WorldWideScience

Sample records for huge gap exists

  1. Unusual Large Sporadic Angiomyolipoma Co-existing with Huge Simple Renal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Jagtap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal Angiomyolipoma (AML is an unusual benign mesenchymal tumor with no malignant potential. It is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscle and abnormal thick walled blood vessels. It can occur sporadically or may be associated with tuberous sclerosis. Sporadic angiomyolipoma (AML coexisting with simple renal cyst is extremely rare and only one case report is available in the literature. In our case, unique combination of sporadic AML along with simple renal cyst with huge size and weight was noted. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the second such case and first case from India. Due to its large size, complete nephrectomy was performed to avoid chances of rupture and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Post-operative period was uneventful and the patient ahs been on regular follow-up.

  2. Stem cells to replace or regenerate the diabetic pancreas: Huge potential & existing hurdles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various stem cell sources are being explored to treat diabetes since the proof-of-concept for cell therapy was laid down by transplanting cadaveric islets as a part of Edmonton protocol in 2000. Human embryonic stem (hES cells derived pancreatic progenitors have got US-FDA approval to be used in clinical trials to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, these progenitors more closely resemble their foetal counterparts and thus whether they will provide long-term regeneration of adult human pancreas remains to be demonstrated. In addition to lifestyle changes and administration of insulin sensitizers, regeneration of islets from endogenous pancreatic stem cells may benefit T2DM patients. The true identity of pancreatic stem cells, whether these exist or not, whether regeneration involves reduplication of existing islets or ductal epithelial cells transdifferentiate, remains a highly controversial area. We have recently demonstrated that a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs is involved during regeneration of adult mouse pancreas after partial-pancreatectomy. VSELs (pluripotent stem cells in adult organs should be appreciated as an alternative for regenerative medicine as these are autologous (thus immune rejection issues do not exist with no associated risk of teratoma formation. T2DM is a result of VSELs dysfunction with age and uncontrolled proliferation of VSELs possibly results in pancreatic cancer. Extensive brainstorming and financial support are required to exploit the potential of endogenous VSELs to regenerate the pancreas in a patient with diabetes.

  3. Closing the Reading Gap: Here's How An Urban Elementary School Succeeded In Closing A Huge Achievement Gap With An All-Out Effort Focused On Discipline And Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    An elementary school principal describes her school's successful effort to virtually eliminate a reading gap between black and white students by concentrating on strong discipline and literacy programs, supplemented by music and foreign language programs that are believed to improve cognitive ability.

  4. Simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in periodic crystal slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennec, Y; Djafari Rouhani, B; El Boudouti, E H; Li, C; El Hassouani, Y; Vasseur, J O; Papanikolaou, N; Benchabane, S; Laude, V; Martinez, A

    2010-06-21

    We discuss the simultaneous existence of phononic and photonic band gaps in a periodic array of holes drilled in a Si membrane. We investigate in detail both the centered square lattice and the boron nitride (BN) lattice with two atoms per unit cell which include the simple square, triangular and honeycomb lattices as particular cases. We show that complete phononic and photonic band gaps can be obtained from the honeycomb lattice as well as BN lattices close to honeycomb. Otherwise, all investigated structures present the possibility of a complete phononic gap together with a photonic band gap of a given symmetry, odd or even, depending on the geometrical parameters.

  5. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  6. Does the Gender Wage Gap Exist at Riverside Community College District?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jami; Casolari, Amber

    2015-01-01

    The gender wage gap in the United States is a well-documented social and economic phenomenon. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 has done little to bring parity between men's and women's wages. Existing data show a relationship between race, age, geography, immigration, education, and women's pay status. This study analyzes wage disparity within higher…

  7. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  8. Achievement-Related within-School Socioeconomic Gaps in Science Subjects in China: Evidence on Existence, Consistency, and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Xingkai

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the 2011 (Chinese) Student Academic Achievement Evaluation, we examined whether within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement exist across science subjects, how consistent they are, and whether there are relationships between school average science achievement and within-school socioeconomic gaps in science achievement.…

  9. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  10. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  11. No major stratigraphic gap exists near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian-Missourian) boundary in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Heckel, P.H.; DiMichele, W.A.; Blake, B.M.; Easterday, C.R.; Eble, C.F.; Elrick, S.; Gastaldo, R.A.; Greb, S.F.; Martino, R.L.; John, Nelson W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; Phillips, T.L.; Rosscoe, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interregional correlation of the marine zones of major cyclothems between North America and eastern Europe does not support assertions that a major stratigraphic gap exists between the traditional regional Desmoinesian and Missourian stages in North America. Such a gap was previously proposed to explain an abrupt change in megafloral assemblages in the northern Appalachian Basin and by extension across all of North America. Conodont-based correlation from the essentially complete low-shelf Midcontinent succession (distal from the highstand shoreline), through the mid-shelf Illinois Basin, to the high shelf of the Appalachian Basin (proximal to highstand shoreline) demonstrates that all major ???400 kyr cyclothem groupings in the Midcontinent are recognizable in the Illinois Basin. In the Appalachian Basin, however, the grouping at the base of the Missourian is represented only by paleosols and localized coal. The immediately preceding grouping was removed very locally by paleovalley incision, as is evident at the 7-11 Mine, Columbiana County, Ohio, from which the original megafloral data were derived. At the few localities where incised paleodrainage exists, there may be a gap of ???1000 kyr, but a gap of no more than ???600 kyr occurs elsewhere in the Appalachian Basin at that level and its magnitude progressively decreases westward into the Illinois (???300 kyr) and Midcontinent (North America, it is typically more than an order of magnitude smaller than that originally proposed and is similar to the gaps inferred at sequence boundaries between cyclothems at many horizons in the Pennsylvanian of North America. Copyright ?? 2011, SEPM.

  12. Insights on Extent of Effectiveness, Trend, and Gap in Existing Frameworks for e-Procurement System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N Madhusudan; L Manjunatha Rao

    2016-01-01

    .... However, this trend was not observed much on the e-Procurement system, where the existing users still place the purchase order using conventional web-based approach that cannot address various...

  13. Life Cycle Concepts for the Development of Safe Nanoproducts: State of the art, existing gaps and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Som, Claudia; Berges, Markus; Chaudry, Qasim;

    2010-01-01

    concept - may be used to assess the relative environmental performance of nanoproducts in comparison with their conventional equivalents. Other less formalized life cycle concepts may uncover further detailed and prospective knowledge for human and environmental exposure to ENMs throughout the life cycle......Whilst the global industry is rapidly moving forward to take advantage of the new opportunities and prospects offered by nanotechnologies, it is imperative that such developments take place in a safe and sustainable manner. The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products...... has raised certain concerns over their safety to human health and the environment. There are currently a number of major uncertainties and knowledge gaps in regard to behavior, chemical and biological interactions and toxicological properties of ENMs. As this will need generation of some new basic...

  14. MANAGEMENT OF HUGE ENCEPHALOCELE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among all neural tube defects, encephalocele incidents are 1 in 5000 live births. (1 Newborn with encephalocele may be associated with other congenital malformations. Encephalocele patient’s management pose many challenge to neurosurgeon due to other associated anomalies that may present like ventriculocele, Dandy Walker and Arnold-Chiari malformation, and difficult positioning airway management to anaesthesiologist. We discuss a case of huge encephalocele and its management

  15. Life cycle assessment of engineered nanomaterials: state of the art and strategies to overcome existing gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hischier, Roland; Walser, Tobias

    2012-05-15

    The use of engineered nanomaterials offers advantages as well as disadvantages from a sustainability perspective. It is important to identify such points as early as possible in order to be able to build on existing strengths, while counteracting disadvantages. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a suitable method to assess the environmental performance of a product or process. But so far studies applying LCA to the area of nanotechnology have been scarce. One reason might be that the LCA framework has a whole list of issues that need further precision in order to be applicable to nanotechnologies: system boundaries and a functional unit have to be chosen in a way that allows one to do a comparison of equal functionalities; adequate and comprehensive life cycle inventory data for engineered nanomaterials are the key on the level of inventory analysis; and the impact assessment step requires a clear definition of the degree of detail on the level of nanoparticle emissions. The LCA studies existing thus far in the area of nanotechnology have barely begun to cover all these aspects. Thus, in order to improve the current situation, the authors propose to go ahead in each of the LCA stages as far as scientific advances allow. For the inventory modelling this means e.g. that comprehensive, transparently documented and quality ensured data of the most important engineered nanomaterials should be collected and made available in a widely-accepted format. Concerning nanoparticle emissions, as many parameters as possible have to be collected pertaining to the production, use, and the disposal phase of these engineered nanomaterials. Furthermore, on the level of impact assessment, relevant physical characteristics have to be identified for a toxicity assessment of nanoparticles and a consensus has to be found for a limited but sufficient number of independent parameters influencing toxicity to be collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of congestive heart failure: a gender gap may still exist. Observations from a contemporary cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller Iris

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike other cardiovascular diseases the incidence and prevalence of congestive heart failure (CHF continues to increase. While gender differences in coronary artery disease have been well described, to date, there has been a relative paucity of similar data in patients with CHF. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the profile and management of patients with CHF at a tertiary care centre to determine if a gender difference exists. Methods A chart review was performed at a tertiary care centre on consecutive patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of CHF between June 1997 and 1998. Co-morbidity, diagnostic investigations, and management of CHF were recorded. Comparisons between male and female patients were conducted. Results One hundred and forty five patients were reviewed. There were 80 male (M and 65 female (F patients of similar age [71.6 vs. 71.3 (M vs. F, p = NS]. Male patients were more likely to have had a previous myocardial infarction (66% vs. 35%, p Conclusions This pilot study demonstrated that there seem to be important gender differences in the profile and management of patients with CHF. Importantly women were less likely to have an evaluation of LV function. As assessment of LV function has significant implications on patient management, this data justifies the need for larger studies to assess gender differences in CHF profile and treatment.

  17. Impacts of petroleum activities for the Achuar people of the Peruvian Amazon: summary of existing evidence and research gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Marti Orta [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Napolitano, Dora A [Shinai, Calle las Islas Canarias Mza J-6 Lote 20, Los Cedros, Chorrillos, Lima (Peru); MacLennan, Gregor J [Shinai, Calle las Islas Canarias Mza J-6 Lote 20, Los Cedros, Chorrillos, Lima (Peru); O' Callaghan, Cristina [Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Ciborowski, Sylvia [Shinai, Calle las Islas Canarias Mza J-6 Lote 20, Los Cedros, Chorrillos, Lima (Peru); Fabregas, Xavier [Facultat de BiologIa, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    Petrol has been extracted from Achuar territory in the Northern Peruvian Amazon since the 1970s. In spite of early identification of negative impacts on the environment and repeated attempts by the Achuar to improve conditions, very little research has been done on specific environmental and health impacts. Some recent governmental studies have shown extremely high blood lead and cadmium levels in Achuar communities. In this paper we apply an environmental justice framework to review the evidence of pollution and health status available in existing studies, as well as government and operating company actions over the last 30 years. We identify gaps in our knowledge which hamper efforts to respond to the environmental and health situation, as well as negligent actions on the part of the State and petrol companies.

  18. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  19. On the Distribution of the Zeros of the Riemann Zeta-Function and Existence of Large Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Saker, S H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a new Wirtinger-type inequality and assuming that the Riemann hypothesis is true we establish a new explicit formula for the gaps between the zeros of the Riemann zeta-function. On the hypothesis that the moments of the Hardy Z-function and its derivatives are correctly predicted we establish new lower bounds for the gaps between the zeros. In particular it is proved that consecutive nontrivial zeros often differ by at least 11.249 times the average spacing.

  20. Bridging the Gap in Military Robotics (Combler le Fosse Existant dans le Domaine de la Robotique Militaire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    the exposure time. Secondly, an increased atmospheric ionization will probably lead to a damping effect on electromagnetic waves in the LF to UHF...be best managed in the long- wave infrared (around 10 microns with 3 microns bandwidth). 4.5.1 State of the Art and Identified Gaps Sensing and...technology and not human eyesight. Several points are highly dependent on size of the UGV and associated powerplant (i.e. Diesel engines vs

  1. The 'power gap' only exists on paper;Die Stromluecke besteht nur auf dem Papier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at the so-called 'power gap' that is being propagated by the electricity industry and certain politicians in Switzerland and how large scale combined heat and power (CHP) installations are being impeded by conventional power being offered at dumping prices. The author states that combined heat and power systems can, in spite of this, be profitable. The CHP concept has, according to the opinion of the Elektra Birseck Muenchenstein (EBM), a Swiss regional utility, been completely forgotten in Swiss carbon dioxide legislation. In particular, topics such as exemption from CO{sub 2} emission tax are looked at and the mothballing of certain gas-turbine based systems is discussed. Several cases are noted, however, that show that the operation of CHP units can still be profitable. In particular, buildings constructed to Swiss 'Minergie' low energy consumption standards can be interesting for CHP power generation, says the author.

  2. The 'power gap' only exists on paper; Die Stromluecke besteht nur auf dem Papier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at the so-called 'power gap' that is being propagated by the electricity industry and certain politicians in Switzerland and how large scale combined heat and power (CHP) installations are being impeded by conventional power being offered at dumping prices. The author states that combined heat and power systems can, in spite of this, be profitable. The CHP concept has, according to the opinion of the Elektra Birseck Muenchenstein (EBM), a Swiss regional utility, been completely forgotten in Swiss carbon dioxide legislation. In particular, topics such as exemption from CO{sub 2} emission tax are looked at and the mothballing of certain gas-turbine based systems is discussed. Several cases are noted, however, that show that the operation of CHP units can still be profitable. In particular, buildings constructed to Swiss 'Minergie' low energy consumption standards can be interesting for CHP power generation, says the author.

  3. Gaps exist in the current guidance on the use of randomized controlled trial study protocols in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Catherine; Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela

    2017-05-01

    The use of trial registry records and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study protocols can assist systematic reviewers in evaluating and, possibly, minimizing publication and selective reporting biases. This study examined current guidance on the use of registry records and RCT study protocols from key systematic review organizations, institutes, and collaborations. Handbooks, guidelines, and standard documents from key systematic review organizations and the EQUATOR network database were identified. Textual excerpts providing guidance on the use of trial registry records, RCT protocols, and ongoing/unpublished studies were extracted independently by two reviewers and coded into a systematic review framework. Eleven documents published in English between 2009 and 2016 were included. Guidance for using RCT protocols and trial registry records was provided for 7 of 16 framework categories, and guidance for using unpublished and ongoing studies was available for 8 of 16 categories. This study identified gaps and ambiguities in language in guidance on the use of RCT protocols and trial registry records. To encourage and assist reviewers to use trial registry records and RCT study protocols in systematic reviews, current guidance should be expanded and clarified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement,…

  5. Problems with IQ Gains: The Huge Vocabulary Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Kaufman, Raven's Progressive Matrices and the Wechsler subtest Similarities are tests whose gains call for special explanation. The spread of "scientific spectacles" is the key, but its explanatory potential has been exhausted. Three trends force us to look elsewhere: (a) gains on Wechsler subtests such as Picture Arrangement, (b) gains in…

  6. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy. A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process. This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  7. Intelligent Classification in Huge Heterogeneous Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    INTELLIGENT CLASSIFICATION IN HUGE HETEROGENEOUS DATA SETS JUNE 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...To) JUL 2013 – APR 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTELLIGENT CLASSIFICATION IN HUGE HETEROGENEOUS DATA SETS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...signals and through data dimension reduction, and to develop and tailor algorithms for the extraction of intelligence from several huge heterogeneous

  8. Climate Change and European Water Bodies, a Review of Existing Gaps and Future Research Needs: Findings of the ClimateWater Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Monica; Harper, David M; Blaskovicova, Lotta; Hancz, Gabriella; Janauer, Georg A; Jolánkai, Zsolt; Lanz, Eva; Lo Porto, Antonio; Mándoki, Monika; Pataki, Beata; Rahuel, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Victoria J; Stoate, Chris; Tóth, Eszter; Jolánkai, Géza

    2015-08-01

    There is general agreement among scientists that global temperatures are rising and will continue to increase in the future. It is also agreed that human activities are the most important causes of these climatic variations, and that water resources are already suffering and will continue to be greatly impaired as a consequence of these changes. In particular, it is probable that areas with limited water resources will expand and that an increase of global water demand will occur, estimated to be around 35-60% by 2025 as a consequence of population growth and the competing needs of water uses. This will cause a growing imbalance between water demand (including the needs of nature) and supply. This urgency demands that climate change impacts on water be evaluated in different sectors using a cross-cutting approach (Contestabile in Nat Clim Chang 3:11-12, 2013). These issues were examined by the EU FP7-funded Co-ordination and support action "ClimateWater" (bridging the gap between adaptation strategies of climate change impacts and European water policies). The project studied adaptation strategies to minimize the water-related consequences of climate change and assessed how these strategies should be taken into consideration by European policies. This article emphasizes that knowledge gaps still exist about the direct effects of climate change on water bodies and their indirect impacts on production areas that employ large amounts of water (e.g., agriculture). Some sectors, such as ecohydrology and alternative sewage treatment technologies, could represent a powerful tool to mitigate climate change impacts. Research needs in these still novel fields are summarized.

  9. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L.; Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; Olea, J.; González-Díaz, G.

    2015-12-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around Ec-425 and Ec-275 meV for implantation doses of 1013 cm-2 and 1014 cm-2, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, Ec and Ec-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known, the Meyer-Neldel rule typically appears in processes involving multiple excitations, like

  10. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, E.; Dueñas, S.; Castán, H.; García, H.; Bailón, L. [Dept. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Montero, D.; García-Hernansanz, R.; García-Hemme, E.; González-Díaz, G. [Dept. de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Univ. Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Olea, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Energía Solar, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicación, Univ. Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-28

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (10{sup 13 }cm{sup -2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup -2}) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in the conduction band, as a consequence of the band-gap narrowing induced by the high titanium concentration. Moreover, stationary admittance spectroscopy results suggest the existence of different energy level configuration, depending on the local titanium concentration. A continuum energy level band is formed when titanium concentration is over the Mott limit. On the other hand, when titanium concentration is lower than the Mott limit, but much higher than the donor impurity density, a quasi-continuum energy level distribution appears. Finally, a single deep center appears for low titanium concentration. At the n-type substrate, the experimental results obtained by means of thermal admittance spectroscopy at high reverse bias reveal the presence of single levels located at around E{sub c}-425 and E{sub c}-275 meV for implantation doses of 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}, respectively. At low reverse bias voltage, quasi-continuously distributed energy levels between the minimum of the conduction bands, E{sub c} and E{sub c}-450 meV, are obtained for both doses. Conductance transients detected at low temperatures reveal that the high impurity concentration induces a band gap narrowing which leads to the formation of a barrier in the conduction band. Besides, the relationship between the activation energy and the capture cross section values of all the energy levels fits very well to the Meyer-Neldel rule. As it is known

  11. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bowling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuits in vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the majority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices or in vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these findings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain.

  12. Deconstructing brain-derived neurotrophic factor actions in adult brain circuits to bridge an existing informational gap in neuro-cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heather Bowling; Aditi Bhattacharya; Eric Klann; Moses V Chao

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plas-ticity, learning and memory, and in preventing neurodegeneration. Despite decades of investigations into downstream signaling cascades and changes in cellular processes, the mechanisms of how BDNF reshapes circuitsin vivo remain unclear. This informational gap partly arises from the fact that the bulk of studies into the molecular actions of BDNF have been performed in dissociated neuronal cultures, while the ma-jority of studies on synaptic plasticity, learning and memory were performed in acute brain slices orin vivo. A recent study by Bowling-Bhattacharya et al., measured the proteomic changes in acute adult hippocampal slices following treatment and reported changes in proteins of neuronal and non-neuronal origin that may in concert modulate synaptic release and secretion in the slice. In this paper, we place these ifndings into the context of existing literature and discuss how they impact our understanding of how BDNF can reshape the brain.

  13. Mapping the existing body of health policy implementation research in lower income settings: what is covered and what are the gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, E; Orgill, M; Schneider, H; Gilson, L

    2014-12-01

    This article uses 85 peer-reviewed articles published between 1994 and 2009 to characterize and synthesize aspects of the health policy analysis literature focusing on policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It seeks to contribute, first, to strengthening the field of LMIC health policy analysis by highlighting gaps in the literature and generating ideas for a future research agenda and, second, to thinking about the value and applicability of qualitative synthesis approaches to the health policy analysis field. Overall, the article considers the disciplinary perspectives from which LMIC health policy implementation is studied and the extent to which the focus is on systems or programme issues. It then works with the more specific themes of the key thrusts of the reviewed articles, the implementation outcomes studied, implementation improvement recommendations made and the theories used in the reviewed articles. With respect to these more specific themes, the article includes explorations of patterns within the themes themselves, the contributions of specific disciplinary perspectives and differences between systems and programme articles. It concludes, among other things, that the literature remains small, fragmented, of limited depth and quite diverse, reflecting a wide spectrum of health system dimensions studied and many different suggestions for improving policy implementation. However, a range of issues beyond traditional 'hardware' health system concerns, such as funding and organizational structure, are understood to influence policy implementation, including many 'software' issues such as the understandings of policy actors and the need for better communication and actor relationships. Looking to the future, there is a need, given the fragmentation in the literature, to consolidate the existing body of work where possible and, given the often broad nature of the work and its limited depth, to draw more explicitly on theoretical

  14. Outcome of Hepatectomy for Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sungho

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the recent improved results of hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), the prognosis of patients with huge HCCs is still poor compared to that of patients with small HCCs. This study was performed to compare the results of hepatectomy between patients with huge HCCs and those with small HCCs, to identify the prognostic factors in patients with huge HCCs, and to determine the preoperative selection criteria. We retrospectively analyzed 51 patients who underwent hepatectomy, between July 1994 and February 2009 at Dankook University Hospital. Patients with HCC≥10 cm were classified in large (L) group and others were classified in small (S) group. The clinicopathological features, operative procedures, and postoperative outcome were compared between both groups and various prognostic factors were investigated in group L. Eleven patients were classified in group L. Tumor size, vascular invasion, and tumor stage were higher in group L. Postoperative morbidity was higher in group L, but mortality was not different between the groups. Disease-free survivals were significantly lower in group L than in group S (36.4%, and 24.2% vs. 72.0%, and 44.0% for 1- and 3-year), but overall survival rates were similar in both groups (45.5%, and 15.2% in group L vs. 60.3%, and 41.3% in group S for 3- and 5-year). Presence of satellite nodules was the only prognostic factor in multivariate analysis after surgery for huge HCC. Regardless of tumor size, huge HCCs deserve consideration for surgery in patients with preserved liver function. Furthermore, the effect of surgery could be maximized with appropriate selection criteria, such as huge HCC without satellite nodules.

  15. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  16. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes.

  17. Treatment strategies for huge central neurocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhong-wei; Zhang, Jian-jian; Zhang, Ting-bao; Sun, Shou-jia; Wu, Xiao-lin; Wang, Hao; You, Chao; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Hua-qiu; Chen, Jin-cao

    2015-02-01

    Central neurocytomas (CNs), initially asymptomatic, sometimes become huge before detection. We described and analyzed the clinical, radiological, operational and outcome data of 13 cases of huge intraventricular CNs, and discussed the treatment strategies in this study. All huge CNs (n=13) in our study were located in bilateral lateral ventricle with diameter ≥5.0 cm and had a broad-based attachment to at least one side of the ventricle wall. All patients received craniotomy to remove the tumor through transcallosal or transcortical approach and CNs were of typical histologic and immunohistochemical features. Adjuvant therapies including conventional radiation therapy (RT) or gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) were also performed postoperatively. Transcallosal and transcortical approaches were used in 8 and 5 patients, respectively. Two patients died within one month after operation and 3 patients with gross total resection (GTR) were additionally given a decompressive craniectomy (DC) and/or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) as the salvage therapy. Six patients received GTR(+RT) and 7 patients received subtotal resection (STR)(+GKRS). Eight patients suffered serious complications such as hydrocephalus, paralysis and seizure after operation, and patients who underwent GTR showed worse functional outcome [less Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores] than those having STR(+GKRS) during the follow-up period. The clinical outcome of huge CNs seemed not to be favorable as that described in previous reports. Surgical resection for huge CNs should be meticulously considered to guarantee the maximum safety. Better results were achieved in STR(+GKRS) compared with GTR(+RT) for huge CNs, suggesting that STR(+GKRS) may be a better treatment choice. The recurrent or residual tumor can be treated with GKRS effectively.

  18. A Huge Ancient Schwannoma of the Epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jo Heon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis is extremely rare. The authors report the first case of a patient with a huge ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis. Clinicians should consider the possibility that ancient schwannoma may originate in the epiglottis mimicking the other more frequently observed lesions.

  19. Description of landscape features, summary of existing hydrologic data, and identification of data gaps for the Osage Nation, northeastern Oklahoma, 1890-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The Osage Nation of northeastern Oklahoma, conterminous with Osage County, is characterized by gently rolling uplands and incised stream valleys that have downcut into underlying sedimentary rock units of Pennsylvanian through Permian age. Cattle ranching and petroleum and natural-gas extraction are the principal land uses in this rural area. Freshwater resources in the Osage Nation include water flowing in the Arkansas River and several smaller streams, water stored in several lakes, and groundwater contained in unconsolidated alluvial aquifers and bedrock aquifers. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater in this area. Fresh groundwater is underlain by saline groundwater in aquifers underlying the Osage Nation. Because of the potential for future population increases, demands for water from neighboring areas such as the Tulsa metropolitan area, and expansion of petroleum and natural-gas extraction on water resources of this area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, summarized existing hydrologic data and identified data gaps to provide information for planning of future development of water resources in the Osage Nation. Streamflows in the Osage Nation are substantially affected by precipitation. During the relatively wet periods from the 1970s to 2000, the annual streamflows in the Osage Nation increased by as much as a factor of 2 relative to preceding decades, with subsequent decreases in streamflow of as much as 50 percent being recorded during intermittent drier years of the early 2000s. This report summarizes hydrologic data from 3 surface-water sites and 91 wells distributed across the Osage Nation. Data collected at those sites indicate that surface water in the Osage Nation generally has sufficient dissolved oxygen for survival of both coldwater and warmwater aquatic biota. Total dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in up to

  20. A detailed analysis of the energy levels configuration existing in the band gap of supersaturated silicon with titanium for photovoltaic applications

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The energy levels created in supersaturated n-type silicon substrates with titanium implantation in the attempt to create an intermediate band in their band-gap are studied in detail. Two titanium ion implantation doses (1013cm-2 and 1014cm-2) are studied in this work by conductance transient technique and admittance spectroscopy. Conductance transients have been measured at temperatures of around 100 K. The particular shape of these transients is due to the formation of energy barriers in th...

  1. Bridging the Gap between Crisis Response Operations and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

    2009-01-01

    There exist huge problems in the current practice of crisis response operations. Response problems are projected as a combination of failure in communication, failure in technology, failure in methodology, failure of management, and finally failure of observation. In this paper we compare eight crisis response systems namely: DrillSim [2, 13], DEFACTO [12, 17], ALADDIN [1, 6], RoboCup Rescue [11, 15], FireGrid [3, 8, 18], WIPER [16], D-AESOP [4], and PLAN C [14]. Comparison results will disclose the cause of failure of current crisis response operations (the response gap). Based on comparison results; we provide recommendations for bridging this gap between response operations and systems.

  2. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations.

  3. Description of landscape features, summary of existing hydrologic data, and identification of data gaps for the Osage Nation, northeastern Oklahoma, 1890-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The Osage Nation of northeastern Oklahoma, conterminous with Osage County, is characterized by gently rolling uplands and incised stream valleys that have downcut into underlying sedimentary rock units of Pennsylvanian through Permian age. Cattle ranching and petroleum and natural-gas extraction are the principal land uses in this rural area. Freshwater resources in the Osage Nation include water flowing in the Arkansas River and several smaller streams, water stored in several lakes, and groundwater contained in unconsolidated alluvial aquifers and bedrock aquifers. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is the primary source of fresh groundwater in this area. Fresh groundwater is underlain by saline groundwater in aquifers underlying the Osage Nation. Because of the potential for future population increases, demands for water from neighboring areas such as the Tulsa metropolitan area, and expansion of petroleum and natural-gas extraction on water resources of this area, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Osage Nation, summarized existing hydrologic data and identified data gaps to provide information for planning of future development of water resources in the Osage Nation. Streamflows in the Osage Nation are substantially affected by precipitation. During the relatively wet periods from the 1970s to 2000, the annual streamflows in the Osage Nation increased by as much as a factor of 2 relative to preceding decades, with subsequent decreases in streamflow of as much as 50 percent being recorded during intermittent drier years of the early 2000s. This report summarizes hydrologic data from 3 surface-water sites and 91 wells distributed across the Osage Nation. Data collected at those sites indicate that surface water in the Osage Nation generally has sufficient dissolved oxygen for survival of both coldwater and warmwater aquatic biota. Total dissolved solids concentration exceeded the secondary drinking-water standard of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in up to

  4. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  5. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayatullah Hamidi, Dr, MD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity.

  6. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  7. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  8. Laparoscopic Management of Huge Cervical Myoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Nuri; Gündoğan, Savaş; Şendağ, Fatih

    To demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic management of a huge cervical myoma. Step-by-step video demonstration of the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force classification III-C). Uterine myoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the female reproductive tract, with an estimated incidence of 25% to 30% at reproductive age [1,2]. Patients generally have no symptoms; however, those with such symptoms as severe pelvic pain, heavy uterine bleeding, or infertility may be candidates for surgery. The traditional management is surgery; however, uterine artery embolization or hormonal therapy using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or a selective estrogen receptor modulator should be preferred as the medical approach. Surgical management should be performed via laparoscopy or laparotomy; however, the use of laparoscopic myomectomy is being debated for patients with huge myomas. Difficulties in the excision, removal, and repair of myometrial defects, increased operative time, and blood loss are factors keeping physicians away from laparoscopic myomectomy [1,2]. A 40-year-old gravida 0, para 0 woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of chronic pelvic pain, dyspareunia, and infertility. Her health history was unremarkable. Ultrasonographic examination revealed a 14 × 10-cm myoma in the cervical region. On bimanual examination, an immobile solid mass originating from the uterine cervix and filling the pouch of Douglas was palpated. The patient was informed of the findings, and laparoscopic myomectomy was recommended because of her desire to preserve her fertility. Abdominopelvic examination revealed a huge myoma filling and enlarging the cervix. Myomectomy was performed using standard technique as described elsewhere. A transverse incision was made using a harmonic scalpel. The myoma was fixed with a corkscrew manipulator and enucleated. Once bleeding was controlled, the myoma bed was filled with Spongostan to prevent possible bleeding from leakage

  9. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  10. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in older adults: existing knowledge gaps and areas for innovation: a summary of an American Federation for Aging research seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Steven A; Bauer, Kenneth A; Benjamin, Emelia J; Besdine, Richard W; Forman, Daniel E; Gurol, Mahmut E; Reddy, Vivek Y; Singer, Daniel E

    2013-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and morbid cardiac arrhythmia that increases in prevalence with advancing age. The risk of ischemic stroke, a primary and disabling hazard of AF, also increases with advancing age. The aging of the population is anticipated to contribute to a rising burden of AF-related morbidity and economic costs, given the close association between the arrhythmia and aging. Recent biological, diagnostic, and therapeutic developments raise hope that AF-related stroke can be largely prevented, yet despite advances in stroke prevention for individuals with AF, numerous scientific and clinical knowledge gaps remain, particularly as these developments are applied to older adults. Given the public health importance of AF-related stroke in elderly adults, a group of clinician-investigators convened on April 5, 2012, to identify promising areas for investigation that may ultimately reduce stroke-related morbidity. This article summarizes the meeting discussion and emphasizes innovative topic areas that may ultimately facilitate the application of novel preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic insights into the management of older adults with AF. The opinions of those that participated in the meeting limit this report, which may not represent all of the questions that other experts in this field might raise.

  11. Laparoscopic Management of Huge Myoma Nascendi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Nuri; Gündoğan, Savas; Şendağ, Fatih

    To demonstrate the feasibility of laparoscopic management of a huge myoma nascendi. Step-by-step video demonstration of the surgical procedure (Canadian Task Force classification III-C). Uterine myoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the female reproductive tract, with an estimated incidence of 25% to 30% at reproductive age [1,2]. Patients generally have no symptoms; however, those with such symptoms as severe pelvic pain, heavy uterine bleeding, or infertility may be candidates for surgery. The traditional management is surgery; however, uterine artery embolization or hormonal therapy using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or a selective estrogen receptor modulator should be preferred as the medical approach. Surgical management should be performed via laparoscopy or laparotomy; however, the use of laparoscopic myomectomy is being debated for patients with huge myomas. Difficulties in the excision, removal, and repair of myometrial defects, increased operative time, and blood loss are factors keeping physicians away from laparoscopic myomectomy [1,2]. A 35-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of chronic pelvic pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. Her medical history included multiple hospitalizations for blood transfusions, along with a recently measured hemoglobin level of 9.5 g/dL and a hematocrit value of 29%. She had never been married and had no children. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed a 12 × 10-cm uterine myoma located on the posterior side of the corpus uteri and protruding through to the cervical channel. This was a huge intramural submucous myoma in close proximity to the endometrial cavity and spreading through the myometrium. On vaginal examination, the myoma was found to extend into the vagina through the cervical channel. Laparoscopic myomectomy was planned because of the patient's desire for fertility preservation. Abdominopelvic exploration revealed a huge myoma filling the posterior side of the corpus uteri and

  12. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  13. A rare clinic entity: Huge trichobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Hidayatullah; Muhammadi, Marzia; Saberi, Bismillah; Sarwari, Mohammad Arif

    2016-01-01

    Trichobezoar is a rare clinical entity in which a ball of hair amasses within the alimentary tract. It can either be found as isolated mass in the stomach or may extend into the intestine. Trichobezoars mostly occur in young females with psychiatric disorders such as trichophagia and trichotillomania. Authors present a giant trichobezoar in an 18year old female presented with complaints of upper abdominal mass, epigastric area pain, anorexia and weight loss. The patient underwent trans-abdominal ultrasonography (USG), Computed tomography (CT), upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and subsequently laparotomy. USG was inconclusive due to non-specific findings. It revealed a thick echogenic layer with posterior dirty shadowing extending from the left sub-diaphragmatic area to the right sub hepatic region obscuring the adjacent structures. Abdominal CT images revealed a huge, well defined, multi-layered, heterogeneous, solid appearing, non-enhancing mass lesion in the gastric lumen extending from the gastric fundus to the pyloric canal. An endoscopic attempt was performed for removal of this intraluminal mass, but due to its large size, and hard nature, the endoscopic removal was unsuccessful. Finally the large trichobezoar was removed with open laparotomy. Trichobezoars should be suspected in young females with long standing upper abdominal masses; as the possibility of malignancy is not very common in this age group. While USG is inconclusive, trichobezoar can be accurately diagnosed with CT. In patient with huge trichobezoar, laparotomy can be performed firstly because of big size and location of mass, and psychiatric recommendation should be made to prevent relapse of this entity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. HUBBLE SPIES HUGE CLUSTERS OF STARS FORMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    BY ANCIENT ENCOUNTER This stunningly beautiful image [right] taken with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope shows the heart of the prototypical starburst galaxy M82. The ongoing violent star formation due to an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81, gives this galaxy its disturbed appearance. The smaller picture at upper left shows the entire galaxy. The image was taken in December 1994 by the Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope. Hubble's view is represented by the white outline in the center. In the Hubble image, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, the huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- are seen in this detailed Hubble picture as white dots sprinkled throughout M82's central region. The dark region just above the center of the picture is a huge dust cloud. A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the ancient interaction between M82 and M81. About 600 million years ago, a region called 'M82 B' (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have discovered that this ancient starburst was triggered by the violent encounter with M81. M82 is a bright (eighth magnitude), nearby (12 million light-years from Earth) galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major (the Great Bear). The Hubble picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures, which were combined in chromatic order: 4,250 seconds through a blue filter (428 nm); 2,800 seconds through a green filter (520 nm); and 2,200 seconds through a red (820 nm) filter. Credits for Hubble image: NASA, ESA, R. de Grijs (Institute of

  15. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akakpo-Numado Gamedzi Komlatsè

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Huge umbilical hernias (HUH are voluminous umbilical hernia (UH that are frequent in black African children. Several surgical techniques are used in their treatment for umbilical reconstruction, but techniques using skin flaps provide better aesthetic results. In this study, we presented our technique of umbilicoplasty in HUH, and its results. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective study on children treated for HUH, from January 2012 to December 2013. The UH was called HUH when its basis diameter (BD exceeds 3 cm. Every HUH was characterised by its height, BD and morphology. Our technique was a two lateral flaps technique; the flaps are symmetrical and drawn so as to reconstitute the different parts of the umbilicus. The results were appreciated with criteria, including the peripheral ring and the central depression of the neo-umbilicus. Results : Twelve children were concerned (7 boys and 5 girls. Their mean age was 5 years and 6 months. The mean BD was 5.6 cm (extremes 3 and 8 cm, and the mean height of the HUH was 7.45 cm (extremes 3 and 9 cm. All underwent umbilicoplasty. In early post-operative period, two children presented a transitory subcutaneous hematoma. Late complications were granulation tissue with two children, and cheloid scar with one. With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Conclusion: Our two lateral flaps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. It is simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result.

  16. Hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma: single institute's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lianyue; Xu, Jiangfeng; Ou, Dipeng; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Zhijun

    2013-09-01

    The surgical resection of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial. This study was designed to introduce our experience of liver resection for huge HCC and evaluate the safety and outcomes of hepatectomy for huge HCC. A total of 258 hepatic resections for the patients with huge HCC were analysed retrospectively from December 2002 to December 2011. The operative outcomes were compared with 293 patients with HCC >5.0 cm but huge HCC group and HCC >5.0 cm but huge HCC group has significantly a more longer overall and disease-free survival time than nodular huge HCC (P = 0.026, P = 0.022). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that the types of tumour, vascular invasion, and UICC stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (P = 0.047, P = 0.037, P = 0.033). Hepatic resection can be performed safely for huge HCC with a low mortality and favorable survival outcomes. Solitary huge HCC has the better surgical outcomes than nodular huge HCC.

  17. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  18. Optimization of Dynamically Generated SQL Queries for Tiny-Huge, Huge-Tiny Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun K Sirohi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In most new commercial business software applications like Customer Relationship Management, the datais stored in the database layer which is usually a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS likeOracle, DB2 UDB or SQL Server. To access data from these databases, Structured Query Language (SQLqueries are used that are generated dynamically at run time based on defined business models and businessrules. One such business rule is visibility- the capability of the application to restrict data access based onthe role and responsibility of the user logged in to the application. This is generally achieved by appendingsecurity predicates in the form of sub-queries to the main query based on the roles and responsibility of theuser. In some cases, the outer query may be more restrictive while in other cases, the security predicatesmay be more restrictive. This often results in a dilemma for the cost-based optimizer (CBO of the backenddatabase whether to drive from the outer query or drive from the security predicate sub-queries. Thisdilemma is sometimes called the “Tiny-Huge, Huge-Tiny” problem and results in serious performancedegradation by way of increased response times on the application User Interface (UI. This paperprovides a case study of a new approach to vastly reduce this CBO dilemma by a combination of denormalizedcolumns and re-writing of the security predicates’ sub-queries at run-time, thereby levelling theouter and security sub-queries. This approach results in more stable execution plans in the database andmuch better performance of such SQLs, effectively leading to higher performance and scalability of theapplication.

