WorldWideScience

Sample records for huge populace dilutes

  1. A huge cystic craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed. (author)

  2. Safety of huge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Jiro.

    1995-01-01

    Recently accompanying the development of engineering technology, huge systems tend to be constructed. The disaster countermeasures of huge cities become large problems as the concentration of population into cities is conspicuous. To make the expected value of loss small, the knowledge of reliability engineering is applied. In reliability engineering, even if a part of structures fails, the safety as a whole system must be ensured, therefore, the design having margin is carried out. The degree of margin is called redundancy. However, such design concept makes the structure of a system complex, and as the structure is complex, the possibility of causing human errors becomes high. At the time of huge system design, the concept of fail-safe is effective, but simple design must be kept in mind. The accident in Mihama No. 2 plant of Kansai Electric Power Co. and the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station, and the accident of Boeing B737 airliner and the fatigue breakdown are described. The importance of safety culture was emphasized as the method of preventing human errors. Man-system interface and management system are discussed. (K.I.)

  3. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Félix Companioni Rosildo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion.

  4. Changes in the public acceptance of nuclear power among the populace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is often hampered due to the lack of public acceptability. The degree of its public acceptance gradually but distinctly decreases with the progress of industrialization and also with the increase in per-capita income as well as upgrading of social welfare program. The execution of nuclear power projects is possible when the majority of populace are in support of its development, while it becomes difficult so long as more than a half of the people is reluctant to make use of it. For the convenience sake, the patterns of nuclear acceptability are arbitrarily categorized in six stages from a tranquil state to a hopeless state. In order not to be driven into such helpless stage, some preventive measures are suggested as a recommendation herein

  5. Changes in the public acceptance of nuclear power among the populace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-kun Lee

    1987-01-01

    The development of nuclear power is often hampered due to the lack of public acceptability. The degree of its public acceptance gradually but distinctly decreases with the progress of industrialisation and also with the increase in per-capita income as well as upgrading of social welfare programme. The execution of nuclear power projects is possible when the majority of populace are in support of its development, while it becomes difficult so long as more than a half of the people is reluctant to make use of it. For the convenience sake, the patterns of nuclear acceptability are arbitrarily categorized in six stages from a tranquil state to a hopeless state. In order not to be driven into such helpless stage, some preventive measures are suggested as a recommendation herein. (author)

  6. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  7. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma with unusual extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, I.; Yoneda, K.; Yamakawa, Y.; Fukui, M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1981-09-01

    The findings on computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 3-year-old girl are described. The cyst occupied both anterior cranial fossae and a part of it extended to the region of the third ventricle which was displaced posteriorly. The tumor showed no contrast enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast medium.

  9. Comparison of Postural Responses to Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation between Pilots and the General Populace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS can be used to study the body’s response to vestibular stimuli. This study aimed to investigate whether postural responses to GVS were different between pilots and the general populace. Bilateral bipolar GVS was applied with a constant-current profile to 12 pilots and 12 control subjects via two electrodes placed over the mastoid processes. Both GVS threshold and the center of pressure’s trajectory (COP’s trajectory were measured. Position variability of COP during spontaneous body sway and peak displacement of COP during GVS-induced body sway were calculated in the medial-lateral direction. Spontaneous body sway was slight for all subjects, and there was no significant difference in the value of COP position variability between the pilots and controls. Both the GVS threshold and magnitude of GVS-induced body deviation were similar for different GVS polarities. GVS thresholds were similar between the two groups, but the magnitude of GVS-induced body deviation in the controls was significantly larger than that in the pilots. The pilots showed less GVS-induced body deviation, meaning that pilots may have a stronger ability to suppress vestibular illusions.

  10. Huge Thornwaldt's Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hau Lin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thornwaldt's bursa, also known as nasopharyngeal bursa, is a recess in the midline of the nasopharynx that is produced by persistent notochord remnants. If its opening becomes obstructed, possibly due to infection or a complication from adenoidectomy, a Thornwaldt's cyst might develop. Here, we present a 53-year-old man who complained of nasal obstruction that had progressed for 1 year. Nasopharyngoscopy showed a huge nasopharyngeal mass. Thornwaldt's cyst was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion measuring 3.6 × 3.4 cm, intermediate on T1-weighted and high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, neither bony destruction nor connection to the brain. The patient underwent endoscopic surgery for this huge mass. Afterwards, his symptoms improved significantly. We present the treatment and differential diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal cyst.

  11. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  12. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  13. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... organization enables an attractive new class of applications for managing ever-increasing music databases. For these types of applications, extraction of music features as well as subsequent feature processing and music classification have to be performed. However, these are computationally intensive tasks...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  14. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  15. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Tiffany; Rivkin, Amit; Cao, Yifeng; Nevo, Yuval; Abraham, Eldho; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Nanocellulose is of increasing interest for a range of applications relevant to the fields of material science and biomedical engineering due to its renewable nature, anisotropic shape, excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, and interesting optical properties. We discuss the main areas of nanocellulose research: photonics, films and foams, surface modifications, nanocomposites, and medical devices. These tiny nanocellulose fibers have huge potential in many applications, from flexible optoelectronics to scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We hope to impart the readers with some of the excitement that currently surrounds nanocellulose research, which arises from the green nature of the particles, their fascinating physical and chemical properties, and the diversity of applications that can be impacted by this material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Huge hydrocephalus: definition, management, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghih Jouibari, Morteza; Baradaran, Nazanin; Shams Amiri, Rouzbeh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Lack of comprehensive knowledge and numerous socioeconomic problems may make the parents leave hydrocephalic children untreated, leading to progressive hydrocephalus and eventual unordinary big head. Management of huge hydrocephalus (HH) differs from common hydrocephalus. We present our experience in the management of these children. HH is defined as head circumference larger than the height of the infant. Nine infants with HH have been shunted in Children's Hospital Medical Center and followed up for 0.5 to 7 years. The most common cause of hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis. The mean age of patients during shunting was 3 months. The head circumference ranged from 56 to 94 cm with the average of 67 cm. Cognitive statuses were appropriate based on their age in five patients. Motor development was normal only in one patient. Complications were found in most cases which included subdural effusion (six patients), shunt infection (four patients), skin injury (three patients), proximal catheter coming out of ventricle to the subdural space (two patients), and shunt exposure (one patient). Three patients died due to shunt infection and sepsis. Numerous complications may occur in patients with HH after shunt operation such as subdural effusion, ventricular collapse, electrolyte disturbance, skull deformity, scalp injury, and shunt infection. Mental and motor disabilities are very common in patients with HH. Many of these complications can be related to overdrainage; therefore, drainage control using programmable shunts is advisable.

  17. Process control upgrades yield huge operational improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Most nuclear plants in North America were designed and built in the late 60 and 70. The regulatory nature of this industry over the years has made design changes at the plant level difficult, if not impossible, to implement. As a result, many plants in this world region have been getting by on technology that is over 40 years behind the times. What this translates into is that the plants have not been able to take advantage of the huge technology gains that have been made in process control during this period. As a result, most of these plants are much less efficient and productive than they could be. One particular area of the plant that is receiving a lot of attention is the feedwater heaters. These systems were put in place to improve efficiency, but most are not operating correctly. This paper will present a case study where one progressive mid-western utility decided that enough was enough and implemented a process control audit of their heater systems. The audit clearly pointed out the existing problems with the current process control system. It resulted in a proposal for the implementation of a state of the art, digital distributed process control system for the heaters along with a complete upgrade of the level controls and field devices that will stabilize heater levels, resulting in significant efficiency gains and lower maintenance bills. Overall the payback period for this investment should be less than 6 months and the plant is now looking for more opportunities that can provide even bigger gains. (author)

  18. Huge maternal hydronephrosis: a rare complication in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Wang, Chin-Jung; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chou, Chien-Chung; Lee, Chyi-Long

    2003-06-10

    A huge maternal hydronephrosis is uncommon in pregnancy and might be mistaken as a pelvic mass. A 21-year-old primigravida was noted at 25th week of gestation to have a visible bulging mass on her left flank. The mass was originally mistaken as a large ovarian cyst but later proved to be a huge hydronephrosis. Retrograde insertion of ureteroscope and a ureteric stent failed, so we performed repeated ultrasound-guided needle aspiration to decompress the huge hydronephrosis, which enabled the patient to proceed to a successful term vaginal delivery. Nephrectomy was performed after delivery and proved the diagnosis of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  19. Aggressive angiomyxoma presenting with huge abdominal lump: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Agrawal, Nikhil; Khanna, Rahul; Khanna, AK

    2008-01-01

    Agressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. It mainly presents in females. We here present a case of angiomyxoma presenting as huge abdominal lump along with gluteal swelling. Case note is described along with brief review of literature. PMID:18755035

  20. Huge magnetoresistance effect of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Youwei; Wang Zhiming; Ni Gang; Xing Dingyu; Xu Qingyu

    2004-01-01

    Graphite is a quasi-two-dimensional semimetal. However, for usual graphite the magnetoresistance is not so high due to its small crystal size and no preferred orientation. Huge positive magnetoresistance up to 85300% at 4.2 K and 4950% at 300 K under 8.15 T magnetic field was found in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The mechanism of huge positive magnetoresistance is not only due to ordinary magnetoresistance but also due to magnetic-field-driven semimetal-insulator transition

  1. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  2. 61 HUGE BENIGN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN A 61 YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    peritoneal cavity, huge right ovarian cyst measuring 37cm/29cm as in figure 1a, weighing 8.3 kg with a thick smooth wall without excrescences on surface. ... is released in the blood during pregnancy and is produced in other conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids and diverticulitis. It is useful in monitoring therapy.

  3. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia | Komlatsè ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Conclusion: Our two lateral fl aps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. Itis simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result. Key words: Children, huge umbilical hernia, Togo, umbilical ...

  4. A Huge Ovarian Dermoid Cyst: Successful Laparoscopic Total Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Dusak, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts, ≥15 cm in diameter, are quite rare in women of reproductive age. Here, we present a case of ovarian cyst with unusual presentation treated by laparoscopic surgery. On histology, mass was found to be mature cystic teratoma. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this huge ovarian cyst were discussed in the light of the literature.

  5. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma. Changes of cyst density on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-06-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed.

  6. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  7. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  8. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  9. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  10. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chufal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  11. It was huge! Nursing students' first experience at AORN Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Cantrell, Kelly; Fletcher, Daphne; McRaney, David; Morris, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    AN EXPERIENTIAL KNOWLEDGE of mentoring through nursing students' perspectives may enhance AORN's ability to recruit students to perioperative nursing and aid future planning for student involvement in the Association. IN 2003, four first-year nursing students attended the AORN Congress in Chicago with their nursing instructor and mentor. The students' experiences were captured using a thematic analysis to analyze their journals. THE FIVE COMMON THEMES identified were "it was huge," "exhibits," "student program," "exploring the city," and "suggestions for future planning."

  12. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  13. Partial ureterectomy for a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouralizadeh, A.; Tabib, A.; Taheri, M.; Torbati, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter in which only partial ureterectomy was performed is presented. The benign nature of the mass was primarily confirmed with frozen section at the time of surgery and then with immunohistochemistry (IHC). To the best of our knowledge, this case is a unique form of leiomyoma of the ureter due to its large size. There have been only ten cases of primary leiomyoma of the ureter reported since 1955 and all of them were very small in size. Our case is considered to be the eleventh. (author)

  14. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  15. How a huge HEP experiment is designed course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-FAS

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty years after the idea of building the LHC machine was discussed in a workshop in Lausanne in 1984 for the first time, it is instructive to look back on the historical process which has led the community to where we are today with four huge detectors being commissioned and eagerly awaiting first beam collisions in 2008. The main design principles, detector features and performance characteristics of the ATLAS and CMS detectors will be briefly covered in these two lectures with, as an interlude, a wonderful DVD from ATLAS outreach depicting how particles interact and are detected in the various components of the experiments.

  16. A young woman with a huge paratubal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Golbasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratubal cysts are asymptomatic embryological remnants. These cysts are usually diagnosed during adolescence and reproductive age. In general, their sizes are small but can be complicated by rupture, torsion, or hemorrhage. Paratubal cysts are often discovered fortuitously on routine ultrasound examination. We report a 19-year-old female patient who presented with irregular menses and abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a huge cystic mass at the right adnexial area. The diagnosis was confirmed as paratubal cyst during laporotomy and, hence, cystectomy and right salpingectomy were performed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 573-576

  17. Distributed and parallel approach for handle and perform huge datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Big Data refers to the dynamic, large and disparate volumes of data comes from many different sources (tools, machines, sensors, mobile devices) uncorrelated with each others. It requires new, innovative and scalable technology to collect, host and analytically process the vast amount of data. Proper architecture of the system that perform huge data sets is needed. In this paper, the comparison of distributed and parallel system architecture is presented on the example of MapReduce (MR) Hadoop platform and parallel database platform (DBMS). This paper also analyzes the problem of performing and handling valuable information from petabytes of data. The both paradigms: MapReduce and parallel DBMS are described and compared. The hybrid architecture approach is also proposed and could be used to solve the analyzed problem of storing and processing Big Data.

  18. Huge Intracanal lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is the most common cause of sciatica and only in about 10% of the affected patients, surgical intervention is necessary. The side of the patient (the side of most prominent clinical complaints is usually consistent with the side of imaging (the side with most prominent disc herniation on imaging scans. In this case series, we presented our experience in four cases with huge intracanal LDH that a mismatch between the patient’s side and the imaging’s side was present. In these cases, for deciding to do the operation, the physicians need to rely more on clinical findings, but for deciding the side of discectomy, imaging characteristic (imaging side may be a more important criterion.

  19. A parallel solver for huge dense linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, J. M.; Movilla, J. L.; Climente, J. I.; Castillo, M.; Marqués, M.; Mayo, R.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Planelles, J.

    2011-11-01

    HDSS (Huge Dense Linear System Solver) is a Fortran Application Programming Interface (API) to facilitate the parallel solution of very large dense systems to scientists and engineers. The API makes use of parallelism to yield an efficient solution of the systems on a wide range of parallel platforms, from clusters of processors to massively parallel multiprocessors. It exploits out-of-core strategies to leverage the secondary memory in order to solve huge linear systems O(100.000). The API is based on the parallel linear algebra library PLAPACK, and on its Out-Of-Core (OOC) extension POOCLAPACK. Both PLAPACK and POOCLAPACK use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication layer and BLAS to perform the local matrix operations. The API provides a friendly interface to the users, hiding almost all the technical aspects related to the parallel execution of the code and the use of the secondary memory to solve the systems. In particular, the API can automatically select the best way to store and solve the systems, depending of the dimension of the system, the number of processes and the main memory of the platform. Experimental results on several parallel platforms report high performance, reaching more than 1 TFLOP with 64 cores to solve a system with more than 200 000 equations and more than 10 000 right-hand side vectors. New version program summaryProgram title: Huge Dense System Solver (HDSS) Catalogue identifier: AEHU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHU_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 87 062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 069 110 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90, C Computer: Parallel architectures: multiprocessors, computer clusters Operating system

  20. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  1. Huge endometrioma mimicking mucinous cystadenoma on MR : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Nam, Kung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoo, Yun Sik; Lee, Mee Ran; Hwang, Woo Chul [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Endometriosis is a relatively common gynecologic disease affecting women during their reproductive years. For its diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to have greater specificity than other modalities. Although lesions may show variable signal intensity due to numerous stages of bleeding, the characteristic finding of endometrioma which distinguishes it from other ovarian cystic masses is relatively high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous signal intensity with prominent shading on 72-weighted images. We report an atypical case involving a huge endometrioma. Because of varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and scanty shading on T2-weighted images, the findings were misinterpreted and mucinous cystadenoma was diagnosed.

  2. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  3. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarabi, Yasir; Nejat, Farideh; El-Khashab, Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested. PMID:19753210

  4. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarabi Yasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested.

  5. [A Case of Huge Colon Cancer Accompanied with Severe Hypoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Sakurao; Kanesada, Kou; Harada, Toshio; Tada, Kousuke; Fukuda, Shintaro

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of huge colon cancer accompanied with severe hypoproteinemia. A7 4-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Blood examinations revealed anemia(hemoglobin 8.8 g/dL)and sever hypopro- teinemia(total protein 4.5 g/dL, albumin 1.1 g/dL). Computed tomography examination of abdomen revealed ascites and large tumor(12.5×10.5 cm)at the right side colon. By further examinations ascending colon cancer without distant metastasis was diagnosed, then we performed right hemicolectomy and primary intestinal anastomosis by open surgery. Ahuge type 1 tumor(18×12 cm)was observed in the excised specimen, which invaded to terminal ileum directly. The tumor was diagnosed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymph node metastasis(pT3N0M0, fStage II ). Postoperative course was uneventful and serum protein concentration recovered gradually to normal range. Protein leakage from the tumor cannot be proved by this case, so we can't diagnose as protein-losing enteropathy, but we strongly doubt this etiology from postoperative course in this case.

  6. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  7. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period.

  8. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. Conclusion: In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period. PMID:27147810

  9. Dilute chemical decontamination program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; Blomgren, J.C.; Pettit, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program is to develop and evaluate a process which utilizes reagents in dilute concentrations for the decontamination of BWR primary systems and for the maintenance of dose rates on the out-of-core surfaces at acceptable levels. A discussion is presented of the process concept, solvent development, advantages and disadvantages of reagent systems, and VNC loop tests. Based on the work completed to date it is concluded that (1) rapid decontamination of BWRs using dilute reagents is feasible; (2) reasonable reagent conditions for rapid chemical decontamination are: 0.01M oxalic acid + 0.005M citric acid, pH3.0, 90/degree/C, 0.5 to 1.0 ppm dissolved oxygen; (3) control of dissolved oxygen concentration is important, since high levels suppress the rate of decontamination and low levels allow precipitation of ferrous oxalate. 4 refs

  10. Entropy production by Q-ball decay for diluting long-lived charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuya, S.

    2007-09-01

    The cosmic abundance of a long-lived charged particle such as a stau is tightly constrained by the catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis. One of the ways to evade the constraints is to dilute those particles by a huge entropy production. We evaluate the dilution factor in a case that non-relativistic matter dominates the energy density of the universe and decays with large entropy production. We find that large Q balls can do the job, which is naturally produced in the gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. (orig.)

  11. Primary system boron dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, R.J.; Naretto, C.J.; Borgen, R.A.; Rockhold, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to suggest changes in administrative procedures or controls

  12. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, K

    2012-01-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4 He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4 He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  13. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  14. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  15. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  16. Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: ryusuke@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: knakao@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.

  17. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  18. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary

  19. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  20. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Manabu; Ieguchi, Makoto; Taguchi, Susumu; Yamasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system. PMID:21139882

  1. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamasaki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system.

  2. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  3. A Huge Ovarian Cyst in a Middle-Aged Iranian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Iranian woman was found to have a huge ovarian cystic mass. Her presenting symptom was vague abdominal pain and severe abdominal distention. She underwent laparotomy and after surgical removal, the mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma on histology.

  4. Dynamics of dilute polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.K.; Higgins, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrons scattered by nuclei undergoing slow motion e.g. the internal motion within polymer chains, lose or gain very small amounts of energy. It is therefore the quasi-elastic region of the neutron scattering spectrum which is of interest and in particular the time correlation function (or intermediate scattering law S(Q,t)) which is ideally required to define the motion. The neutron spin echo spectrometer (IN11) at the ILL facilitates the measurement of very small energy changes (down to 10 neV) on scattering from a sample, by changing and keeping track of neutron beam polarization non-parallel to the magnetic guide-field (1). The resultant neutron beam polarization, when normalized against a standard (totally elastic) scatterer is directly proportional to the cosine Fourier Transform of the scattering law S(Q,ω), which is to say the time correlation function is measured directly. Dilute solutions of deuterated polystyrene (PSD) and deuterated polytetrahydrofuran (PTDF) in carbon disulphide, and of their hydrogeneous counterparts (PSH and PTHF respectively) in deuterated benzene were investigated in the range 0.027 A -1 -1 , at 30 0 C. (orig./FKS)

  5. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  6. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  7. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  8. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  9. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  10. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  11. Churn prediction on huge telecom data using hybrid firefly based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A.Q. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Churn prediction in telecom has become a major requirement due to the increase in the number of telecom providers. However due to the hugeness, sparsity and imbalanced nature of the data, churn prediction in telecom has always been a complex task. This paper presents a metaheuristic based churn prediction technique that performs churn prediction on huge telecom data. A hybridized form of Firefly algorithm is used as the classifier. It has been identified that the compute intensive component of the Firefly algorithm is the comparison block, where every firefly is compared with every other firefly to identify the one with the highest light intensity. This component is replaced by Simulated Annealing and the classification process is carried out. Experiments were conducted on the Orange dataset. It was observed that Firefly algorithm works best on churn data and the hybridized Firefly algorithm provides effective and faster results.

  12. The therapy for huge goiter together with hyperthyroidism through 131I case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhua; Yu Wencai; Zeng Qingwen; Wu Congjun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: 214 cases of the treatment of huge goiter with hyperthyroidism are revised to collect clinic material for the improvement of therapy to hyperthyroidism indications through 131 I. Methods: In all of these cases, patients take a full dose of 131 I based on MC Garack's formula for one time. Results: Among them, 154 resolved, accounting for 72%, 139 of the cases were reduced to normal size, which accounted for 64.9% of the patients. Only 114 cases of patients had side-effect, and during one year 12.1% of them have symptoms of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The statistics shows that 131 I is convenient, safe, well and with reduces suffering from treating huge goiter with hyperthyroidism

  13. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, describing a young patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian cysts in young women who are associated with elevated levels of tumor markers and ascites require careful evaluation. Management of ovarian cysts depends on patient's age, size of the cyst, and its histopathological nature. Conservative surgery such as ovarian cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate in mucinous tumors of ovary. Multiple frozen sections are very important to know the malignant variation of this tumor and helps accurate patient management. Surgical expertise is required to prevent complications in huge tumors has distorted the anatomy, so gynecologic oncologist plays a prominent role in management. In this case, beside of the huge tumor and massive ascites uterine and ovaries were preserved by gynecologist oncologist and patient is well up to now.

  14. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-01-01

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  15. On the huge Lie superalgebra of pseudo superdifferential operators and super KP-hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedra, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Lie superalgebraic methods are used to establish a connection between the huge Lie superalgebra Ξ of super (pseudo) differential operators and various super KP-hierarchies. We show in particular that Ξ splits into 5 = 2 x 2 + 1 graded algebras expected to correspond to five classes of super KP-hierarchies generalizing the well-known Manin-Radul and Figueroa O'Farrill-Ramos supersymmetric KP-hierarchies. (author). 10 refs

  16. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were...

  17. Theoretical modeling of diluted antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, J; Elgueta, R; Acevedo, R

    2000-01-01

    Some magnetic properties of a Diluted Antiferromagnetic System (DAFS) are studied. The model of the two sub-networks for antiferromagnetism is used and a Heisenberg Hamiltonian type is proposed, where the square operators are expressed in terms of boson operators with the approach of spin waves. The behavior of the diluted system's fundamental state depends basically on the competition effect between the anisotropy field and the Weiss molecular field. The approach used allows the diluted system to be worked for strong anisotropies as well as when these are very weak

  18. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong

    2017-04-01

    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  19. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  20. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable

  1. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  2. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  3. Huge residual resistivity in the quantum critical region of CeAgSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Miho; Kirita, Shingo; Asai, Rihito; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Okubo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mineko; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Inada, Yoshihiko; Settai, Rikio; Galatanu, Andre; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ebihara, Takao; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of a high-quality single crystal CeAgSb 2 which has a small net ferromagnetic moment of 0.4μ B /Ce. The magnetic ordering temperature T ord = 9.7 K decreases with increasing pressure p and disappears at a critical pressure p c ≅ 3.3 GPa. The residual resistivity, which is close to zero up to 3 GPa, increases steeply above 3 GPa, reaching 55μΩ cm at p c . A huge residual resistivity is found to appear when the magnetic order disappears. (letter to the editor)

  4. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyakala Rajendran; Suthanthira Devi

    2015-01-01

    The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. ...

  5. Surgical resection of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma in skull base by intraoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Li, Yun-Peng; Lei, De-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma, also known as ossifying fibroma, usually occurs in the mandible and less commonly in the maxilla. The huge example in the skull base is even rare. We present a case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma arising below the skull base of a 30-year-old woman patient. Radiologic investigations showed a giant, lobulated, heterogeneous calcified hard tissue mass, which is well circumscribed and is a mixture of radiolucent and radiopaque, situated at the rear of the right maxilla to the middle skull base. The tumor expands into the right maxillary sinus and the orbital cavity, fusing with the right maxilla at the maxillary tuberosity and blocking the bilateral choanas, which caused marked proptosis and blurred vision. The tumor was resected successfully by intraoral approach, and pathologic examination confirmed the lesion to be a cemento-ossifying fibroma. This case demonstrates that cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxilla, not like in the mandible, may appear more aggressive because the extensive growth is unimpeded by anatomic obstacles and that the intraoral approach can be used to excise the tumor in the skull base.

  6. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans

  7. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  8. Computer automation of a dilution cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, C.

    1992-09-01

    This study has been realized in the framework of studies on developing new technic for low temperature detectors for neutrinos and dark matter. The principles of low temperature physics and helium 4 and dilution cryostats, are first reviewed. The cryogenic system used and the technic for low temperature thermometry and regulation systems are then described. The computer automation of the dilution cryogenic system involves: numerical measurement of the parameter set (pressure, temperature, flow rate); computer assisted operating of the cryostat and the pump bench; numerical regulation of pressure and temperature; operation sequence full automation allowing the system to evolve from a state to another (temperature descent for example)

  9. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  10. Dilution refrigeration with multiple mixing chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator is an instrument to reach temperatures in the mK region in a continuous way. The temperature range can be extended and the cooling power can be enlarged by adding an extra mixing chamber. In this way we obtain a double mixing chamber system. In this thesis the theory of the multiple mixing chamber is presented and tested on its validity by comparison with the measurements. Measurements on a dilution refrigerator with a circulation rate up to 2.5 mmol/s are also reported. (Auth.)

  11. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  12. Sleeping money: investigating the huge surpluses of social health insurance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunQiang; Chen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The spreading of social health insurance (SHI) worldwide poses challenges for fledging public administrators. Inefficiency, misuse and even corruption threaten the stewardship of those newly established health funds. This article examines a tricky situation faced by China's largest SHI program: the basic health insurance (BHI) scheme for urban employees. BHI accumulated a 406 billion yuan surplus by 2009, although the reimbursement level was still low. Using a provincial level panel database, we find that the huge BHI surpluses are related to the (temporarily) decreasing dependency ratio, the steady growth of average wages, the extension of BHI coverage, and progress in social insurance agency building. The financial situations of local governments and risk pooling level also matter. Besides, medical savings accounts result in about one third of BHI surpluses. Although these findings are not causal, lessons drawn from this study can help to improve the governance and performance of SHI programs in developing countries.

  13. Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Kimura, Sachiko; Ochi, Satoko; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who showed a huge midline mass in the brain at prenatal assessment. After birth, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a conglomerate mass with an infolded microgyrus at the midline, which was suspected as a midline brain-in-brain malformation. MRI also showed incomplete cleavage of his frontal cortex and thalamus, consistent with lobar holoprosencephaly. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy of the mass on the second day of life. The mass consisted of normal central nervous tissue with gray and white matter, representing a heterotopic brain. The malformation was considered to be a subcortical heterotopia. With maturity, focal signal changes and decreased cerebral perfusion became clear on brain imaging, suggesting secondary glial degeneration. Coincident with these MRI abnormalities, the child developed psychomotor retardation and severe epilepsy focused on the side of the intracranial mass.

  14. Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Kandil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up.

  15. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  16. PRS: PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR HUGE DATA ANALYSIS USING PORTER STEMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Chiranjeevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal recommendation system is one which gives better and preferential recommendation to the users to satisfy their personalized requirements such as practical applications like Webpage Preferences, Sport Videos preferences, Stock selection based on price, TV preferences, Hotel preferences, books, Mobile phones, CDs and various other products now use recommender systems. The existing Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC and item-based algorithm using PCC, are called as UPCC and IPCC respectively. These systems are mainly based on only the rating services and does not consider the user personal preferences, they simply just give the result based on the ratings. As the size of data increases it will give the recommendations based on the top rated services and it will miss out most of user preferences. These are main drawbacks in the existing system which will give same results to the users based on some evaluations and rankings or rating service, they will neglect the user preferences and necessities. To address this problem we propose a new approach called, Personnel Recommendation System (PRS for huge data analysis using Porter Stemmer to solve the above challenges. In the proposed system it provides a personalized service recommendation list to the users and recommends the most useful services to the users which will increase the accuracy and efficiency in searching better services. Particularly, a set of suggestions or keywords are provided to indicate user preferences and we used Collaborative Filtering and Porter Stemmer algorithm which gives a suitable recommendations to the users. In real, the broad experiments are conducted on the huge database which is available in real world, and outcome shows that our proposed personal recommender method extensively improves the precision and efficiency of service recommender system over the KASR method. In our approach mainly consider the user preferences so it will not miss out the any of the data

  17. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Blazeby, Emma; Shang, Congxiao; Xu, Hualong; Zhang, Xixiang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits

  18. Quantifying dilution caused by execution efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Renata Câmara

    Full Text Available Abstract In open pit mining, dilution is not always a factor systematically analyzed and calculated. Often it is only an adjusted number, for example, calculated or even empirically determined for a certain operational condition perpetuating along time in the form of a constant applied to calculating reserves or mine planning in attendance of audit requirements. Dilution and loss are factors that should be always considered for tonnage and grade estimates. These factors are always associated and can be determined considering several particularities of the deposit and the operation itself. In this study, a methodology was determined to identify blocks adjacent to the blocks previously planned to be mined. Thus, it is possible to estimate the dilution caused by poor operating efficiency, taking into account the inability of the equipment to perfectly remove each block, respecting its limits. Mining dilution is defined as the incorporation of waste material to ore due to the operational incapacity to efficiently separate the materials during the mining process, considering the physical processes, and the operating and geometric configurations of the mining with the equipment available.

  19. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be attributed to the reliability of the measured distances which fall off quickly with each shell. Therefore, in ... field and electrical field gradients due to impurities in vanadium [13]. The effective .... Expanding ∆φ(| Rn' |) in power series of u(R0 n), one gets ... The results of each dilute alloy system are presented separately and ...

  20. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  1. Liquid volumes measurements by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera M, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    By the nuclear technique, isotopic dilution industrial liquid volumes may be measured in large size recipients of irregular shapes using radiotracers. In the present work laboratory and pilot test are made with 2 radiotracers for optimizing the technique and later done on an industrial scale, obtaining a maximum deviation of +-2%, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of the technique. (author)

  2. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  3. Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Koene, L.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous removal of nickel ions from a dilute solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis process. Emphasis was placed on the ionic state of the bed during the process, and the mass balance of ions in the system. Much of this information was obtained by analysing

  4. Dilution kicker for the SPS beam dump

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    In order to reduce thermal stress on the SPS dump material, the fast-ejected beam was swept horizontally across the dump. This was done with the "dilution kicker" MKDH, still in use at the time of writing. The person on the left is Manfred Mayer. See also 7404072X.

  5. Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de W.J.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A review will be given of the magnetic characteristics of diluted magnetic semiconductors and the relation with the driving exchange mechanisms. II–VI as well as IV–VI compounds will be considered. The relevance of the long-range interaction and the role of the carrier concentration will be

  6. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  7. Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatsu, Sho; Sugawara, Yo; Matsumura, Takuhiro; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Fujinaga, Yukako

    2013-12-06

    Clostridium botulinum HA is a component of the large botulinum neurotoxin complex and is critical for its oral toxicity. HA plays multiple roles in toxin penetration in the gastrointestinal tract, including protection from the digestive environment, binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, and disruption of the epithelial barrier. At least two properties of HA contribute to these roles: the sugar-binding activity and the barrier-disrupting activity that depends on E-cadherin binding of HA. HA consists of three different proteins, HA1, HA2, and HA3, whose structures have been partially solved and are made up mainly of β-strands. Here, we demonstrate structural and functional reconstitution of whole HA and present the complete structure of HA of serotype B determined by x-ray crystallography at 3.5 Å resolution. This structure reveals whole HA to be a huge triskelion-shaped molecule. Our results suggest that whole HA is functionally and structurally separable into two parts: HA1, involved in recognition of cell-surface carbohydrates, and HA2-HA3, involved in paracellular barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding.

