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Sample records for huge epicardial fat

  1. Single-slice epicardial fat area measurement. Do we need to measure the total epicardial fat volume?

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    Oyama, Noriko; Goto, Daisuke; Ito, Yoichi M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a method for measuring epicardial fat volume (EFV) by means of a single-slice area measurement. We investigated the relation between a single-slice fat area measurement and total EFV. A series of 72 consecutive patients (ages 65±11 years; 36 men) who had undergone cardiac computed tomography (CT) on a 64-slice multidetector scanner with prospective electrocardiographic triggering were retrospectively reviewed. Pixels in the pericardium with a density range from -230 to -30 Hounsfield units were considered fat, giving the per-slice epicardial fat area (EFA). The EFV was estimated by the summation of EFAs multiplied by the slice thickness. We investigated the relation between total EFV and each EFA. EFAs measured at several anatomical landmarks - right pulmonary artery, origins of the left main coronary artery, right coronary artery, coronary sinus - all correlated with the EFV (r=0.77-0.92). The EFA at the LMCA level was highly reproducible and showed an excellent correlation with the EFV (r=0.92). The EFA is significantly correlated with the EFV. The EFA is a simple, quick method for representing the time-consuming EFV, which has been used as a predictive indicator of cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  2. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

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    Bertaso, Angela Gallina; Bertol, Daniela; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo

    2013-01-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used

  3. Epicardial Fat: Definition, Measurements and Systematic Review of Main Outcomes

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    Bertaso, Angela Gallina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia e Ciências Cardiovasculares - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Bertol, Daniela [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Foppa, Murilo, E-mail: mfoppa@cardiol.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia e Ciências Cardiovasculares - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Epicardial fat (EF) is a visceral fat deposit, located between the heart and the pericardium, which shares many of the pathophysiological properties of other visceral fat deposits, It also potentially causes local inflammation and likely has direct effects on coronary atherosclerosis. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been used to evaluate EF, but variations between methodologies limit the comparability between these modalities. We performed a systematic review of the literature finding associations of EF with metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease. The summarization of these associations is limited by the heterogeneity of the methods used and the populations studied, where most of the subjects were at high cardiovascular disease risk. EF is also associated with other known factors, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, age and hypertension, which makes the interpretation of its role as an independent risk marker intricate. Based on these data, we conclude that EF is a visceral fat deposit with potential implications in coronary artery disease. We describe the reference values of EF for the different imaging modalities, even though these have not yet been validated for clinical use. It is still necessary to better define normal reference values and the risk associated with EF to further evaluate its role in cardiovascular and metabolic risk assessment in relation to other criteria currently used.

  4. The quantitative assessment of epicardial fat distribution on human hearts: Implications for epicardial electrophysiology.

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    Mattson, Alexander R; Soto, Mario J; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2018-07-01

    Epicardial electrophysiological procedures rely on dependable interfacing with the myocardial tissue. For example, epicardial pacing systems must generate sustainable chronic pacing capture, while epicardial ablations must effectively deliver energy to the target hyper-excitable myocytes. The human heart has a significant adipose layer which may impede epicardial procedures. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the relative location of epicardial adipose on the human heart, to define locations where epicardial therapies might be performed successfully. We studied perfusion-fixed human hearts (n = 105) in multiple isolated planes including: left ventricular margin, diaphragmatic surface, and anterior right ventricle. Relative adipose distribution was quantitatively assessed via planar images, using a custom-generated image analysis algorithm. In these specimens, 76.7 ± 13.8% of the left ventricular margin, 72.7 ± 11.3% of the diaphragmatic surface, and 92.1 ± 8.7% of the anterior right margin were covered with superficial epicardial adipose layers. Percent adipose coverage significantly increased with age (P history of coronary artery disease (P history of hypertension, and/or history of congestive heart failure. Additionally, we describe two-dimensional probability distributions of epicardial adipose coverage for each of the three analysis planes. In this study, we detail the quantitative assessment and probabilistic mapping of the distribution of superficial epicardial adipose on the adult human heart. These findings have implications relative to performing epicardial procedures and/or designing procedures or tools to successfully perform such treatments. Clin. Anat. 31:661-666, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

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    Uğur Küçük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI, but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness.

  6. Association between epicardial fat volume and coronary plaques diagnosed by multislice computed tomography

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    José A. Morán Quijada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary atherosclerotic disease is a major cause of death in Cuba and elsewhere. The volume of epicardial fat is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor because of its association with coronary atherogenesis.Objective: To determine, by multislice computed tomography, the association between epicardial fat volume and the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.Method: A descriptive study was conducted with a universe of 130 patients with chest pain suggestive of ischemic heart disease, of which 117 were selected by opinion sampling. These patients underwent a calcium score study, a coronary angiography and a measurement of the epicardial fat volume.Results: Male patients predominated (54.7% and those aged 60-69 years (32.5%. A high volume of epicardial fat was found in 51.3% of patients, affecting 52.8% of women; 78.9% of patients with a calcium score between 100 and 399 UH had a high volume of epicardial fat, just as 71.2% of those with plaques and 100% of those with 4 or 5 plaques; 41% of patients had various types of plaque, which were mainly located in the anterior descending artery (88.1%.Conclusions: The measurement of the volume of epicardial fat is a useful tool to estimate the presence of coronary disease. When it was high, it was associated with older age, female gender and the presence of a higher calcium score, more plaques, more injuries and a greater involvement of the anterior descending artery.

  7. Epicardial adipose tissue is associated with visceral fat, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance in menopausal women.

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    Fernández Muñoz, María J; Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Córdova Pérez, Nydia; Vázquez Martínez, Ana Laura; Tepach Gutiérrez, Nayive; Vega García, Sara; Rocha Cruz, Alberto; Díaz Martínez, Alma; Saucedo García, Renata; Zárate Treviño, Arturo; González Escudero, Eduardo Alberto; Degollado Córdova, José Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has been associated with several obesity-related parameters and with insulin resistance. Echocardiographic assessment of this tissue is an easy and reliable marker of cardiometabolic risk. However, there are insufficient studies on the relationship between epicardial fat and insulin resistance during the postmenopausal period, when cardiovascular risk increases in women. The objective of this study was to examine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, body mass index, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. A cross sectional study was conducted in 34 postmenopausal women with and without metabolic syndrome. All participants underwent a transthoracic echocardiogram and body composition analysis. A positive correlation was observed between epicardial fat and visceral adipose tissue, body mass index, and waist circumference. The values of these correlations of epicardial fat thickness overlying the aorta-right ventricle were r = 0.505 (P < .003), r = 0.545 (P < .001), and r = 0.515 (P < .003), respectively. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome than in those without this syndrome (mean [standard deviation], 544.2 [122.9] vs 363.6 [162.3] mm(2); P = .03). Epicardial fat thickness measured by echocardiography was associated with visceral adipose tissue and other obesity parameters. Epicardial adipose tissue was higher in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Therefore, echocardiographic assessment of epicardial fat may be a simple and reliable marker of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. An increase in epicardial fat in women is associated with thrombotic risk.

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    Basurto Acevedo, Lourdes; Barrera Hernández, Susana; Fernández Muñoz, María de Jesús; Saucedo García, Renata Patricia; Rodríguez Luna, Ana Karen; Martínez Murillo, Carlos

    2018-01-29

    A decrease in fibrinolytic activity and an increase in the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association between epicardial adipose tissue and fibrinolytic activity by measuring the concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 56 apparently healthy women aged 45 to 60 years. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical determinations were performed on all participants. The fibrinolytic activity was determined by measuring PAI-1 by ELISA. Epicardial thickness was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The concentration of PAI-1 was directly associated with the thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue (r=0.475, P=.001), body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, glucose, and HDL-cholesterol. The multivariate regression analysis indicated that epicardial fat independently predicts the concentrations of PAI-1. Women with thicker epicardial adipose tissue have reduced fibrinolytic activity, and consequently greater thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between endothelial dysfunction, epicardial fat and subclinical atherosclerosis during menopause.

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    Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Navarro-Despaigne, Daisy; Staroushik-Morel, Liudmila; Díaz-Reyes, Karel; Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    Menopausal transition is critical for the development of early, subclinical vascular damage. Multiple factors, such as atherosclerosis, increased epicardial fat, and endothelial dysfunction can play a role. Hence, the objective of this study was the comparison of epicardial adipose tissue and carotid intima media thickness in order to establish the best predictor of carotid stiffness in middle-aged women with endothelial dysfunction. A total of 43 healthy women aged 40-59 years old with endothelial dysfunction previously demonstrated by flow mediated dilation were recruited to have anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and ultrasound determinations of carotid intima media thickness and epicardial fat thickness. Carotid arterial stiffness parameters (local pulse wave velocity [4.7±0.7 vs 4.8±0.5 vs 5.6±0.5m/s, respectively, p<0.001], pressure strain elastic modulus [55.2±13.4 vs 59.2±11.8 vs 81.9±15.6kPa, respectively, p<0.001], arterial stiffness index β [4.4±1.4 vs 5.0±1.1 vs 6.4±1.3, respectively, p<0.001]) and epicardial fat thickness (2.98±1.4 vs 3.28±1.9 vs 4.70±1.0mm, respectively, p=0.007) showed a significant and proportional increase in the group of late post-menopausal women when compared to early post-menopausal and pre-menopausal groups, respectively. Among body fat markers, epicardial fat was the strongest predictor of local pulse wave velocity, independent of age. In menopausal women with endothelial dysfunction, menopausal transition is associated with increased carotid arterial stiffness and epicardial fat thickness, independent of age. Ultrasound measured epicardial fat was a better independent predictor of arterial stiffness than carotid intima media thickness in these women. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Epicardial fat and atrial fibrillation: current evidence, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and future directions.

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    Wong, Christopher X; Ganesan, Anand N; Selvanayagam, Joseph B

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is increasingly recognized as a major modifiable determinant of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although body mass index and other clinical measures are useful indications of general adiposity, much recent interest has focused on epicardial fat, a distinct adipose tissue depot that can be readily assessed using non-invasive imaging techniques. A growing body of data from epidemiological and clinical studies has demonstrated that epicardial fat is consistently associated with the presence, severity, and recurrence of AF across a range of clinical settings. Evidence from basic science and translational studies has also suggested that arrhythmogenic mechanisms may involve adipocyte infiltration, pro-fibrotic, and pro-inflammatory paracrine effects, oxidative stress, and other pathways. Despite these advances, however, significant uncertainty exists and many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we review our present understanding of epicardial fat, including its classification and quantification, existing evidence implicating its role in AF, potential mechanisms, implications for clinicians, and future directions for research. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

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    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  12. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

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    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  14. Prognostic value of epicardial fat volume measurements by computed tomography: a systematic review of the literature

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    Spearman, James V.; Krazinski, Aleksander W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Renker, Matthias [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Giessen University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cardiology/Angiology, Giessen (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Herbert, Teri L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Library Science and Informatics, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' Sapienza' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    To perform a systematic review of the growing body of literature evaluating the prognostic value of epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantified by cross-sectional imaging. Two independent reviewers performed systematic searches on both PubMed and Scopus using search terms developed with a medical librarian. Peer-reviewed articles were selected based on the inclusion of outcome data, utilization of epicardial fat volume and sufficient reporting for analysis. A total of 411 studies were evaluated with nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. In all, the studies evaluated 10,252 patients. All nine studies were based on CT measurements. Seven studies evaluated the prognostic value of EFV unadjusted for calcium score, and six of these studies found a significant association between EFV and clinical outcomes. Seven studies evaluated the incremental value of EFV beyond calcium scoring, and six of these studies found a significant association. The majority of studies suggest that EFV quantification is significantly associated with clinical outcomes and provides incremental prognostic value over coronary artery calcium scoring. Future research should use a binary cutoff of 125 mL for evaluation of EFV to provide consistency with other research. (orig.)

  15. Influence of technical parameters on epicardial fat volume quantification at cardiac CT

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    Bucher, Andreas M. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Joseph Schoepf, U., E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin; Spearman, James V. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza” – Polo Pontino, Latina (Italy); Meinel, Felix G. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Geyer, Lucas L. [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Upper threshold levels and contrast enhancement influence epicardial fat volumetry. • Cardiac cycle does not significantly influence epicardial fat volumetry. • Adjustments of upper threshold can lead to comparable volumetry results. - Abstract: Objectives: To systematically analyze the influence of technical parameters on quantification of epicardial fat volume (EATV) at cardiac CT. Methods: 153 routine cardiac CT data sets were analyzed using three-dimensional pericardial border delineation. Three image series were reconstructed per patient: (a) CTA{sub D}: coronary CT angiography (CTA), diastolic phase; (b) CTA{sub S}: coronary CTA, systolic phase; (c) CaSc{sub D}: non-contrast CT, diastolic phase. EATV was calculated using three different upper thresholds (−15HU, −30HU, −45HU). Repeated measures ANOVA, Spearman's rho, and Bland Altman plots were used. Results: Mean EATV differed between all three image series at a −30HU threshold (CTA{sub D} 87.2 ± 38.5 ml, CTA{sub S} 90.9 ± 37.7 ml, CaSc{sub D} 130.7 ± 49.5 ml, P < 0.001). EATV of diastolic and systolic CTA reconstructions did not differ significantly (P = 0.225). Mean EATV for contrast enhanced CTA at a −15HU threshold (CTA{sub D15} 102.4 ± 43.6 ml, CTA{sub S15} 105.3 ± 42.3 ml) could be approximated most closely by non-contrast CT at −45HU threshold (CaSc{sub D45} 105.3 ± 40.8 ml). The correlation was excellent: CTA{sub S15}–CTA{sub D15}, rho = 0.943; CTA{sub D15}–CaSc{sub D45}, rho = 0.905; CTA{sub S15}–CaSc{sub D45}, rho = 0.924; each P < 0.001). Bias values from Bland Altman Analysis were: CTA{sub S15}–CTA{sub D15}, 4.9%; CTA{sub D15}–CaSc{sub D45}, −4.3%; CTA{sub S15}–CaSc{sub D45}, 0.6%. Conclusions: Measured EATV can differ substantially between contrast enhanced and non-contrast CT studies, which can be reconciled by threshold modification. Heart cycle phase does not significantly influence EATV measurements.

  16. Influence of technical parameters on epicardial fat volume quantification at cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Andreas M.; Joseph Schoepf, U.; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin; Spearman, James V.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Meinel, Felix G.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Geyer, Lucas L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Upper threshold levels and contrast enhancement influence epicardial fat volumetry. • Cardiac cycle does not significantly influence epicardial fat volumetry. • Adjustments of upper threshold can lead to comparable volumetry results. - Abstract: Objectives: To systematically analyze the influence of technical parameters on quantification of epicardial fat volume (EATV) at cardiac CT. Methods: 153 routine cardiac CT data sets were analyzed using three-dimensional pericardial border delineation. Three image series were reconstructed per patient: (a) CTA D : coronary CT angiography (CTA), diastolic phase; (b) CTA S : coronary CTA, systolic phase; (c) CaSc D : non-contrast CT, diastolic phase. EATV was calculated using three different upper thresholds (−15HU, −30HU, −45HU). Repeated measures ANOVA, Spearman's rho, and Bland Altman plots were used. Results: Mean EATV differed between all three image series at a −30HU threshold (CTA D 87.2 ± 38.5 ml, CTA S 90.9 ± 37.7 ml, CaSc D 130.7 ± 49.5 ml, P < 0.001). EATV of diastolic and systolic CTA reconstructions did not differ significantly (P = 0.225). Mean EATV for contrast enhanced CTA at a −15HU threshold (CTA D15 102.4 ± 43.6 ml, CTA S15 105.3 ± 42.3 ml) could be approximated most closely by non-contrast CT at −45HU threshold (CaSc D45 105.3 ± 40.8 ml). The correlation was excellent: CTA S15 –CTA D15 , rho = 0.943; CTA D15 –CaSc D45 , rho = 0.905; CTA S15 –CaSc D45 , rho = 0.924; each P < 0.001). Bias values from Bland Altman Analysis were: CTA S15 –CTA D15 , 4.9%; CTA D15 –CaSc D45 , −4.3%; CTA S15 –CaSc D45 , 0.6%. Conclusions: Measured EATV can differ substantially between contrast enhanced and non-contrast CT studies, which can be reconciled by threshold modification. Heart cycle phase does not significantly influence EATV measurements

  17. [The role of epicardial fat and obesity parameters in the prediction of coronary heart disease].

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    Prídavková, Dana; Kantárová, Daniela; Lišková, Renáta; Červeň, Peter; Kovář, František; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-04-01

    To assess the relationship of parameters of obesity in relationship to coronary angiography findings with correlation of epicardial fat (EF) thickness in uppermentioned context. There were 80 patients examined (43 males, 37 postmenopausal females) undergoing elective coronary angiography. We examined the regular obesity parameters - BMI, waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (NC), total body fat (TBF), and visceral fat (VF) using bioimpedance. We assessed the echocardiographically measured EF thickness. We added examination of lipidogram, glycaemia, HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index) and AIP (aterogenic index of plasma). The set was divided into group with coronarographically proved stenosis or stenoses (withCS), and a group without finding of quantifiable stenosis or stenoses (withoutCS). The average thickness of EF in withCS group was 6.3 vs 5.6 mm in group withoutCS (p obesity parameters in assessment of pre-clinical stages of coronary atherosclerosis and prediction of risk of coronary heart disease. In adipose parameters, EF thickness was correlated the most by WC. Risk stratification of coronary artery disease is supplemented by increased HOMA-IR and AIP.

  18. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Heng-Hsu; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lien, Yu-Chung; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Wu, Cho-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population....