  19. Scarless surgery for a huge liver cyst: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Jun; Isogai, Naoko; Ishii, Masanori; Miyake, Katsunori; Shimoyama, Rai; Fukai, Ryota; Ogino, Hidemitsu

    2017-09-01

    Symptomatic or complicated liver cysts sometimes require surgical intervention and laparoscopic fenestration is the definitive treatment for these cysts. We performed minimally invasive surgery, hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) without scarring, for a huge liver cyst. An 82-year-old female presented with a month-long history of right upper abdominal pain. We diagnosed her condition as a huge liver cyst by morphological studies. She denied any history of abdominal trauma. Her serum CEA and CA19-9 were normal and a serum echinococcus serologic test was negative. Laparoscopic fenestration, using a hybrid NOTES procedure via a transvaginal approach, was performed for a huge liver cyst because we anticipated difficulty with an umbilical approach, such as single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Her post-operative course was uneventful and she was discharged from our hospital three days after surgery. Pain killers were not required during and after hospitalization. No recurrence of the liver cyst or bulging was detected by clinical examination two years later. A recent trend of laparoscopic procedure has been towards minimizing the number of incisions to achieve less invasiveness. This hybrid NOTES, with a small incision for abdominal access, along with vaginal access, enabled painless operation for a huge liver cyst. We report a huge liver cyst treated by hybrid NOTES. This approach is safe, less invasive, and may be the first choice for a huge liver cyst. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Skill gap analysis and training needs in Indian aerospace industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Balaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is on assessing the global aerospace industry as well as Indian scenario, and attempts to assess the skill gaps and training needs of Indian aerospace industry.  Design/methodology/approach: The study is qualitative in nature, and employs wide array of qualitative tools which includes desktop study, focus group interviews and secondary sources of information. Around 10 focus groups were used in the study, with each focus group having a minimum of 6 members of experts in the aerospace and allied industries. The study evolved into a 2 staged one, with the first study elucidating the growing importance and potential of aerospace industry, justifying the significance to take forward the second part of the study. And the second study specifically focuses on skill gaps and training needs. Findings and Originality/value: The Study yields varied results on existing generic expectations of aerospace industry, specific needs of aerospace industry, identification of aerospace job categories unique to aerospace industry, key issues of training in Indian scenario and recommendations. The paper in summary reflects the current scenario of aerospace industry potentials for India and its likely impact on skills gap and training needs. Practical implications: Skills gap is a significant gap between an organization’s current capabilities and the skills it needs to achieve its goals. As a number of Global forecasts project, India as an emerging aviation market, the skill gaps in this sector is predicted to be huge and necessitates the study on assessing the skill gaps and its allied training needs. Originality/value: The Study is highly original and first one of its kind in reflecting the current situation of the skills gap and training needs in Indian Aerospace industry. The focus group interviews were conducted with the experts at various levels in the industyr without any bias yielding valid and realtime data for the

  1. Microstrip microwave band gap structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subramanian

    2008-04-01

    Microwave band gap structures exhibit certain stop band characteristics based on the periodicity, impedance contrast and effective refractive index contrast. These structures though formed in one-, two- and three-dimensional periodicity, are huge in size. In this paper, microstrip-based microwave band gap structures are formed by removing the substrate material in a periodic manner. This paper also demonstrates that these structures can serve as a non-destructive characterization tool for materials, a duplexor and frequency selective coupler. The paper presents both experimental results and theoretical simulation based on a commercially available finite element methodology for comparison.

  2. A case of a huge gastroepiploic arterial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hirokuni; Takeo, Masahiko; Mikami, Ryuuichi; Yamamoto, Mistuo

    2015-08-05

    An 85-year-old man complaining of vague abdominal discomfort was admitted to our hospital. A pulsatile 8 × 7-cm mass in the right upper abdomen was noticed on clinical examination. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a huge arterial aneurysm in the right gastroepiploic artery, and the left gastroepiploic artery was meandering and expanding. An image diagnosis of gastroepiploic arterial aneurysm (GEAA) was made. Because of the huge size of the aneurysm and the predicted high risk of perforation, surgical intervention was planned. The aneurysm was identified in the greater curve and was found to adhere firmly to the transverse colon. Partial resection of the stomach, aneurysmectomy and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed. Clinically, splanchnic arterial aneurysms are rare. Among them, GEAA is especially rare. We report a rare case of a huge GEAA that was treated successfully by surgery. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015.

  3. Anaesthetic management in a case of huge plunging ranula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Jagabandhu; Mandal, Anamitra; Sengupta, Swapnadeep; Jana, Debaleena; Mukherji, Sudakshina; Swaika, Sarbari

    2014-01-01

    Plunging ranula is a rare form of mucous retention cyst arising from submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, which may occasionally become huge occupying the whole of the floor of the mouth and extending into the neck, thus, restricting the neck movement as well as disfiguring the normal airway anatomy. Without fiberoptic assistance, blind or retrograde nasal intubation remains valuable choices in this type of situation. Here, we present a case of successful management of airway by blind nasal intubation in a patient posted for excision of a huge plunging ranula.

  4. Huge Gastric Teratoma in an 8-Year Old Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodiya, Rajpal S; Ratan, Simmi K; Man, Parveen K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric teratoma is very rare tumor and usually presents in early infancy. An 8-year-old boy presented with a huge mass in abdomen extending from epigastrium to the pelvis. Ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen revealed a huge mass with solid and cystic components and internal calcifications. The preoperative diagnosis was a teratoma but not specifically gastric one. At operation, it was found to be gastric teratoma. The mass was excised completely with part of the stomach wall. The histopathology confirmed it to be mature gastric teratoma. The rarity of the teratoma with delayed presentation prompted us to report the case.

  5. Anaesthetic challenges in a patient presenting with huge neck teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric airway management is a great challenge even for an experienced anaesthesiologist. Difficult airway in huge cervical teratoma further exaggerates the complexity. This case report is intended at describing the intubation difficulties that were confronted during the airway management of a three year old girl presenting with huge neck teratoma and respiratory distress. This patient was successfully intubated with uncuffed endotracheal tubes in second attempt under inhalational anaesthesia with halothane and spontaneous ventilation. This case exemplifies the importance of careful preoperative workup of an anticipated difficult airway in paediatric patients with neck swelling to minimize any perioperative complications.

  6. Huge pelvic mass secondary to wear debris causing ureteral obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hananouchi, Takehito; Saito, Masanobu; Nakamura, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    We report an unusual granulomatous reaction of wear debris that produced a huge pelvic mass causing ureteral obstruction. A 72-year-old woman, who received a cemented total hip arthroplasty 30 years ago, was referred to the department of gynecology for examination of a pelvic mass. A computed tomography scan revealed a huge homogenous mass, measuring approximately 20 x 16 x 12 cm, including extensive osteolysis of the left pelvis around the acetabular component. Intravenous pyelogram revealed complete obstruction of the left ureter resulting in hydronephrosis of the left kidney. Histological examination from the biopsy specimen detected polyethylene wear debris in the mass.

  7. Anaesthetic management in a case of huge plunging ranula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet, Jagabandhu; Mandal, Anamitra; Sengupta, Swapnadeep; Jana, Debaleena; Mukherji, Sudakshina; Swaika, Sarbari

    2014-01-01

    Plunging ranula is a rare form of mucous retention cyst arising from submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, which may occasionally become huge occupying the whole of the floor of the mouth and extending into the neck, thus, restricting the neck movement as well as disfiguring the normal airway anatomy. Without fiberoptic assistance, blind or retrograde nasal intubation remains valuable choices in this type of situation. Here, we present a case of successful management of airway by blind nasal intubation in a patient posted for excision of a huge plunging ranula. PMID:25886120

  8. The huge Package for High-dimensional Undirected Graph Estimation in R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tuo; Liu, Han; Roeder, Kathryn; Lafferty, John; Wasserman, Larry

    2015-01-01

    We describe an R package named huge which provides easy-to-use functions for estimating high dimensional undirected graphs from data. This package implements recent results in the literature, including Friedman et al. (2007), Liu et al. (2009, 2012) and Liu et al. (2010). Compared with the existing graph estimation package glasso, the huge package provides extra features: (1) instead of using Fortan, it is written in C, which makes the code more portable and easier to modify; (2) besides fitting Gaussian graphical models, it also provides functions for fitting high dimensional semiparametric Gaussian copula models; (3) more functions like data-dependent model selection, data generation and graph visualization; (4) a minor convergence problem of the graphical lasso algorithm is corrected; (5) the package allows the user to apply both lossless and lossy screening rules to scale up large-scale problems, making a tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. PMID:26834510

  9. Imaging of huge lingual thyroid gland with goitre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.C.; Chen, C.Y.; Chen, F.H.; Lee, G.W.; Hsiao, H.S. [Nat. Defense Medical Centre, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiol.; Zimmermann, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St. and Civic Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19014 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    We present the CT and MRI findings in a 75-year-old woman with a huge pathologically proven lingual thyroid which underwent goitrous degeneration. CT and MRI showed a midline, tongue-based, exophytic mass with areas of necrosis and heterogeneous contrast enhancement, as seen in large goitres in the normal thyroid gland. (orig.) With 1 fig., 7 refs.

  10. Smart Cities as Support and Legacy of Huge Sport Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAURION, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the concept of a smart city and the importance of huge Sport events as an incentive to the creation of the infrastructure necessary for the development of cities that provide quality of life for all its citizens using information technology.

  11. The big, large and huge case of state-building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Using communication theory as point of departure, it is not evident how to study macro phenomena. Michel Foucault limited his studies to a non-Grand Theory when studying discursive events. At the same time, Charles Tilly wrote about Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons when trying...

  12. [Experience of surgical treatment of huge mediastinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Qingsheng; Su, Lei; Zhi, Xiuyi; Wang, Ruotian; Qian, Kun; Hu, Mu; Liu, Lei

    2014-09-23

    The diagnosis and surgical treatment of 36 huge mediastinal tumors were summarized in order to evaluate the effect and safety of the operation. Thirty-six huge mediastinal tumor patients treated in our department from June 2006 to June 2013 were retrospective analyzed, of whom clinical manifestations, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prognosis were carefully collected. Twenty-three cases were men and 13 were women. The average age was 39.2 years old. The pathology turned out to be benign in 23 cases and malignant in 13 cases. Complete resection was achieved in 34 cases while palliative resection in 2 cases with no perioperative death. Six cases had developed postoperative complications but all recovered after active treatment. Patients who had been diagnosed with benign tumors were all alive after follow-up periods of 6 months to 7 years. Nine malignat tumor patients developed recurrence or metastasis, including seven deaths. Surgery played a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of huge mediastinal tumors. Preoperative diagnosis, accurate surgical approach and careful operation were the key to successful treatment. Benign huge mediastinal tumors had excellent prognosis with surgery.

  13. A Huge Ovarian Dermoid Cyst: Successful Laparoscopic Total Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Dusak, Abdurrahim

    2017-08-01

    Giant ovarian cysts, ≥15 cm in diameter, are quite rare in women of reproductive age. Here, we present a case of ovarian cyst with unusual presentation treated by laparoscopic surgery. On histology, mass was found to be mature cystic teratoma. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this huge ovarian cyst were discussed in the light of the literature.

  14. Huge mediastinal liposarcoma resected by clamshell thoracotomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Michihito; Izumi, Nobuhiro; Tsukioka, Takuma; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Okada, Satoshi; Hara, Kantaro; Ito, Ryuichi; Shibata, Toshihiko; Nishiyama, Noritoshi

    2017-12-01

    Liposarcoma is the single most common soft tissue sarcoma. Because mediastinal liposarcomas often grow rapidly and frequently recur locally despite adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, they require complete excision. Therefore, the feasibility of achieving complete surgical excision must be carefully considered. We here report a case of a huge mediastinal liposarcoma resected via clamshell thoracotomy. A 64-year-old man presented with dyspnea on effort. Cardiomegaly had been diagnosed 6 years previously, but had been left untreated. A computed tomography scan showed a huge (36 cm diameter) anterior mediastinal tumor expanding into the pleural cavities bilaterally. The tumor comprised mostly fatty tissue but contained two solid areas. Echo-guided needle biopsies were performed and a diagnosis of an atypical lipomatous tumor was established by pathological examination of the biopsy samples. Surgical resection was performed via a clamshell incision, enabling en bloc resection of this huge tumor. Although there was no invasion of surrounding organs, the left brachiocephalic vein was resected because it was circumferentially surrounded by tumor and could not be preserved. The tumor weighed 3500 g. Pathologic examination of the resected tumor resulted in a diagnosis of a biphasic tumor comprising dedifferentiated liposarcoma and non-adipocytic sarcoma with necrotic areas. The patient remains free of recurrent tumor 20 months postoperatively. Clamshell incision provides an excellent surgical field and can be performed safely in patients with huge mediastinal liposarcomas.

  15. Bridging The Inferential Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Walter F.; Shah, Nirav R.; Selna, Mark J.; Paulus, Ronald A.; Walker, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Most clinical decisions involve bridging the inferential gap: Clinicians are required to “fill in” where they lack knowledge or where no knowledge yet exists. In this context we consider how the inferential gap is a product, in part, of how knowledge is created, the limits to gaining access to such knowledge, and the variable ways in which knowledge is translated into decisions. We consider how electronic health records (EHRs) will help narrow this gap by accelerating the creation of evidence relevant to everyday practice needs and facilitating real-time use of knowledge in practice. PMID:17259202

  16. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  17. Huge thick conglomerate movement induced by full thick longwall mining huge thick coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Liqiang; Qiu Xiaoxiang; Dong Tao; Zhang Jixiong; Huang Yanli

    2012-01-01

    A discrete elemental method was used to study the thickness of conglomerate layer in a full thick seam mining activities under the influence of the law,pointing out the thickness of the conglomerate at different seam mining,and during the destruction and instability of existing state of laws.At 21141 thick seam mining,the face toward the direction of separation between the thick layer of conglomerate rock and the next bit after reaching its maximum capacity due to pull from the bottom of the plastic zone,formed a stratified and hierarchical down collapse.The shape of caving area is a "triangular block",the length of the plastic zone and face advancement from the linear fit between the height of the plastic zone and the advancing face is a quadratic function of distance,while the top layer of thick gravel layer is the overall bending subsidence trend.Tilting the direction of the face,a thick gob of collapsed conglomerate layer is formed in the coal gob entity on both sides of the thick conglomerate at the top of the overall fracture morphology performance,thus forming a mutual extrusion of articulated block structure.The instability,separation and balance of the thick conglomerate layer in the hinged block stope stress leads to abnormal occurrence of rock burst induced by face as the major factor in the accident.This research reveals the form of stress distribution in the destroyed layer of the thick conglomerate rock,analyzes the stope law of coupling for the pressure burst behavior law for the mining work face,and the choice of preventive measures to provide a theoretical basis and implementation.

  18. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chufal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  19. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chufal, S; Thapliyal, Naveen; Gupta, Manoj; Pangtey, Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  20. A case of huge primary liposarcoma in the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Mou Kuo; Hong-Shiue Chou; Kun-Ming Chan; Ming-Chin Yu; Wei-Chen Lee

    2006-01-01

    Primary liver liposarcoma is a rare disease. Because of its rarity, the knowledge of the clinical course, management, and prognosis of primary liver liposarcoma are all limited for clinicians. A 61-year-old female patient who suffered from a huge primary liposarcoma in the central portion of the liver had the clinical presentations of fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, and body weight loss.The huge tumor was resected successfully. However,the tumor recurred repeatedly and she had repeated hepatectomies to remove the tumor. Thetumor became aggravating after repeated surgeries. Eventually, the patient had cervical spinal metastasis of liposarcoma and she survived for 26 months after liver liposarcoma was diagnosed. Although the tumor may become aggravating after repeated surgeries, repeated hepatectomies are still the best policy to achieve a long-term survival for the patients.

  1. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  2. Black Hole Firewalls Require Huge Energy of Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, Masahiro; Funo, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the firewall paradox in quantum black holes. The reasoning of Almheiri et al. inevitably raises a firewall paradox in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of quantum measurements. No firewall with a deadly, huge energy flux appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  3. Severe microphthalmos with cyst and unusually huge dermolipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report an unusual case of severe microphthalmos, together with an orbital cyst and huge ocular surface dermolipoma. This is a clinical report relating clinical features as well as imaging and histopathologic findings, along with surgical management of the patient. A 5-month-old Chinese male infant was referred, with 2 large masses in the left eye that were present since birth. Ocular examination results revealed a complete absence of any eye structures in the left orbit. In its place were 2 large masses between the left upper and lower palpebral fissure. One was a 3 × 3 × 2.5-cm spherical red tumor with a smooth surface. The other was a large solid spherical tumor, 4 × 4 × 5 cm, covered with normal skin located in the temporal region and attached to the red mass by a pedicle. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging examination findings confirmed that no eye structures were present in the left orbit. However, a cystic lesion was found in the left orbit, with a low signal on T1-weighted imaging and high signal on T2-weighted imaging, and another huge spherical heterogeneous mass was located "outside" the left orbit. Anterior orbitotomy by conjunctival incision was performed under general anesthesia. A spherical cystic mass of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.6 cm, a small eye of 0.7 × 0.7 × 0.6 cm, and a huge dermolipoma were removed completely. Pathologic examination results confirmed the diagnosis of severe microphthalmos, together with orbital dermoid cyst and dermolipoma. This rare case demonstrates that severe microphthalmos with a cyst may be completely covered by conjunctiva and associated with an unusually huge dermolipoma.

  4. Huge plastic bezoar: a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaka, Mbarek; Ehirchiou, Abdelkader; Alkandry, Tariq Tajdin Sifeddine; Sair, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are rare causes of gastrointestinal obstruction. Basically, they are of four types: trichobezoars, phytobezoars, pharmacobezoars, and lactobezoars. Some rare types of bezoars are also known. In this article a unique case of plastic bezoars is presented. We describe a girl aged 14 years who ingested large amounts of plastic material used for knitting chairs and charpoys. The conglomerate of plastic threads, entrapped food material and other debris, formed a huge mass occupying the whole stomach and extended into small bowel.

  5. A Huge Cystic Retroperitoneal Lymphangioma Presenting with Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubachev, Kubach; Abdullaev, Elbrus; Babyshin, Valentin; Neronov, Dmitriy; Abdullaev, Abakar

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal lymphangioma is a rare location and type of benign abdominal tumors. The clinical presentation of this rare disease is nonspecific, ranging from abdominal distention to sepsis. Here we present a 73-year-old female patient with 3-month history of back pain. USG and CT revealed a huge cystic mass which was surgically excised and appeared to be lymphangioma on histopathology. PMID:27843456

  6. Huge Left Atrium Accompanied by Normally Functioning Prosthetic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun

    2015-01-01

    Giant left atria are defined as those measuring larger than 8 cm and are typically found in patients who have rheumatic mitral valve disease with severe regurgitation. Enlargement of the left atrium may create compression of the surrounding structures such as the esophagus, pulmonary veins, respiratory tract, lung, inferior vena cava, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and thoracic vertebrae and lead to dysphagia, respiratory dysfunction, peripheral edema, hoarse voice, or back pain. However, a huge left atrium is usually associated with rheumatic mitral valve disease but is very rare in a normally functioning prosthetic mitral valve, as was the case in our patient. A 46-year-old woman with a past medical history of mitral valve replacement and chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of cough and shortness of breath, worsened in the last month. Physical examination showed elevated jugular venous pressure, respiratory distress, cardiac cachexia, heart failure, hepatomegaly, and severe edema in the legs. Chest radiography revealed an inconceivably huge cardiac sell-out. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a huge left atrium, associated with thrombosis, and normal function of the prosthetic mitral valve. Cardiac surgery with left atrial exploration for the extraction of the huge thrombosis and De Vega annuloplasty for tricuspid regurgitation were carried out. The postoperative course was eventful due to right ventricular failure and low cardiac output syndrome; and after two days, the patient expired with multiple organ failure. Thorough literature review showed that our case was the largest left atrium (20 × 22 cm) reported thus far in adults with a normal prosthetic mitral valve function.

  7. Huge Left Atrium Accompanied by Normally Function- ing Prosthetic Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant left atria are defined as those measuring larger than 8 cm and are typically found in patients who have rheumatic mitral valve disease with severe regurgitation. Enlargement of the left atrium may create compression of the surrounding structures such as the esophagus, pulmonary veins, respiratory tract, lung, inferior vena cava, recurrent laryngeal nerve, and thoracic vertebrae and lead to dysphagia, respiratory dysfunction, peripheral edema, hoarse voice, or back pain. However, a huge left atrium is usually associated with rheumatic mitral valve disease but is very rare in a normally functioning prosthetic mitral valve, as was the case in our patient. A 46-year-old woman with a past medical history of mitral valve replacement and chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to our hospital with a chief complaint of cough and shortness of breath, worsened in the last month. Physical examination showed elevated jugular venous pressure, respiratory distress, cardiac cachexia, heart failure, hepatomegaly, and severe edema in the legs. Chest radiography revealed an inconceivably huge cardiac sell-out. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a huge left atrium, associated with thrombosis, and normal function of the prosthetic mitral valve. Cardiac surgery with left atrial exploration for the extraction of the huge thrombosis and De Vega annuloplasty for tricuspid regurgitation were carried out. The postoperative course was eventful due to right ventricular failure and low cardiac output syndrome; and after two days, the patient expired with multiple organ failure. Thorough literature review showed that our case was the largest left atrium (20 × 22 cm reported thus far in adults with a normal prosthetic mitral valve function.

  8. Huge Nevus Lipomatosus Cutaneous Superficialis on Back: An Unusual Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata; Kumar, Dhiraj

    2015-01-01

    Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS) is a benign dermatosis, histologically characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with multiple huge swellings on the scapular regions and lower back. The lesions were surmounted by small papules, along with peau-d orange appearance at places. Histology showed features consistent with NLCS. The case is being reported for the unusual clinical presentation.

  9. Huge nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis on back: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevus lipomatosus cutaneous superficialis (NLCS is a benign dermatosis, histologically characterized by the presence of mature ectopic adipocytes in the dermis. We hereby report a case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with multiple huge swellings on the scapular regions and lower back. The lesions were surmounted by small papules, along with peau-d orange appearance at places. Histology showed features consistent with NLCS. The case is being reported for the unusual clinical presentation.

  10. Addressing huge spatial heterogeneity induced by virus infections in lentil breeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargiotidou, Anastasia; Vlachostergios, Dimitrios N; Tzantarmas, Constantinos; Mylonas, Ioannis; Foti, Chrysanthi; Menexes, George; Polidoros, Alexios; Tokatlidis, Ioannis S

    2016-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity can have serious effects on the precision of field experimentation in plant breeding. In the present study the capacity of the honeycomb design (HD) to sample huge spatial heterogeneity was appraised. For this purpose, four trials were conducted each comprising a lentil landrace being screened for response to viruses. Huge spatial heterogeneity was reflected by the abnormally high values for coefficient of variation (CV) of single-plant yields, ranging 123-162 %. At a given field area, increasing the number of simulated entries was followed by declined effectiveness of the method, on account of the larger circular block implying greater intra-block heterogeneity; a hyperbolic increasing pattern of the top to bottom entry mean gap (TBG) indicated that a number of more than 100 replicates (number of plants per entry) is the crucial threshold to avoid significant deterioration of the sampling degree. Nevertheless, the honeycomb model kept dealing with variation better than the randomized complete block (RCB) pattern, thanks to the circular shape and standardized type of block that ensure the less possible extra heterogeneity with expanding the area of the block. Owing to the even and systematic entry allocation, breeders do not need to be concerned with the extra spatial heterogeneity that might induce the extra surface needed to expand the size of the block when many entries are considered. Instead, they could improve accuracy of comparisons with increasing the number of replicates (circular blocks) despite the concomitant greater overall spatial heterogeneity.

  11. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  12. Huge Intravascular Tumor Extending to the Heart: Leiomyomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat Doganci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL is a rare neoplasm characterized by histologically benign-looking smooth muscle cell tumor mass, which is growing within the intrauterine and extrauterine venous system. In this report we aimed to present an unusual case of IVL, which is originating from iliac vein and extended throughout to right cardiac chambers. A 49-year-old female patient, who was treated with warfarin sodium due to right iliac vein thrombosis, was admitted to our department with intermittent dyspnea, palpitation, and dizziness. Physical examination was almost normal except bilateral pretibial edema. On magnetic resonance venography, there was an intravenous mass, which is originated from right internal iliac vein and extended into the inferior vena cava. Transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a huge mass extending from the inferior vena cava through the right atrium, with obvious venous occlusion. Thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic MR showed an intravascular mass, which is concordant with leiomyomatosis. Surgery was performed through median sternotomy. A huge mass with 25-cm length and 186-gr weight was excised through right atrial oblique incision, on beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass. Histopathologic assessment was compatible with IVL. Exact strategy for the surgical treatment of IVL is still controversial. We used one-stage approach, with complete resection of a huge IVL extending from right atrium to right iliac vein. In such cases, high recurrence rate is a significant problem; therefore it should be kept in mind.

  13. Multimodality treatment with radiotherapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hee Ji; Kim, Mi Sun; Cha, Jihye; Choi, Jin Sub; Han, Kwang Hyub; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-01-01

    For huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), therapeutic decisions have varied from local therapy to systemic therapy, with radiotherapy (RT) playing only a palliative role. In this study, we investigated whether multimodality treatment involving RT could be effective in huge HCC. This study was performed in 116 patients with HCC >10 cm. The number of patients in stage II, III and IV was 12, 54 and 50, respectively. RT was given as a combined modality in most patients. The median dose was 45 Gy, with 1.8 Gy per fraction. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 14.8 and 6.5 months, respectively. The median infield PFS was not reached. Infield failure, outfield intrahepatic and extrahepatic failure were observed in 8.6, 18.1, and 12.1% of patients, respectively. For OS and PFS, number of tumors, initial alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, treatment response, percent AFP decrement, and hepatic resection were significant prognostic factors. Tumor characteristics and treatment response were significantly different between long-term survivors and the other patients. Although huge HCC presents an aggressive clinical course, multimodality approaches involving RT can offer an opportunity for prolonged survival. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Huge Intravascular Tumor Extending to the Heart: Leiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganci, Suat; Kaya, Erkan; Kadan, Murat; Karabacak, Kubilay; Erol, Gökhan; Demirkilic, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare neoplasm characterized by histologically benign-looking smooth muscle cell tumor mass, which is growing within the intrauterine and extrauterine venous system. In this report we aimed to present an unusual case of IVL, which is originating from iliac vein and extended throughout to right cardiac chambers. A 49-year-old female patient, who was treated with warfarin sodium due to right iliac vein thrombosis, was admitted to our department with intermittent dyspnea, palpitation, and dizziness. Physical examination was almost normal except bilateral pretibial edema. On magnetic resonance venography, there was an intravenous mass, which is originated from right internal iliac vein and extended into the inferior vena cava. Transthoracic echocardiography and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a huge mass extending from the inferior vena cava through the right atrium, with obvious venous occlusion. Thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic MR showed an intravascular mass, which is concordant with leiomyomatosis. Surgery was performed through median sternotomy. A huge mass with 25-cm length and 186-gr weight was excised through right atrial oblique incision, on beating heart with cardiopulmonary bypass. Histopathologic assessment was compatible with IVL. Exact strategy for the surgical treatment of IVL is still controversial. We used one-stage approach, with complete resection of a huge IVL extending from right atrium to right iliac vein. In such cases, high recurrence rate is a significant problem; therefore it should be kept in mind.

  15. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  16. Gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  17. Efficient visualization of unsteady and huge scalar and vector fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Michael; Olbrich, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The simulation of climate data tends to produce very large data sets, which hardly can be processed in classical post-processing visualization applications. Within the most traditional post-processing scenarios the visualization pipeline consisting of the processes data generation, visualization mapping and rendering is distributed into two parts over the network or separated via file transfer: the data generation on a supercomputer on the one hand and the other tasks on a special visualization system on the other hand. That way either temporary data sets with huge volume have to be transferred over the network, which leads to bandwidth bottlenecks and volume limitations. As an alternative all simulation and visualization processes are integrated in a monolithic application, where just 2D pixel data is stored, which reduces the user's possibilities for 3D interaction with visualization to frame skipping. Within the Climate Visualization Lab - as part of the Cluster of Excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction" (CliSAP at the University of Hamburg, in cooperation with the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) - we plan to integrate a different approach, which has been proven to be successful in former meteorology applications, e.g. PALM (Parallel Large Eddy Simulation Model). Our software framework DSVR is based on the separation of the process chain between the mapping and the rendering processes. We have developed a parallelized visualization library based on MPI and evaluated on various supercomputers. DSVR can be used to integrate the visualization into a parallel simulation model to support in-situ processing, resulting in a sequence of time-based geometric 3D objects which can be interactively rendered in a separate 3D viewer application. To meet the actual requirements (a) to visualize existing data sets, (b) to support more than rectilinear grids, and (c) to integrate in-situ processing in the ICON model, all based on our DSVR framework

  18. Mythic gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of omissions sometimes occur, or are perceived to occur, in traditional narratives and in tradition-inspired literature. A familiar instance is when a narrator realizes that he or she does not fully remember the story that he or she has begun to tell, and so leaves out part of it, which for listeners may possibly result in an unintelligible narrative. But many instances of narrative gap are not so obvious. From straightforward, objective gaps one can distinguish less-obvious subjective gaps: in many cases narrators do not leave out anything crucial or truly relevant from their exposition, and yet readers perceive gaps and take steps to fill them. The present paper considers four examples of subjective gaps drawn from ancient Greek literature (the Pandora myth, ancient Roman literature (the Pygmalion legend, ancient Hebrew literature (the Joseph legend, and early Christian literature (the Jesus legend. I consider the quite varied ways in which interpreters expand the inherited texts of these stories, such as by devising names, manufacturing motives, creating backstories, and in general filling in biographical ellipses. Finally, I suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of subjective gaps, arguing that, despite their variety, they have a single cause.

  19. Closing the Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's recent economic success has brought positive changes to its urban population,but left those in the countryside way behind.The gap in income and living standrs that always existed between urban and rural dwellers has widened alarmingly in the past two decades,causing serious problems.

  20. Analyzing huge pathology images with open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroulers, Christophe; Ameisen, David; Badoual, Mathilde; Gerin, Chloé; Granier, Alexandre; Lartaud, Marc

    2013-06-06

    Digital pathology images are increasingly used both for diagnosis and research, because slide scanners are nowadays broadly available and because the quantitative study of these images yields new insights in systems biology. However, such virtual slides build up a technical challenge since the images occupy often several gigabytes and cannot be fully opened in a computer's memory. Moreover, there is no standard format. Therefore, most common open source tools such as ImageJ fail at treating them, and the others require expensive hardware while still being prohibitively slow. We have developed several cross-platform open source software tools to overcome these limitations. The NDPITools provide a way to transform microscopy images initially in the loosely supported NDPI format into one or several standard TIFF files, and to create mosaics (division of huge images into small ones, with or without overlap) in various TIFF and JPEG formats. They can be driven through ImageJ plugins. The LargeTIFFTools achieve similar functionality for huge TIFF images which do not fit into RAM. We test the performance of these tools on several digital slides and compare them, when applicable, to standard software. A statistical study of the cells in a tissue sample from an oligodendroglioma was performed on an average laptop computer to demonstrate the efficiency of the tools. Our open source software enables dealing with huge images with standard software on average computers. They are cross-platform, independent of proprietary libraries and very modular, allowing them to be used in other open source projects. They have excellent performance in terms of execution speed and RAM requirements. They open promising perspectives both to the clinician who wants to study a single slide and to the research team or data centre who do image analysis of many slides on a computer cluster. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here

  1. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR PATTERN ANALYSIS FROM HUGE DATAWAREHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABITA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the tremendous growth of data and large databases, efficient extraction of required data has become a challenging task. This paper propose a novel approach for knowledge discovery from huge unlabeled temporal databases by employing a combination of HMM and K-means technique. We propose to recursively divide the entire database into clusters having similar characteristics, this process is repeated until we get the cluster’s where no further diversification is possible. Thereafter, the clusters are labeled for knowledge extraction for various purposes.

  2. A young woman with a huge paratubal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Golbasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratubal cysts are asymptomatic embryological remnants. These cysts are usually diagnosed during adolescence and reproductive age. In general, their sizes are small but can be complicated by rupture, torsion, or hemorrhage. Paratubal cysts are often discovered fortuitously on routine ultrasound examination. We report a 19-year-old female patient who presented with irregular menses and abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a huge cystic mass at the right adnexial area. The diagnosis was confirmed as paratubal cyst during laporotomy and, hence, cystectomy and right salpingectomy were performed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 573-576

  3. Modeling huge sound sources in a room acoustical calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    1999-01-01

    A room acoustical model capable of modeling point sources, line sources, and surface sources is presented. Line and surface sources are modeled using a special ray-tracing algorithm detecting the radiation pattern of the surfaces of the room. Point sources are modeled using a hybrid calculation...... method combining this ray-tracing method with image source modeling. With these three source types it is possible to model huge and complex sound sources in industrial environments. Compared to a calculation with only point sources, the use of extended sound sources is shown to improve the agreement...

  4. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  5. Huge pyometra in a postmenopausal age: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramila Yadav

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra in postmenopausal women is an extremely rare disease that hardly responds to the usual treatment of antibiotics therapy. Our case presented as a postmenopausal woman with a huge pyometra. Pyometra drainage was done with great difficulty after a blind biopsy. Endometrial and cervical biopsy followed by endometrial curettage was done. An intrauterine foley's catheter was kept for seven days and Histopathological report was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1549-1551

  6. GAP Analysis Program (GAP) Raster

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification of...

  7. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  8. To Explore the New Developing Way for Jiangxi Province to Accelerate Development through the Existing Gap%从差距中探寻加快江西发展新路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭道宾

    2002-01-01

    Since China's opening-up reformation ,jiangxi's economic development has achieved great progress ,but compare with some developed provinces,still exist some gaps,The paper has an attempt to seek a new way to accelerate economic development of jiangxi province 。

  9. Errors in Seismic Hazard Assessment are Creating Huge Human Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bela, J.

    2015-12-01

    The current practice of representing earthquake hazards to the public based upon their perceived likelihood or probability of occurrence is proven now by the global record of actual earthquakes to be not only erroneous and unreliable, but also too deadly! Earthquake occurrence is sporadic and therefore assumptions of earthquake frequency and return-period are both not only misleading, but also categorically false. More than 700,000 people have now lost their lives (2000-2011), wherein 11 of the World's Deadliest Earthquakes have occurred in locations where probability-based seismic hazard assessments had predicted only low seismic low hazard. Unless seismic hazard assessment and the setting of minimum earthquake design safety standards for buildings and bridges are based on a more realistic deterministic recognition of "what can happen" rather than on what mathematical models suggest is "most likely to happen" such future huge human losses can only be expected to continue! The actual earthquake events that did occur were at or near the maximum potential-size event that either already had occurred in the past; or were geologically known to be possible. Haiti's M7 earthquake, 2010 (with > 222,000 fatalities) meant the dead could not even be buried with dignity. Japan's catastrophic Tohoku earthquake, 2011; a M9 Megathrust earthquake, unleashed a tsunami that not only obliterated coastal communities along the northern Japanese coast, but also claimed > 20,000 lives. This tsunami flooded nuclear reactors at Fukushima, causing 4 explosions and 3 reactors to melt down. But while this history of huge human losses due to erroneous and misleading seismic hazard estimates, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived; if faced with courage and a more realistic deterministic estimate of "what is possible", it need not be lived again. An objective testing of the results of global probability based seismic hazard maps against real occurrences has never been done by the

  10. Distributed and parallel approach for handle and perform huge datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Big Data refers to the dynamic, large and disparate volumes of data comes from many different sources (tools, machines, sensors, mobile devices) uncorrelated with each others. It requires new, innovative and scalable technology to collect, host and analytically process the vast amount of data. Proper architecture of the system that perform huge data sets is needed. In this paper, the comparison of distributed and parallel system architecture is presented on the example of MapReduce (MR) Hadoop platform and parallel database platform (DBMS). This paper also analyzes the problem of performing and handling valuable information from petabytes of data. The both paradigms: MapReduce and parallel DBMS are described and compared. The hybrid architecture approach is also proposed and could be used to solve the analyzed problem of storing and processing Big Data.

  11. Anaethetic management of a neonate with huge cystic hygroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindi Palkhiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here the case of a 7 day old neonate with huge cystic hygroma on the left side of the neck invading the major vessels of neck, facial nerve, strap muscles and sternocleidomastoid. Anasethtic implications in this case were maintaining airway patency after induction, difficult intubation, risk perioperative dislodgement of tube and judgement of proper time for extubation. Following gaseous induction and adequate mask ventilation, patient was intubated with muscle relaxant. peroperatively to avoid accidental extubation, we choose to manually hold the ET tube after fixing it. At the end of relatively uneventful surgery, we could extubate the patient in OT. patient was shifted to NICU for observation. Post operatively on 3rd day, facial palsy was observed. Ptient was discharged on 21st day.

  12. Huge Intracanal lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is the most common cause of sciatica and only in about 10% of the affected patients, surgical intervention is necessary. The side of the patient (the side of most prominent clinical complaints is usually consistent with the side of imaging (the side with most prominent disc herniation on imaging scans. In this case series, we presented our experience in four cases with huge intracanal LDH that a mismatch between the patient’s side and the imaging’s side was present. In these cases, for deciding to do the operation, the physicians need to rely more on clinical findings, but for deciding the side of discectomy, imaging characteristic (imaging side may be a more important criterion.

  13. A parallel solver for huge dense linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, J. M.; Movilla, J. L.; Climente, J. I.; Castillo, M.; Marqués, M.; Mayo, R.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Planelles, J.

    2011-11-01

    HDSS (Huge Dense Linear System Solver) is a Fortran Application Programming Interface (API) to facilitate the parallel solution of very large dense systems to scientists and engineers. The API makes use of parallelism to yield an efficient solution of the systems on a wide range of parallel platforms, from clusters of processors to massively parallel multiprocessors. It exploits out-of-core strategies to leverage the secondary memory in order to solve huge linear systems O(100.000). The API is based on the parallel linear algebra library PLAPACK, and on its Out-Of-Core (OOC) extension POOCLAPACK. Both PLAPACK and POOCLAPACK use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication layer and BLAS to perform the local matrix operations. The API provides a friendly interface to the users, hiding almost all the technical aspects related to the parallel execution of the code and the use of the secondary memory to solve the systems. In particular, the API can automatically select the best way to store and solve the systems, depending of the dimension of the system, the number of processes and the main memory of the platform. Experimental results on several parallel platforms report high performance, reaching more than 1 TFLOP with 64 cores to solve a system with more than 200 000 equations and more than 10 000 right-hand side vectors. New version program summaryProgram title: Huge Dense System Solver (HDSS) Catalogue identifier: AEHU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHU_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 87 062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 069 110 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90, C Computer: Parallel architectures: multiprocessors, computer clusters Operating system

  14. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  15. Does China's Huge External Surplus Imply an Undervalued Renminbi?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony J. Makin

    2007-01-01

    A pegged exchange rate regime has been pivotal to China's export-led development strategy. However, its huge trade surpluses and massive build up of international reserves have been matched by large deficits for major trading partners, creating acute policy concerns abroad, especially in the USA. This paper provides a straightforward conceptual framework for interpreting the effect of China's exchange rate policy on its own trade balance and that of trading partners in the context of discrepant economic growth rates. It shows how pegging the exchange rate when output is outstripping expenditure induces China's trade surpluses and counterpart deficits for its trading partners. An important corollary is that given its strictly regulated capital account, China's persistently large surpluses imply a significantly undervalued renminbi, which should gradually become more flexible.

  16. Gap analysis and conservation network for freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Li; Haijin, Zhuge; Li, Mengdi

    2013-01-01

    The Central Yangtze Ecoregion contains a large area of internationally important freshwater wetlands and supports a huge number of endangered waterbirds; however, these unique wetlands and the biodiversity they support are under the constant threats of human development pressures, and the prevailing conservation strategies generated based on the local scale cannot adequately be used as guidelines for ecoregion-based conservation initiatives for Central Yangtze at the broad scale. This paper aims at establishing and optimizing an ecological network for freshwater wetland conservation in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion based on large-scale gap analysis. A group of focal species and GIS-based extrapolation technique were employed to identify the potential habitats and conservation gaps, and the optimized conservation network was then established by combining existing protective system and identified conservation gaps. Our results show that only 23.49% of the potential habitats of the focal species have been included in the existing nature reserves in the Central Yangtze Ecoregion. To effectively conserve over 80% of the potential habitats for the focal species by optimizing the existing conservation network for the freshwater wetlands in Central Yangtze Ecoregion, it is necessary to establish new wetland nature reserves in 22 county units across Hubei, Anhui, and Jiangxi provinces.