  8. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  9. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  10. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyła, Gaweł; Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian; Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  11. A rare life-threatening disease: unilateral kidney compressed by huge chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hao-Yuan Lu,1,* Wei Wei,2,* Qi-Wei Chen,1,* Qing-Gui Meng,1 Gao-Hua Hu,1 Xian-Lin Yi,1,3 Xian-Zhong Bai1 1Department of Urology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, China; 2Department of Radiology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021,China; 3Hubei Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan 430075, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To study an uncommon life-threatening disease, spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal hemorrhage. Case descriptions: A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the left waist and back of 1 month duration. The renal abscess was suspected by magnetic resonance imaging before operation. The perirenal hematoma was cleaned by operation. In another case, the patient had a functional solitary left kidney compressed by a huge retroperitoneal mass and uropenia appeared. Results: The first patient died of adult respiratory distress syndrome after surgery. The second patient died of cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary embolism on the second day after evacuation of retroperitoneal hematoma. Conclusion: Conservative surgery, such as selective arterial embolization, is a reasonable approach in patients with chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal space hemorrhage and with poor general condition. We strongly recommend drainage or interventional therapy, but not a major surgery, in patients with poor condition. Keywords: kidney, spontaneous, retroperitoneal, hemorrhage, surgery

  12. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw, 02-676 (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  13. EXAFS of dilute systems: fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Since the first observations of the variation of the absorption coefficient for x-rays above the energy thresholds in the thirties until the early seventies, measurements and analysis of these variations were merely intended for the understanding of the underlying physics. Recently, with the understanding of the information available about the local atomic structure in the neighborhood of the absorbing species and the availability of high intensity synchrotron radiation sources, EXAFS has become a powerful structural tool. In these discussions, the details of the measurements for very dilute species are presented. It is shown that for the more dilute systems the measurement of the emission rather than the direct absorption is a more favorable technique

  14. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.

  15. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J cs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given

  16. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  17. Fractal effects on excitations in diluted ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1981-08-01

    The low energy spin-wave like excitations in diluted ferromagnets near percolation threshold are studied. For this purpose an explicit use of the fractal model for the backbone of the infinite percolating cluster due to Kirkpatrick is made. Three physical effects are identified, which cause the softening of spin-waves as the percolation point is approached. The importance of fractal effects in the calculation of density of states and the low temperature thermodynamics is pointed out. (author)

  18. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  19. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit

  20. Relative volatility of dilute solutions of Rb-Cs system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, P.B.; Izotov, V.P.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative volatility of diluted solutions Rb-Cs in the temperature range 650-820 K and pressures 13-200 gPa has been studied. The system Rb-Cs in the range of diluted solutions obeys the Henry law. It is shown, that liquid-vapour equilibrium in diluted solutions of cesium in rubidium is characterized by negative deviation from perfection

  1. Polaron in the dilute critical Bose condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Volodymyr

    2018-05-01

    The properties of an impurity immersed in a dilute D-dimensional Bose gas at temperatures close to its second-order phase transition point are considered. Particularly by means of the 1/N-expansion, we calculate the leading-order polaron energy and the damping rate in the limit of vanishing boson–boson interaction. It is shown that the perturbative effective mass and the quasiparticle residue diverge logarithmically in the long-length limit, signalling the non-analytic behavior of the impurity spectrum and pole-free structure of the polaron Green’s function in the infrared region, respectively.

  2. Confluence Model or Resource Dilution Hypothesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper, I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and the RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the sibship size effect......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...

  3. Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope 36 Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast

  4. The Statistical Mechanics of Dilute, Disordered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Roger Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A graph partitioning problem with variable inter -partition costs is studied by exploiting its mapping on to the Ashkin-Teller spin glass. The cavity method is used to derive the TAP equations and free energy for both extensively connected and dilute systems. Unlike Ising and Potts spin glasses, the self-consistent equation for the distribution of effective fields does not have a solution solely made up of delta functions. Numerical integration is used to find the stable solution, from which the ground state energy is calculated. Simulated annealing is used to test the results. The retrieving activity distribution for networks of boolean functions trained as associative memories for optimal capacity is derived. For infinite networks, outputs are shown to be frozen, in contrast to dilute asymmetric networks trained with the Hebb rule. For finite networks, a steady leaking to the non-retrieving attractor is demonstrated. Simulations of quenched networks are reported which show a departure from this picture: some configurations remain frozen for all time, while others follow cycles of small periods. An estimate of the critical capacity from the simulations is found to be in broad agreement with recent analytical results. The existing theory is extended to include noise on recall, and the behaviour is found to be robust to noise up to order 1/c^2 for networks with connectivity c.

  5. Universal water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamtseva, M.V.; Kardash, N.V.; Latynina, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the interest of environmental protection, improvement of working conditions, and reduced fire hazard in production operations, water-based protective lubricants are now available in a wide assortment, and the production volume has increased greatly. The term water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants (WDIPL) means water-soluble, water-emulsifiable, or water-dispersible products with the dual function of reducing friction and wear and protecting metal surfaces against corrosion for specified periods of time. According to the standard Unified System of Protection Against Corrosion and Aging (COST 9.103-78), WDIPLs are classed as products for the temporary corrosion protection of metals and end-items. In the general class of WDIPLs one can identify water-dilutable combination corrosion inhibitors, film-forming inhibited petroleum compositions (FIPC-d), detergent-preservative fluids, operational-preservative lubricating-cooling process compounds (ICPC), and, finally, universal multifunctional products. Combined corrosion inhibitors may consist of water-soluble organic and inorganic compounds; water/oil and oil-soluble surfactants - corrosion inhibitors of the chemisorption type or donor and/or acceptor types; shielding inhibitors of the adsorption type; and fast-acting water-displacing components. 23 refs

  6. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  7. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  8. Alpha-clustering in dilute nucleonic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsaki, Akihiro

    1999-01-01

    α-clusters are expected to come out here and there in nucleonic sea owing to energetic benefit as its density is diluted. We propose a precise treatment to elucidate α-clusterized process in nucleonic sea after the breakdown of the uniformness. In order to do this, an infinite number of nucleons are considered by taking account of both the Pauli exclusion principle and effective internucleon forces. This method is called a microscopic approach, which has been successful in an α-cluster structure in light nuclei. In particular, we shed light on overcoming difficulties in a static model within the microscopic framework. This improvement is verified by using the empirical value in Weizaecker's mass formula. (author)

  9. Water Metabolism of Walruses by Isotope Dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquarone, M.; Born, E. W.; Chwalibog, A.

    was sampled via an epidural catheter, at regular intervals, for up to seven hours after the initial enrichment to assess isotope equilibration in the body water pools. Five individuals returned to the haul-out after feeding trips of varying duration (158±86 hr, 44-287 hr) where they were immobilized again......In August 2000, the hydrogen isotope dilution method was used on 7 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) (weight: 1197±148 kg, mean±SD, range 1013-1508 kg) at a terrestrial haul-out in Northeastern Greenland to determine their body water pool sizes and body water turnover rates....... During immobilization by use of etorphine HCl (reversed with diprenorphine HCl), a first blood sample was taken to measure background isotope levels. The animals were then enriched with deuterium oxide by infusion into the epidural vein. During recovery, while the animals were still on the beach, blood...

  10. Tunnel backfill erosion by dilute water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The goal was to estimate smectite release from tunnel backfill due to dilute groundwater pulse during post glacial conditions. The plan was to apply VTT's two different implementations (BESW{sub D} and BESW{sub S}) of well-known model of Neretnieks et al. (2009). It appeared difficult to produce repeatable results using this model in COMSOL 4.2 environment, therefore a semi-analytical approximate approach was applied, which enabled to take into account both different geometry and smectite content in tunnel backfill as compared to buffer case. The results are quite similar to buffer results due to the decreasing effect of smaller smectite content and the increasing effect of larger radius. (orig.)

  11. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it

    2009-07-15

    We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.

  12. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M.

    1961-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [fr

  13. Tunnel backfill erosion by dilute water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.

    2014-03-01

    The goal was to estimate smectite release from tunnel backfill due to dilute groundwater pulse during post glacial conditions. The plan was to apply VTT's two different implementations (BESW D and BESW S ) of well-known model of Neretnieks et al. (2009). It appeared difficult to produce repeatable results using this model in COMSOL 4.2 environment, therefore a semi-analytical approximate approach was applied, which enabled to take into account both different geometry and smectite content in tunnel backfill as compared to buffer case. The results are quite similar to buffer results due to the decreasing effect of smaller smectite content and the increasing effect of larger radius. (orig.)

  14. Critical exponents for diluted resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K; Oerding, K

    1999-05-01

    An approach by Stephen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 4444 (1978)] is used to investigate the critical properties of randomly diluted resistor networks near the percolation threshold by means of renormalized field theory. We reformulate an existing field theory by Harris and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. B 35, 6964 (1987)]. By a decomposition of the principal Feynman diagrams, we obtain diagrams which again can be interpreted as resistor networks. This interpretation provides for an alternative way of evaluating the Feynman diagrams for random resistor networks. We calculate the resistance crossover exponent phi up to second order in epsilon=6-d, where d is the spatial dimension. Our result phi=1+epsilon/42+4epsilon(2)/3087 verifies a previous calculation by Lubensky and Wang, which itself was based on the Potts-model formulation of the random resistor network.

  15. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  16. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Surf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The origin and basic principles of the dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) concept are described and illustrated by reference to the CAN-DECON process. The estimated dose savings from the actual application of the process at several reactors are presented and discussed. Two methods of performing a cost/benefit appraisal are described and discussed. This methodology requires more study by the nuclear industry, including collection by station staff of relevant data on which future cost/benefit appraisals may be based. Finally, three illustrative cases are examinated to show the breakeven point and potential savings achievable by DCD with different initial radiation fields and different amounts of work to be done. The overall conclusion is that there are many situations in which DCD is desirable to reduce radiation exposure of workers, to save costs to the station, and to ease the performance of maintenance and repair work on reactor systems

  17. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  18. Huge increase in gas phase nanoparticle generation by pulsed direct current sputtering in a reactive gas admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Peter, Tilo; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Hinz, Alexander; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Using reactive DC sputtering in a gas aggregation cluster source, we show that pulsed discharge gives rise to a huge increase in deposition rate of nanoparticles by more than one order of magnitude compared to continuous operation. We suggest that this effect is caused by an equilibrium between slight target oxidation (during "time-off") and subsequent sputtering of Ti oxides (sub-oxides) at "time-on" with high power impulse.

  19. Reconstruction of juxta-articular huge defects of distal femur with vascularized fibular bone graft and Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Davy; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of reconstructing huge defects (mean, 15.8 cm) of the distal femur with Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis and free twin-barreled vascularized fibular bone graft (TVFG). We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of five patients who had cases of distal femoral fractures with huge defects and infection that were treated by the Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis. After radical debridement, two of the five cases had free TVFG and monolocal distraction osteogenesis, and another two cases had multilocal distraction osteogenesis with knee fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. The other case with floating knee injury had bilocal distraction osteogenesis and a preserved knee joint. The mean defect of distal femur was 15.8 cm (range, 14-18 cm) in length. The mean length of distraction osteogenesis by Ilizarov's apparatus was 8.2 cm. The mean length of TVFG was 8 cm. The average duration from application of Ilizarov's apparatus to achievement of bony union was 10.2 months (range, 8-13 months). At the end of the follow-up, ranges of motion of three knees were 0 to 45 degrees, 0 to 60 degrees, and 0 to 90 degrees. Two cases had knee arthrodesis with bony fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. There were no leg length discrepancies in all five patients. In addition, three patients had pin tract infections and one case had a 10 degree varus deformity of the femur. Juxta-articular huge defect (>10 cm) of distal femur remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Ilizarov's technique provides the capability to maintain stability, eradicate infection, restore leg length, and to perform adjuvant reconstructive procedure easily. In this study, we found that combining Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis with TVFG results in improved patient outcome for patients with injuries such as supracondylar or intercondylar infected fractures or nonunion of distal femur with huge bone defect.

  20. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  1. Asymptotic Distribution of Eigenvalues of Weakly Dilute Wishart Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorunzhy, A. [Institute for Low Temperature Physics (Ukraine)], E-mail: khorunjy@ilt.kharkov.ua; Rodgers, G. J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.j.rodgers@brunel.ac.uk

    2000-03-15

    We study the eigenvalue distribution of large random matrices that are randomly diluted. We consider two random matrix ensembles that in the pure (nondilute) case have a limiting eigenvalue distribution with a singular component at the origin. These include the Wishart random matrix ensemble and Gaussian random matrices with correlated entries. Our results show that the singularity in the eigenvalue distribution is rather unstable under dilution and that even weak dilution destroys it.

  2. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  3. The causes and the nursing interventions of the complications due to repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingfang; Sun Ge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of the complications occurred after repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations and to discuss their nursing interventions. Methods: A total of 54 embolization procedures were performed in 17 patients with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The causes of complications were carefully examined and the preventive measures were discussed. The prompt and necessary nursing interventions were formulated in order to prevent the complications or serious consequences. Results: Among the total 17 patients, one patient gave up the treatment because of the cerebral hemorrhage which occurred two months after receiving 3 times of embolization therapy. One patient experienced cerebral vascular spasm during the procedure, which was relieved after antispasmodic medication and no neurological deficit was left behind. Two patients developed transient dizziness and headache, which were alleviated spontaneously. One patient presented with nervousness, fear and irritability, which made him hard to cooperate with the operation and the basis intravenous anesthesia was employed. No complications occurred in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The predictive nursing interventions for the prevention of complications are very important for obtaining a successful repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations, which will ensure that the patients can get the best treatment and the complications can be avoided. (authors)

  4. [Radical Resection of Huge Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with lmatinib - ACase Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Shiraishi, Osamu; Tanaka, Yumiko; Iwama, Mitsuru; Yasuda, Atsushi; Shinkai, Masayuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Imano, Motohiro; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    The usefulness and safety of imatinibfor neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) has not been established. We reported a case of a huge GIST of the stomach that was safely resected following preoperative imatinibtherapy. A 69-year-old man was hospitalized with abdominal fullness which increased rapidly from a month ago. A CT scan showed a huge tumor containing solid and cystic component which was accompanied by an extra-wall nodule. The tumor was strongly suspected to be originated from the stomach and EUS-FNA revealed GIST. We diagnosed GIST of the stomach and initiated preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib because there was a risk for the break of tumor capsule and composite resection of the other organs without prior chemotherapy. After the administration of imatinib4 00 mg/day for 6months, the solid component was decreased in size and its' activity by PET-CT had declined, but the size of the cystic component was not changed and the patient's complaint of fullness was not reduced. Then, after a week cessation of imatinib, we performed surgical removal of the tumor with partial gastrectomy without surgical complication during and after the operation. Imatinibwas resumed 2 weeks later postoperatively and 1 year and 8 months has passed since the operation without recurrence. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinibhas the potential to become an important therapeutic option for the treatment of huge GISTs.

  5. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500... a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to dispense or serially dilute very small...

  6. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  7. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  8. Dilute antiferromagnetism in magnetically doped phosphorene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Allerdt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the competition between Kondo physics and indirect exchange on monolayer black phos-phorous using a realistic description of the band structure in combination with the density matrixrenormalization group (DMRG method. The Hamiltonian is reduced to a one-dimensional problemvia an exact canonical transformation that makes it amenable to DMRG calculations, yielding exactresults that fully incorporate the many-body physics. We find that a perturbative description of theproblem is not appropriate and cannot account for the slow decay of the correlations and the completelack of ferromagnetism. In addition, at some particular distances, the impurities decouple formingtheir own independent Kondo states. This can be predicted from the nodes of the Lindhard function.Our results indicate a possible route toward realizing dilute anti-ferromagnetism in phosphorene. Received: 19 September 2017, Accepted: 12 October 2017; Edited by: K. Hallberg; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.090008 Cite as: A Allerdt, A E Feiguin, Papers in Physics 9, 090008 (2017

  9. Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates in diluted suspensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and disaggregation of micron-size aggregates in a diluted suspension made up of HSs and bentonite (B) were studied by tracing distribution of aggregate sizes and their counts in freshly prepared and aged suspensions, and at high (10 000) and low (1.0) [HS]/[B] ratios. Diluted HSB suspensions are unstable ...

  10. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  11. Magnetic ordering in dilute YTb and YEr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainford, B.D.; Kilcoyne, S.H.; Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.; Stanley, H.B.; Caudron, R.

    1988-01-01

    Dilute YEr alloys (Er concentration between 3% and 10%) show the existence of sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetism down to the lowest impurity concentrations studied. Extrapolation of the Neel temperatures for both YEr and YTb suggests a critical concentration is ≅ 0.8% Tb, Er. Ordering in such dilute alloys may result from exchange enhancement in the yttrium host

  12. Magnetic ordering in dilute YTb and YEr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainford, B.D.; Kilcoyne, S.H.; Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.; Stanley, H.B.; Caudron, R.

    1988-12-01

    Dilute YEr alloys (Er concentration between 3% and 10%) show the existence of sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetism down to the lowest impurity concentrations studied. Extrapolation of the Neel temperatures for both YEr and YTb suggests a critical concentration is /approx equal/ 0.8% Tb, Er. Ordering in such dilute alloys may result from exchange enhancement in the yttrium host.

  13. The Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology Offgas Development Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The melt-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. The melt-dilute process is a method of preparing DOE spent nuclear fuel for long term storage

  14. Near-wall molecular ordering of dilute ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jitvisate, Monchai; Seddon, James Richard Thorley

    2017-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of ionic liquids promises tunable lubrication as well as playing an integral role in ion diffusion for electron transfer. Diluting the ionic liquids optimizes bulk parameters, such as electric conductivity, and one would expect dilution to disrupt the near-wall molecular

  15. Effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different growing periods on compensatory growth of Ross broilers. Four replicant pens were assigned per seven treatments. Chicks in each treatment received concentrated and diluted diets in different ...

  16. The dilute random field Ising model by finite cluster approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.; Saber, M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the finite cluster approximation, phase diagrams of bond and site diluted three-dimensional simple cubic Ising models with a random field have been determined. The resulting phase diagrams have the same general features for both bond and site dilution. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  17. Enhancement of surface magnetism due to bulk bond dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Sarmento, E.F.; Albuquerque, E.L. de

    1985-01-01

    Within a renormalization group scheme, the phase diagram of a semi-infinite simple cubic Ising ferromagnet is discussed, with arbitrary surface and bulk coupling constants, and including possible dilution of the bulk bonds. It is obtained that dilution makes easier the appearance of surface magnetism in the absence of bulk magnetism. (Author) [pt

  18. Dynamic dilution exponent in monodisperse entangled polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, T.; Huang, Qian; Oosterlinck, F.

    2017-01-01

    of concentration but also depends on the molar mass of the chains. While the proposed approach successfully explains the viscoelastic properties of a large number of semi-dilute solutions of polymers in their own oligomers, important discrepancies are found for semi-dilute entangled polymers in small-molecule......We study and model the linear viscoelastic properties of several entangled semi-dilute and concentrated solutions of linear chains of different molar masses and at different concentrations dissolved in their oligomers. We discuss the dilution effect of the oligomers on the entangled long chains....... In particular, we investigate the influence of both concentration and molar mass on the value of the effective dynamic dilution exponent determined from the level of the storage plateau at low and intermediate frequencies. We show that the experimental results can be quantitatively explained by considering...

  19. The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiti Nadjib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.

  20. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated 99mTc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of 99m Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  1. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  2. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  3. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  4. Role reductants in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [Univ. of New Brunswick (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Lab.; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-10-01

    Iron(III) oxides are the major corrosion products formed in boiling water reactors. The iron(III) oxides are of two types, namely hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dissolution of these oxides is in no way simple because of the labile nature of the Fe(III)-O bond towards the chelants. The leaching of metal ions is partially controlled by reductive dissolution. In order to understand the role of the reductant, it is essential to study the dissolution behaviour of a system like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which does not contain any Fe{sup 2+} in the crystal lattice. The present study was carried out with {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) formulations containing ascorbic acid and citric acid with the addition of Fe(II)-L as a reductant. The chelants used for the dissolution process were nitrilotriacetic acid, 2,6-pyridinedicorboxylic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was chosen since the earlier studies revealed that the dissolution kinetics of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is slow and it is difficult to dissolve even by strong complexing agents, whereas {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolution is comparatively easier. This is due to the structural difference between these two oxides. The studies also revealed that the dissolution was partly influenced by the nature of the chelating agents but mainly controlled by the power of the reductants used in the formulation. The dissolution behaviour of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under various experimental conditions is discussed and compared with that of magnetite in order to arrive at a suitable mechanism for the dissolution of iron oxides and emphasize the role of reductants in DCD formulations. (orig.)

  5. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  6. Research on fast Fourier transforms algorithm of huge remote sensing image technology with GPU and partitioning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Xue-You; Li, Jia-Guo; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jan; Du, Quan-Ye

    2014-02-01

    Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) is a basic approach to remote sensing image processing. With the improvement of capacity of remote sensing image capture with the features of hyperspectrum, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, how to use FFT technology to efficiently process huge remote sensing image becomes the critical step and research hot spot of current image processing technology. FFT algorithm, one of the basic algorithms of image processing, can be used for stripe noise removal, image compression, image registration, etc. in processing remote sensing image. CUFFT function library is the FFT algorithm library based on CPU and FFTW. FFTW is a FFT algorithm developed based on CPU in PC platform, and is currently the fastest CPU based FFT algorithm function library. However there is a common problem that once the available memory or memory is less than the capacity of image, there will be out of memory or memory overflow when using the above two methods to realize image FFT arithmetic. To address this problem, a CPU and partitioning technology based Huge Remote Fast Fourier Transform (HRFFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. By improving the FFT algorithm in CUFFT function library, the problem of out of memory and memory overflow is solved. Moreover, this method is proved rational by experiment combined with the CCD image of HJ-1A satellite. When applied to practical image processing, it improves effect of the image processing, speeds up the processing, which saves the time of computation and achieves sound result.

  7. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  8. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  9. Influence of extragent dilution upon light rare earths separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpusova, R.D.; Smirnova, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diluting the extragent on separation of REE in the presence of 6 g-equiv. of LiNO 3 has been studied. For experiments use was made of TBP diluted with kerosene or butylbenzene (40,50,70 vol.%). The separation coefficients have been determined under conditions of saturation. The content of trace amounts of the components has been determined by the weight method; the content of macroimpurities - by the radiometric method. It has been established that the coefficient of Ce-La, Pr-La separation is not affected by the dilution of the extragent. The only exception is the Pr 142 -La pair; in the presence of trace amounts of better extracted element and two-fold dilution the separation coefficient increases almost by 150%. For the Pr-Ce pair the effect of dilution is better noticeable in that case when more extracted element is present in trace amounts. However, a comparison of the effect of dilution on separation coefficients of all REE pairs under study has shown that this effect is the strongest for the samarium-neodymium pair. The data obtained allow an assumption to be made that kerosene, as a diluent, affects the steric factor and coordination. Therefore, upon dilution the coefficient of the samarium-neodymium pair separation is affected most of all

  10. Solution by dilution?--A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Scholz-Starke, Björn; Wu, Lingling; Hou, Junli; Yin, Daqiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Rong; Yuan, Xingzhong; Ottermanns, Richard; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2013-10-01

    The Yangtze River has been a source of life and prosperity for the Chinese people for centuries and is a habitat for a remarkable variety of aquatic species. But the river suffers from huge amounts of urban sewage, agricultural effluents, and industrial wastewater as well as ship navigation wastes along its course. With respect to the vast amounts of water and sediments discharged by the Yangtze River, it is reasonable to ask whether the pollution problem may be solved by simple dilution. This article reviews the past two decades of published research on organic pollutants in the Yangtze River and several adjacent water bodies connected to the main stream, according to a holistic approach. Organic pollutant levels and potential effects of water and sediments on wildlife and humans, measured in vitro, in vivo, and in situ, were critically reviewed. The contamination with organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and others, of water and sediment along the river was described. Especially Wuhan section and the Yangtze Estuary exhibited stronger pollution than other sections. Bioassays, displaying predominantly the endpoints mutagenicity and endocrine disruption, applied at sediments, drinking water, and surface water indicated a potential health risk in several areas. Aquatic organisms exhibited detectable concentrations of toxic compounds like PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, and PFCs. Genotoxic effects could also be assessed in situ in fish. To summarize, it can be stated that dilution reduces the ecotoxicological risk in the Yangtze River, but does not eliminate it. Keeping in mind an approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared to the major European river Rhine, the absolute pollution mass transfer of the Yangtze River is of severe concern for

  11. Dilution thermodynamics of the biologically relevant cation mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczyński, Marek; Borowik, Tomasz; Przybyło, Magda; Langner, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dilution energetics of Ca 2+ can be altered by the aqueous phase ionic composition. • Dissipated heat upon Ca 2+ dilution is drastically reduced in the K + presence. • Reduction of the enthalpy change upon Ca 2+ dilution is K + concentration dependent. • The cooperativity of Ca 2+ hydration might be of great biological relevance providing a thermodynamic argument for the specific ionic composition of the intracellular environment. - Abstract: The ionic composition of intracellular space is rigorously controlled by a variety of processes consuming large quantities of energy. Since the energetic efficiency is an important evolutional criterion, therefore the ion fluxes within the cell should be optimized with respect to the accompanying energy consumption. In the paper we present the experimental evidence that the dilution enthalpies of the biologically relevant ions; i.e. calcium and magnesium depend on the presence of monovalent cations; i.e. sodium and potassium. The heat flow generated during the dilution of ionic mixtures was measured with the isothermal titration calorimetry. When calcium was diluted together with potassium the dilution enthalpy was drastically reduced as the function of the potassium concentration present in the solution. No such effect was observed when the potassium ions were substituted with sodium ones. When the dilution of magnesium was investigated the dependence of the dilution enthalpy on the accompanying monovalent cation was much weaker. In order to interpret experimental evidences the ionic cluster formation is postulated. The specific organization of such cluster should depend on ions charges, sizes and organization of the hydration layers

  12. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  13. On the Wigner law in dilute random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorunzhy, A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    We consider ensembles of N × N symmetric matrices whose entries are weakly dependent random variables. We show that random dilution can change the limiting eigenvalue distribution of such matrices. We prove that under general and natural conditions the normalised eigenvalue counting function coincides with the semicircle (Wigner) distribution in the limit N → ∞. This can be explained by the observation that dilution (or more generally, random modulation) eliminates the weak dependence (or correlations) between random matrix entries. It also supports our earlier conjecture that the Wigner distribution is stable to random dilution and modulation.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  15. Elective hemi transurethral resection of prostate: a safe and effective method of treating huge benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, S.S.; Feroz, I.; Aslam, M.; Fawad, A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of elective hemi-resection of prostate in patients with huge gland, weighing more than 120 grams. Study Design: Multi centric, analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from August 2006 to July 2009. Methodology: All benign cases were included in this study and divided into two groups. In group A, patients having huge prostate (> 120 grams) were placed and hemi TURP was performed. In group B, patients having 60 to 100 grams prostate were placed and conventional Blandy's TURP was performed. Results of both groups were compared in terms of duration of surgery, amount of tissue resected, operative bleeding, postoperative complications, duration of postoperative catheterization, re-admission and re-operations. Effectiveness of procedure was assessed by a simple questionnaire filled by the patients at first month, first year and second year. Patients satisfaction in terms of their ability to void, control urination, frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, haematuria, recurrent UTI, re-admission and re-operations were also assessed. Fisher exact test was applied to compare the safety and efficacy of variables. Results: In group A and B, average age range was 72 and 69 years, average weight of prostate was 148 and 70 grams, average duration of surgery was 102 and 50 minutes respectively. Average weight of resected tissue was 84 and 54 grams and haemoglobin loss was two grams and one gram respectively. Total hospital stay was 5 and 4 days. Total duration of indwelling Foley's catheter (postoperative) was 5 days and 2 days. Patient satisfaction in term of urine flow, urinary control, improvement in frequency and nocturia were comparable in both groups. UTI and re-admission was more in hemi resection group. At the end of 2 years follow-up, there is no statistical difference between the safety and efficacy

  16. A theory of stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, J.F.; McPherson, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative analysis using stable isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, an equation is derived which describes the relationship between the relative proportions of natural and labelled material and measured isotope ratios

  17. Paradigms in isotope dilution mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry currently stands out as the method providing results with unchallenged precision and accuracy in elemental speciation. However, recent history of isotope dilution mass spectrometry has shown that the extent to which this primary ratio measurement method can deliver accurate results is still subject of active research. In this review, we will summarize the fundamental prerequisites behind isotope dilution mass spectrometry and discuss their practical limits of validity and effects on the accuracy of the obtained results. This review is not to be viewed as a critique of isotope dilution; rather its purpose is to highlight the lesser studied aspects that will ensure and elevate current supremacy of the results obtained from this method

  18. An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation is an overview of boron (boric acid) dilution in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Boric acid has been widely used in PWRs as a dissolved poison, as one of the main reactivity controlling means, for a long time, from nearly but not quite from the beginning of the design, construction and operation of PWRs in the present-day sense. The specific safety issue, namely the risk of uncontrolled reactivity insertion due to inadvertent boron dilution, is discussed first, followed by a brief look on the history of boron usage in PWRs. A discussion of boron dilution phenomenology is presented next in general terms. Some particular concerns that boron dilution phenomena arouse in the minds of a regulator will also be presented before concluding with a brief look on the future of dissolved poisons. (11 refs.)

  19. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  20. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting

    2016-07-21

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability and stability after 10 cycles in degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation, owing to its unique mesoporous network, abundant surface hydrides and efficient light harvesting. This work showcases the profound effects of surface area, crystallinity, pore topology on charge migration/recombination and mass transportation. Therein the ordered 1D channel array has outperformed the interconnected 3D porous network by greatly accelerating the mass diffusion and enhancing the accessibility of the active sites on the extensive surfaces. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermawan-Candra; Nazaroh; Ermi-Juita

    2003-01-01

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60 Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60 Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  2. Attentional sets influence perceptual load effects, but not dilution effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoni, Hanna; Zivony, Alon; Tsal, Yehoshua

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual load theory [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.; Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994) Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.] proposes that interference from distractors can only be avoided in situations of high perceptual load. This theory has been supported by blocked design manipulations separating low load (when the target appears alone) and high load (when the target is embedded among neutral letters). Tsal and Benoni [(2010a). Diluting the burden of load: Perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1645-1656.; Benoni, H., & Tsal, Y. (2010). Where have we gone wrong? Perceptual load does not affect selective attention. Vision Research, 50, 1292-1298.] have recently shown that these manipulations confound perceptual load with "dilution" (the mere presence of additional heterogeneous items in high-load situations). Theeuwes, Kramer, and Belopolsky [(2004). Attentional set interacts with perceptual load in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 697-702.] independently questioned load theory by suggesting that attentional sets might also affect distractor interference. When high load and low load were intermixed, and participants could not prepare for the presentation that followed, both the low-load and high-load trials showed distractor interference. This result may also challenge the dilution account, which proposes a stimulus-driven mechanism. In the current study, we presented subjects with both fixed and mixed blocks, including a mix of dilution trials with low-load trials and with high-load trials. We thus separated the effect of dilution from load and tested the influence of attentional sets on each component. The results revealed that whereas

  3. Analysis of the Huge Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to Southern China in the Spring of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Si-Si; Bao, Yun-Xuan; Wu, Yan; Lu, Min-Hong; Tuan, Hoang-Anh

    2018-02-08

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory rice pest that periodically erupts across Asia, and early immigration is an important cause of its outbreak. The early immigration of S. furcifera into southern China shows evident annual fluctuations. In the spring of 2012, the huge size of the immigrant population and the large number of immigration peaks were at levels rarely seen prior to that year. However, little research has been done on the entire process of round-trip migration to clarify the development of the population, the long-distance migration and the final eruption. In this study, the light-trap data for S. furcifera in southern China and Vietnam in 2011-2016 were collected, and the trajectory modeling showed that the early immigrants to southern China came from the northern and central Vietnam, Laos, and northeastern Thailand. Analysis of the development of the population, the migration process and meteorological factors revealed the reasons for the huge size of the early immigration: 1) the expansion of the source area could be seen as a precondition; 2) the large size of the returned population in the last autumn and the warm temperature of southern Vietnam and Laos in the last winter increased the initial populations; 3) the sustained strong southwest winds were conducive to the northward migration of the population during the major immigration period in early May. Therefore, the large-scale immigration of S. furcifera to southern China in the spring of 2012 resulted from the combined effects of several factors involved in the process of round-trip migration. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of dissolved species on radiolysis of diluted seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Shigeki; Motooka, Takafumi; Tsukada, Takashi; Muroya, Yusa; Yamashita, Shinichi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) experienced seawater injection into the cores and fuel pools as an emergent measure after the accident. After the accident, retained water has been continuously desalinized, and subsequently the concentration of chloride ion (Cl"-) has been kept at a lower level these days. These ions in seawater are known to affect water radiolysis, which causes the production of radiolytic products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2), molecular hydrogen (H_2) and molecular oxygen (O_2). However, the effects of dissolved ions relating seawater on the production of the stable radiolytic products are not well understood in the diluted seawater. To understand of the production behavior in diluted seawater under radiation, radiolysis calculations were carried out. Production of H_2 is effectively suppressed by diluting by up to vol10%. The concentrations of oxidants (H_2O_2 and O_2) are also suppressed by dilution of dissolved species. The effect of oxidants on corrosion of materials is thought to be low when the seawater was diluted by less than 1 vol% by water. It is also shown that deaeration is one of the effective measure to suppress the concentrations of oxidants at a lower level for any dilution conditions. (author)

  5. Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

  6. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  7. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  8. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper

  9. Quantifying the dilution effect for models in ecological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M G; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2018-03-01

    The dilution effect , where an increase in biodiversity results in a reduction in the prevalence of an infectious disease, has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Conversely, an amplification effect occurs when increased biodiversity is related to an increase in prevalence. We explore the conditions under which these effects arise, using multi species compartmental models that integrate ecological and epidemiological interactions. We introduce three potential metrics for quantifying dilution and amplification, one based on infection prevalence in a focal host species, one based on the size of the infected subpopulation of that species and one based on the basic reproduction number. We introduce our approach in the simplest epidemiological setting with two species, and show that the existence and strength of a dilution effect is influenced strongly by the choices made to describe the system and the metric used to gauge the effect. We show that our method can be generalized to any number of species and to more complicated ecological and epidemiological dynamics. Our method allows a rigorous analysis of ecological systems where dilution effects have been postulated, and contributes to future progress in understanding the phenomenon of dilution in the context of infectious disease dynamics and infection risk. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. A Study on the Stability of Diluted Bee Venom Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Suk Kang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of bee venom according to the keeping method and period. Method : The author observed microbial contamination of bee venom in nutrient agar, broth, YPD agar and YPD media and antibacterial activity for S. aureus, E. coli manufactured 12, 6 and 3 months ago as the two type of room temperature and 4℃ cold storage. Result : 1. 1:3,000 and 1:4,000 diluted bee venom solution did not show microbial contamination both room temperature and cold storage within twelve months. 2. There was antibacterial activity of diluted bee venom for S. aureus in cold storage within twelve months and there was no antibacterial activity of diluted bee venom for S. aureus in twelve months, room temperature storage. 3. We could not observe the zone of inhibition around paper disc of all for E.coli. in 1:3,000, 1:30,000 and 1:3,000,000 diluted bee venom solution, respectively. According to results, we expect that diluted bee venom solution is stable both cold and room temperature storage within twelve months.