  19. Epicardial fat volume and aortic stiffness in healthy individuals. A quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance study

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    Homsi, R.; Thomas, D.; Meier-Schroers, M.; Dabir, D.; Kuetting, D.; Luetkens, J.A.; Marx, C.; Schild, H.H. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Sprinkart, A. [Bonn University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering

    2016-09-15

    To determine epicardial fat volume (EFV) and aortic stiffness (assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV)) in healthy individuals, and to investigate the relationship of these parameters, and their association with body mass index (BMI) and age. 58 subjects (29 men, mean age 44.7 ± 13.9 years[y]) underwent a CMR exam at 1.5 Tesla. A 2 D velocity-encoded CMR scan was acquired to determine PWV. The EFV was measured based on a 3 D-mDixon sequence. Group comparisons were made between younger (age < 45y; n=30; mean age 33.4 ± 6.6y) and older (> 45y; n=28; 56.7 ± 8.4y) subjects and between subjects with a BMI < 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=28; BMI 21.9 ± 2.5 kg/m{sup 2}) and a BMI > 25 kg/m{sup 2} (n=30; 28.7 ± 4.0 kg/m{sup 2}). Associations between the determined parameters were assessed by analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs). The mean values of PWV and EFV (normalized to body surface area) were 6.9 ±1.9 m/s and 44.2 ± 25.0 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. The PWV and EFV were significantly higher in the older group (PWV=7.9 ± 2.0 m/s vs. 6.0 ± 1.2 m/s; EFV=54.7 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 34.5 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01, each), with no significant differences in BMI or sex. In the overweighted group the EFV was significantly higher than in subjects with a BMI < 25kg/m{sup 2} (EFV=56.1 ± 27.1 ml/m{sup 2} vs. 31.5 ± 14.6 ml/m{sup 2}; p < 0.01) but without a significant difference in PWV. ANCOVA revealed a significant correlation between EFV and PWV, also after adjustment for age (p=0.025). An association was found between age and EFV as well as PWV. EFV and PWV were related to each other also after adjustment for age. The metabolic and pro-inflammatory activity found with increased epicardial fat volume may promote the development of atherosclerosis and aortic stiffness. CMR may be valuable for future studies investigating the relationship between EFV and PWV in patients with increased cardiovascular risk.

  20. Unipolar Endocardial Voltage Mapping in the Right Ventricle: Optimal Cutoff Values Correcting for Computed Tomography-Derived Epicardial Fat Thickness and Their Clinical Value for Substrate Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venlet, Jeroen; Piers, Sebastiaan R D; Kapel, Gijsbert F L; de Riva, Marta; Pauli, Philippe F G; van der Geest, Rob J; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2017-08-01

    Low endocardial unipolar voltage (UV) at sites with normal bipolar voltage (BV) may indicate epicardial scar. Currently applied UV cutoff values are based on studies that lacked epicardial fat information. This study aimed to define endocardial UV cutoff values using computed tomography-derived fat information and to analyze their clinical value for right ventricular substrate delineation. Thirty-three patients (50±14 years; 79% men) underwent combined endocardial-epicardial right ventricular electroanatomical mapping and ablation of right ventricular scar-related ventricular tachycardia with computed tomographic image integration, including computed tomography-derived fat thickness. Of 6889 endocardial-epicardial mapping point pairs, 547 (8%) pairs with distance 1.50 mV, the optimal endocardial UV cutoff for identification of epicardial BV the curve, 0.75; sensitivity, 60%; specificity, 79%) and cutoff for identification of abnormal epicardial electrogram was 3.7 mV (area under the curve, 0.88; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 67%). The majority of abnormal electrograms (130 of 151) were associated with transmural scar. Eighty-six percent of abnormal epicardial electrograms had corresponding endocardial sites with BV the remaining could be identified by corresponding low endocardial UV right ventricular scar, an endocardial UV cutoff value of 3.9 mV is more accurate than previously reported cutoff values. Although the majority of epicardial abnormal electrograms are associated with transmural scar with low endocardial BV, the additional use of endocardial UV at normal BV sites improves the diagnostic accuracy resulting in identification of all epicardial abnormal electrograms at sites with <1.0 mm fat. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Increased epicardial fat is independently associated with the presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation and radiofrequency ablation outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, UH B1-132 Taubman/Box 0302, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sinno, Mohamad; Oral, Hakan [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine, Electrophysiology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Watcharotone, Kuanwong [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR), Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To determine whether intrathoracic fat volumes are associated with presence and chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment outcome. IRB approval was obtained and patient consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. 169 patients with AF (75 non-paroxysmal and 94 paroxysmal) and 62 control patients underwent cardiac CT examination. Extrapericardial (EPFV) and epicardial fat volumes (EFV) were measured on CT, the sum of which is the total intrathoracic fat volume. Associations between these three fat volumes and presence and chronicity of AF, and outcome after RFA, were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. EFV was significantly associated with presence [OR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.003-1.03), p = 0.01], chronicity of AF [1.008 (1.001-1.020), p = 0.03] and AF recurrence after RFA [1.009 (1.001-1.01), p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. Patients with a larger EFV had a shorter time to AF recurrence (p = 0.017) and a higher rate of recurrence (54 % vs 46 %) (p = 0.002) after RFA. EPFV had no significant associations. Increased epicardial fat is associated with the presence and chronicity of AF, a higher probability of AF recurrence after RFA and a shorter AF-free interval. (orig.)

  2. Association Between Epicardial Fat Thickness and Premature Coronary Artery Disease: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Shadi; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Parsaee, Mozhgan; Saedi, Sedigheh; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been elaborately studied. Objectives: In the present study, we sought whether such a relationship between EFT and CAD exists. Patients and Methods: Sixty two consecutive subjects, under 50 years of age, who underwent coronary angiography (CAG) with the aspect of CAD, were included in this case control study. They were divided into two groups of 31 subjects, namely CAD (cases) and non-CAD (controls) group, according to CAG data. Presence of conventional coronary risk factors, drug history, and anthropometric data were recorded. Then, each subject underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography for measuring EFT in the proximal part of right ventricular outflow tract in the parasternal long axis view at end diastole, as well as other parameters of systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricle (LV) mass. Images were stored for offline analysis when the echocardiocardiographers were blind to CAG data. Results: Among baseline characteristics, waist circumference, triglyceride levels, cigarette smoking and history of statin use were significantly higher in the CAD group. The body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in the non-CAD group. According to echocardiographic data, the EFT with a cut off value of 2.95 mm could well differentiate subjects in each group. The LV mass and E/e were significantly higher in CAD group, in addition to EFT. Also, there was a significant correlation between EFT and waist circumference, as well as LV mass. However, no significant relation was between EFT and LV systolic and diastolic function. Conclusions: The EFT, as measured by echocardiography, with a cut off value 2.95 mm has a strong association with premature CAD. PMID:26380819

  3. Influence of technical parameters on epicardial fat volume quantification at cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Andreas M; Joseph Schoepf, U; Krazinski, Aleksander W; Silverman, Justin; Spearman, James V; De Cecco, Carlo N; Meinel, Felix G; Vogl, Thomas J; Geyer, Lucas L

    2015-06-01

    To systematically analyze the influence of technical parameters on quantification of epicardial fat volume (EATV) at cardiac CT. 153 routine cardiac CT data sets were analyzed using three-dimensional pericardial border delineation. Three image series were reconstructed per patient: (a) CTAD: coronary CT angiography (CTA), diastolic phase; (b) CTAS: coronary CTA, systolic phase; (c) CaScD: non-contrast CT, diastolic phase. EATV was calculated using three different upper thresholds (-15HU, -30 HU, -45HU). Repeated measures ANOVA, Spearman's rho, and Bland Altman plots were used. Mean EATV differed between all three image series at a -30HU threshold (CTAD 87.2 ± 38.5 ml, CTAS 90.9 ± 37.7 ml, CaScD 130.7 ± 49.5 ml, PEATV of diastolic and systolic CTA reconstructions did not differ significantly (P=0.225). Mean EATV for contrast enhanced CTA at a -15HU threshold (CTAD15 102.4 ± 43.6 ml, CTAS15 105.3 ± 42.3 ml) could be approximated most closely by non-contrast CT at -45HU threshold (CaScD45 105.3 ± 40.8 ml). The correlation was excellent: CTAS15-CTAD15, rho=0.943; CTAD15-CaScD45, rho=0.905; CTAS15-CaScD45, rho=0.924; each PEATV can differ substantially between contrast enhanced and non-contrast CT studies, which can be reconciled by threshold modification. Heart cycle phase does not significantly influence EATV measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of relationships between novel inflammatory markers and presence and severity of preeclampsia: Epicardial fat thickness, pentraxin-3, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Dincgez Cakmak, Burcu; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Inci Coskun, Ebru; Erturk, Mehmet; Keles, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of three new inflammatory markers with presence and severity of preeclampsia and to compare the predictive values of all markers for presence of this setting. In this study, a total of 100 consecutive pregnants with a diagnosis of preeclampsia and 40 healthy pregnants between October 2014 and April 2015 were included. Epicardial fat tissue was calculated by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, and pentraxin-3 and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and routine blood count analysis, respectively. Epicardial fat thickness (p preeclampsia as compared to the healthy pregnants. Furthermore, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.002), pentraxin-3 (p preeclampsia compared to mild preeclampsia. In the multivariate analysis, epicardial fat thickness (p = 0.013), pentraxin-3 (p = 0.04), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p preeclampsia after adjusting for other risk factors. Epicardial fat thickness, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and pentraxin-3 are important markers that provide an additional information beyond that provided by conventional methods in predicting presence and severity of preeclampsia.

  5. Increased Regional Epicardial Fat Volume Associated with Reversible Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Tuba; Greer, Christine; Thadani, Samir R.; Kato, Tomoko S.; Bhatia, Ketan; Shimbo, Daichi; Konkak, Andrew; Bokhari, Sabahat; Einstein, Andrew J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perfusion defects. We analyzed EFV in patients undergoing SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging combined with computed tomography (CT) for attenuation correction. Low-dose CT without contrast was performed in 396 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT imaging for evaluation of coronary artery disease. Regional thickness, cross-sectional areas, and total EFV were assessed. 295 patients had normal myocardial perfusion scans and 101 had abnormal perfusion scans. Mean EFVs in normal, ischemic, and infarcted hearts were 99.8 ± 82.3 cm3, 156.4 ± 121.9 cm3, and 96.3 ± 102.1 cm3, respectively (P < 0.001). Reversible perfusion defects were associated with increased local EFV compared to normal perfusion in the distribution of the right (69.2 ± 51.5 vs 46.6 ± 32.0 cm3; P = 0.03) and left anterior descending coronary artery (87.1 ± 76.4 vs 46.7 ± 40.6 cm3; P = 0.005). Our results demonstrate increased regional epicardial fat in patients with active myocardial ischemia compared to patients with myocardial scar or normal perfusion on nuclear perfusion scans. Our results suggest a potential role for cardiac CT to improve risk stratification in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. PMID:25339129

  6. Changes in arterial stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness, and epicardial fat after L-thyroxine replacement therapy in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Busto-Mesa, Abdel; Cabrera-Rego, Julio Oscar; Carrero-Fernández, Lisván; Hernández-Roca, Cristina Victoria; González-Valdés, Jorge Luis; de la Rosa-Pazos, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between primary hypothyroidism and subclinical atherosclerosis and its potential changes with L-thyroxine replacement therapy. A prospective cohort study including 101 patients with primary hypothyroidism and 101 euthyroid patients as controls was conducted from July 2011 to December 2013. Clinical, anthropometrical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic parameters were assessed at baseline and after one year of L-thyroxine replacement therapy. At baseline, hypothyroid patients had significantly greater values of blood pressure, total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, left ventricular mass, epicardial fat, and carotid intima-media thickness as compared to controls. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, ventricular diastolic function, epicardial fat, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid local pulse wave velocity, pressure strain elastic modulus, and β arterial stiffness index showed a significant and positive correlation with TSH levels. After one year of replacement therapy, patients with hypothyroidism showed changes in total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, TSH, carotid intima-media thickness, and arterial stiffness parameters. Primary hypothyroidism is characterized by an increased cardiovascular risk. In these patients, L-thyroxine replacement therapy for one year is related to decreased dyslipidemia and improvement in markers of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Epicardial fat volume is correlated with coronary lesion and its severity

    OpenAIRE

    Bo, Xiaohong; Ma, Likun; Fan, Jili; Jiang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuansong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) with the coronary artery lesion and its severity. Methods: Inpatients with suspicious stable angina of coronary heart lesion were recruited. For patients with coronary artery lesions in CTA, further coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the coronary artery lesion. Gensini scoring system was employed to assess the severity of coronary artery lesions. Results: Patients were classified as coronary he...

  8. Increased epicardial fat volume quantified by 64-multidetector computed tomography is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and totally occlusive lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji; Anzai, Toshihisa; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the epicardial fat volume measured by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the extension and severity of coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. Both MDCT and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in 71 consecutive patients who presented with effort angina. The volume of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) was measured by MDCT. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by evaluating the extension of coronary plaques in 790 segments using MDCT data, and the percentage diameter stenosis in 995 segments using CAG data. The estimated volume of EAT indexed by body surface area was defined as VEAT. Increased VEAT was associated with advanced age, male sex, degree of metabolic alterations, a history of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and the presence of total occlusions, and showed positive correlation with the stenosis score r=0.28, P=0.02) and the atheromatosis score (r=0.67, P 3 /m 2 ) to be the strongest independent determinant of the presence of total occlusions odds ratio 4.64. P=0.02). VEAT correlates with the degree of metabolic alterations and coronary atheromatosis. Excessive accumulation of EAT might contribute to the development of ACS and coronary total occlusions. (author)

  9. Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Bora Demircelik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.METHODS:The study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing <50% in diameter, Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≥50% in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses.RESULTS:The average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm.CONCLUSION:We showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases.

  10. Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demircelik, Muhammed Bora; Gurel, Ozgul Malcok; Selcoki, Yusuf; Atar, Inci Asli; Eryonucu, Beyhan, E-mail: drdemircelik@yahoo.com [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Alper; Akin, Kayihan [Turgut Ozal Univercity, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Yilmaz, Omer Caglar [Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-15

    Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods: the study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing < 50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≧ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses. Results: the average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm. Conclusion: we showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases. (author)

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness measured with 64-multidetector computed tomography: potential predictors of the severity of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircelik, Muhammed Bora; Gurel, Ozgul Malcok; Selcoki, Yusuf; Atar, Inci Asli; Eryonucu, Beyhan; Bozkurt, Alper; Akin, Kayihan; Yilmaz, Omer Caglar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between pericoronary fat and the severity and extent of atherosclerosis, quantified using 64-multidetector computed tomography, in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Methods: the study population consisted of 131 patients who were clinically referred for noninvasive multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. Patients were classified as follows: no atherosclerosis, Group 1; nonobstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing < 50% in diameter), Group 2; and obstructive atherosclerosis (luminal narrowing ≧ 50%) in a single vessel or obstructive atherosclerosis in the left main coronary artery and/or multiple vessels, Group 3. Epicardial adipose tissue was defined as the adipose tissue between the surface of the heart and the visceral layer of the pericardium (visceral epicardium). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (mm) was determined in the right ventricular anterior free wall. The mean thickness of the pericoronary fat surrounding the three coronary arteries was used for the analyses. Results: the average thickness over all three regions was 13.2 ± 2.1 mm. The pericoronary fat thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. The epicardial adipose tissue thickness was significantly increased in Group 3 compared with Groups 2 and 1. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for pericoronary fat thickness, which was 13.8 mm. A receiver operating characteristic curve for obstructive coronary artery disease was also assessed to verify the optimum cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue, which was 6.8 cm. Conclusion: we showed that the epicardial adipose tissue and pericoronary fat thickness scores were higher in patients with obstructive coronary artery diseases. (author)

  12. The relationship between epicardial fat and indices of obesity and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-02-01

    Epicardial fat (epicardial adipose tissue, EAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between EAT and generalized obesity, central or visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and the components of the metabolic syndrome--systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose (FBG)--that are linked to CAD. A systematic review of the literature, following meta-analysis guidelines, was conducted until May, 2013, using the search strategy "Obesity" OR "abdominal obesity" OR "metabolic syndrome" OR "metabolic syndrome X" AND "epicardial fat". Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria. There was a highly significant (Pcorrelation between EAT and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or VAT. The correlation between EAT and VAT was significantly (Pcorrelation between EAT and WC, which in turn was significantly greater than the correlation between EAT and BMI. Overall, EAT was 7.5 ± 0.1 mm in thickness in the metabolic syndrome (n=427) compared to 4.0 ± 0.1 mm in controls (n=301). EAT correlated significantly (PHDL, and FBG, but the strength of the association was less than one-half of the relationship of EAT to indices of obesity. The results of multivariate analysis were less consistent but show a relationship between EAT and metabolic syndrome independent of BMI. In summary, the very strong correlation between EAT and VAT suggests a relationship between these two adipose tissue depots. Measurement of EAT can be useful to indicate VAT. Whereas EAT correlates significantly with each of the components of the metabolic syndrome- SBP, TGs, HDL, or FBG-the magnitude of the relationship is considerably and significantly less than the relationship of EAT to BMI. These data show the strong relationship between EAT and BMI but especially with WC and VAT. They also demonstrate the smaller magnitude of the

  13. Does quantifying epicardial and intrathoracic fat with noncontrast computed tomography improve risk stratification beyond calcium scoring alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzandeh, Farshad; Chang, Su Min; Muhyieddeen, Kamil; Zaid, Rashid R; Trevino, Alejandro R; Xu, Jiaqiong; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J

    2013-01-01

    Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography allows calculation of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EATv) and intrathoracic fat (ITFv) volumes. It is unclear whether fat volume information contributes to risk stratification. Cardiac computed tomography was performed in 760 consecutive patients with acute chest pain admitted thorough the emergency department. None had prior coronary artery disease. CACS was calculated using the Agatston method. EATv and ITFv were semiautomatically calculated. Median patient follow-up was 3.3 years. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years and Framingham risk score 8.2±8.2. The 45 patients (5.9%) with major acute cardiac events (MACE) were older (64.8±13.9 versus 53.7±13.4 years), more frequently male (60% versus 40%), and had a higher median Framingham risk score (16 versus 4) and CACS (268 versus 0) versus those without events (all PEATv (154 versus 116 mL) and ITFv (330 versus 223 mL), and a higher prevalence of EATv >125 mL (67% versus 44%) and ITFv >250 mL (64% versus 42%) (all PEATv, and ITFv were all independently associated with MACE. CACS was associated with MACE after adjustment for fat volumes (PEATv and ITFv improved the risk model only in patients with CACS >400. CACS and fat volumes are independently associated with MACE in acute chest pain patients and beyond that provided by clinical information alone. Although fat volumes may add prognostic value in patients with CACS >400, CACS is most strongly correlated with outcome.