  17. PRS: PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR HUGE DATA ANALYSIS USING PORTER STEMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Chiranjeevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal recommendation system is one which gives better and preferential recommendation to the users to satisfy their personalized requirements such as practical applications like Webpage Preferences, Sport Videos preferences, Stock selection based on price, TV preferences, Hotel preferences, books, Mobile phones, CDs and various other products now use recommender systems. The existing Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC and item-based algorithm using PCC, are called as UPCC and IPCC respectively. These systems are mainly based on only the rating services and does not consider the user personal preferences, they simply just give the result based on the ratings. As the size of data increases it will give the recommendations based on the top rated services and it will miss out most of user preferences. These are main drawbacks in the existing system which will give same results to the users based on some evaluations and rankings or rating service, they will neglect the user preferences and necessities. To address this problem we propose a new approach called, Personnel Recommendation System (PRS for huge data analysis using Porter Stemmer to solve the above challenges. In the proposed system it provides a personalized service recommendation list to the users and recommends the most useful services to the users which will increase the accuracy and efficiency in searching better services. Particularly, a set of suggestions or keywords are provided to indicate user preferences and we used Collaborative Filtering and Porter Stemmer algorithm which gives a suitable recommendations to the users. In real, the broad experiments are conducted on the huge database which is available in real world, and outcome shows that our proposed personal recommender method extensively improves the precision and efficiency of service recommender system over the KASR method. In our approach mainly consider the user preferences so it will not miss out the any of the data

  18. Late Intervention-Related Complication - A Huge Subepicardial Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Chang, Chih-Ping; Yang, Chen-Chia; Lin, Jen-Jyh

    2013-05-01

    A 75-year-old man had a history of triple vessel coronary artery disease. In August 2009, he had undergone successful percutaneous coronary intervention to the left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) for management of an in-stent restenosis (ISR) lesion. However, in September 2010, he began experiencing recurrent episodes of exertional chest pain. Chest radiography showed the left cardiac border bulging upwards. Transthoracic echocardiography and chest computed tomography revealed a huge oval mass of about 10.4 cm × 7.9 cm × 8.6 cm, which showed calcification and was obliterating the LCX. Subsequent coronary angiography revealed significant instent restenosis, with extravasation of a small amount of contrast material at the stent location, suggesting that the coronary artery had ruptured. We implanted a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent to seal the coronary perforation and to release the occlusion. The patient was symptom-free and had an uneventful outcome until the 1-year follow up. Coronary artery perforation; Covered stent; Hematoma.

  19. A huge posteromedial mediastinal cyst complicated with vertebral dislodgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoussaridis Jordan T

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mediastinal cysts compromise almost 20% of all mediastinal masses with bronchogenic subtype accounting for 60% of all cystic lesions. Although compression of adjoining soft tissues is usual, spinal complications and neurological symptoms are outmost rare and tend to characterize almost exclusively the neuroenteric cysts. Case presentation A young patient with intermittent, dull pain in his back and free medical history presented in the orthopaedic department of our hospital. There, the initial clinical and radiologic evaluation revealed a mediastinal mass and the patient was referred to the thoracic surgery department for further exploration. The following computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI shown a huge mediastinal cyst compressing the T4-T6 vertebral bodies. The neurological symptoms of the patient were attributed to this specific pathology due to the complete agreement between the location of the cyst and the nervous rule area of the compressed thoracic vertebrae. Despite our strongly suggestions for surgery the patient denied any treatment. Conclusion In controversy with the common faith that the spine plays the role of the natural barrier to the further expansion of cystic lesions, our case clearly indicates that, exceptionally, mediastinal cysts may cause severe vertebral complications. Therefore, early excision should be considered especially in young patients or where close follow up is uncertain.

  20. A probabilistic algorithm for interactive huge genome comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, P R; Moncany, M L

    1995-12-01

    We designed a new probabilistic algorithm, named PAGEC (probabilistic algorithm for genome comparison), which allowed a highly interactive study of long genomic strings. The comparison between two nucleic acid sequences is based on the creation of multiple index tables, which drastically reduces processing time for huge genomes, e.g. 13 min for a 4 Mb/4 Mb comparison. PAGEC lowered the need for memory when compared with other types of algorithm and took into account the low resolution of the final representation (paper or computer screen). Considering that standard printers permit a 300 d.p.i. resolution, the loss of computed information due to the probabilistic conception of the algorithm was not usually noticeable in the present study, mainly due to increased genomic sizes. Refinement was possible through an interactive zooming system, which enabled the visualization of the lexical base sequences of a considered part of both of the studied genomes. Biological examples of computation based on yeast and animal nucleic acid sequences presented in this paper reveal the flexibility of the PAGEC program, which is a valuable tool for genetic studies as it offers a solution to an important problem that will become even more important as time passes.

  1. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. Conclusion: In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period. PMID:27147810

  2. Single-Path Sigma from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Hsuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2014-05-01

    Ground-motion variability, which was used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in computing annual exceedence probability, is composed of random variability (aleatory uncertainty) and model uncertainty (epistemic uncertainty). Finding random variability of ground motions has become an important issue in PSHA, and only the random variability can be used in deriving the annual exceedence probability of ground-motion. Epistemic uncertainty will be put in the logic tree to estimate the total uncertainty of ground-motion. In the present study, we used about 18,859 records from 158 shallow earthquakes (Mw > 3.0, focal depth ≤ 35 km, each station has at least 20 records) form the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) network to analyse the random variability of ground-motion. First, a new ground-motion attenuation model was established by using this huge data set. Second, the residuals from the median attenuation were analysed by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability. Finally, the single-path variability was found by a moving-window method on either single-earthquake residuals or single-station residuals. A variogram method was also used to find minimum variability for intra-event residuals and inter-event residuals, respectively. Results reveal that 90% of the single-path sigma σSP are ranging from 0.219 to 0.254 (ln unit) and are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (σT =0.601). The single-site sigma (σSS) are also 39%-43% smaller. If we use only random variability (single-path sigma) in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 28% and 25% lower than the traditional one (using total sigma) in 475-year and in 2475-year return period, respectively, in Taipei.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension with a huge thrombosis in main stem of pulmonary artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 曾红; 孟繁波; 赵林阳

    2001-01-01

    @@A huge thrombosis in the main stem of the pulmonary artery (PA) with pulmonary hypertension has rarely been reported. We present two cases diagnosed and treated in our hospital. One suffered from polyarteritis with a huge thrombus in PA revealed at autopsy. The second case had congenital heart disease of the patent artery duct; and the huge thrombus was found on echocardiogram and extirpated in surgery.

  4. Huge ascending aortic aneurysm with an intraluminal thrombus in an embolic event-free patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parato, Vito Maurizio; Prifti, Edvin; Pezzuoli, Franco; Labanti, Benedetto; Baboci, Arben

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an 87-year-old male patient with a huge ascending aortic aneurysm, filled by a huge thrombus most probably due to previous dissection. This finding was detected by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) angiography scan. The patient refused surgical treatment and was medically treated. Despite the huge and mobile intraluminal thrombus, the patient remained embolic event-free up to 6 years later, and this makes the case unique.

  5. Efficacy of hepatic resection for huge (≥ 10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma: good prognosis associated with the uninodular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shao-Liang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hang; Li, Le-Qun; Zhong, Jian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The value of hepatic resection (HR) for huge hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) (≥ 10 cm in diameter) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hepatic resection (HR) for patients with huge HCC. A total of 739 patients with huge HCC (≥ 10 cm in diameter) (huge HCC group, n = 244) or small HCC (huge HCC were identified based on Cox regression analyses. The hospital mortality of these two groups were similar (P = 0.252). The 5-year OS of huge HCC group and small HCC group were 30.3% and 51.9%, respectively (P huge HCC had a significant higher 5-year OS (50.6%) than mutinodular huge HCC (26.9%) (P = 0.016). Multivariate analysis revealed that uninodular huge HCC and absence of PVTT independently predicted better OS for huge HCC patients. HR is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of huge HCC, especially for the uninodular subtype.

  6. GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

  7. Fibrous dysplasia of the rib presenting as a huge chest wall tumor: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, B S; Lee, S C; Harn, H J

    1994-07-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of the rib is not uncommon, but is rarely demonstrated as a huge chest wall mass with severe clinical symptoms. A 59-year-old patient, presenting with a huge, rapidly expanding chest wall tumor compressing the lung, liver and heart accompanied by chest pain and dyspnea, is reported. The tumor was success-fully excised by local radical resection.

  8. Huge van Bordeeus : een ridder van Karel de Grote op avontuur in het Oosten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Maria Johanna

    2004-01-01

    'Huge van Bordeeus' is de dissertatie van Maria Lens. Hierin doet zij verslag van haar onderzoek naar de Middelnederlandse overlevering van een Franse tekst, 'Huon de Bordeaux', over de ridder Huge van Bordeeus. Deze veertiende-eeuwse ridder, leenman van Karel de Grote, moet de baard en vier tanden

  9. Gap Model for Dual Customer Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lun; TANG Xiaowo

    2008-01-01

    The customer value, the key problem in customer relationship management (CRM), was studied to construct a gap model for dual customer values. A basic description of customer values is given, and then the gaps between products and services in different periods for the customers and companies are analyzed based on the product or service life-cycle. The main factors that influence the perceived customer value were analyzed to define the "recognized value gap" and a gap model for the dual customer values was constructed to supply companies with a tool to analyze existing customer value gaps and improve customer relationship management.

  10. Transarterial chemoembolization for huge hepatocellular carcinoma with diameter over ten centimeters: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tongchun; Le, Fan; Chen, Rongxin; Xie, Xiaoying; Zhang, Lan; Ge, Ningling; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Boheng; Ye, Shenglong; Ren, Zhenggang

    2015-03-01

    Patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma >10 cm in diameter represent a special subgroup for treatment. To date, there are few data and little consensus on treatment strategies for huge hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we summarized the effects and safety of transarterial chemoembolization for huge hepatocellular carcinoma. A retrospective study was performed based on a large cohort of patients (n = 511) with huge hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent serial transarterial chemoembolization between January 2008 to December 2011 and were followed up until March 2013. We found median survival time was 6.5 months. On multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh class (A versus B) (p huge hepatocellular carcinoma and is recommended as a component of combination therapy. In addition, patients with good liver function and low alpha-fetoprotein levels may acquire greater survival benefits from transarterial chemoembolization.

  11. Selective permeability of gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gary S; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R

    2004-03-23

    Gap junctions mediate the transfer of small cytoplasmic molecules between adjacent cells. A family of gap junction proteins exist that form channels with unique properties, and differ in their ability to mediate the transfer of specific molecules. Mutations in a number of individual gap junction proteins, called connexins, cause specific human diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how gap junctions selectively move molecules between cells. Rules that dictate the ability of a molecule to travel through gap junction channels are complex. In addition to molecular weight and size, the ability of a solute to transverse these channels depends on its net charge, shape, and interactions with specific connexins that constitute gap junctions in particular cells. This review presents some data and interpretations pertaining to mechanisms that govern the differential transfer of signals through gap junction channels.

  12. THE TECHNOLOGY GAP: ANALYSIS AND APPRAISAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper considers the following five points: First, the technological gap is a meaningful concept, and the phenomenon probably is real. Second, it...is nothing new; something like a technological gap between the United States and Europe has existed for upwards of one hundred years. Third, what is

  13. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yasuda

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis.

  14. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma causing virilization, preterm labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucur, Suna Kabil; Acar, Canan; Temizkan, Osman; Ozagari, Aysim; Gozukara, Ilay; Akyol, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Mucinous cystadenoma (MC) of the ovary is an unilateral, multilocular cystic benign epithelial tumor. Supposed to be hormone responsive, MC reaches huge sizes during pregnancy. Aortocaval compression is common during pregnancy, especially when the pregnant woman is in the supine position. However, the compression recovers with a change in position. The authors report the first case of a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary complicating pregnancy and causing virilization, premature labor, and persistent supine hypotensive syndrome.

  15. Robot-assisted laparoscopic resection of a huge pelvic tumor: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhuomin; Lyu, Xiangjun; Xu, Yong; Leonardi, Rosario; Zhang, Xu

    2016-07-04

    The traditional open surgery, for the treatment of huge tumor in the narrow space of pelvic cavity and in close proximity to pelvic organs and neurovascular structures, is very difficult and challenging. We report a case of huge neurilemmoma operated using the robot-assisted laparoscopy. We used interventional pre-operation embolization to control blood supply of tumor because MRI showed the tumor had a sufficient blood supply.

  16. Sustainability Tools Inventory - Initial Gaps Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report identifies a suite of tools that address a comprehensive set of community sustainability concerns. The objective is to discover whether "gaps" exist in the tool suite’s analytic capabilities. These tools address activities that significantly influenc...

  17. The HUGE formula (hematocrit, urea and gender): association with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, N R; Felix, F J; Fernandez-Berges, D; Perez-Castán, J; Zaro, M J; Lozano, L; Alvarez-Palacios, P; Garcia-Trigo, A; Tejero, V; Morcillo, Y; Hidalgo, A B

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between chronic renal failure (CFR) defined through HUGE (hematocrit, urea and gender) formula score and the patient's cardiovascular risk measured through cardiovascular disease antecedents such as ischemic cardiopathy, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. The sample consisted of 2,831 subjects. Mean age was 51.2±14.7 years and 53.5% were female. Serum creatinine, urea, hematocrit and 24h proteinuria were analyzed. HUGE score was calculated from gender, urea and hematocrit. GFR was estimated from uncalibrated serum creatinine using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation (MDRD-4). UAE was measured in first morning urine sample. Using HUGE formula 2.2% (n = 61) of subjects had CRF. Of them, 12 (19.7%) had cardiovascular disease history. Among patients without CRF (n = 2770), 194 subjects had history of previous cardiovascular diseases (0.07%; p HUGE definition of CRF was 3.25 (p = 0.001, Mantel-Haenszel test). CFR was associated to higher pulse pressure (PP) and increased urinary albumin excretion. A significant cardiovascular risk was associated to the diagnosis of CRF through HUGE formula. This relation was closer than the obtained using MDRD estimated GFR in spite of a bigger sample. HUGE formula seems to be a useful tool for diagnosing CRF and evaluate the cardiovascular risk of these patients.

  18. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, systems biology provides the knowledge necessary for the development of synthetic biology tools, which in turn facilitates the manipulation and understanding of complex biological systems. Thus, the combination of systems and synthetic biology has huge potential for studying and engineering microbes, especially to perform advanced tasks, such as producing biofuels. Although there have been very few studies in integrating systems and synthetic biology, existing examples have demonstrated great power in extending microbiological capabilities. This review focuses on recent efforts in microbiological genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, aiming to fill the gap between systems and synthetic biology.

  19. Cybersecurity and Privacy - bridging the gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    he huge potential in future connected services has as a precondition that privacy and security needs are dealt with in order for new services to be accepted. This issue is increasingly on the agenda both at the company and at individual level. Cybersecurity and Privacy – bridging the gap addresses...... two very complex fields of the digital world, i.e., Cybersecurity and Privacy. These multifaceted, multidisciplinary and complex issues are usually understood and valued differently by different individuals, data holders and legal bodies. But a change in one field immediately affects the others....... Policies, frameworks, strategies, laws, tools, techniques, and technologies – all of these are tightly interwoven when it comes to security and privacy. This book is another attempt to bridge the gap between the industry and academia. The book addresses the views from academia and industry on the subject...

  20. Photonic band gap materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagne, D.

    Photonic band gap materials Photonic band gap materials are periodic dielectric structures that control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. We describe the plane wave method, which allows to calculate the band structures of photonic crystals. By symmetry analysis and a perturbative approach, we predict the appearance of the low energy photonic band gaps of hexagonal structures. We propose new two-dimensional structures called graphite and boron nitride. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmission of the graphite structure and we show the crucial role of the coupling with external modes. We study the appearance of allowed modes in the photonic band gap by the introduction of localized defects in the periodicity. Finally, we discuss the properties of opals formed by self-organized silica microspheres, which are very promising for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals. Les matériaux à bandes interdites photoniques sont des structures diélectriques périodiques qui contrôlent la propagation des ondes électromagnétiques. Nous décrivons la méthode des ondes planes qui permet de calculer les structures de bandes des cristaux photoniques. Par une analyse de la symétrie et une approche perturbative, nous précisons les conditions d'existence des bandes interdites de basse énergie. Nous proposons de nouvelles structures bidimensionnelles appelées graphite et nitrure de bore. Grâce à une méthode de matrices de transfert, nous calculons la transmission de la structure graphite et nous mettons en évidence le rôle fondamental du couplage avec les modes extérieurs. Nous étudions l'apparition de modes permis dans la bande interdite grâce à l'introduction de défauts dans la périodicité. Enfin, nous discutons les propriétés des opales constituées de micro-billes de silice auto-organisées, qui sont très prometteuses pour la fabrication de cristaux photoniques tridimensionnels.

  1. Small Multiples with Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Wouter; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Turkay, Cagatay; Wood, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Small multiples enable comparison by providing different views of a single data set in a dense and aligned manner. A common frame defines each view, which varies based upon values of a conditioning variable. An increasingly popular use of this technique is to project two-dimensional locations into a gridded space (e.g. grid maps), using the underlying distribution both as the conditioning variable and to determine the grid layout. Using whitespace in this layout has the potential to carry information, especially in a geographic context. Yet, the effects of doing so on the spatial properties of the original units are not understood. We explore the design space offered by such small multiples with gaps. We do so by constructing a comprehensive suite of metrics that capture properties of the layout used to arrange the small multiples for comparison (e.g. compactness and alignment) and the preservation of the original data (e.g. distance, topology and shape). We study these metrics in geographic data sets with varying properties and numbers of gaps. We use simulated annealing to optimize for each metric and measure the effects on the others. To explore these effects systematically, we take a new approach, developing a system to visualize this design space using a set of interactive matrices. We find that adding small amounts of whitespace to small multiple arrays improves some of the characteristics of 2D layouts, such as shape, distance and direction. This comes at the cost of other metrics, such as the retention of topology. Effects vary according to the input maps, with degree of variation in size of input regions found to be a factor. Optima exist for particular metrics in many cases, but at different amounts of whitespace for different maps. We suggest multiple metrics be used in optimized layouts, finding topology to be a primary factor in existing manually-crafted solutions, followed by a trade-off between shape and displacement. But the rich range of possible

  2. Semiparametric Methods to Contrast Gap Time Survival Functions: Application to Repeat Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Xu; Schaubel, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    Times between successive events (i.e., gap times) are of great importance in survival analysis. Although many methods exist for estimating covariate effects on gap times, very few existing methods allow for comparisons between gap times themselves. Motivated by the comparison of primary and repeat transplantation, our interest is specifically in contrasting the gap time survival functions and their integration (restricted mean gap time). Two major challenges in gap time analysis are non-ident...

  3. Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2016-12-01

    We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.

  4. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  5. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  6. Robotic tele-existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Susumu; Arai, Hirohiko; Maeda, Taro

    1989-01-01

    Tele-existence is an advanced type of teleoperation system that enables a human operator at the controls to perform remote manipulation tasks dexterously with the feeling that he or she exists in the remote anthropomorphic robot in the remote environment. The concept of a tele-existence is presented, the principle of the tele-existence display method is explained, some of the prototype systems are described, and its space application is discussed.

  7. Colonic Angiodysplasia with a Huge Submucosal Hematoma in the Sigmoid Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Koike, Daisuke; Nomura, Yukihiro; Ooe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Colonic angiodysplasia (AD) with bleeding as a comorbidity in the aging population is being increasingly reported. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on colonic AD accompanied by a huge hematoma. Herein, we report a case of colonic AD with a huge submucosal hematoma. A 75-year-old man with sudden melena was referred to our hospital. Helical computed tomographic angiography (CTA) revealed bleeding from the sigmoid colon. Additionally, colonoscopy showed a huge submucosal hematoma with bleeding in the sigmoid colon. As endoscopic hemostasis was difficult, sigmoidectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was colonic AD. The present case indicates that colonic AD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for melena. In addition, the case shows that helical CTA, which is a noninvasive imaging modality, is useful for the diagnosis of colonic AD and is as effective as colonoscopy and angiography for diagnosis.

  8. Robotic resection of huge presacral tumors: case series and comparison with an open resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae Keun; Yang, Moon Sool; Yoon, Do Heum; Rha, Koon Ho; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Ha, Yoon

    2014-06-01

    Clinical case series and analysis. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of robotic presacral tumor resection compared with conventional open approach. Conventional open approach for huge presacral tumors in the retroperitoneal space often demands excessive hospitalization and poor cosmesis. Furthermore, narrow surgical field sometimes interrupt delicate procedures. Nine patients with huge (diameter >10 cm) presacral tumors underwent surgery. Five patients among them had robotic procedure and the others had open transperitoneal tumor resection. Operation time, blood loss, hospitalization, and complications were analyzed. Robotic presacral tumor resection showed shorter operation time, less bleeding, and shorter hospitalization. Moreover, there was no complication related to abdominal adhesion. Although robotic resection for presacral tumor still has limitations technically and economically, robotic resection for huge presacral tumors demonstrated advantages over open resection specifically for benign neurogenic tumors.

  9. Giant pulmonary teratoma with huge splenic lymphangiomatosis: a very rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Hemail M; Alsubaie, Khaled M; Mahfouz, Mohammed Eid

    2017-09-01

    Teratomas are tumors composed of tissues derived from more than one germ cell line. They manifested with a great variety of clinical and radiological features. We report a case of a giant left hemithorax teratoma in a female with huge spleen tumor and review the relevant literature. A 38-year-old female with progressively aggravating dyspnea at rest from a mild trauma. Absent breath sounds on the left side. There was splenomegaly. Computed tomography scan revealed a huge mass (20 × 15 × 18 cm), containing elements of heterogeneous density in the left hemithorax. The spleen tumor was occupying most of the spleen without any other abdominal manifestations. The patient underwent left thoracotomy and laparoscopic splenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a benign mature teratoma and cystic lymphangiomatosis of the spleen. To the best of our knowledge and after reviewing the available literature this is the first case of huge mature pulmonary teratoma with large cystic spleen lymphangiomatosis.

  10. Huge splenic epidermoid cyst with elevation of serum CA19-9 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Sayo; Mori, Toshifumi; Miyoshi, Jinsei; Imoto, Yoshitaka; Shinomiya, Hirohiko; Wada, Satoshi; Nakao, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Hisamitsu; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Izumi, Keisuke; Okazaki, Jun; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A 30-year-old female was referred to our hospital for further examination of liver dysfunction. A huge, soft mass was noted in her left upper quadrant on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a huge cystic tumor of 20 cm in the hilus of the spleen. Serum CA19-9 was 491 U/ml, and splenectomy was performed under suspicion of a malignant cystic tumor. The inner surface of the cyst was lined by squamous epithelial cells that were immunohistochemically positive for CA19-9. Serum CA19-9 level was normalized after the surgery. Our case of a very rare, huge epidermoid cyst of the spleen suggests that measurement of the serum CA19-9 level is useful for evaluating therapeutic efficacy of a splenic epidermoid cyst.

  11. Endovascular Treatment of a Huge Hepatic Artery Aneurysm by Coil Embolization Method: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hossein; Karimian, Mehdi; Moradi, Habibollah; Farid Marandi, Kambiz; Haghdoost, Afrooz

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysms are rare but potentially life threatening. We describe a novel case of a successful endovascular coil embolization of a huge hepatic artery aneurysm. A 67-year-old woman presented with recent abdominal pain that had begun from 2 weeks before referring to our hospital. Sonographic and computerized tomographic (CT) findings revealed a huge hepatic artery aneurysm with 95 mm × 83 mm diameter. The patient underwent an endovascular technique. In aortic angiography, the celiac artery orifice and superior mesenteric artery were so narrow, so sonography was used in order to determine the exact position of the catheter in the celiac artery orifice. The aneurysm was thrombosed using coil embolization. Pulsation of the aneurysm immediately disappeared. Huge hepatic artery aneurysm can be safely treated using coil embolization.

  12. Collaborative treatment of huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Deog Gon; Chang, Yong Jin; Cho, Kyu Do; Hong, Jae Taek

    2015-11-10

    An intrathoracic meningocele is a relatively rare disease, and it commonly accompanies neurofibromatosis type 1. Patients tend to have no symptom but if its size is too large and compresses a lung and neighboring organs, it needs shunt drainage or surgical resection. Herein, we present the case of a 52 year-old female patient with huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, who has complained about chest discomfort and dyspnea at rest. As for a preliminary treatment, a neurosurgeon had performed a cystoperitoneal shunt, but the symptoms continued and the size of mass and the amount of pleural effusion did not change significantly. Therefore, the huge thoracic meningoceles were successfully treated through the thoracotomic approach in combination with lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. It is reported that double huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 was successfully treated by a shunting procedure followed by thoracotomic resection with collaboration of a neurosurgeon.

  13. Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Perspectives and Strategies for Challenging Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timar, Thomas B., Ed.; Maxwell-Jolly, Julie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This timely and thoughtful book provides multiple perspectives on closing achievement gaps. Closing persistent gaps in educational outcomes between different groups of students has been a central goal of educational policy for the past forty years. The commitment to close existing achievement gaps poses an unprecedented challenge to policy makers,…

  14. Huge Bilateral Paramesonephric Cysts in a 25 year old Nulliparous woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Haritha; Krishnan, Manikandan; Dasari, Papa

    2013-01-01

    Paraovarian cysts are uncommon adnexal masses which are usually asymptomatic. We describe a case of bilateral huge paramesonephric cysts in a nulliparous woman. A 25-year-old lady presented with abdominal distension for one year duration. Examination and imaging revealed large abdominopelvic cystic masses with no solid areas or septations. Intraoperatively there were huge bilateral paraovarian cysts which were excised. Histopathology revealed low cuboidal to ciliated columnar epithelium with no evidence of ovarian parenchyma suggestive of paramesonephric cyst. Paraovarian cyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass visualised on ultrasound. PMID:24392412

  15. Huge dissected ascending aorta associated with pseudo aneurysm and aortic coarctation feridoun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Khosravi, Donya

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique case of chronic dissection of the ascending aorta complicated with huge and thrombotic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with coarctation of descending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) confirmed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a12 cm eccentric bulge of the right lateral side of dilated the ascending aorta filled with the clot and a circular shaped intimal tear communicating with an extended hematoma and dissection of the media layer. The rarity of the report is an association of the chronic dissection with huge pseudoaneurysm and coarctation. The patient underwent staged repair of an aneurysm and coarctation and had an uneventful postoperative recovery period.

  16. Towards smaller gap microbulks

    CERN Document Server

    Attié, D.; Dafni, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferry, S; Giomataris, Y; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Kebbiri, M; Papaevangelou, T; de Oliveira, R; Seguí, L; Tomás, A

    2014-01-01

    Small gap Micromegas detectors ( < 50 μm) are expected to be optimal for high pressure applications. Combining the microbulk manufacturing technique with a small gap can result in attractive detectors for rare event detection, in particular double beta decay or dark matter searches. We present novel results obtained with small gap microbulks (25 and 12.5 μm) that have been manufactured recently. For the first time for this type of detectors, we show experimentally that for each amplification gap there is an optimal pressure and that smaller gaps are more suitable for higher pressures.

  17. Undecidability of the Spectral Gap (short version)

    CERN Document Server

    Cubitt, Toby; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    The spectral gap -- the difference in energy between the ground state and the first excited state -- is one of the most important properties of a quantum many-body system. Quantum phase transitions occur when the spectral gap vanishes and the system becomes critical. Much of physics is concerned with understanding the phase diagrams of quantum systems, and some of the most challenging and long-standing open problems in theoretical physics concern the spectral gap, such as the Haldane conjecture that the Heisenberg chain is gapped for integer spin, proving existence of a gapped topological spin liquid phase, or the Yang-Mills gap conjecture (one of the Millennium Prize problems). These problems are all particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: Given a quantum many-body Hamiltonian, is the system it describes gapped or gapless? Here we show that this problem is undecidable, in the same sense as the Halting Problem was proven to be undecidable by Turing. A consequence of this is that the spectral gap...

  18. Existence of magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, David

    1990-10-01

    A status report is presented on the existence of quarks carrying the Dirac unit of magnetic charge g = (137/2) e. The Paschen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed. From the dyonium model, Akers predicted the existence of a new η meson at 1814 MeV with I G(JPC) = 0+(0-+). Experimental evidence now confirms the existence of the meson resonance.

  19. Endovascular repair for a huge vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm caused by Behcet's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhi-hui; FU Wei-guo; GUO Da-qiao; XU Xin; CHEN Bin; JIANG Jun-hao; YANG Jue; SHI Zheng-yu; WANG Yu-qi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Behcet's disease (BD), a multisystem chronic autoimmune process of unknown etiology,usually leads to arterial impairment. Isolated case reports have described BD-related arterial dissections, pseudoaneurysms or aneurysms.1-4 Recently, we successfully treated a huge vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm (VAPA) in a patient with BD by stent-grafting with preservation of the affected vertebral artery.

  20. Unusual Huge Keratoacanthoma in Sites of in the Previous Split-Thickness Skin Grafted Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a fairly common keratinizing, squamous neoplasm. The exact etiology of KA is unknown. However, ultraviolet radiation, trauma, chemical carcinogens, viral infections, immunosuppression, genetic factors, radiation and thermal burns have been accused of pathogenesis. In here, we represent an unusual huge KA arising from the previous reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft on the dorsal foot.

  1. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  2. Anatomic trisegmentectomy: An alternative treatment for huge or multiple hepatocellular carcinoma of right liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Changku; Weng, Jie; Qin, Qifan; Chen, Youke; Huang, Xiaolong; Fu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    The patients with huge (≥10cm) or multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the right liver and insufficient size of the remnant left liver can not be performed an operation of right hemihepatectomy because of that liver failure will occur post operation. We designed anatomic trisegmentectomy in right liver to increase the ratio of future liver remnant volume (%FLRV), thus increasing resectability of huge or multiple HCC. Thirteen patients were analyzed by preoperative CT scan for liver and tumor volumetries. If the right hemihepatectomy was done, %FLRV would be at the range of 29.6%-37.5%. However, if trisegmentectomy was done, %FLRV would increase by an average of 14.0%. So patients will not undergo postoperative liver failure due to sufficient %FLRV. Therefore, we designed anatomic trisegmentectomy, with retention of segment 5 or segment 8, to increase %FLRV and increase the resectability for huge or multiple HCC. After trisegmentectomy, the inflow and outflow of remnant liver were maintained well. Severe complications and mortality were not happened post operation. Of the 13 patients, 10 survived up to now. Of the 10 living cases, postoperative lung metastasis was found in 2 and intrahepatic recurrence was found in 1. These 3 patients survive with tumor after comprehensive therapies including oral administration of Sorafenib. Compared to right hemihepatectomy, anatomic trisegmentectomy in right liver guarantees the maximum preservation of %FLRV to increase the resectability of huge or multiple HCC, thus improving the overall resection rate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Nomi, Takeo; Hokuto, Daisuke; Yamato, Ichiro; Obara, Shinsaku; Yamada, Takatsugu; Kanehiro, Hiromichi; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) possesses a potential risk for spontaneous rupture, which leads to a life-threatening complication with a high mortality rate. In addition, a large HCC is frequently accompanied by intrahepatic metastases. We describe, the case of a 74-year-old woman with a huge extrahepatically expanding HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases who was treated by liver resection with repeated transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). To prevent tumor rupture or bleeding, we performed right hepatectomy. After the operation, TACE was applied for multiple intrahepatic metastases in the remnant liver. Furthermore, the elevated protein induced vitamin K absence (PIVKA II) level had decreased to limits within the normal range. Three months after the first TACE, computed tomography revealed several recurrences in the liver. TACE was applied for the second and third time and the tumors were well controlled. Although, liver resection is occasionally performed for patients with huge HCC to avoid spontaneous tumor rupture, only surgical approach might not be sufficient for such advanced HCC. To achieve long-term survival, it is necessary to control the residual intrahepatic tumors. We could control multiple intrahepatic metastases with repeated TACEs after hepatectomy. Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with huge unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Lun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Liang, Huei-Lung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Tsay, Feng-Woei; Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Hung-Chih; Cheng, Jin-Shiung

    2014-01-01

    The optimal treatment for huge unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. The outcome of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for patients huge unresectable HCC is generally poor and the survival benefit of TACE in these patients is unclear. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) versus symptomatic treatment in patients with huge unresectable HCC. Since 2000 to 2005, patients with huge (size >8 cm) unresectable HCC were enrolled. Fifty-eight patients received HAIC and 44 patients received symptomatic treatment. In the HAIC group, each patient received 2.4+1.4 (range: 1-6) courses of HAIC. Baseline characteristics and survival were compared between the HAIC and symptomatic treatment groups. The HAIC group and the symptomatic treatment group were similar in baseline characteristics and tumor stages. The overall survival rates at one and two years were 29% and 14% in the HAIC group and 7% and 5% in the symptomatic treatment group, respectively. The patients in the HAIC group had significantly better overall survival than the symptomatic treatment group (Phuge unresectable HCC.

  5. A Computational Method for Enabling Teaching-Learning Process in Huge Online Courses and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Ferrández, Antonio; Gil, David; Peral, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses and e-learning represent the future of the teaching-learning processes through the development of Information and Communication Technologies. They are the response to the new education needs of society. However, this future also presents many challenges such as the processing of online forums when a huge number of…

  6. A Huge Subcutaneous Hematoma in an Adult with Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Liao, Chiung-Ying; Chang, Chen-Kuang; Ho, Shang-Yun; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng; Huang, Yuan-Chun

    2017-06-19

    BACKGROUND Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is a potentially fatal disease that consists of hemangioma(s) with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and coagulopathy. Extensive hemangiomatosis is rare. We present the radiological features and treatment strategy of a young adult suffering from Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with widespread hemangiomas and an infected huge hematoma in the right thigh. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old Taiwanese male presented with a painful 20-cm mass over his right thigh and gross hematuria for 2 days. Hemangiomatosis was bioptically proven in infancy and the patient was under regular follow-up. Physical examination revealed normal heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature. Multiple palpable lumps with brown and purple areas of skin over the neck, trunk, and right thigh were noted. Laboratory examinations revealed thrombocytopenia anemia and elevated fibrin degradation products. There were no signs of sepsis. Blood transfusion and steroid therapy were executed. Computed tomography showed a huge complicated subcutaneous hematoma in the right thigh. Drainage of the huge hematoma was performed and antibiotics were prescribed. After the local infection in the right thigh and the bleeding tendency were controlled, the patient was discharged in a stable condition two weeks later. CONCLUSIONS A huge infected hematoma and widespread hemangiomas are extremely rare complications of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. There are no known treatment guidelines currently available. Our patient was successfully treated with steroids, drainage, and antibiotics.

  7. A Huge Ovarian Cyst in a Middle-Aged Iranian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Iranian woman was found to have a huge ovarian cystic mass. Her presenting symptom was vague abdominal pain and severe abdominal distention. She underwent laparotomy and after surgical removal, the mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma on histology.

  8. Huge right atrial myxoma causing fixed tricuspid stenosis with constitutional symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuralay, Erkan; Cingöz, Faruk; Günay, Celalettin; Demirkiliç, Ufuk; Tatar, Harun

    2003-01-01

    Nonspecific constitutional symptoms are reported mostly in patients with left-atrial myxomas, which occur five times as often as its right-atrial counterpart. We present huge right-atrial myxoma, which obstructs tricuspid orifice with nonspecific constitutional symptoms without any pulmonary embolism attack.

  9. Preserving stability of huge agriculture machines with internal mobilities: Application to a grape harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Dieumet, D.; Thuilot, B.; Lenain, R.; Berducat, M.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes an algorithm for estimating on-line the rollover risk of huge machine moving on natural ground. The approach is based on the reconstruction of lateral load transfer thanks to an observer, able to take into account terrain specificities (grip conditions and geometry). Capabilities are tested through experiments on a grape harvester.

  10. Superconducting gap structure of FeSe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lin; Huang, Chien-Lung; Rößler, Sahana; Koz, Cevriye; Rößler, Ulrich K; Schwarz, Ulrich; Wirth, Steffen

    2017-03-07

    The microscopic mechanism governing the zero-resistance flow of current in some iron-based, high-temperature superconducting materials is not well understood up to now. A central issue concerning the investigation of these materials is their superconducting gap symmetry and structure. Here we present a combined study of low-temperature specific heat and scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements on single crystalline FeSe. The results reveal the existence of at least two superconducting gaps which can be represented by a phenomenological two-band model. The analysis of the specific heat suggests significant anisotropy in the gap magnitude with deep gap minima. The tunneling spectra display an overall "U"-shaped gap close to the Fermi level away as well as on top of twin boundaries. These results are compatible with the anisotropic nodeless models describing superconductivity in FeSe.

  11. Biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneya, Yohei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Matsushita, Akira; Suzuki, Seiji; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Sasajima, Koji; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Most hepatic cysts are asymptomatic, but complications occasionally occur. We describe a patient with biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection. A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of a nontender mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed the following: serum total bilirubin, 0.6 mg/dL; serum aspartate aminotransferase, 100 IU/L; serum alanine aminotransferase, 78 IU/L; serum alkaline phosphatase, 521 IU/L; and serum gamma glutamic transpeptidase, 298 IU/L. Abdominal computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a huge hepatic cyst, 13 cm in diameter, at the hepatic hilum, accompanied by dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct and obstruction of the common bile duct. We diagnosed biliary obstruction due to a huge hepatic cyst at the hepatic hilum, and laparoscopic surgery was performed. A huge hepatic cyst was seen at the hepatic hilum. After needle puncture of the huge cyst, the anterior wall of the cyst was unroofed, and cholecystectomy was done. Intraoperative cholangiography through a cystic duct revealed stenosis of the duct. Subsequent decapsulation of the cyst was performed in front of the common bile duct. After this procedure, cholangiography revealed that the stenosis of the common bile duct had resolved. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the hepatic cyst was benign. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the results of liver function tests normalized. The patient was discharged 7 days after operation. Computed tomography 3 months after operation revealed disappearance of the hepatic cyst and no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct.

  12. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  13. Gap Waves in Piezoelectric layered Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danoyan Z.N.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the conditions of existence of shear electroelastic gap waves in piezoelectric-vacuum-dielectric layered system are found. It is shown that in the discontact layered system the gap electroelastic waves can be propagated. It is considered the limiting case when the thickness of vacuuming layer tends to zero. It is proved that the statement of the problem is true when there is no acoustic contact between piezoelectric and dielectric grounded media.

  14. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  15. FAMSA: Fast and accurate multiple sequence alignment of huge protein families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deorowicz, Sebastian; Debudaj-Grabysz, Agnieszka; Gudyś, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of modern sequencing platforms has contributed to the unprecedented growth of protein families databases. The abundance of sets containing hundreds of thousands of sequences is a formidable challenge for multiple sequence alignment algorithms. The article introduces FAMSA, a new progressive algorithm designed for fast and accurate alignment of thousands of protein sequences. Its features include the utilization of the longest common subsequence measure for determining pairwise similarities, a novel method of evaluating gap costs, and a new iterative refinement scheme. What matters is that its implementation is highly optimized and parallelized to make the most of modern computer platforms. Thanks to the above, quality indicators, i.e. sum-of-pairs and total-column scores, show FAMSA to be superior to competing algorithms, such as Clustal Omega or MAFFT for datasets exceeding a few thousand sequences. Quality does not compromise on time or memory requirements, which are an order of magnitude lower than those in the existing solutions. For example, a family of 415519 sequences was analyzed in less than two hours and required no more than 8 GB of RAM. FAMSA is available for free at http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/REFRESH/famsa. PMID:27670777

  16. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps. PMID:26168242

  17. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O Hunter

    (23% versus 6% within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m of existing gaps.

  18. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an increase in the likelihood of mortality in the immediate vicinity (~6 m) of existing gaps.

  19. Bridging the Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska; Murdock, Karen; Schmidt, Iben Julie

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures. Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ve...