  11. Initial magnetic susceptibility of the diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, D.Yu.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites based on magnetic microparticles are experimentally studied. Considered samples have varied concentration of the magnetic powder and different structural anisotropy. Experimental data on magnetic properties are accomplished by microstructural observations performed using X-Ray tomography. Influence of the particles amount and structuring effects on the initial magnetic susceptibility of the composites as well as the applicability of the Maxwell-Garnett approximation, which is widely used in considerations of magnetopolymer elastic composites, are evaluated. It is demonstrated that the approximation works well for diluted samples containing randomly distributed magnetic particles and for the diluted samples with chain-like structures oriented perpendicular to an externally applied field, while it fails to predict the susceptibility of the samples with structures oriented parallel to the field. Moreover, it is shown, that variation of the chains morphology does not significantly change the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction works well for the diluted isotropic composites. • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction can be used for composites with structures oriented perpendicular to an applied field. • Chains oriented parallel to an applied field significantly increase the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. • The number and thickness of chains is not of the highest importance for the diluted composites. • The crucial reason of the observed effect is expected to be the demagnetisation factor of the chains.

  12. A probabilistic analysis of rapid boron dilution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Diamond, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic and deterministic analysis of a rapid boron dilution scenario related to reactor restart was performed. The event is initiated by a loss of off-site power during the startup dilution process. The automatic restart of the charging pump in such cases may lead to the accumulation of a diluted slug of water in the lower plenum. The restart of the reactor coolant pumps may send the diluted slug through the core, adding sufficient reactivity to overcome the shutdown margin and cause a power excursion. The concern is that the power excursion is sufficient in certain circumstances to cause fuel damage. The estimated core damage frequency based on the scoping analysis is 1.0--3.0E-05/yr for the plants analyzed. These are relatively significant values when compared to desirable goals. The analysis contained assumptions related to plant specific design characteristics which may lead to non-conservative estimates. The most important conservative assumptions were that mixing of the injected diluted water is insignificant and that fuel damage occurs when the slug passes through the core

  13. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  14. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  15. Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirgari Farrokh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypercalcemia is the major electrolyte abnormality in patients with malignant tumors. It can be due to localized osteolytic hypercalcemia or elaboration of humoral substances such as parathyroid hormone-related protein from tumoral cells. In hematological malignancies, a third mechanism of uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH2D3 from tumoral cells or neighboring macrophages may contribute to the problem. However, hypercalcemia is quite unusual in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman presented with low grade fever, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and fullness in her left abdomen for the last six months. She was mildly anemic and complained of fatigability. She had huge splenomegaly and was hypercalcemic. After correction of her hypercalcemia, she had a splenectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed a malignant lymphoma. Her immunohistochemistry was positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD20 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Conclusion Immunopositivity for parathyroid hormone-related peptide clearly demonstrates that hypersecretion of a parathyroid hormone-like substance from the tumor had led to hypercalcemia in this case. High serum calcium is seen in only seven to eight percent of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently due to different mechanisms. Evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein and 1-25(OH2D3 can be helpful in diagnosis and management. It should be noted that presentation with hypercalcemia has a serious impact on prognosis and survival.

  16. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Thaweekul, Yuthadej; Mairiang, Karicha

    2016-12-01

    A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.

  17. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  18. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  19. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:26307983

  20. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    under laboratory conditions extend the protection period. The present field study investigated the applicability of the method under practical farming conditions (freshwater earth ponds supplied by stream water). Primary immersion vaccination of trout (3–4 g) for 30 s in Y. ruckeri bacterin (diluted 1......Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  1. Moderate Dilution of Copper Slag by Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-jing; Zhang, Ting-an; Niu, Li-ping; Liu, Nan-song; Dou, Zhi-he; Li, Zhi-qiang

    2018-01-01

    To enable use of copper slag and extract the maximum value from the contained copper, an innovative method of reducing moderately diluted slag to smelt copper-containing antibacterial stainless steel is proposed. This work focused on moderate dilution of copper slag using natural gas. The thermodynamics of copper slag dilution and ternary phase diagrams of the slag system were calculated. The effects of blowing time, temperature, matte settling time, and calcium oxide addition were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were identified to be blowing time of 20 min, reaction temperature of 1250°C, settling time of 60 min, CaO addition of 4% of mass of slag, natural gas flow rate of 80 mL/min, and outlet pressure of 0.1 MPa. Under these conditions, the Fe3O4 and copper contents of the residue were 7.36% and 0.50%, respectively.

  2. Thermal diffusion in dilute nanofluids investigated by photothermal interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, J; Nisha, M R

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the particle mass fraction on the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids (dilute nanofluids). The analysis takes in to account adsorption of an ordered layer of solvent molecules around the nanoparticles. It is found that thermal diffusivity decreases with mass fraction for sufficiently small particle sizes. Beyond a critical particle size thermal diffusivity begins to increase with mass fraction for the same system. The results have been verified experimentally by measuring the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. The effect is attributed to Kapitza resistance of thermal waves in the medium.

  3. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  4. How Consumers’ Styles of Thinking Can Control Brand Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Alokparna Basu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding consumers’ ways of thinking can help identify strategies to limit brand damage and elicit more favorable reactions from disapproving consumers. Analytic thinkers’ beliefs about a brand are diluted when they see negative information; those of holistic thinkers remain unaffected. While both analytic and holistic thinkers blame the brand equally for quality and manufacturing problems, holistic thinkers are more likely to blame contextual factors outside of the brand than analytic thinkers. This ability of holistic thinkers to focus on the outside context is the reason why their brand beliefs are not diluted.

  5. Computer registration of radioactive indicator-dilution curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A P; Perry, M A; Alexander, G M; Granger, D N; Riedel, G L; Kvietys, P R; Franke, C P

    1983-12-01

    A system is described for recording indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma radiation-emitting tracers. The system consists of a flow-through cuvette in a well counter, appropriate commercially available gamma radiation-detecting equipment, an Apple II computer, and a two-channel pulse-counting interface of our own design. With the counting interface and the software described here, an investigator can simultaneously record two indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma emitters. Instead of having to wait hours or days for results, the investigator can watch the data being recorded and display the results in graphic form almost immediately after each injection.

  6. GRAIN-BOUNDARY PRECIPITATION UNDER IRRADIATION IN DILUTE BINARY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H. Song; Z.X. Yuan; J. Liu; R.G.Faulkner

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation-induced grain boundary segregation of solute atoms frequently bring about grain boundary precipitation of a second phase because of its making the solubility limit of the solute surpassed at grain boundaries. Until now the kinetic models for irradiation-induced grain boundary precipitation have been sparse. For this reason, we have theoretically treated grain boundary precipitation under irradiation in dilute binary alloys. Predictions ofγ'-Ni3Si precipitation at grain boundaries ave made for a dilute Ni-Si alloy subjected to irradiation. It is demonstrated that grain boundary silicon segregation under irradiation may lead to grain boundaryγ'-Ni3 Si precipitation over a certain temperature range.

  7. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2015-01-01

    measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained......An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different...

  8. Test plan for tank 241-AN-104 dilution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herting, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Tank 241-AN-104 (104-AN) has been identified as the one of the first tanks to be retrieved for low level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount and type of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed and to re-dissolve major soluble sodium salts while not precipitating out other salts. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document. Tank 241-AN-104 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  9. Dynamics of dilute disordered models: A solvable case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2003-09-01

    We study the dynamics of a dilute spherical model with two body interactions and random exchanges. We analyze the Langevin equations and we introduce a functional variational method to study generic dilute disordered models. A crossover temperature replaces the dynamic transition of the fully-connected limit. There are two asymptotic regimes, one determined by the central band of the spectral density of the interactions and a slower one determined by localized configurations on sites with high connectivity. We confront the behavior of this model to the one of real glasses. (author)

  10. High field Moessbauer study of dilute Ir-(Fe) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, Toshiro; Mazaki, Hiromasa; Shinjo, Teruya.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of very dilute Fe impurities in Ir has been studied by means of Moessbauer measurement in external fields up to 80 kOe at 4.2 K. The saturation hyperfine field increases in proportion to the external field up to the maximum magnetic field available. This means that for a localized spin fluctuation system IrFe, the effective magnetic moment associated with Fe impurities is induced in proportion to the external field. No anomalous spectrum was observed with a very dilute sample (--10 ppm 57 Co), indicating that the interaction between impurities is responsible for the anomalous spectrum previously observed with a less homogeneous sample. (author)

  11. Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaj, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    The book deals with diluted magnetic semiconductors, a class of materials important to the emerging field of spintronics. In these materials semiconducting properties, both transport and optical, are influenced by the presence of magnetic ions. It concentrates on basic physical mechanisms (e.g. carrier-ion and ion-ion interactions) and resulting phenomena (e.g. magnetic polaron formation and spin relaxation). Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors is addressed to graduate-level and doctoral students and young researchers entering the field. The authors have been actively involved in the creation of this branch of semiconductor physics.

  12. Cryptogenic transient ischemic attack after nose blowing: association of huge atrial septal aneurysm with patent foramen ovale as potential cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze,1 Uwe Kirsch,1 Marc-Alexander Ohlow,2 Thorsten Scholle,3 Jochen Leonhardi,3 Bernward Lauer,2 Gerhard Oltmanns,4 Hendrik Schmidt5,6 1Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sondershausen, Sondershausen, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany; 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sömmerda; Sömmerda, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Diabetology, Klinikum Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine III, Martin-Luther-Univeristy Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany Abstract: Association of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA with patent foramen ovale (PFO is considered an important risk factor for cardioembolism frequently forwarding paradoxical embolism in patients with cryptogenic or unexplained cerebral ischemic events. We herein describe the case of a 69-year-old male patient reporting uncontrolled movements of the right arm due to a muscle weakness, slurred speech, and paresthesia in the oral region some seconds after he had blown his nose. These neurological symptoms had improved dramatically within a few minutes and were completely regressive at admission to our hospital about two hours later. On transesophageal echocardiography (TEE a huge ASA associated with PFO was detected. Diagnosis of the large-sized ASA was also confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Due to the early complete recovery from his neurological symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack (TIA. After nine days he was discharged in a good clinical condition under the treatment with oral anticoagulation. It is concluded that in cryptogenic or unexplained stroke or TIA TEE should always be performed to rule out ASA and PFO as potential sources for paradoxical embolism in those inconclusive clinical situations. Keywords: congenital cardiac abnormality, atrial septal

  13. ESR1 Gene Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Wang

    Full Text Available Many published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ESR1 gene and prostate cancer susceptibility are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE review and meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship.A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM databases was conducted from their inception through July 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of association.Twelve case-control studies were included with a total 2,165 prostate cancer cases and 3,361 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, ESR1 PvuII (C>T and XbaI (A>G polymorphisms showed no association with the risk of prostate cancer. However, in the stratified analyses based on ethnicity and country, the results indicated that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may significantly increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. Furthermore, we also performed a pooled analysis for all eligible case-control studies to explore the role of codon 10 (T>C, codon 325 (C>G, codon 594 (G>A and +261G>C polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk. Nevertheless, no significant associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer were observed.Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population.

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is devoted to the materials science of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). A DMS is traditionally defined as a diamagnetic semiconductor doped with a few to several atomic per cent of some transition metal with unpaired d electrons. Several kinds of dopant-dopant interactions can in principle couple the dopant spins leading to a ferromagnetic ground state in a dilute magnetic system. These include superexchange, which occurs principally in oxides and only between dopants with one intervening oxygen, and double exchange, in which dopants of different formal charges exchange an electron. In both of these mechanisms, the ferromagnetic alignment is not critically dependent on free carriers in the host semiconductor because exchange occurs via bonds. A third mechanism, discovered in the last few years, involves electrons associated with lattice defects that can apparently couple dopant spins. This mechanism is not well understood. Finally, the most desirable mechanism is carrier-mediated exchange interaction in which the dopant spins are coupled by itinerant electrons or holes in the host semiconductor. This mechanism introduces a fundamental link between magnetic and electrical transport properties and offers the possibility of new spintronic functionalities. In particular electrical gate control of ferromagnetism and the use of spin polarized currents to carry signals for analog and digital applications. The spin light emitting diode is a prototypical device of this kind that has been extensively used to characterize the extent of spin polarization in the active light emitting semiconductor heterostructure. The prototypical carrier mediated ferromagnetic DMS is Mn-doped GaAs. This and closely related narrow gap III-V materials have been very extensively studied. Their properties are generally quite well understood and they have led to important insights into fundamental properties of ferromagnetic systems with strong spin

  15. post-jomtien policy dilutions: infrastructural & quality norms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operation Blackboard norms diluted – from 3 teachers-3 rooms per primary school to 2 teachers-2 rooms per primary school. Regular teacher replaced by under-qualified, untrained, under-paid Para-teachers appointed on short-term contracts. EGS – No provision for school buildings or teaching aids. Multi-grade Teaching ...

  16. Coherence and stiffness of spin waves in diluted ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 17 (2016), č. článku 174447. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin wave s * diluted ferromagnets * disordered systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  17. Procedures for accurately diluting and dispensing radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The technique currently used by various laboratories participating in international comparisons of radioactivity measurements are surveyed and recommendations for good laboratory practice established. Thus one describes, for instance, the preparation of solutions, dilution techniques, the use of 'pycnometers', weighing procedures (including buyoancy correction), etc. It should be possible to keep random and systematic uncertainties below 0.1% of the final result

  18. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

  19. Determination of dilution and quality control of total and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the correct dilution and Quality control commercial ELISA of total and anti-measles antibodies for HIV infected pregnant women. Design: A laboratory based study. Setting: The University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics laboratory. Subjects: HIV infected pregnant women enrolled and exposed to ...

  20. Quality of potential harmonics expansion method for dilute Bose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present and examine an approximate but ab initio many-body approach, viz., potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM), which includes two-body correla- tions for dilute Bose–Einstein condensates. Comparing the total ground state energy for three trapped interacting bosons calculated in PHEM with the ...

  1. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  2. Inhibition Effect of Deanol on Mild Steel Corrosion in Dilute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... The influence of deanol on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in dilute sulphuric acid with sodium ... the formation of a complex precipitate of protective film, which ... silicon carbide abrasive papers of 80, 120, 220, 800 and 1000 grit ...... ions in sulphuric acid on the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel,.

  3. Kinetic-sound propagation in dilute gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, A.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetic sound is predicted in dilute disparate-mass binary gas mixtures, propagating exclusively in the light compound and much faster than ordinary sound. It should be detectable by light-scattering experiments, as an extended shoulder in the scattering cross section for large frequencies. As an example, H 2 -Ar mixtures are discussed

  4. Thermodynamics of a dilute XX chain in a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonin, P. N., E-mail: pntim@live.ru [Southern Federal University, Physics Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Gapless phases in ground states of low-dimensional quantum spin systems are rather ubiquitous. Their peculiarity is a remarkable sensitivity to external perturbations due to permanent criticality of such phases manifested by a slow (power-low) decay of pair correlations and the divergence of the corresponding susceptibility. A strong influence of various defects on the properties of the system in such a phase can then be expected. Here, we consider the influence of vacancies on the thermodynamics of the simplest quantum model with a gapless phase, the isotropic spin-1/2 XX chain. The existence of the exact solution of this model gives a unique opportunity to describe in detail the dramatic effect of dilution on the gapless phase—the appearance of an infinite series of quantum phase transitions resulting from level crossing under the variation of a longitudinal magnetic field. We calculate the jumps in the field dependences of the ground-state longitudinal magnetization, susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat appearing at these transitions and show that they result in a highly nonlinear temperature dependence of these parameters at low T. Also, the effect of enhancement of the magnetization and longitudinal correlations in the dilute chain is established. The changes of the pair spin correlators under dilution are also analyzed. The universality of the mechanism of the quantum transition generation suggests that similar effects of dilution can also be expected in gapless phases of other low-dimensional quantum spin systems.

  5. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The...

  6. Electrochemical reduction of metal ions in dilute solution using hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, I.; Wijnbelt, E.C.W.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of metal ions in dilute solutions is of great interest for purification of waste waters and process liquids. A new electrochemical cell has been introduced. This cell - a GBC-cell - is a combination of a gasdiffusion electrode in direct contact with a packed bed of carbon particles.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of dilute chromate solutions on carbon felt electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, Hans; Barmashenko, Vladimir; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Carbon felt is a potential material for electrochemical reduction of chromates. Very dilute solutions may be efficiently treated due to its large specific surface area and high porosity. In this work, the up-scaling of this technology is investigated using a new type of separated cell and

  8. Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions from dilute solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njau, K.N.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions in dilute solution using a divided GBC-cell is of interest for purification of waste waters. A typical solution to be treated is the effluent from steel etching processes which contain low quantities of nickel, chromate and chromium ions. Reduction of

  9. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  10. Phase diagrams of site diluted ferromagnetic thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedoun, M.; Bouslykhane, K.; Bakrim, H.; Hourmatallah, A.; Benzakour, N.; Masrour, R.

    2006-01-01

    The phase transition properties of Ising, classical XY and Heisenberg of diluted ferromagnetic thin film are studied by the method of exact high-temperature series expansions extrapolated with the Pade approximants method. The reduced critical temperature τ c of the diluted ferromagnetic thin films is studied as a function of film thickness L and the exchange interactions in the bulk J b , in the surface J s and between surface and nearest-neighbour layer J - bar . It is found that τ c increases with the exchange interactions of surface and L. The magnetic phase diagram (τ c versus dilution x) is obtained. A critical value of the surface exchange interaction above which the surface magnetism appears is obtained. The dependence of the critical parameter of surface reduced coupling R 2 c as a function of the dilution x and the ratio of the exchange interaction between the surface and nearest-neighbour layer to the bulk one R 1 for the three studied models has been investigated. The percolation threshold is defined as the concentration x p at which τ c =0. The obtained values are x p ∼0.2 in the bulk and x p ∼0.4 at the surface

  11. Determination of photooxygenation products of rotenone with isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubachi, Mitsuo; Hamada, Masayuki

    1975-01-01

    When rotenone dissolved in certain solvent was photochemically oxidized, rotenolones, dehydrorotenone and rotenonone were obtained as main products. In order to determine the quantitative yields of these compounds in photooxygenation products, four compounds mentioned above were labeled with carbon-14 and the isotope dilution method by these labeled compounds was applied to the product analysis. (auth.)

  12. Analysis of boron dilution in a four-loop PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-03-01

    Thermal mixing and boron dilution in a pressurized water reactor were analyzed with COMMIX codes. The reactor system was the four-loop Zion reactor. Two boron dilution scenarios were analyzed. In the first scenario, the plant is in cold shutdown and the reactor coolant system has just been filled after maintenance on the steam generators. To flush the air out of the steam generator tubes, a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is started, with the water in the pump suction line devoid of boron and at the same temperature as the coolant in the system. In the second scenario, the plant is at hot standby and the reactor coolant system has been heated to operating temperature after a long outage. It is assumed that an RCP is started, with the pump suction line filled with cold unborated water, forcing a slug of diluted coolant down the downcomer and subsequently through the reactor core. The subsequent transient thermal mixing and boron dilution that would occur in the reactor system is simulated for these two scenarios. The reactivity insertion rate and the total reactivity are evaluated and a sensitivity study is performed to assess the accuracy of the numerical modeling of the geometry of the reactor coolant system

  13. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  14. In vitro dilutions of thioridaxine with potential to enhance antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gram staining, catalase test and coagulase test were done on the resulting colonies to further confirm the strains as S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by agar disc diffusion method using sterile Mueller- Hinton agar plates before and after treatment with laboratory dilutions of thioridaxine. S. aureus strains 1, ...

  15. Time correlation functions and transport coefficients in a dilute superfluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.R.; Dorfman, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Time correlation functions for the transport coefficients in the linear Landau-Khalatnikov equations are derived on the basis of a formal theory. These Green--Kubo expressions are then explicitly evaluated for a dilute superfluid and the resulting transport coefficiencts are shown to be identical to those obtained previously by using a distribution function method

  16. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  17. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497–514. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo ... used to calculate dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces up to second nearest ... origin, the lattice is strained, and the host atoms get displaced to new ...

  18. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  19. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  20. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  1. Inhibition Effect of Deanol on Mild Steel Corrosion in Dilute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of deanol on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in dilute sulphuric acid with sodium chloride addition was studied by means of mass-loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrode potential monitoring, scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis. Results show that deanol performed excellently with ...

  2. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  3. The Osceola Mudflow from Mount Rainier: Sedimentology and hazard implications of a huge clay-rich debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Scott, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    altered rock in the preavalanche mass determines whether a debris avalanche will transform into a cohesive debris flow or remain a largely unsaturated debris avalanche. The distinction among cohesive lahar, noncohesive lahar, and debris avalanche is important in hazard assessment because cohesive lahars spread much more widely than noncohesive lahars that travel similar distances, and travel farther and spread more widely than debris avalanches of similar volume. The Osceola Mudflow is documented here as an example of a cohesive debris flow of huge size that can be used as a model for hazard analysis of similar flows.

  4. Sugar yields from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment of maple wood compared to those with other dilute acids and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiying; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-30

    Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was applied to maple wood to improve compatibility with downstream operations, and its performance in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was compared to results for hydrothermal and dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid pretreatments. The highest total xylose yield of ∼84% of the theoretical maximum was for both 0.5% oxalic and sulfuric acid pretreatment at 160 °C, compared to ∼81% yield for hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C and for 0.5% hydrochloric acid pretreatment at 140 °C. The xylooligomer fraction from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was only 6.3% of the total xylose in solution, similar to results with dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but much lower than the ∼70% value for hydrothermal pretreatment. Combining any of the four pretreatments with enzymatic hydrolysis with 60 FPU cellulase/g of glucan plus xylan in the pretreated maple wood resulted in virtually the same total glucose plus xylose yields of ∼85% of the maximum possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomass-derived carbon composites for enrichment of dilute methane from underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jun-Seok; Jin, Yonggang; Huynh, Chi; Su, Shi

    2018-07-01

    Ventilation air methane (VAM), which is the main source of greenhouse gas emissions from coal mines, has been a great challenge to deal with due to its huge flow rates and dilute methane levels (typically 0.3-1.0 vol%) with almost 100% humidity. As part of our continuous endeavor to further improve the methane adsorption capacity of carbon composites, this paper presents new carbon composites derived from macadamia nut shells (MNSs) and incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). These new carbon composites were fabricated in a honeycomb monolithic structure to tolerate dusty environment and to minimize pressure drop. This paper demonstrates the importance of biomass particle size distributions when formed in a composite and methane adsorption capacities at low pressures relevant to VAM levels. The selectivity of methane over nitrogen was about 10.4 at each relevant partial pressure, which was much greater than that (6.5) obtained conventionally (at very low pressures), suggesting that capturing methane in the presence of pre-adsorbed nitrogen would be a practical option. The equilibrium and dynamic performance of biomass-derived carbon composites were enhanced by 30 and 84%, respectively, compared to those of our previous carbon fiber composites. In addition, the presence of moisture in ventilation air resulted in a negligible effect on the dynamic VAM capture performance of the carbon composites, suggesting that our carbon composites have a great potential for site applications at coal mines because the cost and performance of solid adsorbents are critical factors to consider. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual Tracer Atoms in an Ultracold Dilute Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Lutz, Eric; Widera, Artur

    2017-06-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of individual Cs atoms impinging on a dilute cloud of ultracold Rb atoms with variable density. We study the relaxation of the initial nonthermal state and detect the effect of single collisions which has so far eluded observation. We show that, after few collisions, the measured spatial distribution of the tracer atoms is correctly described by a Langevin equation with a velocity-dependent friction coefficient, over a large range of Knudsen numbers. Our results extend the simple and effective Langevin treatment to the realm of light particles in dilute gases. The experimental technique developed opens up the microscopic exploration of a novel regime of diffusion at the level of individual collisions.

  7. Husimi-cactus approximation study on the diluted spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiromi; Okabe, Yutaka; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    We investigate dilution effects on the classical spin-ice materials such as Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 . In particular, we derive a formula of the thermodynamic quantities as functions of the temperature and a nonmagnetic ion concentration based on a Husimi-cactus approximation. We find that the formula predicts a dilution-induced crossover from the cooperative to the conventional paramagnets in a ground state, and that it also reproduces the "generalized Pauling's entropy" given by Ke et al. To verify the formula from a numerical viewpoint, we compare these results with Monte Carlo simulation calculation data, and then find good agreement for all parameter values.

  8. Mössbauer Studies of dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Gislason, H P; Debernardi, A; Dlamini, W B

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of (dilute) magnetic semiconductors with wide band gaps, e.g. GaN, ZnO and other oxides, having Curie temperatures, T$_{\\textrm{c}}$, well above room temperature, has prompted extraordinary experimental and theoretical efforts to understand, control and exploit this unexpected finding not least in view of the obvious potential of such materials for the fabrication of "spin-(elec)tronic" or magneto-optic devices. Ferromagnetism (FM) was achieved mostly by doping with dilute 3d transition metal impurities, notably Mn, Fe, and Co (in \\% concentrations), during growth or by subsequent ion implantation. However, it is fair to state that experimentally the conditions for the occurrence of ferro-, antiferro- or paramagnetism with these impurities are not yet controlled as generally at least two conflicting forms of magnetism or none have been reported for each system - albeit often produced by different techniques. Theory is challenged as "conventional" models seem to fail and no generally accep...

  9. Further development of IDGS: Isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kamata, M.; Akiyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    The isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic composition of highly radioactive spent-fuel dissolver solutions has been further developed. Both the sample preparation and the analysis have been improved. The plutonium isotopic analysis is based on high-resolution, low-energy gamma-ray spectrometry. The plutonium concentration in the dissolver solutions then is calculated from the measured isotopic differences among the spike, the dissolver solution, and the spiked dissolver solution. Plutonium concentrations and isotopic compositions of dissolver solutions analyzed from this study agree well with those obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and are consistent with the first IDGS experimental result. With the current detector efficiency, sample size, and a 100-min count time, the estimated precision is ∼0.5% for 239 Pu and 240 Pu isotopic analyses and ∼1% for the plutonium concentration analysis. 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Properties of magnetically diluted nanocrystals prepared by mechanochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, P.; Skorvanek, I.; Fabian, M.; Kovac, J.; Steinbach, F.; Feldhoff, A.; Sepelak, V.; Jiang, J.; Satka, A.; Kovac, J.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and surface properties of magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals synthesized by solid state route in a planetary mill were studied. XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM), low-temperature N 2 sorption, nanoparticle size distribution as well as SQUID magnetometry methods have been applied. The measurements identified the aggregates of small nanocrystals, 5-10 nm in size. The homogeneity of produced particles with well developed specific surface area (15-66 m 2 g -1 ) was documented. The transition from the paramagnetic to the spin-glass-like phase has been observed below ∼40 K. The changes in the magnetic behaviour at low temperatures seem to be correlated with the formation of the new surface area as a consequence of milling. The magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals are obtained in the simple synthesis step, making the process attractive for industrial applications.

  11. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs Kalmijn

    Full Text Available Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children's educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger number of brothers is harmful to a person's educational attainment. Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, covering 18 European countries, we show that the number of brothers is more negatively related with the odds of obtaining a college degree than the number of sisters. This holds particularly for women. However, this pattern is weaker in countries that are known to have a more gender-egalitarian climate.

  12. The development and site investigation of fume diluter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    It is third project year on `Application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines` for providing appropriate measures to improve underground working environment contaminated by the diesel exhaust pollutants. For reducing the exhaust temperature bellow 70 deg. C to prevent production of the governing pollutant (NO{sub 2}), the fume diluter is verified the most effective device through the site investigation. Therefore, the fume diluter is strongly recommended instead of catalytic converter which is employed presently. The performances derived from the tests are as follows; 1) This device increased air flow to 6.7-8.4 times of the original exhaust, 2) Exhaust temperature can be reduced to 66 deg. C from 161 deg. C, 3) All the pollutants can be reduced to bellow than 30 % of exhaust concentration, 4) This device requires less cost and no maintenance. (author). 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Critical mass variation of 239Pu with water dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    The critical mass of an unreflected solid sphere of 239 Pu is ∼ 10 kg. The increase in critical mass observed for small water dilutions of unreflected 239 Pu spheres is paradoxical. Introducing small amounts of water uniformly throughout the sphere increases the spherical volume containing the same amount of 239 Pu as the critical solid sphere. The increase in radius decreases the surface-to-volume ratio of the sphere, which has the effect to first order of decreasing the neutron leakage, which is proportional to the surface, relative to the fissions, which are proportional to the volume. The reduction in neutron leakage is expected to reduce the critical mass, but instead, the critical mass is observed to increase. It is discussed how changes in the fast neutron spectrum with corresponding changes in the nuclear parameters result in an increase in critical mass for small water dilutions

  14. Percolation of polyatomic species on site diluted lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornette, V.; Ramirez-Pastor, A.J.; Nieto, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the percolation of (a) linear segments of size k and (b) k-mers (particles occupying k adjacent sites) of different structures and forms deposited on a diluted square lattice have been studied. The diluted lattice is built by randomly selecting a fraction of sites which are considered forbidden for deposition. The analysis of the obtained results is made in the framework of the finite size scaling theory. The characteristic parameters of the percolation problem are dependent not only on the form and structure of the k-mers but also on the properties of the lattice where they are deposited. A phase diagram separating a percolating from a non-percolating region is determined and discussed

  15. Exchange bias in diluted-antiferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Zhongquan; Zhan, Xiaozhi; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The hysteresis-loop properties of a diluted-antiferromagnetic (DAF) layer exchange coupling to an antiferromagnetic (AF) layer are investigated by means of numerical simulations. Remarkable loop shift and coercivity enhancement are observed in such DAF/AF bilayers, while they are absent in the uncoupled DAF single layer. The influences of pinned domains, dilution, cooling field and DAF layer thickness on the loop shift are investigated systematically. The result unambiguously confirms an exchange bias (EB) effect in the DAF/AF bilayers. It also reveals that the EB effect originates from the pinned AF domains within the DAF layer. In contrast to conventional EB systems, frozen uncompensated spins are not found at the interface of the AF pinning layer. (paper)

  16. A model for the viscosity of dilute smectite gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    A simple yet accurate model describing the viscosity of dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in dilute homo-ionic solutions is presented. Taking the clay particle and the surrounding clouds of ions as a whole as an uncharged but soft, coin-like particle, the Huggins' equation for a suspension of uncharged particles is extended in the model to account for not only the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects, but also the multi-particle interaction. The agreements between the predicted and measured results are excellent. The Huggins' coefficient obtained compares favorably with available data, while the intrinsic viscosity reduces to the Simha's equation in the large limit of ionic strength, suggesting that the model is robust. (authors)

  17. Novel Dilute Bismide, Epitaxy, Physical Properties and Device Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dilute bismide in which a small amount of bismuth is incorporated to host III-Vs is the least studied III-V compound semiconductor and has received steadily increasing attention since 2000. In this paper, we review theoretical predictions of physical properties of bismide alloys, epitaxial growth of bismide thin films and nanostructures, surface, structural, electric, transport and optic properties of various binaries and bismide alloys, and device applications.