  14. Subclinical atherosclerosis and hyperandrogenemia are independent risk factors for increased epicardial fat thickness in patients with PCOS and idiopathic hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Evrim; Doğan, Mehmet; Topaloglu, Oya; Ozbek, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Vural, Mustafa Gokhan; Yeter, Ekrem; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-age women and is reported to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and early atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat thickness (EF) is clinically related to subclinical atherosclerosis and visceral fat changes. Therefore, the objective of this study is to compare the carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), EF and cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with PCOS, patients with idiopathic hirsutism (IH) and healthy controls. This cross-sectional controlled study was conducted in a training and research hospital. The study population consisted of 50 reproductive-age PCOS women, 34 women with IH and 39 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as CIMT and EF measurements in PCOS patients, IH patients and controls. The mean fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, hsCRP, GGT, CIMT, and EF levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS and IH (p cardiometabolic response in patients with PCOS and IH, even at an early stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Epicardial Fat and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Heart Rate Recovery in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Jo, Eun Ah; Cho, Sang Hoon; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Epicardial adipose tissues reflecting visceral fat accumulations of the heart are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and can be a predictor of other cardiometabolic diseases. It can adversely influence autonomic nervous system (ANS) of heart. Heart rate recovery (HRR) is an easy method for measuring ANS dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are related to HRR in patients with MetS. We enrolled 772 consecutive patients from a health-screening center who underwent abdominal ultrasonography, treadmill test, and cardiac echocardiography. EFT using echocardiography and HRR by symptom-limited exercise testing was assessed. According to the presence of MetS and NAFLD, patients were classified into the four groups. In NAFLD patients, EFT was higher and HRR was lower, especially in patients with MetS and NAFLD, compared to non-MetS participants without NAFLD (MetS with NAFLD, EFT 7.5 ± 4.4 mm, HRR 31.9 ± 12.7; MetS without NAFLD, EFT 4.9 ± 3.0 mm, HRR 39.5 ± 11.1; non-MetS with NAFLD, EFT 5.9 ± 3.6 mm, HRR 36.6 ± 12.7; and non-MetS without NAFLD, EFT 4.4 ± 3.5 mm, HRR 43.4 ± 14.5, p < 0.001). Patients with severe liver steatosis (LS) showed significantly higher EFT than those with moderate LS (14.2 ± 2.0 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1 mm, P < 0.001), and EFT was positively correlated with severity of LS (r = 0.431, P < 0.001). HRR was significantly correlated with EFT (r = -0.386, P < 0.001) and severity of LS (r = -0.324, P < 0.001). EFT and NAFLD were significantly correlated with HRR in patients with MetS and they may be highly related to increased cardiovascular risk. These results suggest a cross-link among EFT, NAFLD, and cardiac autonomic dysfunction in patients with MetS.

  16. Epicardial fat volume is correlated with coronary lesion and its severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiaohong; Ma, Likun; Fan, Jili; Jiang, Zhe; Zhou, Yuansong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) with the coronary artery lesion and its severity. Inpatients with suspicious stable angina of coronary heart lesion were recruited. For patients with coronary artery lesions in CTA, further coronary angiography (CAG) was performed to evaluate the coronary artery lesion. Gensini scoring system was employed to assess the severity of coronary artery lesions. Patients were classified as coronary heart disease (CHD) group (n = 160). Results showed the mean EATV was 192.57 ± 30.32 cm(3) in CHD group, which was significantly larger than that in control group (138.56 ± 23.18 cm(3); P EATV among patients with different severities of coronary artery stenosis (P EATV (r = 0.285, P = 0.000). The EATV increased with the increase in the number of affected coronary arteries. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed EATV was an independent risk factor of CHD after adjusting other confounding factors (OR = 1.023, P = 0.013). EATV is closely related to the severity of coronary artery lesions: the larger the EATV, the more severe the coronary artery lesions. Moreover, EATV is an independent risk factor of CHD.

  17. A SHORT-TERM CIRCUIT RESISTANCE PROGRAMME REDUCED EPICARDIAL FAT IN OBESE AGED WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosety, Miguel Angel; Pery, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Pareja, Maria Antonia; Diaz, Antonio; Rosety, Jesus; Garcia, Natalia; Brenes-Martin, Francisco; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Toro, Rocío; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Ignacio

    2015-11-01

    this study was conducted to ascertain the effects of resistance circuit training on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in obese aged women. A secondary objective was to assess muscle damage induced by supervised resistance training to confirm the intervention program was effective and safe. in the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Two experienced observers assessed EAT by transthoracic two-dimensional echocardiography. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using one-step sandwich assays for creatine kinase activity (CK) and myoglobin (MB) concentration. as was hypothesized, resistance training significantly reduced EAT thickness (8.4 ± 1.0 vs. 7.3 ± 1.3 mm; p = 0.014; d = 0.76) in the experimental group. Resistance training induced no significant changes in markers of muscle damage such as CK (181.6 ± 36.9 vs. 194.2 ± 37.8 U/l; p = 0.31) and MB (62.4 ± 7.1 vs. 67.3 ± 7.7 ng/ml; p = 0.26). No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. resistance training reduced EAT in aged obese women. A secondary finding was that the training program was effective and safe. While current results are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of galectin 3 and epicardial fat thickness in the development of atrial fibrillation in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ionin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the epicardial fat thickness (EFT in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, including paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation (AF. To relate EFT to the fibroid heart marker, i.e. galectin 3. Materials and methods. We examined 100 patients with MS (50 with AF, and 50 healthy persons made the control group. Serum galectin 3 was measured by ELISA method. The EFT was measured with echocardiography. Results. EFT in patients with MS was twofold higher than in healthy persons. EFT in patients with MS and AF didn't differ significantly from that in patients with MS without AF. Positive correlation between the levels of EFT and galectin 3 in serum was revealed. Serum galectin 3 and EFT were associated with atrial fibrillation in patients with MS (OR:1,27, 95% CI 1,02-1,58 and OR:1,73, 95% CI 1,37-2,19, correspondingly.Conclusion. Definition of EFT at echocardiography can be used in the assessment of risk AF in patients with MS.

  19. Accumulation of epicardial fat rather than visceral fat is an independent risk factor for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng-Hsu; Lee, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Chung-Yi; Lien, Yu-Chung; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Wu, Cho-Kai

    2013-08-30

    Symptoms of heart failure with preserved left ventricular systolic function are common among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Epicardial fat (EpF) is an ectopic fat depot with possible paracrine or mechanical effects on myocardial function. The aim of our current study is to assess the association between EpF and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients undergoing PD and to clarify the relationships among EpF, inflammation, and LVDD in this population. This was a cross-sectional study of 149 patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function who were undergoing PD. LVDD was diagnosed (according to the European Society of Cardiology guidelines) and EpF thickness measured by echocardiography. The patients without LVDD were used as controls. The serum inflammatory biomarker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured. The location and amount of adipose tissue were assessed by computed tomography (CT) at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra. Subjects with LVDD had higher levels of hsCRP, more visceral and peritoneal fat, and thicker EpF (all p EpF all correlated significantly (p EpF was the most powerful determinant of LVDD (odds ratio = 2.41, 95% confidence interval = 1.43-4.08, p EpF thickness also correlated significantly with the ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e'; r = 0.27, p EpF thickness is significantly independently associated with LVDD in patients undergoing PD and may be involved in its pathogenesis.

  20. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  1. Effect of interconnection between cervical vagus trunk, epicardial fat pad on sinus node function, and atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qina; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Kun; Xu, Xiaoxia; Ji, Meng; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Hongli; Hou, Yuemei

    2014-03-01

    The epicardial fat pad (FP) integrates the autonomic innervation between the extrinsic and intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system and affects atrial electrophysiology and pathophysiology. Eighteen dogs were divided into two groups: sequential ablation of sinoatrial node FP (SAN-FP) and atrioventricular node FP (AVN-FP). Sinus rate (SR), atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility, and effective refractory period (ERP) changes during electrical stimulation of the vagus trunk were detected before and after ablation. In the SAN-FP group, the SR slowing, increasing AF inducibility, and ERP shortening that induced by vagus trunk stimulation were significantly attenuated by isolated SAN-FP ablation, compared with the same group prior to ablation (all P AVN-FP ablation following SAN-FP ablation almost cannot produce further attenuation during vagus trunk stimulation, compared with isolated SAN-FP ablation (P > 0.05). In the AVN-FP group, SR slowing, increasing AF inducibility, and ERP shortening that induced by vagus trunk stimulation were completely eliminated by isolated AVN-FP ablation, compared with the same group prior to ablation (all P AVN-FP ablation produced no further attenuation, compared with isolated AVN-FP ablation (P > 0.05). A neural pathway from the cervical vagus trunk to the sinus node and atrium runs through the SAN-FP, but eventually converges at the AVN-FP and also suggested that the AVN-FP serves as an "integration center" for the SAN-FP to modulate sinus node function. The AVN-FP may play a more critical role in the initiation and maintenance of AF. ©2013 First Affilated Hospital of Xingiang Medical University Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Epicardial fat tissue thickness is increased in patients with lichen planus and is linked to inflammation and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Erdogan, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Cemal; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Elcin; Koseoglu, Gamze; Sivri, Serkan; Keles, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Aktas, Akın; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays a major role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat tissue (EFT) has been shown to produce and secrete various proatherogenic and proinflammatory hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess EFT in patients with lichen planus. Fifty-four patients with LP and 50 controls were enrolled in the study. LP was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. EFT was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle in parasternal long-axis view, as previously described and validated. There were positive correlations between EFT thickness and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, duration of LP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, after adjustments for relevant confounders, LDL cholesterol, hsCRP, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and duration of LP were independent predictors of EFT thickness in patients with LP (β=0.231, p=0.014; β=0.205, p=0.037; β=0.361, p=0.001 and β=0.133, p=0.047, respectively). EFT is increased in patients with LP compared to control subjects. Duration of LP is correlated with EFT, and duration of LP is also an independent predictor of increased EFT, which is a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance based evaluation of aortic stiffness and epicardial fat volume in patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Rami; Sprinkart, Alois M; Gieseke, Juergen; Meier-Schroers, Michael; Yuecel, Seyrani; Fischer, Stefan; Nadal, Jennifer; Dabir, Darius; Luetkens, Julian A; Kuetting, Daniel L; Schild, Hans H; Thomas, Daniel K

    2018-01-01

    Background Aortic stiffness and epicardial fat relate to cardiovascular risk. Their relationship with each other and their role with hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), and myocardial infarction (MI) can be evaluated by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Purpose To explore an association between aortic stiffness and epicardial as well as paracardial fat volume (EFV and ParaFV, respectively) in hypertensive patients and to relate the results to the presence of DM and MI. Material and Methods A total of 156 hypertensive and 20 non-hypertensive participants were examined at 1.5 Tesla. A 2D-velocity-encoded sequence was acquired to assess aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV in m/s) as a measure of aortic stiffness. A 3D-Dixon sequence was used to determine EFV and ParaFV. Results PWV correlated with EFV (R = 0.474; P hypertensive controls compared to hypertensive patients. EFV and PWV were significantly higher in diabetic hypertensive patients without MI (n = 19; PWV: 10.4 ± 2.9; EFV: 92.5 ± 19.3) compared to hypertension-only patients (n = 84 [no DM or MI]; EFV: 64.8 ± 25.1, PWV: 9.0 ± 2.6; P hypertensive patients. Both were increased in the presence of DM; however, only EFV was increased in the presence of MI. This may relate to the PWV lowering effect of the antihypertensive medication used by hypertensive patients and underscores the benefit of EFV assessment in this regard.

  5. Epicardial fat thickness in stable coronary artery disease: its relationship with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, Abdurrezzak; Gür, Mustafa; Özaltun, Betül; Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Harbalioğlu, Hazar; Seker, Taner; Sen, Ömer; Acele, Armağan; Gözükara, Mehmet Yavuz; Kuloğlu, Osman; Koç, Mevlüt; Çayli, Murat

    2014-12-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is related to coronary atherosclerosis, left ventricle hypertrophy, myocardial dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and inflammation, which produces a variety of cytokines that influence key pathogenic mechanisms of atherogenesis. The main goal of this study is to examine the relationship between epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and cardiovascular risk markers as well as the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with stable CAD. We prospectively included 439 stable CAD patients undergoing coronary angiography in the present study (mean age: 62.2±10.7 years). Patients were divided into two groups (EFTlow and EFThigh groups) according to their median EFT values. EFT was evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography before angiography. The SYNTAX score was calculated in all patients. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), uric acid, and other biochemical markers were also measured. Age, SYNTAX score, frequencies of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, and uric acid levels were higher in EFThigh group compared with the EFTlow group (P<0.05 for all). EFT was associated independently with age (β=-0.102, P=0.001), diabetes (β=-0.083, P=0.011), SYNTAX score (β=0.352, P<0.001), hs-CRP level (β=0.217, P<0.001), hs-cTnT level (β=0.197, P<0.001), and NT-proBNP level (β=0.300, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. EFT obtained by echocardiograpy may not only be an easy tool but also an important tool for early detection of increased cardiac risk as well as the extent and complexity of CAD in patients with stable CAD.

  6. Epicardial fat thickness correlates with P-wave duration, left atrial size and decreased left ventricular systolic function in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Cardoso, A; Santos-Furtado, M; Grindler, J; Ferreira, L A; Andrade, J L; Santo, M A

    2017-08-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is increased in obesity and has important interactions with atrial and ventricular myocardium. Most of the evidence in this scenario can be confused by the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, which are very common in this population. The influence of EF on atrial remodeling and cardiac function demands further investigation on morbidly obese without these comorbidities. We prospectively recruited 20 metabolically healthy morbidly obese and 20 normo-weights controls. The maximum P-wave duration (PWD) was analyzed by 12-lead electrocardiogram. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and EF thickness (EFT) were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography. The mean of maximum PWD and LAD were significantly larger in the obese group as compared to the control group: 109.55 ± 11.52 ms × 89.38 ± 11.19 ms and 36.12 ± 3.46 mm × 31.45 ± 2.64 mm, (p function. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epicardial adipose tissue relating to anthropometrics, metabolic derangements and fatty liver disease independently contributes to serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein beyond body fat composition: a study validated with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yau-Huei; Yun, Chun-Ho; Yang, Fei-Shih; Liu, Chuan-Chuan; Wu, Yih-Jer; Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Yeh, Hung-I; Lin, Tin-Yu; Bezerra, Hiram G; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Tsai, Cheng-Ho; Hung, Chung-Lieh

    2012-02-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) measured by echocardiography has been proposed to be associated with metabolic syndrome and increased cardiovascular risks. However, its independent association with fatty liver disease and systemic inflammation beyond clinical variables and body fat remains less well known. The relationships between EAT and various factors of metabolic derangement were retrospectively examined in consecutive 359 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 51.6 years; 31% women) who participated in a cardiovascular health survey. Echocardiography-derived regional EAT thickness from parasternal long-axis and short-axis views was quantified. A subset of data from 178 randomly chosen participants were validated using 16-slice multidetector computed tomography. Body fat composition was evaluated using bioelectrical impedance from foot-to-foot measurements. Increased EAT was associated with increased waist circumference, body weight, and body mass index (all P values for trend = .005). Graded increases in serum fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and alanine transaminase levels were observed across higher EAT tertiles as well as a graded decrease of high-density lipoprotein (all P values for trend <.05). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for identifying metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease were 0.8 and 0.77, with odds ratio estimated at 3.65 and 2.63, respectively. In a multivariate model, EAT remained independently associated with higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fatty liver disease. These data suggested that echocardiography-based epicardial fat measurement can be clinically feasible and was related to several metabolic abnormalities and independently associated fatty liver disease. In addition, EAT amount may contribute to systemic inflammation beyond traditional cardiovascular risks and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is epicardial adipose tissue, assessed by echocardiography, a reliable method for visceral adipose tissue prediction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Poantă, Laura; Valea, Ana; Pais, Raluca; Silaghi, Horatiu

    2011-03-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is an ectopic fat storage at the heart surface in direct contact with the coronary arteries. It is considered a metabolically active tissue, being a local source of pro-inflammatory factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. The AIM of our study was to establish correlations between echocardiographic assessment of epicardial adipose tissue and anthropometric and ultrasound measurements of the central and peripheral fat depots. The study was conducted on 22 patients with or without coronaropathy. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured using Aloka Prosound α 10 machine with a 3.5-7.5 MHz variable-frequency transducer and subcutaneous and visceral fat with Esaote Megas GPX machine and 3.5-7.5 MHz variable frequency transducer. Epicardial adipose tissue measured by echocardiography is correlated with waist circumference (p < 0.05), visceral adipose tissue thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and is not correlated with body mass index (p = 0.315), hip and thigh circumference or subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US. Our study confirms that US assessment of epicardial fat correlates with anthropometric and US measurements of the central fat, representing an indirect but reliable marker of the visceral fat.

  9. Epicardial fat thickness and cardiovascular involvements.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies have highlighted EFT is also clinically related to hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. EFT is also a cardiometabolic risk factor in various inflammatory diseases and is also independently associated with psoriasis.4 EFT may be.

  10. A huge cystic craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed. (author)

  11. Safety of huge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Jiro.

    1995-01-01

    Recently accompanying the development of engineering technology, huge systems tend to be constructed. The disaster countermeasures of huge cities become large problems as the concentration of population into cities is conspicuous. To make the expected value of loss small, the knowledge of reliability engineering is applied. In reliability engineering, even if a part of structures fails, the safety as a whole system must be ensured, therefore, the design having margin is carried out. The degree of margin is called redundancy. However, such design concept makes the structure of a system complex, and as the structure is complex, the possibility of causing human errors becomes high. At the time of huge system design, the concept of fail-safe is effective, but simple design must be kept in mind. The accident in Mihama No. 2 plant of Kansai Electric Power Co. and the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station, and the accident of Boeing B737 airliner and the fatigue breakdown are described. The importance of safety culture was emphasized as the method of preventing human errors. Man-system interface and management system are discussed. (K.I.)