  20. Bridging the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Overgaard, Majken; Broeng, Jes; Jensen, Monika Luniewska;

    Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures.......Bridging the Gap (BtG) is a 2-year project funded by The Danish Industry Foundation. The goal of Bridging the Gap has been to create a new innovation model which will increase the rate at which Danish universities can spinout new technology ventures....

  1. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  2. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  3. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  4. Bridging a Cultural Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviatan, Talma

    2008-01-01

    There has been a broad wave of change in tertiary calculus courses in the past decade. However, the much-needed change in tertiary pre-calculus programmes--aimed at bridging the gap between high-school mathematics and tertiary mathematics--is happening at a far slower pace. Following a discussion on the nature of the gap and the objectives of a…

  5. Senseless Extravagance, Shocking Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbourd, Richard; Dodge, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Although most people in the United States believe, at least theoretically, in educational equality, fewer and fewer appear to care about the resource gaps between affluent and poor schools, says Weissbourd. He illustrates these gaps with vivid descriptions of what he calls an "opulence arms race" among affluent independent schools, but…

  6. Bridge the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on photo projects organised for teenage refugees by the Society for Humanistic Photography (Berlin, Germany). These projects, named Bridge the Gap I (2015), and Bridge the Gap II (2016), were carried out in Berlin and brought together teenagers with refugee and German...

  7. Performances Evaluation of a Novel Hadoop and Spark Based System of Image Retrieval for Huge Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Costantini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel system of image retrieval, based on Hadoop and Spark, is presented. Managing and extracting information from Big Data is a challenging and fundamental task. For these reasons, the system is scalable and it is designed to be able to manage small collections of images as well as huge collections of images. Hadoop and Spark are based on the MapReduce framework, but they have different characteristics. The proposed system is designed to take advantage of these two technologies. The performances of the proposed system are evaluated and analysed in terms of computational cost in order to understand in which context it could be successfully used. The experimental results show that the proposed system is efficient for both small and huge collections.

  8. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  9. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, describing a young patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian cysts in young women who are associated with elevated levels of tumor markers and ascites require careful evaluation. Management of ovarian cysts depends on patient's age, size of the cyst, and its histopathological nature. Conservative surgery such as ovarian cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate in mucinous tumors of ovary. Multiple frozen sections are very important to know the malignant variation of this tumor and helps accurate patient management. Surgical expertise is required to prevent complications in huge tumors has distorted the anatomy, so gynecologic oncologist plays a prominent role in management. In this case, beside of the huge tumor and massive ascites uterine and ovaries were preserved by gynecologist oncologist and patient is well up to now.

  10. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  11. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  12. Huge Neck Masses Causing Respiratory Distress in Neonates: Two Cases of Congenital Cervical Teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Hasan Özkan; Oğuzkurt, Pelin; Temiz, Abdulkerim; Bolat, Filiz Aka; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2016-12-01

    Congenital cervical teratomas are rare and usually large enough to cause respiratory distress in the neonatal period. We present two cases of congenital huge cystic neck masses in which distinguishing cervical cystic hygroma and congenital cystic teratoma was not possible through radiologic imaging techniques. Experience with the first case, which was initially diagnosed and treated as cystic hygroma by injection sclerotherapy, led to early suspicion and surgery in the second case. The masses were excised completely and histopathologic diagnoses were congenital teratoma in both patients. Our aim is to review congenital huge neck masses causing respiratory distress in early neonatal life to highlight this dilemma briefly with these interesting cases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Huge echinococcal cyst of the liver managed by hepatectomy: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Efstathios T; Symeonidis, Nikolaos; Psarras, Kyriakos; Pavlidis, Theodoros E

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcocal cysts are predominantly located in the right liver. They are usually solitary and asymptomatic, but large cysts can cause compression symptoms. We report two cases of huge (25cm and 20cm in diameter, respectively) echinococcal cysts located in the left liver, which presented as a large palpable mass causing compression symptoms. Diagnosis was established with CT scan showing a cystic mass with the characteristic daughter cysts and reactive layer (pericystic wall) consisting of fibrous connective tissue and calcifications. Both patients were treated radically with left hepatectomy and had uneventful postoperative course and no recurrence upon follow-up. The treatment of liver echinococcal cysts represent a unique surgical challenge. Even though conservative approaches are less technically demanding, the radical approach with resection has better outcome with less recurrences, when performed by experienced surgeons. Resection rather than drainage is the management of choice for such huge liver echinococcal cysts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitral valve regurgitation due to annular dilatation caused by a huge and floating left atrial myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Ersoy, Burak; Yeniterzi, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of mitral valve annular dilatation caused by a huge left atrial myxoma obstructing the mitral valve orifice. A 50-year-old man presenting with palpitation was found to have a huge left atrial myxoma protruding into the left ventricle during diastole, causing severe mitral regurgitation. The diagnosis was made with echocardiogram. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed a solid mass of 75 × 55 mm. During operation, the myxoma was completely removed from its attachment in the atrium. We preferred to place a mechanical heart valve after an annuloplasty ring because of severely dilated mitral annulus and chordae elongation. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Our case suggests that immediate surgery, careful evaluation of mitral valve annulus preoperatively is recommended.

  15. [Resection of a Huge Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Imatinib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Karasawa, Hideaki; Aoki, Takeshi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Abe, Tomoya; Nagao, Munenori; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Musha, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masanobu; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Naitoh, Takeshi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of a huge gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)that was safely resected followingpreoperative imatinib therapy. A 72-year-old woman was hospitalized with severe abdominal distension. Computed tomography revealed a 27×17 cm tumor in the left upper abdominal cavity. The patient was diagnosed with high risk GIST by EUS-FNA. We initiated preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib to achieve a reduction of operative risks and functional preservation. After 6 months of chemotherapy, CT showed a reduction in the tumor size and the patient underwent partial gastrectomy and partial resection of the diaphragm. Histologically, most of the tumor cells were replaced by hyalinized collagen and viable cells were scattered only around the blood vessels. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib has the potential to become an important therapeutic option for the treatment of huge GISTs.

  16. Huge mass in right side of the heart: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Reza; Ghanei-Motlagh, Fahimeh; Nazari, Susan; Yaghubi, Mohsen

    2016-11-01

    The presence of primary intracardiac tumors are scarce, and most of them are myxomas. We reported, in this paper, a case with huge mass in the right side of the heart. A 45-year-old man, with a complaint of bilateral lower limbs edema and exertional dyspnea, was admitted to intensive cardiac care unit. Cardiac auscultation revealed soft grade systolic murmur without any evidence of "tumor plop." Echocardiography showed a huge mobile mass in right side of the heart that suggested myxoma. Our patient underwent cardiac surgery with excision of 13 cm mass. Histopathological study was confirmed the diagnosis of mass type. In this case report, it shows that in the differential diagnosis of right-sided heart failure, the right sided myxoma must be considered. The preferable approach in patient with cardiac myxomas is surgical excision to alleviate symptoms, early identification, and removal.

  17. Huge Dissected Ascending Aorta Associated with Pseudo Aneurysm and Aortic Coarctation Feridoun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unique case of chronic dissection of the ascending aorta complicated with huge and thrombotic pseudoaneurysm in a patient with coarctation of descending aorta. Preoperative investigations such as transesophageal echocardiography (TEE confirmed the diagnosis of dissection. Intraoperative findings included a12 cm eccentric bulge of the right lateral side of dilated the ascending aorta filled with the clot and a circular shaped intimal tear communicating with an extended hematoma and dissection of the media layer. The rarity of the report is an association of the chronic dissection with huge pseudoaneurysm and coarctation. The patient underwent staged repair of an aneurysm and coarctation and had an uneventful postoperative recovery period.

  18. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  19. Air conditioning management of huge rooms; Gestion climatique des locaux de grande dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Izard, J.L. [Ecole d`Architecture de Marseille-Luminy, 13 - Marseille-Luminy (France); Wurtz, E. [La Rochelle Universite, 17 - La Rochelle, LEPTAB (France)] [and others

    1999-09-01

    This conference was organized by the section `air-conditioning engineering` of the French society of thermal engineers (SFT). This document comprises the abridged versions of the communications and deals with: air-conditioning using displacement: experience feedback on tertiary applications and development of a dimensioning tool, thermal response of linear atria, application of the zonal method to the description of the temperature field and flows pattern inside an auditorium, theoretical and experimental study of air renewal inside industrial rooms, management of huge rooms, design of new optimized buildings and use of the TAS software, can TRNSYS and Comis codes be used for huge spaces?, experimental study of the thermal-aeraulic conditions generated by a displacement air-conditioning device. (J.S.)

  20. The Relativity of Existence

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success of physics in formulating mathematical theories that can predict the outcome of experiments, we have made remarkably little progress towards answering some of the most basic questions about our existence, such as: why does the universe exist? Why is the universe apparently fine-tuned to be able to support life? Why are the laws of physics so elegant? Why do we have three dimensions of space and one of time? How is it that the universe can be non-local and non-causal at the quantum scale, and why is there quantum randomness? In this paper, it is shown that all of these questions are answered if existence is relative, and moreover, it seems that we are logically bound to accept it.

  1. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  2. Optimized measurement of gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kevin; Ramamurthy, Rajesh

    2017-05-01

    Gaps are important in a wide range of measurements in manufacturing, from the fitting of critical assemblies too cosmetic features on cars. There are a variety of potential sensors that can measure a gap opening, each with aspects of gap measurements that they do well and other aspects where the technology may lack capability. This paper provides a review of a wide range of optical gages from structured light to passive systems and from line to area measurement. Each technology is considered relative to the ability to accurately measure a gap, including issues of edge effects, edge shape, surface finish, and transparency. Finally, an approach will be presented for creating an optimize measurement off gap openings for critical assembly applications.

  3. Stochastic Huge-Resonance Caused by Coupling for a Globally Coupled Linear System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we investigate a globally coupled linear system with finite subunits subject to temporal periodic force and with multiplicative dichotomous noise.It is shown that, the global coupling among the subunits can hugely enhance the phenomenon of SR for the amplitude of the average mean field as the functions of the transition rate of the noise and that as the function of the frequency of the signal respectively.

  4. Therapeutic benefit of radiotherapy in huge (≥10 cm) unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Mi Sun; Chang, Jee Suk; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Do Young; Seong, Jinsil

    2014-05-01

    Huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) show dismal prognosis and only a limited number of cases are eligible for curative resection. We studied the therapeutic benefit of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with huge unresectable HCCs. Data from 283 patients with huge HCCs and preserved liver function who underwent non-surgical treatment from July 2001 to March 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to the initial treatment: Group A (N= 49), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE); Group B (N = 35), TACE + RT; Group C (N = 50), hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy; and Group D (n = 149), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The median follow-up period was 27.8 months (range, 12.9-121.9 months). The median overall survival (OS) was longer in Groups B (15.3 months) and D (12.8 months) than in Groups A (7.5 months) and C (8.2 months; Group B vs. A, Bonferroni corrected P [P(c)] = 0.04; Group B vs. C, P(c) = 0.02; Group D vs. A, P(c) = 0.01; Group D vs. C, Pc = 0.006). Groups B and D also showed superior progression-free survival (PFS) and intrahepatic control than Groups A and C. In multivariate analysis, tumour multiplicity, serum alpha-foetoprotein level (≥200 ng/ml) and initial treatment were independent prognostic factors for OS and PFS. Patients with huge unresectable HCCs treated with RT, either as CCRT or in combination with TACE, showed excellent intrahepatic control and prolonged survival. RT could be considered a promising treatment modality in these patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Interaction-induced huge magnetoresistance in a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockhorn, L.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Gornyi, I. V. [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [ETH Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-12-04

    A strong negative magnetoresistance is observed in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum well. We discuss that the negative magnetoresistance consists of a small peak induced by a combination of two types of disorder and a huge magnetoresistance explained by the interaction correction to the conductivity for mixed disorder.

  6. A HUGE SILENT INTRACRANIA L HYDATID CYST IN AN ADULT MALE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the brain is a rare parasitic infestation caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It has an insidious onset with a slow rate of growth resulting in late diagnosis. Its occurence is rare in India, being endemic in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. We report a case of a huge, slow - growing, silent intracranial left parieto - temporo - occipital hydatid cyst in an 18 year old male presenting as a large cystic space occupying lesion.

  7. Post-renal acute renal failure due to a huge bladder stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Suelozgen, Tufan; Budak, Salih; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2014-06-30

    A 63-year old male was referred to our emergency unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum renal function tests levels, blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine, were 63 mmol/L/848 μmol/L. CT (Computarised Tomography) scan showed a huge bladder stone (5 cm x 6 cm x 5 cm) with increased bladder wall thickness. Post-renal acute renal failure due to bilateral ureterohydronephrosis was diagnosed. The huge bladder stone was considered to be the cause of ureterohydronephrosis and renal failure. The patient was catheterised and received haemodialysis immediately. He received haemodialysis four times during ten days of hospitalization and the level of serum renal function tests levels (BUN/ creatinine) decreased 18 mmol/L/123 μmol/L. After improvement of renal function, we performed cystoscopy that demonstrated normal prostatic urethra and bladder neck and bilaterally normal ureteral orifices. Bladder wall was roughly trabeculated and Bladder outlet was completely obstructed by a huge bladder stone. After cystoscopy open, cystolithotomy was performed to remove calcium phosphate and magnesium ammonium phosphate stone weighing 200 g removed. Four days after operation the patient was discharged uneventfully and urethral catheter was removed on the seventh day. Post-renal acute renal failure due to large bladder stones is rare in literature. According to the our knowledge; early diagnosis of the stone avoid growth to large size and prevent renal failure.

  8. Safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Li, Bin; Xu, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Summary Huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not uncommon at clinical presentation, and the surgical outcomes of such tumors are poor. This systematic review aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of partial hepatectomy for huge HCC. We performed a search on Medline and PubMed databases for all relevant studies published prior to December 2009. After exclusions, 21 studies remained for appraisal and data extraction. All studies were classified as level-4 evidence. The median overall perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 29.2% (range: 13.6–72%) and 3.5% (range: 0–18.2%), respectively. The overall median survival since the partial hepatectomy was 20.7 months (range: 10.1–32 months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year survival of 60.7% (range: 41–72.2%), 34% (range: 0–60.3%) and 28.6% (range: 0–54%), respectively. The median disease-free survival since the partial hepatectomy was 11.3 months (range: 5.5–32months), with median 1-, 3- and 5-year disease-free survival rates of 48.7% (range: 32–65.4%), 27.5% (range: 14.1–49%) and 20.7% (range: 9.5–43%), respectively. Partial hepatectomy can be performed safely and is associated with long-term survival in a subset of patients with huge HCC, but the evidence of benefit is currently weak. PMID:21358616

  9. Huge focal nodular hyperplasia presenting in a 6-year-old child: A case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Lin; Ni, Chuangye; Din, Wenbing; Zhang, Feng; Zhuang, Yi; Sun, Yawei; Xi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign lesion of the liver which is usually found in healthy adults, however, FNH is rare in children, and comprises only 2% of all pediatric liver tumors. Herein, we report the case of a 6-year-old child (male) with a huge FNH which size is more than 10cm. This could be the biggest FNH among all children's FNH cases ever reported. A 6-year-old boy was found a hepatic space-occupying lesion two years ago. As the time went by, the lesion became bigger gradually. The last CT examination showed the size of the tumor to be 10.5×9.9cm in the right hepatic lobe. This child underwent surgical resection of the tumor which was confirmed as FNH (11×8×7cm) by pathology. FNH is a benign lesion of the liver, and it is characterized by hepatocyte hyperplasia and a central stellate scar. It is uncommon for FNH to be diagnosed in children. Such huge FNH (about 11cm) is extremely rare. Surgical operation may be the effective method to cure huge FNH. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Modified concentric craniotomy for the removal of a huge calvarial metastatic tumor: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ying; Yang, Shih-Hung; Kuo, Meng-Fai

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging for neurosurgeons to remove huge tumors involving the skull that may possibly invade the dura or intracranial neural tissue. In this situation, excision of the tumor may cause profound blood loss, unexpected opening of the dura, or neurological injury. We describe a technique of craniotomy in a pediatric patient to avoid surgical complications. A 15-year-old boy had a huge metastatic calvarial Ewing's sarcoma. We removed the tumor successfully with modified concentric craniotomy. First, two oval burr holes are made on both sides of the tumor. The inner craniotomy uses the internal margin of the oval holes, while the outer cut uses the outer margins. The skull bone in between the two craniotomies is removed easily in two pieces and the dura surrounding the tumor can be exposed early in the procedure. In this way, the huge skull tumor can be removed en bloc under direct vision to avoid unwanted complications. Minimal blood and bone loss can be achieved. Blood transfusion was not necessary during the surgery. The patient did not have new neurological symptoms and signs after surgery. The goal of the modified concentric craniotomy is to develop an accessible margin of the dura surrounding the bulky tumor in the early phase of surgery. Blood and bone loss can be reduced significantly.

  11. Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green for laparoscopic fenestration of nonparasitic huge liver cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Hatano, Etsuro; Mitsunori, Yusuke; Tomiyama, Koji; Taura, Kojiro; Mizumoto, Masaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2015-02-01

    Bile duct injury is one of the known serious complications of laparoscopic fenestration for nonparasitic liver cysts. Herein, we report the case of a huge liver cyst for which we performed laparoscopic fenestration using intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography with indocyanine green. A 71-year-old woman with abdominal distention was referred to our hospital. CT demonstrated a 17 × 11.5-cm simple cyst replacing the right lobe of the liver, so laparoscopic fenestration was performed. Although the biliary duct could not be detected because of compression by the huge cyst, fluorescent cholangiography with indocyanine green through endoscopic naso-biliary drainage tube clearly delineated the intrahepatic bile duct in the remaining cystic wall. The patient had no complications at 3 months after surgery. Fluorescent cholangiography using indocyanine green is a safe and effective procedure to avoid bile duct injury during laparoscopic fenestration, especially in patients with a huge liver cyst. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of hepatic resection vs transarterial chemoembolization for solitary huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shao-Liang; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Ke, Yang; Ma, Liang; You, Xue-Mei; Li, Le-Qun

    2015-08-28

    To compare the efficacy of hepatic resection (HR) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for patients with solitary huge (≥ 10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Records were retrospectively analyzed of 247 patients with solitary huge HCC, comprising 180 treated by HR and 67 by TACE. Long-term overall survival (OS) was compared between the two groups using the Kaplan-Meier method, and independent predictors of survival were identified by multivariate analysis. These analyses were performed using all patients in both groups and/or 61 pairs of propensity score-matched patients from the two groups. OS at 5 years was significantly higher in the HR group than the TACE group, across all patients (P = 0.002) and across propensity score-matched pairs (36.4% vs 18.2%, P = 0.039). The two groups showed similar postoperative mortality and morbidity. Multivariate analysis identified alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, presence of vascular invasion and TACE treatment as independent predictors of poor OS. Our findings suggest that HR can be safe and more effective than TACE for patients with solitary huge HCC.

  13. Huge Intramural Hematoma in a Thrombosed Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Tae Hong; Kim, Young Soo

    2015-09-01

    We describe a case of a huge intramural hematoma in a thrombosed middle cerebral artery aneurysm. A 47-year-old female patient with liver cirrhosis and thrombocytopenia presented to the neurosurgical unit with a 5-day history of headache and cognitive dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the brain showed a thrombosed aneurysm located in the right middle cerebral artery with a posteriorly located huge intramural hematoma mimicking an intracerebral hematoma. Imaging studies and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography showed a partially thrombosed aneurysm at the origin of the right anterior temporal artery and an incidental aneurysm at the bifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. Both aneurysms were embolized by coiling. After embolization, the thrombosed aneurysmal sac and intramural hematoma had decreased in size 4 days later and almost completely disappeared 8 months later. This is the first reported case of a nondissecting, nonfusiform aneurysm with a huge intramural hematoma, unlike that of a dissecting aneurysm.

  14. Relativity, Dimensionality, and Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Vesselin

    A 100 years have passed since the advent of special relativity and 2008 will mark another important to all relativists anniversary - 100 years since Minkowski gave his talk "Space and Time" on September 21, 1908 in which he proposed the unifi- cation of space and time into an inseparable entity - space-time. Although special relativity has been an enormously successful physical theory no progress has been made in clarifying the question of existence of the objects represented by two of its basic concepts - space-time and world lines (or worldtubes in the case of extended bodies). The major reason for this failure appears to be the physicists' tradition to call such questions of existence philosophical. This tradition, however, is not quite consistent. In Newtonian mechanics physicists believe that they describe real objects whenever they talk about particles - one of the basic concepts of Newtonian physics. The situation is the same in quantum physics - no one questions the existence of electrons, protons, etc. Then why should the question of existence of worldtubes (representing particles in relativity) be regarded as a philosophical question?

  15. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong

    2017-04-01

    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  16. Modelling Gender Pay Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIntroductionThere has been little change in the full-time gender pay gap since the mid 1990s andin the female part-time/male full-time pay gap since the mid 1970s. The gender gapin hourly earnings for those employed full-time in Britain in 2003 was 18 per cent,while that between women working part-time and men working full-time was 40 percent.This research uses statistical methods to identify how much of the gender pay gap isassociated with different factors. The data set ana...

  17. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Income distribution has become one of the people's main concerns in China where more than 30years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap.But narrowing down the rich-poor disparity will prove to be no easy task.Wei Zhong,a researcher with the Institute of Economics under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,elaborated on the origins and trends of China's widening income gap,and discussed solutions to curb the gap,in a recent article.Edited excerpts follow:

  18. Small-Gap Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    34’OF CALIFORNIA# BERKELEY, CA 5.1720 ft (45 642-141 SMALL- GAP FLOWS BY E. 0. TUCK REPORT No. NAUE 84-1 CONTRACT N00014-84-K-OU26 APRIL i984...Mechanics, 41 (1970) 769-792. 11 3. Shallow-Water Waves at Discontinuities Shallow-water waves represent perhaps the prototype small- gap flow , the...solving (4.4) we need "initial" conditions at the starting station z = 0, and "exit" conditions at the station z = L where the gap flow merges with the

  19. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this…

  20. Trends in Education Excellence Gaps: A 12-Year International Perspective via the Multilevel Model for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study in the USA documented the existence and growth of "excellence gaps" among students. These gaps are similar to the minimum competency achievement gaps that proliferate in policy discussions in many Western countries, but excellence gaps focus on the highest level of achievement rather than minimum competency. We extend this…

  1. Confined PBX 9501 gap reinitiation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, Terry R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lam, Kin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    For explosive systems that exhibit gaps or cracks between their internal components (either by design or mechanical failure), measurable time delays exist for detonation waves crossing them. Reinitiation across such gaps is dependent on the type of explosive, gap width, gap morphology, confinement, and temperature effects. To examine this reinitiation effect, a series of tests has been conducted to measure the time delay across a prescribed gap within an 'infinitely' confined PBX 9501 system. Detonation breakout along the explosive surface is measured with a streak camera, and flow features are examined during reinitiation near the gap. Such tests allow for quantitative determination of the time delay corresponding to the time of initiation across a given gap oriented normal to the direction of the detonation wave. Measured time delays can be compared with numerical calculations, making it possible to validate initiation models as well as estimate detonation run-up distances. Understanding this reinitiation behavior is beneficial for the design and evaluation of explosive systems that require precision timing and performance.

  2. The Problem of Existence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    envisionment ) produced by GIZMO . ? In the envisionment , I s indicates the set of quantity—conditioned individuals that exists during a situa- tion... envisionment step by step . In START, the initial state, GIZMO deduces that heat flow occurs, since there is assumed to be a temperature difference between the...stov e GIZMO implements the basic operations of qualitative process theory, including an envisioner for makin g predictions and a program for

  3. Hermeneutics as Embodied Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Schuster RN, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possibilities and limits of a hermeneutic way of being in the world, more specifically being a researcher as a part of human, embodied existence. Understanding existence as embodied highlights the subjectivity of a researcher. For a hermeneutic researcher this subjectivity is both a precondition for interpretation and something that might endanger the scientific endeavour. In this article, I examine the possibilities of combining Hans-Georg Gadamer's empathetic hermeneutics with Paul Ricoeur's critical hermeneutics as a means of both recognizing and, to some extent, controlling my subjectivity in the research process. With Gabriel Marcel I also argue for hermeneutics as an embodied experience. This is exemplified by my study with a focus on the existential dimensions of the nursing profession. The first part of the article introduces Marcel and his philosophical anthropology concerning our bodily existence as essential for shared lives with others. In the second part, this understanding of self and others is further developed by means of the hermeneutics of Gadamer and Ricoeur. In the third part, I present a way of applying hermeneutics in procedures for interviews, transcription, and analysis of data.

  4. Filling the Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Income distribution has become one of the people’s main concerns in China where more than 30 years of reform and opening up have also resulted in an ever-expanding wealth gap. But narrowing down the

  5. Existing chemicals: international activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, J F

    1989-01-01

    The standards of care used in the protection of the health and safety of people exposed to chemicals has increased dramatically in the last decade. Standards imposed by regulation and those adopted by industry have required a greater level of knowledge about the hazards of chemicals. In the E.E.C., the 6th amendment of the dangerous substances directive imposed the requirement that al new chemicals should be tested according to prescribed programme before introduction on to the market. The development of a European inventory of existing chemicals was an integral part of the 6th amendment. It has now become clear that increased standards of care referred to above must be applied to the chemicals on the inventory list. There is, however, a considerable amount of activity already under way in various international agencies. The OECD Chemicals Programme has been involved in considering the problem of existing chemicals for some time, and is producing a priority list and action programme. The International Programme on Chemical Safety produces international chemical safety cards, health and safety guides and environmental health criteria documents. The international register of potentially toxic compounds (part of UNEP) has prepared chemical data profiles on 990 compounds. The International Agency for Research on Cancer prepared monographs on the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. So far 42 volumes have been prepared covering about 900 substances. IARC and IPCS also prepare periodic reports on ongoing research on carcinogenicity or toxicity (respectively) of chemicals. The chemical industry through ECETOC (the European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre) has mounted a major initiative on existing chemicals. Comprehensive reviews of the toxicity of selected chemicals are published (Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals). In its technical report no. 30 ECETOC lists reviews and evaluations by major national and international organisations, which provides

  6. Mind the Gap : A study of the student-audit expectation gap and factors affecting it

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study explore the expectation gap between students and audit practitioners, and if certain factors have any significant impact on the students conformity to the practitioners expectations. The study is limited to business students and audit practitioners. We used an Independent Sam-ples T-Test and Pearson Correlation Analysis to conduct the analysis of 286 student responses and 98 practitioner responses. The results confirm previous research; the expectation gap exists. The findings conc...

  7. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  8. Energy Gaps in a Spacetime Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Horwitz, L P

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the band structure of a spacetime potential lattice created by a standing electromagnetic wave. We show that there are energy band gaps. We estimate the effect, and propose a measurement that could confirm the existence of such phenomena.

  9. Quantifying the Gender Gap in Science Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 5,000 self-generated science-related K-12 students' questions, classified into seven science subjects, were used to quantitatively measure the gender gap in science interests and its change with age. In this data set, a difference between boys' and girls' science interests did not exist during early childhood, but increased over 20-fold by…

  10. Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyama Yoshiaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.

  11. High platelet counts increase metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing transarterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Ge, Ning-Ling; Xu, Xin; Le, Fan; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests platelets play critical roles in tumor metastasis. Moreover, the role of platelets in metastasis is partially correlated with inflammation. However, evidence regarding the contribution of platelets to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is lacking. This study investigated the association between platelets and metastatic risk in HCC. We used huge HCC (diameter over 10 cm), a tumor subgroup with a strong inflammatory background, as a model to evaluate the potential predictive role of platelets and platelet-related biomarkers for metastasis in HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization. A logistic regression model was used to analyze risk factors for metastasis. Patients with huge HCC (n = 178) were enrolled, and 24.7% (44/178) of patients had remote metastases after treatment. Univariate analyses showed high platelet counts (P = 0.012), pretreatment platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (pre-PLR) of 100 or more (P = 0.018) and post-PLR of 100 or more (P = 0.013) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed high platelet counts (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.074-4.443; P = 0.031) and platelet-related biomarkers were independent risk factors for HCC metastasis. Particularly, the risk of metastasis in patients with high post-PLR values was significantly greater than patients with low post-PLR values. For tumor response and survival, patients with high platelet counts had faster disease progression (P = 0.002) and worse survival (P huge HCC undergoing chemoembolization, which supply clinical verification of the association between high platelet counts and HCC metastasis. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  12. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-05-28

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2-46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2-46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable.

  13. The big, large and huge case of state-building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Using communication theory as point of departure, it is not evident how to study macro phenomena. Michel Foucault limited his studies to a non-Grand Theory when studying discursive events. At the same time, Charles Tilly wrote about Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons when trying...... to establish a perspective on a macro phenomena as European state formation. With Luhmann's system theory, the claim is that there is no such contradiction between Grand evolution and particular semantic history. Passing through some classic studies of the historical establishment of interaction systems...

  14. The  Big, Large and Huge Case of State-Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

      Using communication theory as point of departure it is not evident how to study macro phenomena. Michel Foucault delimited his studies to a non-Grand Theory when he studied discursive events. At the same time Charles Tilly wrote about Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons when he...... tried to establish a perspective on a macro phenomena as European state formation. With Luhmann's system theory, the claim is that there is no such contradiction between Grand evolution and particular semantic history. Passing through some classic studies of the historical establishment of interaction...

  15. Huge malignant phyllodes breast tumor: a real entity in a new era of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Errico, Valentina; Travaglini, Roberto; Voulaz, Emanuele; Alloisio, Marco

    2015-02-27

    Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare tumor of the breast. It occurs in females in the third and fourth decades. The difficulty in distinguishing between phyllodes tumors and benign fibroadenoma may lead to misdiagnosis. Lymph node involvement is rarely described in phyllodes tumors; for this reason, sentinel node biopsy may be warranted. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman affected by huge tumor of the right breast with ulceration in the skin with a rapid tumor growth and with omolateral axillary metastasis.

  16. Huge Benign Ovarian Cystic Teratoma in a Patient with a History of Hansen's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonta, Patrick I; Mofon, Chukwuemeke

    2014-01-01

    Mature ovarian cystic teratomas are common benign ovarian neoplasm derived from germ cells. With increasing availability of ultrasound services even in developing countries, the diagnosis of benign ovarian tumour is made earlier and the size of the ovarian tumour at diagnosis is relatively small. It is unusual to find an ovarian cystic teratoma larger than 10 cm. We report a huge mature ovarian cystic teratoma in a multipara with a history of Hansen's disease. We conclude that, in circumstances where women have restricted access to health care, the unusual finding of mature ovarian cystic teratoma larger than 10 cm is possible due to delayed presentation for diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Creating and Exploring Huge Parameter Spaces: Interactive Evolution as a Tool for Sound Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2001-01-01

    of huge synthesis parameter spaces, and presents a possibility for the sound artist to create new sound engines customized for this kind of creation and exploration – sound engines too complex to control in any other way. Different sound engines are presented, together with a discussion of compositional......In this paper, a program is presented that applies interactive evolution to sound generation, i.e., preferred individuals are repeatedly selected from a population of genetically bred sound objects, created with various synthesis and pattern generation algorithms. This simplifies aural exploration...

  18. Huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minghong; Bai, Wei; Guo, Huiyong; Wen, Hongqiao; Yu, Haihu; Jiang, Desheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper reviews the work on huge capacity fiber-optic sensing network based on ultra-weak draw tower gratings developed at the National Engineering Laboratory for Fiber Optic Sensing Technology (NEL-FOST), Wuhan University of Technology, China. A versatile drawing tower grating sensor network based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is firstly proposed and demonstrated. The sensing network is interrogated with time- and wavelength-division multiplexing method, which is very promising for the large-scale sensing network.

  19. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  20. Huge Intrathoracic Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor in an Adolescent with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hyung Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST is a rare soft tissue malignancy usually found in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 with a poor outcome. Although MPNST can be found in any part of the body including head and neck or extremities, intrathoracic MPNST with or without NF1 is uncommon, especially in children or adolescents. Reported herein is a case of huge intrathoracic MPNST in a 16-year-old girl with NF1, and a brief review of the literature.

  1. Huge gastric bezoar caused by honeycomb, an unusual complication of health faddism: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Lazaraki, Georgia; Fasoulas, Kostas; Zavos, Christos; Kountouras, Jannis

    2009-01-01

    We report a young healthy woman, who believed that the consumption of large amounts of honeycomb would lead to good health and who finally developed a huge gastric bezoar of hard consistency. The conventional endoscopic techniques failed to manage the bezoar. Using the combination of injection of hydrogen peroxide 3% solution inside the bezoar to induce disintegration and a special designed needle-knife sphincterotome (bezotome) we managed to remove the bezoar in fragments. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported bezoar caused by honeycomb. PMID:19829904

  2. A huge chondromyxoid fibroma of the nasal cavity in a newborn baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Tae; Park, Joo Hyun; Sunwoo, Woong Sang; Rhee, Chae-Seo

    2012-08-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign tumor that usually occurs in the long bones. A 2-month newborn presented with huge masses in the both nasal cavities, which turned out to be chondromyxoid fibroma. The masses originated from both inferior turbinates. Total turbinectomy on the left side and submucosal mass excision on the right side were performed. No recurrence or new lesion was observed during the 2 years of follow up. We report here on a rare case of nasal cavity chondromyxoid fibroma in a neonate and we review the relevant literature.

  3. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer accompanied by huge hiatal hernia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Chie; Yajima, Kazuhito; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Oohinata, Ryouki; Yuu, Ken; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Amaki, Misato; Nakano, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    We herein present a case in which we used a totally laparoscopic approach for early gastric cancer accompanied by a huge hiatal hernia. An 80-year-old Japanese woman was referred with a chief complaint of dysphagia. A clinical diagnosis of early gastric cancer, T1b (SM) N0M0, stage IA, accompanied by hiatal hernia, was made. Distal gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out. After the gastrectomy, the hernial sac was excised and the hernial orifice was closed. Reconstruction using the Roux-en-Y method was selected. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10.

  4. Huge aneurysm and coronary-cameral fistula from right coronary branch: First case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Pasarad, Ashwini Kumar; Kishore, Kolkebaile Sadanand; Maheshwarappa, Nandakumar Neralakere

    2016-02-01

    Coronary-cameral fistulas are rare cardiovascular anomalies. A giant coronary artery aneurysm associated with a coronary-cameral fistula is a very rare condition, with an estimated prevalence of 0.02%. We report the case of middle-aged woman who presented with a huge extracardiac aneurysmal mass and a coronary-cameral fistula from a right coronary artery branch. It was successfully repaired by ligation and excision plus marsupialization of the aneurysm. We believe this is the first such a case reported in literature.

  5. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  6. Hinged Dissections Exist

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Timothy G; Charlton, David; Demaine, Erik D; Demaine, Martin L; Kominers, Scott D

    2007-01-01

    We prove that any finite collection of polygons of equal area has a common hinged dissection. That is, for any such collection of polygons there exists a chain of polygons hinged at vertices that can be folded in the plane continuously without self-intersection to form any polygon in the collection. This result settles the open problem about the existence of hinged dissections between pairs of polygons that goes back implicitly to 1864 and has been studied extensively in the past ten years. Our result generalizes and indeed builds upon the result from 1814 that polygons have common dissections (without hinges). We also extend our common dissection result to edge-hinged dissections of solid 3D polyhedra that have a common (unhinged) dissection, as determined by Dehn's 1900 solution to Hilbert's Third Problem. Our proofs are constructive, giving explicit algorithms in all cases. For a constant number of planar polygons, both the number of pieces and running time required by our construction are pseudopolynomial...

  7. Long-term survival after surgical resection for huge hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with transarterial chemoembolization after propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yang Won; Lee, Jun Hee; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong Han; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul; Choi, Moon Seok

    2014-05-01

    Surgical resection (SR) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) have been commonly applied for patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, optimal treatment has not been established. Between 2000 and 2009, 267 patients with huge HCC (≥ 10 cm) underwent TACE and 84 underwent SR as the first treatment. Propensity score matching generated a matched cohort composed of 152 patients. We investigated overall survival and possible prognostic factors. At baseline, the surgery group showed a tendency to have solitary tumor (72.6% vs 39.3%, P huge HCC. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Lebesgue Sets Immeasurable Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marginean Petrovai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the notion of measure and integral were released early enough in close connection with practical problems of measuring of geometric figures. Notion of measure was outlined in the early 20th century through H. Lebesgue’s research, founder of the modern theory of measure and integral. It was developed concurrently a technique of integration of functions. Gradually it was formed a specific area todaycalled the measure and integral theory. Essential contributions to building this theory was made by a large number of mathematicians: C. Carathodory, J. Radon, O. Nikodym, S. Bochner, J. Pettis, P. Halmos and many others. In the following we present several abstract sets, classes of sets. There exists the sets which are not Lebesgue measurable and the sets which are Lebesgue measurable but are not Borel measurable. Hence B ⊂ L ⊂ P(X.

  9. Existence of Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks present Minkowski space as an almost pure mathematical construct, without any explicit restriction on a domain where it is applicable in physics. Meanwhile, its physical meaning cannot but follow the same premises as those which underlies the special relativity theory: motion of free point particles and propagation of electromagnetic waves. However, the common formalism of coordinate transformations between any two inertial frames appears too ponderous to infer the existence of Minkowski space. For this reason, the time dilation and retardation, the contraction of the length along and the spatial invariance across the direction of relative motion of two frames are presented in a coordinate-free manner. This results in the transformation between two frames in the form of relationships between the time moments and the components of the position vector of a given event, along and across the directions of the frames' motion. The obtained transformation rules for the components of the position ve...

  10. Formation of Degenerate Band Gaps in Layered Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Vinogradov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms of formation and properties of these band gaps are analyzed. Peculiarities of spectra of photonic crystals that arise due to the linkage between band gaps are discussed. Particularly, it is shown that formation of a frozen mode is caused by linkage between Brillouin and degenerate band gaps. Also, existence of the optical Borrmann effect at the boundaries of degenerate band gaps and optical Tamm states at the frequencies of degenerate band gaps are analyzed.

  11. A huge 6.2 kilogram uterine myoma coinciding with omental leiomyosarcoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, C W; Lee, C L; Yen, C F; Wang, C J; Soong, Y K

    1999-12-01

    Surgery for massive abdominal tumors is both interesting and challenging. We present a case involving a multiple uterine myoma weighing 6.2 Kg which coincided with omental leiomyosarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of condition in the English literature. A 44-year-old nulliparous woman had suffered from abdominal pain for a long time. A huge abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. Computed tomography scanning revealed a huge pelvic-abdominal mass with the possibility of small bowel loops invaded by the mass. A 6-cm omental mass was incidentally found during the subsequent hysterectomy procedure. Perforation of the urinary bladder occurred during the dissection of adhesion. Resection of the omental mass, wide wedge resection of the invaded small bowel, primary repair of the bladder, and hysterectomy were performed. The final pathologic diagnosis was uterine leiomyomata with omental leiomyosarcoma. The patient returned home on postoperative day 14 and was well at the 18-month follow-up examination. The challenge of these tumors lies in their proper diagnosis and surgical management. More case reports and follow-up studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of their management.

  12. Treatment of Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Cinobufacini Injection in Transarterial Chemoembolization: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of Cinobufacini injection in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE for treatment of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Clinical data of 56 consecutive patients with HCC larger than 10 cm who had been treated with TACE between December 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 31 belonged to the Cinobufacini group and 25 belonged to the epirubicin group. The clinical efficacy, survival time, and adverse events in patients in the two groups were compared. The objective response rate in the Cinobufacini group was significantly higher than that in the epirubicin group (53.6% versus 23.1%, P=0.022. The median survival time (10.6 versus 14.1 months, χ2=0.092, P=0.762 and the median time to progression (4.9 versus 5.7 months, χ2=0.097, P=0.756 were similar between the groups. The incidence rate of adverse events was lower in the Cinobufacini group than in the epirubicin group (P<0.05. The short-term clinical efficacy of Cinobufacini is better than that of epirubicin in TACE for treating huge HCC, while their long-term clinical efficacy is similar. However, lower incidence of adverse events was noted in TACE using Cinobufacini rather than epirubicin.