  18. Electron pairing in dilute liquid metal-metal halide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selloni, A.; Car, R.; Parrinello, M.; Carnevali, P.

    1987-09-10

    Spin density functional theory is used to describe the interaction between solvated electrons in KCl in the high dilution limit. In agreement with recent calculations based on the path integral method our results for antiparallel spin predict a strong tendency to form localized bielectronic complexes. At variance with numerical path integral, our method can efficiently treat the case of parallel spins. For this case we find that electrons repel each other and localize into separate F-center-like states.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of defects in dilute magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suss, J.T.; Raizman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The EPR spectrum of erbium was used to study the effects of cold-working (rolling and mechanical polishing) in dilute gold-erbium alloys. Variation in the EPR linewidth, intensity and asymmetry parameter (A/B ratio) were investigated. Most of the results could be interpreted in terms of segregation of erbium ions to subgrain boundaries (dislocations) in a surface layer of a few thousand Angstroms. (author)

  20. Water Stress Scatters Nitrogen Dilution Curves in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Hoogmoed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dilution curves relate a crop’s critical nitrogen concentration (%Nc to biomass (W according to the allometric model %Nc = a W-b. This model has a strong theoretical foundation, and parameters a and b show little variation for well-watered crops. Here we explore the robustness of this model for water stressed crops. We established experiments to examine the combined effects of water stress, phenology, partitioning of biomass, and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, as driven by environment and variety, on the %Nc of wheat crops. We compared models where %Nc was plotted against biomass, growth stage and thermal time. The models were similarly scattered. Residuals of the %Nc - biomass model at anthesis were positively related to biomass, stem:biomass ratio, Δ13C and water supply, and negatively related to ear:biomass ratio and concentration of WSC. These are physiologically meaningful associations explaining the scatter of biomass-based dilution curves. Residuals of the thermal time model showed less consistent associations with these variables. The biomass dilution model developed for well-watered crops overestimates nitrogen deficiency of water-stressed crops, and a biomass-based model is conceptually more justified than developmental models. This has implications for diagnostic and modeling. As theory is lagging, a greater degree of empiricism might be useful to capture environmental, chiefly water, and genotype-dependent traits in the determination of critical nitrogen for diagnostic purposes. Sensitivity analysis would help to decide if scaling nitrogen dilution curves for crop water status, and genotype-dependent parameters are needed.

  1. Determination of microquantities of silver in platinum by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedinakova, V.; Sladkovska, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for determining microquantities of silver in platinum. It is based on isotope dilution by means of substoichiometric extraction of dithizonates with carbon tetrachloride. The determination of silver according to this technique is not interfered by zinc or gold in quantities exceeding the silver content by one order of magnitude nor by a great excess of platinum. In the presence of copper the addition of complexon is necessary. (author)

  2. Thermomechanical Processing of Structural Steels with Dilute Niobium Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Patel, J.; Palmiere, E. J.

    The recrystallisation behaviour of medium carbon steels with dilute Nb addition was investigated by means of plane strain compression tests and the observation of prior austenite microstructures during different deformation conditions. It was found that complete suppression of recrystallisation did not occur in the deformation temperature range investigated. At lower deformation temperatures, partial recrystallisation occurred in the higher Nb sample. This gives the potential to obtain a full suppression of recrystallisation at lower deformation temperatures.

  3. Removal of sulfite liquor from digesters with partially diluted liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshchenko, I G; Sykol, V P

    1957-01-01

    The yield of reducing sugars was raised from 189 to 224 kg/ton of pulp by displacing the cooking liquor with diluted liquor. As the pressure during blow-off dropped to 3.5-3.0 atmosphere, weak sulfite liquor was added at the rate 120 cu m/hr. After 5-10 minutes the liquor was pumped from the digester to the ethanol plant.

  4. Learning and forgetting on asymmetric, diluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.; Nadal, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to construct diluted asymmetric models of neural networks for which the dynamics can be calculated exactly. The authors test several learning schemes, in particular, models for which the values of the synapses remain bounded and depend on the history. Our analytical results on the relative efficiencies of the various learning schemes are qualitatively similar to the corresponding ones obtained numerically on fully connected symmetric networks

  5. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R; McAughey, J

    2009-01-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212 Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  6. Novel aspects of diluted and digital magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanni, A.

    1999-04-01

    In the present work novel aspects of diluted and digital II-VI-based heterostructures containing Mn ions are investigated. All the structures under study were fabricated by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Digital magnetic heterostructures have been prepared by incorporating discrete (sub)monolayers of the purely magnetic semiconductor MnTe into otherwise non magnetic CdTe quantum wells embedded in CdMgTe barriers. Formation and binding energy of magnetic polarons have been investigated in these structures and compared with the diluted case. Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) performed ex-situ allowed to distinguish between signals due to the crystal anisotropy solely and those induced by the presence a magnetic elements. The problem of p-type doping of bulk diluted magnetic semiconductors II-VI-based is tackled. During and upon growth of ZnMnTe highly doped with N, in-situ RDS was carried out in order to investigate intra-ion transitions within the half filled 3d shell of Mn. Transport measurements and magnetometry at low temperature were performed to study, on the tracks of recent theoretical works, the influence of free carriers on the interaction between magnetic ions. As expected, indications of ferromagnetic ordering were found for the DMS with the highest concentration of carriers. Special attention was given to the formation of Mn islands on a II-VI substrate and to their change in morphology upon overgrowth with a mismatched material. A rich zoology of regularly shaped nanostructures could be produced. (author)

  7. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  8. The issue of risk dilution in risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.; Robinson, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores an issue that was first highlighted more than 20 years ago during an inquiry concerning the Sizeweli B nuclear power station in the UK. In the probabilistic safety assessment for this plant, the proponent had apparently reduced its estimates of risk by admitting to increased uncertainty about the timing of certain events. This situation is counter-intuitive, since an increase in uncertainty about the factors contributing to safety would be expected to lead to less confidence and hence to greater risk. This paradoxical situation was termed 'risk dilution' and it has been a topic of interest to reviewers of safety cases since. The recent international peer review of the Yucca Mountain performance assessments concluded that there was a potential for risk dilution in the assumptions and calculations presented. The next section describes how assumptions about the timing of events and other aspects of an assessment may lead to risk dilution, and this is followed by two examples based on recent performance assessments. The final section discusses how potential problems can be identified in safety cases, and the types of response that a regulator might adopt as a result. (authors)

  9. Physical modelling of a rapid boron dilution transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G.; Hemstroem, B.; Karlsson, R. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Jacobson, S. [Vattenfall AB, Ringhals, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of boron dilution accidents in pressurised water reactors has traditionally assumed that mixing is instantaneous and complete everywhere, eliminating in this way the possibility of concentration inhomogeneities. Situations can nevertheless arise where a volume of coolant with a low boron concentration may eventually enter the core and generate a severe reactivity transient. The work presented in this paper deals with a category of Rapid Boron Dilution Events characterised by a rapid start of a Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) with a plug of relatively unborated water present in the RCS pipe. Model tests have been made at Vattenfall Utveckling AB in a simplified 1:5 scale model of a Westinghouse PWR. Conductivity measurements are used to determine dimensionless boron concentration. The main purpose of this experimental work is to define an experimental benchmark against which a mathematical model can be tested. The final goal is to be able to numerically predict Boron Dilution Transients. This work has been performed as a part of a Co-operative Agreement with Electricite` de France (EDF).

  10. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  11. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  12. Infinitely dilute partial molar properties of proteins from computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2014-11-13

    A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein's conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method's feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages.

  13. Dilution and slow injection reduces the incidence of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young Hee; Kim, Chung Su; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Sim, Woo Seog; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Cho, Hyun Sung; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether slow injection of diluted rocuronium could reduce rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements effectively in children. Methods After loss of consciousness, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered into 171 children according to the pre-assigned groups as follows: Group CF, injection of non-diluted rocuronium over 5 seconds; Group CS, injection of non-diluted rocuronium over 1 minute; Group DF, injection of diluted rocuronium (10 times) over 5 ...

  14. Crystal Fields in Dilute Rare-Earth Metals Obtained from Magnetization Measurements on Dilute Rare-Earth Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touborg, P.; Høg, J.

    1974-01-01

    Crystal field parameters of Tb, Dy, and Er in Sc, Y, and Lu are summarized. These parameters are obtained from magnetization measurements on dilute single crystals, and successfully checked by a number of different methods. The crystal field parameters vary unpredictably with the rare-earth solute....... B40, B60, and B66 are similar in Y and Lu. Crystal field parameters for the pure metals Tb, Dy, and Er are estimated from the crystal fields in Y and Lu....

  15. Comparison of dilution factors for German wastewater treatment plant effluents in receiving streams to the fixed dilution factor from chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Moritz; von der Ohe, Peter C; Voß, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-15

    Incomplete removal during wastewater treatment leads to frequent detection of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in municipal effluents. A fixed standard dilution factor of 10 for effluents entering receiving water bodies is used during the exposure assessment of several chemical risk assessments. However, the dilution potential of German receiving waters under low flow conditions is largely unknown and information is sparse for other European countries. We calculated dilution factors for two datasets differing in spatial extent and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) size: a national dataset comprising 1225 large WWTPs in Central and Northern Germany and a federal dataset for 678 WWTPs of a single state in Southwest Germany. We found that the fixed factor approach overestimates the dilution potential of 60% and 40% of receiving waters in the national and the federal dataset, with median dilution factors of 5 and 14.5, respectively. Under mean flow conditions, 8% of calculated dilution factors were below 10, with a median dilution factor of 106. We also calculated regional dilution factors that accounted for effluent inputs from upstream WWTPs. For the national and the federal dataset, 70% and 60% of calculated regional dilution factors fell below 10 under mean low flow conditions, respectively. Decrease of regional dilution potential in small receiving streams was mainly driven by the next WWTP upstream with a 2.5 fold drop of median regional dilution factors. Our results show that using the standard dilution factor of 10 would result in the underestimation of environmental concentrations for authorised chemicals by a factor of 3-5 for about 10% of WWTPs, especially during low flow conditions. Consequently, measured environmental concentrations might exceed predicted environmental concentrations and ecological risks posed by effluents could be much higher, suggesting that a revision of current risk assessment practices may be required

  16. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. Case pre...

  17. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Microstructure Related Characterization of a-Si:H Thin Films PECVD Deposited under Varied Hydrogen Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vavrunkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the structure and optical properties of hydrogenated silicon thin films deposited by plasma - enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD from silane diluted with hydrogen in a wide dilution range. The samples deposited with dilutions below 30 were detected as amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H with crystalline grains of several nanometers in size which represent the medium-range order of a-Si:H. The optical characterization confirmed increasing ordering with the increasing dilution. The optical band gap was observed to be increasing function of the dilution.

  19. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  20. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L M C

    2017-01-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials. (topical review)

  1. Dilution-Induced Formation of Hybrid Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Ehrat, Florian; Vanderlinden, Willem; Cardenas-Daw, Carlos; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S

    2016-12-27

    Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengths tunable through halide content and size, they hold great promise for light-emitting applications. Despite the rapid advancement in this field, the physical nature and size-dependent excitonic properties have not been well investigated due to the challenges associated with their preparation. Herein we report the spontaneous formation of highly luminescent, quasi-2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoplatelets (NPls) upon dilution of a dispersion of bulk-like NCs. The fragmentation of the large NCs is attributed to osmotic swelling induced by the added solvent. An excess of organic ligands in the solvent quickly passivates the newly formed surfaces, stabilizing the NPls in the process. The thickness of the NPls can be controlled both by the dilution level and by the ligand concentration. Such colloidal NPls and their thin films were found to be extremely stable under continuous UV light irradiation. Full tunability of the NPl emission wavelength is achieved by varying the halide ion used (bromide, iodide). Additionally, time-resolved PL measurements reveal an increasing radiative decay rate with decreasing thickness of the NPls, likely due to an increasing exciton binding energy. Similarly, measurements on iodide-containing NPls show a transformation from biexponential to monoexponential PL decay with decreasing thickness, likely due to an increasing fraction of excitonic recombination. This interesting phenomenon of change in fluorescence upon dilution is a result of the intricate nature of the perovskite material itself and is uncommon in inorganic materials. Our findings enable the synthesis of halide perovskite NCs with high quantum efficiency and good stability as well as a tuning of both their optical and morphological properties.

  2. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L. M. C.

    2017-10-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials.

  3. Analyses of PWR boron dilution consequences with the Arrotta code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, E.; Cheng, H.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1998-03-01

    During the past few years, major attention has been paid to analyzing the issue of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs), of which the boron dilution event is of very special interest to the countries having pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in their nuclear power delivery systems. The scenario considered is that if an inadvertent accumulation of boron free water in one loop during reactor startup operations of a PWR and the inadvertent startup of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) in the loop. This could then lead to a rapid boron dilution in the core, which can in turn give rise to a power excursion. This report is devoted to studying the potential physical and thermal hydraulic consequences of a slug of diluted coolant entering the core after one RCP start under a couple of postulated cases. The severity of the consequences of such a scenario is primarily determined by the amount of positive reactivity insertion, and they are also related to the reactivity insertion rate. Therefore, in the report, detailed calculations and analyses have been carried out from case to case by using the well-known space-time kinetics code, ARROTTA. As a result, the spatial distribution for nodal power, fuel enthalpy, fuel temperature and clad outside temperature as well as the change in core reactivity, total core power and peak fuel temperature can be provided. In general, the maximum fuel enthalpy, peak fuel temperature, and clad outside temperature, for all the cases considered in the report, do not exceed their respective routine safety limitations because of the strong Doppler effect and moderator temperature feedback, except if the safety limitations on fuel enthalpy addition for high burnup fuel are drastically reduced

  4. Recovery of Platinum from Dilute Chloride Media Using Biosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytuncu, B.; Morcali, M. H.; Yucel, O.

    Pistachio nut shells and Rice husk, a biomass residue, were investigated as adsorbents for the platinum uptake from synthetically prepared dilute chloroplatinic acid solutions. The effects of the different uptake parameters on platinum uptake (%) were studied in detail on a batch sorption. Before the pistachio nut shell material was activated, platinum uptake (%) was poor compared with rice husk. However, after the pistachio nut shell material was activated at 1000°C under an argon atmosphere, the platinum uptake (%) increased two-fold. The pistachio nut shell (inactivated and activated) and rice husk were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  5. Practical design of a heat exchanger for dilution refrigeration. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y; Fujii, G; Nagano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics

    1978-02-01

    A compact heat exchanger for a dilution refrigerator with a high thermal efficiency is presented. Discrete heat exchangers with by-pass channels were used to decrease the flow impedance. This heat exchanger was designed so that the thermal conductance of liquid along the stream was greatly reduced. The effective thickness of the sponge material in the heat exchanger and mixer is also discussed. The obtained minimum temperatures of 12 mK was very close to the designed value of 10.8 mK. Moreover a rapid response was obtained. This is attributed to the small liquid volume of the heat exchanger.

  6. Redox substoichiometry in isotope dilution analysis Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Yoshioka, H.; Ugai, Y.

    1980-01-01

    The oxidation reaction of antimony(III) with potassium dichromate has been investigated radiometrically. The quantitative oxidation of antimony(III) was found to be not disturbed even in large amounts of tin(IV). On the basis of these results the redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis using potassium dichromate as the oxidizing agent was proposed for the determination of antimony in metallic tin. An antimony content of 1.22+-0.05 μg in metallic tin (10 mg) was determined without separation of the matrix element. (author)

  7. Redox substoichiometry in isotope dilution analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Suzuki, J.; Yoshioka, H.; Nakajima, N.

    1978-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis using the redox substoichiometric principle has been applied to the determination of antimony content in metallic zinc. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of trivalent to pentavalent antimony with potassium permanganate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BHPA extraction of trivalent antimony. Determination of antimony contents less than 0.5 μg was found to be possible with good accuracy, without separation of zinc ions. The antimony content in a metallic zinc sample was determined to be 19.7+-0.8 ppm, in good agreement with the results obtained by the other analytical methods. (author)

  8. Effect of fractons and magnons in dilute ferromagnets on resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianxin; Jiang Qing; Tian Decheng

    1993-01-01

    Based on the s - d exchange model, we investigate the temperature-dependent resistivity arising from the scattering of electrons off fractons and magnons in dilute Heisenberg ferromagnets on three-dimensional bond percolation network. The results indicate that the contribution of fracton scatterings to the resistivity varies from T 3 / 2 to T 2 dependence as the concentration of bonds approaches the percolation threshold, while the magnon scattering contributes a resistivity varying as T 3 / 2 regardless of the changes in concentration of bonds. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  9. Optical absorption of dilute solutions of metals in molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senatore, G.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica; Gruppo Nazionale di Struttura dell material del CNR, Trieste (Italy); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1978-12-23

    The theory of liquid structure for fluids of charged hard spheres is applied to an evaluation of the F-centre model for valence electrons in metal-molten salt solutions at high dilution. Minimization of the free energy yields the groundstate radius of the elctron bubble and hence the optical excitation energy in a Franck-Condon transition, the shift and broadening of the transition due to fluctuations in the bubble radius, the volume of mixing, and the activity of the salt in the solution.

  10. Cooperative fluorescence from a strongly driven dilute cloud of atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate cooperative fluorescence in a dilute cloud of strongly driven two-level emitters. Starting from the Heisenberg equations of motion, we compute the first-order scattering corrections to the saturation of the excited-state population and to the resonance-fluorescence spectrum, which...... both require going beyond the state-of-the-art linear-optics approach to describe collective phenomena. A dipole blockade is observed due to long-range dipole-dipole coupling that vanishes at stronger driving fields. Furthermore, we compute the inelastic component of the light scattered by a cloud...

  11. Dispersion of Sound in Dilute Suspensions with Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    The theory accounting for nonlinear particle relaxation (viscous and thermal) has been applied to the prediction of dispersion of sound in dilute suspensions. The results suggest that significant deviations exist for sound dispersion between the linear and nonlinear theories at large values of Omega(Tau)(sub d), where Omega is the circular frequency, and Tau(sub d) is the Stokesian particle relaxation time. It is revealed that the nonlinear effect on the dispersion coefficient due to viscous contribution is larger relative to that of thermal conduction

  12. Condensate statistics in interacting and ideal dilute bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocharovsky; Kocharovsky; Scully

    2000-03-13

    We obtain analytical formulas for the statistics, in particular, for the characteristic function and all cumulants, of the Bose-Einstein condensate in dilute weakly interacting and ideal equilibrium gases in the canonical ensemble via the particle-number-conserving operator formalism of Girardeau and Arnowitt. We prove that the ground-state occupation statistics is not Gaussian even in the thermodynamic limit. We calculate the effect of Bogoliubov coupling on suppression of ground-state occupation fluctuations and show that they are governed by a pair-correlation, squeezing mechanism.

  13. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  14. Thermodynamics of dilute gases: application to submonolayer He films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrovec, M.B.; Carneiro, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of submonolayer He films are calculated. Expressions are first obtained for the thermodynamic properties of dilute systems of particles interacting through a short range potential taking into account binary interactions between the particles. These expressions are exact in the limit n→0, n being the particle number density, and are valid at all temperatures. At high temperatures these expressions are reduced to those obtained using the virial expansion truncated after the second term. These expressions are next applied to He in two dimensions and the results compared with experiment and with previous calculations [pt

  15. CALCULATING THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTIONS ON DILUTED EPS

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, Warrick Boyd

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on how to calculate diluted earnings per share (DEPS) when a firm has outstanding employee stock options (ESOs). Three possible methods are described and compared. The first is the current International Accounting Standard 33 – Earnings Per Share (IAS 33) approach which is based on the intrinsic value of the ESOs. The second method, advocated by Core et al. (2002), is very similar to that of IAS 33 but instead of the intrinsic value uses the fair value of the outstanding...

  16. Radiolysis of dilute aqueous solutions of cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbovitskaya, T.I.; Galinkin, D.L.; Kants, L.K.; Tiliks, Yu.E.; Kotelkin, I.M.; Luzanova, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    Study of physical-chemical processes in the NPP containment by severe accident is carried out. Radiolysis of reactor cooling water containing iodine and cesium radionuclides penetrated therein in the course of accident is considered as of such processes. Role of ionizing radiation in the process of formation and release of ecologically hazardous volatile forms of radioiodine from reactor water into environment is studied. Experiments on radiolysis of CsI diluted water solutions are carried out. The data obtained were used for clarification of radiolysis mechanism for iodine-containing water system, enabling forecast of iodine behaviour in the course of the accident. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Dilute bismides for near and mid-infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Gu, Yi; Ye, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Dilute bismides are a group of emerging materials with unique properties. Incorporation of a small amount of Bi in common III–V host materials results in large band-gap reduction and strong spin-orbit splitting, leading to potential applications in near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR......) optoelectronics. Recent progresses on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of novel III-Sb-Bi, i.e. GaSbBi and InSbBi thin films from our group are summarised in this paper. Quantum well structures based on GaSbBi and InGaAsBi aiming for the optical communication window were grown and characterized....

  18. Acetone and acetaldehyde determination in tomato juice by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piva, M.-T.; Crouzet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Acetone and acetaldehyde content of tomato juice were determined by isotope dilution techniques. The juice is added to 14 C labelled compounds, carried along by nitrogen at low pressure. The mixture of 2.4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained from volatile compounds is separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel and then on alumina. A determination of radioactivity and concentration of acetone and acetaldehyde 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained after separation and elution allow to calculate the content of these two compounds in the initial product with the same sample. This technique could be used for determination of methanol and ethanol after transformation in 3,5 dinitrobenzoates [fr

  19. Hydrogenated dilute nitride semiconductors theory, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ciatto, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    ""The electrical and optical properties of the technologically and scientifically important dilute nitride semiconductors are strongly influenced by the introduction of atomic hydrogen. This volume is an excellent summary and resource for the most recent understanding of experimental results and state-of-the-art theoretical studies of the formation, reversibility, and microscopic structure of nitrogen-hydrogen complexes in these materials. The book details how a wide variety of experimental techniques have provided a detailed understanding of the role of hydrogen. It is the premier sourc

  20. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2013-05-16

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  1. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; Lozanne, Alex de

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga 0.94 Mn 0.06 As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 μm wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above T C , which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  2. Scanning Hall probe microscopy of a diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Seongsoo; Samarth, Nitin; de Lozanne, Alex

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the micromagnetic properties of a diluted magnetic semiconductor as a function of temperature and applied field with a scanning Hall probe microscope built in our laboratory. The design philosophy for this microscope and some details are described. The samples analyzed in this work are Ga0.94Mn0.06As films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the magnetic domains are 2-4 μm wide and fairly stable with temperature. Magnetic clusters are observed above TC, which we ascribe to MnAs defects too small and sparse to be detected by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

  3. Yfiler® Plus population samples and dilution series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Meyer; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2017-01-01

    DNA complicated the analysis by causing drop-ins of characteristic female DNA artefacts. Even though the customised analytical threshold in combination with the custom-made artefact filters gave more alleles, crime scene samples still needed special attention from the forensic geneticist....... dynamics and performance. We determined dye-dependent analytical thresholds by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and made a customised artefact filter that includes theoretical known artefacts by use of previously analysed population samples. Dilution series of known male DNA and a selection...

  4. Domain walls in (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sugawara, A.; Kasai, H.; Tonomura, A.; Brown, P.D.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Zemen, Jan; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 4 (2008), 047202/1-047202/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor * Néel domain walls * electron holography * Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.180, year: 2008

  5. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo H. Belloso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (TALH is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney’s ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz’ test. Material & Methods. Chaimowitz’ test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir.

  6. Entanglement and Zeeman interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hichri, A.; Jaziri, S.

    2004-01-01

    We present theoretically the Zeeman coupling and exchange-induced swap action in spin-based quantum dot quantum computer models in the presence of magnetic field. We study the valence and conduction band states in a double quantum dots made in diluted magnetic semiconductor. The latter have been proven to be very useful in building an all-semiconductor platform for spintronics. Due to a strong p-d exchange interaction in diluted magnetic semiconductor (Cd 0.57 Mn 0.43 Te), the relative contribution of this component is strongly affected by an external magnetic field, a feature that is absent in nonmagnetic double quantum dots. We determine the energy spectrum as a function of magnetic field within the Hund-Mulliken molecular-orbit approach and by including the Coulomb interaction. Since we show that the ground state of the two carriers confined in a vertically coupled quantum dots provide a possible realization for a gate of a quantum computer, the crossing between the lowest states, caused by the giant spin splitting, can be observed as a pronounced jump in the magnetization of small magnetic field amplitude. Finally, we determine the swap time as a function of magnetic field and the inter dot distance. We estimate quantitatively swap errors caused by the field, establishing that error correction would, in principle, be possible in the presence of nonuniform magnetic field in realistic structures

  7. Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.

    2018-03-01

    Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.

  8. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina

    2017-05-13

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  9. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  10. Host polymer influence on dilute polystyrene segmental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T. R.

    2005-03-01

    We have utilized deuterium NMR to investigate the segmental dynamics of dilute (2%) d3-polystyrene (PS) chains in miscible polymer blends with polybutadiene, poly(vinyl ethylene), polyisoprene, poly(vinyl methylether) and poly(methyl methacrylate). In the dilute limit, we find qualitative differences depending upon whether the host polymer has dynamics that are faster or slower than that of pure PS. In blends where PS is the fast (low Tg) component, segmental dynamics are slowed upon blending and can be fit by the Lodge-McLeish model. When PS is the slow (high Tg) component, PS segmental dynamics speed up upon blending, but cannot be fit by the Lodge-McLeish model unless a temperature dependent self-concentration is employed. These results are qualitatively consistent with a recent suggestion by Kant, Kumar and Colby (Macromolecules, 2003, 10087), based upon data at higher concentrations. Furthermore, as the slow component, we find the segmental dynamics of PS has a temperature dependence similar to that of its host. This suggests viewing the high Tg component dynamics in a miscible blend as similar to a polymer in a low molecular weight solvent.

  11. Automatic processing of isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, J.C.

    1973-01-01

    Dilution curves pose two distinct problems: that of their acquisition and that of their processing. A study devoted to the latter aspect only was presented. It was necessary to satisfy two important conditions: the treatment procedure, although applied to a single category of curves (isotopic dilution curves obtained by precordial detection), had to be as general as possible; to allow dissemination of the method the equipment used had to be relatively modest and inexpensive. A simple method, considering the curve processing as a process identification, was developed and should enable the mean heart cavity volume and certain pulmonary circulation parameters to be determined. Considerable difficulties were encountered, limiting the value of the results obtained though not condemning the method itself. The curve processing question raised the problem of their acquisition, i.e. the number of these curves and their meaning. A list of the difficulties encountered is followed by a set of possible solutions, a solution being understood to mean a curve processing combination where the overlapping between the two aspects of the problem is accounted for [fr

  12. Kvalita života venkovské populace

    OpenAIRE

    ZAJÍČKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Diploma work analyze quality of life in rural villages Bělčice, Hvožďany a Mladý Smolivec. Chosen segments of quality of life are compared to one another and with whole Czech republic. Reasons of existing disparites among villages are explained.

  13. A Huge Morel-Lavallée Lesion Treated Using a Quilting Suture Method: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bommie F; Kang, In Sook; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Moon, Suk Ho

    2014-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a collection of serous fluid that develops after closed degloving injuries and after surgical procedures particularly in the pelvis and abdomen. It is a persistent seroma and is usually resistant to conservative methods of treatment such as percutaneous drainage and compression. Various methods of curative treatment have been reported in the literature, such as application of fibrin sealant, doxycycline, or alcohol sclerodhesis. We present a case of a huge recurrent Morel-Lavallée lesion in the lower back and buttock region that was treated with quilting sutures, fibrin sealant, and compression, with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  15. Differential isospin-fractionation in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ma Hongru; Xu Jun; Yong Gaochan

    2007-01-01

    The differential isospin-fractionation (IsoF) during the liquid-gas phase transition in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter is studied as a function of nucleon momentum. Within a self-consistent thermal model it is shown that the neutron/proton ratio of the gas phase becomes smaller than that of the liquid phase for energetic nucleons, although the gas phase is overall more neutron-rich. Clear indications of the differential IsoF consistent with the thermal model predictions are demonstrated within a transport model for heavy-ion reactions. Future comparisons with experimental data will allow us to extract critical information about the momentum dependence of the isovector strong interaction

  16. Two-body correlation functions in dilute nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A A

    2006-01-01

    Finding the distinct features of the crossover from the regime of large overlapping Cooper pairs to the limit of non-overlapping pairs of fermions (Shafroth pairs) in multicomponent Fermi systems remains one of the actual problems in a quantum many-body theory. Here this transition is studied by calculating the two-body density, spin and isospin correlation functions in dilute asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that criterion of the crossover (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090402 (2005)), consisting in the change of the sign of the density correlation function at low momentum transfer, fails to describe correctly the density-driven BEC-BCS transition at finite isospin asymmetry or finite temperature. As an unambiguous signature of the BEC-BCS transition, there can be used the presence (BCS regime) or absence (BEC regime) of the singularity in the momentum distribution of the quasiparticle density of states

  17. Superfluidity of a dilute 3He-4He solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Toshio

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between two 3 He atoms is calculated by taking into account the backflow effect of 3 He by the 4 He in the 3 He- 4 He mixture. The effect contributes solely to the P wave part of the interaction. The repulsive S wave part of the contact interaction contributes to the exchange interaction between the 3 He atoms, while the direct one phonon exchange interaction contributes both to the S and P wave attractive interactions. The overall contribution to the attractive interaction is dominated by the P wave part and the superfluidity in the P wave is more predominant than in the S wave for the 5 % dilute 3 He- 4 He solution, and vice versa for the 1.3 % solution. (author)

  18. Axion cosmology, lattice QCD and the dilute instanton gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsanyi, S.; Fodor, Z.; Mages, S.W.; Nogradi, D.; Szabo, K.K.

    2015-08-01

    Axions are one of the most attractive dark matter candidates. The evolution of their number density in the early universe can be determined by calculating the topological susceptibility χ(T) of QCD as a function of the temperature. Lattice QCD provides an ab initio technique to carry out such a calculation. A full result needs two ingredients: physical quark masses and a controlled continuum extrapolation from non-vanishing to zero lattice spacings. We determine χ(T) in the quenched framework (infinitely large quark masses) and extrapolate its values to the continuum limit. The results are compared with the prediction of the dilute instanton gas approximation (DIGA). A nice agreement is found for the temperature dependence, whereas the overall normalization of the DIGA result still differs from the non-perturbative continuum extrapolated lattice results by a factor of order ten. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the prediction of the amount of axion dark matter.

  19. Development of curcumin liposome formulations using polyol dilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalana Kongkaneramit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to formulate curcumin liposomes (CLs by using polyol dilution method which is advantageous for no residue of organic solvent. CLs were the mixture of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine (PC and cholesterol (CH at the molar ratio of 9:1. Propylene glycol (PG, glycerin, and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400 were used as polyol solvent. Extrusion was applied after the suspension formed. The amount of polyol and curcumin and preparing temperature were investigated. The obtained suspensions were observed for appearance, size, size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, and percentage of entrapment. The results showed that type and amount of polyol had an impact on both liposomal size and the amount of entrapped curcumin, while preparing temperature was also an important factor. However, the solubility of lipids and drug in a given polyol should be considered because of loading efficiency in the formulation.