  12. Catheter ablation of epicardial ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Yamada, MD, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular tachycardias (VTs can usually be treated by endocardial catheter ablation. However, some VTs can arise from the epicardial surface, and their substrate can be altered only by epicardial catheter ablation. There are two approaches to epicardial catheter ablation: transvenous and transthoracic. The transvenous approach through the coronary venous system (CVS has been commonly used because it is easily accessible. However, this approach may be limited by the distribution of the CVS and insufficient radiofrequency energy delivery. Transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation has been developed to overcome these limitations of the transvenous approach. It is a useful supplemental or even preferred strategy to eliminate epicardial VTs in the electrophysiology laboratory. This technique has been applied for scar-related VTs secondary to often non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and sometimes ischemic cardiomyopathy, and idiopathic VTs as the epicardial substrates of these VTs have become increasingly recognized. When endocardial ablation and epicardial ablation through the CVS are unsuccessful, transthoracic epicardial ablation should be the next option. Intrapericardial access is usually obtained through a subxiphoidal pericardial puncture. This approach might not be possible in patients with pericardial adhesions caused by prior cardiac surgery or pericarditis. In such cases, a hybrid procedure involving surgical access with a subxiphoid pericardial window and a limited anterior or lateral thoracotomy might be a feasible and safe method of performing an epicardial catheter ablation in the electrophysiology laboratory. Potential complications associated with this technique include bleeding and collateral damage to the coronary arteries and phrenic nerve. Although the risk of these complications is low, electrophysiologists who attempt epicardial catheter ablation should know the complications associated with this technique, how to minimize their

  13. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  14. Catheter-based high-intensity ultrasound for epicardial ablation of the left ventricle: device design and in vivo feasiblity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Nazer, Babak; Jones, Peter D.; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Martin, Alastair; Ng, Bennett; Duggirala, Srikant; Diederich, Chris J.; Gerstenfeld, Edward P.

    2015-03-01

    The development and in vivo testing of a high-intensity ultrasound thermal ablation catheter for epicardial ablation of the left ventricle (LV) is presented. Scar tissue can occur in the mid-myocardial and epicardial space in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and lead to ventricular tachycardia. Current ablation technology uses radiofrequency energy, which is limited epicardially by the presence of coronary vessels, phrenic nerves, and fat. Ultrasound energy can be precisely directed to deliver targeted deep epicardial ablation while sparing intervening epicardial nerve and vessels. The proof-of-concept ultrasound applicators were designed for sub-xyphoid access to the pericardial space through a steerable 14-Fr sheath. The catheter consists of two rectangular planar transducers, for therapy (6.4 MHz) and imaging (5 MHz), mounted at the tip of a 3.5-mm flexible nylon catheter coupled and encapsulated within a custom-shaped balloon for cooling. Thermal lesions were created in the LV in a swine (n = 10) model in vivo. The ultrasound applicator was positioned fluoroscopically. Its orientation and contact with the LV were verified using A-mode imaging and a radio-opaque marker. Ablations employed 60-s exposures at 15 - 30 W (electrical power). Histology indicated thermal coagulation and ablative lesions penetrating 8 - 12 mm into the left ventricle on lateral and anterior walls and along the left anterior descending artery. The transducer design enabled successful sparing from the epicardial surface to 2 - 4 mm of intervening ventricle tissue and epicardial fat. The feasibility of targeted epicardial ablation with catheter-based ultrasound was demonstrated.

  15. Huge interparietal posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Félix Companioni Rosildo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by a sac-like protrusion of the brain, meninges, and other intracranial structures through the skull, which is caused by an embryonic development abnormality. The most common location is at the occipital bone, and its incidence varies according to different world regions. We report a case of an 1-month and 7-day-old male child with a huge interparietal-posterior fontanel meningohydroencephalocele, a rare occurrence. Physical examination and volumetric computed tomography were diagnostic. The encephalocele was surgically resected. Intradural and extradural approaches were performed; the bone defect was not primarily closed. Two days after surgery, the patient developed hydrocephaly requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The surgical treatment of the meningohydroencephalocele of the interparietal-posterior fontanel may be accompanied by technical challenges and followed by complications due to the presence of large blood vessels under the overlying skin. In these cases, huge sacs herniate through large bone defects including meninges, brain, and blood vessels. The latter present communication with the superior sagittal sinus and ventricular system. A favorable surgical outcome generally follows an accurate strategy taking into account individual features of the lesion.

  16. Revealing new mouse epicardial cell markers through transcriptomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bochmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The epicardium has key functions during myocardial development, by contributing to the formation of coronary endothelial and smooth muscle cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and potentially cardiomyocytes. The epicardium plays a morphogenetic role by emitting signals to promote and maintain cardiomyocyte proliferation. In a regenerative context, the adult epicardium might comprise a progenitor cell population that can be induced to contribute to cardiac repair. Although some genes involved in epicardial function have been identified, a detailed molecular profile of epicardial gene expression has not been available.Using laser capture microscopy, we isolated the epicardial layer from the adult murine heart before or after cardiac infarction in wildtype mice and mice expressing a transgenic IGF-1 propeptide (mIGF-1 that enhances cardiac repair, and analyzed the transcription profile using DNA microarrays.Expression of epithelial genes such as basonuclin, dermokine, and glycoprotein M6A are highly enriched in the epicardial layer, which maintains expression of selected embryonic genes involved in epicardial development in mIGF-1 transgenic hearts. After myocardial infarct, a subset of differentially expressed genes are down-regulated in the epicardium representing an epicardium-specific signature that responds to injury.This study presents the description of the murine epicardial transcriptome obtained from snap frozen tissues, providing essential information for further analysis of this important cardiac cell layer.

  17. A huge renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Anupam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A huge left renal capsular leiomyoma mimicking retroperitoneal sarcoma presented in a patient as an abdominal mass. Computed tomography displayed a large heterogeneous retro-peritoneal mass in the left side of the abdomen with inferior and medial displacement as well as loss of fat plane with the left kidney. Surgical exploration revealed a capsulated mass that was tightly adherent to the left kidney; therefore, total tumor resection with radical left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathology ultimately confirmed the benign nature of the mass. This is the largest leiomyoma reported in literature to the best of our knowledge.

  18. Epicardial adipose tissue and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusterova, I; Leenen, F H H; Jurko, A; Sabol, F; Takacova, J

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased markedly in the past 2 decades. Abdominal fat is a better predictor of risk than body mass index. Waist circumference (WC) as a measure of abdominal fat has limited sensitivity and specificity. What this study adds Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) as measured by echocardiography represents a simple and reliable marker of visceral adiposity. In children, both body mass index and EAT show a similar or better correlation with markers of cardiometabolic risk than does waist circumference. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the visceral fat deposit around the heart and is commonly increased in obese subjects. EAT is related to cardiometabolic risk factors and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults, but this relationship is not well known in children. Echocardiographic assessment of EAT and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese children. In 25 (mean age 13.0 ± 2.3) overweight and obese subjects and 24 lean controls, blood pressure (BP), WC, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, lipids, uric acid and hepatic enzymes were measured. EAT thickness was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. In overweight and obese subjects, EAT was significantly higher compared to normal weight children. Overweight and obese children had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), WC, BP, triglycerides (TAG), low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol, hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyl transferase, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). EAT correlated significantly with BP, TAG, uric acid, HDL-C, apoprotein B and ALT. Correlation coefficients were similar or better than for WC, but similar or lower than for BMI. EAT thickness in children is associated with an unfavourable cardiometabolic risk profile including biochemical signs of NAFLD and hyperuricaemia, but is not a stronger indicator than BMI.

  19. Epicardial adipose tissue as a predictor of coronary artery disease in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Gil N; Dicker, Dror; Kornowski, Ran; Atar, Eli

    2012-08-15

    This study sought to elucidate the relation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness measured by multidetector computed tomography and presence of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Recent studies have suggested that fat disposition in visceral organs and epicardial tissue could serve as a predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). The sample included 190 asymptomatic subjects with ≥ 1 cardiovascular risk factor who were referred for cardiac computed tomographic angiography. Body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose level, and lipid profile were measured. Multidetector computed tomographic results were analyzed for atherosclerosis burden, calcium Agatston score, and EAT thickness: mean EAT values were 3.54 ± 1.59 mm in patients with atherosclerosis and 1.85 ± 1.28 mm in patients without atherosclerosis (p 50% diameter) coronary artery stenosis. There was a significant difference in EAT values between patients with and without metabolic syndrome (2.58 ± 1.63 vs 2.04 ± 1.46 mm, p 400 and <400 (3.38 ± 1.58 vs 2.02 ± 1.42 mm, p <0.0001). In conclusion, asymptomatic patients with CAD have significantly more EAT than patients without CAD. An EAT thickness of 2.4 mm is the optimal cutoff for prediction of presence of significant CAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is epicardial adipose tissue, another measure of central obesity, correlated with erectile dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Tsao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the correlation between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, a measure of central obesity, and sexual function in males with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study of selected males with ED aged <75 years who attended the Urology Outpatient Department of Tri-Service General Hospital. Sixty subjects were included in the study, which employed biochemical data, anthropometric indexes, echocardiography, and questionnaires. Biochemical lipid profiles and associated inflammation markers were recorded. The anthropometric indexes included general and central obesity and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Echocardiography results were assessed by a single experienced cardiologist and included epicardial and pericardial fat thickness measurements. Sexual function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5 score. Results: According to the analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression, only the erectile hardness score (EHS was statistically positively correlated with the IIEF-5 score. All other anthropometric indexes and echocardiography parameters, including EAT thickness, pericardial adipose tissue thickness, and ejection fraction (EF, were not significantly associated with sexual function. Conclusions: Only EHS was statistically associated with sexual function in the male subjects with ED. The anthropometric indexes and EAT thickness, a measure of central obesity, were not significantly correlated with sexual function in the male patients with ED.

  1. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or calcified tissue, based on the radiofrequency spectrum. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured as the tissue ranging from -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. EATV, calculated as the sum of the fat areas on short-axis images, was 85.0 ± 34.0 cm(3). There was a positive correlation between EATV and the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue (R (2) = 0.34, P EATV and the percentage of fibrous tissue (R (2) = 0.24, P EATV (β = 0.14, P = 0.02) were independently associated with the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue. An increase in EATV was associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and, potentially, with the most dangerous type of plaque.

  2. Epicardial and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Fatty Acids Profiles in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients Candidate for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pezeshkian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We have recently shown that in high cholesterol-fed rabbits, the sensitivity of epicardial adipose tissue to changes in dietary fat is higher than that of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Although the effects of diabetes on epicardial adipose tissue thickness have been studied, the influence of diabetes on profile of epicardial free fatty acids (FFAs has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of diabetes on the FFAs composition in serum and in the subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissues in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Methods: Forty non-diabetic and twenty eight diabetic patients candidate for CABG with > 75% stenosis participated in this study.Fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profiles were assayed by auto analyzer. Phospholipids and non-estrified FFA of serum and the fatty acids profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were determined using gas chromatography method. Results: In the phospholipid fraction of diabetic patients’ serum, the percentage of 16:0, 18:3n-9, 18:2n-6 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs was lower than the corresponding values of the non-diabetics; whereas, 18:0 value was higher. A 100% increase in the amount of 18:0 and 35% decrease in the level of 18:1n-11 was observed in the diabetic patients’ subcutaneous adipose tissue. In epicardial adipose tissue, the increase of 18:0 and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA and decrease of 18:1n-11, ω3 (20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significant; but, the contents of arachidonic acid and its precursor linoleic acid were not affected by diabetes. Conclusion: The fatty acids’ profile of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues is not equally affected by diabetes. The significant decrease of 16:0 and ω3 fatty acids and increase of trans and conjugated fatty acids in epicardial adipose tissue in the diabetic patients may worsen the formation of atheroma in the related arteries.

  3. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or non-coronary valve surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Maimaituxun, Gulinu; Shimabukuro, Michio; Salim, Hotimah Masdan; Tabata, Minoru; Yuji, Daisuke; Morimoto, Yoshihisa; Akasaka, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Takaki; Tanaka, Masashi; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are different between men and women. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains unknown. Methods Gender-linked impact of EATV, abdominal fat distribution and other traditional ASCVD risk factors were compared in 172 patients (men: 115; women: 57) who underwent CABG or non-coronary valvular surgery ...

  4. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma with unusual extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, I.; Yoneda, K.; Yamakawa, Y.; Fukui, M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1981-09-01

    The findings on computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 3-year-old girl are described. The cyst occupied both anterior cranial fossae and a part of it extended to the region of the third ventricle which was displaced posteriorly. The tumor showed no contrast enhancement after the intravenous administration of contrast medium.

  6. Minimal invasive epicardial lead implantation: optimizing cardiac resynchronization with a new mapping device for epicardial lead placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, J G; Phelps, B; Dekker, A L A J; Dijkman, B

    2004-05-01

    To optimize resynchronization in biventricular pacing with epicardial leads, mapping to determine the best pacing site, is a prerequisite. A port access surgical mapping technique was developed that allowed multiple pace site selection and reproducible lead evaluation and implantation. Pressure-volume loops analysis was used for real time guidance in targeting epicardial lead placement. Even the smallest changes in lead position revealed significantly different functional results. Optimizing the pacing site with this technique allowed functional improvement up to 40% versus random pace site selection.

  7. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  8. Feasibility of remote magnetic navigation for epicardial ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Abraham; L.D. Abkenari; E.C.H. Peters; T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPercutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation is an emerging method to treat ventricular tachycardias (VT), premature ventricular complexes (PVC), and accessory pathways. The use of a remote magnetic navigation system (MNS) could enhance precision and maintain safety. This multiple case

  9. Unipolar atrial electrogram morphology from an epicardial and endocardial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Lisette J M E; Knops, Paul; Teuwen, Christophe P; Serban, Corina; Starreveld, Roeliene; Lanters, Eva A H; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-02-22

    Endo-epicardial asynchrony (EEA) and the interplay between the endocardial and epicardial layers could be important in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. The morphologic differences between epicardial and endocardial atrial electrograms have not yet been described, and electrogram morphology may hold information about the presence of EEA. The purpose of this study was to directly compare epicardial to endocardial unipolar electrogram morphology during sinus rhythm (SR) and to evaluate whether EEA contributes to electrogram fractionation by correlating fractionation to spatial activation patterns. In 26 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded from the epicardium and endocardium at the inferior, middle, and superior right atrial (RA) free wall during SR. Potentials were analyzed for epi-endocardial differences in local activation time, voltage, RS ratio, and fractionation. The surrounding and opposite electrograms of fractionated deflections were evaluated for corresponding local activation times in order to determine whether fractionation originated from EEA. The superior RA was predisposed to delayed activation, EEA, and fractionation. Both epicardial and endocardial electrograms demonstrated an S-predominance. Fractionation was mostly similar between the 2 sides; however, incidentally deflections up to 4 mV on 1 side could be absent on the other side. Remote activation was responsible for most fractionated deflections (95%) in SR, of which 4% could be attributed to EEA. Local epi-endocardial differences in electrogram fractionation occur occasionally during SR but will likely increase during arrhythmias due to increasing EEA and (functional) conduction disorders. Electrogram fractionation can originate from EEA, and this study demonstrated that unipolar electrogram fractionation can potentially identify EEA. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Huge Thornwaldt's Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hau Lin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thornwaldt's bursa, also known as nasopharyngeal bursa, is a recess in the midline of the nasopharynx that is produced by persistent notochord remnants. If its opening becomes obstructed, possibly due to infection or a complication from adenoidectomy, a Thornwaldt's cyst might develop. Here, we present a 53-year-old man who complained of nasal obstruction that had progressed for 1 year. Nasopharyngoscopy showed a huge nasopharyngeal mass. Thornwaldt's cyst was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion measuring 3.6 × 3.4 cm, intermediate on T1-weighted and high signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, neither bony destruction nor connection to the brain. The patient underwent endoscopic surgery for this huge mass. Afterwards, his symptoms improved significantly. We present the treatment and differential diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal cyst.

  11. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  12. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  13. Adipogenesis and epicardial adipose tissue: a novel fate of the epicardium induced by mesenchymal transformation and PPARγ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Cavallero, Susana; Patterson, Michaela; Shen, Hua; Xu, Jian; Kumar, S Ram; Sucov, Henry M

    2015-02-17

    The hearts of many mammalian species are surrounded by an extensive layer of fat called epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The lineage origins and determinative mechanisms of EAT development are unclear, in part because mice and other experimentally tractable model organisms are thought to not have this tissue. In this study, we show that mouse hearts have EAT, localized to a specific region in the atrial-ventricular groove. Lineage analysis indicates that this adipose tissue originates from the epicardium, a multipotent epithelium that until now is only established to normally generate cardiac fibroblasts and coronary smooth muscle cells. We show that adoption of the adipocyte fate in vivo requires activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway, and that this fate can be ectopically induced in mouse ventricular epicardium, either in embryonic or adult stages, by expression and activation of PPARγ at times of epicardium-mesenchymal transformation. Human embryonic ventricular epicardial cells natively express PPARγ, which explains the abundant presence of fat seen in human hearts at birth and throughout life.

  14. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  15. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic...... organization enables an attractive new class of applications for managing ever-increasing music databases. For these types of applications, extraction of music features as well as subsequent feature processing and music classification have to be performed. However, these are computationally intensive tasks...... and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones...

  16. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  17. Nanocellulose, a tiny fiber with huge applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Tiffany; Rivkin, Amit; Cao, Yifeng; Nevo, Yuval; Abraham, Eldho; Ben-Shalom, Tal; Lapidot, Shaul; Shoseyov, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Nanocellulose is of increasing interest for a range of applications relevant to the fields of material science and biomedical engineering due to its renewable nature, anisotropic shape, excellent mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, tailorable surface chemistry, and interesting optical properties. We discuss the main areas of nanocellulose research: photonics, films and foams, surface modifications, nanocomposites, and medical devices. These tiny nanocellulose fibers have huge potential in many applications, from flexible optoelectronics to scaffolds for tissue regeneration. We hope to impart the readers with some of the excitement that currently surrounds nanocellulose research, which arises from the green nature of the particles, their fascinating physical and chemical properties, and the diversity of applications that can be impacted by this material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Huge hydrocephalus: definition, management, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghih Jouibari, Morteza; Baradaran, Nazanin; Shams Amiri, Rouzbeh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Lack of comprehensive knowledge and numerous socioeconomic problems may make the parents leave hydrocephalic children untreated, leading to progressive hydrocephalus and eventual unordinary big head. Management of huge hydrocephalus (HH) differs from common hydrocephalus. We present our experience in the management of these children. HH is defined as head circumference larger than the height of the infant. Nine infants with HH have been shunted in Children's Hospital Medical Center and followed up for 0.5 to 7 years. The most common cause of hydrocephalus was aqueductal stenosis. The mean age of patients during shunting was 3 months. The head circumference ranged from 56 to 94 cm with the average of 67 cm. Cognitive statuses were appropriate based on their age in five patients. Motor development was normal only in one patient. Complications were found in most cases which included subdural effusion (six patients), shunt infection (four patients), skin injury (three patients), proximal catheter coming out of ventricle to the subdural space (two patients), and shunt exposure (one patient). Three patients died due to shunt infection and sepsis. Numerous complications may occur in patients with HH after shunt operation such as subdural effusion, ventricular collapse, electrolyte disturbance, skull deformity, scalp injury, and shunt infection. Mental and motor disabilities are very common in patients with HH. Many of these complications can be related to overdrainage; therefore, drainage control using programmable shunts is advisable.

