication events. None of the organellar-localized HSP90s were derived from endosymbionts of early eukaryotes. Mitochondrial TRAP and endoplasmic reticulum HSP90B separately originated from the ancestors of HTPG Group A in Firmicutes-like organisms very early in the formation of the eukaryotic cell. TRAP is monophyletic and present in all Animalia and some Protista species, while HSP90B is paraphyletic and present in all eukaryotes with the exception of some Fungi species, which appear to have lost it. Both HSP90C (chloroplast HSP90C1 and location-undetermined SP90C2) and cytosolic HSP90A are monophyletic, and originated from HSP90B by independent gene duplications. HSP90C exists only in Plantae, and was duplicated into HSP90C1 and HSP90C2 isoforms in higher plants. HSP90A occurs across all eukaryotes, and duplicated into HSP

  3. Comparative genomics and evolution of the HSP90 family of genes across all kingdoms of organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Daibin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HSP90 proteins are essential molecular chaperones involved in signal transduction, cell cycle control, stress management, and folding, degradation, and transport of proteins. HSP90 proteins have been found in a variety of organisms suggesting that they are ancient and conserved. In this study we investigate the nuclear genomes of 32 species across all kingdoms of organisms, and all sequences available in GenBank, and address the diversity, evolution, gene structure, conservation and nomenclature of the HSP90 family of genes across all organisms. Results Twelve new genes and a new type HSP90C2 were identified. The chromosomal location, exon splicing, and prediction of whether they are functional copies were documented, as well as the amino acid length and molecular mass of their polypeptides. The conserved regions across all protein sequences, and signature sequences in each subfamily were determined, and a standardized nomenclature system for this gene family is presented. The proeukaryote HSP90 homologue, HTPG, exists in most Bacteria species but not in Archaea, and it evolved into three lineages (Groups A, B and C via two gene duplication events. None of the organellar-localized HSP90s were derived from endosymbionts of early eukaryotes. Mitochondrial TRAP and endoplasmic reticulum HSP90B separately originated from the ancestors of HTPG Group A in Firmicutes-like organisms very early in the formation of the eukaryotic cell. TRAP is monophyletic and present in all Animalia and some Protista species, while HSP90B is paraphyletic and present in all eukaryotes with the exception of some Fungi species, which appear to have lost it. Both HSP90C (chloroplast HSP90C1 and location-undetermined SP90C2 and cytosolic HSP90A are monophyletic, and originated from HSP90B by independent gene duplications. HSP90C exists only in Plantae, and was duplicated into HSP90C1 and HSP90C2 isoforms in higher plants. HSP90A occurs across all

  4. Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    lead to a better life for all. Finally, taken all together, this is “war as a whole,” or what Chávez calls “ Guerra de todo el pueblo...financial, material, and political-military support of people’s movements.31 This takes us to the notion of “ Guerra de todo el pueblo” (war of all...communications program, in a full-scale “propaganda war” aimed directly at people in the streets of Caracas, Quito, Lima, 25 La Paz , Buenos Aires, Montevideo

  5. Hugo Grocio: la guerra por medio del derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Peña Echeverría

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La posición de Grocio respecto a la guerra es considerada en este artículo como un intento de mediación entre el realismo político y el moralismo pacifista. Aunque la guerra es una consecuencia inevitable del conflicto permanente en las relaciones humanas, puede ser ajustada a los principios y reglas del derecho natural común a los hombres y del derecho de gentes resultante del consenso entre los pueblos. En consecuencia, Grocio expone las condiciones de justificación de la guerra y propone reglas de conducta en la guerra. Sin embargo, persiste una tensión insuperable entre las pretensiones normativas de la moral y el derecho, por un lado, y la lógica de la fuerza propia de la guerra, por otro.

  6. Therapeutic touch and post-Hurricane Hugo stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M; Sneed, N; Bonadonna, R; Ratliff, J; Dias, J

    1992-06-01

    This repeated-session design sought to answer questions about the effectiveness of therapeutic touch in reduction of stress for 23 individuals following a natural disaster. In addition, methodological issues related to the average length of time for a therapeutic-touch treatment and a method of documenting the nonverbal interaction between subject and toucher were investigated. Findings indicate that stressed people report themselves to be less stressed following therapeutic touch (p = .05). Time of therapeutic-touch intervention varied significantly between the touchers, with a range of 6.8 to 20 minutes. Qualitative data examining the interaction of toucher and subject raised a number of questions that require further study.