  20. Field measurement program to determine far field plume dilution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.C.; Carter, H.H.; Miyasaki, M.T.

    1974-01-01

    A description of the techniques used to obtain measurements of temperature, salinity, tidal velocity and tracer concentration required to determine the far field dilution in a shallow estuary is presented. The study was done to characterize the physical hydrography of the Bush River, a tributary estuary of the Chesapeake Bay, which is a possible recipient of the thermal discharge from a proposed power plant consisting of two 850 MWe nuclear generating units. Measurements of temperature and salinity along the axis of the estuary during periods of high and low fresh water inflow were obtained for use in the development of a one-dimensional-segmented transient state model of the estuary. Computer concentrations from the model compared favorably with measured dye concentrations for the same periods of high and low freshwater inflow

  1. Isotope-dilution analyses of the metallic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.

    1982-01-01

    The isotope-dilution mass spectroscopy (IDMS) technique has proven to be to be a reliable, versatile analytical tool. Its applications seem to be limited only by the ingenuity of the investigator. Among its advantages are: small sample size; general applicability; precision and accuracy; dynamic range; simplified chemistry; determination is fixed at the time and place of isotopic homogenization. The last listed item is especially important for nuclear safeguards and processes where inventories are critical. IDMS is now a routine analytical technique in geochemical and nuclear laboratories, and in many environmental laboratories. Microgram and nanogram samples are normally used, frequently with automatic mass spectrometers, in many of these routine applications. More advanced techniques permit picogram and sub picogram samples to be analyzed, and spike to sample ratios can range from 1:1 to 1:10 12 with detection limits at attogram levels for some elements. 3 figures, 3 tables

  2. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Gel phase formation in dilute triblock copolyelectrolyte complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Andreev, Marat; Levi, Adam E.; Goldfeld, David J.; Mao, Jun; Heller, William T.; Prabhu, Vivek M.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Tirrell, Matthew V.

    2017-02-01

    Assembly of oppositely charged triblock copolyelectrolytes into phase-separated gels at low polymer concentrations (simulations. Here we show that in contrast to uncharged, amphiphilic block copolymers that form discrete micelles at low concentrations and enter a phase of strongly interacting micelles in a gradual manner with increasing concentration, the formation of a dilute phase of individual micelles is prevented in polyelectrolyte complexation-driven assembly of triblock copolyelectrolytes. Gel phases form and phase separate almost instantaneously on solvation of the copolymers. Furthermore, molecular models of self-assembly demonstrate the presence of oligo-chain aggregates in early stages of copolyelectrolyte assembly, at experimentally unobservable polymer concentrations. Our discoveries contribute to the fundamental understanding of the structure and pathways of complexation-driven assemblies, and raise intriguing prospects for gel formation at extraordinarily low concentrations, with applications in tissue engineering, agriculture, water purification and theranostics.

  4. High-throughput ab-initio dilute solute diffusion database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Henry; Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2016-07-19

    We demonstrate automated generation of diffusion databases from high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A total of more than 230 dilute solute diffusion systems in Mg, Al, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt host lattices have been determined using multi-frequency diffusion models. We apply a correction method for solute diffusion in alloys using experimental and simulated values of host self-diffusivity. We find good agreement with experimental solute diffusion data, obtaining a weighted activation barrier RMS error of 0.176 eV when excluding magnetic solutes in non-magnetic alloys. The compiled database is the largest collection of consistently calculated ab-initio solute diffusion data in the world.

  5. Preservation Study for Ultra-Dilute VX Standards | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies ultra-dilute (10 µg/mL) chemical warfare agent (CWA) standards to the Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) laboratories to allow the use of authentic standards to assist in analyses required for a remediation event involving CWAs. For this reason, it is important to collect data regarding the shelf-lives of these standards. The instability has the potential to impact quality control in regional ERLN laboratories, resulting in data that are difficult to interpret. Thus, this study investigated the use of chemical stabilizers to increase the shelf-life of VX standards. VX standards with long shelf-lives are desirable, as long shelf-life would significantly reduce the costs associated with synthesizing and resupplying the ERLN laboratories with VX.

  6. Forms of vitamin B12 in radioisotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, J.A.; Hall, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Since the presence of analogues of vitamin B 12 (B 12 , cobalamin, Cbl) has been postulated as the basis for the high values obtained by some radioisotope dilution assays (RIDA) of serum Cbl, serum was examined for analogues. None could be demonstrated in the extracts of serum prepared for RIDA as sought by both direct and indirect techniques. The natural forms of serum Cbl were converted to cyanocobalamin (CN Cbl) by this process of extraction which included cyanide (CN). The correctly performed RIDA for Cbl based on R binder gave higher values than a RIDA based on intrinsic factor or than by bioassay. By exclusion, the difference appeared to be due to unidentified factors rather than the presence of analogues. (author)

  7. A plastic dilution refrigerator in a 35 T magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, N.F.Jr; Bindilatti, V.; Haar, E. ter; Martin, R.V.; McNiff, E.J.Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We have built a plastic dilution refrigerator, small enough to fit in the bore of the 35 T hybrid magnet at MIT. The base temperature at H = 0 was 20 mK, measured with a CMN thermometer. In the field, we used capacitive glass thermometers and Matsushita resistors. All data obtained were consistent with a field independent glass thermometer and a negligible magnetoresistance of the Matsushitas at high fields. The minimum temperature measured at 34 T was 25 mK. The effect of magnet vibrations as well as field sweeps (≅ 1 T/min) corresponded to less than 1 μW heating. We observed that, above 29 T, the temperature gradients existent inside the mixing chamber suddenly disappeared, with the temperature becoming homogeneous from top to bottom. We attribute this fact to the effect of the magnetic forces on the liquid. (author)

  8. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar; Sharif, Rehana; Zhu, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al 1-x In x N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at ∝260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T c above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  9. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar [Quaid-i-Azam University, Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sharif, Rehana [University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhu, J.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at {proportional_to}260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T{sub c} above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  10. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, V.; Zhao, Z.; Devlin, M. J.; Klein, J.; Lungu, M.; Schmitt, B.; Thornton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link.

  11. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvarts, V; Zhao, Z; Devlin, M J; Klein, J; Lungu, M; Schmitt, B; Thornton, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link

  12. Dielectric relaxation studies of dilute solutions of amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malathi, M.; Sabesan, R.; Krishnan, S

    2003-11-15

    The dielectric constants and dielectric losses of formamide, acetamide, N-methyl acetamide, acetanilide and N,N-dimethyl acetamide in dilute solutions of 1,4-dioxan/benzene have been measured at 308 K using 9.37 GHz, dielectric relaxation set up. The relaxation time for the over all rotation {tau}{sub (1)} and that for the group rotation {tau}{sub (2)} of (the molecules were determined using Higasi's method. The activation energies for the processes of dielectric relaxation and viscous flow were determined by using Eyring's rate theory. From relaxation time behaviour of amides in non-polar solvent, solute-solvent and solute-solute type of molecular association is proposed.

  13. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aines Roger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 × 106 t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. Results For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux ≥ 104 t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase

  14. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger

    2009-03-26

    Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 10(3) to 2 x 10(6) t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux >or= 10(4) t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase in the lower most permeable unit and does

  15. Dilute scintillators for large-volume tracking detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, R.A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dieterle, B.D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gregory, C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schaefer, F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schum, K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Strossman, W. (University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Smith, D. (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States)); Christofek, L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Johnston, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Louis, W.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Schillaci, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Volta, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); White, D.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Whitehouse, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Albert, M. (University of Pennsylvania, Phi

    1993-10-01

    Dilute scintillation mixtures emit isotropic light for both fast and slow particles, but retain the Cherenkov light cone from fast particles. Large volume detectors using photomultipliers to reconstruct relativistic tracks will also be sensitive to slow particles if they are filled with these mixtures. Our data show that 0.03 g/l of b-PBD in mineral oil has a 2.4:1 ratio (in the first 12 ns) of isotropic light to Cherenkov light for positron tracks. The light attenuation length is greater than 15 m for wavelength above 400 nm, and the scintillation decay time is about 2 ns for the fast component. There is also a slow isotropic light component that is larger (relative to the fast component) for protons than for electrons. This effect allows particle identification by a technique similar to pulse shape discrimination. These features will be utilized in LSND, a neutrino detector at LAMPF. (orig.)

  16. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required

  17. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeluga, D.J.; Stuart, R.K.; Utermohlen, V.; Santos, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H 2 O and 82 Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  18. Radiotracer Dilution Method for Mercury Inventory Study in Electrolytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharto, Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Santoso, Sigit Budi; Abidin, Zainal; Santoso, Gatot Budi

    2010-06-01

    Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing 203 Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of ±2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.

  19. Self-bound droplets of a dilute magnetic quantum liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2016-11-01

    Self-bound many-body systems are formed through a balance of attractive and repulsive forces and occur in many physical scenarios. Liquid droplets are an example of a self-bound system, formed by a balance of the mutual attractive and repulsive forces that derive from different components of the inter-particle potential. It has been suggested that self-bound ensembles of ultracold atoms should exist for atom number densities that are 108 times lower than in a helium droplet, which is formed from a dense quantum liquid. However, such ensembles have been elusive up to now because they require forces other than the usual zero-range contact interaction, which is either attractive or repulsive but never both. On the basis of the recent finding that an unstable bosonic dipolar gas can be stabilized by a repulsive many-body term, it was predicted that three-dimensional self-bound quantum droplets of magnetic atoms should exist. Here we report the observation of such droplets in a trap-free levitation field. We find that this dilute magnetic quantum liquid requires a minimum, critical number of atoms, below which the liquid evaporates into an expanding gas as a result of the quantum pressure of the individual constituents. Consequently, around this critical atom number we observe an interaction-driven phase transition between a gas and a self-bound liquid in the quantum degenerate regime with ultracold atoms. These droplets are the dilute counterpart of strongly correlated self-bound systems such as atomic nuclei and helium droplets.

  20. Heat pulses in dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, L.P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The propagation of heat pulses in dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures under pressure along a tube, which is long compared to its diameter, is discussed. At high temperatures, where the excitations are in local equilibrium with one another, the propagation of heat pulses in the liquid is determined by the phenomenon of second sound, which is essentially a density wave in the excitation gas. The velocity and attenuation of second sound can be determined from the shape of the transmitted pulse. Measurements on the scattering and absorption of phonons are presented, together with a detailed description of the experimental technique and the electronic equipment. Measurements on the velocity and absorption of second sound are presented. From the results for the velocity of second sound in pure 4 He, values of the phonon and roton parameters are deduced. The velocity data in the mixtures have been used to calculate values of the effective mass of 3 He in superfluid 4 He. The results of these calculations have been compared with values of the effective mass obtained by other authors. The coefficient of second-sound absorption in pure 4 He is computed from theory, making use of the phonon and roton parameters calculated from the second-sound velocity data in pure 4 He. The experimental results on the scattering and absorption of phonons have been analysed. The empirical expressions for the scattering and absorption rates obtained from the diffusive phonon signals were compared with the results of the Baym-Ebner theory, and have also been used to calculate the coefficient of thermal conductivity in dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures. (Auth.)

  1. Radiotracer Dilution Method for Mercury Inventory Study in Electrolytic Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Santoso, Sigit Budi; Abidin, Zainal; Santoso, Gatot Budi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the experiment is to demonstrate feasibility the use of radiotracer to measure weight of mercury in electrolytic cells of soda industry. The weight of mercury in each cell of the plant is designed approximately 1700 kg. Radiotracer is prepared by mixing 203 Hg radioactive mercury with 2400 g of inactive mercury in a bath. The respective precisely weighted mercury aliquots to be injected into the cells are prepared by pouring approximately 130 g of radioactive mercury taken from the bath into 13 standard vials, in accordance with the number of the cells tested. Four standard references prepared by further dilution of ±2 g active mercury taken from the bath to obtain the dilution factors range of 12,000 to 20,000 from which the calibration graph is constructed. The injection process is conducting by pouring the radioactive mercury from aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell and allows them to mix thoroughly. It is assumed that the mass of the radiotracer injected into a closed system remains constant, at least during the period of the test. From this experiment it was observed that the mixing time is two days after injection of radioactive mercury. The inactive mercury in each electrolytic cell calculated by the radiotracer method is of the range 1351.529 kg to 1966.354 kg with maximum error (95% confidence) is 1.52 %. The accuracy of measurement of the present method is better than gravimetric one which accounts 4 % of error on average.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation for an inherent boron dilution transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraju, S.T.; Sathiah, P.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Large Eddy Simulation is performed for a transient boron dilution scenario in the scaled experimental facility of ROCOM. • Fully conformal polyhedral grid of 14 million is created to capture all details of the domain. • Systematic multi-step validation methodology is followed to assess the accuracy of LES model. • For the presently simulated BDT scenario, the LES results lend support to its reliability in consistently predicting the slug transport in the RPV. -- Abstract: The present paper focuses on the validation and applicability of large eddy simulation (LES) to analyze the transport and mixing in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during an inherent boron dilution transient (BDT) scenario. Extensive validation data comes from relevant integral tests performed in the scaled ROCOM experimental facility. The modeling of sub-grid-scales is based on the WALE model. A fully conformal polyhedral grid of about 15 million cells is constructed to capture all details in the domain, including the complex structures of the lower-plenum. Detailed qualitative and quantitative validations are performed by following a systematic multi-step validation methodology. Qualitative comparisons to the experimental data in the cold legs, downcomer and the core inlet showed good predictions by the LES model. Minor deviations seen in the quantitative comparisons are rigorously quantified. A key parameter which is affecting the core neutron kinetics response is the value of highest deborated slug concentration that occurs at the core inlet during the transient. Detailed analyses are made at the core inlet to evaluate not only the value of the maximum slug concentration, but also the location and the time at which it occurs during the transient. The relative differences between the ensemble averaged experimental data and CFD predictions were within the range of relative differences seen within 10 different experimental realizations. For the studied scenario, the

  3. Decomposition of dilute residual active chlorine in sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Tetsutaro; Kawano, Kentaro; Yanagase, Kenjiro; Shiga, Akira

    1985-01-01

    Coastal industries such as power stations require enormous quantities of sea-water for cooling, but the marine organisms in it often result in fouling and/or blockade of the circulating water condenser and pipeworks. To prevent this, chlorine, or hypochlorite by the direct electrolysis of sea-water have been added. Environmental concerns, however, dictate that the residual chlorine concentration at the outlet should be less than the regulated value (0.02 ppm). Methods for decomposing dilute residual chlorine solutions were therefore studied. It was found that: 1) The addition of (raw) sea-water to the sea-water which passed through the condenser lowered the residual chlorine concentration to an greater extent than could be expected by dilution only. 2) Ozonation of the residual chlorine solution led to degradation of OCl - , but in solutions with a residual chlorine concentrations of less than 3 -- 4 ppm, ozonation had no effect. 3) Irradiation with ultra violet light (254 nm) decomposed the residual chlorine. Under the present work conditions (25 0 C: pH 8; depth 10 mm), nearly first order kinetics were to hold [da/dt = ksub((1)) (1-a)sup(n)]. There is a proportional relationship between the kinetic constant (k) and illuminous intensity (L), i.e., ksub((1))[C 0 sup(Cl 2 ): 10 ppm] = 6.56 x 10 -5 L (L = 0 -- 1000 lx). Thus, the use of both sea-water addition and UV irradiation provides a probable method for decomposing a residual chlorine to the expected concentration. (author)

  4. Redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis of metallic arsenic for antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, Tomihisa; Yoshioka, Hiroe; Suzuki, Junsuke; Shibata, Yasue.

    1979-01-01

    In 1 M HCl solution Sb(III) reacts with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) to form a complex extractable into chloroform while the extraction of Sb(V) is negligible. The redox substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis based on this reaction was applied to the determination of antimony in metallic arsenic. After the dissolution of metallic arsenic, Sb(V) was separated from As(V) by a tribenzylamine extraction from 8 M HCl solution and the extracted Sb(V) was stripped into 0.5 M NaOH solution. Thereafter, all the Sb(V) were completely reduced to Sb(III) by bubbling SO 2 gas through 3 M HCl solution. As the substoichiometric reaction, the oxidation of Sb(III) to Sb(V) by a substoichiometric amount of potassium dichromate was used, followed by separation of these species by the BPHA extraction of Sb(III). The substoichiometric oxidation of Sb(III) was found to be quantitative over HCl concentration range from 0.8 to 1.2 M. The amount of antimony was determined by isotope dilution analysis using the method of carrier amount variation. By the present method the determination of as small as 0.36 μg antimony was accomplished with a good accuracy (relative error; 5.6%) and also the method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony in arsenic samples containing known amounts of Sb(III) and in metallic arsenic. The present method gives reliable results with the good accuracy and precision. (author)

  5. Some local dilution transient in a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, S.

    1989-01-01

    Reactivity accidents are important in the safety analysis of a pressurized water reactor. In this anlysis ejected control rod, steam line break, start of in-active loop and boron dilution accidents are usually dealt with. However, in the analysis is not included what reactivity excursions might happen when a zone,depleted of boron passes the reactor core. This thesis investigates during what operation and emergency conditions diluted zones might exist in a pressurized water reactor and what should be the maximum volumes for then. The limiting transport means are also established in terms of reactivty addition, for the depleted zones. In order to describe the complicated mixing process in the reactor vessel during such a transportation, a typical 3-loop reactor vessel has been modulated by means of TRAC-PF1's VESSEL component. Three cases have been analysed. In the first case the reactor is in a cold condition and the ractor coolant has boron concentration of 2000 ppm. To the reactor vessel is injected an clean water colume of 14 m 3 . In the two other cases the reactor is close to hot shutdown and borated to 850 ppm. To the reactor vessel is added 41 and 13 m 3 clean water, respectively. In the thesis is shown what spatial distribution the depleted zone gets when passing through the reactor vessel in the three cases. The boron concentration in the first case did not decrease the values which would bring the reactor to critical condition. For case two was shown by means of TRAC's point kinetics model that the reactor reaches prompt criticality after 16.03 seconds after starting of the reactor coolant pump. Another prompt criticality occured two seconds later. The total energy developed during the two power escalations were about 55 GJ. A comparision with the criteria used to evaluate the ejected control rod reactivity transient showed that none of these criteria were exceeded. (64 figs.)

  6. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. A 63-year-old man was admitted due to dysphagia, heartburn, and vomiting. An esophagogram demonstrated an S-shaped lower esophagus with multiple epiphrenic diverticula (75 × 55 mm and 30 × 30 mm) and obstruction by the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Esophageal manometry showed normal peristaltic contractions in the esophageal body, whereas the LES pressure was high (98.6 mmHg). The pressure vector volume of LES was 23,972 mmHg 2  cm. Based on these findings, we diagnosed huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with a hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and judged that resection might be required. We performed lower esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction using a video-assisted thoracic and hand-assisted laparoscopic procedure. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the esophagogram demonstrated good passage, with no leakage, stenosis, or diverticula. The most common causes of mid-esophageal and epiphrenic diverticula are motility disorders of the esophageal body; appropriate treatment should be considered based on the morphological and motility findings.

  7. A case of huge colon carcinoma and right renal angiomyolipoma accompanied by proximal deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and tumor thrombus in the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shin; Akasu, Takayuki; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    A preoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is reported to be effective in surgical cases with proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or in which pulmonary embolism (PE) has already developed, and considered to be at high risk of developing secondary fatal PE during or after surgery. However, guidelines for using an IVC filter have yet to be established. The patient in the present report had two huge tumors, ascending colon cancer and renal angiomyolipoma, which occupied the entire right half of the abdomen, coexisting PE, DVT and tumor thrombus in the right renal vein. Secondary PE is fatal in the perioperative period, therefore, the vena cava filters were preoperatively inserted into the supra- and the infrarenal IVC. We successfully removed the tumors without complications. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence and PE or recurrent DVT 1 year and 6 months after surgery. The coexistence of two huge abdominal tumors as potential causes of PE and DVT is extremely rare, and we could have safely undergone the operation, using two vena cava filters in the supra- and infrarenal IVC.

  8. [Transcatheter embolization for huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using metallic "spider" and spring embolus--application of hand-made metallic "spider" using partial monorail technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, S; Sako, M; Fujita, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Sugimoto, K; Suzuki, Y; Kono, M

    1992-07-25

    We performed transcatheter embolization in two cases with huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a metallic "spider" and spring embolus. Conventional spring embolus or detachable balloon could not be used in these cases. Metallic spider was indicated for pulmonary AVF with a feeding artery diameter of more than 16 mm to prevent embolus passing through the AVF. In the first case, we used large handmade metallic spiders of 25 mm in diameter followed by embolization by numerous spring coils. At that time, a partial monorail technique was newly devised to carry the large metallic spider into the feeding artery, otherwise the spider could not pass into a 9F catheter. After embolization, symptoms and PaO2 in arterial blood improved remarkably in both cases. In the second case, a spring coil migrated into the normal pulmonary artery, but no infarction resulted. In conclusion, the metallic spider was very useful for embolization of hugee pulmonary AVF to avoid the embolus passing through and to tangle spring coils together with it. If commercially available "spiders" are too small, ones can be made easily.

  9. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mostafapor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA. The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL, straight line velocity (VSL, average path velocity (VAP, straightness (STR, linearity (LIN, amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH, and beat cross frequency (BCF. In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  10. Effects of diluting medium and holding time on sperm motility analysis by CASA in ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapor, Somayeh; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dilution rate and holding time on various motility parameters using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). The semen samples were collected from three Ghezel rams. Samples were diluted in seminal plasma (SP), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Bioexcell. The motility parameters that computed and recorded by CASA include curvilinear velocity (VCL), straight line velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), straightness (STR), linearity (LIN), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), and beat cross frequency (BCF). In all diluters, there was a decrease in the average of all three parameters of sperms movement velocity as the time passed, but density of this decrease was more intensive in SP. The average of ALH between diluters indicated a significant difference, as it was more in Bioexcell in comparison with the similar amount in SP and PBS. The average of LIN in the diluted sperms in Bioexcell was less than two other diluters in all three times. The motility parameters of the diluted sperms in Bioexcell and PBS indicated an important and considerable difference with the diluted sperms in SP. According to the gained results, the Bioexcell has greater ability in preserving motility of sperm in comparison with the other diluters but as SP is considered as physiological environment for sperm. It seems that the evaluation of the motility parameters in Bioexcell and PBS cannot be an accurate and comparable evaluation with SP.

  11. Studies on the dilution behaviour of effluent discharged into the CCW channel at KGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasubramanian, K.; Srinivasan, S.; Ponraju, D.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Munusamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    The dilution behaviour of the liquid effluent discharged into condenser cooling water channel of Kaiga Power Plant has been studied using salt addition and dye addition methods. Dilution factors determined experimentally showed that the discharged liquid effluent gets thoroughly mixed with stream of water at the weir and further diluted in the down stream. This paper describes both salt and dye addition methods for determining the dilution factor. The velocity of the stream at various locations were measured and compared with reported values. The selection of representative sampling point for routine analysis of water was identified from this experiment. (author)

  12. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  13. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F; Guinnebault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  14. A model for the viscosity of dilute smectite gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Liu, Longcheng

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A simple yet accurate model describing the viscosity of dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in low ionic strength waters is presented. Taking the clay particle and the surrounding clouds of ions as whole as an uncharged but soft particle, the Huggins' equation is extended in the model to account for both the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects, by use of the notion of an effective volume fraction. In the model, however, we do not represent the clay particle as a sphere surrounded by immobile water layer with thickness of a Debye length, as did by Adachi et al. (1998) who used the co-volume fraction to approximate the effective volume fraction. We visualize the effective geometry of the particle and the associated ionic atmosphere as an ellipsoid. This representation is more practical and more plausible, because in the limit of large ionic strength, the electrolyte ions have been screened to a significant extent so that the charged particle behaves just like an uncharged one. As a result, the application of the Simha's equation of intrinsic viscosity for ellipsoidal particle following with random Brownian motion enables us to obtain an analytical expression for the primary electro-viscous effect. More importantly, the available models for hard plate-like particles can be used to aid in the quantification of the secondary electro-viscous effect. The development of the model is based firmly on precise measurements of the viscosity of sufficiently dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in low concentration NaCl solutions (at room temperature) using Ostwald capillary viscometers. The obtained data clearly demonstrate the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects. That is, with an decrease of ionic strength, the intrinsic viscosity which is the intercept of the extrapolation of the plot at zero volume fraction will increase, and the slope of the linear part which appears in

  15. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  16. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT's Charlestown Square Shopping Centre and Echuca Hospital. These systems join a number of others already in operation at the large commercial and industrial scale, as well as a smaller number of systems providing cooling to cafes and offices. The development in this area is being supported by CSIRO's Solar Cooling research team which provides development, modelling and design expertise across the spectrum of solar cooling variants, sizes and applications - from remote community food preservation in India, to large commercial and residential systems in Australia. The group also has industry test facilities to support the development and testing of solar air conditioning systems as well as conventional air conditioning technologies. The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH's) Solar Cooling Special Technical Group is also involved in developing the solar cooling industry in Australia with the aim of combating climate change by reducing greenhouse emissions from the residential and commercial building sectors. The group coordinates industry and research efforts and organises information exchange, educational and training events for interested technical and business representatives. Fact file- Solar cooling systems are essentially comprised of two parts - solar thermal collectors and a sorption chiller which convert the heat into useful cooling. Though a number of collector and chiller combinations exist, no one single approach has yet dominated. Corresponding with the type of chiller used, solar cooling systems are often grouped into three categories: absorption, adsorption and desiccant. During design, an appropriate collector technology will be chosen, typically either a parabolic, flat plate or evacuated tube collector. The optimal configuration is also determined in design, to align equipment characteristics with the conditions, environment and requirements presented by each application. Thus solar cooling has a number of variants which use different components or the same components in an alternate configuration. A number of variants are technically proven and available for commercial and industrial installations. Each variant uses standard 'off the shelf' FIVAC industry components which are available in both Australia and overseas. A typical solar cooling system is also able to supply broader energy needs of a building including space heating and hot water.

  17. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  18. Three pillars for achieving quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations of huge systems: Divide-and-conquer, density-functional tight-binding, and massively parallel computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Irle, Stephan; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-08-05

    The linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC) quantum chemical methodology is applied to the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) theory to develop a massively parallel program that achieves on-the-fly molecular reaction dynamics simulations of huge systems from scratch. The functions to perform large scale geometry optimization and molecular dynamics with DC-DFTB potential energy surface are implemented to the program called DC-DFTB-K. A novel interpolation-based algorithm is developed for parallelizing the determination of the Fermi level in the DC method. The performance of the DC-DFTB-K program is assessed using a laboratory computer and the K computer. Numerical tests show the high efficiency of the DC-DFTB-K program, a single-point energy gradient calculation of a one-million-atom system is completed within 60 s using 7290 nodes of the K computer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Deep earth fluids and huge metallogenetic belt and fatal geological disaster: 60th anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian engaging in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Guangxi; Tao Shizhen; Liu Yinhe

    2012-01-01

    Professor Du Le-tian has been researching for a long time on scientific relationship between deep earth fluids and hydrocarbon accumulation and metallogenesis, as well as gestation and prediction of disasters. He has contributed greatly to the development of that scientific field. From 6 to 8, July, 2012, 'Workshop on Deep Earth Fluids and Huge Metallogenetic Belt, Fatal Geological Disaster, as well as 60 th Anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian Engaging in Geology' was successfully convened in Beijing, totally with 76 delegates present who were experts, scholars or students from USA, Hong Kong, or various institutes, colleges or universities of China. In the workshop, the scientific presentations discussed were counted up to 49, on aspects of geological processes of deep earth fluids, relationship between earth degassing and hydrocarbon accumulation or metallogenesis, gestating mechanism of volcanic eruptions and strong earthquakes as well as their relations with mine gas outburst, high-temperature and high-pressure experimental earth science, etc.. (authors)

  20. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  1. Gas Leak Detection by Dilution of Atmospheric Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Lambrecht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas leak detection is an important issue in infrastructure monitoring and industrial production. In this context, infrared (IR absorption spectroscopy is a major measurement method. It can be applied in an extractive or remote detection scheme. Tunable laser spectroscopy (TLS instruments are able to detect CH4 leaks with column densities below 10 ppm·m from a distance of 30 m in less than a second. However, leak detection of non-IR absorbing gases such as N2 is not possible in this manner. Due to the fact that any leaking gas displaces or dilutes the surrounding background gas, an indirect detection is still possible. It is shown by sensitive TLS measurements of the ambient background concentration of O2 that N2 leaks can be localized with extractive and standoff methods for distances below 1 m. Minimum leak rates of 0.1 mbar·L/s were determined. Flow simulations confirm that the leakage gas typically effuses in a narrow jet. The sensitivity is mainly determined by ambient flow conditions. Compared to TLS detection of CH4 at 1651 nm, the indirect method using O2 at 761 nm is experimentally found to be less sensitive by a factor of 100. However, the well-established TLS of O2 may become a universal tool for rapid leakage screening of vessels that contain unknown or inexpensive gases, such as N2.

  2. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  3. A scanning tunneling microscope for a dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marz, M; Goll, G; Löhneysen, H v

    2010-04-01

    We present the main features of a home-built scanning tunneling microscope that has been attached to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. It allows scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements down to the base temperature of the cryostat, T approximately 30 mK, and in applied magnetic fields up to 13 T. The topography of both highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and the dichalcogenide superconductor NbSe(2) has been imaged with atomic resolution down to T approximately 50 mK as determined from a resistance thermometer adjacent to the sample. As a test for a successful operation in magnetic fields, the flux-line lattice of superconducting NbSe(2) in low magnetic fields has been studied. The lattice constant of the Abrikosov lattice shows the expected field dependence proportional to 1/square root of B and measurements in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy mode clearly show the superconductive density of states with Andreev bound states in the vortex core.

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M

    2014-11-07

    Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.

  5. Static and dynamic light scattering studies on dilute polyrotaxane solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tetsuya; Araki, Jun; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Mayumi, Koichi; Kidowaki, Masatoshi; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Ito, Kohzo

    2009-08-01

    Static and dynamic light scattering measurements were performed for dilute polyrotaxane solutions in different types of solvent systems, i.e. dimethylacetamide (DMAc) or dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 1-6 wt% lithium chloride (LiCl), 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). No aggregation of the polyrotaxane in DMF/LiCl was confirmed in the present study. Radius of gyration of the dissolved polyrotaxane was largest in NaOHaq., followed by values in amide solvents/LiCl and that in DMSO, and was probably dominated not by Coulombic repulsion but by the mutual affinity between solvent and polyrotaxane. Ratio of radius of gyration to hydrodynamic radius suggested the flexible random-coiled conformation in DMSO and relatively more extended, semi-flexible ones in amide solvents/LiCl and NaOHaq. The obtained values of second virial coefficient and weight average molecular weight seemed to be affected by a potential change in differential refractive index increments, caused by selective macrocationization or ionization.

  6. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  7. Dermal absorption of a dilute aqueous solution of malathion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharf John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide commonly used on field crops, fruit trees, livestock, agriculture, and for mosquito and medfly control. Aerial applications can result in solubilized malathion in swimming pools and other recreational waters that may come into contact with human skin. To evaluate the human skin absorption of malathion for the assessment of risk associated with human exposures to aqueous solutions, human volunteers were selected and exposed to aqueous solutions of malathion. Participants submerged their arms and hands in twenty liters of dilute malathion solution in either a stagnant or stirred state. The "disappearance method" was applied by measuring malathion concentrations in the water before and after human exposure for various periods of time. No measurable skin absorption was detected in 42% of the participants; the remaining 58% of participants measured minimal absorbed doses of malathion. Analyzing these results through the Hazard Index model for recreational swimmer and bather exposure levels typically measured in contaminated swimming pools and surface waters after bait application indicated that these exposures are an order of magnitude less than a minimal dose known to result in a measurable change in acetylcholinesterase activity. It is concluded that exposure to aqueous malathion in recreational waters following aerial bait applications is not appreciably absorbed, does not result in an effective dose, and therefore is not a public health hazard.