  13. Surgical resection of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma in skull base by intraoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Li, Yun-Peng; Lei, De-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma, also known as ossifying fibroma, usually occurs in the mandible and less commonly in the maxilla. The huge example in the skull base is even rare. We present a case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma arising below the skull base of a 30-year-old woman patient. Radiologic investigations showed a giant, lobulated, heterogeneous calcified hard tissue mass, which is well circumscribed and is a mixture of radiolucent and radiopaque, situated at the rear of the right maxilla to the middle skull base. The tumor expands into the right maxillary sinus and the orbital cavity, fusing with the right maxilla at the maxillary tuberosity and blocking the bilateral choanas, which caused marked proptosis and blurred vision. The tumor was resected successfully by intraoral approach, and pathologic examination confirmed the lesion to be a cemento-ossifying fibroma. This case demonstrates that cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxilla, not like in the mandible, may appear more aggressive because the extensive growth is unimpeded by anatomic obstacles and that the intraoral approach can be used to excise the tumor in the skull base.

  14. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    'Qin brick and Han tile' has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were unearthed at the center of Guangzhou's old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty, A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world' by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient technical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical characteristics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  15. The technical research on the huge glazed brick from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ‘Qin brick and Han tile’ has a great worldwide reputation in the architectural history of China. According to the former archaeological materials, the big hollow brick is usually one meter long and thirty to forty centimeters wide, while the solid brick is generally much smaller. But in 1995, large scale vestiges and structures were un- earthed at the center of Guangzhou’s old district, from the relic of Nanyue Kingdom Palace, which was built some 2000 years ago during the Western-Han Dynasty. A great number of earthen structural members were discovered, especially the solid glazed bricks in various beautiful patterns with an astonishing thickness and size. Some of them are one meter square, more than 20 centimeters thick, and weight half a ton, which are named ‘Brick No.1 in the world’ by excavators. People have shown great interest in how to make these huge glazed bricks at the ancient tech- nical conditions, because it is very difficult to manufacture such huge bricks even with the modern technology. At the request of Guangdong Nanyue Kingdom Palace Museum, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics carried out systematical measurements and analysis on these bricks and studied the physical and chemical forming mechanisms from their chemical compositions, structure, and physical character- istics. Here the technical characteristics of the bricks are also discussed.

  16. Treatment of Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Cinobufacini Injection in Transarterial Chemoembolization: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Qun; Ye, Hua; Chen, Wei; Ling, Changquan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of Cinobufacini injection in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for treatment of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinical data of 56 consecutive patients with HCC larger than 10 cm who had been treated with TACE between December 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 31 belonged to the Cinobufacini group and 25 belonged to the epirubicin group. The clinical efficacy, survival time, and adverse events in patients in the two groups were compared. The objective response rate in the Cinobufacini group was significantly higher than that in the epirubicin group (53.6% versus 23.1%, P = 0.022). The median survival time (10.6 versus 14.1 months, χ (2) = 0.092, P = 0.762) and the median time to progression (4.9 versus 5.7 months, χ (2) = 0.097, P = 0.756) were similar between the groups. The incidence rate of adverse events was lower in the Cinobufacini group than in the epirubicin group (P huge HCC, while their long-term clinical efficacy is similar. However, lower incidence of adverse events was noted in TACE using Cinobufacini rather than epirubicin.

  17. Challenging the time complexity of exact subgraph isomorphism for huge and dense graphs with VF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Vincenzo; Foggia, Pasquale; Saggese, Alessia; Vento, Mario

    2017-04-24

    Graph matching is essential in several fields that use structured information, such as biology, chemistry, social networks, knowledge management, document analysis and others. Except for special classes of graphs, graph matching has in the worst-case an exponential complexity; however, there are algorithms that show an acceptable execution time, as long as the graphs are not too large and not too dense. In this paper we introduce a novel subgraph isomorphism algorithm, VF3, particularly efficient in the challenging case of graphs with thousands of nodes and a high edge density. Its performance, both in terms of time and memory, has been assessed on a large dataset of 12700 random graphs with a size up to 10000 nodes, made publicly available. VF3 has been compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms, and the huge experimentation required more than two years of processing time. The results confirm that VF3 definitely outperforms the other algorithms when the graphs become huge and dense, but also has a very good performance on smaller or sparser graphs.

  18. Strontium-89 therapy for the treatment of huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhao, Weiwei; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu

    2013-02-01

    Prostate cancer is a growing public health problem. The palliation of pain in patients with painful bone metastases is of primary importance in the clinical management of advanced cancer. Internal therapy with radionuclides, which concentrate at sites of increased bone turnover, is used to control pain and improve quality of life as an alternative to conventional therapies. In the present study, we report the case of a 52-year-old male who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer. The patient presented with severe pain in multiple areas, but particularly in the right hip. A whole-body bone scan revealed that the right hip, ilium and ischium were covered with huge metastatic lesions. Treatment with radionuclide strontium-89 chloride ((89)Sr) resulted in a partial response which was confirmed by the successful relief of pain and other imaging modalities. No significant change in the leukocyte or thrombocyte levels was observed. The results of the present study indicate that systemic radionuclide therapy using (89)Sr is an effective, well-tolerated and safe palliative treatment in patients with huge osseous metastases in prostate carcinoma.

  19. Resection of Huge Liver Cancer Involving the Second Porta Hepatis:A Report of 55 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHan; WUMengchao; WANGYi; WEIGongtian; HULei

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possibility and surgical procedures for huge liver cancer involving the second porta hepatis.Methods 55 cases of huge liver cancer, with the diameter of 8-28 cm(mean 12.7 cm) were studied. Right subcostal or “rooftop” incision was made, the liver ligments were divided, good exposure of the tumor and access to retrohepatic inferior vena cava were achieved.Hepatectomies were completed under intermittent interruption of first porta hepatis. Occluding tape around vena cava was applied before liver resection if necessary.Results All tumors were successfully resected without death during operation.The longest survival time was now 4 years in one case. The 1-4 year postoperative survival rates were 63%,50%,50% and 30% respectively.Conclusion Young patients with solitary large liver tumor, which grows slowly over a long period on basis of non-cirrhotic or mild cirrhotic liver, should undergo an exploration in an attempt of resection irrespective of the image contraindication, provided that there is no extra-hepatic metastasis.

  20. [One case of huge cyst at the back end of nasal septum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jian; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Xuejun

    2014-04-01

    A male of 17 years old complained of bilateral nasal congestion with mouth breathing for half a year. The physical examination showed patency of bilateral nasal cavity. Nasopharyngeal fiberscope revealed a huge spherical smooth reddish mass at the nasopharyngeal posterior wall and the back-end of nasal cavity blocking the entire postnaris and contacting with bilateral tubal tori, the size of which is about 3.5 cm x 2.5 cm. The nasopharyngeal 3D-CT showed a low density cystic mass area in the nasopharynx with smooth edges, and the CT value is approximately 32.4 HU. No exact enhancement was observed. The cystic mass originated from and compressed the back end of nasal septum. A semicircular defect in the leading edge of clivus was observed, and the inferior wall of sphenoid sinus is compressed uplifted upwards. The nasopharyngeal MR showed that the nasopharyngeal lesion presented short T1 and long T2 signals with multiple small wall nodules around. Neither the lesion nor the peripheral nodules can be significantly enhanced by enhancement scan. After a nasal endoscopic surgery, the case was definitely diagnosed as nasal septum back-end huge cyst.

  1. Superconducting gap anomaly in heavy fermion systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G C Rout; M S Ojha; S N Behera

    2008-04-01

    The heavy fermion system (HFS) is described by the periodic Anderson model (PAM), treating the Coulomb correlation between the -electrons in the mean-field Hartree-Fock approximation. Superconductivity is introduced by a BCS-type pairing term among the conduction electrons. Within this approximation the equation for the superconducting gap is derived, which depends on the effective position of the energy level of the -electrons relative to the Fermi level. The latter in turn depends on the occupation probability f of the -electrons. The gap equation is solved self-consistently with the equation for f; and their temperature dependences are studied for different positions of the bare -electron energy level, with respect to the Fermi level. The dependence of the superconducting gap on the hybridization leads to a re-entrant behaviour with increasing strength. The induced pairing between the -electrons and the pairing of mixed conduction and -electrons due to hybridization are also determined. The temperature dependence of the hybridization parameter, which characterizes the number of electrons with mixed character and represents the number of heavy electrons is studied. This number is shown to be small. The quasi-particle density of states (DOS) shows the existence of a pseudo-gap due to superconductivity and the signature of a hybridization gap at the Fermi level. For the choice of the model parameters, the DOS shows that the HFS is a metal and undergoes a transition to the gap-less superconducting state.

  2. Undecidability of the Spectral Gap (full version)

    CERN Document Server

    Cubitt, Toby; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    We show that the spectral gap problem is undecidable. Specifically, we construct families of translationally-invariant, nearest-neighbour Hamiltonians on a 2D square lattice of $d$-level quantum systems ($d$ constant), for which determining whether the system is gapped or gapless is an undecidable problem. This is true even with the promise that each Hamiltonian is either gapped or gapless in the strongest sense: it is promised to either have continuous spectrum above the ground state in the thermodynamic limit, or its spectral gap is lower-bounded by a constant in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, this constant can be taken equal to the local interaction strength of the Hamiltonian. This implies that it is logically impossible to say in general whether a quantum many-body system is gapped or gapless. Our results imply that there exist specific Hamiltonians for which the presence or absence of a spectral gap is independent of all consistent axiomatisations of mathematics. These results have a number of impor...

  3. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  4. Gap Cycling for SWIFT

    CERN Document Server

    Corum, Curtis A; Snyder, Carl J; Garwood, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) is a non- Cartesian MRI method with unique features and capabilities. In SWIFT, radiofrequency (RF) excitation and reception are performed nearly simultaneously, by rapidly switching between transmit and receive during a frequency-swept RF pulse. Because both the transmitted pulse and data acquisition are simultaneously amplitude-modulated in SWIFT (in contrast to continuous RF excitation and uninterrupted data acquisition in more familiar MRI sequences), crosstalk between different frequency bands occurs in the data. This crosstalk leads to a "bulls-eye" artifact in SWIFT images. We present a method to cancel this inter-band crosstalk by cycling the pulse and receive gap positions relative to the un-gapped pulse shape. We call this strategy "gap cycling." Methods: We carry out theoretical analysis, simulation and experiments to characterize the signal chain, resulting artifacts, and their elimination for SWIFT. Results: Theoretical analysis reveals t...

  5. Missing the gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    creative learning at the borders need not minimize differences, but handle and learn from them? If not, schools and educational institutions risk becoming bad copies of the labour marked instead of enabling students to enter the market with something new, something radically dissimilar from what......Missing the gap This paper is focused on an exploration of creative learning involved in boundary crossing (Tanggaard, 2007). Our aim is to explore the trajectories and pathways realised by students as they move from education to work and vice versa (Tanggaard & Beghetto, 2015), guided...... by the premise that difference and gaps are places where creative learning is intensified (Glaveanu & Gillespie, 2015). The public discourse around education is often concerned with minding or avoiding the gap by making education more relevant for or similar to the labour market, but what if facilitating...

  6. Self-induced gap solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weina; Zhu, Yongyuan; Li, Hongxia; Liu, Sumei

    2009-09-01

    The self-induced gap solitons in nonlinear magnetic metamaterials is investigated. It is shown that the self-induced gap solitons may exist due to the interaction of the discreteness and nonlinearity. The evolution of these localized structures is studied in the phase plane and analytical and numerical expressions are obtained.

  7. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...... resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women....

  8. The Gender Gap in European Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseberry, Lynn; Remke, Robyn; Klæsson, Johan

    "The Gender Gap in European Business Schools: A Leadership Perspective" is a research project initiated and funded by EFMD, EQUAL, and the business schools represented on the project’s Steering Committee with following motivations for the study: Numerous studies by policy makers and academics have...... documented the existence of a faculty gender gap in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), which starts at the bottom of the academic hierarchy at the Ph.D. level and grows wider at each succeeding stage in the academic career path. As of 2013, women still represented less than 30% of grade A academic staff...

  9. The HUGE formula (hematocrit, urea, gender) for screening for chronic kidney disease in elderly patients: a study of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; de Los Rios, Eduardo; Vilas, Manuel; Terrasa, Sergio; Bratti, Griselda; Varela, Federico; Diez, Guillermo Rosa; Jauregui, Jose; Luna, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Chronically reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in old people does not always mean that they suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) since their GFR can just be reduced by aging. The HUGE equation has been recently described and validated in Spain for screening CKD without taking into account the patient's GFR value. This equation is based on patient's hematocrit, plasma urea levels and gender. The present study documented that the HUGE equation had and acceptable performance for screening CKD in elderly Argentine patients.

  10. 巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤1例%1 case of huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 刘雯雯

    2016-01-01

    Huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma is rare in clinic,and the preoperative misdiagnosis rate is high.The data of 1 case of huge appendiceal mucinous cystadenoma was introduced in this paper.%巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤临床较少见,术前误诊率高。本文对巨大阑尾黏液性囊腺瘤1例的病例资料进行介绍。

  11. Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard; Bennett, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, the existence of nonlocal gap solitons in twodimensional periodic photonic structures with defocusing thermal nonlinearity. We employ liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers and show how the system geometry can modify the effective respons...

  12. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma greater than 10 cm in diameter worsens prognosis by causing distant recurrence after curative resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Kenji; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Yokoo, Hideki; Orimo, Tatsuya; Shimada, Shingo; Einama, Takahiro; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the recurrence pattern and the prognosis after hepatectomy. 574 patients who underwent hepatectomy by 17 surgeons (Open 536 and Laparoscopic 38) for HCC without major vascular invasion from 1990 to 2013 at single institute were retrospectively analyzed. Huge tumor, age, HCV, multiple tumors and microscopic portal invasion are independent risk factors for overall survival (OS), and huge tumor, ICGR15 ≥16%, multiple tumors, moderate/poor histology, microscopic portal invasion and a positive pathological margin are risk factors for relapse-free survival (RFS). The 5-year OS and RFS of patients with huge HCC (n = 53) (42.9 and 14.2%) were significantly worse than those of patients with HCC Huge tumor is an independent risk factor for initial extra-hepatic recurrence (Hazard ratio 7.86, P Huge HCC (≥10 cm) is an independent risk factor due to a high risk for initial extra-hepatic recurrence. Future systemic adjuvant therapy is needed for these patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:324-329. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Treatment of huge hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage by surgery and cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tian; Xue, Sha; Li, Pei-Jian; Fu, Yan-Bin; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2013-09-01

    There is limited information available regarding the treatment of huge hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage (HPH). This study aimed to evaluate our experience of 33 patients with huge HPH who were treated by open surgery (decompressive craniectomy and hematoma evacuation) and external cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. We reviewed the records of 33 consecutive patients admitted to our hospital with huge HPH (≥ 60 cm(3)). All patients were treated by decompressive craniectomy, hematoma evacuation, and CSF drainage. Data collected included age, gender, blood pressure at admission, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) location, ICH volume, degree of midline shift, presence/absence of basal cistern obliteration at admission and before surgery, and presence/absence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Outcome was assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at 30 days after surgery. The median GCS score was 5.0 at admission, and improved to 8.0 at 1 week after surgery. The median ICH volume was 95 cm(3) before surgery and 4 cm(3) after surgery. IVH was observed in 93.9% of patients. The overall survival rate to discharge was 75.6% (25/33), including 15.1% (4/33) with good function, 36.4% (12/33) with disability, and 24.3% (8/33) in a vegetative state. The mortality rate was 24.3% (8/33). Patients with right-sided ICH had better outcomes than those with left-sided ICH. No patients with GCS score ≤ 6 and ICH volume ≥ 90cm(3) at admission achieved good postoperative function. Operative time was significantly shorter with hematoma evacuation via the transcortical approach than via the transsylvian approach (3.41 ± 0.75 h vs. 4.14 ± 0.59 h, Phuge HPH by decompressive craniectomy, hematoma evacuation, and CSF drainage is life-saving. Patients with GCS score 7-8, ICH volume 60-90 cm(3), and right-sided ICH may achieve good recovery. The transcortical approach appears to be more effective than the transsylvian approach for rapid decompression of

  14. Plumes Do Not Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.; Anderson, D. L.; Foulger, G. R.; Winterer, E. L.

    conjectures are made ever more complex and implausible to encompass contrary data, and have no predictive value. The inescapable conclusion is that deep-mantle thermal plumes not only are unneces- sary but that they do not exist.

  15. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

  16. Structuring the Information Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Julian

    1984-01-01

    Describes an information gap procedure to teach a new structure which requires students to look for and exchange information in order to complete a task in an English as a second language class. Illustrates the method with a set of materials and suggests ways for teachers to produce similar materials. (SED)

  17. 'Mind the Gap!'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Gunnar

    This paper challenges the widely held view that sharply falling real transport costs closed the transatlantic gap in grain prices in the second half of the 19th century. Several new results emerge from an analysis of a new data set of weekly wheat prices and freight costs from New York to UK mark...

  18. Bridging the Technological Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazow, Robert; And Others

    The aim of "Bridging the Technological Gap" (BTG), a federally funded demonstration project, is to use microcomputer technology in the rehabilitation of the psychiatrically disabled. Through the use of a custom designed microcomputer software package, clients receive remediation in areas of specific cognitive and behavioral deficits. The project…

  19. Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Kandil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up.

  20. Shape Memory and Huge Superelasticity in Ni–Mn–Ga Glass-Coated Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni–Mn–Ga polycrystalline alloy fibers with diameters of 33 μm are reported to exhibit significantly improved ductility and huge superelastic and shape memory strains in comparison to conventional brittle bulk polycrystalline alloys. Particularly, the recoverable strain of the Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fiber can be as high as 10% at 40 °C. Such optimized behavior has been achieved by a suitable fabrication process via a glass-coating melt spinning method. The superelastic properties at different temperatures and the shape memory effect of Ni54.9–Mn23.5–Ga21.6 fibers were investigated.

  1. Tiny grains give huge gains: nanocrystal-based signal amplification for biomolecule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-06-25

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays.

  2. Development of a huge varix following endovascular embolization for cerebellar arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineura, K.; Sasajima, H.; Itoh, Y.; Kowada, M. [Akita Univ. Hospital (Japan). Neurosurgical Service; Tomura, N. [Akita Univ. Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Goto, K. [Iizuka Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Interventional Neuroradiology

    1998-03-01

    We report on the case of a huge varix that developed after the endovascular embolization of a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a single drainer. A 21-year-old male presented with trigeminal neuralgia which was caused by the dilated drainer of the AVM. A varix was found at the basal vein of Rosenthal 2 months after an initial stage of embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles; it diminished after the surgical extirpation of the AVM. The varix formation might have been facilitated by the stenosis in the vein of Galen and by the dynamic changes that followed the embolization. This rare complication should be kept in mind when embolization is performed for AVMs with impaired venous outlets. (orig.).

  3. Huge spin-transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction by a superlattice barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Tseng, P.; Ko, C. W.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    Huge spin-transfer torque (STT) in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) achieved by superlattice barrier composed of alternate layers of a nonmagnetic metal and an insulator is proposed. The magnitude of the STT depends on the number of cells in the superlattice barrier and the nonmagnetic metal layer's thickness. The result shows that the STT of the novel superlattice-barrier MTJ can reach values up to four orders of magnitude greater than those of traditional single-barrier stacks based on three cells superlattice by designing the nonmagnetic metal layer's thickness. In addition, the spin-transfer torque of the proposed MTJ can also be thousands of magnitude greater than those of traditional double-barrier MTJs.

  4. Bilateral ureteral complete obstruction with huge spontaneous urinoma formation in a patient with advanced bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Yeong-Chin; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Cheng, Ming-Chin; Lin, Chang-Te; Chen, Pi-Che

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the collecting system with extravasation of urine and urinoma formation is usually associated with urinary tract obstruction by a ureteral calculus. Tumor growth is an extremely rare cause of urinary extravasation. Here we report a case of bilateral obstructive uropathy with a huge spontaneous left retroperitoneal urinoma caused by advanced infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The point of leakage was located in the left renal pelvis. The urinary leakage ceased after percutaneous nephrostomy drainage, and the patient subsequently underwent radical cystoprostatectomy. Histopathology revealed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with pelvic lymph node metastasis. The patient refused any adjuvant treatment and expired 6 months after the operation from disseminated metastasis from bladder cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Bilateral ureteral complete obstruction with huge spontaneous urinoma formation in a patient with advanced bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Chin Jou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of the collecting system with extravasation of urine and urinoma formation is usually associated with urinary tract obstruction by a ureteral calculus. Tumor growth is an extremely rare cause of urinary extravasation. Here we report a case of bilateral obstructive uropathy with a huge spontaneous left retroperitoneal urinoma caused by advanced infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The point of leakage was located in the left renal pelvis. The urinary leakage ceased after percutaneous nephrostomy drainage, and the patient subsequently underwent radical cystoprostatectomy. Histopathology revealed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with pelvic lymph node metastasis. The patient refused any adjuvant treatment and expired 6 months after the operation from disseminated metastasis from bladder cancer.

  6. Huge epithelial nonparasitic splenic cyst: A case report and a review of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Bahman; Farhangi, Arezo; Firouzjahi, Alireza; Jahed, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Splenic cysts are rare in all age groups and there are a few reports in the world literature. Primary cysts occur most frequently in children and young adults, comprising around 25% of all nonparasitic splenic cysts. Various techniques are suggested for the treatment of splenic cysts. In this case report, a huge epithelial splenic cyst in a 17-year-old female is presented and different treatment methods of splenic cysts are evaluated. A 17-year-old female presented with progressive abdominal mass in left upper quadrant associated with abdominal pain and food intolerance of duration of several months. There was no history of trauma. On physical examination, there was a huge mass located in the upper left side of abdomen. Computerized tomography scan revealed that a large cystic lesion had occupied the spleen with dimensions of 32x21xI5.6 cm. After patient preparation laparotomy was performed and complete cyst excision was done with splenectomy, patient was discharged after 2 days. This is a report of a case of epithelial splenic cyst of the spleen in a 17-year old female. The management of splenic cysts continues to evolve and the optimum treatment of patients with nonparasitic splenic cysts is controversial, as a principle preservation technique of the spleen with minimally invasive methods such as laparoscopy is preferred to splenectomy with the exception of very large cysts and when splenic hilum is involved in cyst wall. However, significant cyst recurrences were encountered with these techniques. Recently open partial splenectomy has been proposed as a safe and effective method in the management of NPSCs it ensures complete cyst removal, lack of cyst recurrence, and preservation of the spleen functions.

  7. Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2012-06-26

    Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

  8. The Gap between Intractable Problem and Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xian-hui; LAI Xue-jia; HE Da-ke

    2009-01-01

    To describe the design approaches of IND-CCA2 (adaptive chosen ciphertext attack) secure public key encryption schemes systematically, the gaps between different kinds of intractable problems and IND-CCA2 security are studied. This paper points out that the construction of IND-CCA2 secure schemes is essentially to bridge these gaps. These gaps are categorized, analyzed and measured. Finally the methods to bridge these gaps are described. This explains the existing design approaches and gives an intuition about the difficulty of designing IND-CCA2 secure public key encryption schemes based on different types of assumptions.

  9. Cancer and the environment: Filling knowledge gaps together

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda S. BIRNBAUM

    2010-01-01

    @@ When considering disease etiology, we need to view the role of the environment along the continuum from health to disease for individuals because we know that there are complex interactions between genes, their molecular expression, and environmental factors over a person's lifetime. We clearly have huge gaps in our knowledge along this continuum, and these gaps are natural opportunities for research. There are many factors to consider as we assess the relationship between environmental exposures over a lifetime. One factor is persistence of chemicals that "live" beyond their initial intended use. Another factor is the fact that "inert ingredients" are not really inert. "Low dose" is also another consideration. We need to understand the biological effect of low dose exposure and we should clearly define what they mean by low dose research. For example, are we measuring the administered dose, or the internal/circulating dose?

  10. Regeneration of a Compromized Masticatory Unit in a Large Mandibular Defect Caused by a Huge Solitary Bone Cyst: A Case Report and Review of the Regenerative Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Joseph Kamal; Akhtar, Shakeel; Abu Al Nassar, Hiba; Al Khoury, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    The reconstructive options for large expansive cystic lesion affecting the jaws are many. The first stage of treatment may involve enucleation or marsupialization of the cyst. Attempted reconstruction of large osseous defects arising from the destruction of local tissue can present formidable challenges. The literature reports the use of bone grafts, free tissue transfer, bone morphogenic protein and reconstruction plates to assist in the healing and rehabilitation process. The management of huge mandibular cysts needs to take into account the preservation of existing intact structures, removal of the pathology and the reconstructive objectives which focus both on aesthetic and functional rehabilitation. The planning and execution of such treatment requires not only the compliance of the patient and family but also their assent as customers with a voice in determining their surgical destiny. The authors would like to report a unique case of a huge solitary bone cyst that had reduced the ramus, angle and part of the body of one side of the mandible to a pencil-thin-like strut of bone. A combination of decompression through marsupialization, serial packing, and the fabrication of a custom made obturator facilitated the regeneration of the myo-osseous components of the masticatory unit of this patient. Serial CT scans showed evidence of concurrent periosteal and endosteal bone formation and, quite elegantly, the regeneration of the first branchial arch components of the right myo-osseous masticatory complex. The microenvironmental factors that may have favored regeneration of these complex structures are discussed.

  11. Horizontal roof gap of backfill hydraulic support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张吉雄; 邰阳; 方坤; 殷伟

    2015-01-01

    For the backfill hydraulic support as the key equipment for achieving integration of backfilling and coal mining simultaneously in the practical process, its characteristics will directly influence the backfill body’s compression ratio. Horizontal roof gap, as a key parameter of backfilling characteristics, may impact the backfilling effect from the aspects of control of roof subsidence in advance, support stress, backfilling process and the support design. Firstly, the reason why horizontal roof gap exists was analyzed and its definition, causes and connotation were introduced, then adopting the Pro/E 3D simulation software, three typical 3D entity models of backfill hydraulic supports were built, based on the influence of horizontal roof gap on backfilling effect, and influence rules of four factors, i.e. support height, suspension height, suspension angle and tamping angle, were emphatically analyzed on horizontal roof gap. The results indicate that, the four factors all have significant impacts on horizontal roof gap, but show differences in influence trend and degree, showing negative linear correlation, positive linear correlation, positive semi-parabolic correlation and negative semi-parabolic correlation, respectively. Four legs type is the most adaptive to the four factors, while six legs (II) type has the poorest adaptability, and the horizontal roof gap is small under large support height, small suspension height, small suspension angle and large tamping angle situation. By means of optimizing structure components and their positional relation and suspension height of backfill scrape conveyor in the process of support design and through controlling working face deployment, roof subsidence in advance, mining height and backfilling during engineering application, the horizontal roof gap is optimized. The research results can be served as theoretical basis for support design and guidance for backfill support to have better performance in backfilling.

  12. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  13. Two Modes of Partially Screened Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Szary, Andrzej; Gil, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of X-ray observations suggest an ultrastrong ($B\\gtrsim 10^{14} \\,{\\rm G}$) surface magnetic field at the polar cap of pulsars (Szary, 2013). On the other hand, the temperature of the polar caps is about a few millions Kelvin. Based on these two facts we use the Partially Screened Gap (PSG) model to describe the Inner Acceleration Region (IAR). The PSG model assumes that the temperature of the actual polar cap is equal to the so-called critical value, i.e. the temperature at which the outflow of thermal ions from the surface screens the gap completely. We have found that, depending on the conditions above the polar cap, the generation of high energetic photons in IAR can be caused either by Curvature Radiation (CR) or by Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS). Completely different properties of both processes result in two different scenarios of breaking the acceleration gap: the so-called PSG-off mode for the gap dominated by CR and the PSG-on mode for the gap dominated by ICS. The existence of two di...

  14. Minding the Gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Millicent Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Neutron & X-ray scattering provides nano- to meso-scale details of complex fluid structure; 1D electronic density maps dervied from SAXS yield molecular level insights; Neutron reflectivity provides substructure details of substrate supported complex fluids; Complex fluids composition can be optimized to support a wide variety of both soluble and membrane proteins; The water gap dimensions can be finely tuned through polymer component.

  15. Small Generation Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    IT was while I was making milk for my son that I discovered the generation gap between us. A little thing of two years and three months, my son stood on a big chair I brought him and joined me to make milk. Holding a small spoon in his plump little hand, he scooped flour out of a jar and poured it into the feeding bottle and then scooped milk powder and

  16. The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor survival in patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma that received transarterial chemoembolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Wang, Yan-Hong; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is particularly strong in huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is unclear whether the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as an inflammatory-related marker, can predict survival of patients with huge HCC. In this study, we enrolled 291 patients with huge HCC (diameter over 10 cm) who were undergoing repeated transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) at our institute. The baseline PLR was calculated from complete serum blood counts before the first chemoembolization. We found that a baseline PLR cutoff value over 150 best predicted huge HCC survival. The 12, 24, and 36 months survival rates in the high PLR group (22.6, 8.1, and 4.1 %, respectively) were significantly lower than in the low PLR group (35.6, 22.4, and 14 %, respectively). Thus, a significant difference was found in overall survival (log-rank test, p huge HCC, a high baseline PLR is a useful predictor of poor survival in patients undergoing chemoembolization. Additional anti-inflammatory or anti-platelet treatments, in combination with TACE, may improve survival in HCC patients with high PLR.

  17. The value of a formula including haematocrit, blood urea and gender (HUGE) as a screening test for chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gregori, J A; Robles, N R; Mena, C; Ardanuy, R; Jauregui, R; Macas-Nu Nunez, J F

    2011-06-01

    Despite increasing use in clinical practice, an estimated glomerular filtration rate value (eGFR) of HUGE formula. A formula including haematocrit , blood urea, and gender (HUGE), diagnoses CRI regardless of the variables of age, blood creatinine, creatinine clearance, or other eGFR. The HUGE formula is: L = 2.505458 - (0.264418 x Hematocrit) + (0.118100 x Urea) [+ 1.383960 if male]. If L is a negative number the individual does not have CRI; if L is a positive number, CRI is present. Our data demonstrate that the HUGE formula is more reliable than MDRD and CKD-EPI, particularly in persons aged over 70. Our HUGE screening formula offers a straightforward, easily available and inexpensive method for differentiating between CRI and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 that will prevent a considerable number of aged healthy persons, as much as 1.700.000 in Spain and 2.600.000 in U.K., to be excluded from clinical assays or treatments contraindicated in CRI.

  18. [COMBINED POSTERIOR AND ANTERIOR APPROACHES FOR RESECTION OF THORACOLUMBAR SPINAL HUGE DUMBBELL-SHAPED TUMOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Chen; Ding, Huiqiang; Fu, Bin; Niu, Ningkui; Yue, Xuefeng; Yang, Zongqiang; He, Yin

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the surgical outcome of combined posterior and anterior approaches for the resection of thoracolumbar spinal canal huge dumbbell-shaped tumor. Between January 2009 and March 2015, 12 patients with thoracolumbar spinal canal huge dumbbell-shaped tumor were treated by posterior approach and anterolateral approach through diaphragmatic crura and thoracoabdominal incision for complete resection. There were 9 males and 3 females, with an average age of 45 years (range, 30-65 years). The disease duration was 8-64 weeks (mean, 12.7 weeks). The tumor was located at T(12), L1 in 6 cases, at L(1,2) in 5 cases, and at L(2,3) in 1 case. The tumor size ranged from 4.3 cm x 4.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 6.3 cm x 6.0 cm. According to tumor outside the spinal involvement scope and site and based on the typing of Eden, 5 cases were rated as type b, 2 cases as type d, 4 cases as type e, and 1 case as type f in the transverse direction; two segments were involved in 8 cases, and more than two segments in 4 cases. The degree of tumor excision, tumor recurrence, and the spine stability were observed during follow-up. The verbal rating scale (VRS) was used to evaluate pain improvement. The average surgical time was 170 minutes (range, 150-230 minutes); the average intraoperative blood loss was 350 mL (range, 270-600 mL). All incisions healed by first intention, and no thoracic cavity infection and other operation related complication occurred. Of 12 cases, 10 were histologically confirmed as schwannoma, and 2 as neurofibroma. The patients were followed up 6 months to 6 years (mean, 31 months). Neurological symptoms were significantly improved in all patients, without lower back soreness. The thoracolumbar X-ray film and MRI showed no tumor residue. No tumor recurrence, internal fixator loosening, scoliosis, and other complications were observed during follow-up. VRS at last follow-up was significantly improved to grade 0 (10 cases) or grade 1 (2 cases) from preoperative

  19. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Pablo H C G; Miranda, Fábio; Veras, Adonney; de Melo, Diego Magalhães; Soares, Siomar; Pinheiro, Kenny; Guimarães, Luis; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  20. GapBlaster-A Graphical Gap Filler for Prokaryote Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo H C G de Sá

    Full Text Available The advent of NGS (Next Generation Sequencing technologies has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of complete genomes available in biological databases. This advance has allowed the development of several computational tools enabling analyses of large amounts of data in each of the various steps, from processing and quality filtering to gap filling and manual curation. The tools developed for gap closure are very useful as they result in more complete genomes, which will influence downstream analyses of genomic plasticity and comparative genomics. However, the gap filling step remains a challenge for genome assembly, often requiring manual intervention. Here, we present GapBlaster, a graphical application to evaluate and close gaps. GapBlaster was developed via Java programming language. The software uses contigs obtained in the assembly of the genome to perform an alignment against a draft of the genome/scaffold, using BLAST or Mummer to close gaps. Then, all identified alignments of contigs that extend through the gaps in the draft sequence are presented to the user for further evaluation via the GapBlaster graphical interface. GapBlaster presents significant results compared to other similar software and has the advantage of offering a graphical interface for manual curation of the gaps. GapBlaster program, the user guide and the test datasets are freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/gapblaster2015/. It requires Sun JDK 8 and Blast or Mummer.

  1. Partial reactivation of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide: recognition, formation mechanism, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minggao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Yusheng; Huang, Runqiu; Rengers, Niek; Zhu, Xing

    2016-08-01

    About 18 years ago, a large-scale discontinuous layer in properties and colour was found in the new Fengjie town at the shore of the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China. There are many resettled residents and buildings on the sloping area, the safety of which is potentially affected by this layer, so it has become the focus of attention. Before this study started there were two viewpoints regarding the origin of this layer. One was that is was from a huge ancient slide and the other was that is was from a fault graben. In order to find out how it was formed and to be able to carry out a stability analysis of the slope the authors have carried out a research program, including geological field investigations and mapping, a deep drilling hole, a geotechnical centrifuge model test, and a simulation analysis. The results of the research led to the conclusion that the layer is the sliding plane of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide, which we called the Sanmashan landslide. An important argument for the conclusion is the recognition of a regional compressive tectonic stress field in this area, which cannot lead to the formation of a fault graben because it needs a tensional tectonic stress field. Moreover, numerous unique geological features, sliding marks, and other relics of the ancient slide have been discovered in the field. The formation process of the ancient slide could be repeated in a large geotechnical centrifuge model test. The test shows that a deformation and failure process of "creep-crack-cut" has occurred. The type of the ancient slide can be classified as a "successive rotational rock slide". Finally, the role of seepage in the stability of the Sanmashan landslide has been analysed. Our final conclusions are that, during rainfall and filling-drawdown cycles in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the Sanmashan landslide as a whole is dormant and stable and the secondary landslides in the toe area of the slope are presently stable but can be reactivated. This

  2. Modified simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy for an unresectable huge refractory pelvic tumor diagnosed as a rectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Takuma; Akamatsu, Hiroko; Harada, Mayumi; Ota, Ibuki; Hagiwara, Yasuhito; Ichikawa, Mayumi; Miwa, Misako; Kawashiro, Shouhei; Hagiwara, Motohisa; Chin, Masahiro; Hashizume, Eiji; Nemoto, Kenji

    2014-12-28

    A clinical trial of radiotherapy with modified simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique against huge tumors was conducted. A 58-year-old male patient who had a huge pelvic tumor diagnosed as a rectal adenocarcinoma due to familial adenomatous polyposis was enrolled in this trial. The total dose of 77 Gy (equivalent dose in 2 Gy/fraction) and 64.5 Gy was delivered to the center of the tumor and the surrounding area respectively, and approximately 20% dose escalation was achieved with the modified SIB technique. The tumor with an initial maximum size of 15 cm disappeared 120 d after the start of the radiotherapy. Performance status of the patient improved from 4 to 0. Radiotherapy with modified SIB may be effective for patients with a huge tumor in terms of tumor shrinkage/disappearance, improvement of QOL, and prolongation of survival.

  3. MR-based truncation and attenuation correction in integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging using HUGE with continuous table motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Maike E; Oehmigen, Mark; Blumhagen, Jan O; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate a method for MR-based attenuation and truncation correction in phantom and patient measurements to improve PET quantification in PET/MR hybrid imaging. The fully MR-based method HUGE (B0 Homogenization using gradient enhancement) provides field-of-view extension in MR imaging, which can be used for truncation correction and improved PET quantification in PET/MR hybrid imaging. The HUGE method in this recent implementation is combined with continuously moving table data acquisition to provide a seamless nontruncated whole-body data set of the outer patient contours to complete the established standard MR-based Dixon-VIBE data for attenuation correction. The method was systematically evaluated in NEMA standard phantom experiments to investigate the impact of HUGE truncation correction on PET quantification. The method was then applied to 24 oncologic patients in whole-body PET/MR hybrid imaging. The impact of MR-based truncation correction with HUGE on PET data was compared to the impact of the established PET-based MLAA algorithm for contour detection. In phantom and in all patient measurements, the standard Dixon-VIBE attenuation correction data show geometric distortions and signal truncations at the edges of the MR imaging field-of-view. In contrast, the Dixon-VIBE-based attenuation correction data additionally extended by applying HUGE shows significantly less distortion and truncations and due to the continuously moving table acquisition robustly provides smooth outer contours of the patient arms. In the investigated patient cases, MLAA frequently showed an overestimation of arm volume and associated artifacts limiting contour detection. When applying HUGE, an average relative increase in SUVmean in patients' lesion of 4.2% and for MLAA of 4.6% were measured, when compared to standard Dixon-VIBE only. In specific lesions maximal differences in SUVmean up to 13% for HUGE and 14% for MLAA were measured

  4. Huge nanodielectric effects in polyimide/boron nitride nanocomposites revealed by the nanofiller size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaham, S.; Saysouk, F.; Locatelli, M.-L.; Lebey, T.

    2015-09-01

    The dielectric properties of polyimide/boron nitride (PI/BN) nanocomposite films are investigated as a function of the BN nanofiller size from 20 to 350 °C and at low filler content (1-2 vol.%). The role of the BN nanofiller size on the large reduction of the electrode polarization relaxation phenomenon due to ionic movements is reported. For the two smallest BN nanoparticles (95 nm and 35 nm), the permittivity, dielectric losses and dc conductivity are strongly attenuated above 200 °C by a factor of 10 to 1000 compared to neat PI. Thus, the dc conductivity at 350 °C is reduced from 4   ×   10-8 Ω-1 cm-1 for neat PI to 3   ×   10-11 Ω-1 cm-1 for PI/BN (35 nm). Moreover, a further decrease is obtained by functionalizing the nanofiller surface with a silane coupling agent which improves the grafting of PI chains on those latter nanoparticles. These results highlight the trapping efficiency in the interphase region introduced by the small BN nanofillers (<100 nm) and provides evidence as to the huge nanodielectric effects on the charge carrier transport controlled by the nanoparticle diameter. This finding should be of great importance for advanced high temperature electrical insulation in the future.