  19. Process control upgrades yield huge operational improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, W.V.

    2001-01-01

    Most nuclear plants in North America were designed and built in the late 60 and 70. The regulatory nature of this industry over the years has made design changes at the plant level difficult, if not impossible, to implement. As a result, many plants in this world region have been getting by on technology that is over 40 years behind the times. What this translates into is that the plants have not been able to take advantage of the huge technology gains that have been made in process control during this period. As a result, most of these plants are much less efficient and productive than they could be. One particular area of the plant that is receiving a lot of attention is the feedwater heaters. These systems were put in place to improve efficiency, but most are not operating correctly. This paper will present a case study where one progressive mid-western utility decided that enough was enough and implemented a process control audit of their heater systems. The audit clearly pointed out the existing problems with the current process control system. It resulted in a proposal for the implementation of a state of the art, digital distributed process control system for the heaters along with a complete upgrade of the level controls and field devices that will stabilize heater levels, resulting in significant efficiency gains and lower maintenance bills. Overall the payback period for this investment should be less than 6 months and the plant is now looking for more opportunities that can provide even bigger gains. (author)

  20. Automated quantification of epicardial adipose tissue using CT angiography: evaluation of a prototype software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spearman, James V.; Silverman, Justin R.; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Costello, Philip; Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L.; Schoepf, U.J.; Apfaltrer, Paul; Canstein, Christian; De Cecco, Carlo Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of a novel automated software tool for epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantification compared to a standard manual technique at coronary CT angiography (cCTA). cCTA data sets of 70 patients (58.6 ± 12.9 years, 33 men) were retrospectively analysed using two different post-processing software applications. Observer 1 performed a manual single-plane pericardial border definition and EFV M segmentation (manual approach). Two observers used a software program with fully automated 3D pericardial border definition and EFV A calculation (automated approach). EFV and time required for measuring EFV (including software processing time and manual optimization time) for each method were recorded. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed on the prototype software measurements. T test, Spearman's rho, and Bland-Altman plots were used for statistical analysis. The final EFV A (with manual border optimization) was strongly correlated with the manual axial segmentation measurement (60.9 ± 33.2 mL vs. 65.8 ± 37.0 mL, rho = 0.970, P 0.9). Automated EFV A quantification is an accurate and time-saving method for quantification of EFV compared to established manual axial segmentation methods. (orig.)

  1. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  2. Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, coronary artery disease and adiponectin in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez-Rivera, Teresa G; Baños-Gonzalez, Manuel A; Ble-Castillo, Jorge L; Torres-Hernandez, Manuel E; Torres-Lopez, Jorge E; Borrayo-Sanchez, Gabriela

    2014-09-08

    The amount of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) around the heart has been identified as an independent predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD), potentially through local release of inflammatory cytokines. Ethnic differences have been observed, but no studies have investigated this relationship in the Mexican population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a relationship exist between EAT thickness assessed via echocardiography with CAD and adiponectin levels in a Mexican population. We studied 153 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). EAT thickness on the free wall of the right ventricle was measured at the end of systole from parasternal long and short axis views of three consecutive cardiac cycles. Coronary angiograms were analyzed for the presence, extent and severity of CAD. Serum adiponectin, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were determined. EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD than in those without CAD from both parasternal long (5.39 ± 1.75 mm vs 4.00 ± 1.67 mm p<0.0001) and short-axis views (5.23 ± 1.67 vs 4.12 ± 1.77, p=0.001). EAT thickness measured from parasternal long and short-axis showed a statistically significant positive correlation with age (r=0.354, p<0.001; r=0.286, p<0.001 respectively), and waist circumference (r=0.189, p=0.019; r=0.217, p=0.007 respectively). A significant negative correlation between EAT thickness from the parasternal long axis with cholesterol-HDL was observed (r=-0.163, p=0.045). No significant correlation was found between epicardial fat thickness and serum adiponectin or with the severity of CAD. EAT thickness was greater in patients with CAD. However, no correlation was observed with the severity of the disease or with serum adiponectin levels. EAT thickness measured by echocardiography might provide additional information for risk assessment and prediction of CAD.

  3. Epicardial adipose tissue volume and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hirata, Yoichiro; Tabata, Minoru; Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Sato, Hiromi; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Fukuda, Daiju; Soeki, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Sata, Masataka

    2013-05-01

    The impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) over abdominal or overall adiposity on coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently unknown. We compared the association among EAT volume (EATV), cytokine/adipocytokine profiles in EAT and subcutaneous fat, and atherogenic CAD. Paired samples were obtained from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue during elective cardiac surgery for CAD (n=50) or non-CAD (n=50). EATV was the sum of cross-sectional EAT areas, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were determined at the umbilicus level on computed tomography scans. CD68(+), CD11c(+), and CD206(+) cells were counted using immunohistochemical staining. Cytokine/adipocytokine expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate analysis indicated that male sex, age, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and EATV index (EATV/body surface area, cm(3)/m(2)) were significant CAD predictors (corrected R(2)=0.401; PEATV index positively correlated with the CD68(+) and CD11c(+) cell numbers and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3), interleukin-1β, and interleukin-1R expression; and negatively correlated with adiponectin expression in EAT. A multivariate analysis model, including CD68(+) cells and interleukin-1β, and adiponectin expression in EAT strongly predicted CAD (corrected R(2)=0.756; PEATV and macrophage and cytokine/adipocytokine signals in EAT strongly correlated with CAD. Our findings suggest that EATV and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis.

  4. Direct Proof of Endo-Epicardial Asynchrony of the Atrial Wall During Atrial Fibrillation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Natasja; van der Does, Lisette; Yaksh, Ameeta; Lanters, Eva; Teuwen, Christophe; Knops, Paul; van de Woestijne, Pieter; Bekkers, Jos; Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad; Allessie, Maurits

    2016-05-01

    The presence of focal fibrillation waves during atrial fibrillation (AF) can, besides ectopic activity, also be explained by asynchronous activation of the atrial endo- and epicardial layer and transmurally propagating fibrillation waves. To provide direct proof of endo-epicardial asynchrony, we performed simultaneous high-resolution mapping of the right atrial endo- and epicardial wall during AF in humans. Intraoperative mapping of the endo- and epicardial right atrial wall was performed during (induced) AF in 10 patients with AF (paroxysmal: n=3; persistent: n=4; and longstanding persistent: n=3) and 4 patients without a history of AF. A clamp made of 2 rectangular 8×16 electrode arrays (interelectrode distance 2 mm) was inserted into the incision in the right atrial appendage. Recordings of 10 seconds of AF were analyzed to determine the incidence of asynchronous endo-epicardial activation times (≥15 ms) of opposite electrodes. Asynchronous endo-epicardial activation ranged between 0.9 and 55.9% without preference for either side. Focal waves appeared equally frequent at endocardium and epicardium (11% versus 13%; ITALIC! P=0.18). Using strict criteria for breakthrough (presence of an opposite wave within 4 mm and ≤14 ms before the origin of the focal wave), the majority (65%) of all focal fibrillation waves could be attributed to endo-epicardial excitation. We provided the first evidence for asynchronous activation of the endo-epicardial wall during AF in humans. Endo-epicardial asynchrony may play a major role in the pathophysiology of AF and may offer an explanation why in some patients therapy fails. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Inverse electrocardiographic transformations: dependence on the number of epicardial regions and body surface data points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, P R; Walker, S J; Hyttinen, J A; Kilpatrick, D

    1994-04-01

    The inverse problem of electrocardiography, the computation of epicardial potentials from body surface potentials, is influenced by the desired resolution on the epicardium, the number of recording points on the body surface, and the method of limiting the inversion process. To examine the role of these variables in the computation of the inverse transform, Tikhonov's zero-order regularization and singular value decomposition (SVD) have been used to invert the forward transfer matrix. The inverses have been compared in a data-independent manner using the resolution and the noise amplification as endpoints. Sets of 32, 50, 192, and 384 leads were chosen as sets of body surface data, and 26, 50, 74, and 98 regions were chosen to represent the epicardium. The resolution and noise were both improved by using a greater number of electrodes on the body surface. When 60% of the singular values are retained, the results show a trade-off between noise and resolution, with typical maximal epicardial noise levels of less than 0.5% of maximum epicardial potentials for 26 epicardial regions, 2.5% for 50 epicardial regions, 7.5% for 74 epicardial regions, and 50% for 98 epicardial regions. As the number of epicardial regions is increased, the regularization technique effectively fixes the noise amplification but markedly decreases the resolution, whereas SVD results in an increase in noise and a moderate decrease in resolution. Overall the regularization technique performs slightly better than SVD in the noise-resolution relationship. There is a region at the posterior of the heart that was poorly resolved regardless of the number of regions chosen. The variance of the resolution was such as to suggest the use of variable-size epicardial regions based on the resolution.

  6. Infected Congenital Epicardial Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribin, Timothy; Files, Matthew D; Rudzinski, Erin R; Kaplan, Ron; Stone, Kimberly P

    2016-12-01

    A previously healthy 3-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, fever, and emesis. Laboratory and radiologic evaluation for causes of acute abdomen were negative; however, review of the abdominal x-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly with the subsequent diagnosis of pericardial cyst by echocardiogram and computed tomography. The patient underwent surgical decompression and attempted removal of the cystic structure revealing that the cyst originated from the epicardium. His abdominal pain and fever resolved postoperatively and he completed a 3-week course of ceftriaxone for treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infected congenital epicardial cyst. Emergency department physicians must maintain a broad differential in patients with symptoms of acute abdomen to prevent complications from serious cardiac or pulmonary diseases that present with symptoms of referred abdominal pain.

  7. Systolic Compression of Epicardial Coronary and Intramural Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, Saidi A.; Fananapazir, Lameh

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that systolic compression of epicardial coronary arteries is an important cause of myocardial ischemia and sudden death in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We examined the associations between sudden death, systolic coronary compression of intra- and epicardial arteries, myocardial perfusion abnormalities, and severity of hypertrophy in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We reviewed the angiograms from 57 children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for the presence of coronary and septal artery compression; coronary compression was present in 23 (40%). The left anterior descending artery was most often affected, and multiple sites were found in 4 children. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities were more frequently present in children with coronary compression than in those without (94% vs 47%, P = 0.002). Coronary compression was also associated with more severe septal hypertrophy and greater left ventricular outflow gradient. Septal branch compression was present in 65% of the children and was significantly associated with coronary compression, severity of septal hypertrophy, and outflow obstruction. Multivariate analysis showed that septal thickness and septal branch compression, but not coronary compression, were independent predictors of perfusion abnormalities. Coronary compression was not associated with symptom severity, ventricular tachycardia, or a worse prognosis. We conclude that compression of coronary arteries and their septal branches is common in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and is related to the magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy. Our findings suggest that coronary compression does not make an important contribution to myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; however, left ventricular hypertrophy and compression of intramural arteries may contribute significantly. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:290–8) PMID:12484613

  8. Epicardial oesophageal duplication with hiatal hernia in a case of Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamburrini, O.; Cigliano, S.; Esposito, G.; Cucchiara, S.

    1983-01-01

    The authors of this paper report the first case of epicardial oesophageal duplication causing hiatal hernia in a patient afflicted with Turner's syndrome, and they discuss its possible etiology. (orig.)

  9. Conservative Management of an Epicardial Collateral Perforation During Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Christian; Christopoulos, George; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation is a highly feared complication of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and can lead to pericardial effusion, tamponade, and, rarely, emergent cardiac surgery. Perforation of epicardial collaterals during retrograde CTO-PCI may be particularly challenging to treat, as embolization from both sides of the perforation may be required to control the bleeding. However, conservative measures can occasionally be effective. We present a case of epicardial collateral vessel perforation that was managed conservatively with anticoagulation reversal.

  10. Usefulness of Epicardial Area in the Short Axis to Identify Elevated Left Ventricular Mass in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Jesse K; Cohen, Beth E; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Shaw, Richard E; Schiller, Nelson B

    2018-06-15

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms suffer from measurement variability that can lead to misclassification of patients with LV hypertrophy as normal, or vice versa. Among the 4 echocardiographic measurements required by the 2-dimensional LV mass algorithms, epicardial and endocardial area have the lowest interobserver variation and could be used to corroborate LV mass calculations. We sought cut-off values that are able to discriminate between elevated and normal LV mass based on endocardial or epicardial area alone. Using data from 664 men enrolled in the Mind Your Heart Study, we calculated the correlation of LV mass index with epicardial area and endocardial area. We then used receiver operator characteristic curves to identify epicardial and endocardial area cut-points that could discriminate subjects with normal LV mass and LV hypertrophy. LV mass index was more strongly correlated with epicardial area compared with endocardial area, r = 0.70 versus r = 0.27, respectively. Epicardial area had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (p versus 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.71). An epicardial area cut-point of ≥38.0 cm 2 corresponded to a sensitivity of 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for detecting LV hypertrophy. In conclusion, epicardial area showed promise as a method of rapid screening for LV hypertrophy and could be used to validate formal LV mass calculations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Huge maternal hydronephrosis: a rare complication in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsiu-Huei; Wang, Chin-Jung; Yen, Chih-Feng; Chou, Chien-Chung; Lee, Chyi-Long

    2003-06-10

    A huge maternal hydronephrosis is uncommon in pregnancy and might be mistaken as a pelvic mass. A 21-year-old primigravida was noted at 25th week of gestation to have a visible bulging mass on her left flank. The mass was originally mistaken as a large ovarian cyst but later proved to be a huge hydronephrosis. Retrograde insertion of ureteroscope and a ureteric stent failed, so we performed repeated ultrasound-guided needle aspiration to decompress the huge hydronephrosis, which enabled the patient to proceed to a successful term vaginal delivery. Nephrectomy was performed after delivery and proved the diagnosis of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  12. Role of miRNAs in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in CAD Patients with T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT is identified as an atypical fat depot surrounding the heart with a putative role in the involvement of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and atherosclerosis. We profiled miRNAs in EAT of metabolic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM versus metabolically healthy patients by microarray. Compared to metabolically healthy patients, we identified forty-two miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with CAD and T2DM from Xinjiang, China. Eleven miRNAs were selected as potential novel miRNAs according to P value and fold change. Then the potential novel miRNAs targeted genes were predicted via TargetScan, PicTar, and miRTarbase, and the function of the target genes was predicted via Gene Ontology (GO analysis while the enriched KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNAs targeted genes were performed by bioinformatics software DAVID. Then protein-protein interaction networks of the targeted gene were conducted by online software STRING. Finally, using microarray, bioinformatics approaches revealed the possible molecular mechanisms pathogenesis of CAD and T2DM. A total of 11 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and among them, hsa-miR-4687-3p drew specific attention. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that insulin signaling pathway is the central way involved in the progression of metabolic disorders. Conclusions. The current findings support the fact that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in EAT of CAD patients with T2DM, and validation of the results of these miRNAs by independent and prospective study is certainly warranted.

  13. Automated quantification of epicardial adipose tissue using CT angiography: evaluation of a prototype software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearman, James V.; Silverman, Justin R.; Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Costello, Philip [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Malvern, PA (United States); De Cecco, Carlo Nicola [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    This study evaluated the performance of a novel automated software tool for epicardial fat volume (EFV) quantification compared to a standard manual technique at coronary CT angiography (cCTA). cCTA data sets of 70 patients (58.6 ± 12.9 years, 33 men) were retrospectively analysed using two different post-processing software applications. Observer 1 performed a manual single-plane pericardial border definition and EFV{sub M} segmentation (manual approach). Two observers used a software program with fully automated 3D pericardial border definition and EFV{sub A} calculation (automated approach). EFV and time required for measuring EFV (including software processing time and manual optimization time) for each method were recorded. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was assessed on the prototype software measurements. T test, Spearman's rho, and Bland-Altman plots were used for statistical analysis. The final EFV{sub A} (with manual border optimization) was strongly correlated with the manual axial segmentation measurement (60.9 ± 33.2 mL vs. 65.8 ± 37.0 mL, rho = 0.970, P < 0.001). A mean of 3.9 ± 1.9 manual border edits were performed to optimize the automated process. The software prototype required significantly less time to perform the measurements (135.6 ± 24.6 s vs. 314.3 ± 76.3 s, P < 0.001) and showed high reliability (ICC > 0.9). Automated EFV{sub A} quantification is an accurate and time-saving method for quantification of EFV compared to established manual axial segmentation methods. (orig.)

  14. Aggressive angiomyxoma presenting with huge abdominal lump: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Agrawal, Nikhil; Khanna, Rahul; Khanna, AK

    2008-01-01

    Agressive angiomyxoma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm. It mainly presents in females. We here present a case of angiomyxoma presenting as huge abdominal lump along with gluteal swelling. Case note is described along with brief review of literature. PMID:18755035

  15. Huge magnetoresistance effect of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Youwei; Wang Zhiming; Ni Gang; Xing Dingyu; Xu Qingyu

    2004-01-01

    Graphite is a quasi-two-dimensional semimetal. However, for usual graphite the magnetoresistance is not so high due to its small crystal size and no preferred orientation. Huge positive magnetoresistance up to 85300% at 4.2 K and 4950% at 300 K under 8.15 T magnetic field was found in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The mechanism of huge positive magnetoresistance is not only due to ordinary magnetoresistance but also due to magnetic-field-driven semimetal-insulator transition

  16. Computerized analysis of the 12-lead electrocardiogram to identify epicardial ventricular tachycardia exit sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokawa, Miki; Jung, Dae Yon; Joseph, Kim K; Hero, Alfred O; Morady, Fred; Bogun, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria for epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) origins have been described. In patients with structural heart disease, the ability to predict an epicardial origin based on QRS morphology is limited and has been investigated only for limited regions in the heart. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a computerized algorithm is able to accurately differentiate epicardial vs endocardial origins of ventricular arrhythmias. Endocardial and epicardial pace-mapping were performed in 43 patients at 3277 sites. The 12-lead ECGs were digitized and analyzed using a mixture of gaussian model (MoG) to assess whether the algorithm was able to identify an epicardial vs endocardial origin of the paced rhythm. The MoG computerized algorithm was compared to algorithms published in prior reports. The computerized algorithm correctly differentiated epicardial vs endocardial pacing sites for 80% of the sites compared to an accuracy of 42% to 66% of other described criteria. The accuracy was higher in patients without structural heart disease than in those with structural heart disease (94% vs 80%, P = .0004) and for right bundle branch block (82%) compared to left bundle branch block morphologies (79%, P = .001). Validation studies showed the accuracy for VT exit sites to be 84%. A computerized algorithm was able to accurately differentiate the majority of epicardial vs endocardial pace-mapping sites. The algorithm is not region specific and performed best in patients without structural heart disease and with VTs having a right bundle branch block morphology. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: a 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Shimabukuro, Michio; Nishiuchi, Takeshi; Ueno, Junji; Takao, Shoichiro; Fukuda, Daiju; Hirata, Yoichiro; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Iwase, Takashi; Kusunose, Kenya; Niki, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Taketani, Yoshio; Yagi, Shusuke; Tomita, Noriko; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Harada, Masafumi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Sata, Masataka

    2012-09-10

    Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50%) and non-CAD group. EATV/body surface area (BSA) was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.