  8. Gamma-radiolysis of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrani, S

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the radiation-induced damage of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions. By use of specific radical scavengers, the roles of the individual free radicals, formed by ..gamma..-radiolysis, in causing damage has been assessed. The most effective radical in causing damage to human and porcine glycopolypeptide is the OH radical. The structure of the different blood group glycopolypeptides determines the sensitivity towards the free radical attack. The glycopolypeptide shows depolymerization and a characteristic absorption at approximately 270 nm due to the formation of additional products on irradiation. Chemical changes of the irradiated glycopolypeptide solutions revealed significant damage to the oligosaccharide chain and the polypeptide core of the glycopolypeptide. The radiation-induced inactivation of another glycoprotein, external yeast invertase, due to different radical species at pH 7.0 decreases in the following order: ea-barq > OH radical > (SCN) radical/sub 2//sup -/ > Br radical/sub 2//sup -/. The structure of this enzyme, accounts for the mechanism of enzyme inactivation and the relative damage of carbohydrate and amino acid residues. The irradiated enzyme solutions show significant changes in their electrophoretic behaviour on cellogel electrophoresis due to the formation of radiolysis products, which also show characteristic absorption maxima at approximately 275 nm. (author).

  9. Rare isotopes and the sound of dilute nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, P.

    2018-04-01

    Dilute baryonic matter, at densities below the normal saturation density of symmetric matter, is found on the crust of neutron stars and in collapsing supernova matter, its properties determining the evolution of those stellar objects. It is also readily found on the surface of ordinary and exotic atomic nuclei and lives fleetingly in the form of space-extended resonances of excited nucleons. Liminal states of nuclear matter, between saturation and full evaporation or clusterization, are manifest in the structure of symmetric nuclei through clustering and of very asymmetric rare species in haloes and the neutron skin; they stand literally at the threshold of a nucleus's response to hadronic probes, including processes which hinder or enable fusion. In this contribution I focus on excited states, and in particular exotic or not-so-exotic dipole excitation modes of N = Z nuclei and neutron-rich species, including new theoretical results on threshold strength. Modes of special interest are vibrations of and within diffuse surface layers and alpha-cluster oscillations. The modeling of such processes is relevant, directly or indirectly, for the description of reactions at astrophysical energies.

  10. Weighted Geometric Dilution of Precision Calculations with Matrix Multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the performance of location estimation in wireless positioning systems, the geometric dilution of precision (GDOP is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units. Since GDOP represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error, the smallest GDOP of the measurement unit subset is usually chosen for positioning. The conventional GDOP calculation using matrix inversion method requires many operations. Because more and more measurement units can be chosen nowadays, an efficient calculation should be designed to decrease the complexity. Since the performance of each measurement unit is different, the weighted GDOP (WGDOP, instead of GDOP, is used to select the measurement units to improve the accuracy of location. To calculate WGDOP effectively and efficiently, the closed-form solution for WGDOP calculation is proposed when more than four measurements are available. In this paper, an efficient WGDOP calculation method applying matrix multiplication that is easy for hardware implementation is proposed. In addition, the proposed method can be used when more than exactly four measurements are available. Even when using all-in-view method for positioning, the proposed method still can reduce the computational overhead. The proposed WGDOP methods with less computation are compatible with global positioning system (GPS, wireless sensor networks (WSN and cellular communication systems.

  11. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-01-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Static and dynamic light scattering studies on dilute polyrotaxane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tetsuya; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Mayumi, Koichi; Kidowaki, Masatoshi; Yokoyama, Hideaki; Ito, Kohzo; Araki, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Static and dynamic light scattering measurements were performed for dilute polyrotaxane solutions in different types of solvent systems, i.e. dimethylacetamide (DMAc) or dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 1-6 wt% lithium chloride (LiCl), 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). No aggregation of the polyrotaxane in DMF/LiCl was confirmed in the present study. Radius of gyration of the dissolved polyrotaxane was largest in NaOHaq., followed by values in amide solvents/LiCl and that in DMSO, and was probably dominated not by Coulombic repulsion but by the mutual affinity between solvent and polyrotaxane. Ratio of radius of gyration to hydrodynamic radius suggested the flexible random-coiled conformation in DMSO and relatively more extended, semi-flexible ones in amide solvents/LiCl and NaOHaq. The obtained values of second virial coefficient and weight average molecular weight seemed to be affected by a potential change in differential refractive index increments, caused by selective macrocationization or ionization.

  13. Disposal of Low-Activity Liquid Effluents by Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Candillon, C. [Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Nuclear centres are frequently faced with problems of disposal of sizeable quantities of low-activity liquid effluents. Under present conditions the most practicable solution seems to be to discharge them into a natural or artificial water system, so as to dilute them as much as possible and thus reduce their radioactive isotope content below the public health levels. This technique is employed by all nuclear centres in France, which use the following convenient outlets: Saclay: the artificial ponds made by Louis XIV to feed the great Versailles fountains; Fontenay-aux-Roses: the Paris sewer system; Grenoble: the river Isere; Marcoule: the river Rhone. Until 1957 the amount of waste was negligible. It is still very slight at the first three centres, only a few dozen millicuries a month. At Marcoule the activity of the effluents is somewhat greater, but the Rhone's rate of flow ensures a very low final content of radioactive elements. The increasing discharge of wastes into river systems calls for a close watch on changes in radioactivity in the environment (i.e. in air, water and soil), and especially on areas in which radioactive isotopes may accumulate. We have therefore made laboratory studies of the mechanics of radioactivity concentration, in order to improve our sampling methods and ascertain the movement of wastes.

  14. Automated spike preparation system for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is a method frequently employed to measure dissolved, irradiated nuclear materials. A known quantity of a unique isotope of the element to be measured (referred to as the ''spike'') is added to the solution containing the analyte. The resulting solution is chemically purified then analyzed by mass spectrometry. By measuring the magnitude of the response for each isotope and the response for the ''unique spike'' then relating this to the known quantity of the ''spike'', the quantity of the nuclear material can be determined. An automated spike preparation system was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to dispense spikes for use in IDMS analytical methods. Prior to this development, technicians weighed each individual spike manually to achieve the accuracy required. This procedure was time-consuming and subjected the master stock solution to evaporation. The new system employs a high precision SMI Model 300 Unipump dispenser interfaced with an electronic balance and a portable Epson HX-20 notebook computer to automate spike preparation

  15. Irradiation-induced patterning in dilute Cu–Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumphy, B.; Chee, S.W.; Vo, N.Q.; Averback, R.S.; Bellon, P.; Ghafari, M.

    2014-01-01

    Compositional patterning in dilute Cu 1−x Fe x (x ≈ 12%) induced by 1.8 MeV Kr + irradiation was studied as a function of temperature using atom probe tomography. Irradiation near room temperature led to homogenization of the sample, whereas irradiation at 300 °C and above led to precipitation and macroscopic coarsening. Between these two temperatures the irradiated alloys formed steady state patterns of composition where precipitates grew to a fixed size. The size in this regime increased somewhat with temperature. It was also observed that the steady state concentrations of Fe in Cu matrix and Cu in the Fe precipitates both greatly exceeded their equilibrium solubilities, with the degree of supersaturation in each phase decreasing with increasing temperature. In the macroscopic coarsening regime, the Fe-rich precipitates showed indications of a “cherry-pit” structure, with Cu precipitates forming within the Fe precipitates. In the patterning regime, interfaces between Fe-rich precipitates and the Cu-rich matrix were irregular and diffuse

  16. Forward di-jet production in dilute-dense collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreska E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive a factorization formula for forward production of two jets in dilutedense collisions that is valid for an arbitrary value of the momentum imbalance of the jets, kt. This generalizes the transverse momentum dependent (TMD factorization formula that has been derived before by Dominguez et al. Their formula is valid only for small values of the transverse momentum of the small-x gluon from the target; it has kt dependent TMD gluon distributions, but on-shell hard matrix elements. We extend the TMD formula to all ranges of kt by including off-shell matrix elements. We also add finite Nc corrections. The new formula encompasses both, the TMD factorization for small kt on the order of the saturation scale, and the High Energy Factorization (HEF for large kt on the order of the momentum of the jets. The TMD and HEF factorizations can be derived from the Color Glass Condensate (CGC formula for forward di-jet production in the appropriate limits. We show explicitly the equivalence of HEF and CGC in the dilute target approximation.

  17. Tunable spin waves in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Pin; Zhang, Jun-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The spin wave excitation spectrum in diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanoribbons was calculated by taking account of the quantum confinement effect of carriers and spin waves. By introducing the boundary condition for the spin waves, we derived the spin wave dispersion using the path-integral formulation and Green's function method. It was shown that the spin wave excitation spectrum is discrete due to the confinement effect and strongly dependent on the carrier density, the magnetic ion density, and the width of the nanoribbon. When the width of the nanoribbon is beyond the typical nanoscales, the size effect on the excitation energies of the spin waves disappears in our calculation, which is in qualitative agreement with no obvious size effect observed in the as-made nanodevices of (Ga,Mn)As in this size regime. Our results provide a potential way to control the spin waves in the DMS nanoribbon not only by the carrier density and the magnetic ion density but also by the nanostructure geometry.

  18. Ab-initio calculations for dilute magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadji, Brahim

    2008-03-03

    This thesis focusses on ab-initio calculations for the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In particular we aim at the understanding of the complex exchange interactions in these systems. Our calculations are based on density functional theory, being ideally suited for a description of the material specific properties of the considered DMS. Moreover we use the KKR Green function method in connection with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), which allows to include the random substitutional disorder in a mean field-like approximation for the electronic structure. Finally we calculate the exchange coupling constants J{sub ij} between two impurities in a CPA medium by using the Lichtenstein formula and from this calculate the Curie temperature by a numerically exact Monte Carlo method. Based on this analysis we found and investigated four different exchange mechanisms being of importance in DMS systems: Double exchange, p-d exchange, antiferromagnetic superexchanges, and ferromagnetic superexchange. A second topic we have investigated in this thesis is the pressure dependence of the exchange interactions and the Curie temperatures in (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As, using the LDA and the LDA+U approximations. Exact calculations of T{sub C} by Monte Carlo simulations show a somehow different behavior. (orig.)

  19. Process for recovery and purification of lithium from dilute sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Komasawa, Isao

    1990-01-01

    A process was studied for recovery and purification of lithium from hot spring water and leachate of coal fly ash in which lithium is present at very low concentration in a mixture of high concentration of less desirable species such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and others. Lithium is, as a first step, adsorbed selectively by an ion-sieve type adsorbent, λ-MnO 2 , which can effect separation by adsorbing lithium alone in its intraparticle spaces while adsorbing most metals on its surface. Stagewise elutions are performed, employing two elutrients: NH 4 NO 3 and then HNO 3 solution. The concentration ratio of lithium and sodium is 1/70∼1/120 in the original feed stream, and this is upgraded to 300/1 in the pregnant elutrient. Some impurities in the pregnant elutrient is removed by a solvent extraction technique, employing a mixed extractant of a β-diketone (LIX51) and tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide in kerosene. A lithium solution with an undetectable amount of impurities is obtained by single extraction followed by single scrubbing with dilute hydrochloric acid of carefully controlled concentration. (author)

  20. Magnetoviscous effect in ferrofluids diluted with sheep blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J.; Borin, D.; Haefner, S.; Richter, A.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in suitable carrier liquids, denoted as ferrofluids, are in the focus of current research in the biomedical area. Those fluids can be potentially used for the treatment of cancer by coupling chemotherapeutic agents and accumulating them in the diseased region with the help of external magnetic fields or by artificially local induced heating. Those applications rely on the help of external magnetic fields, which are well known to drastically influence the physical behaviour of ferrofluids. This study investigates the changing viscosity of a biocompatible ferrofluid in a flow situation close to the situation found in a biomedical application. For this purpose blood as diluting agent and thin capillaries have been utilised. The strong magnetoviscous effects found lead to the assumption of quite big changes of the microstructure due to the external magnetic fields, which was investigated and quantified using a microscopic setup. In the result an increases of the structure size as well as faster structure formation in the stronger magnetic fields were observed. Moreover, with increasing duration of the applied magnetic field the size of the structures increases too. The observed process of the structure formation is reversible.

  1. Rheology and microstructure of dilute graphene oxide suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfai, Waka; Singh, Pawan; Shatilla, Youssef; Iqbal, Muhammad Z.; Abdala, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide are potential candidates as nanofluids for thermal management applications. Here, we investigate the rheological properties and intrinsic viscosity of aqueous suspension of graphene and use the measured intrinsic viscosity to determine the aspect ratio of graphene oxide. Dilute suspension of graphene oxide (0.05 to 0.5 mg/mL) exhibits a shear thinning behavior at low shear rates followed by a shear-independent region that starts at shear rate between 5 and 100/s depending on the concentration. This shear thinning behavior becomes more pronounced with the increase of particle loading. Moreover, AFM imaging of the dried graphene oxide indicates the evolution of irregular and thin low fractal aggregates of 0.3–1.8 nm thickness at lower concentrations to oblate compact structures of 1–18 nm thickness of nanosheets at higher concentration. These observations elucidate the microstructure growth mechanisms of graphene oxide in multiphase systems, which are important for nanofluids applications and for dispersing graphene and graphene oxide in composite materials. The suspension has a very high intrinsic viscosity of 1661 due to the high graphene oxide aspect ratio. Based on this intrinsic viscosity, we predict graphene oxide aspect ratio of 2445. While the classical Einstein and Batchelor models underestimate the relative viscosity of graphene oxide suspension, Krieger–Dougherty prediction is in a good agreement with the experimental measurement

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance of randomly diluted magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magon, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the nuclear relaxation rates and line shapes of the F O resonance in the diluted antiferromagnet Fe x Zn 1-x F 2 and Mn x Zn 1-x F 2 are studied over a large temperature range T N 1 ) of the F O nuclei, which are not transfer hyperfine coupled to the Fe (or Mn) spins, have been measured and calculated as a function of the concentration x. Good agreement with experiment is found for the theoretical results, which have been obtained in the range 0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.8. The temperature dependence of 1/T 1 for T N 1 data near T N was used to study Random Field Effects on the critical behavior of Mn .65 Zn . 3 5 F 2 , for fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the easy (C) axis. It was found that the transition temperature T N depressed substantially with field only for H o || C. The experimental results are in general accord with the theory for Random Field Effects in disordered, anisotropic antiferromagnets. The critical divergence of the inhomogeneously broadened F O NMR was studied in Fe .6 Zn .4 F 2 above T N . The experimental results agree with Heller's calculation of the NMR line broadening by Random Field Effects. With H o || C the line shape changes from Gaussian towards Lozentzian for t -2 and below T N its line width increase qualitatively following the increase in the sublattice magnetization. (author)

  3. Efficient removal of UDMH from dilute nitride MOCVD exhaust streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Jörg; Czerniak, Mike; Seeley, Andy; Baker, Derek

    2004-12-01

    Unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH) (CH 3) 2N 2H 2 is often used in the deposition of dilute nitride semiconductors because it provides a source of nitrogen with a low thermal decomposition temperature (Temperature-dependent carrier lifetime in GaNAs using resonant-coupled photoconductive decay, NCPV Program Review Meeting, Lakewood, Colorado, 14-17 October, 2001). The problems with using this material, however, are its significant toxicity (0.01 ppm compared to ammonia's 25 ppm) and also the fact that it blocks the action of conventional dosed wet scrubbers sometimes used on nitride applications, resulting in diminished efficiency in removing arsine (the source of arsenic), and arsine being similarly toxic (TLV of 0.05 ppm). Efficient removal of UDMH, AsH 3 and hydrogen (which, though not toxic poses a potential safety hazard) by means of a combined thermal oxidation reaction and wet scrubber in series is described at input gas flow rates exceeding those typically encountered in practice. The detection technique employed was Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), and the calibration and resolution techniques will be described. For input UDMH flows of up to 445 sccm (i.e. 1.85×10 -2 mol/min), destructive reaction efficiencies (DREs) of >99.9% were demonstrated, corresponding to the background detection resolution of 0.4 ppm.

  4. Conformation of ionizable poly Para phenylene ethynylene in dilute solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, Sidath; Maskey, Sabina; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    The conformation of dinonyl poly para phenylene ethynylenes (PPEs) with carboxylate side chains, equilibrated in solvents of different quality is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PPEs are of interest because of their tunable electro-optical properties, chemical diversity, and functionality which are essential in wide range of applications. The polymer conformation determines the conjugation length and their assembly mode and affects electro-optical properties which are critical in their current and potential uses. The current study investigates the effect of carboxylate fraction on PPEs side chains on the conformation of chains in the dilute limit, in solvents of different quality. The dinonyl PPE chains are modeled atomistically, where the solvents are modeled both implicitly and explicitly. Dinonyl PPEs maintained a stretched out conformation up to a carboxylate fraction f of 0.7 in all solvents studied. The nonyl side chains are extended and oriented away from the PPE backbone in toluene and in implicit good solvent whereas in water and implicit poor solvent, the nonyl side chains are collapsed towards the PPE backbone. Thus, rotation around the aromatic ring is fast and no long range correlations are seen within the backbone

  5. Dilute Nitrides For 4-And 6- Junction Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, S.; Stammler, E.; Ronsch, S.; Oliva, E.; Schachtner, M.; Siefer, G.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.

    2011-10-01

    According to simulations the efficiency of conventional, lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells can be strongly increased by the incorporation of additional junctions. In this way the existing excess current of the Germanium bottom cell can be reduced and the voltage of the stack can be increased. In particular, the use of 1.0 eV materials like GaInNAs opens the door for solar cells with significantly improved conversion efficiency. We have investigated the material properties of GaInNAs grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and its impact on the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Furthermore we have developed a GaInNAs subcell with a bandgap energy of 1.0 eV and integrated it into a GaInP/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 4-junction and a AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 6- junction space solar cell. The material quality of the dilute nitride junction limits the current density of these devices to 9.3 mA/cm2 (AM0). This is not sufficient for a 4-junction cell but may lead to current matched 6- junction devices in the future.

  6. The solidification behavior of dilute aluminium-scandium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.F.; Prangnell, P.B.; McEwen, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The solidification behavior of dilute Sc containing Al alloys has been investigated. In binary Al-Sc alloys, Sc additions greater than the eutectic composition (0.55 wt%) were found to produce a remarkable refinement in the grain size of aluminum castings, of two orders of magnitude, due to the formation of the primary Al 3 Sc intermetallic phase during solidification. The refinement in grain size only occurred in hypereutectic compositions and was shown to be far greater than can be achieved by conventional Al grain refiners. Grain refinement by the addition of Sc is accompanied by a change in growth morphology from dendritic, in the large unrefined grains, to fine spherical grains with a divorced eutectic appearing on the grain boundaries in the refined castings. Similar levels of refinement were observed in Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Cu-Sc alloys. In the latter, a change in the segregation behavior of Cu was observed, from a strongly interdendritic segregation pattern to a more homogeneous distribution. The supersaturated Al-Sc solid solution can decompose via a discontinuous precipitation reaction to form coherent rod-like precipitates of the L1 2 Al 3 Sc phase

  7. Synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, G.H.; Dresselhaus, G.; Withrow, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have synthesized layers of CdMnTe by implantation of Mn into CdTe. Samples of CdTe have been implanted with Mn ions of 60 keV energy to fluences in the range 1 x 10 13 cm -2 to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 resulting in local concentrations of up to 10% at the maximum of the Mn distribution. Rutherford backscattering-channeling analysis has been used to study the radiation damage after implantation and after subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). These experiments reveal that RTA for 15 sec at a temperature T greater than or equal to 700 0 C results in the complete recovery of the lattice order, without affecting the stoichiometry of CdTe. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of a sample showing complete annealing reveal an increase in the band gap corresponding to the synthesis of very dilute (x approx. = 0.004) Cd/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/Te. A shift of the excitonic PL peak to lower energies is observed when a magnetic field H less than or equal to 1T is applied. These measurements provide clear evidence for the synthesis of a DMS by ion implantation of Mn into CdTe

  8. Ion separation from dilute electrolyte solutions by nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.

    2000-03-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a pressure-driven process which is considered potential for the separation of ionic species selectively from solutions containing mixture of electrolyte solutes. The lower operating pressure requirement of NF than reverse osmosis (RO) makes the earlier potentially economical. In the separation of ions, many authors believed that there are membranes with characteristic fixed surface charge and that the mechanism of separation of ions is by the differences in valences of the ions. In this study, experiments involving dilute single-solute and multiple-solute electrolyte solutions were performed using three different NF membranes. Permeate fluxes and ion rejections of the different species of ions in samples of permeate solutions were measured at varied conditions. The mechanism of separation in NF was determined based on the analysis of the trends and behavior of ion rejection relative to the solution temperature, pressure, type of solute, feed concentration and feed solution pH. The results of the experiments show that there is no evidence of the presence of fixed surface charge on the NF membranes. Ion separation was made possible by the combination of sieve effect and ion-hydration effect. Ions having higher hydration numbers showed higher ion rejection than those having lower hydration numbers. A method to determine the effective membrane pore size of NF membranes using hydrodynamic model was proposed. The proposed method is based on the assumptions that the membrane is neutral and that the separation is based on sieving effect. (Author)

  9. Dilute alkali pretreatment of softwood pine: A biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Ali; Karimi, Keikhosro; Shafiei, Marzieh

    2017-06-01

    Dilute alkali pretreatment was performed on softwood pine to maximize ethanol and biogas production via a biorefinery approach. Alkali pretreatments were performed with 0-2% w/v NaOH at 100-180°C for 1-5h. The liquid fraction of the pretreated substrates was subjected to anaerobic digestion. The solid fraction of the pretreatment was used for separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. High ethanol yields of 76.9‒78.0% were achieved by pretreatment with 2% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest biogas yield of 244mL/g volatile solid (at 25°C, 1bar) was achieved by the pretreatment with 1% (w/v) NaOH at 180°C. The highest gasoline equivalent (sum of ethanol and methane) of 197L per ton of pinewood and the lowest ethanol manufacturing cost of 0.75€/L was obtained after pretreatment with 1% NaOH at 180°C for 5h. The manufacturing cost of ethanol from untreated wood was 4.12€/L. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotopic dilution requirements for 233U criticality safety in processing and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Hopper, C.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    The disposal of excess 233 U as waste is being considered. Because 233 U is a fissile material, one of the key requirements for processing 233 U to a final waste form and disposing of it is to avoid nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233 U with nonfissile 238 U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities, that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials, to be used for processing and disposing of 233 U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be ∼ 0.66 wt% 233 U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), water (H 2 O), 233 U, and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt% 235 U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233 U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO 2 present. Thus, for the US inventory of 233 U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  11. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, Jesus

    2015-12-18

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering the redefinition of recalcitrant DOC recently proposed by Jiao et al., the dilution hypothesis best explains our experimental observations.

  12. The transition between undiluted and oligomer-diluted states of nearly monodisperse polystyrenes in extensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2017-01-01

    , proposed by Rasmussen and Huang (Rheol Acta 53(3):199–208 (2014a)), predicts the extensional viscosity well for the dilutions with lower concentrations. However, for the 70 and 90% 545 kg/mole samples which represent the transition between the diluted and undiluted states, the model predictions are less...

  13. Chaotic properties of dilute two- and three dimensional random Lorentz gases: Equilibrium systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beijeren, H.; Latz, A.; Dorfman, J.R.

    We compute the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for a moving particle placed in a dilute, random array of hard-disk or hard-sphere scatterers, i.e., the dilute Lorentz gas model. This is carried out in two ways. First we use simple kinetic theory arguments to compute the Lyapunov

  14. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Dilution of Effluents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef J; de Nijs ACM

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study has been undertaken on the dilution of effluent from waste water treatment plants in The Netherlands. Using a 2-dimensional dispersion model and data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, a general overview of the dilution of effluent in receiving surface waters has been compiled

  15. Comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by polarimetric and isotope dilution methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, K; Szuchnik, A [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Rydel, S; Walerianaczyk, E [Instytut Przemyslu Cukrowniczego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beets has been investigated by following methods: polarimetric, direct isotope dilution and double carrier-isotope dilution analysis. Basing upon the obtained results it has been ascertained, that in the case of worse quality beets the polarimetric determinations differ greatly from isotopic data.

  16. Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Weld Bead Geometry in Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) variables on the dilution and weld bead geometry in cladding X65 pipeline steel with 316L stainless steel was studied. Using a full factorial method, a series of experiments were carried out to know the effect of wire feed rate, welding speed, distance between gas nozzle and plate, and the vertical angle of welding on dilution and weld bead geometry. The findings indicate that the dilution of weld metal and its dimension i.e. width, height and depth increase with the feed rate, but the contact angle of the bead decreases first and then increases. Meantime, welding speed has an opposite effect except for dilution. There is an interaction effect between welding parameters at the contact angle. The results also show forehand welding or decreasing electrode extension decrease the angle of contact. Finally,a mathematical model is contrived to highlight the relationship between welding variables with dilution and weld bead geometry.

  17. Study on nitrogen diluted propane-air premixed flames at elevated pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Chenglong; Zheng Jianjun [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Zuohua, E-mail: zhhuang@mail.xjtu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang Jinhua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Using a high pressure constant volume combustion vessel, the propagation and morphology of spark-ignited outwardly expanding nitrogen diluted propane-air flames were imaged and recorded by schlieren photography and high-speed digital camera. The unstretched laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were subsequently determined over wide range of initial temperatures, initial pressures and nitrogen dilution ratios. Two recently developed mechanisms were used to predict the reference laminar burning velocity. The results show that the measured unstretched laminar burning velocities agree well with those in the literature and the computationally predicted results. The flame images show that the diffusional-thermal instability is promoted as the mixture becomes richer, and the hydrodynamic instability is increased with the increase of the initial pressure and it is decreased with the increase of dilution ratio. The normalized laminar burning velocities show a linear correlation with respect to the dilution ratio, indicating that the effect of nitrogen dilution is more obvious at higher pressures.

  18. Oxalate content of different drinkable dilutions of tea infusions after different brewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of different brewing times and diluting on oxalate content of loose-packed black teas consumed in Tabriz, Iran. The oxalate content of black teas after brewing for 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 minutes was measured in triplicate by enzymatic assay. In order to attain the most acceptable dilution of tea infusions, tea samples which were brewed for 15, 30 and 60 minutes were diluted two (120 ml), three (80 ml) and four (60 ml) times respectively. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentrations associated with increased brewing times (Pbrewing times, respectively. There were significant differences between the mean oxalate content of different dilutions after brewing for 15, 30 and 60 minutes (Pbrewing times and different dilution was below the recommended levels. Therefore, it seems that consumption of black tea several times per day would not pose significant health risk in kidney stone patients and susceptible individuals.

  19. Polymorphisms within the canine MLPH gene are associated with dilute coat color in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günzel-Apel Anne-Rose

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pinschers and other dogs with coat color dilution show a characteristic pigmentation phenotype. The fur colors are a lighter shade, e.g. silvery grey (blue instead of black and a sandy color (Isabella fawn instead of red or brown. In some dogs the coat color dilution is sometimes accompanied by hair loss and recurrent skin inflammation, the so called color dilution alopecia (CDA or black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD. In humans and mice a comparable pigmentation phenotype without any documented hair loss is caused by mutations within the melanophilin gene (MLPH. Results We sequenced the canine MLPH gene and performed a mutation analysis of the MLPH exons in 6 Doberman Pinschers and 5 German Pinschers. A total of 48 sequence variations was identified within and between the breeds. Three families of dogs showed co-segregation for at least one polymorphism in an MLPH exon and the dilute phenotype. No single polymorphism was identified in the coding sequences or at splice sites that is likely to be causative for the dilute phenotype of all dogs examined. In 18 German Pinschers a mutation in exon 7 (R199H was consistently associated with the dilute phenotype. However, as this mutation was present in homozygous state in four dogs of other breeds with wildtype pigmentation, it seems unlikely that this mutation is truly causative for coat color dilution. In Doberman Pinschers as well as in Large Munsterlanders with BHFD, a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around exon 2 was identified that show a highly significant association to the dilute phenotype. Conclusion This study provides evidence that coat color dilution is caused by one or more mutations within or near the MLPH gene in several dog breeds. The data on polymorphisms that are strongly associated with the dilute phenotype will allow the genetic testing of Pinschers to facilitate the breeding of dogs with defined coat colors and to select against Large

  20. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  1. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  2. Quantification of Labile Soil Mercury by Stable Isotope Dilution Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetaya, Waleed; Huang, Jen-How; Osterwalder, Stefan; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can cause severe health problems to humans. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can be transported over long distances before it is deposited to aquatic and terrestrial environments. Aside from accumulation in soil solid phases, Hg deposited in soils may migrate to surface- and ground-water or enter the food chain, depending on its lability. There are many operationally-defined extraction methods proposed to quantify soil labile metals. However, these methods are by definition prone to inaccuracies such as non-selectivity, underestimation or overestimation of the labile metal pool. The isotopic dilution technique (ID) is currently the most promising method for discrimination between labile and non-labile metal fractions in soil with a minimum disturbance to soil-solid phases. ID assesses the reactive metal pool in soil by defining the fraction of metal both in solid and solution phases that is isotopically-exchangeable known as the 'E-value'. The 'E-value' represents the metal fraction in a dynamic equilibrium with the solution phase and is potentially accessible to plants. This is carried out by addition of an enriched metal isotope to soil suspensions and quantifying the fraction of metal that is able to freely exchange with the added isotope by measuring the equilibrium isotopic ratio by ICP-MS. E-value (mg kg-1) is then calculated as follows: E-Value = (Msoil/ W) (CspikeVspike/ Mspike) (Iso1IAspike -Iso2IAspikeRss / Iso2IAsoil Rss - Iso1IAsoil) where M is the average atomic mass of the metal in the soil or the spike, W is the mass of soil (kg), Cspike is the concentration of the metal in the spike (mg L-1), Vspike is the volume of spike (L), IA is isotopic abundance, and Rss is the equilibrium ratio of isotopic abundances (Iso1:Iso2). Isotopic dilution has been successfully applied to determine E-values for several elements. However, to our knowledge, this method has not yet

  3. Conformation of Single Pentablock Ionomer Chains in Dilute Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aryal, Dipak [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Perahia, Dvora [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Grest, Gary S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The conformation of single chain pentablock ionomers (A-B-C-B-A) containing randomly sulfonated polystyrene in the center block, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene end-capped by poly-t-butyl styrene is studied in dilute solutions by molecular dynamics simulations. Multi-block copolymers offer a means to tailor several properties into one molecule, taking advantage of their rich phase diagram together with unique properties of specific blocks. For this pentablock the ionic block facilitates transport while the A and B components are incorporated for mechanical stability. The present study investigates the confirmation of a single chain of pentablock ionomer of molecular weight Mw ~ 50,000 g/mol and sulfonated polystyrene of the same molecular weight as that of the center block for six sulfonation fractions f from f=0.0-0.55. For the sulfonated systems Na+ counterions are included. Results for the equilibrium conformation of the chains and the three blocks in water and 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and n-heptane are compared to simulations in implicit poor solvents with dielectric constants ε =1.0 and 77.73. In water, the pentablock is collapsed with sulfonated groups on the outer surface. As the sulfonation fraction f increases, the ionic, center block is increasingly segregated from the hydrophobic regions. In the 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and heptane both the flexible and end blocks are swollen while the center ionic block is collasped for f>0, while for f=0 all blocks are swollen. In both implicit poor solvents the pentablock is collapsed into a nearly spherical shape for all f. The sodium counterions are dispersed widely throughout the simulation cell for both water and ε =77.73 whereas for ε =1.0 the counterions are largely condensed on the collapsed pentablock.

  4. Precipitation hardening in dilute Al–Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Lamarão Souza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solute content (hipoperitectic Al–0.22 wt.%Zr and hiperperitectic Al–0.32 wt.%Zr on the precipitation hardening and microstructural evolution of dilute Al–Zr alloys isothermally aged. The materials were conventionally cast in a muffle furnace, solidified in a water-cooled Cu mold and subsequently heat-treated at the temperature of 650 K (377 °C for 4, 12, 24, 100 and 400 h. Mechanical characterization was performed at room temperature, using a microhardness tester and microstructural characterization was carried out on a Transmission Electron Microscope – TEM. The observed microhardness values increased during isothermal aging, due to the precipitation of nanometer-scale Al3Zr L12 particles. Peak strength was achieved within 100 h of aging. After aging for 400 h, microhardness values presented a slight decrease for both alloys, thus indicating overaging due to the coalescence of precipitates. Microhardness values increased with solute content, due to the precipitation of a higher number density of finer precipitates. After 400 h of heat-treating, coalescence was higher for the alloy with lower solute content and, also, the presence of antiphase boundaries – APBs, planar faults associated with the L12 to D023 structural transition, were observed. Comparing theoretical calculations of the increment in strength due to precipitation strengthening with experimental results, it was observed that their values are in reasonable agreement. The Orowan dislocation looping mechanism takes place during precipitation hardening for both alloys in the peak hardness condition.