  5. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw, 02-676 (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  6. Synovial sarcoma presenting with huge mediastinal mass: a case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Synovial sarcoma presenting in the mediastinum is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, data addressing optimal therapy is limited. Herein we present a case where an attempt to downsize the tumor to a resectable state with chemotherapy was employed. Case presentation A 32 year female presented with massive pericardial effusion and unresectable huge mediastinal mass. Computed axial tomography scan - guided biopsy with adjunctive immunostains and molecular studies confirmed a diagnosis of synovial sarcoma. Following three cycles of combination Ifosfamide and doxorubicin chemotherapy, no response was demonstrated. The patient refused further therapy and had progression of her disease 4 months following the last cycle. Conclusion Synovial sarcoma presenting with unresectable mediastinal mass carry a poor prognosis. Up to the best of our knowledge there are only four previous reports where primary chemotherapy was employed, unfortunately; none of these cases had subsequent complete surgical resection. Identification of the best treatment strategy for patients with unresectable disease is warranted. Our case can be of benefit to medical oncologists and thoracic surgeons who might be faced with this unique and exceedingly rare clinical scenario. PMID:23800262

  7. Unexpected Huge Dimerization Ratio in One-Dimensional Carbon Atomic Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chang; Morishita, Shigeyuki; Koshino, Masanori; Yeh, Chao-Hui; Teng, Po-Yuan; Chiu, Po-Wen; Sawada, Hidetaka; Suenaga, Kazutomo

    2017-01-11

    Peierls theory predicted atomic distortion in one-dimensional (1D) crystal due to its intrinsic instability in 1930. Free-standing carbon atomic chains created in situ in transmission electron microscope (TEM)1-3 are an ideal example to experimentally observe the dimerization behavior of carbon atomic chain within a finite length. We report here a surprisingly huge distortion found in the free-standing carbon atomic chains at 773 K, which is 10 times larger than the value expected in the system. Such an abnormally distorted phase only dominates at the elevated temperatures, while two distinct phases, distorted and undistorted, coexist at lower or ambient temperatures. Atom-by-atom spectroscopy indeed shows considerable variations in the carbon 1s spectra at each atomic site but commonly observes a slightly downshifted π* peak, which proves its sp(1) bonding feature. These results suggest that the simple model, relaxed and straight, is not fully adequate to describe the realistic 1D structure, which is extremely sensitive to perturbations such as external force or boundary conditions.

  8. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  9. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiyakala Rajendran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. Intra operatively, uterus was enlarged to 14 weeks size. Both ovaries were replaced with multiloculated cysts of size 15x10 cm on left side and 10x10 cm on right side. Ovarian pedicle was found to be twisted once on right side and twice on left side. On right side, untwisting of pedicle was done and the ovarian cyst was punctured at multiple sites to drain the clear fluid. Biopsy was taken from the right ovarian cyst wall. On left side, ovariotomy was done. Histopathology revealed mucinous cyst adenoma of left ovary and multiple corpus luteum in right ovarian biopsy specimen. The patient was followed up with regular antenatal check-ups and ultrasound to rule out the recurrence of ovarian cyst on right side. The patient successfully delivered a term male baby at 39 weeks. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1598-1601

  10. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  11. Computational AstroStatistics Fast and Efficient Tools for Analysing Huge Astronomical Data Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Nichol, R C; Connolly, A J; Davies, S; Genovese, C; Hopkins, A M; Miller, C J; Moore, A W; Pelleg, D; Richards, G T; Schneider, J; Szapudi, I; Wasserman, L H

    2001-01-01

    I present here a review of past and present multi-disciplinary research of the Pittsburgh Computational AstroStatistics (PiCA) group. This group is dedicated to developing fast and efficient statistical algorithms for analysing huge astronomical data sources. I begin with a short review of multi-resolutional kd-trees which are the building blocks for many of our algorithms. For example, quick range queries and fast n-point correlation functions. I will present new results from the use of Mixture Models (Connolly et al. 2000) in density estimation of multi-color data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Specifically, the selection of quasars and the automated identification of X-ray sources. I will also present a brief overview of the False Discovery Rate (FDR) procedure (Miller et al. 2001a) and show how it has been used in the detection of ``Baryon Wiggles'' in the local galaxy power spectrum and source identification in radio data. Finally, I will look forward to new research on an automated Bayes Netw...

  12. Distributed data organization and parallel data retrieval methods for huge laser scanner point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongchao, Ma; Wang, Zongyue

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for distributed data organization and parallel data retrieval from huge volume point clouds generated by airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology under a cluster computing environment, in order to allow fast analysis, processing, and visualization of the point clouds within a given area. The proposed method is suitable for both grid and quadtree data structures. As for distribution strategy, cross distribution of the dataset would be more efficient than serial distribution in terms of non-redundant datasets, since a dataset is more uniformly distributed in the former arrangement. However, redundant datasets are necessary in order to meet the frequent need of input and output operations in multi-client scenarios: the first copy would be distributed by a cross distribution strategy while the second (and later) would be distributed by an iterated exchanging distribution strategy. Such a distribution strategy would distribute datasets more uniformly to each data server. In data retrieval, a greedy algorithm is used to allocate the query task to a data server, where the computing load is lightest if the data block needing to be retrieved is stored among multiple data servers. Experiments show that the method proposed in this paper can satisfy the demands of frequent and fast data query.

  13. Smaller Real Regional Income Gap than Nominal Income Gap: A Price-adjusted Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan Jiang; Hui Li

    2006-01-01

    Two factors determining the level of living in different areas are income level and price level.Current studies on regional gaps concentrate on the gap in income levels. The present paper studies the impact of the two variables on the real living standards in different regions, with the real gap in the living standards calculated with price adjustment by taking into consideration only the deviations brought about by cash income. The basic conclusion is that, despite China's economy having witnessed rapid growth, the statistics at the macro level cannot disguise the obvious gaps among regions; therefore, as a result of the impact of income and price, the real gap in the living standards among different regions is smaller than the gap indicated by the nominal income level. As people are sensitive to cash income level, they have a low sensitivity to changes in real purchasing power. In other words, in areas that have the same real income levels, people tend to think that people live better when the nominal income and price are both high. The differences in price indices among different regions show that the same cash income can get different goods and services in different regions. This explains the rationale of the existence of floating workers among different regions. On this basis, we predict that people working in high-income areas who enjoy higher levels of social security might prefer to live in low-priceareas after retirement if the social security payment method becomes more flexible.

  14. Gap Opening in 3D: Single Planet Gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Giant planets can clear deep gaps when embedded in 2D (razor-thin) viscous circumstellar disks. We show by direct simulation that giant planets are just as capable of carving out gaps in 3D. Surface density maps are similar between 2D and 3D, even in detail. In particular, the scaling $\\Sigma_{\\rm gap} \\propto q^{-2}$ of gap surface density with planet mass, derived from a global "zero-dimensional" balance of Lindblad and viscous torques, applies equally well to results obtained at higher dimensions. Our 3D simulations reveal extensive, near-sonic, meridional flows both inside and outside the gaps; these large-scale circulations might bear on disk compositional gradients, in dust or other chemical species. At high planet mass, gap edges are mildly Rayleigh unstable and intermittently shed streams of material into the gap - less so in 3D than in 2D.

  15. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  16. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  17. Unveiling the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensson, Pall; Rokkjær, Ole; Nørgaard, Bente

    discussing their NQF and Sweden has decided not to adjust to the EQF for the moment. Analysis of the subject focus for the individual programmes showed a high degree of variation. In the context of CDIO this means that what seems to be a well-known and commonly accepted definition of a discipline like IE...... needs, how universities decide what to teach, and how to bridge the gap. Do the university programs simply reflect the expertise of the faculty members? Is there need for increasing emphasis on continuing education? Is life-long education the answer, and has this been addressed by the CDIO community?...

  18. Mind the gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagwat, M.S.; Roberts, C.D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, Argonne, IL (United States); Krassnigg, A. [Universitaet Graz, Fachbereich Theoretische Physik, Graz (Austria); Maris, P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    In this summary of the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons, some deductions following from a nonperturbative, symmetry-preserving truncation are highlighted, notable amongst which are results for pseudoscalar mesons. We also describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence of a chiral expansion, applications to heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons, and quantitative estimates of the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum in pseudoscalar mesons; and recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors. (orig.)

  19. Mind the gap.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagwat, M. S.; Krassnigg, A.; Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Physics; Univ. Graz; Univ. of Pittsburgh

    2007-03-01

    In this summary of the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons, some deductions following from a nonperturbative, symmetry-preserving truncation are highlighted, notable amongst which are results for pseudoscalar mesons. We also describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence of a chiral expansion, applications to heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons, and quantitative estimates of the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum in pseudoscalar mesons; and recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

  20. Closing the stop gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, Michal [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchnphysik und Kosmologie; Mitov, Alexander [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Papucci, Michele [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-07-15

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  1. Mind the Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While a growing number of Chinese people are enjoying the benefits brought by economic reform and social development, some are being left behind. The divide between the rich and the poor is widening in China, resulting in an increasingly dissatisfied populace. Some argue that a wealth gap is not a big deal in a market economy and that the problem in China has been exaggerated. But in an article published by China Economic Times, Wu Zhongmin, a sociology professor at the Central Party School of the Commun...

  2. Board affiliation and pay gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglan; Chen; Hui; Ma; Danlu; Bu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of board affiliation on the corporate pay gap.Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2005 to 2011, we find that boards with a greater presence of directors appointed by block shareholders have lower pay gaps. Furthermore, the governance effects of board affiliation with and without pay are distinguished. The empirical results show that board affiliation without pay is negatively related to the pay gap, while board affiliation with pay is positively related to the pay gap. Overall, the results shed light on how block shareholders affect their companies’ pay gaps through board affiliation.

  3. GASP: Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction for proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Denis C

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of ancestral protein sequences from multiple sequence alignments is useful for many bioinformatics analyses. Predicting ancestral sequences is not a simple procedure and relies on accurate alignments and phylogenies. Several algorithms exist based on Maximum Parsimony or Maximum Likelihood methods but many current implementations are unable to process residues with gaps, which may represent insertion/deletion (indel events or sequence fragments. Results Here we present a new algorithm, GASP (Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction, for predicting ancestral sequences from phylogenetic trees and the corresponding multiple sequence alignments. Alignments may be of any size and contain gaps. GASP first assigns the positions of gaps in the phylogeny before using a likelihood-based approach centred on amino acid substitution matrices to assign ancestral amino acids. Important outgroup information is used by first working down from the tips of the tree to the root, using descendant data only to assign probabilities, and then working back up from the root to the tips using descendant and outgroup data to make predictions. GASP was tested on a number of simulated datasets based on real phylogenies. Prediction accuracy for ungapped data was similar to three alternative algorithms tested, with GASP performing better in some cases and worse in others. Adding simple insertions and deletions to the simulated data did not have a detrimental effect on GASP accuracy. Conclusions GASP (Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction will predict ancestral sequences from multiple protein alignments of any size. Although not as accurate in all cases as some of the more sophisticated maximum likelihood approaches, it can process a wide range of input phylogenies and will predict ancestral sequences for gapped and ungapped residues alike.

  4. GASP: Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction for proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard J; Shields, Denis C

    2004-09-06

    The prediction of ancestral protein sequences from multiple sequence alignments is useful for many bioinformatics analyses. Predicting ancestral sequences is not a simple procedure and relies on accurate alignments and phylogenies. Several algorithms exist based on Maximum Parsimony or Maximum Likelihood methods but many current implementations are unable to process residues with gaps, which may represent insertion/deletion (indel) events or sequence fragments. Here we present a new algorithm, GASP (Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction), for predicting ancestral sequences from phylogenetic trees and the corresponding multiple sequence alignments. Alignments may be of any size and contain gaps. GASP first assigns the positions of gaps in the phylogeny before using a likelihood-based approach centred on amino acid substitution matrices to assign ancestral amino acids. Important outgroup information is used by first working down from the tips of the tree to the root, using descendant data only to assign probabilities, and then working back up from the root to the tips using descendant and outgroup data to make predictions. GASP was tested on a number of simulated datasets based on real phylogenies. Prediction accuracy for ungapped data was similar to three alternative algorithms tested, with GASP performing better in some cases and worse in others. Adding simple insertions and deletions to the simulated data did not have a detrimental effect on GASP accuracy. GASP (Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction) will predict ancestral sequences from multiple protein alignments of any size. Although not as accurate in all cases as some of the more sophisticated maximum likelihood approaches, it can process a wide range of input phylogenies and will predict ancestral sequences for gapped and ungapped residues alike.

  5. Gap Task Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Lissuaer, D

    One of the more congested areas in the ATLAS detector is the GAP region (the area between the Barrel Calorimeter and the End Cap calorimeter) where Inner Detector services, LAr Services and some Tile services all must co-habitat in a very limited area. It has been clear for some time that the space in the GAP region is not sufficient to accommodate all that is needed. In the last few month additional problems of routing all the services to Z=0 have been encountered due to the very limited space between the Tile Calorimeter and the first layer of Muon chambers. The Technical Management Board (TMB) and the Executive Board (EB) decided in the middle of March to establish a Task Force to look at this problem and come up with a solution within well-specified guidelines. The task force consisted of experts from the ID, Muon, Liquid Argon and Tile systems in addition to experts from the Technical Coordination team and the Physics coordinator. The task force held many meetings and in general there were some very l...

  6. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap......-closing initiatives. We find that Americans are more concerned about—and more supportive of proposals to close—wealth-based achievement gaps than Black-White or Hispanic-White gaps. Americans also explain the causes of wealth-based gaps more readily. © 2016 AERA.......For decades, researchers have documented large differences in average test scores between minority and White students and between poor and wealthy students. These gaps are a focal point of reformers’ and policymakers’ efforts to address educational inequities. However, the U.S. public’s views...

  7. Energy gap of novel edge-defected graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Weiqing; Wen, Zhongquan; Li, Min; Chen, Li; Chen, Gang; Ruan, Desheng; Gao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    Herein, the effects of width and boundary defects on the energy gap of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been explored and theoretically investigated by means of semi-empirical atomic basis Extended Hückel method. Due to the existence of boundary defects, the energy gap of GNRs is mainly determined by the width of graphene nanoribbons for armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) or zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). Interestingly, the energy gap of AGNRs with a 120° V-type defect displays the monotone decreasing tendency when the width reaches to 2 nm, while the energy gap of intrinsic AGNRs is oscillatory. At the same time, the energy gap of U-type defected ZGNRs is opened, which differs from the zero energy gap characteristics of the intrinsic zigzag graphene. Furthermore, the size of energy gap of the defected AGNRs and ZGNRs with the same width is proved to be very close. Calculation results demonstrate that the energy gap of GNRs is just inversely proportional to the width and has little to do with the crystallographic direction. All the findings above provide a basis for energy gap engineering with different edge defects in GNRs and signify promising prospects in graphene-based semiconductor electronic devices.

  8. Current Status and Future Plans for the General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL; Koglin, Johnathon D [ORNL; Craig, Teresa M [ORNL; Mori, Ken-Ichi [ORNL; Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We discuss current progress and future plans for the general antiparticle spectrometer experiment (GAPS). GAPS detects antideuterons through the X-rays and pions emitted during the deexcitation of exotic atoms formed when the antideuterons are slowed down and stopped in targets. GAPS provides an exceptionally sensitive means to detect cosmic-ray antideuterons. Cosmic-ray antideuterons can provide indirect evidence for the existence of dark matter in such form as neutralinos or Kaluza-Klein particles. We describe results of accelerator testing of GAPS prototypes, tentative design concepts for a flight GAPS detector, and near-term plans for flying a GAPS prototype on a balloon.

  9. Endovascular Treatment of the Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery by the Internal Trapping Technique: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Qing Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The endovascular strategy of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA is controversial and challenging. This study was to investigate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA by the internal trapping (IT technique. Methods: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA treated by the IT technique between September 2005 and September 2014 in Department of Interventional Neuroradiology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Clinical and angiographic data were reviewed and evaluated. Results: All patients were treated by the IT technique. That meant the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. After the procedure, the angiography demonstrated that all the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. Follow-up angiography was performed at 3-6 months or 12-18 months after the endovascular treatment (median 8 months, 14 patients had a good recovery. Re-canalization occurred in one patient whose aneurysm involved in bilateral vertebral arteries and the two third of the middle-lower BA. After the second treatment, the patient died by the ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions: The IT technique is a technically feasible and safe alternative for the treatment of BA dissecting aneurysms, but it is not necessarily the safest or most definitive treatment modality. The ideal treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA remains debatable and must be investigated on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Endovascular Treatment of the Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery by the Internal Trapping Technique: Technical Note

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Qing Mu; Xin-Jian Yang; You-Xiang Li; Chu-Han Jiang; Zhong-Xue Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The endovascular strategy of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) is controversial and challenging.This study was to investigate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA by the internal trapping (IT) technique.Methods:We retrospectively studied 15 patients with the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA treated by the IT technique between September 2005 and September 2014 in Department of lnterventional Neuroradiology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital.Clinical and angiographic data were reviewed and evaluated.Results:All patients were treated by the IT technique.That meant the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion.After the procedure,the angiography demonstrated that all the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion.Follow-up angiography was performed at 3-6 months or 12-18 months after the endovascular treatment (median 8 months),14 patients had a good recovery.Re-canalization occurred in one patient whose aneurysm involved in bilateral vertebral arteries and the two third of the middle-lower BA.After the second treatment,the patient died by the ventricular tachycardia.Conclusions:The IT technique is a technically feasible and safe alternative for the treatment of BA dissecting aneurysms,but it is not necessarily the safest or most definitive treatment modality.The ideal treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA remains debatable and must be investigated on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Treating Huge Tear-Drop Fracture of Axis With Trapezoidal Bone: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaobin; Zheng, Bolong; Hao, Dingjun; Liu, Benyin; Yan, Liang; He, Baorong

    2015-11-01

    Case report and review of relevant literature. To discuss the surgical strategies and clinical outcome of managing huge tear drop fracture of axis. Teardrop fracture of axis is rarely seen, especially the huge type. The surgical technique is demanding because of the special anatomical structure and difficulty with bone grafting. Moreover, the surgical approach is controversial in the literature. A 51-year-old male patient suffered from neck pain after falling from the bicycle, neck movement was limited with no neurological compromise. X-ray suggested huge tear-drop fracture of anterior-inferior corner of axis, narrowing of C2/3 intervertebral disc. Fusion with self-designed tricortical trapezoidal iliac bone was performed. Treating huge teardrop fracture of axis by anterior bone grafting with self-designed tricortical trapezoidal iliac bone is effective and stable. A 3-month follow-up showed fusion was achieved, upper cervical curvature was restored, and neck pain disappeared. Self-designed tricortical trapezoidal iliac bone provided adequate fusion area of bone grafting, restoring the normal intervertebral height and cervical alignment, and the midterm outcome is satisfactory. 5.

  12. Huge pseudomyxoma peritonei: Surgical strategies and procedures to employ to optimize the rate of complete cytoreductive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaim, L; Honoré, C; Goéré, D; Delhorme, J-B; Elias, D

    2016-04-01

    Complete cytoreductive surgery (CCRS) plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is the best-known treatment for pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). In 30% of the cases, PMP realize a widespread involvement of the peritoneal cavity. In these extreme situations, we developed, devoted strategies to optimize the feasibility and safety of CCRS. This study describes the surgical resections required for CCRS and the consequent approaches that we propose to achieve CCRS. We defined "huge PMP" by a peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ≥ 28. Surgical procedures of patients operated on between 1994 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from a prospective database in a single institution. During this period, 311 patients were operated on and 247 (79%) underwent CCRS + HIPEC. Among them, 100 patients presented "huge" PMP and 54 patients underwent CCRS + HIPEC. In patients with "huge" PMP, the rate of CCRS + HIPEC was 25% before 2002 and reached 71% between 2011 and 2014. We identified 3 conditions for CCRS 1) to guaranty a sufficient length of residual small bowel 2) to preserve the left gastric vessels in order to preserve the superior third of the stomach 3) to ensure that the hepatic pedicle can be entirely cleared from its tumor involvement. None of the other peritonectomy procedures were decisional for CCRS. Our learning curve improved the selection and completion rate of CCRS + HIPEC for "huge PMP". Some anatomical and physiological prerequisites guarantee the feasibility and safety of such extensive surgeries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Endovascular Treatment of the Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery by the Internal Trapping Technique: Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shi-Qing; Yang, Xin-Jian; Li, You-Xiang; Jiang, Chu-Han; Wu, Zhong-Xue

    2015-07-20

    The endovascular strategy of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) is controversial and challenging. This study was to investigate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA by the internal trapping (IT) technique. We retrospectively studied 15 patients with the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA treated by the IT technique between September 2005 and September 2014 in Department of Interventional Neuroradiology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Clinical and angiographic data were reviewed and evaluated. All patients were treated by the IT technique. That meant the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. After the procedure, the angiography demonstrated that all the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. Follow-up angiography was performed at 3-6 months or 12-18 months after the endovascular treatment (median 8 months), 14 patients had a good recovery. Re-canalization occurred in one patient whose aneurysm involved in bilateral vertebral arteries and the two third of the middle-lower BA. After the second treatment, the patient died by the ventricular tachycardia. The IT technique is a technically feasible and safe alternative for the treatment of BA dissecting aneurysms, but it is not necessarily the safest or most definitive treatment modality. The ideal treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA remains debatable and must be investigated on a case-by-case basis.

  14. Is hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (≥ 10 cm in diameter) safe and effective? A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Li, Chuan; Wen, Tian-Fu; Yan, Lu-Nan; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Yang, Jia-Yin; Xu, Ming-Qing

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to validate the safety and effectiveness of hepatectomy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data of patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC between January 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups: huge HCC(≥ 10 cm in diameter), large HCC(≥ 5 buthuge and large HCC groups were lower than that of the small HCC group (OS: 32.5% vs 36.3% vs 71.2%, p=0.000; DFS: 20.0% vs 24.8% vs 40.7%, p=0.039), but there was no difference between the huge and large HCC groups (OS: 32.5% vs 36.3%, p=0.667; DFS: 20.0% vs 24.8%, p=0.540). In multivariate analysis, five independent poor prognostic factors that affected OS were significantly associated with worse survival (phuge HCC is similar to that for large and small HCC; and this approach for huge HCC may achieve similar long-term survival and disease-free survival as for large HCC.

  15. Flume tests to study the initiation of huge debris flows after the Wenchuan earthquake in S-WChina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Wei; Xu, Qiang; van Asch, Theo.W.J.; Zhua, X; Xu, Q.Q.

    2014-01-01

    In the Wenchuan area in the southwest of China, a huge amount of loose co-seismic landslide material was deposited on slopes during the Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. These loose deposits formed the source material for rainfall-induced debris flows or shallow landslides in the years after the eart

  16. SAR backscatter from coniferous forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John L.; Davis, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    A study is in progress comparing Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) backscatter from coniferous forest plots containing gaps to backscatter from adjacent gap-free plots. Issues discussed are how do gaps in the range of 400 to 1600 sq m (approximately 4-14 pixels at intermediate incidence angles) affect forest backscatter statistics and what incidence angles, wavelengths, and polarizations are most sensitive to forest gaps. In order to visualize the slant-range imaging of forest and gaps, a simple conceptual model is used. This strictly qualitative model has led us to hypothesize that forest radar returns at short wavelengths (eg., C-band) and large incidence angles (e.g., 50 deg) should be most affected by the presence of gaps, whereas returns at long wavelengths and small angles should be least affected. Preliminary analysis of 1989 AIRSAR data from forest near Mt. Shasta supports the hypothesis. Current forest backscatter models such as MIMICS and Santa Barbara Discontinuous Canopy Backscatter Model have in several cases correctly predicted backscatter from forest stands based on inputs of measured or estimated forest parameters. These models do not, however, predict within-stand SAR scene texture, or 'intrinsic scene variability' as Ulaby et al. has referred to it. For instance, the Santa Barbara model, which may be the most spatially coupled of the existing models, is not truly spatial. Tree locations within a simulated pixel are distributed according to a Poisson process, as they are in many natural forests, but tree size is unrelated to location, which is not the case in nature. Furthermore, since pixels of a simulated stand are generated independently in the Santa Barbara model, spatial processes larger than one pixel are not modeled. Using a different approach, Oliver modeled scene texture based on an hypothetical forest geometry. His simulated scenes do not agree well with SAR data, perhaps due to the simple geometric model used. Insofar as texture

  17. Band gap scaling laws in group IV nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongze; Fu, Xiaonan; Guo, Yangyang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu

    2017-03-01

    By using the first-principles calculations, the band gap properties of nanotubes formed by group IV elements have been investigated systemically. Our results reveal that for armchair nanotubes, the energy gaps at K points in the Brillouin zone decrease as 1/r scaling law with the radii (r) increasing, while they are scaled by ‑1/r 2 + C at Γ points, here, C is a constant. Further studies show that such scaling law of K points is independent of both the chiral vector and the type of elements. Therefore, the band gaps of nanotubes for a given radius can be determined by these scaling laws easily. Interestingly, we also predict the existence of indirect band gap for both germanium and tin nanotubes. Our new findings provide an efficient way to determine the band gaps of group IV element nanotubes by knowing the radii, as well as to facilitate the design of functional nanodevices.

  18. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  19. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques......, rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps......, which, though independent of each other, are determined by questions of the ongoing design process. The first step consists of an abstract or subjective research phase; in the second step the findings are transferred into dynamic spatial structures. Later, the detected qualities are used to develop...

  20. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques......, rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps...... architectural projects can be discussed; in addition, a competent monitoring of the process and outcome of innovative and efficient design strategies in architectural and pedagogical aspect is included....

  1. The Gap-Tpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, B.; Anastasio, A.; Boiano, A.; Catalanotti, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Di Meo, P.; Longo, G.; Vanzanella, A.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Fiorillo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency.

  2. The GAP-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, B; Boiano, A; Catalanotti, S; Cocco, A G; Covone, G; Di Meo, P; Longo, G; Vanzanella, A; Walker, S; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Fiorillo, G

    2016-01-01

    Several experiments have been conducted worldwide, with the goal of observing low-energy nuclear recoils induced by WIMPs scattering off target nuclei in ultra-sensitive, low-background detectors. In the last few decades noble liquid detectors designed to search for dark matter in the form of WIMPs have been extremely successful in improving their sensitivities and setting the best limits. One of the crucial problems to be faced for the development of large size (multi ton-scale) liquid argon experiments is the lack of reliable and low background cryogenic PMTs: their intrinsic radioactivity, cost, and borderline performance at 87 K rule them out as a possible candidate for photosensors. We propose a brand new concept of liquid argon-based detector for direct dark matter search: the Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiode Time Projection Chamber (GAP-TPC) optimized in terms of residual radioactivity of the photosensors, energy and spatial resolution, light and charge collection efficiency

  3. Closing the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Kobiella, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    The e4d design series is looking for an innovative use of digital technology in architectural education to overcome the gap between design development and the acquisition of digital skills. Digital design approaches include multimedia technology, the crossover of analogue and digital techniques...... architectural projects can be discussed; in addition, a competent monitoring of the process and outcome of innovative and efficient design strategies in architectural and pedagogical aspect is included......., rapid-prototyping, visualization, and the presentation in artistic movies. Over the past two years a problem- based design approach was developed, which enabled students to learn digital and architectural skills simultaneously and efficiently. The educational concept consisted generally of four steps...

  4. Electron Elevator: Excitations across the Band Gap via a Dynamical Gap State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A; Foulkes, W M C; Horsfield, A P; Mason, D R; Schleife, A; Draeger, E W; Correa, A A

    2016-01-29

    We use time-dependent density functional theory to study self-irradiated Si. We calculate the electronic stopping power of Si in Si by evaluating the energy transferred to the electrons per unit path length by an ion of kinetic energy from 1 eV to 100 keV moving through the host. Electronic stopping is found to be significant below the threshold velocity normally identified with transitions across the band gap. A structured crossover at low velocity exists in place of a hard threshold. An analysis of the time dependence of the transition rates using coupled linear rate equations enables one of the excitation mechanisms to be clearly identified: a defect state induced in the gap by the moving ion acts like an elevator and carries electrons across the band gap.

  5. Clinicopathological profile, airway management, and outcome in huge multinodular goiters: an institutional experience from an endemic goiter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit; Agarwal, Sudhi; Tewari, Prabhat; Gupta, Sushil; Chand, Gyan; Mishra, Anjali; Agarwal, Gaurav; Verma, A K; Mishra, S K

    2012-04-01

    Huge goiters are common in iodine-deficient endemic regions. They are of concern to the surgeons because of the anticipated risk of difficult dissection and increased chances of surgical complications. Similarly, they are of concern to the anesthesiologists because of anticipated intubation-related difficulties and post-thyroidectomy tracheomalacia. In the present study we aimed to present our experience of managing goiters based on their gross weight, highlighting their clinicopathological profile, perioperative airway-related difficulties, and management of surgical morbidity. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the primary setting at our institute from 1995 to 2009 was carried out based on the gross gland weight. The patients were thus grouped into group A: ≤200 g; group B: 201 to ≤400 g; group C: 401 to ≤600 g; group D: >600 g. Group A (660 cases); group B (108 cases); group C (36 cases); and group D (9 cases) were included. As the goiter size increased, the mean duration of goiter, compressive symptoms, retrosternal extension (RSE), airway deformity, intubation difficulty, and tracheomalacia increased. The rate of tracheostomy, sternotomy, hemorrhage, visceral injury, and hospital stay was high with huge goiters. These features were more marked in malignant goiters compared to benign goiters. However, the postoperative complications were comparable in both of those groups. Long-standing huge goiters are common in iodine-deficient endemic areas. The majority of patients have symptomatic or clinicoradiological evidence of airway involvement. The incidence of RSE, airway deformity, intubation difficulty, and tracheomalacia is high with huge goiters. The surgery is technically demanding with greater associated chances of injury to native structures. Malignancy influences the presentation and outcome in smaller goiters. In centers with experienced endocrine surgeons and dedicated anesthetists, huge goiters can be

  6. RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN AVAILABILITY OF FRINGE BENEFITS AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE UNEXPLAINED BLACKWHITE WAGE GAP FOR MALES IN US

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan-Olari Leping

    2007-01-01

    The US black-white wage gap is an issue that has attracted thorough investigation, but so far the corresponding gap for fringe benefits has not received sufficient attention. Although ethnic differences in fringe benefits could affect wage differences, previous analysis of ethnic wage gaps in the vast majority of cases has not taken fringe benefits into account. In order to fill that gap in the existing literature, this article estimates the black-white gap for both wages and fringe benefits ...

  7. RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN AVAILABILITY OF FRINGE BENEFITS AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE UNEXPLAINED BLACKWHITE WAGE GAP FOR MALES IN US

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan-Olari Leping

    2007-01-01

    The US black-white wage gap is an issue that has attracted thorough investigation, but so far the corresponding gap for fringe benefits has not received sufficient attention. Although ethnic differences in fringe benefits could affect wage differences, previous analysis of ethnic wage gaps in the vast majority of cases has not taken fringe benefits into account. In order to fill that gap in the existing literature, this article estimates the black-white gap for both wages and fringe benefits ...

  8. Integrated Personnel and Training Information for TRADOC System Managers (TSM): Technological GAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    a technological gap was said to exist. In addition to technical reports, texts and handbooks, an extensive search was made of military publications...of, the handbook for TRADOC system managers (Kinton, 1979) and through interviews with TSMs and their staffs. For this report a " technological gap " is...personnel and training requirements are identified. A major technological gap that exists relative to these activities concerns our lack of knowledge

  9. Kierkegaardovo pojetí existence

    OpenAIRE

    Janatová, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The topic of the bachelor thesis is "Kierkegaard's conception of existence". There are both the life of the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and his philosophy discussed. The issue of human existence is analysed with its main three stages which are focused on aesthetics, ethics and religion. These stages of existence are at first described and afterwards compared with each other. The aesthetic represents the first stage of life and the religious stage is considered to be the highest aim o...

  10. The Adaptation Finance Gap Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report series focuses on Finance, Technology and Knowledge gaps in climate change adaptation. It compliments the Emissions Gap Report series, and explores the implications of failing to close the emissions gap. The report builds on a 2014 assessment by the United Nations...... Environment Programme (UNEP), which laid out the concept of ‘adaptation gaps’ and outlined three such gaps: technology, finance and knowledge. The 2016 Adaptation Gap Report assesses the difference between the financial costs of adapting to climate change in developing countries and the amount of money...... actually available to meet these costs – a difference known as the “adaptation finance gap”. Like the 2014 report, the 2016 report focuses on developing countries, where adaptation capacity is often the lowest and needs the highest, and concentrates on the period up to 2050. The report identifies trends...

  11. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    .... The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge...

  12. Mind the Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salamon, Karen Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The bookchapter engages with the lack of continuity existing between different people’s experiences, and how it may be acknowledged in ethnographic forms of representation involving montage. My discussion was triggered by a concern, which author Daniel Mendelsohn has encapsulated thus: “It has be...

  13. Closing the Gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikker, Allerd

    2002-01-01

    Natural dualities such as male/female may be perceived as radical opposites. In fact, most of them exist because of each other. They are born from unity and need interaction, not isolation. The separation of male and female over the centuries resulted in the loss of coherence and integrity.A

  14. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  15. Understanding the Tax Gap1

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Mark J.; Plumley, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tax Gap is defined as the difference between the amount of tax imposed by the Tax Code and the amount that is reported and paid with timely filed returns. For the federal government, the gross tax gap is estimated at $345 billion for Tax Year 2001 (after the collection of late and enforced payments, the net tax gap is estimated at $290 billion for Tax Year 2001). This paper explains the concept of the tax gap, discusses how it is estimated, and points out some limitations with the estimates.

  16. Surface defect gap solitons in one-dimensional dual-frequency lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Wei-Ling; Luo Li; He Ying-Ji; Wang He-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We study the surface defect gap solitons in an interface between a defect of one-dimensional dual-frequency lattices and the uniform media. Some unique properties are revealed that such lattices can broaden the region of semi-finite gap, and the semi-finite gap exists not only in the positive and zero defects but also in the negative defect; unlike in the regular lattices, the semi-finite gap exists in the positive and zero defects but does not exist in the negative defect. In particular, stable solitons exist almost in the whole semi-finite gap for the positive and zero defects. These properties are different from other lattices with defects. In addition. it is found that the existence of surface dual-frequency lattice solitons does not need a threshold Power.

  17. An air gap moderates the performance of nanowire array transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tong; Mehta, Jeremy S.; Mativetsky, Jeffrey M.

    2017-03-01

    Solution-processed nanowires are promising for low-cost and flexible electronics. When depositing nanowires from solution, due to stacking of the nanowires, an air gap exists between the substrate and much of the active material. Here, using confocal Raman spectroscopy, we quantify the thickness of the air gap in transistors comprising organic semiconductor nanowires. The average air gap thickness is found to be unexpectedly large, being at least three times larger than the nanowire diameter, leading to a significant impact on transistor performance. The air gap acts as an additional dielectric layer that reduces the accumulation of charge carriers due to a gate voltage. Conventional determination of the charge carrier mobility ignores the presence of an air gap, resulting in an overestimate of charge carrier accumulation and an underestimate of charge carrier mobility. It is shown that the larger the air gap, the larger the mobility correction (which can be greater than an order of magnitude) and the larger the degradation in on–off current ratio. These results demonstrate the importance of minimizing the air gap and of taking the air gap into consideration when analyzing the electrical performance of transistors consisting of stacked nanowires. This finding is applicable to all types of stacked one-dimensional materials including organic and inorganic nanowires, and carbon nanotubes.

  18. Measuring the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshu She MD, MPH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P .05. Rural parents are more likely to not know their children’s whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P < .05. Rural children are more than 4 times likely to have serious injuries (OR = 4.64, P < .01 and to be bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01. In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration.

  19. Measuring the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xinshu; Zhao, Deqing; Scholnick, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    China is a large country where rapid development is accompanied by growing inequalities. How economic inequalities translate to health inequalities is unknown. Baseline health assessment is lacking among rural Chinese children. We aimed at assessing baseline student health of rural Chinese children and comparing them with those of urban children of similar ages. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the 2003 Global School-Based Student Health Survey among 100 students Grade 4 to 6 from rural Guizhou, China. Results were summarized and compared with public data from urban Beijing using multivariate logistic regression models. Rural children are more likely to not wash their hands before a meal (odds ratio [OR] = 5.71, P suicidal ideation in the past year (OR = 0.68, P > .05). Rural parents are more likely to not know their children’s whereabouts (OR = 1.81, P bullied (OR = 4.01, P < .01). In conclusion, school-age rural Chinese children exhibit more health risk behaviors and fewer protective factors at baseline compared to their urban counterparts. Any intervention aimed at improving child health should take this distributive gap into consideration. PMID:27335999

  20. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  1. Huge Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Sigmoid Colon in a Neonate: A "Rarity to Meet" and a "Challenge to Treat".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Margarita; Castellani, Christoph; Singer, Georg; Marterer, Robert; Ratschek, Manfred; Till, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Only ten cases of neonatal congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the colon have been described so far. We present a full-term female newborn with trisomy 21, ventricular septal defect, and gross abdominal distension. Plain abdominal radiographs revealed a huge cystic lesion occupying the left hemiabdomen. Upon laparotomy on day 4 a CSD of the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum was confirmed and resected. The proximal colon was exteriorized and the distal part closed as a Hartmann pouch. Histology confirmed a huge segmental dilatation of the sigmoid without dysganglionosis or pseudodiverticula, but normal intestinal architecture. After correction of the ventricular septal defect a low rectal end-to-end anastomosis could be performed at an age of 5 months. The postoperative course was uneventful. CSD of the sigmoid colon is extremely "rare to meet" and a "challenge to treat" in the newborn period, but clinical awareness of this entity prompts pediatric surgical success.

  2. Surgical technique for single-port laparoscopy in huge ovarian tumors: SW Kim's technique and comparison to laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Sook; Lee, In Ok; Eoh, Kyung Jin; Chung, Young Shin; Lee, Inha; Lee, Jung-Yun; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sang Wun

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim's technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim's technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm(2)-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; Phuge ovarian tumors.

  3. Semiparametric methods to contrast gap time survival functions: Application to repeat kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xu; Schaubel, Douglas E

    2016-06-01

    Times between successive events (i.e., gap times) are of great importance in survival analysis. Although many methods exist for estimating covariate effects on gap times, very few existing methods allow for comparisons between gap times themselves. Motivated by the comparison of primary and repeat transplantation, our interest is specifically in contrasting the gap time survival functions and their integration (restricted mean gap time). Two major challenges in gap time analysis are non-identifiability of the marginal distributions and the existence of dependent censoring (for all but the first gap time). We use Cox regression to estimate the (conditional) survival distributions of each gap time (given the previous gap times). Combining fitted survival functions based on those models, along with multiple imputation applied to censored gap times, we then contrast the first and second gap times with respect to average survival and restricted mean lifetime. Large-sample properties are derived, with simulation studies carried out to evaluate finite-sample performance. We apply the proposed methods to kidney transplant data obtained from a national organ transplant registry. Mean 10-year graft survival of the primary transplant is significantly greater than that of the repeat transplant, by 3.9 months (p=0.023), a result that may lack clinical importance.

  4. GAP Analysis. Bulletin Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    in 2002 ( ESSB • Creation of a stewardship map is central to GAP’s analysis 6400) that authorizes a comprehensive review to identify the state’s method...governments and their consultants. "Washington State Law ESSB 6400 can be accessed at www.leg.wa.gov/pubfbillinfo/2001-02/Senate, January 10, 2003. Gap

  5. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  6. Using tiltmeters for early warning of tsunamis, generated by huge submarine landslides. A case study for Spitsbergen.

    OpenAIRE

    Sascha Brune; Andrey Babeyko; Stephan V. Sobolev

    2007-01-01

    A submarine landslide west of Spitsbergen could induce a destructive tsunami in the North Atlantic. Here we suggest an effective tool for early warning of tsunamis generated by huge underwater landslides. The method is based on the fact that a displacement of ~1000 km3 of sediment produces a permanent and detectable deformation of earth's lithosphere. We numerically model the ground tilting imposed by the hypothetical Spitsbergen landslide. Virtual inclinometers, positioned at the three dist...

  7. Isolated huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery in a 22-year-old patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontailler, Margaux; Vilarem, Didier; Paul, Jean-François; Deleuze, Philippe H

    2015-03-01

    A 22-year-old patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with acute chest pain. A computed tomography scan and coronary angiography revealed a partially thrombosed huge aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. Despite medical treatment, the patient's angina recurred. The patient underwent a coronary bypass grafting operation and surgical exclusion of the aneurysm. Postoperative imaging disclosed good permeability of the 3 coronary artery bypass grafts and complete thrombosis of the excluded aneurysm.