  7. Tammsaare kirjanduspreemiate laureaadid / šaržid: Hugo Hiibus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Preemiat on antud välja alates 1978. a. Preemia saajad : Helene Siimisker. 'A. H. Tammsaare pildikroonika eluteest ja tööst'. (1977); Juhan Peegel. 'Ma langesin esimesel sõjasuvel'. (1978); Ilmar Sikemäe. 'Kirjad Vargamäelt'. (1979); Vello Lattik. 'Kuus head inimest'. (1980); Veera Saar. 'Aprillipäev'. (1981); Mats Traat. 'Karukell, kurvameelsuse rohi'. (1982); Raimond Kaugver. 'Vana mees tahab koju'. (1983); Mari Saat. 'Õun valguses ja varjus'. (1984); Viivi Luik. 'Seitsmes rahukevad'. (1985); Heino Kiik. 'Elupadrik'. (1986); Luise Vaher. 'Põlev pärisosa'. (1987); Hando Runnel. 'Laulud eestiaegsetele meestele'. (1988); Arvo Valton. 'Masendus ja lootus'. (1989); Kalju Lepik. 'Rukkilille murdmise laul'. (1990); Illar Mõttus. Dramatiseering 'Jumalaga Vargamäe'. (1991); Leelo Tungal. 'Barbara ja suvekoerad'. (1992); Aili Viitar. 'Kummelimuru'. (1993); Albert Uustulnd. 'Rajud ei rauge', 'Lummav meri'. (1994)

  8. El regimen hibrido de Hugo Chavez en transicion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corrales, Javier; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    .... No obstante las divergencias en los enfoques, en los ultimos anos han ganado preponderancia los analisis que destacan su caracter hibrido, poniendose enfasis en los aspectos democraticos o autoritarios...

  9. Tammsaare kirjanduspreemiate laureaadid / šaržid: Hugo Hiibus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Preemiat on antud välja alates 1978. a. Preemia saajad : Helene Siimisker. 'A. H. Tammsaare pildikroonika eluteest ja tööst'. (1977); Juhan Peegel. 'Ma langesin esimesel sõjasuvel'. (1978); Ilmar Sikemäe. 'Kirjad Vargamäelt'. (1979); Vello Lattik. 'Kuus head inimest'. (1980); Veera Saar. 'Aprillipäev'. (1981); Mats Traat. 'Karukell, kurvameelsuse rohi'. (1982); Raimond Kaugver. 'Vana mees tahab koju'. (1983); Mari Saat. 'Õun valguses ja varjus'. (1984); Viivi Luik. 'Seitsmes rahukevad'. (1985); Heino Kiik. 'Elupadrik'. (1986); Luise Vaher. 'Põlev pärisosa'. (1987); Hando Runnel. 'Laulud eestiaegsetele meestele'. (1988); Arvo Valton. 'Masendus ja lootus'. (1989); Kalju Lepik. 'Rukkilille murdmise laul'. (1990); Illar Mõttus. Dramatiseering 'Jumalaga Vargamäe'. (1991); Leelo Tungal. 'Barbara ja suvekoerad'. (1992); Aili Viitar. 'Kummelimuru'. (1993); Albert Uustulnd. 'Rajud ei rauge', 'Lummav meri'. (1994)

  10. Conceptual design proposal: HUGO global range/mobility transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Tom; Perretta, Dave; Mcbane, Doug; Morin, Greg; Thomas, Greg; Woodward, Joe; Gulakowski, Steve

    1993-01-01

    With the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the emergence of the United Nations actively pursuing a peace keeping role in world affairs, the United States has been forced into a position as the world's leading peace enforcer. It is still a very dangerous world with seemingly never ending ideological, territorial, and economic disputes requiring the U.S. to maintain a credible deterrent posture in this uncertain environment. This has created an urgent need to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States (CONUS) to any potential world trouble spot by means of a global range/mobility transport aircraft. The most recent examples being Operation Desert Shield/Storm and Operation Restore Hope. To meet this challenge head-on, a request for proposal (RFP) was developed and incorporated into the 1992/1993 AIAA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation Graduate Team Aircraft Design Competition. The RFP calls for the conceptual design and justification of a large aircraft capable of power projecting a significant military force without surface transportation reliance.