  18. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD. In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43 who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50% and non-CAD group. Results EATV/body surface area (BSA was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p 3/m2, not significant. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p Conclusions Increased EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.

  19. Automatic detection and classification of human epicardial atrial unipolar electrograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubé, B; Vinet, A; Xiong, F; Yin, Y; LeBlanc, A-R; Pagé, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an unsupervised signal processing method applied to three-channel unipolar electrograms recorded from human atria. These were obtained by epicardial wires sutured on the right and left atria after coronary artery bypass surgery. Atrial (A) and ventricular (V) activations had to be detected and identified on each channel, and gathered across the channels when belonging to the same global event. The algorithm was developed and optimized on a training set of 19 recordings of 5 min. It was assessed on twenty-seven 2 h recordings taken just before the onset of a prolonged atrial fibrillation for a total of 1593697 activations that were validated and classified as normal atrial or ventricular activations (A, V) and premature atrial or ventricular activations (PAA, PVA). 99.93% of the activations were detected, and amongst these, 99.89% of the A and 99.75% of the V activations were correctly labelled. In the subset of the 39705 PAA, 99.83% were detected and 99.3% were correctly classified as A. The false positive rate was 0.37%. In conclusion, a reliable fully automatic detection and classification algorithm was developed that can detect and discriminate A and V activations from atrial recordings. It can provide the time series needed to develop a monitoring system aiming to identify dynamic predictors of forthcoming cardiac events such as postoperative atrial fibrillation

  20. New method for imaging epicardial motion with scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A new method for monitoring cardiac motion is described which employs the secondary radiation emerging from the thorax during fluoroscopic x-ray examination of the heart. The motion of selected points on the heart's epicardial surface can be investigated by detecting the intensity variations of radiation scattered in the local vicinity of the heart-lung border. Also discussed are the radiation detectors and signal processing electronics used to produce a voltage analog depicting the periodic displacements of the heart surface. Digital data processing methods are described which are used to accomplish a transformation from a time scale for representing surface motion, to a frequency scale that is better suited for the quantitative analysis of the heart's myocardial dynamics. The dynamic radiographic technique is compared to other methods such as electrocardiography, phonocardiography, radarkymography, and echocardiography; which are also used to sense the dynamic state of the heart. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code is used to investigate the transport of x-radiation in the canine thorax. The Monte Carlo computer studies are used to explore the capabilities and limitations of the dynamic radiograph as it is used to sense motions of the canine heart. Animal studies were conducted with the dynamic radiograph to determine the reproducibility of the examination procedure. Canine case studies are reported showing the effects of increased myocardial contractility resulting from intervention with these inotropic agents

  1. Simultaneous Epicardial and Noncontact Endocardial Mapping of the Canine Right Atrium: Simulation and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sepideh; Matene, Elhacene; Vinet, Alain; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Cardinal, René; Armour, J. Andrew; Pagé, Pierre; Kus, Teresa; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes), noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter), and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression), activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa), a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments) and 0.96 (simulation) between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments) and 0.92 (simulation) between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall) and dimension reduction (64 electrodes), some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals. PMID:24598778

  2. Simultaneous epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping of the canine right atrium: simulation and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sepideh; Matene, Elhacene; Vinet, Alain; Richer, Louis-Philippe; Cardinal, René; Armour, J Andrew; Pagé, Pierre; Kus, Teresa; Jacquemet, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes), noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter), and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression), activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa), a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments) and 0.96 (simulation) between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments) and 0.92 (simulation) between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall) and dimension reduction (64 electrodes), some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals.

  3. Simultaneous epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping of the canine right atrium: simulation and experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sabouri

    Full Text Available Epicardial high-density electrical mapping is a well-established experimental instrument to monitor in vivo the activity of the atria in response to modulations of the autonomic nervous system in sinus rhythm. In regions that are not accessible by epicardial mapping, noncontact endocardial mapping performed through a balloon catheter may provide a more comprehensive description of atrial activity. We developed a computer model of the canine right atrium to compare epicardial and noncontact endocardial mapping. The model was derived from an experiment in which electroanatomical reconstruction, epicardial mapping (103 electrodes, noncontact endocardial mapping (2048 virtual electrodes computed from a 64-channel balloon catheter, and direct-contact endocardial catheter recordings were simultaneously performed in a dog. The recording system was simulated in the computer model. For simulations and experiments (after atrio-ventricular node suppression, activation maps were computed during sinus rhythm. Repolarization was assessed by measuring the area under the atrial T wave (ATa, a marker of repolarization gradients. Results showed an epicardial-endocardial correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.63 (two dog experiments and 0.96 (simulation between activation times, and a correlation coefficients of 0.57 and 0.46 (two dog experiments and 0.92 (simulation between ATa values. Despite distance (balloon-atrial wall and dimension reduction (64 electrodes, some information about atrial repolarization remained present in noncontact signals.

  4. Epicardial Ablation: Prevention of Phrenic Nerve Damage by Pericardial Injection of Saline and the Use of a Steerable Sheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kars Neven, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the close proximity of the phrenic nerve to the pericardium, phrenic nerve damage caused by epicardial ablation can easily occur. We report two cases of epicardial VT ablation where pericardial injection of saline, combined with the use of a steerable sheath, successfully prevents the phrenic nerve from being damaged.

  5. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  6. 61 HUGE BENIGN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN A 61 YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    peritoneal cavity, huge right ovarian cyst measuring 37cm/29cm as in figure 1a, weighing 8.3 kg with a thick smooth wall without excrescences on surface. ... is released in the blood during pregnancy and is produced in other conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids and diverticulitis. It is useful in monitoring therapy.

  7. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia | Komlatsè ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Conclusion: Our two lateral fl aps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. Itis simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result. Key words: Children, huge umbilical hernia, Togo, umbilical ...

  8. A Huge Ovarian Dermoid Cyst: Successful Laparoscopic Total Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Dusak, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts, ≥15 cm in diameter, are quite rare in women of reproductive age. Here, we present a case of ovarian cyst with unusual presentation treated by laparoscopic surgery. On histology, mass was found to be mature cystic teratoma. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this huge ovarian cyst were discussed in the light of the literature.

  9. Huge cystic craniopharyngioma. Changes of cyst density on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Seishi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Ito, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Yoichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1986-06-01

    The findings of computed tomography (CT) of a huge cystic craniopharyngioma in a 57-year-old woman are described. Cyst density varied from low to high levels in a short duration. Follow-up CT scans were regarded as important to diagnose craniopharyngioma. The mechanism of increment of cyst density was discussed.

  10. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  11. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or non-coronary valve surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulinu Maimaituxun

    Full Text Available Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD are different between men and women. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG remains unknown.Gender-linked impact of EATV, abdominal fat distribution and other traditional ASCVD risk factors were compared in 172 patients (men: 115; women: 57 who underwent CABG or non-coronary valvular surgery (non-CABG.In men, EATV, EATV index (EATV/body surface area and the markers of adiposity such as body mass index, waist circumference and visceral fat area were higher in the CABG group than in the non-CABG group. Traditional ASCVD risk factors were also prevalent in the CABG group. In women, EATV and EATV index were higher in the CABG group, but other adiposity markers were comparable between CABG and non-CABG groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that in men, CABG was determined by EATV Index and other ASCVD risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, adiponectin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Corrected R2 = 0.262, p < 0.0001, while in women, type 2 diabetes mellitus is a single strong predictor for CABG, excluding EATV Index (Corrected R2 = 0.266, p = 0.005.Our study found that multiple risk factors, including epicardial adipose tissue volume and traditional ASCVD factors are determinants for CABG in men, but type 2 diabetes mellitus was the sole determinant in women. Gender-specific disparities in risk factors of CABG prompt us to evaluate new diagnostic and treatment strategies and to seek underlying mechanisms.

  12. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or non-coronary valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaituxun, Gulinu; Shimabukuro, Michio; Salim, Hotimah Masdan; Tabata, Minoru; Yuji, Daisuke; Morimoto, Yoshihisa; Akasaka, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Takaki; Tanaka, Masashi; Takanashi, Shuichiro; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Traditional and non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are different between men and women. Gender-linked impact of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains unknown. Gender-linked impact of EATV, abdominal fat distribution and other traditional ASCVD risk factors were compared in 172 patients (men: 115; women: 57) who underwent CABG or non-coronary valvular surgery (non-CABG). In men, EATV, EATV index (EATV/body surface area) and the markers of adiposity such as body mass index, waist circumference and visceral fat area were higher in the CABG group than in the non-CABG group. Traditional ASCVD risk factors were also prevalent in the CABG group. In women, EATV and EATV index were higher in the CABG group, but other adiposity markers were comparable between CABG and non-CABG groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that in men, CABG was determined by EATV Index and other ASCVD risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, adiponectin, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (Corrected R2 = 0.262, p EATV Index (Corrected R2 = 0.266, p = 0.005). Our study found that multiple risk factors, including epicardial adipose tissue volume and traditional ASCVD factors are determinants for CABG in men, but type 2 diabetes mellitus was the sole determinant in women. Gender-specific disparities in risk factors of CABG prompt us to evaluate new diagnostic and treatment strategies and to seek underlying mechanisms.

  13. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness in Patients With Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Relationship Thereof With Visceral Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Dilek; Gurkan Tocoglu, Aysel; Yilmaz, Sabiye; Korkmaz, Sumeyye; Ergenc, Hasan; Gunduz, Huseyin; Keser, Nurgul; Tamer, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is associated with cardiovascular metabolic syndromes, especially dislipidemia and abdominal obesity. Visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) have the same ontogenic origin and produce many proinflammatory and proatherogenic cytokines. We evaluated EAT and VAAT thickness in patients with SH. Forty-one patients with SH and 35 controls were included in the study. Demographical and anthropometric features of both patients and controls were recorded. Thyroid and metabolic parameters were measured. EAT was measured using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography. The age and gender distributions were similar in the two groups (P = 0.998 and P = 0.121, respectively). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), the WC/HC ratio, and the thicknesses of VAAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in the case group than the control group (all P values 0.05). We found no difference between the two groups in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (P = 0.780), but the levels of LDL-C and TG differed significantly (P = 0.002 and P = 0.026, respectively). The serum TSH level was higher and the FT4 level was lower in the case than the control group (both P values <0.01). Increased abdominal adipose tissue thickness in patients with SH is associated with atherosclerosis. To detemine the risk of atherosclerosis in such patients, EAT measurements are valuable; such assessment is simple to perform.

  14. Changes in myocardial fluid filtration are reflected in epicardial lymph pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanTeeffelen, J. W.; Merkus, D.; Vergroesen, I.; Spaan, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of increased fluid filtration on stopped-flow epicardial lymph pressure (P(lymph)), used as an indicator of myocardial interstitial volume, was investigated in the anesthetized open-chest dog. Histamine infusion resulted in an increased systolic peak in the P(lymph) signal together with

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue volume estimation by postmortem computed tomography of eviscerated hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsø, Louise; Jakobsen, Lykke S; Jacobsen, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method based on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) for the estimation of EAT volume. We PMCT-scanned the eviscerated hearts of 144 deceased individuals, wh...

  16. Epicardial excitation pattern as observed in the isolated revived and perfused fetal human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrer, D.; Büller, J.; Graaff, P.; Lo, G.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1961-01-01

    The resuscitated fetal human heart can be used as an experimental tooI for the investigation of the excitatory process in the human heart. During perfusion the configuration of the epicardial electrocardiograms does not change appreciably. For accurate recording permitting a detailed analysis, the

  17. Primary PCI: time to change focus from epicardial reperfusion towards protection of the microvasculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lavieren, Martijn A.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Piek, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial tissue perfusion remains compromised in 30-40% of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) despite restored epicardial patency after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). This phenomenon is attributed to microvascular dysfunction secondary to numerous

  18. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chufal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  19. It was huge! Nursing students' first experience at AORN Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Cantrell, Kelly; Fletcher, Daphne; McRaney, David; Morris, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    AN EXPERIENTIAL KNOWLEDGE of mentoring through nursing students' perspectives may enhance AORN's ability to recruit students to perioperative nursing and aid future planning for student involvement in the Association. IN 2003, four first-year nursing students attended the AORN Congress in Chicago with their nursing instructor and mentor. The students' experiences were captured using a thematic analysis to analyze their journals. THE FIVE COMMON THEMES identified were "it was huge," "exhibits," "student program," "exploring the city," and "suggestions for future planning."

  20. Minimally Invasive Epicardial Pacemaker Implantation in Neonates with Congenital Heart Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto; Silva, Katia Regina da; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Carrillo, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have characterized the surgical outcomes following epicardial pacemaker implantation in neonates with congenital complete atrioventricular block (CCAVB). This study sought to assess the long-term outcomes of a minimally invasive epicardial approach using a subxiphoid access for pacemaker implantation in neonates. Between July 2002 and February 2015, 16 consecutive neonates underwent epicardial pacemaker implantation due to CCAVB. Among these, 12 (75.0%) had congenital heart defects associated with CCAVB. The patients had a mean age of 4.7 ± 5.3 days and nine (56.3%) were female. Bipolar steroid-eluting epicardial leads were implanted in all patients through a minimally invasive subxiphoid approach and fixed on the diaphragmatic ventricular surface. The pulse generator was placed in an epigastric submuscular position. All procedures were successful, with no perioperative complications or early deaths. Mean operating time was 90.2 ± 16.8 minutes. None of the patients displayed pacing or sensing dysfunction, and all parameters remained stable throughout the follow-up period of 4.1 ± 3.9 years. Three children underwent pulse generator replacement due to normal battery depletion at 4.0, 7.2, and 9.0 years of age without the need of ventricular lead replacement. There were two deaths at 12 and 325 days after pacemaker implantation due to bleeding from thrombolytic use and progressive refractory heart failure, respectively. Epicardial pacemaker implantation through a subxiphoid approach in neonates with CCAVB is technically feasible and associated with excellent surgical outcomes and pacing lead longevity.

  1. Partial ureterectomy for a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouralizadeh, A.; Tabib, A.; Taheri, M.; Torbati, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    A case of a huge primary leiomyoma of the ureter in which only partial ureterectomy was performed is presented. The benign nature of the mass was primarily confirmed with frozen section at the time of surgery and then with immunohistochemistry (IHC). To the best of our knowledge, this case is a unique form of leiomyoma of the ureter due to its large size. There have been only ten cases of primary leiomyoma of the ureter reported since 1955 and all of them were very small in size. Our case is considered to be the eleventh. (author)

  2. How a huge HEP experiment is designed course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-FAS

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty years after the idea of building the LHC machine was discussed in a workshop in Lausanne in 1984 for the first time, it is instructive to look back on the historical process which has led the community to where we are today with four huge detectors being commissioned and eagerly awaiting first beam collisions in 2008. The main design principles, detector features and performance characteristics of the ATLAS and CMS detectors will be briefly covered in these two lectures with, as an interlude, a wonderful DVD from ATLAS outreach depicting how particles interact and are detected in the various components of the experiments.

  3. A young woman with a huge paratubal cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Golbasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paratubal cysts are asymptomatic embryological remnants. These cysts are usually diagnosed during adolescence and reproductive age. In general, their sizes are small but can be complicated by rupture, torsion, or hemorrhage. Paratubal cysts are often discovered fortuitously on routine ultrasound examination. We report a 19-year-old female patient who presented with irregular menses and abdominal pain. Ultrasound examination revealed a huge cystic mass at the right adnexial area. The diagnosis was confirmed as paratubal cyst during laporotomy and, hence, cystectomy and right salpingectomy were performed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 573-576

  4. Quantification of the Arrhythmogenic Effects of Spontaneous Atrial Extrasystole Using High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuwen, Christophe P; Kik, Charles; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Lanters, Eva A H; Knops, Paul; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-01-01

    Atrial extrasystoles (AES) can initiate atrial fibrillation. However, the impact of spontaneous AES on intra-atrial conduction is unknown. The aims of this study were to examine conduction disorders provoked by AES and to correlate these conduction differences with patient characteristics, mapping locations, and type of AES. High-resolution epicardial mapping (electrodes N=128 or N=192; interelectrode distance, 2 mm) of the entire atrial surface was performed in patients (N=164; 69.5% male; age 67.2±10.5 years) undergoing open-chest cardiac surgery. AES were classified as premature, aberrant, or prematurely aberrant. Conduction delay and conduction block were quantified during sinus rhythm and AES and subsequently compared. Median incidence of conduction delay and conduction block during sinus rhythm was 1.2% (interquartile, 0%-2.3%) and 0.4% (interquartile, 0%-2.1%). In comparison, the median incidence of conduction delay and conduction block during 339 AES was respectively 2.8% (interquartile, 1.3%-4.6%) and 2.2% (interquartile, 0.3%-5.1%) and differed between the types of AES (prematurely aberrant>aberrant>premature). The degree of prematurity was not associated with a higher incidence of conduction disorders ( P >0.05). In contrast, a higher degree of aberrancy was associated with a higher incidence of conduction disorders; AES emerging as epicardial breakthrough provoked most conduction disorders ( P ≥0.002). AES caused most conduction disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus and left atrial dilatation ( P <0.05). Intraoperative high-resolution epicardial mapping showed that conduction disorders are mainly provoked by prematurely aberrant AES, particularly in patients with left atrial dilation and diabetes mellitus or emerging as epicardial breakthrough. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or ...