  5. Interactions between Zygosaccharomyces mellis and Wallemia sebi in diluted molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindeløv, J; Arneborg, N

    2001-01-22

    The yeast Zygosaccharomyces mellis and the mould Wallemia sebi were isolated from the same sample of crystalline sugar. Interactions between these fungi were investigated using a diluted molasses medium (water activity 0.89, pH 6.0) as a model system for the syrup film covering the surface of moist crystalline sugar. Single and mixed cultures of Z. mellis and W. sebi were incubated at 25 degrees C for 400 h. Our results show that the growth of Z. mellis in single culture was limited by available glucose and fructose, and that W sebi was able to invert sucrose to glucose and fructose in both single and mixed culture. Furthermore, the presence of W. sebi in the mixed culture increased the maximum specific growth rate of Z. mellis from 0.074 to 0.19 h(-1) and the growth yield of Z. mellis from 7.3 x 10(6) to 5.4 x 10(7) cfu/ml. These results indicate that the ability of W. sebi to invert sucrose may stimulate the growth of Z. mellis. Finally, the presence of Z. mellis inhibited the ability of W. sebi to invert sucrose: W. sebi was able to invert 1.0 g sucrose/l per h in single culture but only 0.6 g sucrose/l per h in mixed culture. As predicted by Raoults law, this corresponded to a reduction in the water activity of the growth medium from 0.890 to 0.850 in single culture, and to 0.865 in mixed culture.

  6. Thermodynamics of dilute aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejwant [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India); Kumar, Arvind, E-mail: arvind@csmcri.or [Salt and Marine Chemicals Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G.B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: The thermodynamic behaviour of aqueous imidazolium ILs has been investigated. Volumetric and ultrasonic results indicated the hydrophobic hydration of ILs. Viscometric studies revealed studied ionic liquids as water-structure makers. Hydration number increased with increase in alkyl chain length of the cation. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density {rho}, speed of sound u, and viscosity {eta} of aqueous solutions of various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) solutions have been performed in dilute concentration regime at 298.15 K to get insight into hydration behaviour of ILs. The investigated ILs are based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [C{sub n}mim] having [BF{sub 4}]{sup -}, [Cl]{sup -}, [C{sub 1}OSO{sub 3}]{sup -}, and [C{sub 8}OSO{sub 3}]{sup -} as anions where n = 4 or 8. Several thermodynamic parameters like apparent molar volume {phi}{sub V}, isentropic compressibility {beta}{sub s}, and viscosity B-coefficients have been derived from experimental data. Limiting value of apparent molar volume has been discussed in terms of intrinsic molar volume (V{sub int}) molar electrostriction volume (V{sub elec}), molar disordered (V{sub dis}), and cage volume (V{sub cage}). Viscosity B-coefficients have been used to quantify the kosmotropic or chaotropic nature of ILs. Hydration number of ILs obtained using elctrostriction volume, isentropic compressibility, viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry have been found to be comparative within the experimental error. The hydrophobic hydration has found to play an important role in hydration of ILs as compared to hydration due to hydrogen bonding and electrostriction. Limiting molar properties, hydration numbers, and B-coefficients have been discussed in terms of alkyl chain length of cation or nature of anion.

  7. Dilute Al and V NMR in α-Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, L.H.; Rowland, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We report a nuclear-magnetic-resonance investigation of four titanium alloys: Ti--1 at. % V, Ti--2 at. % V, Ti--1 at. % Al, and Ti--2 at. % Al. Interpretation of the experimental 51 V and 27 Al absorption curves was accomplished largely by comparison with computer-simulated curves. Since the latter include the effects of nuclear-quadrupole and anisotropic Knight-shift interactions, dipolar broadening, and inhomogeneous Knight shift for the V and Al solute nuclei, the comparison yields experimental values for the electric-field gradient, axially symmetric anistropic Knight shift, and isotropic Knight shift, from which we attempt to deduce the local charge distribution at the V or Al atoms in the hcp α-Ti matrix. We find that the localized states on an Al impurity exhibit very little of the character of the host Ti atomic structure. There is no orbital contribution to the Knight shift and the s conduction-electron density at Al sites is small. On the other hand, when vanadium is present as a dilute solute in the Ti lattice, only minor changes in its Knight shift are found. There is a large orbital-shift contribution, and the V nuclear absorption exhibits much the same character as in pure metallic V; there is, however, clear evidence of the V charge distribution assuming the hexagonal symmetry of the Ti lattice. The measured temperature dependences of the anisotropic Knight shift and electric-field-gradient values at V solute sites in Ti are also discussed. On partitioning the field gradient we find that the contribution from local non-s electrons is about two to five times larger in magnitude than the Ti-lattice ion value, a strong indication that the electronic structure near V (but not Al) resembles that of the matrix Ti

  8. Thermodynamics of dilute aqueous solutions of imidazolium based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Tejwant; Kumar, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The thermodynamic behaviour of aqueous imidazolium ILs has been investigated. → Volumetric and ultrasonic results indicated the hydrophobic hydration of ILs. → Viscometric studies revealed studied ionic liquids as water-structure makers. → Hydration number increased with increase in alkyl chain length of the cation. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density ρ, speed of sound u, and viscosity η of aqueous solutions of various 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium based ionic liquid (IL) solutions have been performed in dilute concentration regime at 298.15 K to get insight into hydration behaviour of ILs. The investigated ILs are based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation, [C n mim] having [BF 4 ] - , [Cl] - , [C 1 OSO 3 ] - , and [C 8 OSO 3 ] - as anions where n = 4 or 8. Several thermodynamic parameters like apparent molar volume φ V , isentropic compressibility β s , and viscosity B-coefficients have been derived from experimental data. Limiting value of apparent molar volume has been discussed in terms of intrinsic molar volume (V int ) molar electrostriction volume (V elec ), molar disordered (V dis ), and cage volume (V cage ). Viscosity B-coefficients have been used to quantify the kosmotropic or chaotropic nature of ILs. Hydration number of ILs obtained using elctrostriction volume, isentropic compressibility, viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry have been found to be comparative within the experimental error. The hydrophobic hydration has found to play an important role in hydration of ILs as compared to hydration due to hydrogen bonding and electrostriction. Limiting molar properties, hydration numbers, and B-coefficients have been discussed in terms of alkyl chain length of cation or nature of anion.

  9. Soil chemistry in lithologically diverse datasets: the quartz dilution effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.

    2009-01-01

    National- and continental-scale soil geochemical datasets are likely to move our understanding of broad soil geochemistry patterns forward significantly. Patterns of chemistry and mineralogy delineated from these datasets are strongly influenced by the composition of the soil parent material, which itself is largely a function of lithology and particle size sorting. Such controls present a challenge by obscuring subtler patterns arising from subsequent pedogenic processes. Here the effect of quartz concentration is examined in moist-climate soils from a pilot dataset of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Due to variable and high quartz contents (6.2–81.7 wt.%), and its residual and inert nature in soil, quartz is demonstrated to influence broad patterns in soil chemistry. A dilution effect is observed whereby concentrations of various elements are significantly and strongly negatively correlated with quartz. Quartz content drives artificial positive correlations between concentrations of some elements and obscures negative correlations between others. Unadjusted soil data show the highly mobile base cations Ca, Mg, and Na to be often strongly positively correlated with intermediately mobile Al or Fe, and generally uncorrelated with the relatively immobile high-field-strength elements (HFS) Ti and Nb. Both patterns are contrary to broad expectations for soils being weathered and leached. After transforming bulk soil chemistry to a quartz-free basis, the base cations are generally uncorrelated with Al and Fe, and negative correlations generally emerge with the HFS elements. Quartz-free element data may be a useful tool for elucidating patterns of weathering or parent-material chemistry in large soil datasets.

  10. Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

  11. Dilute-solution Structure of Charged Arborescent Graft Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seok; Briber, R.M.; Kee, R. Andrew; Gauthier, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The solutions of charged G1 arborescent polystyrene-graft-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymers in methanol-d4 and D 2 O were investigated over a dilute concentration range φ = 0.005-0.05 (φ: mass fraction) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Upon addition of acid (HCl) arborescent graft polymers became charged and a peak appeared in SANS data. The interparticle distance (d exp ) calculated from a peak position corresponded to the expected value (d uni ) for a uniform particle distribution. This indicates the formation of liquid-like ordering due to long-range Coulombic repulsions. The smaller dielectric constant of methanol-d4 resulted in long-range electrostatic repulsions persisting to lower polymer concentration than in D 2 O. The slow mode scattering was observed by dynamic light scattering measurements for the same polymer solutions, indicating the presence of structural inhomogeneity in the solutions. Both the peak and slow mode disappeared by addition of NaCl or excess HCl into the solutions due to the screening of electrostatic interactions. The G1 polymer grafted with longer P2VP chains (M w ∼ 30,000 versus 5000 g mol) formed a gel on addition of HCl. This result reveals that molecular expansion is more significant for arborescent polymers with longer (M w ∼ 30,000) linear polyelectrolyte branches, resulting in gelation for φ > 0.01. Upon addition of NaCl or excess HCl a gel transformed back to a liquid resulted from the screening of electrostatic interactions.

  12. An assessment of the dilution required to mitigate Hanford tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, J.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Stewart, C.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Trent, D.S.; Barney, G.S.; Herting, D.L.; Larrick, A.P.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A group of experts from PNL and WHC convened November 2 and 3, 1994, to screen the current state of knowledge about dilution and reach a consensus on the minimum dilution ratio that will achieve passive mitigation of Tank 241-SY-101 wastes and the dilution ratio that would satisfy the given cross-site transfer criteria with reasonable assurance. The panel evaluated the effects of dilution on the parameters important in gas generation, retention, and release and reached the following conclusions, which are deduced from the existing body of data, experience, and analyses: (1) Dissolution of solids is the single most important aspect of mitigation by dilution. We are confident that diluting until nitrates, nitrites, and aluminum salts are dissolved will mitigate Hanford flammable gas tanks; (2) Sufficient solids dissolution can be achieved in Tank 241-SY-101 at a dilution ratio of 1:1, which will result in a average specific gravity of approximately 1.35. It is likely that a 0.5:1 dilution will also mitigate 241-SY-101, but the current uncertainty is too high to recommend this dilution ratio; (3) The recommended dilution requires a diluent with at least 2 molar free hydroxide, because aluminum probably precipitates at lower hydroxide concentrations. The transfer criteria for Tank 241-SY-101 waste were also evaluated. These criteria have been specified as solids content ≤30% (volume), viscosity ≤30% cP and density <1.5 g/mL. (1) Solids content is the limiting criterion if it is defined as volume fraction of settled solids. A 1:1 dilution will satisfy this criterion at nominal premixing conditions in Tank 241-SY-101; however, analysis of Window E core samples suggests that up to 1.5:1 might be required. If the solids content is interpreted simply as solids volume fraction no further dilution is necessary, because Tank 241-SY-101 waste (excluding the crust) is already below 30%; (2) Bulk density is the next limiting criterion and is met at 0.4:1 dilution

  13. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, Harald

    1998-08-01

    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a

  14. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, Harald

    1998-08-01

    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a finite volume method

  15. Mid-dilution hemodiafiltration: a comparison with pre- and postdilution modes using the same polyphenylene membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Vera, Manel; Fontseré, Néstor; Blasco, Miquel; Barros, Xoana; Garro, Julia; Elena, Montserrat; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M

    2009-01-01

    As a change from Diapes to polyphenylene membrane in the mid-dilution filter has recently been developed, the aim of this study was to compare mid-dilution using this new dialyzer versus pre- and postdilution. The prospective study included 20 patients who underwent 4 hemodiafiltration (HDF) sessions: 1.7 m(2) polyphenylene and predilution infusion flow (Qi) 200 ml/min, 1.7 m(2) and postdilution Qi 100 ml/min, 1.9 and 2.2 m(2) mid-dilution both with Qi 200 ml/ min. The urea and creatinine reduction ratios were slightly higher in postdilution. The beta(2)-microglobulin (85.8%), myoglobin (73.6%), prolactin (67.8%) and retinol-binding protein (29.2%) reduction ratios with 1.9 m(2) mid-dilution, which was similar to 2.2 m(2) mid-dilution, were significantly higher than with the post- and predilution modes. Mid-dilution appears to be a good HDF alternative that allows a better removal of larger molecules than postdilution and, mainly, predilution. Mid-dilution using 1.9 or 2.2 m(2) dialyzers, at the same convective volume, showed a similar removal. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Analysis of structure and defects in thin silicon films deposited from hydrogen diluted silane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzakker, G. van; Nadazdy, V.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Metselaar, J.W.; Zeman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Thin silicon layers have been deposited from silane diluted with hydrogen. The dilution ratio R (R = [H 2 ]/[SiH 4 ]) has been varied between R = 0 and R = 40. The structural properties of Si:H films have been studied using transmission electron microscopy imaging and Raman spectroscopy. The phase evolution from the amorphous phase into the mixed and eventually microcrystalline phase strongly depends on the hydrogen dilution. The initiation of the microcrystalline growth occurs between R = 20 and R = 25. The phase transition becomes more abrupt with increasing hydrogen dilution. Optoelectronic properties of the layers have been determined. Increasing hydrogen dilution results in films with increasing effective defect density and Urbach energy, which is related to inhomogeneous growth. The charge deep-level transient spectroscopy technique (Q-DLTS) was applied for the first time on hydrogen diluted thin silicon films in order to investigate the energy distribution of the defect states in these layers as a function of the dilution ratio R. The Q-DLTS spectra indicate a difference in defect-state distribution when the films evolve from the amorphous phase into the microcrystalline phase

  17. Optimization of coronary attenuation in coronary computed tomography angiography using diluted contrast material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Naoto; Kurata, Akira; Kido, Teruhito; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Kido, Tomoyuki; Miyagawa, Masao; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a personalized protocol with diluted contrast material (CM) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). One hundred patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent retrospective electrocardiogram-gated coronary CTA on a 256-slice multidetector-row CT scanner. In the diluted CM protocol (n=50), the optimal scan timing and CM dilution rate were determined by the timing bolus scan, with 20% CM dilution (5ml/s during 10s) being considered suitable to achieve the target arterial attenuation of 350 Hounsfield units (HU). In the body weight (BW)-adjusted protocol (n=50, 222mg iodine/kg), only the optimal scan timing was determined by the timing bolus scan. The injection rate and volume in the timing bolus scan and real scan were identical between the 2 protocols. We compared the means and variations in coronary attenuation between the 2 protocols. Coronary attenuation (mean±SD) in the diluted CM and BW-adjusted protocols was 346.1±23.9 HU and 298.8±45.2 HU, respectively. The diluted CM protocol provided significantly higher coronary attenuation and lower variance than did the BW-adjusted protocol (P<0.05, in each). The diluted CM protocol facilitates more uniform attenuation on coronary CTA in comparison with the BW-adjusted protocol.  

  18. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  19. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  20. RECORDING CULTURAL HERITAGE USING TERRESTRIAL LASERSCANNING – DEALING WITH THE SYSTEM, THE HUGE DATASETS THEY CREATE AND WAYS TO EXTRACT THE NECESSARY DELIVERABLES YOU CAN WORK WITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Christofori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany", the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D

  1. Chiral-glass transition in a diluted dipolar-interaction Heisenberg system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaicheng; Liu Guibin; Zhu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, numerical simulations reveal that a spin-glass transition can occur in the three-dimensional diluted dipolar system. By defining the chirality of triple spins in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg spin glass, we study the chiral ordering in the system using parallel tempering algorithm and heat bath method. The finite-size scaling analysis reveals that the system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: → We define the chirality in a diluted dipolar Heisenberg system. → The system undergoes a chiral-glass transition at finite temperature. → We extract the critical exponents of the chiral-glass transition.

  2. A compact dilution refrigerator with vertical heat exchangers for operation to 2 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkov, Yu.M.; Guenault, A.M.; Hayward, D.J.; Jackson, D.A.; Kennedy, C.J.; Nichols, T.R.; Miller, I.E.; Pickett, G.R.; Ward, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A compactly designed dilution refrigerator with closely packed, vertical heat exchangers is described. The refrigerator reaches a temperature of 2 mK and is easily constructed, since the sintered heat exchangers are straight units. Vibrating wire resonators are employed in the mixing chamber as diagnostic tools, which may act as both thermometers and phase-boundary level indicators. There is a design problem in the vertical arrangement, namely, the sumps on the concentrated phase side that can slowly fill with dilute phase and degrade the performance. The problem is solved by draining the superfluid 4 He component in any collected dilute phase through superleaks into the mixing chamber

  3. Transverse emittance dilution due to coupler kicks in linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Buckley

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns in the design of low emittance linear accelerators (linacs is the preservation of beam emittance. Here we discuss one possible source of emittance dilution, the coupler kick, due to transverse electromagnetic fields in the accelerating cavities of the linac caused by the power coupler geometry. In addition to emittance growth, the coupler kick also produces orbit distortions. It is common wisdom that emittance growth from coupler kicks can be strongly reduced by using two couplers per cavity mounted opposite each other or by having the couplers of successive cavities alternate from above to below the beam pipe so as to cancel each individual kick. While this is correct, including two couplers per cavity or alternating the coupler location requires large technical changes and increased cost for superconducting cryomodules where cryogenic pipes are arranged parallel to a string of several cavities. We therefore analyze consequences of alternate coupler placements. We show here that alternating the coupler location from above to below compensates the emittance growth as well as the orbit distortions. For sufficiently large Q values, alternating the coupler location from before to after the cavity leads to a cancellation of the orbit distortion but not of the emittance growth, whereas alternating the coupler location from before and above to behind and below the cavity cancels the emittance growth but not the orbit distortion. We show that cancellations hold for sufficiently large Q values. These compensations hold even when each cavity is individually detuned, e.g., by microphonics. Another effective method for reducing coupler kicks that is studied is the optimization of the phase of the coupler kick so as to minimize the effects on emittance from each coupler. This technique is independent of the coupler geometry but relies on operating on crest. A final technique studied is symmetrization of the cavity geometry in the

  4. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  5. Huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile primary hypothyroidism causing cystic ovaries and pseudoprecocious puberty (Van-Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS is well documented in literature. There are only a few reports of primary hypothyroidism presenting as ovarian cysts in adults. Here we present a case of huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of VWGS due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism. Large uniloculor right ovarian cyst (119 × 81 × 90 mm and a multicystic left ovary (55 × 45 × 49 mm were detected in a 24 year lady with secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and palpable abdominal mass with history of neonatal jaundice, delayed milestones, short stature, and precocious menarche at age of 7.5 years age. She had elevated levels of cancer antigen (CA-125 which normalized post levothyroxine supplementation. Elevated CA-125 may lead to misdiagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and inadvertent treatment. Bilateral ovarian cysts in adults are a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism. It is necessary to screen for primary hypothyroidism in patients presenting with bilateral ovarian cysts to prevent unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  6. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  7. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M; Kagemoto, H; Hamada, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  9. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. On the estimation method of hydrodynamic forces acting on a huge floating structure; Choogata futai ni hataraku haryoku ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Determination of diffusion coefficients of various livestock antibiotics in water at infinite dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano Allan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic’s anion.

  12. Computation of dilution discharge and mean concentration of effluents in Beypore Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Tide dominated Beypore estuary along the west coast of India was studied to estimate the mean flow available for diluting the conservative effluents based on the distribution of ambient salinity as a guide through one dimensional analysis...

  13. Characterization and Behavior of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select Diluted Bitumen Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unconventional diluted bitumen (dilbit) oil products present an increasing environmental concern because of extensive transport in North America, recent spills into aquatic habitats, and limited understanding of environmental fate and toxicity. Dilbits are blends of highly weathe...

  14. High convection volume in online post-dilution haemodiafiltration : relevance, safety and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovaya, Ira M; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Basile, Carlo; Davenport, Andrew; de Roij van Zuijdewijn, Camiel L M; Wanner, Christoph; Nubé, Menso J; Blankestijn, Peter

    Increasing evidence suggests that treatment with online post-dilution haemodiafiltration (HDF) improves clinical outcome in patients with end-stage kidney disease, if compared with haemodialysis (HD). Although the primary analyses of three large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed

  15. Grad-type fourteen-moment theory for dilute granular gases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India ... practically no effect on Haff's law. ... Stokes, and Fourier (NSF) laws for dilute granular ...... and PS gratefully acknowledges financial support from.

  16. S-matrix approach to the equation of state of dilute nuclear matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-01

    matrix framework, a method is presented to calculate the equation of state of dilute warm nuclear matter. The result is a model-independent virial series for the pressure and density that systematically includes contributions from ...

  17. Determination of diffusion coefficients of various livestock antibiotics in water at infinite dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Allan N.; Adamos, Kristoni G.; Bonifacio, Pauline B.; Adornado, Adonis P.; Bungay, Vergel C.; Vairavan, Rajendaran

    2017-11-01

    The fate of antibiotics entering the environment raised concerns on the possible effect of antimicrobial resistance bacteria. Prediction of the fate and transport of these particles are needed to be determined, significantly the diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution. A systematic determination of diffusion coefficient of antibiotic in water at infinite dilution of five different kinds of livestock antibiotics namely: Amtyl, Ciprotyl, Doxylak Forte, Trisullak, and Vetracin Gold in the 293.15 to 313.15 K temperature range are reported through the use of the method involving the electrolytic conductivity measurements. A continuous stirred tank reactor is utilized to measure the electrolytic conductivities of the considered systems. These conductivities are correlated by using the Nernst-Haskell equation to determine the infinite dilution diffusion coefficient. Determined diffusion coefficients are based on the assumption that in dilute solution, these antibiotics behave as strong electrolyte from which H+ cation dissociate from the antibiotic's anion.

  18. Fast and accurate calculation of dilute quantum gas using Uehling–Uhlenbeck model equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Ryosuke, E-mail: ryosuke.yano@tokiorisk.co.jp

    2017-02-01

    The Uehling–Uhlenbeck (U–U) model equation is studied for the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas. In particular, the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to solve the U–U model equation. DSMC analysis based on the U–U model equation is expected to enable the thermalization to be accurately obtained using a small number of sample particles and the dilute quantum gas dynamics to be calculated in a practical time. Finally, the applicability of DSMC analysis based on the U–U model equation to the fast and accurate calculation of a dilute quantum gas is confirmed by calculating the viscosity coefficient of a Bose gas on the basis of the Green–Kubo expression and the shock layer of a dilute Bose gas around a cylinder.

  19. Response to Comment on "Dilution limits dissolved organic carbon utilization in the deep ocean"

    KAUST Repository

    Arrieta, J M; Mayol, E.; Hansman, R. L.; Herndl, G. J.; Dittmar, T.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Our recent finding that dilution limits dissolved organic carbon (DOC) utilization in the deep ocean has been criticized based on the common misconception that lability equates to rapid and complete utilization. Even when considering

  20. Effective field treatment of the annealed bond-dilute transverse Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.R.; Sa Barreto, F.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The dilution of the spin-1/2 transverse Ising Model is studied by means of an effective field type treatment based on an extension of Callen's relation to the present model. The thermodynamics of the diluted model is obtained and the results are shown to be an improvement over the standard mean field treatment. The results are also compared with the Monte Carlo calculation for the spin-infinite transverse Ising Model. (Author) [pt

  1. SPANISH MULTICENTRIC STUDY ABOUT NUTRITION-INFLAMATIONhn WITH MID DILUTION (ENIMID STUDY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barril G

    2012-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: 1-The preliminary results show that MidDilution provides a good removal of small and middle molecules, increases appetite by providing a proper balance of cytokines through stimulation of antiinflamatory ones and neuropeptide Y. 2-It provides an improvement of body composition. Finally MidDilution improves nutritional parameters which leads to a better quality of life, as well as physical and mental status.

  2. Remote Handling Devices for Disposition of Enriched Uranium Reactor Fuel Using Melt-Dilute Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Remote handling equipment is required to achieve the processing of highly radioactive, post reactor, fuel for the melt-dilute process, which will convert high enrichment uranium fuel elements into lower enrichment forms for subsequent disposal. The melt-dilute process combines highly radioactive enriched uranium fuel elements with deleted uranium and aluminum for inductive melting and inductive stirring steps that produce a stable aluminum/uranium ingot of low enrichment

  3. Calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, A.R.; Sharipov, D.Sh.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid. The calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid was carried out in order to determine the thermal effects of reactions. The results of interaction of Ba(OH) 4 ·8H 2 O with 5, 10, and 20% solution of hydrofluoric acid were considered.

  4. The diluted tri-dimensional spin-one Ising model with crystal field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1988-09-01

    3D spin-one Ising models with nearest-neighbour ferromagnetic interactions with crystal-field exhibit tricritical behaviour. A new method that applies to a wide class of random systems is used to study the influence of site and bond dilution on this behaviour. We have calculated temperature-crystal-field-concentration phase diagrams and determined, in particular, the influence of dilution on the zero temperature tricritical temperature. (author). 10 refs, 8 figs

  5. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Johns

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2–10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended.

  6. Bentonite erosion by dilute waters in initially saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Markus; Seppaelae, Anniina; Laurila, Teemu; Koskinen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One scenario of interest for the long-term safety assessment of a spent nuclear fuel repository involves the loss of bentonite buffer material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface (SKB 2011, Posiva 2012a). The scenario is based on the stable colloids at low ionic strength: - the cohesive forces of bentonite decrease in low-salinity conditions, and colloids start to dominate and are able to leave the gel-like bentonite on the groundwater bentonite boundary; - after colloid formation, groundwater may carry away the only just released clay colloids; - low-salinity events are most probable during post-glacial conditions, when also pressure gradients are high, causing elevated flow velocity, which may enhance colloidal transport. Therefore, it is very important from the point of view of repository safety assessment to be able to estimate how much bentonite may be lost during a post-glacial event, when the groundwater salinity and velocity, as well as the duration of the event are fixed. It is possible that more than one event will hit the same canister and buffer, and that several canisters and buffers may be jeopardized. The results in the issue so far may be divided into modelling attempts and experimental work. The modelling has been based on two main guidelines: external (Birgersson et al., 2009) and internal friction models (Neretnieks et al., 2009). However, these models have not been validated for erosion, probably due to lack of suitable laboratory data. The latter approach is more ambitious due to lack of fitting parameters, though the internal friction model itself may be varied. The internal friction model has proven to be time-consuming to solve numerically. This work indicates that experiments carried out by Schatz et al. (2012) differ significantly from the predictions obtained from Neretnieks' model. We present our numerical modelling results based on a set of

  7. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  8. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy. PMID:27882324

  9. The effect of dilution on the gas retention behavior of Tank 241-SY- 103 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five of the 177 underground waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site have been placed on the Flammable Gas watch list. These 25 tanks, containing high-level waste generated during plutonium and uranium processing, have been identified as potentially capable of accumulating flammable gases above the lower flammability limit (Babad et al. 1991). In the case of Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103, it has been proposed that diluting the tank waste may mitigate this hazard (Hudson et al. 1995; Stewart et al. 1994). The effect of dilution on the ability of waste from Tank 241-SY-103 to accumulate gas was studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. A similar study has been completed for waste from Tank 241-SY-101 (Bredt et al. 1995). Because of the additional waste-storage volume available in Tank 241-SY-103 and because the waste is assumed to be similar to that currently in Tank 241-SY-101, Tank 241-SY-103 became the target for a demonstration of passive mitigation through in-tank dilution. In 1994, plans for the in-tank dilution demonstration were deferred pending a decision on whether to pursue dilution as a mitigation strategy. However, because Tank 241-SY-103 is an early retrieval target, determination of how waste properties vary with dilution will still be required

  10. Studies on the Ecological Adaptability of Growing Rice with Floating Bed on the Dilute Biogas Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qun; Li, Rui; Du, Qi; Cheng, Bowen; Liao, Zhiqi; Sun, Chengcheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the ecological adaptability and the possibility of growing rice with floating bed on the dilute biogas slurry. The results of the experiments show that the growth stage, rice plant height, and rice yield and quality were significantly affected by multiple dilutions; rice plants cultivated with 45 multiple dilutions had better ecological adaptability than others. In the 45 multiple dilutions' group, the yield of rice was 13.3 g/bucket (8 rice plants), milled rice rate was 63.1%, and the content of crude protein in the rice was 6.3%. The concentrations of heavy metals in the rice cultivated with 30 multiple dilutions' slurry, such as total lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and arsenic, were all below the national standard. The study shows that it is possible and safe to cultivate rice plants with no soil but diluted biogas slurry. In the experiments, the yield, milled rice rate, and crude protein of the rice cultivated with slurry were not as much as those of rice cultivated with regular way in soil. This study provides the basic theoretical support for the development of biogas projects and the potential achievement of organic farming in special agricultural facilities and circular economy.

  11. Dosage of plutonium by isotopic dilution in irradiated fuels; Dosage du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Plutonium determination in irradiated fuels has been carried out for several years by isotopic dilution by Sebaci and SSM in collaboration. SECACI has made available to the SSM the necessary space and equipment in its Fontenay laboratories. This work has shown the importance of the valency cycle which should make it possible to obtain a uniform isotopic distribution in sample tracer mixtures, and also a satisfactory U/Pu separation. Now it has been noticed that the presence of an excess of uranium considerably modifies the oxidation-reduction reaction kinetics of the plutonium. We have therefore been led to change certain parts of the operational technique so as to have an efficient cycle and to thereby improve the U/Pu separation; the stability of the thermionic emission of the plutonium, connected to the quantity of residual uranium, has at the same time been improved and we can now carry out more precise isotopic analyses. We have also tried to eliminate as far as possible the isotopic contaminations by:using a more rational operational method; the equipment used has been the object of a special study. The evaporations are carried out so as to prevent the formation of saturated vapours inside the glove box. The material which cannot be changed after each operation is carefully cleaned every time a new sample is treated. With this technique, a second calibration of the tracer T{sub 2} has been undertaken using a new standard solution. This solution has been prepared very carefully by weighing uranium and plutonium of known chemical purity, and we believe that it can be guaranteed to be a good reference solution. The value of the {sup 233}U/{sup 242}Pu ratio of the tracer has been obtained with a relative accuracy of 0,5 per cent. This modified method is now being applied to the analysis of rods irradiated in G-3. (author) [French] La determination du plutonium par dilution isotopique dans les combustibles irradies est pratiquee depuis plusieurs annees en

  12. Superposition model analysis of nickel(II) ions in trigonal bipyramidal complexes exhibiting huge zero field splitting (aka ‘giant magnetic anisotropy’)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, Muhammed [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Gnutek, Paweł [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. - Highlights: • Semiempirical study of potential SMM [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br). • Superposition model analysis of zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters carried out. • Jahn-Teller distortions revealed by DFT geometry optimization considered. • SPM predicts D(ZFS) of observed magnitudes with positive or negative signs. • Results corroborate giant ZFS, which shall not be equated with magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Potential single-ion magnet Ni{sup 2+} systems: [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) D{sub expt} = −120 to −180 cm{sup −1} was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: −100 to −200 cm{sup −1}. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm{sup −1} for Ni{sup 2+} ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as ‘giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy’) and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni{sup 2+} systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn

  13. The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.

  14. A report on the aquatic dilution experiment carried out at discharge canal, KGS site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, T.K.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, T.L.; Vishnu, M.S.; Ravi, P.M.; James, J.P.; Joshi, R.M.; Naik, S.B.; Kudtharkar, A.M.; Gaonkar, S.M.; Verma, P.C.; Datta, D.; Dahiya, Sudhir; Brijkumar; Datta, Maduparna; Sajeevan, G.