  8. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weigang; WANG, YUANTAO; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcific...

  9. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  10. Huge saphenous vein graft aneurysm presenting as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and compressing the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zencir, Cemil; Akpek, Mahmut; Onay, Sevil; Selvi, Mithat

    2016-09-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery maintains an important role in the treatment of coronary artery disease. The huge saphenous vein graft aneurysm (HSVGA) is rare and occurs as a late complication after CABG. Here, we reported a case of HSVGA presenting as non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-Term Outcome After Resection of Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma ≥ 10 cm: Single-Institution Experience with 471 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Tumor recurrence is very common after resection of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study intended to evaluate early recurrence and long-term outcomes in patients with huge HCC ≥ 10 cm after primary resection and treatment of recurrence. Recurrence and survival outcomes were retrospectively evaluated in 471 patients with huge HCCs who underwent resection between January 2000 and April 2012. Mean tumor diameter was 13.6 ± 3.1 cm, with 93 % of patients having single tumors. Anatomic and R0 resection rates were 91.1 and 89.4 %, respectively. Perioperative mortality rate was 1.7 %. Tumor recurrence and patient survival rates were 62.2 and 69.2 % at 1 year and 76.0 and 35.5 % at 5 years, respectively. Of patients with recurrence, 92.5 % received specific treatment. Median patient survival period after initial intrahepatic recurrence was 16 months. Tumor volume did not affect recurrence or survival outcomes. Independent risk factors for tumor recurrence and patient survival were serum alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 100 ng/mL, hypermetabolic uptake on positron emission tomography, satellite nodules, and microvascular invasion. These four factors were used to develop a risk prediction model, in which 1-year HCC recurrence rates in patients with 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 risk factors were 18.7, 30.3, 58.7, 79.0, and 92.1 %, respectively, and their 1-year patient survival rates were 100, 97.0, 75.5, 63.9, and 42.1 %, respectively. In patients with huge HCCs, hepatic resection with active recurrence treatment resulted in improved long-term survival. Our 4-factor risk prediction model appears to contribute to quantitative postoperative risk estimation for early HCC recurrence and patient survival in patients with HCC ≥ 10 cm.

  12. Components of the Belief Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Gaziano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge gap research focuses on education as an indicator of socioeconomic status (SES. Belief gap research centers on ideology as potentially more powerful than education in comparing sociopolitical groups with scientifically established knowledge and groups with opposing beliefs accepted on faith. This study examined the relationship between education and ideology to understand belief gaps better. The study used 2008 American National Election Study (ANES data to compare conservatives, moderates, and liberals by education on religiosity, child rearing values, opinionation, need for cognition, orientation toward politics, and mass media access and use. Although liberals tended to be more educated than conservatives overall, better-educated conservatives had the highest household incomes and were a much larger group. No known knowledge gap studies have reported results on one group characterized by high education and an opposing group distinguished by a different indicator of SES. Reformulations of the belief gap hypothesis are offered.

  13. THE EXISTENCE OF CONNECTING ORBITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,using the notion of an isolating block and Conley's attractor theory,an existence criterion of trajectories connecting a pair of invariant sets of ordinary differential equations is given.

  14. Imbalance in systemic inflammation and immune response following transarterial chemoembolization potentially increases metastatic risk in huge hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Jia, Qing-An; Ge, Ning-Ling; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Ye, Sheng-Long

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation plays a critical role in tumor metastasis. However, few inflammation-related biomarkers are currently available to predict the risk of metastasis for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using huge tumors (diameter >10 cm) as a model, we evaluated the potential risk of pre- and post-treatment inflammatory responses in the development of metastasis of HCC patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). A logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors. One hundred and sixty-five patients with huge HCC were enrolled in the study. Metastases were identified in 25.5% (42/165) patients by imaging evaluation post-TACE. Neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes decreased significantly post-TACE. Univariate analysis showed that high post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR; p = 0.003), low post-treatment lymphocyte count (p = 0.047), and high baseline NLR (p = 0.100) were potential risk factors for metastasis. Further, multivariate analysis showed that high post-treatment NLR, but not pre-treatment NLR, was an independent risk factor for metastasis; this was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Post-treatment NLR, however, had no correlation to tumor response and overall survival of patients. In conclusion, post-treatment NLR but not pre-treatment NLR independently increases the risk of metastasis in huge HCC. Our findings suggest the potential contribution of treatment-related inflammation to metastasis in advanced HCC.

  15. Totally inverted cervix due to a huge prolapsed cervical myoma simulating chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Nilgun; Simavli, Serap; Kaygusuz, Ikbal; Kasap, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    Inversion of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of the non-puerperal period and is commonly caused by benign submucous, especially fundal, leiomyomas. A case of a totally inverted cervix due to a prolapsed huge cervical leiomyoma mimicking chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion in a perimenopausal woman is presented. A 52-year-old perimenopausal woman was admitted to our clinic with an ulcerated, necrotic, infected and swollen prolapsed mass. Gynecologic history revealed that she was advised myomectomy because of her cervical myoma 2 years ago but she refused to have an operation as she believed that her positive thoughts would shrink the myoma. Presumed diagnosis before surgery was chronic non-puerperal uterine inversion. An intraoperative diagnosis was totally inverted cervix due to a huge cervical leiomyoma. Vaginal hysterectomy without adnexectomy, was performed. This is the first case in the literature which a totally inverted cervix due to a prolapsed huge cervical leiomyoma. Cervical fibroids can grow in perimenopausal period and in extremely rare cases can cause total cervical inversion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Analysis of efficacy and prognostic factors of transarterial chemoembolization combined with multimodality therapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhongfei; Wang, Maoqiang; Liu, Fengyong; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhijun; Song, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, survival and prognosis of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone and TACE in combination with multimodality therapy for huge hepatocellular carcinoma. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 115 patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma treated in our hospital from August 2008 to January 2012. Among them, 72 patients were treated by TACE alone (TACE group) and 43 patients by TACE plus multimodality therapy (TACE-combined treatment group). Their clinicopathological data and survival were analyzed. The median follow-up of the 115 cases was 24 months (range 1-40 months). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates for the TACE group were 60.4,% 23.3% and 9.8%, respectively, and 39 months, 78.1%, 43.3% and 36.8%, respectively, for the combined treatment group (P 0.05 for all), while multimodality therapy, Child's grading, ECOG scores, distant metastasis, and portal vein tumor thrombus were significantly related to the overall survival. Moreover, the Cox multivariate survival analysis revealed that therapy and ECOG scores were independent prognostic indicators (P huge hepatocellular carcinoma. Multimodality therapy and ECOG scores are independent prognostic indicators for the patients.

  17. Overcoming Knowledge Gaps in Postmerger Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria Eliisa; Martela, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) fail, mainly because of integration problems. In such integrations, much of the experiential (learning-by-doing) knowledge critical for running the business becomes redundant or is lost. However, we know virtually nothing about what type of mechanisms...... best facilitate overcoming the gaps in experiential knowledge in these dynamic hybrid organizational situations. We study a case of integration of software-maintenance processes after a megamerger. In the first phase of the integration, the company combined best features of existing knowledge systems...

  18. Huge deep-sea landslide in the Southern Mariana Trench landward slope: a preliminary report of the R/V Yokosuka & Shinkai 6500 YK15-11 Cruise -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, T.; Martinez, F.; Ohara, Y.; Oya, S.

    2016-12-01

    The R/V Yokosuka YK15-11 Cruise was done in 2015 for biological and geological survey using the Shinkai 6500 (=6K) along the southern Mariana Trench landward slope including the Shinkai Seep Field (Ohara et al, 2012, Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci. USA). We report here 6K1429 dive (observer; Ishii) on a huge submarine landslide terrain found in YK14-13 Cruise by mapping of a multi-beam sounder EM122. A small trench-parallel ridge with summit of 2300 m deep and 100 km long exists next to land side of the southwestern most Mariana Trench in collision zone of the Caroline Ridge against the Philippine Sea plate. The landslide terrain exists in the northern slope of the edifice, which is dipping toward a small basin with bottom of 5750 m deep and 70 km long. The terrain consists of two area. One is the shallow concave depression terrain of oval shape with 5 km wide, 6 km long and 600 m deep, ranging from 2700 m to 4500 m deep. The other is convex deposit terrain of fan shape with 5 7 km wide, 7 km long and 300 m high, ranging from 4500 m to 5650 m deep.The former may be induced by the deep landslide of bed rocks, while the latter may be deep sea fan or depositional mound of debris derived from the former. On the bases of EM122 data, the amount of the landslide debris was estimated as about 5 10 km3. A small tsunami might be induced by the landslide.6K1429 dive: 6K landed on the seafloor at 5645 m in the lowermost end of the mound, where she recovered serpentinized mantle peridotite and island arc type volcanic rock (hornblende andesite). Additional 4 serpentinites were collected from shallower 3 stops including final stop at 4108 m in the lower end of concave terrain. The edifice is composed of fore-arc peridotite, like serpentine seamount (Ishii, 1985, Terra Pub.) in Ogasawara forearc. The edifice was made by uplifting of forearc mantle with collision of the Caroline Ridge. During uplifting, a huge landslide occurred.

  19. Child Labour in Bangladesh - An Analysis of Gaps and Weaknesses of the Existing Legal Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Norpoth, Johannes; Gross, Lukas; Aktar, Rahima

    2014-01-01

    Child labour, particularly in its worst forms, harms the health and general welfare of children. It is considered to be a decisive impediment to the development efforts of developing countries. Working children drop out of school early and the resulting comparative lack of knowledge and skills decreases their chances to find well-paid employment in the future. International legal documents, most prominently in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN CRC) and Conventions b...

  20. Investigating the Existing Gap between Army Culture and Black American Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-19

    Carlisle, PA; U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, June 1999), 57-58. 23 11 Richard W. Judy and Carol D’Amico, Workforce 2020...2008. In contrast to the patronizing slanders of antiwar critics, recruit quality is increasing as the war in Iraq continues. 30 Renford Reese

  1. The Wind Speed Spectrum in an Industrial Environment or Does the Spectral Gap Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    North. 2.2 The Anemometers The anemometers used were a three cup variety. The cups were made by Casella and Co Limited and their light weight...spectrum over the entire frequency band. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 2.1 Site of the Experiment The anemometers used in the experiment were situated at the...metres. One of the anemometers (hereafter called anemo- meter A) was sited on the end of a building at a height of 14 metres above the ground and 2

  2. Closing the gap between rocks and clocks using total-evidence dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Total-evidence dating (TED) allows evolutionary biologists to incorporate a wide range of dating information into a unified statistical analysis. One might expect this to improve the agreement between rocks and clocks but this is not necessarily the case. We explore the reasons for such discordance using a mammalian dataset with rich molecular, morphological and fossil information. There is strong conflict in this dataset between morphology and molecules under standard stochastic models. This causes TED to push divergence events back in time when using inadequate models or vague priors, a phenomenon we term ‘deep root attraction’ (DRA). We identify several causes of DRA. Failure to account for diversified sampling results in dramatic DRA, but this can be addressed using existing techniques. Inadequate morphological models also appear to be a major contributor to DRA. The major reason seems to be that current models do not account for dependencies among morphological characters, causing distorted topology and branch length estimates. This is particularly problematic for huge morphological datasets, which may contain large numbers of correlated characters. Finally, diversification and fossil sampling priors that do not incorporate all the available background information can contribute to DRA, but these priors can also be used to compensate for DRA. Specifically, we show that DRA in the mammalian dataset can be addressed by introducing a modest extra penalty for ghost lineages that are unobserved in the fossil record, for instance by assuming rapid diversification, rare extinction or high fossil sampling rate; any of these assumptions produces highly congruent divergence time estimates with a minimal gap between rocks and clocks. Under these conditions, fossils have a stabilizing influence on divergence time estimates and significantly increase the precision of those estimates, which are generally close to the dates suggested by palaeontologists. This article is

  3. Modelling the Huge, Herschel-Resolved Debris Ring around HD 207129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohne, T.; Augereau, J. C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Absil, O.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Debris disks, which are inferred from the observed infrared excess to be ensembles of dust, rocks. and probably planetesimals, arc common features of stellar systems. As the mechanisms of their fonnation and evolution are linked to those of planetary bodies, they provide valuable infonnation. The few well-resolved debris disks are even more valuable because they can serve as modelling benchmarks and help resolve degeneracies in modelling aspects such as typical grain sizes and distances. Here, we present an analysis of the HD 207129 debris disk, based on its well-covered spectral energy distribution and Herschel/PACS images obtained in the framework of the DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars) programme. We use an empirical power-law approach to the distribution of dust and we then model the production and removal of dust by means of collisions, direct radiation pressure, and drag forces. The resulting best-fit model contains a total of nearly 10(sup -2) Earth masses in dust, with typical grain sizes in the planetesimal beh ranging from 4 to 7 micrometers. We constrain the dynamical excitation to be low, which results in very long collisional lifetimes and a drag that notably fills the inner gap, especially at 70 micrometers. The radial distribution stretches from well within 100 AU in an unusual, outward-riSing slope towards a rather sharp outer edge at about 170-190 AU. The inner edge is therefore smoother than that reported for Fomalhaut, but the contribution from the extended halo of barely bound grains is similarly small. Both slowly self-stirring and planetary perturbations could potentially have formed and shaped this disk.

  4. Poesia e existência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Antônio da Costa Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Temas como aquilo que há; o ser na sua singularidade (independentemente dos seus atributos ou das contingências; a relação entre escolha, necessidade e acaso; a relação entre possibilidade e impossibilidade (ou mesmo possíveis impossibilidades; e, por fim, neste ensaio, a relação entre caos e sistemas de ordem, sempre estiveram presentes, tanto na criação lírica como na reflexão filosófica. Logo, a existência não é privilégio do existencialismo. A noção de existência forma-se a partir daqueles temas: ela é secundária em relação aos pensamentos que a determinam. Trata-se, portanto, de uma “longa história, esta do sentido da existência” (DELEUZE, 1985. Desde o pensamento que se forma de uma culpa, desde o ressentimento e da vingança em torno da injustiça permanente do devir (quando a existência torna-se modificada pelos predicados, ou seja, niilista, à negação do todo e à absolvição da existência pela sua inocência (isto é, a afirmação do devir, o eterno retorno do ser do devir, etc., a noção de existência se desdobra. Sendo assim, o título deste trabalho, ao suspender aqueles sentidos estabelecidos, busca capturar a existência desde a potencialidade de suas relações com as configurações do poético.

  5. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  6. More on gapped Goldstones at finite density: More gapped Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Alberto; Piazza, Federico; Rosen, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    It was recently argued that certain relativistic theories at finite density can exhibit an unconventional spectrum of Goldstone excitations, with gapped Goldstones whose gap is exactly calculable in terms of the symmetry algebra. We confirm this result as well as previous ones concerning gapless Goldstones for non-relativistic systems via a coset construction of the low-energy effective field theory. Moreover, our analysis unveils additional gapped Goldstones, naturally as light as the others, but this time with a model-dependent gap. Their exact number cannot be inferred solely from the symmetry breaking pattern either, but rather depends on the details of the symmetry breaking mechanism--a statement that we explicitly verify with a number of examples. Along the way we provide what we believe to be a particularly transparent interpretation of the so-called inverse-Higgs constraints for spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries.

  7. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  8. The Income Gap GROWS Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The income gap between regions, urban and rural areas, industries and various social groups is widening in China. The gap, as indicated by the Gini Coefficient, extended beyond an alarming level. A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0.47 in 2009, exceeding the "red line" of 0.4. The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention. Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap. A Xinhua News Agency research team recently analyzed this trend, and published an article in the Economic Information Daily. Edited excerpts follow:

  9. The Income Gap Grows Large

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The income gap between regions,urban and rural areas,industries and various social groups is widening in China.The gap,as indicated by the Gini Coefficient,extended beyond an alarming level.A World Bank report said the Gini Coefficient for China surged to 0A7 in 2009,exceeding the "red line"of 0.4.The problems caused by the rising income disparity have been the focus of public attention.Some experts believe that it is high time for China to shrink this income gap.

  10. Referential Subject and Object Gaps in Modern Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Pouplier

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nature of subject and object gaps in coordinate structures in Modern Icelandic. Modern Icelandic is considered to be a semi-pro-drop language, since it generally licenses only generic null subjects; object gaps only occur in the form of topic drop. Nevertheless it has been argued that MI licenses referential subject pro as well as referential object pro in certain (tightly restricted contexts. This assumption is based on the existence of coordinating constructions that exhibit referential subject and object gaps at the same time. While this paper follows previous proposals in assuming subject pro to be licit in coordinate structures, object argument gaps are assumed to be object-topic drop, which is independetly needed in the grammar of Icelandic. Under the analysis presented here, the previously reported null subject condition on null objects falls out from Icelandic word order facts.

  11. Information gap decision support for contaminant remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; O'Malley, D.

    2013-12-01

    Uncertainty quantifications and decision analyses under severe lack of information are ubiquitous in every applied field of engineering, policy, and science. A severe lack of information precludes our ability to determine unbiased probabilistic distributions for model parameters and model predictions; therefore, model and decision uncertainties due to a severe lack of information cannot be characterized probabilistically. To circumvent this problem, information gap (info-gap) theory has been developed to explicitly recognize and quantify the implications of information gaps in decision making. Here we present a decision analysis based on info-gap theory developed for a source identification problem where the locations and mass fluxes of contaminants impacting groundwater resources are unknown. The problem is characterized with a lack of information related to (1) model parameters representing contaminant migration in the aquifer, and (2) observed contamination concentration in the existing monitoring wells. These two sources of uncertainty are coupled through an inverse model where the observed concentrations are applied to estimate model parameters. The decision goal is based on contaminant predictions at points of compliance. The decision analysis is demonstrated for synthetic and real-world test cases. The applied uncertainty-quantification, decision-support techniques and computational algorithms are implemented in code MADS (Model Analyses for Decision Support; http://mads.lanl.gov). MADS is C/C++ code that provides a framework for model-based decision support. MADS performs various types of model analyses including sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, model calibration, selection and averaging. To perform the analyses, MADS can be coupled with any external simulators. Our efforts target development of an interactive computer-based Decision Support System (DSS) that will help domain scientist, managers, regulators, and

  12. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-06-01

    Previous research [S. J. Pollock , Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007)] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo , Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006)]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2) . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression) to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  13. Characterizing the gender gap in introductory physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research [S. J. Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 1 (2007] showed that despite the use of interactive engagement techniques, the gap in performance between males and females on a conceptual learning survey persisted from pretest to post-test at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Such findings were counter to previously published work [M. Lorenzo et al., Am. J. Phys. 74, 118 (2006]. This study begins by identifying a variety of other gender differences. There is a small but significant difference in the course grades of males and females. Males and females have significantly different prior understandings of physics and mathematics. Females are less likely to take high school physics than males, although they are equally likely to take high school calculus. Males and females also differ in their incoming attitudes and beliefs about physics. This collection of background factors is analyzed to determine the extent to which each factor correlates with performance on a conceptual post-test and with gender. Binned by quintiles, we observe that males and females with similar pretest scores do not have significantly different post-test scores (p>0.2 . The post-test data are then modeled using two regression models (multiple regression and logistic regression to estimate the gender gap in post-test scores after controlling for these important prior factors. These prior factors account for about 70% of the observed gender gap. The results indicate that the gender gap exists in interactive physics classes at our institution but is largely associated with differences in previous physics and math knowledge and incoming attitudes and beliefs.

  14. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications.

  15. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  16. Existing and Expected Service Quality of Grameenphone Users in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Ullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Grameenphone (GP is a market leader in the telecommunication industry in Bangladesh. This study investigates the existing and expected service quality of Grameenphone users in Bangladesh. The Study reveals that there are significant gap between existing and expected perceived service network, 3G, customer care, physical facilities, billing cost, information service, mobile banking and GP offers. The study concludes that customer satisfaction is a dynamic phenomenon. Maintaining desired level of customer satisfaction requires corporate proactive responsiveness in accessing, building & retaining satisfied customers for sustainable competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  17. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large.

  18. [Does Stendhal's syndrome exist really?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtueña Borque, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The author, Medical Doctor and Master in Art History, dicusses the real existence of the so called by the Florentine MD Magherini Stendhal syndrome, first time published in 1980 to put out the sickness that some tourists in their Florentia visit suffered, because the big beauty they founded in the city, as the French writter Stendahl suffered two centuries ago.

  19. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  20. Gap Surface Plasmon Waveguide Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides supporting gap surface plasmons (GSPs) localized in a dielectric spacer between metal films are investigated numerically and the waveguiding properties at telecommunication wavelengths are presented. Especially, we emphasize that the mode confinement can advantageously...

  1. Talent Management: Bridging the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Cooper and Colton, you are the greatest gift I could have ever imagined. Daddy’s done with his homework and now we can go to the park–I promise...45 Gap 4: Up-Or-Out Promotions ..................................................................................... 49

  2. Closing the Cybersecurity Skills Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vogel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current consensus is that there is a worldwide gap in skills needed for a competent cybersecurity workforce. This skills gap has implications for the national security sector, both public and private. Although the view is that this will take a concerted effort to rectify, it presents an opportunity for IT professionals, university students, and aspirants to take-up jobs in national security national intelligence as well military and law enforcement intelligence. This paper examines context of the issue, the nature of the cybersecurity skills gap, and some key responses by governments to address the problem. The paper also examines the emerging employment trends, some of the employment challenges, and what these might mean for practice. The paper argues that the imperative is to close the cyber skills gap by taking advantage of the window of opportunity, allowing individuals interested in moving into the cybersecurity field to do so via education and training.

  3. The theory-practice gap in cognitive behavioral therapy: reflections and a modest proposal to bridge the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Keith; Beshai, Shadi

    2013-12-01

    This paper examines the issues related to the gap between theory and practice in the area of cognitive-behavioral therapy. The article begins with a review of the evidence for such a gap, and having demonstrated that the gap exists, provides a discussion of some of the factors that are likely important in its genesis and maintenance. The article then focuses on potential strategies to reduce the theory-practice gap that go beyond the common recommendation for both efficacy and effectiveness research. In particular, we provide recommendations for protocol planning and design, training and competency maintenance, dissemination research, and implementation and policy change. We conclude with the proposition that theory and research should not only inform practice, but that practice should have a reciprocal benefit on theory and research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-11

    Throughout history, boys and men have engaged in dangerous sports and survival-related activities to a greater extent than women. Evolution, therefore, favored genes of women who bore comparatively more sons. 105 males per 100 females is average at birth, with excess mortality among males continuing until the numbers of men and women virtually equilibrate by age 20. Cultural traditions and China's 1-child policy have, however, increased the demand for sons, and have exaggerated the demographic imbalance between the sexes. 107-109 12-year-old boys exist for every 100 girls. Among 3-year-old children, there are 111 boys per 100 girls. As these cohorts mature, many young men may find themselves involuntary bachelors. This shortage of wives will have major consequences on the way of life in China, ultimately rewriting much of which is presently cultural taboo. Marriage age and the ability to remarry may change. Male homosexuality will also become more tolerated. While present-day taboos may be reversed, market forces will also respond to the shortage of young females. As young males begin to search in vain for female companions, parents will place premiums on female offspring, dowries will lower, and bride prices will rise. One might also expect national-level financial rewards for bearing females.

  5. A spectral gap for transer operators of piecewise expanding maps

    CERN Document Server

    Thomine, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We provide a simplified proof of the existence, under some assumptions, of a spectral gap for the Perron-Frobenius operator of piecewise uniformly expanding maps on Riemannian manifolds when acting on some Sobolev spaces. Its consequences include, among others, the existence of invariant physical measures, and an exponential decay of correlations for suitable observables. These features are then adapted to different function spaces (functions with bounded variation or bounded oscillation), so as to give a new insight of - and generalize - earlier results.

  6. Stereotactic body radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nan Bao; Lv, Guang Ming; Chen, Zhong Hua

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for huge (≥10 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Between May, 2006 and December, 2012, 72 patients with huge HCCs were treated by SBRT following incomplete TACE. The median total dose of 35.6 Gy was delivered over 12-14 days with a fractional dose of 2.6-3.0 Gy and 6 fractions per week. The patients were classified into those with tumor encapsulation (group A, n=33) and those without tumor encapsulation (group B, n=39). The clinical outcomes of tumor response, overall cumulative survival and toxicities/complications were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 72 patients, CR, PR, SD and PD were achieved in 6 (8.3%), 51 (70.8%), 9 (12.5%) and 6 patients (8.3%), respectively, within a median follow-up of 18 months. The objective response rate was 79.1%. The overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates and the median survival time were 38, 12 and 3% and 12.2 months, respectively. In group A, the overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 56, 21 and 6%, respectively, with a median survival of 19 months; in group B, the overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 23, 4 and 0%, respectively, with a median survival of 10.8 months (P=0.023). The treatment was well tolerated, with no severe radiation-induced liver disease and no reported > grade 3 toxicity. Tumor encapsulation was found to be a significant prognostic factor for survival. In conclusion, the combination of SBRT and TACE was shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable huge HCC.

  7. Case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen. CT scan findings and surgical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C/sub 3/ was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C/sub 3/. Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations.

  8. Bridging the Education Gap through College Access Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Kenyae L.

    2008-01-01

    College access and subsequently college attendance rates of students of color, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and those who would be first-generation college students are still significantly below second generation students and European-Americans. The gap exists because the dissemination of college information is inconsistent and…

  9. Gap solitons in periodic Schrodinger lattice system with nonlinear hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the periodic discrete Schrodinger equation with nonlinear hopping on the infinite integer lattice. We obtain the existence of gap solitons by the linking theorem and concentration compactness method together with a periodic approximation technique. In addition, the behavior of such solutions is studied as $\\alpha\\to 0$. Notice that the nonlinear hopping can be sign changing.

  10. Exploring cross-national differences in gender gaps in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, A.M.L. van; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H.P.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of

  11. Critical heat removal rate through a hemispherical narrow gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Ha, K.S.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D. [Severe Accident Research Project, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Yusong, P.O. Box 105, Daejeon (Korea); Jeong, J.H. [Chonan College of Foreign Studies, An-seo-Wong 150, Chun-an (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    An experimental study has been performed to investigate boiling mechanism and to estimate critical heat removal rate from a critical power through a hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water and Freon R-113. The distilled water data on the critical heat removal rate were compared with the R-113 data. The experimental results on the critical heat removal rate were also compared with the existing correlations, developed in flat plate, annuli, and spherical gaps. The test results have shown that a CCFL (Counter Current Flow Limitation) brings about local dryout and finally global dryout in the hemispherical gap thickness of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mm. The boiling mechanism in a hemispherical gap thickness of 5.0 mm is the combination of the CCFL and the pool boiling condition. An increase in gap thickness of 10.0 mm leads to the pool boiling condition rather than the CCFL. Increases in the gap thickness and pressure lead to increase in critical heat removal rate, but the pressure effect on the critical heat removal rate was found to be much milder than the predictions by flat plate and annuli gaps. The measured critical heat removal rate using the R-113 in hemispherical narrow gap thickness of 1.0 and 2.0 mm are 51.5%, 44.5% lower than that using the distilled water due to the lower boiling point and the bubble size, which is different from the pool boiling condition of approximately 14.8%. The measured critical heat removal rate using the R-113 in a gap thickness of 5 mm is 21.6% lower than that using distilled water, which approaches to the pool boiling condition. (orig.)

  12. Critical Heat Flux in Inclined Rectangular Narrow Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong J. Kim; Yong H. Kim; Seong J. Kim; Sang W. Noh; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-06-01

    In light of the TMI-2 accident, in which the reactor vessel lower head survived the attack by molten core material, the in-vessel retention strategy was suggested to benefit from cooling the debris through a gap between the lower head and the core material. The GAMMA 1D (Gap Apparatus Mitigating Melt Attack One Dimensional) tests were conducted to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) in narrow gaps with varying surface orientations. The CHF in an inclined gap, especially in case of the downward-facing narrow gap, is dictated by bubble behavior because the departing bubbles are squeezed. The orientation angle affects the bubble layer and escape of the bubbles from the narrow gap. The test parameters include gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10 mm and the open periphery, and the orientation angles range from the fully downward-facing (180o) to the vertical (90o) position. The 15 ×35 mm copper test section was electrically heated by the thin film resistor on the back. The heater assembly was installed to the tip of the rotating arm in the heated water pool at the atmospheric pressure. The bubble behavior was photographed utilizing a high-speed camera through the Pyrex glass spacer. It was observed that the CHF decreased as the surface inclination angle increased and as the gap size decreased in most of the cases. However, the opposing results were obtained at certain surface orientations and gap sizes. Transition angles, at which the CHF changed in a rapid slope, were also detected, which is consistent with the existing literature. A semi-empirical CHF correlation was developed for the inclined narrow rectangular channels through dimensional analysis. The correlation provides with best-estimate CHF values for realistically assessing the thermal margin to failure of the lower head during a severe accident involving relocation of the core material.

  13. Does occupational health nursing exist in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnarayan R Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational health services are important to develop healthy and productive work forces, which should be delivered through occupational health team. Occupational health nurse (OHN is an important member of this team and is required to apply nursing principles in conserving the health of workers in occupational settings. Purpose: This article attempts to map the occupational health nursing courses in India and design competencies and curriculum for such a course. Materials and Methods: Information through the Internet, printed journals, and perspectives of the key stakeholders were the principal sources of data. Discussion: In India, there is a need to initiate a course on occupational health nursing to provide occupational health services for the organized and unorganized sector workforce. A certificate course for occupational health nursing for 3-4 months duration offered through contact session mode can be an opportune beginning. However, to cater employed nurses an online course can be another effective alternative. The theoretical part should essentially include modules on occupational diseases, industrial hygiene, and occupational health legislation, whereas the modules on practical aspects can include visits to industries. Taking into account the existing norms of Indian Factories Act for hazardous units of organized sector an estimated 1,34,640 OHNs are required. Conclusion: There is a need-supply gap in the number of occupational health nursing manpower in India, which can be attributed to the absence of any course to train such manpower.

  14. Huge pelvi-abdominal malignant inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with rapid recurrence in a 14-year-old boy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Hsun; Lu; Hsuan-Ying; Huang; Han-Koo; Chen; Jiin-Haur; Chuang; Shu-Hang; Ng; Sheung-Fat; Ko

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor(IMT) is an uncommon benign neoplasm with locally aggressive behavior but malignant change is rare.We report an unusual case of pelvic-abdominal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with malignant transformation in a 14-year-old boy presenting with abdominal pain and 9 kg body weight loss in one month.Computed tomography revealed a huge pelvi-abdominal mass(30 cm),possibly originating from the pelvic extraperitoneal space,protruding into the abdomen leading to upward displace...

  15. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  16. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  17. Cluster pre-existence probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, N.S.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2011-10-15

    Pre-existence probability of the fragments for the complete binary spectrum of different systems such as {sup 56}Ni, {sup 116}Ba, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 256}Fm are calculated, from the overlapping part of the interaction potential using the WKB approximation. The role of reduced mass as well as the classical hydrodynamical mass in the WKB method is analysed. Within WKB, even for negative Q -value systems, the pre-existence probability is calculated. The calculations reveal rich structural information. The calculated results are compared with the values of preformed cluster model of Gupta and collaborators. The mass asymmetry motion is shown here for the first time as a part of relative separation motion. (orig.)

  18. Existence of undiscovered Uranian satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, D.C.

    1986-04-01

    Structure in the Uranian ring system as observed in recent occultations may contain indirect evidence for the existence of undiscovered satellites. Using the Alfven and Arrhenius (1975, 1976) scenario for the formation of planetary systems, the orbital radii of up to nine hypothetical satellites interior to Miranda are computed. These calculations should provide interesting comparisons when the results from the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus are made public. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Knowledge translation in Africa for 21st century integrative biology: the "know-do gap" in family planning with contraceptive use among Somali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abdullahi A; Guled, Ibrahim A; Elamin, Hayfa M; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H

    2014-11-01

    An emerging dimension of 21(st) century integrative biology is knowledge translation in global health. The maternal mortality rate in Somalia is amongst the highest in the world. We set out to study the "know-do" gap in family planning measures in Somalia, with a view to inform future interventions for knowledge integration between theory and practice. We interviewed 360 Somali females of reproductive age and compared university-educated females to women with less or no education, using structured interviews, with a validated questionnaire. The mean age of marriage was 18 years, with 4.5 pregnancies per marriage. The mean for the desired family size was 9.3 and 10.5 children for the university-educated group and the less-educated group, respectively. Importantly, nearly 90% of the university-educated group knew about family planning, compared to 45.6% of the less-educated group. All of the less-educated group indicated that they would never use contraceptives, as compared to 43.5% of the university-educated group. Prevalence of contraceptive use among ever-married women was 4.3%. In the less-educated group, 80.6% indicated that they would not recommend contraceptives to other women as compared to 66.0% of the university-educated group. There is a huge gap between knowledge and practice regarding family planning in Somalia. The attendant reasons for this gap, such as level of education, expressed personal religious beliefs and others, are examined here. For primary health care to gain traction in Africa, we need to address the existing "know-do" gaps that are endemic and adversely impacting on global health. This is the first independent research study examining the knowledge gaps for family planning in Somalia in the last 20 years, with a view to understanding knowledge integration in a global world. The results shall guide policy makers, donors, and implementers to develop a sound family planning policy and program to improve maternal and child health in 21(st

  20. A new Glacier Inventory of the Antarctic Peninsula as compiled from pre-existing Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Cook, A. J.; Paul, F.; Zemp, M.

    2016-12-01

    The glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) potentially make a large contribution to sea level rise. However, this contribution was difficult to estimate, as no complete glacier inventory (outlines, attributes, separation from the ice sheet) was available so far. This work fills the gap and presents a new glacier inventory of the AP north of 70° S based on digitally combining pre-existing datasets with GIS techniques. Rock outcrops are removed from the glacier basin outlines of Cook et al. (2014) by digital intersection with the latest layer of the Antarctic Digital Database (Burton-Johnson et al. 2016). Glacier-specific topographic parameters (e.g. mean elevation, slope and aspect) as well as hypsometry have been calculated from the DEM of Cook et al. (2012). We also assigned connectivity levels to all glaciers following the concept by Rastner et al. (2012). Moreover, the bedrock dataset of Huss and Farinotti (2014) enabled us to add ice thickness and volume for each glacier. The new inventory is available from the GLIMS database and consists of 1589 glaciers covering an area of 95273 km2, slightly more than the 90000 km2 covered by glaciers surrounding the Greenland Ice Sheet. The total ice volume is 34590 km3 of which 1/3 is below sea level. The hypsometric curve has a bimodal shape due to the special topography of the AP consisting mainly of ice caps with outlet glaciers. Most of the glacierized area is located at 200-500 m a.s.l. with a secondary maximum at 1500-1900 m. About 63% of the area is drained by marine-terminating glaciers and ice shelf tributary glaciers cover 35% of the area. This combination results in a high sensitivity of the glaciers to climate change for several reasons: (1) only slightly rising equilibrium line altitudes would expose huge additional areas to ablation, (2) rising ocean temperatures increase melting of marine terminating glaciers, and (3) ice shelves have a buttressing effect on their feeding glaciers and their collapse would

  1. Research on fast Fourier transforms algorithm of huge remote sensing image technology with GPU and partitioning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Xue-You; Li, Jia-Guo; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jan; Du, Quan-Ye

    2014-02-01

    Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) is a basic approach to remote sensing image processing. With the improvement of capacity of remote sensing image capture with the features of hyperspectrum, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, how to use FFT technology to efficiently process huge remote sensing image becomes the critical step and research hot spot of current image processing technology. FFT algorithm, one of the basic algorithms of image processing, can be used for stripe noise removal, image compression, image registration, etc. in processing remote sensing image. CUFFT function library is the FFT algorithm library based on CPU and FFTW. FFTW is a FFT algorithm developed based on CPU in PC platform, and is currently the fastest CPU based FFT algorithm function library. However there is a common problem that once the available memory or memory is less than the capacity of image, there will be out of memory or memory overflow when using the above two methods to realize image FFT arithmetic. To address this problem, a CPU and partitioning technology based Huge Remote Fast Fourier Transform (HRFFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. By improving the FFT algorithm in CUFFT function library, the problem of out of memory and memory overflow is solved. Moreover, this method is proved rational by experiment combined with the CCD image of HJ-1A satellite. When applied to practical image processing, it improves effect of the image processing, speeds up the processing, which saves the time of computation and achieves sound result.

  2. Free perforating branch flap for primary repairing the huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Yuan; Wang, Ming-Gang; Yu, Gang; Chu, Yan-Jun; Wang, Kai; Wei, Xiang-Pin; Sun, Jing-Wu

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of free perforating branch flap on the reconstruction of huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face. Sixteen cases of huge soft-tissue defects on the scalp and face were reconstructed by nine latissimus dorsi-free perforator flaps and seven anterolateral thigh-free perforator flaps. The defects area was from 12 cm× 7 cm to 20 cm × 11 cm, while the flaps area was from 14 cm × 8 cm to 23 cm × 12 cm. The survival, planeness, chromatic aberration, radiotherapy toleration of flap and the function, scar of donor site were observed postoperatively. All of the flaps were survived completely, and 15 cases presented for primary reconstruction; one underwent secondary reconstruction. One of the patients died one-year postoperatively due to intracranial tumor recurrence and the others had no recurrence. All of the flaps showed perfect shape and appropriate thickness. No roentgen ulcer was observed except for some extent of chromatic aberration. The donor-site scar was larvaceous and the function was good. This study indicated that the latissimus dorsi-free perforator flap or anterolateral thigh-free perforator flap was an ideal choice for the reconstruction of defects on the scalp and face.

  3. Continental Margins and the Law of the Sea - an `Arranged Marriage' with Huge Research Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, L.

    2005-12-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) requires coastal states intending to secure sovereignty over continental shelf territory extending beyond 200 nautical miles to submit geological/geophysical data, along with their analysis and synthesis of the relevant continental margin in support of their claim. These submissions are scrutinised and assessed by a UN Commission of experts who decide if the claim is justified, and thereby ultimately allowing the exploitation of non-living resources into this extended maritime space. The amount of data required to support the case will vary from margin to margin, depending on the local geological evolution, but typically will involve the running of new, dedicated marine surveys, mostly bathymetric and seismic. Key geological/geophysical issues revolve around proof of `naturalness' of the prolongation of land mass (cue - wide-angle seismics, deep drilling and sampling programmes) and shelf and slope morphology and sediment section thickness (cue - swath bathymetry and multichannel seismics programmes). These surveys, probably primarily funded by government agencies anxious not to lose out on the `land grab', will generate datasets which will inevitably boost not only the research effort leading to increased understanding of margin evolution in academic terms, but also contribute to wider applied aspects of the work such as those leading to refinement of deepwater hydrocarbon resource potential. It is conservatively estimated that in the region of fifty coastal states world-wide have a significant potential for claiming continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles, and that the total area available as extended shelf could easily exceed 7 million square kilometres. However, while for the vast majority of these states a UNCLOS deadline of 2009 exists for submitting a claim - to date only four have done so (Russia, Brazil, Australia and Ireland). It is therefore predictable, if not inevitable, that within the

  4. Saddle scars Existence and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    1998-01-01

    A quantum scar is a wave function which displays an high intensity in the region of a classical unstable periodic orbit. Saddle scars are states related to the unstable harmonic motions along the stable manifold of a saddle point of the potential. Using a semiclassical method it is shown that, independently of the overall structure of the potential, the local dynamics of the saddle point is sufficient to insure the general existence of this type of scars and their factorized structure is obtained. Potentially useful situations are identified, where these states appear (directly or in disguise) and might be used for quantum control purposes.