  6. Epicardial phrenic nerve displacement during catheter ablation of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias: procedural experience and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Barbhaiya, Chirag R; Baldinger, Samuel H; Koplan, Bruce A; Maytin, Melanie; Epstein, Laurence M; John, Roy M; Michaud, Gregory F; Tedrow, Usha B; Stevenson, William G

    2015-08-01

    Arrhythmia origin in close proximity to the phrenic nerve (PN) can hinder successful catheter ablation. We describe our approach with epicardial PN displacement in such instances. PN displacement via percutaneous pericardial access was attempted in 13 patients (age 49±16 years, 9 females) with either atrial tachycardia (6 patients) or atrial fibrillation triggered from a superior vena cava focus (1 patient) adjacent to the right PN or epicardial ventricular tachycardia origin adjacent to the left PN (6 patients). An epicardially placed steerable sheath/4 mm-catheter combination (5 patients) or a vascular or an esophageal balloon (8 patients) was ultimately successful. Balloon placement was often difficult requiring manipulation via a steerable sheath. In 2 ventricular tachycardia cases, absence of PN capture was achieved only once the balloon was directly over the ablation catheter. In 3 atrial tachycardia patients, PN displacement was not possible with a balloon; however, a steerable sheath/catheter combination was ultimately successful. PN displacement allowed acute abolishment of all targeted arrhythmias. No PN injury occurred acutely or in follow up. Two patients developed acute complications (pleuro-pericardial fistula 1 and pericardial bleeding 1). Survival free of target arrhythmia was achieved in all atrial tachycardia patients; however, a nontargeted ventricular tachycardia recurred in 1 patient at a median of 13 months' follow up. Arrhythmias originating in close proximity to the PN can be targeted successfully with PN displacement with an epicardially placed steerable sheath/catheter combination, or balloon, but this strategy can be difficult to implement. Better tools for phrenic nerve protection are desirable. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Epicardial shock-wave therapy improves ventricular function in a porcine model of ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holfeld, Johannes; Zimpfer, Daniel; Albrecht-Schgoer, Karin; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Paulus, Patrick; Dumfarth, Julia; Thomas, Anita; Lobenwein, Daniela; Tepeköylü, Can; Rosenhek, Raphael; Schaden, Wolfgang; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Grimm, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Previously we have shown that epicardial shock-wave therapy improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a rat model of myocardial infarction. In the present experiments we aimed to address the safety and efficacy of epicardial shock-wave therapy in a preclinical large animal model and to further evaluate mechanisms of action of this novel therapy. Four weeks after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in pigs, the animals underwent re-thoracotomy with (shock-wave group, n = 6) or without (control group, n = 5) epicardial shock waves (300 impulses at 0.38 mJ/mm 2 ) applied to the infarcted anterior wall. Efficacy endpoints were improvement of LVEF and induction of angiogenesis 6 weeks after shock-wave therapy. Safety endpoints were haemodynamic stability during treatment and myocardial damage. Four weeks after LAD ligation, LVEF decreased in both the shock-wave (43 ± 3%, p wave animals 6 weeks after treatment (62 ± 9%, p = 0.006); no improvement was observed in controls (41 ± 4%, p = 0.36), yielding a significant difference. Quantitative histology revealed significant angiogenesis 6 weeks after treatment (controls 2 ± 0.4 arterioles/high-power field vs treatment group 9 ± 3; p = 0.004). No acute or chronic adverse effects were observed. As a potential mechanism of action in vitro experiments showed stimulation of VEGF receptors after shock-wave treatment in human coronary artery endothelial cells. Epicardial shock-wave treatment in a large animal model of ischaemic heart failure exerted a positive effect on LVEF improvement and did not show any adverse effects. Angiogenesis was induced by stimulation of VEGF receptors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Total and interatrial epicardial adipose tissues are independently associated with left atrial remodeling in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Yong; Yong, Hwan Seok; Lim, Hong Euy; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Sang Weon; Rha, Seung-Woon; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    As epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a metabolically active visceral fat, potential interaction between EAT and myocardium is strongly suggested. The aims of this study were to determine whether the amount and regional distribution of EAT are related to the chronicity of atrial fibrillation (AF) and left atrial (LA) remodeling. This study consisted of 40 subjects with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and 40 with persistent AF (PeAF). Eighty subjects with no history of AF were enrolled as controls. Total volume of EAT (EAT(total)), regional thickness of EAT, and LA volume (LAV) were measured by multislice computed tomography. In the AF group, blood samples were drawn from coronary sinus for analysis of inflammatory cytokines including adiponectin. Compared with controls, AF subjects had larger LAV, EAT(total), and the thicknesses of periatrial EAT including interatrial septum (IAS). However, the thicknesses of periventricular EAT were not different between the groups. The PeAF subjects had larger LAV, EAT(total), and periatrial EAT thicknesses, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, and lower level of adiponectin than did the PAF subjects. Adiponection level was significantly associated with EAT(total) and IAS thickness. Multivariate analysis revealed that EAT(total) (P = 0.004) and IAS thickness (P = 0.016) were independently associated with LAV. EAT(total) and thickness of periatrial EAT were significantly larger in AF subjects compared to those of the matched controls and were closely related to the chronicity of AF. Moreover, EAT(total) and IAS thickness were independently associated with LAV in subjects with AF. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Distributed and parallel approach for handle and perform huge datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Big Data refers to the dynamic, large and disparate volumes of data comes from many different sources (tools, machines, sensors, mobile devices) uncorrelated with each others. It requires new, innovative and scalable technology to collect, host and analytically process the vast amount of data. Proper architecture of the system that perform huge data sets is needed. In this paper, the comparison of distributed and parallel system architecture is presented on the example of MapReduce (MR) Hadoop platform and parallel database platform (DBMS). This paper also analyzes the problem of performing and handling valuable information from petabytes of data. The both paradigms: MapReduce and parallel DBMS are described and compared. The hybrid architecture approach is also proposed and could be used to solve the analyzed problem of storing and processing Big Data.

  10. Huge Intracanal lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is the most common cause of sciatica and only in about 10% of the affected patients, surgical intervention is necessary. The side of the patient (the side of most prominent clinical complaints is usually consistent with the side of imaging (the side with most prominent disc herniation on imaging scans. In this case series, we presented our experience in four cases with huge intracanal LDH that a mismatch between the patient’s side and the imaging’s side was present. In these cases, for deciding to do the operation, the physicians need to rely more on clinical findings, but for deciding the side of discectomy, imaging characteristic (imaging side may be a more important criterion.

  11. A parallel solver for huge dense linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, J. M.; Movilla, J. L.; Climente, J. I.; Castillo, M.; Marqués, M.; Mayo, R.; Quintana-Ortí, E. S.; Planelles, J.

    2011-11-01

    HDSS (Huge Dense Linear System Solver) is a Fortran Application Programming Interface (API) to facilitate the parallel solution of very large dense systems to scientists and engineers. The API makes use of parallelism to yield an efficient solution of the systems on a wide range of parallel platforms, from clusters of processors to massively parallel multiprocessors. It exploits out-of-core strategies to leverage the secondary memory in order to solve huge linear systems O(100.000). The API is based on the parallel linear algebra library PLAPACK, and on its Out-Of-Core (OOC) extension POOCLAPACK. Both PLAPACK and POOCLAPACK use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication layer and BLAS to perform the local matrix operations. The API provides a friendly interface to the users, hiding almost all the technical aspects related to the parallel execution of the code and the use of the secondary memory to solve the systems. In particular, the API can automatically select the best way to store and solve the systems, depending of the dimension of the system, the number of processes and the main memory of the platform. Experimental results on several parallel platforms report high performance, reaching more than 1 TFLOP with 64 cores to solve a system with more than 200 000 equations and more than 10 000 right-hand side vectors. New version program summaryProgram title: Huge Dense System Solver (HDSS) Catalogue identifier: AEHU_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHU_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 87 062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 069 110 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90, C Computer: Parallel architectures: multiprocessors, computer clusters Operating system

  12. Airway management of a rare huge-size supraglottic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Zeid, Haitham A.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdel Mohsin A.; Al-Qurain, Abdel-Aziz A.; Mokhazy, Khalid M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser excision of a huge-sized supraglottic mass nearly obstructing the airway passage is a real challenge to anesthesiologists. Upper airway obstruction due to neoplasm in supraglottic region, is traditionally managed by preoperative tracheostomy, however, such a common procedure can potentially have an impact on long-term outcome. A 26-year-old patient presented with dysphagia caused by left cystic vallecular synovial sarcoma. The airway was successfully secured via fiberoptic bronchoscopy, followed by excision of the supraglottic tumor with CO2 laser surgery. Tracheostomy was not required. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 4th day of surgery. This case, highlights the possibility to secure the airway passage without performing preoperative tracheostomy resulting in good outcome and short hospital stay. (author)

  13. Huge endometrioma mimicking mucinous cystadenoma on MR : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Nam, Kung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoo, Yun Sik; Lee, Mee Ran; Hwang, Woo Chul [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Endometriosis is a relatively common gynecologic disease affecting women during their reproductive years. For its diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to have greater specificity than other modalities. Although lesions may show variable signal intensity due to numerous stages of bleeding, the characteristic finding of endometrioma which distinguishes it from other ovarian cystic masses is relatively high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous signal intensity with prominent shading on 72-weighted images. We report an atypical case involving a huge endometrioma. Because of varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and scanty shading on T2-weighted images, the findings were misinterpreted and mucinous cystadenoma was diagnosed.

  14. Spectral analysis of epicardial 60-lead electrograms in dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Y; Ikeda, K; Komatsu, T; Yamaki, M; Kubota, I

    2001-01-01

    There were few studies on the spectral analysis of multiple-lead epicardial electrograms in chronic myocardial infarction. Spectral analysis of multi-lead epicardial electrograms was performed in 6 sham-operated dogs (N group) and 8 dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction (MI group). Four weeks after the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, fast Fourier transform was performed on 60-lead epicardial electrograms, and then inverse transform was performed on 5 frequency ranges from 0 to 250 Hz. From the QRS onset to QRS offset, the time integration of unsigned value of reconstructed waveform was calculated and displayed as AQRS maps. On 0-25 Hz AQRS map, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. In the frequency ranges of 25-250 Hz, MI group had significantly smaller AQRS values than N group solely in the infarct zone. It was shown that high frequency potentials (25-250 Hz) within QRS complex were reduced in the infarct zone.

  15. Surgical treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: epicardial approach without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Vigano, M

    1993-03-01

    Epicardial dissection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed in 88 patients (56 males and 32 females, mean age 31.9 years). With intraoperative epicardial mapping, 101 accessory pathways were detected, with multiple pathways in 11 patients. CPB was avoided in all but one patient due to frequent onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate. Surgical ablation was successful in 86 patients (97.6%). Three patients required multiple surgical procedures because of persistence of conduction along a component of the original pathway. All but two patients were discharged without antiarrhythmic medication; these two patients were given quinidine therapy because of atrial fibrillation, but had normal early and late electrophysiological studies. Surgical ablation of Kent bundles by the epicardial approach for the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be achieved without the use of CPB. Optimal and steady exposure of the area are mandatory for the procedure, and dissection is eased by avoidance of heparin required for CPB.

  16. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  17. Role of high-resolution image integration to visualize left phrenic nerve and coronary arteries during epicardial ventricular tachycardia ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Seigo; Sacher, Frédéric; Mahida, Saagar; Berte, Benjamin; Lim, Han S; Komatsu, Yuki; Amraoui, Sana; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Laurent, François; Montaudon, Michel; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Cochet, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    Epicardial ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation is associated with risks of coronary artery (CA) and phrenic nerve (PN) injury. We investigated the role of multidetector computed tomography in visualizing CA and PN during VT ablation. Ninety-five consecutive patients (86 men; age, 57 ± 15) with VT underwent cardiac multidetector computed tomography. The PN detection rate and anatomic variability were analyzed. In 49 patients undergoing epicardial mapping, real-time multidetector computed tomographic integration was used to display CAs/PN locations in 3-dimensional mapping systems. Elimination of local abnormal ventricular activities (LAVAs) was used as ablation end point. The distribution of CAs/PN with respect to LAVA was analyzed and compared between VT etiologies. Multidetector computed tomography detected PN in 81 patients (85%). Epicardial LAVAs were observed in 44 of 49 patients (15 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 15 nonischemic cardiomyopathy, and 14 arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy) with a mean of 35 ± 37 LAVA points/patient. LAVAs were located within 1 cm from CAs and PN in 35 (80%) and 18 (37%) patients, respectively. The prevalence of LAVA adjacent to CAs was higher in nonischemic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy than in ischemic cardiomyopathy (100% versus 86% versus 53%; P < 0.01). The prevalence of LAVAs adjacent to PN was higher in nonischemic cardiomyopathy than in ischemic cardiomyopathy (93% versus 27%; P < 0.001). Epicardial ablation was performed in 37 patients (76%). Epicardial LAVAs could not be eliminated because of the proximity to CAs or PN in 8 patients (18%). The epicardial electrophysiological VT substrate is often close to CAs and PN in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. High-resolution image integration is potentially useful to minimize risks of PN and CA injury during epicardial VT ablation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Black hole firewalls require huge energy of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Jiro; Funo, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The unitary moving mirror model is one of the best quantum systems for checking the reasoning of the original firewall paradox of Almheiri et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2013) 062] in quantum black holes. Though the late-time part of radiations emitted from the mirror is fully entangled with the early part, no firewall exists with a deadly, huge average energy flux in this model. This is because the high-energy entanglement structure of the discretized systems in almost maximally entangled states is modified so as to yield the correct description of low-energy effective field theory. Furthermore, the strong subadditivity paradox of firewalls is resolved using nonlocality of general one-particle states and zero-point fluctuation entanglement. Due to the Reeh-Schlieder theorem in quantum field theory, another firewall paradox is inevitably raised with quantum remote measurements in the model. We resolve this paradox from the viewpoint of the energy cost of measurements. No firewall appears, as long as the energy for the measurement is much smaller than the ultraviolet cutoff scale.

  19. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarabi, Yasir; Nejat, Farideh; El-Khashab, Mostafa

    2008-01-01

    Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested. PMID:19753210

  20. Progressive skin necrosis of a huge occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andarabi Yasir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objects: Progressive skin necrosis of giant occipital encephalocoele is an extremely rare complication found in neonates. Infection and ulceration of the necrosed skin may lead to meningitis or sepsis. We present here a neonate with giant occipital encephalocoele showing progressive necrosis during the first day of his life. Methods: A newborn baby was found to have a huge mass in the occipital region, which was covered by normal pink-purplish skin. During the last hours of the first day of his life, the sac started becoming ulcerated accompanied with a rapid color change in the skin, gradually turning darker and then black. The neonate was taken up for urgent excision and repair of the encephalocele. Two years after the operation, he appears to be well-developed without any neurological problems. Conclusion: Necrosis may have resulted from arterial or venous compromise caused by torsion of the pedicle during delivery or after birth. The high pressure inside the sac associated with the thin skin of the encephalocoele may be another predisposing factor. In view of the risk of ulceration and subsequent infection, urgent surgery of the necrotizing encephalocele is suggested.

  1. [A Case of Huge Colon Cancer Accompanied with Severe Hypoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Sakurao; Kanesada, Kou; Harada, Toshio; Tada, Kousuke; Fukuda, Shintaro

    2017-11-01

    We report a case of huge colon cancer accompanied with severe hypoproteinemia. A7 4-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal fullness. Blood examinations revealed anemia(hemoglobin 8.8 g/dL)and sever hypopro- teinemia(total protein 4.5 g/dL, albumin 1.1 g/dL). Computed tomography examination of abdomen revealed ascites and large tumor(12.5×10.5 cm)at the right side colon. By further examinations ascending colon cancer without distant metastasis was diagnosed, then we performed right hemicolectomy and primary intestinal anastomosis by open surgery. Ahuge type 1 tumor(18×12 cm)was observed in the excised specimen, which invaded to terminal ileum directly. The tumor was diagnosed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymph node metastasis(pT3N0M0, fStage II ). Postoperative course was uneventful and serum protein concentration recovered gradually to normal range. Protein leakage from the tumor cannot be proved by this case, so we can't diagnose as protein-losing enteropathy, but we strongly doubt this etiology from postoperative course in this case.

  2. A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, Mitsuru; Sahoda, Tamami; Sugiura, Shinpei; Sawada, Takuto; Kitami, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    A 81-year-old male was referred to our emergency outpatient unit due to acute renal failure. The level of serum creatinine was 276 μmol/l. A CT scan showed bilateral hydronephroureter, large bladder stone (7 cm × 6 cm × 6 cm) and bladder wall thickness. He was diagnosed as post renal failure due to bilateral hydronephroureter. Large bladder stone is thought to be the cause of bilateral hydronephroureter and renal failure. To improve renal failure, we performed open cystolithotomy and urethral catheterization. Three days after the surgery, the level of serum creatinine decreased to 224 μmol/l. He was discharged from our hospital with uneventful course. Bladder calculus is thought to be a rare cause of renal failure. We summarize the characteristics of bladder calculus causing renal failure. We should keep that long-term pyuria and urinary symptom, and repeated urinary tract infection can cause huge bladder calculus and renal failure in mind.

  3. Epicardial left ventricular lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy: optimal pace site selection with pressure-volume loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, A L A J; Phelps, B; Dijkman, B; van der Nagel, T; van der Veen, F H; Geskes, G G; Maessen, J G

    2004-06-01

    Patients in heart failure with left bundle branch block benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. Usually the left ventricular pacing lead is placed by coronary sinus catheterization; however, this procedure is not always successful, and patients may be referred for surgical epicardial lead placement. The objective of this study was to develop a method to guide epicardial lead placement in cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eleven patients in heart failure who were eligible for cardiac resynchronization therapy were referred for surgery because of failed coronary sinus left ventricular lead implantation. Minithoracotomy or thoracoscopy was performed, and a temporary epicardial electrode was used for biventricular pacing at various sites on the left ventricle. Pressure-volume loops with the conductance catheter were used to select the best site for each individual patient. Relative to the baseline situation, biventricular pacing with an optimal left ventricular lead position significantly increased stroke volume (+39%, P =.01), maximal left ventricular pressure derivative (+20%, P =.02), ejection fraction (+30%, P =.007), and stroke work (+66%, P =.006) and reduced end-systolic volume (-6%, P =.04). In contrast, biventricular pacing at a suboptimal site did not significantly change left ventricular function and even worsened it in some cases. To optimize cardiac resynchronization therapy with epicardial leads, mapping to determine the best pace site is a prerequisite. Pressure-volume loops offer real-time guidance for targeting epicardial lead placement during minimal invasive surgery.