    2009-08-01

    Under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), three units of (each of capacity 220MWe) Nuclear Power Stations are operational and one unit of similar capacity is under advanced stage of construction at Kaiga site. The radioactive liquid effluents generated in the plant are diluted with Condenser Coolant Water Stream (CCW) which is then discharged into Kadra reservoir through an artificially made discharge canal. The basic objective of the present study is to estimate the Dilution Factors at various locations of discharge canal and to understand the process of dilution and dispersion of radioactive effluent in the discharge canal. The strategy of the experiment involved the collection of samples from discharge canal lengthwise, breadth wise and depth wise immediately after the routine release of one of the batches of effluent stream into the CCW stream. No additional activity was released for the purpose of this experiment. The study compared the experimentally obtained Dilution Factor with that calculated based on the flow rates of CCW pumps and active liquid effluent discharge pumps. In the present conditions of experiment, Dilution Factor, based on flow rates of CCW pumps and Liquid Effluent Discharge pump, works out to be 8.11 E -05 while experimentally observed Mean Dilution Factor in the discharge canal works out to be (7.75±2.15) E-05. Hence this experiment clearly demonstrate the validity of the method of calculating dilution factor based on the flow rates of CCW line and that of Effluent discharge pump. The data analysis indicates that mass flow seems to be the major process of dispersion in the discharge canal. The tritium activity was found to be moving faster in the midstream as compared to that near the shore. The conclusions are drawn purely based on experimental results. This experimental data can be used for validation of aquatic dispersion models. (author)

  15. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carolina C; Abud, Ana Paula R; de Oliveira, Simone M; Guimarães, Fernando de S F; de Andrade, Lucas F; Di Bernardi, Raffaello P; Coletto, Ediely L de O; Kuczera, Diogo; Da Lozzo, Eneida J; Gonçalves, Jenifer P; Trindade, Edvaldo da S; Buchi, Dorly de F

    2011-10-26

    In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  16. Dilution effects on ultrafine particle emissions from Euro 5 and Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Martinet, Simon; D'Anna, Barbara; Valiente, Alvaro Martinez; Boreave, Antoinette; R'Mili, Badr; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; André, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Dilution and temperature used during sampling of vehicle exhaust can modify particle number concentration and size distribution. Two experiments were performed on a chassis dynamometer to assess exhaust dilution and temperature on particle number and particle size distribution for Euro 5 and Euro 6 vehicles. In the first experiment, the effects of dilution (ratio from 8 to 4 000) and temperature (ranging from 50 °C to 150 °C) on particle quantification were investigated directly from tailpipe for a diesel and a gasoline Euro 5 vehicles. In the second experiment, particle emissions from Euro 6 diesel and gasoline vehicles directly sampled from the tailpipe were compared to the constant volume sampling (CVS) measurements under similar sampling conditions. Low primary dilutions (3-5) induced an increase in particle number concentration by a factor of 2 compared to high primary dilutions (12-20). Low dilution temperatures (50 °C) induced 1.4-3 times higher particle number concentration than high dilution temperatures (150 °C). For the Euro 6 gasoline vehicle with direct injection, constant volume sampling (CVS) particle number concentrations were higher than after the tailpipe by a factor of 6, 80 and 22 for Artemis urban, road and motorway, respectively. For the same vehicle, particle size distribution measured after the tailpipe was centred on 10 nm, and particles were smaller than the ones measured after CVS that was centred between 50 nm and 70 nm. The high particle concentration (≈106 #/cm3) and the growth of diameter, measured in the CVS, highlighted aerosol transformations, such as nucleation, condensation and coagulation occurring in the sampling system and this might have biased the particle measurements.

  17. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Carolina C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the search for new therapies novel drugs and medications are being discovered, developed and tested in laboratories. Highly diluted substances are intended to enhance immune system responses resulting in reduced frequency of various diseases, and often present no risk of serious side-effects due to its low toxicity. Over the past years our research group has been investigating the action of highly diluted substances and tinctures on cells from the immune system. Methods We have developed and tested several highly diluted tinctures and here we describe the biological activity of M1, M2, and M8 both in vitro in immune cells from mice and human, and in vivo in mice. Cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF-κB activation were determined after in vitro treatment. Cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping were accessed after mice in vivo treatment. Results None of the highly diluted tinctures tested were cytotoxic to macrophages or K562. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages treated with all highly diluted tinctures decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α release and M1, and M8 decreased IFN-γ production. M1 has decreased NF-κB activity on TNF-α stimulated reporter cell line. In vivo treatment lead to a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS, nitric oxide (NO production was increased by M1, and M8, and lipid peroxidation was induced by M1, and M2. All compounds enhanced the innate immunity, but M1 also augmented acquired immunity and M2 diminished B lymphocytes, responsible to acquired immunity. Conclusions Based on the results presented here, these highly diluted tinctures were shown to modulate immune responses. Even though further investigation is needed there is an indication that these highly diluted tinctures could be used as therapeutic interventions in disorders where the immune system is compromised.

  18. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379. Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg/height(m(2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR; models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural, age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy. RESULTS: BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2 versus men (25.3(0.1, P<0.0001 as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001 and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001. Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5] areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6], than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]. They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3] or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]. Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. CONCLUSION: The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in

  19. Huge heterogeneity in survival in a subset of adult patients with resected, wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase status, WHO grade II astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulen, Gaëtan; Gozé, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2018-04-20

    21 patients with a long-term follow-up greater than 5 years have died. There were no significant differences between the clinical, radiological, or molecular characteristics of the survivors relative to the patients who died. CONCLUSIONS Huge heterogeneity in the survival data for a subset of 31 patients with resected IDH-wt AII tumors was observed. These findings suggest that IDH mutation status alone is not sufficient to predict risk of malignant transformation and survival at the individual level. Therefore, the therapeutic management of AII tumors, in particular the decision to administer early adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy following surgery, should not solely rely on routine molecular markers.

  20. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)(2) and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), PGender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.

  1. A case report for fatal Churg-Strauss syndrome complications: first reported death due to rapid progression of prominently huge hepatic capsular hematoma and multi-system organ hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiejing; Tong, Hongyan; Chen, Feifei; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare disease that has an extremely low incidence rate. CSS prognosis is good, in general; and there are no reports of multiple-organ hemorrhage in CSS. We report a unique case of CSS, wherein, an elderly man experienced multiple organ hemorrhage -- a particularly huge hematoma under the capsule of the liver and poor prognosis. PMID:25419420

  2. Calculations for BDAS Setpoint with Non-conservative Boron Dilution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo; Shin, Ho Cheol; Kim, Yong Bae

    2014-01-01

    BDAS (Boron Dilution Alarm System) utilizes the ex-core detector instrumentation signals to detect a possible inadvertent boron dilution event during operation mode 3, 4, 5, 6. For boron dilution analysis, discrepancies in the active coolant volume and the assumed linearity of the ex-core instrumentation response were identified for CE type PWR and they were reported by NASL-04-02 These discrepancies have potential to impact to determine BDAS setpoint in a non-conservative manner Therefore, in this study, the calculation of BDAS setpoint with those discrepancies condition about OPR1000 was performed and analyzed for checking the safety of BDAS. The new BDAS setpoint is calculated with conservative condition which recommended from Westinghouse Electric Company. The setpoint of BDAS using non-linear ICRR curve decrease to about 5% compared to the setpoint of that using linear ICRR curve. And this effect of the non-linearity is to slightly delay the boron dilution alarm during the inadvertence boron dilution at mode 3, 4, and 5

  3. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C{sub 60}. While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  4. Dilution rate and microstructure of TIG arc Ni-Al powder surfacing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Jiguo; DONG Wei; TAN Wenda; ZHANG Di; PEN Jialie

    2007-01-01

    Surfacing beads are prepared by a direct current tungsten inert gas arc nickel-aluminum (Ni-Al) powder surfacing process. With the aim of controlling the dilution rate and obtaining surfacing beads rich in intermetallic compounds, the effects of surfacing parameters on geometric parameters, dilution rate, composition, and microstructure of the bead are investigated. An assistant cooler, which can potentially reduce the temperature of the base metal, is used in the surfacing process and its effect on dilution rate and microstructure is studied. The result indicates that with the surfacing parameter combination of low current and speed, the width and penetration of the bead decrease, reinforcement increases, and dilution rate drops markedly. With the reduc- tion of the parameter combination, the intergranular phase T-(Fe, Ni) is formed in the grain boundaries of Ni-Al interme- tallic matrix instead of the intergranular phase α-Fe, and large amount of intermetallics are obtained. With the use of an assistant cooler on a selected operation condition during the surfacing process, the reinforcement of the bead increases, penetration decreases, and dilution rate declines. The use of an assistant cooler helps obtain a surfacing bead composed of only intermetallics.

  5. ACTIVITY OF LEAF-CUTTING ANT Atta sexdens piriventris SUBMITED TO HIGH DILUTION HOMEOPATHIC PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Giesel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high dilution preparations on the movement and foraging activities of Atta sexdens piriventris was evaluated. Five colonies of ants were located on each of the five experimental areas using a randomized complete block design. Three main forage trails from each colony were selected from where evaluations were made. Ten mL of high dilution preparation of Atta sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna homeopathy solution were sprayed over 0.5 m of each selected trail, 1.0 m far from the nest. The controls were pure water and non treated trails. Applications were made daily during 10 days. The total number of ants moving on each trail one meter away from the nest, carrying or not plant fragments, were assessed before the daily application. Dilution preparations at 30CH (thirtieth centesimal Hahnemannian dilution of A. sexdens piriventris nosodes and Belladonna reduced the activities of ants from the fifth day after the first application. The treatment effect lasted more than 20 days after the last application. The use of preparation at 30CH dilution order to reduce the foraging activity of leaf-cutting ants is a potential non residual method to manage leaf-cutting ants.

  6. A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical spacing effect in organic photovoltaic cells incorporating a dilute acceptor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, S. Matthew; Lindsay, Christopher D.; Holmes, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of spacing layers in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) can enhance light absorption by optimizing the spatial distribution of the incident optical field in the multilayer structure. We explore the optical spacing effect in OPVs achieved using a diluted electron acceptor layer of C 60 . While optical spacing is often realized by optimizing buffer layer thickness, we find that optical spacing via dilution leads to cells with similar or enhanced photocurrent. This is observed despite a smaller quantity of absorbing molecules, suggesting a more efficient use of absorbed photons. In fact, dilution is found to concentrate optical absorption near the electron donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a marked increase in the exciton diffusion efficiency. Contrasting the use of changes in thickness to engineer optical absorption, the use of dilution does not significantly alter the overall thickness of the OPV. Optical spacing via dilution is shown to be a viable alternative to more traditional optical spacing techniques and may be especially useful in the continued optimization of next-generation, tandem OPVs where it is important to minimize competition for optical absorption between individual sub-cells.

  8. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Investigation of Possible Maillard Reaction Between Acyclovir and Dextrose upon Dilution Prior to Parenteral Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahi Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Ghaderi, Faranak; Hatami, Leila; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2016-12-01

    In this study the stability of parenteral acyclovir (ACV) when diluted in dextrose (DEX) as large volume intravenous fluid preparation (LVIF) was evaluated and the possible Maillard reaction adducts were monitored in the recommended infusion time. Different physicochemical methods were used to evaluate the Maillard reaction of dextrose with ACV to track the reaction in real infusion condition. Other large volume intravenous fluids were checked regarding the diluted drug stability profile. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and mass data proved the reaction of glucose with dextrose. A Maillard-specific high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to track the reaction in real infusion condition in vitro. The nucleophilic reaction occurred in diluted parenteral preparations of acyclovir in 5% dextrose solutions. The best diluent solution was also selected as sodium chloride and introduced based on drug stability and also its adsorption onto different infusion sets (PVC or non PVC) to provide an acceptable administration protocol in clinical practices. Although, the Maillard reaction was proved and successfully tracked in diluted solutions, and the level of drug loss when diluted in dextrose was reported to be between 0.27 up to 1.03% of the initial content. There was no drug adsorption to common infusion sets. The best diluent for parenteral acyclovir is sodium chloride large volume intravenous fluid.

  10. Dilute brimonidine to improve patient comfort and subconjunctival hemorrhage after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Theodore A; Aufderheide, Adam; Brinton, Jason P; Avila, Michele R; Stahl, Erin D; Durrie, Daniel S

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether dilute brimonidine (0.025%) reduces patient discomfort, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and injection after LASIK without a significant increase in the rate of flap complications or surgical enhancements. This randomized, double-blind, prospective study enrolled 180 patients (360 eyes) in a contralateral eye comparison of topical dilute brimonidine, naphazoline/pheniramine, or Systane Ultra (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) administered shortly before LASIK for any indication. Patients were evaluated for subconjunctival hemorrhage, injection, and flap dislocation 1 hour and 1 day postoperatively. Patient questionnaires measuring patient comfort and ocular symptoms were administered at these same follow-up visits. Patients were examined for 3 months to determine similar outcomes for standard indices of safety, predictability, efficacy, and enhancement rates. Scores of patient discomfort, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and injection were significantly lower in eyes treated with dilute brimonidine at the 1 hour and 1 day postoperative examinations. Refloats for mild-flap edge wrinkling were required in 3 brimonidine eyes (2.5%), 1 naphazoline/pheniramine eye (0.8%), and no control eyes, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .18). There was no significant difference between eyes at 3 months in terms of visual acuity, refractive error, corrected distance visual acuity, or rate of enhancement. Use of dilute brimonidine before LASIK reduces subconjunctival hemorrhage and injection and improves patient comfort after surgery. Flap edge wrinkling requiring refloat may still be a complication with dilute brimonidine. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita; Friis, Henrik; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique. We refined procedures for administration of isotope doses and collection of saliva. Furthermore, we established that equilibration time in local context is 3 h. These findings and the resulting standard operating procedures are important to improve data quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques.

  12. Evaluation of feeds for melt and dilute process using an analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was requested to evaluate whether nuclear materials other than aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel should be considered for treatment to prepare them for disposal in the melt and dilute facility as part of the Treatment and Storage Facility currently projected for construction in the L-Reactor process area. The decision analysis process used to develop this analysis considered many variables and uncertainties, including repository requirements that are not yet finalized. The Analytical Hierarchy Process using a ratings methodology was used to rank potential feed candidates for disposition through the Melt and Dilute facility proposed for disposition of Savannah River Site aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel. Because of the scoping nature of this analysis, the expert team convened for this purpose concentrated on technical feasibility and potential cost impacts associated with using melt and dilute versus the current disposition option. This report documents results of the decision analysis

  13. Water-based adhesives with tailored hydrophobic association: dilution resistance and improved setting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundua, Alexander; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Hydrophobic association and stimuli-responsiveness is a powerful tool towards water-based adhesives with strongly improved properties, which is demonstrated based on the example of hydrophobically modified alkali-soluble latexes (HASE) with modulated association. Their rheological properties are highly tunable due to the hydrophobic domains that act as physical crosslinking sites of adjustable interaction strength. Ethanol, propanol, and butanol are used as water-soluble model additives with different hydrophobicity in order to specifically target the association sites and impact the viscoelastic properties and stimuli-responsiveness. The rheological and mechanical property response upon dilution with water can be tailored, and dilution-resistant or even dilution-thickening systems are obtained. The investigations are of high importance for water-based adhesives, as our findings provide insight into general structure-property relationships to improve their setting behavior, especially upon contact with wet substrates. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige E. Scalf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  15. Competition explains limited attention and perceptual resources: implications for perceptual load and dilution theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalf, Paige E; Torralbo, Ana; Tapia, Evelina; Beck, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Both perceptual load theory and dilution theory purport to explain when and why task-irrelevant information, or so-called distractors are processed. Central to both explanations is the notion of limited resources, although the theories differ in the precise way in which those limitations affect distractor processing. We have recently proposed a neurally plausible explanation of limited resources in which neural competition among stimuli hinders their representation in the brain. This view of limited capacity can also explain distractor processing, whereby the competitive interactions and bias imposed to resolve the competition determine the extent to which a distractor is processed. This idea is compatible with aspects of both perceptual load and dilution models of distractor processing, but also serves to highlight their differences. Here we review the evidence in favor of a biased competition view of limited resources and relate these ideas to both classic perceptual load theory and dilution theory.

  16. Evaluation of feeds for melt and dilute process using an Analytical Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    WSRC was requested to evaluate whether nuclear materials other than aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel should be considered for treatment to prepare them for disposal in the melt and dilute facility as part of the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) currently projected for construction in the L-Reactor process area. The Analytical Hierarchy Process using a ratings methodology was used to rank potential feed candidates for disposition through the Melt and Dilute facility proposed for disposition of Savannah River Site aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel. Because of the scoping nature of this analysis, the expert team convened for this purpose concentrated on technical feasibility and potential cost impacts associated with using melt and dilute versus the current disposition option

  17. STAR POLYMERS IN GOOD SOLVENTS FROM DILUTE TO CONCENTRATED REGIMES: CROSSOVER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B.Kiselev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction is given to the crossover theory of the conformational and thermodynamic properties of star polymers in good solvents. The crossover theory is tested against Monte Carlo simulation data for the structure and thermodynamics of model star polymers. In good solvent conditions, star polymers approach a "universal" limit as N → ∞, however, there are two types of approach towards this limit. In the dilute regime, a critical degree of polymerization N* is found to play a similar role as the Ginzburg number in the crossover theory for critical phenomena in simple fluids. A rescaled penetration function is found to control the free energy of star polymer solutions in the dilute and semidilute regions. This equation of state captures the scaling behaviour of polymer solutions in the dilute/semidilute regimes and also performs well in the concentrated regimes, where the details of the monomer-monomer interactions become important.

  18. Specific-heat measurements on dilute 3He-4He mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeuw, H.C.M. van der.

    1985-01-01

    The author measured the specific heat of dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures in the concentration range from X = 1 x 10 -3 to X = 3 x 10 -3 and in the temperature range from 100 mK to 600 mK. This has been done by means of a thermal relaxation method. This method provides some interesting features and is applied, to our knowledge, for the first time to dilute 3 He- 4 He mixtures. To reach the required temperature range for our experiments a 4 He circulating 3 He- 4 He dilution refrigerator has been constructed. The results confirm the deviation of the 3 He contribution to the specific heat from the ideal Fermi gas behaviour. (Auth.)

  19. The effect of dilution on the gas-retention behavior of Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Tingey, S.M.; Shade, E.H.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of dilution on gas retention in waste from Tank 241-SY-101 was investigated. A composite sample was prepared from material collected during the Window ''C'' and Window ''E'' sampling events. The composite contained material from both the convective and nonconvective layer in the proportions existing in the tank. Operation of the mixer pump in Tank 241-SY-101 has homogenized the tank material, and dilution of the current waste would require additional mixing; therefore, no attempt was made to use unhomogenized tank waste to prepare the composite. The composite was diluted with 2 M NaOH at ratios of 0.5:1, 0.75: 1, 1:1, and 3:1 per volume (2 M NaOH:tank waste)

  20. The phase diagrams and the order parameters of the diluted superlattice with antiferromagnetic interface coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oubelkacem, A.; El Aouad, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Laaboudi, B.; Saber, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions, the magnetic properties of the diluted Ising superlattice consisting of two ferromagnetic materials A and B, with L a layers of diluted spins S a =((1)/(2)) and L b layers of diluted spins S b =1 with antiferromagnetic interface coupling are examined. For fixed values of the reduced exchange interactions and the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the phase diagrams, the two sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization for the superlattice with the same spin S a =S b =((1)/(2)) and for S a =((1)/(2)), S b =1 are studied as a function of the temperature. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of the concentration c of magnetic atoms, the interlayer coupling and the layer thickness on both the compensation temperature and the magnetization profiles are clarified

  1. Comparison of dye dilution method to radionuclide techniques for cardiac output determination in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, S.S.; Robayo, J.R.; Porter, W.; Smith, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the most accurate /sup 99m/Tc-labeled radiopharmaceutical and to determine the accuracy of a noninvasive radionuclide technique or cardiac output determinations. Phase I employed sodium pertechnetate, stannous pyrophosphate with sodium pertechnetate, /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells, and /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin as radionuclide tracers. Cardiac output was determined by the dye dilution method and then by the invasive radionuclide technique. A pairied t test and regression analysis indicated that /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin was the most accurate radiopharmaceutical for cardiac output determinations, and the results compared favorably to those obtained by the dye dilution method. In Phase II, /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin was used as the radionuclide tracer for cardiac output determinations with the noninvasive technique. The results compared favorably to those obtained by the dye dilution method

  2. Anomalous Capacitance Maximum of the Glassy Carbon-Ionic Liquid Interface through Dilution with Organic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozym, David J; Uralcan, Betül; Limmer, David T; Pope, Michael A; Szamreta, Nicholas J; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2015-07-02

    We use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to measure the effect of diluting a hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid with miscible organic solvents on the differential capacitance of the glassy carbon-electrolyte interface. We show that the minimum differential capacitance increases with dilution and reaches a maximum value at ionic liquid contents near 5-10 mol% (i.e., ∼1 M). We provide evidence that mixtures with 1,2-dichloroethane, a low-dielectric constant solvent, yield the largest gains in capacitance near the open circuit potential when compared against two traditional solvents, acetonitrile and propylene carbonate. To provide a fundamental basis for these observations, we use a coarse-grained model to relate structural variations at the double layer to the occurrence of the maximum. Our results reveal the potential for the enhancement of double-layer capacitance through dilution.

  3. Evaluation of feeds for melt and dilute process using an analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, J.F.

    2000-03-22

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was requested to evaluate whether nuclear materials other than aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel should be considered for treatment to prepare them for disposal in the melt and dilute facility as part of the Treatment and Storage Facility currently projected for construction in the L-Reactor process area. The decision analysis process used to develop this analysis considered many variables and uncertainties, including repository requirements that are not yet finalized. The Analytical Hierarchy Process using a ratings methodology was used to rank potential feed candidates for disposition through the Melt and Dilute facility proposed for disposition of Savannah River Site aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel. Because of the scoping nature of this analysis, the expert team convened for this purpose concentrated on technical feasibility and potential cost impacts associated with using melt and dilute versus the current disposition option. This report documents results of the decision analysis.

  4. Ferrimagnetic Properties of Bond Dilution Mixed Blume-Capel Model with Random Single-Ion Anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Yan Shilei

    2005-01-01

    We study the ferrimagnetic properties of spin 1/2 and spin-1 systems by means of the effective field theory. The system is considered in the framework of bond dilution mixed Blume-Capel model (BCM) with random single-ion anisotropy. The investigation of phase diagrams and magnetization curves indicates the existence of induced magnetic ordering and single or multi-compensation points. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy on normal or induced magnetic ordering states and single or multi-compensation points. Normal magnetic ordering states take on new phase diagrams with increasing randomness (bond and anisotropy), while anisotropy induced magnetic ordering states are always occurrence no matter whether concentration of anisotropy is large or small. Existence and disappearance of compensation points rely strongly on bond dilution and random single-ion anisotropy. Some results have not been revealed in previous papers and predicted by Neel theory of ferrimagnetism.

  5. Influence of dilution of butenes with isobutane on the course of alkylation on a zeolite catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortyshevskii, V.A.; Bezuglaya, A.K.; Galich, P.N.; Patrilyak, V.I.; Vaiburskii, V.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors designed an assembly, shown schematically, in which the component ratios could be varied over a wide range, by internal circulation of isobutane. The reactor, operating isothermally, was made of glass tubing and was attached to the boiler with external heathers and the dephlegmator. It was determined that the course of alkylation of isobutane with butenes depends significantly on the reaction conditions, and primarilly on the ratio of isobutane to butenes in the reaction zone. Alkylation experiments of high dilutions of butenes revealed a series of consecutive processes, which can't be identified at low dilution because of their superposition. The influence of dilution is manifested mainly through the character and subsequent transformation of the active complexes formed on the catalyst surface. Therefore conditions in which formation and subsequent transformation of the active complexes proceed gradually should be regarded as favorable for alkylation.

  6. Theoretical Models for the Cooling Power and Base Temperature of Dilution Refrigerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    He-3/He-4 dilution refrigerators are widely used for applications requiring continuous cooling at temperatures below approximately 300 mK. Despite of the popularity of these devices in low temperature physics, the thermodynamic relations underlying the cooling mechanism of He-3/He-4 refrigerators are very often incorrectly used. Several thermodynamic models of dilution refrigeration have been published in the past, sometimes contradicting each other. These models are reviewed and compared with each other over a range of different He-3 flow rates. In addition, a new numerical method for the calculation of a dilution refrigerator's cooling power at arbitrary flow rates is presented. This method has been developed at CERN's Central Cryogenic Laboratory. It can be extended to include many effects that cannot easily be accounted for by any of the other models, including the degradation of heat exchanger performance due to the limited number of step heat exchanger elements, which can be considerable for some design...

  7. Wastewater diffusive dilution and sedimentation of the fine contaminated particles for nonuniform flow in open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of non-uniformity on mass transfer processes in open channels have been investigated under the action of urbanization factors. The study is related to the urgent problem of environmental degradation of water objects in urbanized areas. It is known that the water quality in the water objects depends on the manner in which the contaminants spread how they mix with the river water and diluted by it. The main results of the study consist of recommendations to incorporate non-uniformity factor to the calculation of diffusion dilution of wastewater and prediction of river processes. So the effect of the flow non-uniformity on the diffusion model of pollutants dilution and diffusion coefficient have been investigated. Formulas for the concentration profiles calculating and the average concentration of fine particulate matter in nonuniform gradually varied flow were presented. The deposition length of suspended contaminants were received, based on the hydraulic resistance laws of nonuniform gradually varied flow.

  8. Prototype Repository. Tracer dilution tests during operation phase, test campaign 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrstroem, Johan; Andersson, Peter (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    The Prototype Repository project is focused on testing and demonstrating the function of the SKB deep repository system. The third tracer dilution campaign during the Prototype Repository operation period was performed in January 2010. The purpose was to estimate the groundwater flows and hydraulic gradients in the boreholes vicinity and will function as a reference for comparison with results from modeling and prior assumptions. The test campaign consisted of tracer dilution tests in 13 different borehole sections. Each test consisted of approximately 15-55 min tracer injection time and about 1-3 days dilution test time depending on the transmissivity of the test section. The data interpretation also included estimates of the local hydraulic gradients in the vicinity of the borehole sections

  9. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvaris, Evangelos E.; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2017-10-01

    A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009) for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA) volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD) and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA) produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60-75 % of the cooking OA (COA) at concentrations around 500 µg m-3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs), 20-30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs). The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol-1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06-0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  10. Estimation of the volatility distribution of organic aerosol combining thermodenuder and isothermal dilution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Louvaris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed following the work of Grieshop et al. (2009 for the determination of the organic aerosol (OA volatility distribution combining thermodenuder (TD and isothermal dilution measurements. The approach was tested in experiments that were conducted in a smog chamber using organic aerosol (OA produced during meat charbroiling. A TD was operated at temperatures ranging from 25 to 250 °C with a 14 s centerline residence time coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS. In parallel, a dilution chamber filled with clean air was used to dilute isothermally the aerosol of the larger chamber by approximately a factor of 10. The OA mass fraction remaining was measured as a function of temperature in the TD and as a function of time in the isothermal dilution chamber. These two sets of measurements were used together to estimate the volatility distribution of the OA and its effective vaporization enthalpy and accommodation coefficient. In the isothermal dilution experiments approximately 20 % of the OA evaporated within 15 min. Almost all the OA evaporated in the TD at approximately 200 °C. The resulting volatility distributions suggested that around 60–75 % of the cooking OA (COA at concentrations around 500 µg m−3 consisted of low-volatility organic compounds (LVOCs, 20–30 % of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs, and around 10 % of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs. The estimated effective vaporization enthalpy of COA was 100 ± 20 kJ mol−1 and the effective accommodation coefficient was 0.06–0.07. Addition of the dilution measurements to the TD data results in a lower uncertainty of the estimated vaporization enthalpy as well as the SVOC content of the OA.

  11. Effective Microporosity for Enhanced Adsorption Capacity of Cr (VI) from Dilute Aqueous Solution: Isotherm and Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd Mukosha; Maurice S. Onyango; Aoyi Ochieng; John Siame

    2017-01-01

    The adsorbent pore structure significant to enhanced adsorption capacity of Cr (VI) from dilute aqueous solution is evaluated. As reference, low-cost micro-mesoporous activated carbon (AC) of high basicity, mesoporosity centred about 2.4 nm, and effective microporosity centred about 0.9 nm was tested for removal of Cr (VI) from dilute aqueous solution in batch mode. At pH 2 the low-cost AC exhibited highly improved Langmuir Cr (VI) capacity of 115 mg/g which was competitive to high performanc...

  12. Do VCs use inside rounds to dilute founders? Some evidence from Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Jesse M.; Broughman, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    In the bank-borrower setting, a firm’s existing lender may exploit its positional advantage to extract rents from the firm in subsequent financings. Analogously, a startup’s existing venture capital investors (VCs) may dilute the founder through a follow-on financing from these same VCs (an “inside” round) at an artificially low valuation. Using a hand-collected dataset of Silicon Valley startup firms, we find little evidence that VCs use inside rounds to dilute founders. Instead, our finding...

  13. An on-line dilution system for spectrometry using an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.; Watson, A.E.; Humphries-Cuff, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An on-line dilution system that uses a two-channel peristaltic pump to feed a GMK Babington type of nebulizer is described. By the use of a diluent containing the appropriate concentrations of acid, sodium, and internal standard element, which was fed at a constant rate to the nebulizer, the system produced analytical results that are not significantly different (less than 3 per cent relative) from those obtained with the normal dilution technique. However, a considerable saving in time is achieved, as well as a saving in the use of expensive reagents

  14. Influence of temperature on spin polarization dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors—Role of nonparamagnetic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, M.; Misiewicz, J. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze, Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    We report theoretical studies of spin polarization dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors. We develop a commonly used rate equation model [Lagarde et al., Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 208 (2007) and Kunold et al. Phys. Rev. B 83, 165202 (2011)] to take into account the influence of shallow localizing states on the temperature dependence of spin polarization dynamics and a spin filtering effect. Presented investigations show that the experimentally observed temperature dependence of a spin polarization lifetime in dilute nitrides can be related to the electron capture process by shallow localizing states without paramagnetic properties. This process reduces the efficiency of spin filtering effect by deep paramagnetic centers, especially at low temperatures.

  15. Thallium determination in reference materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) using thermal ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidmann, E.; Hilpert, K.; Stoeppler, M.

    1990-01-01

    Using Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) with thermal ionization, thallium concentrations were determined in reference materials from NIST and BCR, from other sources, and reference materials from the German Environmental Specimen Bank 203 Tl spike solution is applied for the isotope dilution technique. Thallium concentrations in the investigated materials range from 2.67 μg Tl.kg -1 to 963 μg Tl.kg -1 with a relative standard deviation from 0.14 to 10%. The detection limit was 0.1 ng thallium for this work. (orig.)

  16. Development of the Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology for Al-Based DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.B.; Adams, T.M.; Iyer, N.C.

    1998-09-01

    Spent foreign and domestic research reactor fuel assemblies will be sent to Savannah River Site and prepared for interim and eventual geologic storage. Many of the fuel plates have been made with high enriched uranium, and during long term storage, the integrity of the fuel maybe effected if the canister is breached. To reduce the potential for criticality, proliferation, and reduce storage volume, a new treatment technology called melt-dilute is being developed at SRS. The technique will melt the spent fuel assemblies and will dilute the isotopic content to below 20%. The process is simple and versatile

  17. Extended Le Chatelier's formula for carbon dioxide dilution effect on flammability limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shigeo; Takizawa, Kenji; Takahashi, Akifumi; Tokuhashi, Kazuaki

    2006-11-02

    Carbon dioxide dilution effect on the flammability limits was measured for various flammable gases. The obtained values were analyzed using the extended Le Chatelier's formula developed in a previous study. As a result, it has been found that the flammability limits of methane, propane, propylene, methyl formate, and 1,1-difluoroethane are adequately explained by the extended Le Chatelier's formula using a common set of parameter values. Ethylene, dimethyl ether, and ammonia behave differently from these compounds. The present result is very consistent with what was obtained in the case of nitrogen dilution.

  18. Radiotracer study to investigate the dilution and dispersion of sewage off Worli coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelgaonkar, V.N.; Pendharkar, A.S.; Agashe, S.M.; Kumar, U.S.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Mendhekar, G.N.; Navada, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out off Worli Coast, Mumbai to study the dilution and dispersion of sewage from the proposed out fall at 3000 m and existing out fall at 500 m from the shore. Dilutions observed were 2.3 x 10 7 at 3.3 km from the injection point for the disposal at 3,000 m and 6.9 x 10 5 at 5 km for the disposal at 500 m. Dispersion coefficients obtained from two dimensional advection dispersion model for the experiment off 500 m are Dx 15-18 m 2 /s and Dy = 0.5-2 m 2 /s. (author)

  19. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  20. Effect of wine dilution on the reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Skibsted; Werge, Hans Henrik Malmborg; Egebo, Max

    2008-01-01

    A reported analytical method for tannin quantification relies on selective precipitation of tannins with bovine serum albumin. The reliability of tannin analysis by protein precipitation on wines having variable tannin levels was evaluated by measuring the tannin concentration of various dilutions...... of five commercial red wines. Tannin concentrations of both very diluted and concentrated samples were systematically underestimated, which could be explained by a precipitation threshold and insufficient protein for precipitation, respectively. Based on these findings, we have defined a valid range...... of the tannin response in the protein precipitation-tannin assay, which suffers minimally from these problems....