  11. Die dramatiese discours in Pas de deux van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vaughan

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available Drama is action, verbal drama is speech action, and the dramatic text is subject to a similar set of rules as that governing the extra-literary communication situation. Dramatic irony, the very essence of drama itself, is generated by a dual, mutually interactive process of communication, whereby the audience is “written into” the text in a way distinguishing it from other literary genres, and by a systematic flouting of the rules governing communication. Pas de deux demonstrates the peculiar duality of dramatic discourse by its complex exploitation of the breakdown/non-breakdown of Grice’s Co-operative Principle-. communication/non-communication becomes reversible and, therefore, mutually constitutive concepts “releasing meaning” and conveying the “ideology” of this play.

  12. Radical Islam’s Western Foothold: Hugo Chavez and Hezbollah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Esclusa, Alejandro. “The Foro De Sao Paulo: A Threat to Freedom in Latin America.” UnoAmerica.org. Feb. 6. 2009. 7 Personal Correspondence: Jesus...2010.<http://www. venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/912>. Pena-Es clusa, Alejandro. “The Foro De Sao Paulo: A Threat to Freedom in Latin America

  13. An 18.3 kb DNA fragment from yeast chromosome VII carries four unknown open reading frames, the gene for an Asn synthase, remnants of Ty and three tRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, L; Tettelin, H; Purnelle, B; Goffeau, A

    1997-02-01

    An 18.3 kb DNA segment from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae VII encompasses the previously characterized MEP1, NUP57 and PPT1 genes as well as seven new open reading frames (ORFs) of at least 100 residues. G6358 is an ubiquitous glutamine-dependent asparagine synthase. G6362 is membrane protein highly homologous to a protein of unknown function in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Three ORFs (G6324, G6335 and G6365) have no significant homology with previously reported proteins of characteristic motifs. G6321 and G6359, enclosed in longer ORFs, are not likely to be coding. The segment also contains tRNA genes for Asn, Arg and Ile as well as sigma element and two solo deltas. ORFs and genetic elements are named according to a preliminary working nomenclature.

  14. Analysis and update of the human solute carrier (SLC gene superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Lei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The solute-carrier gene (SLC superfamily encodes membrane-bound transporters. The SLC superfamily comprises 55 gene families having at least 362 putatively functional protein-coding genes. The gene products include passive transporters, symporters and antiporters, located in all cellular and organelle membranes, except, perhaps, the nuclear membrane. Transport substrates include amino acids and oligopeptides, glucose and other sugars, inorganic cations and anions (H+, HCO3-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, PO43-, HPO42-, H2PO4-, SO42-, C2O42-, OH-,CO32-, bile salts, carboxylate and other organic anions, acetyl coenzyme A, essential metals, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, vitamins, fatty acids and lipids, nucleosides, ammonium, choline, thyroid hormone and urea. Contrary to gene nomenclature commonly assigned on the basis of evolutionary divergence http://www.genenames.org/, the SLC gene superfamily has been named based largely on transporter function by proteins having multiple transmembrane domains. Whereas all the transporters exist for endogenous substrates, it is likely that drugs, non-essential metals and many other environmental toxicants are able to 'hitch-hike' on one or another of these transporters, thereby enabling these moieties to enter (or leave the cell. Understanding and characterising the functions of these transporters is relevant to medicine, genetics, developmental biology, pharmacology and cancer chemotherapy.

  15. 重型肝炎命名和诊断分型的再认识——附477例临床分析%Reevaluation of the nomenclature and diagnostic criteria in 477 patients with severe hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇明; 陈耀凯; 顾长海; 蒋黎; 向德栋