  5. AUDIT EXPECTATION GAP IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherai Dana Simona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme – It is know that the large public and auditors hold different beliefs about the auditors’ duties and responsibilities. In this conditions audit expectation gap represents that level of expectation that remains uncovered. In this study paper, audit expectation gap represents the difference between the achievements of public auditors and the expectations that general public (students have beyond those responsibility. Purpose – The evolution of audit expectation gap has been examined in various countries, but the extent of the concept has not been investigated so much in public area. This study attempts to assess the perceptions of possible future auditors, students, regarding the existence of expectation gap in public area. Literature review – A review of the literature identifies many researches who define the concept since was given the first definition of audit expectation gap as the difference between the levels of expected performance and the results that auditors give, but just a few analysis the public area using students’ knowledge to understand the perception of future users of accounting information or potential bidders of accounting information. Methodology – This paper represents the beginning of a broader study that will be part of the doctoral thesis entitled “Organization and exercise of public audit in Romania”, started in 2009 at University Babes Bolyai from Cluj Napoca, coordinated by PhD Professor Matis Dumitru. The aim of this paper is to explore the findings of an empirical study, made on 352 students, were the primary data used were obtained through a questionnaire technique regarding the audit expectation gap in the public sector in Romania, looking into future to obtain responses using a larger respondent group. Findings – A reasonableness gap was uncovered, there is a gap between the expectation of students regarding the public auditors' profession and their results and there are differences

  6. Hydrogeologic Model for the Gable Gap Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Thorne, Paul D.; Williams, Bruce A.; Last, George V.; Thomas, Gregory S.; Thompson, Michael D.; Ludwig, Jami L.; Lanigan, David C.

    2010-09-30

    Gable Gap is a structural and topographic depression between Gable Mountain and Gable Butte within the central Hanford Site. It has a long and complex geologic history, which includes tectonic uplift synchronous with erosional downcutting associated with the ancestral Columbia River during both Ringold and Cold Creek periods, and by the later Ice Age (mostly glacial Lake Missoula) floods. The gap was subsequently buried and partially backfilled by mostly coarse-grained, Ice Age flood deposits (Hanford formation). Erosional remnants of both the Ringold Formation and Cold Creek unit locally underlie the high-energy flood deposits. A large window exists in the gap where confined basalt aquifers are in contact with the unconfined suprabasalt aquifer. Several paleochannels, of both Hanford and Ringold Formation age, were eroded into the basalt bedrock across Gable Gap. Groundwater from the Central Plateau presently moves through Gable Gap via one or more of these shallow paleochannels. As groundwater levels continue to decline in the region, groundwater flow may eventually be cut off through Gable Gap.

  7. A consumption value-gap analysis for sustainable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Aindrila

    2017-01-26

    Recent studies on consumption behavior have depicted environmental apprehension resulting from across wide consumer segments. However, this has not been widely reflected upon the growth in the market shares for green or environment-friendly products mostly because gaps exist between consumers' expectations and perceptions for those products. Previous studies have highlighted the impact of perceived value on potential demand, consumer satisfaction and behavioral intentions. The necessity to understand the effects of gaps in expected and perceived values on consumers' behavioral intention and potential demand for green products cannot be undermined as it shapes the consumers' inclination to repeated purchase and consumption and thus foster potential market demand. Pertaining to this reason, the study aims to adopt a consumption value-gap model based on the theory of consumption values to assess their impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand of green products. Consumption value refers to the level of fulfillment of consumer needs by assessment of net utility derived after effective comparison between the benefits (financial or emotional) and the gives (money, time, or energy). The larger the gaps the higher will be the adversarial impact on behavioral intentions. A structural equation modeling was applied to assess data collected through questionnaire survey. The results indicate that functional value-gap and environmental value-gap has the most adversarial impact on sustainable consumption behavior and market demand for green products.

  8. Pallidal gap junctions-triggers of synchrony in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Bettina C; Heida, Tjitske; Zhao, Yan; van Gils, Stephan A; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2014-10-01

    Although increased synchrony of the neural activity in the basal ganglia may underlie the motor deficiencies exhibited in Parkinson's disease (PD), how this synchrony arises, propagates through the basal ganglia, and changes under dopamine replacement remains unknown. Gap junctions could play a major role in modifying this synchrony, because they show functional plasticity under the influence of dopamine and after neural injury. In this study, confocal imaging was used to detect connexin-36, the major neural gap junction protein, in postmortem tissues of PD patients and control subjects in the putamen, subthalamic nucleus (STN), and external and internal globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively). Moreover, we quantified how gap junctions affect synchrony in an existing computational model of the basal ganglia. We detected connexin-36 in the human putamen, GPe, and GPi, but not in the STN. Furthermore, we found that the number of connexin-36 spots in PD tissues increased by 50% in the putamen, 43% in the GPe, and 109% in the GPi compared with controls. In the computational model, gap junctions in the GPe and GPi strongly influenced synchrony. The basal ganglia became especially susceptible to synchronize with input from the cortex when gap junctions were numerous and high in conductance. In conclusion, connexin-36 expression in the human GPe and GPi suggests that gap junctional coupling exists within these nuclei. In PD, neural injury and dopamine depletion could increase this coupling. Therefore, we propose that gap junctions act as a powerful modulator of synchrony in the basal ganglia. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  9. Turbulence: does energy cascade exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Josserand, Christophe; Lehner, Thierry; Pomeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    To answer the question whether a cascade of energy exists or not in turbulence, we propose a set of correlation functions able to test if there is an irreversible transfert of energy, step by step, from large to small structures. These tests are applied to real Eulerian data of a turbulent velocity flow, taken in the wind grid tunnel of Modane, and also to a prototype model equation for wave turbulence. First we demonstrate the irreversible character of the flow by using multi-time correlation function at a given point of space. Moreover the unexpected behavior of the test function leads us to connect irreversibility and finite time singularities (intermittency). Secondly we show that turbulent cascade exists, and is a dynamical process, by using a test function depending on time and frequency. The cascade shows up only in the inertial domain where the kinetic energy is transferred more rapidly (on average) from the wavenumber $k_{1}$ to $k_{2}$ than from $k_{1}$ to $k'_{2}$ larger than $k_{2}$.

  10. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  11. 78 FR 60273 - Granby Pumping Plant Switchyard-Windy Gap Substation Transmission Line Rebuild, Grand County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Area Power Administration Granby Pumping Plant Switchyard-Windy Gap Substation Transmission Line... Substation (Project) transmission line in Grand County, Colorado. The transmission line is 13.6 miles long... Western's existing transmission line between the Windy Gap Substation and Stillwater Tap and provide a...

  12. Syntactic Change in the Parallel Architecture: The Case of Parasitic Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicover, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    In Jackendoff's Parallel Architecture, the well-formed expressions of a language are licensed by correspondences between phonology, syntax, and conceptual structure. I show how this architecture can be used to make sense of the existence of parasitic gap constructions. A parasitic gap is one that is rendered acceptable because of the presence of…

  13. Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty Impact: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is practiced. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the impact of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…

  14. Gender Gaps and Gendered Action in a First-Year Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Stang, Jared B.; Holmes, N. G.; Kumar, Dhaneesh; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data…

  15. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  16. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  17. Detergent-free Decellularized Nerve Grafts for Long-gap Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Vasudevan, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: This study describes a detergent-free nerve decellularization technique for reconstruction of long-gap nerve injuries. We compared DFD grafts with an established detergent processing technique and found that DFD nerve grafts are successful in promoting regeneration across long-gap peripheral nerve defects as an alternative to existing strategies.

  18. Gender Gaps and Gendered Action in a First-Year Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James; Stang, Jared B.; Holmes, N. G.; Kumar, Dhaneesh; Bonn, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is established that male students outperform female students on almost all commonly used physics concept inventories. However, there is significant variation in the factors that contribute to the gap, as well as the direction in which they influence it. It is presently unknown if such a gender gap exists on the relatively new Concise Data…

  19. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  20. Want to Close the Achievement Gap? Close the Teaching Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For years now, educators have looked to international tests as a yardstick to measure how well students from the United States are learning compared with their peers. The answer has been: not so well. The United States has been falling further behind other nations and has struggled with a large achievement gap. Federal policy under No Child Left…

  1. Folk Belief Theory, the Rigor Gap, and the Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torff, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Folk belief theory is suggested as a primary cause for the persistence of the achievement gap. In this research-supported theory, culturally specified folk beliefs about learning and teaching prompt educators to direct more rigorous curriculum to high-advantage students but not to low-advantage students, resulting in impoverished pedagogy in…

  2. The Gap and the origin of the fundamental forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2016-12-01

    The energy level where the best values of the three fundamental gauge couplings (α1,α2,α3) converge is at least two orders of magnitude below the Planck energy level. The existence of this Gap could imply that the gravitational force ‘comes into being’ before QED, QFD and QCD. The most interesting consequence of the Gap would then be the existence of matter whose charge is only the gravitational charge. If this is so, events should be detected where only gravitational waves are produced. Primordial black holes (PBHs) would be produced much more frequently than the standard black holes (SBHs) since SBHs would be ‘derivative’ effects produced later, after matter made with protons, electrons, neutrons, and stars can exist. Collisions between PBHs generating only gravitational waves should be more frequent than SBHs collisions.

  3. The Emissions Gap Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    This fifth Emissions Gap report has a different focus from previous years. While it updates the 2020 emissions gap analysis, it gives particular attention to the implications of the global carbon dioxide emissions budget for staying within the 2 °C limit beyond 2020. It does so because countries...... are giving increasing attention to where they need to be in 2025, 2030 and beyond. Furthermore, this year’s update of the report benefits from the findings on the emissions budget from the latest series of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports...

  4. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian;

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  5. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M; Ogden, R W; Sgura, I; Vergori, L

    2014-04-08

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise.

  6. Straightening: existence, uniqueness and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, M.; Ogden, R. W.; Sgura, I.; Vergori, L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the least studied universal deformations of incompressible nonlinear elasticity, namely the straightening of a sector of a circular cylinder into a rectangular block, is revisited here and, in particular, issues of existence and stability are addressed. Particular attention is paid to the system of forces required to sustain the large static deformation, including by the application of end couples. The influence of geometric parameters and constitutive models on the appearance of wrinkles on the compressed face of the block is also studied. Different numerical methods for solving the incremental stability problem are compared and it is found that the impedance matrix method, based on the resolution of a matrix Riccati differential equation, is the more precise. PMID:24711723

  7. Local Existence of Spinor Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, F

    1999-01-01

    We present a new, simple proof of existence for the Lanczos spinor potential in 3+1 dimensions that introduces a potential $T_{ABCD}= T_{(ABC)D}$ of the Lanczos potential together with several generalizations to other index configurations and metric signatures. The potential $T_{ABCD}$ can also be used to express, in a concise way, the gauge freedom left in the Lanczos potential after the differential gauge has been specified. We consider Einstein spacetimes and prove that in those spacetimes any symmetric (3,1)-spinor possesses a symmetric potential $H_{ABA'B'}$. Potentials of this type have earlier occurred in some special cases investigated e.g., by Torres del Castillo, Bergqvist and ourselves.

  8. Does the polystomatic gland exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Shibata, T; Moriguchi, K; Kinbara, M

    1989-03-01

    According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the sublingual gland has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means that the gland is a polystomatic gland. We intended to determine whether the so-called polystomatic gland exists or not. 1. According to the P.N.A., the N.A.J. and some scholars, the gl. sublingualis has the ductus sublingualis major and ductus sublinguales minores. This means the gland is a polystomatic gland. However, the formation of one gland with plural excretory ducts is embryologically impossible, in other words, the polystomatic gland does not exist. 2. Many scholars described that the gl. sublingualis was composed of the gl. sublingualis major and g11. sublinguales minores. However, they are completely different kinds of glands. Accordingly, we suggest the terms for these glands: the g1. sublingualis and its ductus sublingualis ("major" is useless), the g11. sublinguales minores and their ductus sublinguales minores. 3. The N.A.V.J. and some scholars use the term g1. sublingualis polystomatica or parvicanalaris. However, this is a group of a number of independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Such a gland should not be regarded as a single gland. We suggest that the term g11. sublinguales minores and their excretory ducts should be replaced with the term the ductus sublinguales minores. 4. The g1. lingualis anterior, g1. retromolaris and g1. lacrimalis are not single glands but a group of several independent glands each of which has its own excretory duct. Accordingly, they should be termed the g11. linguales anteriores, g11. retromolares and g11. lacrimales such as the g11. labiales, g11. buccales and g11. palatinae.

  9. Crossover from pseudogap to superconducting gap

    CERN Document Server

    De Cao, Tian

    2010-01-01

    The pseudogap is one of the most pervasive phenomena of high temperature superconductors [1, 2]. There exist two main theoretical scenarios for the explanation of the pseudogap. One is based upon the model of Cooper pairs formation already above the critical temperature of superconducting transition [3, 4], while another assumes that the appearance of the pseudogap state is due to the other orders [5, 6, 7]. Here we find that the particular electronic structure of cuprates confines Cooper pairs to be firstly formed around the antinodal region which is far from the Fermi surface, and these pairs are incoherent and result in the pseudogap state. With the change of doping or temperature, some pairs are transferred toward the nodal region which is on the Fermi surface, thus these pairs are coherent and lead to superconductivity. Thus the coexistence of the pseudogap and the superconducting gap is explained when these two kinds of gaps are not all on the Fermi surface. It is also shown that the symmetry of the pse...

  10. A PHOTONIC BAND GAP FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    An optical fibre having a periodicidal cladding structure provididing a photonic band gap structure with superior qualities. The periodical structure being one wherein high index areas are defined and wherein these are separated using a number of methods. One such method is the introduction...

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei Data Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    conducting this review is to identify the major biodefense relevant data gaps critical to better understanding B. pseudomallei infections and how they are...of patients (Table 2-1). Much of the data has excellent demographic and clinical resolution including age, sex, symptoms, duration of illness, risk...inhalation and enteral. Presentations include pneumonia , genitourinary, cutaneous, general bacteremia, septic arthritis and neurological

  12. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Project Laurence L. Strong of the spatial distribution of the accuracy parameters by applying U.S. Geological Survey, Northern Prairie Wildlife...Wildlife Resources year: at the University of Idaho. Her dissertation focuses on the " GIS Analyst Ree Brannon has returned to school at the population...54 North Dakota Gap Analysis Project Laurence L. Strong

  13. Income Gap Widens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The income gap between the highest-and lowestincome groups in Beijing, China's capital city, grew to 4:1 in 2004, up from 3:1 in 2003, according to a sampling survey of 2,000 urban households conducted by the Beijing Municipal Statistics Bureau.Among the most important factors affecting income levels were education and profession, the survey indicated.

  14. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  15. Denmark and the gap year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Noemi; Juul, Tilde Mette

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes three different educational offers to young people: “The Folk High School”, “The ‘After-school’” and 10th class. All can be considered optional Gap Years. The following diagram shows how the Danish education system is structured. The Folk High School is a training course of v...

  16. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting

    2016-07-21

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability and stability after 10 cycles in degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation, owing to its unique mesoporous network, abundant surface hydrides and efficient light harvesting. This work showcases the profound effects of surface area, crystallinity, pore topology on charge migration/recombination and mass transportation. Therein the ordered 1D channel array has outperformed the interconnected 3D porous network by greatly accelerating the mass diffusion and enhancing the accessibility of the active sites on the extensive surfaces. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. The prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus and hypospadias: A case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Wang, Yuantao; Zhu, Dechun; Yan, Pengfei; Dong, Biao; Zhou, Honglan

    2015-01-01

    Prostatic utricle cysts with calculus and hypospadias are rare. There are a few reported cases. We present a case of a prostatic utricle cyst with huge calculus in a 25-year-old male. He had a history of left cryptorchidism and surgery for penoscrotal hypospadias in his infancy. He was referred for frequent micturition, urgency of urination, urine pain, terminal hematuria, and dysuria. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a retrovesical cystic lesion of low density, showing a 5 × 5-cm calcification. Retrograde urethrocystography showed a 5 × 5-cm high-density shadow in the posterior urethra. The cyst was incised by transperineal approach and the stone was clearly observed and removed. Urethral stricture repair was performed simultaneously. The patient recovered smoothly after surgery.

  18. L-Tree Match: A New Data Extraction Model and Algorithm for Huge Text Stream with Noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Bin Deng; Yang-Yong Zhu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method, named as L-tree match, is presented for extracting data from complex data sources. Firstly, based on data extraction logic presented in this work, a new data extraction model is constructed in which model components are structurally correlated via a generalized template. Secondly, a database-populating mechanism is built, along with some object-manipulating operations needed for flexible database design, to support data extraction from huge text stream. Thirdly, top-down and bottom-up strategies are combined to design a new extraction algorithm that can extract data from data sources with optional, unordered, nested, and/or noisy components. Lastly, this method is applied to extract accurate data from biological documents amounting to 100GB for the first online integrated biological data warehouse of China.

  19. Playing games with a thrombus: a dangerous match. Paradoxical embolism from a huge central venous cathether thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thromboembolism is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The association between paraneoplastic hypercoagulability of oncological patients and long-term central venous catheters (CVC may result in CVC associated thrombosis. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO, especially when associated with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA is a risk factor for paradoxical embolism. We report a case of paradoxical embolism with stroke in an oncological patient with a huge CVC thrombus playing "ping-pong" with an hypermobile ASA with a PFO. We review the management of hypercoagulability in oncologic patients and discuss the potential role of routine transthoracic echocardiography before the implantation of long term central venous catheters to identify predisposing conditions to paradoxical embolism and select patients for anticoagulant therapy.

  20. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Ross, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. PMID:26101280

  1. Existe sujeito em Michel Maffesoli?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Appel da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio discute a concepção de sujeito na abordagem teórica de Michel Maffesoli. As ideias desse autor estão em voga em alguns meios acadêmicos no Brasil e são difundidas por algumas mídias de grande circulação nacional. Entretanto, ao longo de suas obras, os pressupostos que definem quem é o sujeito maffesoliano se encontram pouco clarificados. Portanto, para alcançar o objetivo a que se propõe, este ensaio desenvolve uma análise da epistemologia e da ontologia maffesoliana com a finalidade de compreender as origens dos pressupostos desse autor, ou seja, as teorias e os autores em que Maffesoli se baseou para desenvolver uma visão de sujeito. Com essa compreensão, pretende-se responder à questão: existe sujeito na abordagem teórica de Maffesoli.

  2. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  3. Band gaps and cavity modes in dual phononic and photonic strip waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pennec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss theoretically the simultaneous existence of phoxonic, i.e., dual phononic and photonic, band gaps in a periodic silicon strip waveguide. The unit-cell of this one-dimensional waveguide contains a hole in the middle and two symmetric stubs on the sides. Indeed, stubs and holes are respectively favorable for creating a phononic and a photonic band gap. Appropriate geometrical parameters allow us to obtain a complete phononic gap together with a photonic gap of a given polarization and symmetry. The insertion of a cavity inside the perfect structure provides simultaneous confinement of acoustic and optical waves suitable to enhance the phonon-photon interaction.

  4. Flexural vibration band gaps in thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dian-Long; Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The complete flexural vibration band gaps are studied in the thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures, i.e. the composite plate consisting of soft rubber cylindrical inclusions periodically placed in a host material. Numerical simulations show that the low-frequency gaps of flexural wave exist in the thin plates. The width of the first gap decreases monotonically as the matrix density increases. The frequency response of the finite periodic thin plates is simulated by the finite element method, which provides attenuations of over 20dB in the frequency range of the band gaps. The findings will be significant in the application of phononic crystals.

  5. Magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the energy gap in InN nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aravind

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present tunneling measurements on an InN nanobelt which shows signatures of superconductivity. Superconducting transition takes place at temperature of 1.3K and the critical magnetic field is measured to be about 5.5kGs. The energy gap extrapolated to absolute temperature is about 110μeV. As the magnetic field is decreased to cross the critical magnetic field, the device shows a huge zero-bias magnetoresistance ratio of about 400%. This is attributed to the suppression of quasiparticle subgap tunneling in the presence of superconductivity. The measured magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the superconducting gap agree well with the reported dependences for conventional metallic superconductors.

  6. NGNP Project Regulatory Gap Analysis for Modular HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Moe

    2011-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project Regulatory Gap Analysis (RGA) for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) was conducted to evaluate existing regulatory requirements and guidance against the design characteristics specific to a generic modular HTGR. This final report presents results and identifies regulatory gaps concerning current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements that apply to the modular HTGR design concept. This report contains appendices that highlight important HTGR licensing issues that were found during the RGA study. The information contained in this report will be used to further efforts in reconciling HTGR-related gaps in the NRC licensing structure, which has to date largely focused on light water reactor technology.

  7. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S C Manga Rao; S Dutta Gupta

    2003-09-01

    We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a Kerr non-linear periodic structure. We show that phase conjugation of the gap soliton (in the sense of replication of the amplitude profile in the reverse direction) is possible under the condition of PCM reflectivity approaching unity. This is in contrast with the results for linear structures, where the wave profiles can be conjugated for arbitrary values of the PCM reflectivity. The sensitivity of the conjugation of the gap solitons to PCM reflectivity is ascribed to the fine balance of non-linearity with dispersion, necessary for their existence.

  8. Gap5—editing the billion fragment sequence assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, James K.; Whitwham, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Existing sequence assembly editors struggle with the volumes of data now readily available from the latest generation of DNA sequencing instruments. Results: We describe the Gap5 software along with the data structures and algorithms used that allow it to be scalable. We demonstrate this with an assembly of 1.1 billion sequence fragments and compare the performance with several other programs. We analyse the memory, CPU, I/O usage and file sizes used by Gap5. Availability and Implementation: Gap5 is part of the Staden Package and is available under an Open Source licence from http://staden.sourceforge.net. It is implemented in C and Tcl/Tk. Currently it works on Unix systems only. Contact: jkb@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20513662

  9. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  10. Gender gap on concept inventories in physics: What is consistent, what is inconsistent, and what factors influence the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Adrian; McKagan, Sarah B.; Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2013-12-01

    We review the literature on the gender gap on concept inventories in physics. Across studies of the most commonly used mechanics concept inventories, the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation, men’s average pretest scores are always higher than women’s, and in most cases men’s posttest scores are higher as well. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 13% for pretest scores, 12% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. This difference is much smaller than the average difference in normalized gain between traditional lecture and interactive engagement (25%), but it is large enough that it could impact the results of studies comparing the effectiveness of different teaching methods. There is sometimes a gender gap on commonly used electricity and magnetism concept inventories, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism, but it is usually much smaller and sometimes is zero or favors women. The weighted average gender difference on these tests is 3.7% for pretest scores, 8.5% for posttest scores, and 6% for normalized gain. There are far fewer studies of the gender gap on electricity and magnetism concept inventories and much more variation in the existing studies. Based on our analysis of 26 published articles comparing the impact of 30 factors that could potentially influence the gender gap, no single factor is sufficient to explain the gap. Several high-profile studies that have claimed to account for or reduce the gender gap have failed to be replicated in subsequent studies, suggesting that isolated claims of explanations of the gender gap should be interpreted with caution. For example, claims that the gender gap could be eliminated through interactive engagement teaching methods or through a “values affirmation writing exercise” were not supported by subsequent studies. Suggestions that the gender gap might be reduced by changing the wording of

  11. Air Gap Effects in LX-17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Ault, S; Avara, R; Bahl, K L; Boat, R; Cunningham, B; Gidding, D; Janzen, J; Kuklo, D; Lee, R; Lauderbach, L; Weingart, W C; Wu, B; Winer, K

    2005-09-26

    Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front moving transverse to the gap, time delays were seen. The delays roughly increase with gap width, going from 0-70 ns at 'zero gap' to around 300 ns at 0.5-1 mm gap. Larger gaps of up to 6 mm width almost certainly stopped the detonation, but this was not proved. Real-time resolution of the parallel jets and determination of the actual re-detonation or failure in the transverse case needs to be done in future experiments.

  12. Localization and characterization of the metallic band gaps in a ternary metallo-dielectric photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo-Molina, Adalberto; Romero-Antequera, David L.; Sánchez-Mondragón, José J.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the existence of structural metallic band gaps in a ternary material, dielectric-dielectric-metal, and we show analytical equations for their computation. We show the existence of metallic band gaps not only in the lowest band but also for high frequencies. These gaps are structural ones but different and additional to the dielectric ones in the dielectric photonic crystal substrate. Therefore, as the desire properties of both, the dielectric and metallic photonic crystals, are present the applications for this particular structure are straightforward.

  13. Huge Investment Needed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China needs a massive investment to maintain its rampant economic boom-at least a 20 percent annual growth rate, according to Fan Gang, Deputy Director of the National Economic Research Institute and a member of the central bank's Monetary Policy Committee.

  14. Sufficient condition for the existence of interface states in some two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.

    2014-08-01

    There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. While a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, we show on the contrary that in some two-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) possessing a Dirac-like cone at k = 0 derived from monopole and dipoles excitation, a small perturbation is sufficient to create interface states. The conical dispersion together with the flat band at the zone center generates the existence of gaps in the projected band structure and the existence of single mode interface states inside the projected band gaps stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands. The underlying physics for the existence of an interface state is related to the sign change of the surface impedance in the gaps above and below the flat band. The established results are applicable for long wavelength regimes where there is only one propagating diffraction order for an interlayer scattering.

  15. Arcjet Tests of Different Gap-Filler Options for the Orion PICA Heatshield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokova, Kristina; Ellerby, Donald; Blosser, Max; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Bouslog, Stan; Reuther, James

    2009-01-01

    PICA (Phenolic Infiltrated Carbon Ablator) is one of the candidate thermal protection materials for the Orion vehicle. Because PICA is fabricated in blocks, gaps exist between the blocks, similar to the individual ceramic tiles of the Shuttle thermal protection system. The results of this work focus on arcjet test results of different gap-filler options for PICA, performed as part of the Orion TPS Advanced Development Project. The arcjet tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center on stagnation models 4 inches in diameter at conditions representative of Orion flight conditions for both Lunar and Low Earth Orbit return. Performance of gap-filler options was evaluated based on the extent of backface temperature change, as compared to PICA without gaps, and on the extent of flow penetration into the gap, evident from the gap opening and widening.

  16. Research on the elastic wave band gaps of curved beam of phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaogang, Liu; Shidan, Li; Haisheng, Shu, E-mail: shuhaisheng@hrbeu.edu.cn; Weiyuan, Wang; Dongyan, Shi; Liqiang, Dong; Hang, Lin; Wei, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Based on wave equations of Timoshenko curved beam, the theoretical derivation and numerical calculation of the behavior of in-plane and out-of-plane wave propagating in curved beam of phononic crystals (CBPC) are carried out using transfer matrix method combined with the Bloch theorem. Finite CBPC is also simulated by FEM method. It is shown that both in-plane and out-of-plane elastic waves band gaps exist in CBPC. Compared with equivalent straight beam of phononic crystals (SBPC), CBPC has some unique characteristics, such as the first complete in-plane band gap, special in-plane coupling band gap, and out-of-plane coupling band gap. In those band gaps, CBPC has a better property of vibration reduction than the equivalent SBPC in some ways. Furthermore, effects of curvature of CBPC on the in-plane and out-of-plane band gaps are discussed.

  17. The Solution to the BCS Gap Equation for Superconductivity and Its Temperature Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of operator theory, we deal with the temperature dependence of the solution to the BCS gap equation for superconductivity. When the potential is a positive constant, the BCS gap equation reduces to the simple gap equation. We first show that there is a unique nonnegative solution to the simple gap equation, that it is continuous and strictly decreasing, and that it is of class with respect to the temperature. We next deal with the case where the potential is not a constant but a function. When the potential is not a constant, we give another proof of the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the BCS gap equation, and show how the solution varies with the temperature. We finally show that the solution to the BCS gap equation is indeed continuous with respect to both the temperature and the energy under a certain condition when the potential is not a constant.

  18. Perceptions and experiences of a gender gap at a Canadian research institute and potential strategies to mitigate this gap: a sequential mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Moore, Julia E; Tricco, Andrea C; Hamid, Jemila; Daly, Caitlin; Bain, Julie; Jassemi, Sabrina; Kiran, Tara; Baxter, Nancy; Straus, Sharon E

    2017-01-01

    The gender gap in academia is long-standing. Failure to ensure that our academic faculty reflect our student pool and national population deprives Canada of talent. We explored the gender distribution and perceptions of the gender gap at a Canadian university-affiliated, hospital-based research institute. We completed a sequential mixed-methods study. In phase 1, we used the research institute's registry of scientists (1999-2014) and estimated overall prevalence of a gender gap and the gap with respect to job description (e.g., associate v. full-time) and research discipline. In phase 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to provide context for phase 1 data. Both purposive and snowball sampling were used for recruitment. The institute included 30.1% (n = 62) women and 69.9% (n = 144) men, indicating a 39.8% gender gap. Most full-time scientists (60.3%, n = 70) were clinicians; there were 54.2% more male than female clinician scientists. Ninety-five percent of basic scientists were men, indicating a 90.5% gap. Seven key themes emerged from 21 interviews, including perceived impact of the gender gap, factors perceived to influence the gap, recruitment trends, presence of institutional support, mentorship and suggestions to mitigate the gap. Several factors were postulated to contribute to the gender gap, including unconscious bias in hiring. A substantial gender gap exists within this research institute. Participants identified strategies to address this gap, such as establishing transparent search processes, providing opportunities for informal networking and mentorship of female scientists and establishing institutional support for work-life balance.

  19. Closing the BME attainment gap

    OpenAIRE

    Nortcliffe, Anne; Pink-Keech, Cathy; Evans, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    The national British Minority Ethnic (BME) attainment gap is 16% (Berry and Loke, 2011). BME students frequently report being isolated and lonely (Cotton et al, 2011), and experience derisory support (NUS, 2011). At Sheffield Hallam University (SHU) a pilot Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) programme on an engineering course to aid inclusivity, as at UCL PAL has increased student retention (Angelini, 2011). The initial results at SHU are positive: "They [Mentors] kept me on a course and ...

  20. Introspections on the Semantic Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-14

    essential goal of virtual machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the presence of an untrustworthy OS. One obstacle to this goal is...ABSTRACT Introspections on the Semantic Gap Report Title An essential goal of virtual machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the...machine introspection ( VMI ) is security policy enforcement in the presence of an untrustworthy OS. One obstacle to this goal is the difficulty in

  1. Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-10

    re-az4,irc t:ata -.as taken .0thcut t1he cury-ent vino r’esistor. Initial data, with no current viewing resistor, were taken for a 35 mmn gap using an...Eastman, and J. Kivlin, "The Appearance of Micro- particles in Accelerator Tubes," Proc. of 8th Symp., Paper F6-1, Albuquerque, . . Mexico , (1978). 71391

  2. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, L. N.; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  3. Rational Solution To Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    While enjoying an economic boom, China has seen a widening income gap that has appeared like a chasm between its urban and rural citizens. What are the deep roots of this situation and what is the best way to deal with it? Ding Yuanzhu, researcher at the Macro-Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission, shares his views on this issue in an article published in Wen Hui Bao. Excerpts follow:

  4. Prometheus and the Keeler gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Nicholson, Phillip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2014-11-01

    Linblad resonances with Saturn’s satellites are located at many radii in the rings. While some cause density or bending waves, others hold gap edges from spreading, like the 2:1 resonance with Mimas located at the B-ring edge, the 7:6 resonance with Janus at the A-ring edge, and the 32:31 resonance with Prometheus at the inner edge of the Keeler gap. The latter is the case of study here.Theoretically, the inner edge of the Keeler gap should have 32 regular sinusoidal lobes, where either the maximum or the minimum radius is expected to be aligned with Prometheus and rotating with its mean motion. We show that such is not the case. Fit of occultation data shows the presence of the 32:31 resonance, however, the fit residuals is as high as the amplitude of the resonance amplitude (about 2 km). Analysis of the ISS data, shows irregularities overlapping the lobes (Tiscareno et al. 2005, DPS), that follow Keplerian motion. These irregularities may be due to clumps of particles with different eccentricities than the rest of the edge particles. This phenomenon may be caused by the resonance, as it has not been observed at other circular edges were no resonance is present at their location. The ISS data also shows that the lobe’s minimum/maximum is not perfectly aligned with the longitude of Prometheus, which may be due to libration about the centre of the resonance.

  5. The number and size of subhalo-induced gaps in stellar streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Belokurov, Vasily; Bovy, Jo; Sanders, Jason L.

    2016-11-01

    Ample observational capabilities exist today to detect the small density perturbations that low-mass dark matter subhaloes impart on stellar streams from disrupting Galactic satellites. In anticipation of these observations, we investigate the expected number and size of gaps by combining an analytic prescription for gap evolution on circular orbits with the flux of subhaloes near the stream. We explore the distribution of gap sizes and depths for a typical cold stream around the Milky Way and find that for a given stream age and gap depth, each subhalo mass produces a characteristic gap size. For a stream with an age of a few Gyr, orbiting at a distance of 10-20 kpc from the Galactic centre, even modest subhaloes with a mass of 106-107 M⊙ produce gaps with sizes that are of the order of several degrees. We consider the number and distribution of gap sizes created by subhaloes with masses 105-109 M⊙, accounting for the expected depletion of subhaloes by the Milky Way disc, and present predictions for six cold streams around the Milky Way. For Pal 5, we forecast 0.7 gaps with a density depletion of at least 25 per cent and a typical gap size of 8°. Thus, there appears to be no tension between the recent non-detection of density depletions in the Pal 5 tidal tails and ΛCDM expectations. These predictions can be used to guide the scale of future gap searches.

  6. Small gaps between zeros of twisted L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Conrey, J B; Soundararajan, K

    2012-01-01

    We use the asymptotic large sieve, developed by the authors, to prove that if the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis is true, then there exist many Dirichlet L-functions that have a pair of consecutive zeros closer together than 0.37 times their average spacing. More generally, we investigate zero spacings within the family of twists by Dirichlet characters of a fixed L-function and give precise bounds for small gaps which depend only on the degree of the L-function.

  7. Cyber bullying : bare schools filling the legal gap? / W. Batterbee

    OpenAIRE

    Batterbee, Wendy Ann

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this concurrent mixed methods study was to examine whether public schools are geared to fill the legal gap that exists between the available cyber technology and managing learner cyber bullying effectively. In the study, non-experimental, descriptive survey research was used to determine the occurrence of cyber bullying at school level, according to the experiences and views of educators and learners at public schools in Sedibeng East district (D7). At the same time, cyber bully...

  8. A SEMIOLOGIC APPROACH TO AUDIT EXPECTATIONS GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciolpan Daniela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Audit expectations gap (AEG is one of the most debated phenomena animating the international scientific research scene. The volume of papers focused on defining the AEG concept, examining its determinants, implications, and mechanisms to minimize the gap

  9. Parameters affecting gap detection in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, D S; Hammond, G R; Springer, C P; Ingham, K M; Mekilo, A M; Bodison, P R; Aranda, M T; Shawaryn, M A

    1993-09-01

    The present research used a startle amplitude reduction paradigm to investigate the ability of the rat's auditory system to track rapidly changing acoustic transients. Specifically examined was the ability of brief gaps in otherwise continuous noise to reduce the amplitude of a subsequently elicited acoustic startle reflex. The duration of the gap, time between gap offset and startle elicitation (the interstimulus interval or ISI), and rise-fall characteristics of the gap were systematically varied. Consistent with previous research, gaps reliably reduced startle amplitude. Gaps 2 msec long were reliably detected, and a 50-msec ISI resulted in the greatest amplitude reduction. Gaps presented at short ISIs produced amplitude reduction that followed a different time course than did gaps presented at longer ISIs. These results may reflect differences in the length of time available for the processing of the stimulus and may involve two different processes.

  10. Submucosal tunnelling endoscopic resection (STER) for the treatment of a case of huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wei, Li-Li; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Sha, Qi-Mei; Huang, Ya; Qin, Cheng-Yong; Xu, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic Interventional Treatment is of little trauma and less complications in the treatment of esophageal tumor and leads to faster recovery and fewer days of hospitalization. This study was aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic interventional therapy for huge esophageal tumor arising in the muscularis propria. The patient was treated by submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER). The huge esophageal tumor was resected completely by STER technique, with little trauma and less complications. The size of the resected tumor was 5.5×3.5×3.0 cm. Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection is a safe and efficient technique for treating Huge Esophageal Tumor originating from muscularis propria layer.

  11. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  12. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  13. Evidence and evidence gaps – an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician’s own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  14. Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirgari Farrokh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypercalcemia is the major electrolyte abnormality in patients with malignant tumors. It can be due to localized osteolytic hypercalcemia or elaboration of humoral substances such as parathyroid hormone-related protein from tumoral cells. In hematological malignancies, a third mechanism of uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH2D3 from tumoral cells or neighboring macrophages may contribute to the problem. However, hypercalcemia is quite unusual in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman presented with low grade fever, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and fullness in her left abdomen for the last six months. She was mildly anemic and complained of fatigability. She had huge splenomegaly and was hypercalcemic. After correction of her hypercalcemia, she had a splenectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed a malignant lymphoma. Her immunohistochemistry was positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD20 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Conclusion Immunopositivity for parathyroid hormone-related peptide clearly demonstrates that hypersecretion of a parathyroid hormone-like substance from the tumor had led to hypercalcemia in this case. High serum calcium is seen in only seven to eight percent of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently due to different mechanisms. Evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein and 1-25(OH2D3 can be helpful in diagnosis and management. It should be noted that presentation with hypercalcemia has a serious impact on prognosis and survival.

  15. Internalization of a novel, huge lectin from Ibacus novemdentatus (slipper lobster) induces apoptosis of mammalian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Fujiwara, T; Koide, Y; Hasan, I; Sugawara, S; Rajia, S; Kawsar, S M A; Yamamoto, D; Araki, D; Kanaly, R A; Ogawa, Y; Fujita, H; Ozeki, Y

    2017-02-01

    An N-acetyl sugar-binding lectin (termed iNoL) displaying cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells was isolated from the slipper lobster Ibacus novemdentatus (family Scyllaridae). iNoL recognized monosaccharides containing N-acetyl group, and glycoproteins (e.g., BSM) containing oligosaccharides with N-acetyl sugar. iNoL was composed of five subunits (330, 260, 200, 140, and 30 kDa), which in turn consisted of 70-, 40-, and 30-kDa polypeptides held together by disulfide bonds. Electron microscopic observations and gel permeation chromatography indicated that iNoL was a huge (500-kDa) molecule and had a polygonal structure under physiological conditions. iNoL displayed cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects against human cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D (breast), HeLa (ovarian), and Caco2 (colonic), through incorporation (internalization) into cells. The lectin was transported into lysosomes via endosomes. Its cytotoxic effect and incorporation into cells were inhibited by the co-presence of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Treatment of HeLa cells with iNoL resulted in DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation, through activation of caspase-9 and -3. In summary, the novel crustacean lectin iNoL is incorporated into mammalian cancer cells through glycoconjugate interaction, and has cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects.

  16. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  17. Effect of a huge crustal conductivity anomaly on the H-component of geomagnetic variations recorded in central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio L.; Alves, Livia R.; Silva, Graziela B. D.; Espinosa, Karen V.

    2017-04-01

    We describe here an analysis of the H-component of the geomagnetic field recorded in several temporary stations operating simultaneously in the central-eastern region of Brazil during nighttime pulsation events in 1994 and the sudden commencement of the St. Patrick's Day magnetic storm in 2015. A significant amplification in the amplitude of the geomagnetic variations is consistently observed in one of these stations. Magnetovariational analysis indicates that the amplification factor is period dependent with maximum amplitude around 100 s. Integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth soundings (GDS) have shown that this station is positioned just over a huge 1200-km-long crustal conductor (estimated bulk conductivity greater than 1 S/m). We propose that the anomalous signature of the geomagnetic field at this station is due to the high reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic wave at the interface with the very good conductor and by skin effects damping the electromagnetic wave in the conducting layers overlying the conductor. There are some indication from the GDS data that the conductor extends southward beneath the sediments of the Pantanal Basin. In this region is being planned the installation of a new geomagnetic observatory, but its preliminary data suggest anomalous geomagnetic variations. We understand that a detailed MT survey must be carried out around the chosen observatory site to evaluate the possible influence of induced currents on the local geomagnetic field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  19. Closing the Achievement Gap: Four States' Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixom, Micah Ann

    2015-01-01

    The achievement gap separating economically disadvantaged students from their more advantaged peers disproportionately affects students of color and has been the focus of discussion, research and controversy for more than 40 years. While the gap between black and white students narrowed considerably from the 1950s to the 1980s, that gap has…

  20. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…