    2000-01-01

    目的:通过477例临床病例的总结分析,探讨重型肝炎的分型方法。 方法:采用不同分型方法分析重型肝炎的临床表型及转归。 结果:慢性重型肝炎病例在重型肝炎中占88.5%;非脑病型预后明显优于脑病型;亚急性重型肝炎和慢性重型肝炎中19.4%病例既无腹水亦无脑病;将急性重型肝炎起病时间延至2周时,新增病例仍符合该型特点。 结论:建议将重型肝炎更名为重症肝炎,并分成非脑病型和脑病型,分别称为重症型肝炎和剧症肝炎;除急性型、亚急性型外,应增设缓发型;将急性重型肝炎起病时间定为2周;腹水型、脑病型及混合型分型方法存在一定问题;应重点探讨慢性重型肝炎的分型问题。%Objective: To explore the possibility of establishing more reasonable nomenclatures and diagnostic criteria for patients with severe hepatitis (SH) through analyzing clinical data of 477 cases of SH. Methods:The clinical characteristics and outcomes of SH were analyzed according to different criteria. Results: Chronic severe hepatitis (CSH) made up 88.5% of total cases of SH. The survival rate in the patients with hepatic encephalopathy was much lower than that without hepatic encephalopathy. About 1/5 of cases of subacute severe hepatitis (SSH) and CSH had neither ascites nor hepatic encephalopathy. When the period of 2 weeks was used in replace of 10 days for the diagnosis for acute severe hepatitis (ASH), the newly added cases were consistent with the characteristics of ASH. Conclusion: We suggest dividing SH into 2 types: encephalopathy and non-encephalopathy by using the nomenclature of fulminant hepatitis and severe type hepatitis, respectively. The late-onset form should be added besides of acute form and subacute form. It seems to use the period of 2 weeks as the new definition of onest time for ASH. The criteria of dividing SH into 3 forms, i.e. ascites, encephalopathy and

  16. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  17. Selection shaped the evolution of mouse androgen-binding protein (ABP) function and promoted the duplication of Abp genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-08-01

    In the present article, we summarize two aspects of our work on mouse ABP (androgen-binding protein): (i) the sexual selection function producing incipient reinforcement on the European house mouse hybrid zone, and (ii) the mechanism behind the dramatic expansion of the Abp gene region in the mouse genome. Selection unifies these two components, although the ways in which selection has acted differ. At the functional level, strong positive selection has acted on key sites on the surface of one face of the ABP dimer, possibly to influence binding to a receptor. A different kind of selection has apparently driven the recent and rapid expansion of the gene region, probably by increasing the amount of Abp transcript, in one or both of two ways. We have shown previously that groups of Abp genes behave as LCRs (low-copy repeats), duplicating as relatively large blocks of genes by NAHR (non-allelic homologous recombination). The second type of selection involves the close link between the accumulation of L1 elements and the expansion of the Abp gene family by NAHR. It is probably predicated on an initial selection for increased transcription of existing Abp genes and/or an increase in Abp gene number providing more transcriptional sites. Either or both could increase initial transcript production, a quantitative change similar to increasing the volume of a radio transmission. In closing, we also provide a note on Abp gene nomenclature.

  18. Hugo Osula: piletitulu bussijuhi taskus on tingitud riigihankekonkursil tehtud üliodavast pakkumisest / Hugo Osula ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Hugo, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Mootorreisi AS-i omanik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Mootorreisi väljaostmist Saksa partnerilt, lennuliinide ja lennujaamade omavahelise konkurentsi mõju bussiärile, Mootorreiside minekut Leedu bussiärisse, Eesti bussiliikluse olukorda, kohalike liinide riigihangete tulemuste vaidlustamist, võimalikke eelseisvaid ümberjagamisi, liitumisi, pankrotte Eesti bussiturul. H. Osula hinnangul peaks tulevikus kiirrongi doteerimiseks planeeritava raha investeerima lennundusse

  19. Hugo Osula: piletitulu bussijuhi taskus on tingitud riigihankekonkursil tehtud üliodavast pakkumisest / Hugo Osula ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Osula, Hugo, 1956-

    2009-01-01

    Mootorreisi AS-i omanik vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Mootorreisi väljaostmist Saksa partnerilt, lennuliinide ja lennujaamade omavahelise konkurentsi mõju bussiärile, Mootorreiside minekut Leedu bussiärisse, Eesti bussiliikluse olukorda, kohalike liinide riigihangete tulemuste vaidlustamist, võimalikke eelseisvaid ümberjagamisi, liitumisi, pankrotte Eesti bussiturul. H. Osula hinnangul peaks tulevikus kiirrongi doteerimiseks planeeritava raha investeerima lennundusse

  20. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.