  4. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period.

  5. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. Conclusion: In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period. PMID:27147810

  6. Ventricular tachycardia in ischemic cardiomyopathy; a combined endo-epicardial ablation as the first procedure versus a stepwise approach (EPILOGUE) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Hendriks (Astrid A.); M. Khan (M.); L. Geller (Laszlo); A. Kardos (Attila); L.J. de Vries (Lennart); S-C. Yap (Sing-Chien); S.A. Wijchers (Sip A.); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The role of epicardial substrate ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) as a first-line approach in patients with ischemic heart disease is not clearly defined. Epicardial ablation as a first-line option is standard for patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy and

  7. Novel approach to epicardial pacemaker implantation in patients with limited venous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto; Scanavacca, Mauricio; da Silva, Kátia Regina; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Carrillo, Roger

    2013-11-01

    Limited venous access in certain patients increases the procedural risk and complexity of conventional transvenous pacemaker implantation. The purpose of this study was to determine a minimally invasive epicardial approach using pericardial reflections for dual-chamber pacemaker implantation in patients with limited venous access. Between June 2006 and November 2011, 15 patients underwent epicardial pacemaker implantation. Procedures were performed through a minimally invasive subxiphoid approach and pericardial window with subsequent fluoroscopy-assisted lead placement. Mean patient age was 46.4 ± 15.3 years (9 male [(60.0%], 6 female [40.0%]). The new surgical approach was used in patients determined to have limited venous access due to multiple abandoned leads in 5 (33.3%), venous occlusion in 3 (20.0%), intravascular retention of lead fragments from prior extraction in 3 (20.0%), tricuspid valve vegetation currently under treatment in 2 (13.3%), and unrepaired intracardiac defects in 2 (13.3%). All procedures were successful with no perioperative complications or early deaths. Mean operating time for isolated pacemaker implantation was 231.7 ± 33.5 minutes. Lead placement on the superior aspect of right atrium, through the transverse sinus, was possible in 12 patients. In the remaining 3 patients, the atrial lead was implanted on the left atrium through the oblique sinus, the postcaval recess, or the left pulmonary vein recess. None of the patients displayed pacing or sensing dysfunction, and all parameters remained stable throughout the follow-up period of 36.8 ± 25.1 months. Epicardial pacemaker implantation through pericardial reflections is an effective alternative therapy for those patients requiring physiologic pacing in whom venous access is limited. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Posterior Coronary Vein as the Substrate for an Epicardial Accessory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cipoletta, MD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Catheter ablation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is associated with up to 5% of failure. Coronary sinus (CS abnormalities or connections between CS myocardial coat and left ventricular epicardium are associated with posteroseptal and left posterior accessory pathways (AP. A 41-year-old patient with WPW syndrome was referred to our hospital after three unsuccessful ablations. The 12-lead ECG suggested a left posteroseptal AP. CT imaging and electro-anatomic mapping showed a relationship between AP electrical course and CS posterior branch. This finding supports the hypothesis CSAPs lie in the myocardial coat around CS and represent an extensive connection between atrial and ventricular epicardial surface.

  9. Epicardial Breakthrough Waves During Sinus Rhythm: Depiction of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-09-01

    Epicardial breakthrough waves (EBW) during atrial fibrillation are important elements of the arrhythmogenic substrate and result from endo-epicardial asynchrony, which also occurs to some degree during sinus rhythm (SR). We examined the incidence and characteristics of EBW during SR and its possible value in the detection of the arrhythmogenic substrate associated with atrial fibrillation. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (interelectrode distances 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle, the left atrioventricular groove, and the pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 381 patients (289 male, 67±10 years) with ischemic or valvular heart disease. EBW were referred to as sinus node breakthrough waves if they were the earliest right atrial activated site. A total of 218 EBW and 57 sinus node breakthrough waves were observed in 168 patients (44%). EBW mostly occurred at right atrium (N=105, 48%) and left atrioventricular groove (N=67, 31%), followed by Bachmann's bundle (N=27, 12%) and pulmonary vein area (N=19, 9%; P <0.001). EBW occurred most often in ischemic heart disease patients (N=114, 49%) compared with (ischemic and) valvular heart disease patients (N=26, 17%; P <0.001). EBW electrograms most often consisted of double and fractionated potentials (N=137, 63%). In case of single potentials, an R wave was observed in 88% (N=71) of EBW, as opposed to 21% of sinus node breakthrough waves (N=5; P <0.001). Fractionated EBW potentials were more often observed at the right atrium and Bachmann's bundle ( P <0.001). During SR, EBW are present in over a third of patients, particularly in thicker parts of the atrial wall. Features of SR EBW indicate that muscular connections between endo- and epicardium underlie EBW and that a slight degree of endo-epicardial asynchrony required for EBW to occur is already present in some areas during SR. Hence, an anatomic substrate is present, which may enhance the occurrence of EBW during atrial fibrillation, thereby

  10. Relation of epicardial adipose tissue with arterial compliance and stiffness in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Levent; Cirakoglu, Omer Faruk; Ağaç, Mustafa Tarik; Erkan, Hakan; Korkmaz, Ayca Ata; Acar, Zeydin; Kul, Selim; Hatem, Engin; Çelik, Şükrü

    2014-09-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Patients with hypertension (n = 155) were enrolled consecutively. Patients with decreased arterial compliance (AC) and increased cardioankle vascular index (CAVI) had higher EAT values compared with those with normal AC and CAVI (6.23 ± 1.67 vs 4.91 ± 1.40, P arterial function in patients with asymptomatic hypertension. The link between EAT and arterial stiffness deserves further investigation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Impact of irrigation flow rate and intrapericardial fluid on cooled-tip epicardial radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryana, Arash; O'Neill, Padraig Gearoid; Pujara, Deep K; Singh, Steve K; Bowers, Mark R; Allen, Shelley L; d'Avila, André

    2016-08-01

    The optimal irrigation flow rate (IFR) during epicardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation has not been established. This study specifically examined the impact of IFR and intrapericardial fluid (IPF) accumulation during epicardial RF ablation. Altogether, 452 ex vivo RF applications (10 g for 60 seconds) delivered to the epicardial surface of bovine myocardium using 3 open-irrigated ablation catheters (ThermoCool SmartTouch, ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF, and FlexAbility) and 50 in vivo RF applications delivered (ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF) in 4 healthy adult swine in the presence or absence of IPF were examined. Ex vivo, RF was delivered at low (≤3 mL/min), reduced (5-7 mL/min), and high (≥10 mL/min) IFRs using intermediate (25-35 W) and high (35-45 W) power. In vivo, applications were delivered (at 9.3 ± 2.2 g for 60 seconds at 39 W) using reduced (5 mL/min) and high (15 mL/min) IFRs. Ex vivo, surface lesion diameter inversely correlated with IFR, whereas maximum lesion diameter and depth did not differ. While steam pops occurred more frequently at low IFR using high power (ThermoCool SmartTouch and ThermoCool SmartTouch-SF), tissue disruption was rare and did not vary with IFR. In vivo, charring/steam pop was not detected. Although there were no discernible differences in lesion size with IFR, surface lesion diameter, maximum diameter, depth, and volume were all smaller in the presence of IPF at both IFRs. Cooled-tip epicardial RF ablation created using reduced IFRs (5-7 mL/min) yields lesion sizes similar to those created using high IFRs (≥10 mL/min) without an increase in steam pop/tissue disruption, whereas the presence of IPF significantly reduces the lesion size. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication between integrin receptors facilitates epicardial cell adhesion and matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, So Hyun; Dokic, Danijela; Dettman, Robert W

    2008-04-01

    Formation of the epicardium requires interactions between alpha(4)beta(1) integrin, and the extracellular matrix. We investigated the role of other integrins expressed by epicardial cells. We detected transcripts for alpha(5), alpha(8), alpha(v), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5) integrins in the chick proepicardial organ (PE). We demonstrate that alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are expressed by chick epicardial mesothelial cells (EMCs). Migration of EMCs in vitro was reduced by RGD-containing peptides. Using adenoviruses expressing an antisense to chick alpha(4) (AdGFPalpha4AS), full-length (Adhalpha4V5), and C-terminal deleted alpha(4) (Adhalpha4DeltaCV5), we found that EMCs were less able to adhere to vitronectin and fibronectin(120) indicating that alpha(4)beta(1) plays a role in regulating EMC adhesion to ligands of alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3). In Adhalpha4DeltaCV5-infected EMCs, alpha(5)beta(1) was diminished in fibrillar adhesions and new FN matrix assembly was abnormal. We propose that cooperation between alpha(4)beta(1) and RGD integrins is important for EMC adhesion and subepicardial matrix formation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media.......7, p = 0.017) models. Cardiac adipose tissue (p = 0.033) was associated with baseline coronary artery calcium (model 1) and interleukin-8 (models 1-3, all p type 2 diabetes patients without coronary artery disease, high cardiac adipose tissue levels were associated...

  14. Impact of ischemic and valvular heart disease on atrial excitation : A high-resolution epicardial mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.J.P. Mouws (Elisabeth); E. Lanters (Eva); C. Teuwen (Christophe); L. van der Does (Lisette); C. Kik (Charles); S.P. Knops (Simon); A. Yaksh (Ameeta); J.A. Bekkers (Jos); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); N.M.S. de Groot (Natasja)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground--The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients

  15. Epicardial mapping of ventricular fibrillation over the posterior descending artery and left posterior papillary muscle of the swine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Thomas D; Huang, Jian; Rogers, Jack M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Ideker, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that during ventricular fibrillation (VF) epicardial vessels may be a site of conduction block and the posterior papillary muscle (PPM) in the left ventricle (LV) may be the location of a "mother rotor." The goal of this study was to obtain evidence to support or refute these possibilities. Epicardial activation over the posterior LV and right ventricle (RV) was mapped during the first 20 s of electrically induced VF in six open-chest pigs with a 504 electrode plaque covering a 20 cm(2) area centered over the posterior descending artery (PDA). The locations of epicardial breakthrough as well as reentry clustered in time and space during VF. Spatially, reentry occurred significantly more frequently over the LV than the RV in all 48 episodes, and breakthrough clustered near the PPM (p < 0.001). Significant temporal clustering occurred in 79% of breakthrough episodes and 100% of reentry episodes. These temporal clusters occurred at different times so that there was significantly less breakthrough when reentry was present (p < 0.0001). Conduction block occurred significantly more frequently near the PDA than elsewhere. The PDA is a site of epicardial block which may contribute to VF maintenance. Epicardial breakthrough clusters near the PPM. Reentry also clusters in space but at a separate site. The fact that breakthrough and reentry cluster at different locations and at different times supports the possibility of a drifting filament at the PPM so that at times reentry is present on the surface but at other times the reentrant wavefront breaks through to the epicardium.

  16. Troponin elevation in patients with various tachycardias and normal epicardial coronaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Kanjwal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Troponin elevation is usually synonymous with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Although sensitive for ACS, the elevation of serum troponin, in the absence of clinical evidence of ischemia, should prompt a search for other etiologies of myocardial necrosis. In fact, elevated values of troponin are correlated with myocardial necrosis even though it does not discriminate the mechanism involved. We report a series of seven patients (age range 18-67 years, who presented with complaints of chest discomfort and were found to have regular supraventricular tachycardia (5 patients and one patient each with atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. All these patients had elevated troponin I and underwent coronary angiography that revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. This is first case series in which all patients underwent coronary angiography and none of the patients was hemodynamically unstable at the time of presentation. Patients with elevated troponin due to conditions other than ACS can receive inappropriate and delayed definitive diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Atrioesophageal Fistula after Minimally Invasive Video-Assisted Epicardial Ablation for Lone Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Charles; van Valen, Richard; Mokhles, Mostafa M; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2017-09-01

    Minimally invasive video-assisted epicardial beating heart ablation for lone atrial fibrillation claims to be safe and effective. We, however, report on three patients with an atrioesophageal fistula after this procedure. The exact pathogenesis of this complication is unknown. All patients presented around 6 weeks after surgery with either fever or neurological deficits. Diagnosis can be made by computed tomography scan. We advocate an aggressive surgical approach with closure of the atrial defect on cardiopulmonary bypass and closure and reinforcement of the esophagus with an intercostal muscle flap in a single-stage surgery. Some caution as to the low-risk character of this procedure seems to be realistic. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  19. Triiodothyronine promotes the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells through the MAPK/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Song-Bai; Jing, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-ming; Du, Jian-Lin; Liu, Ya-Jie; Qin, Qin; She, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important functions in the development and physiological function of the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine (T3) can promote the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs) and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism. Our results showed that T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor inhibitor bisphenol A (100 μmol/L) did not affect T3's ability to induce proliferation. Further studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), MAPK3, and Ki67 in EPCs in the T3 group (10 nmol/L) increased 2.9-, 3-, and 4.1-fold, respectively, compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in the T3 group increased approximately 2-fold compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and there were more EPCs in the S phase of the cell cycle (20.6% vs. 12.0%, P < 0.05). The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the ability of T3 to promote the proliferation of EPCs and to alter cell cycle progression. This study suggested that T3 significantly promotes the proliferation of EPCs, and this effect may be achieved through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Epicardial progenitor cells were successfully cultured from E12.5 mice. • Thyroid hormone T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs. • This biological effect may be mediated via activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway.

  20. Association of chemerin mRNA expression in human epicardial adipose tissue with coronary atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Linjie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may play a key role in the pathogenesis and development of coronary artery disease (CAD by producing several inflammatory adipokines. Chemerin, a novel adipokine, has been reported to be involved in regulating immune responses and glucolipid metabolism. Given these properties, chemerin may provide an interesting link between obesity, inflammation and atherosclerosis. In this study, we sought to determine the relationship of chemerin expression in EAT and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in Han Chinese patients. Methods Serums and adipose tissue biopsies (epicardial and thoracic subcutaneous were obtained from CAD (n = 37 and NCAD (n = 16 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Gensini score was used to assess the severity of CAD. Serum levels of chemerin, adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA. Chemerin protein expression in adipose tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of chemerin, chemR23, adiponectin and TNF-alpha in adipose tissue were detected by RT-PCR. Results We found that EAT of CAD group showed significantly higher levels of chemerin and TNF-alpha mRNA, and significantly lower level of adiponectin mRNA than that of NCAD patients. In CAD group, significantly higher levels of chemerin mRNA and protein were observed in EAT than in paired subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, whereas such significant difference was not found in NCAD group. Chemerin mRNA expression in EAT was positively correlated with Gensini score (r = 0.365, P P P P P P P > 0.05. Conclusions The expressions of chemerin mRNA and protein are significantly higher in EAT from patients with CAD in Han Chinese patients. Furthermore, the severity of coronary atherosclerosis is positive correlated with the level of chemerin mRNA in EAT rather than its circulating level.

  1. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness and NGAL levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Ugurlu, Yavuz; Ergul, Elif; Gur, Emine Uslu; Alyildiz, Nese; Bostan, Mehmet

    2014-02-16

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and early atherosclerosis. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) is clinically related to subclinical atherosclerosis. In the present study, considering the major role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) which is an acute phase protein rapidly releasing upon inflammation and tissue injury, we aimed to evaluate NGAL levels and EATT in PCOS patients and assess their relationship with cardiometabolic factors. 64 patients with PCOS and 50 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. We evaluated anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters. EATT was measured by echocardiography above the free wall of the right ventricle. Serum NGAL and high-sensitive C- reactive protein (hsCRP) levels were measured by ELISA. Mean EATT was 0,38 +/-0,16 mm in the PCOS group and 0,34 +/-0,36 mm in the control group (p = 0,144). In the obese PCOS group (n = 44) EAT was thicker compared to the obese control group (n = 41) (p = 0.026). Mean NGAL levels of the patients with PCOS were 101,98 +/-21,53 pg/ml, while mean NGAL levels were 107,40 +/-26,44 pg/ml in the control group (p = 0,228). We found a significant positive correlation between EATT and age, BMI, waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride and hsCRP levels in PCOS group. Thickness of the epicardial adipose tissue can be used to follow the risk of CVD development in obese PCOS cases. However serum NGAL levels do not differ in patients with PCOS and control group.

  2. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  3. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  4. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trans fat is a type of dietary fat . Of all the fats, trans fat is the worst for your health. Too much ... from solid margarine to soft margarine. Ask what type of fats foods are cooked in when you eat out ...

  5. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  6. Novel Percutaneous Epicardial Autonomic Modulation in the Canine for Atrial Fibrillation: Results of an Efficacy and Safety Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Malini; Venkatachalam, K. L.; Swale, Matthew J.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Gard, Joseph J.; Johnson, Susan B.; Suddendorf, Scott H.; Mikell, Susan B.; Ladewig, Dorothy J.; Nosbush, Toni Grabinger; Danielsen, Andrew J.; Knudson, Mark; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endocardial ablation of atrial ganglionated plexi (GP) has been described for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Our objective in this study was to develop percutaneous epicardial GP ablation in a canine model using novel energy sources and catheters. Methods Phase 1: The efficacy of several modalities to ablate the GP was tested in an open chest canine model (n=10). Phase 2: Percutaneous epicardial ablation of GP was done in 6 dogs using the most efficacious modality identified in phase 1 using 2 novel catheters. Results Phase 1: DC in varying doses [blocking (7 -12μA), electroporation (300-500μA), ablation (3000- 7500μA)], radiofrequency ablation (25–50 W), ultrasound (1.5MHz), and alcohol (2-5ml) injection were successful at 0/8, 4/12, 5/7, 3/8, 1/5 and 5/7 GP sites. DC (500–5000μA) along with alcohol irrigation was tested in phase 2. Phase 2: Percutaneous epicardial ablation of the right atrium, oblique sinus, vein of Marshall, and transverse sinus GP was successful in 5/6 dogs. One dog died of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during DC ablation at 5000 μA. Programmed stimulation induced AF in 6 dogs pre-ablation and no atrial arrhythmia in 3, flutter in 1 and AF in 1 post-ablation. Heart rate, blood pressure, effective atrial refractory period and local atrial electrogram amplitude did not change significantly post-ablation. Microscopic examination showed elimination of GP, and minimal injury to atrial myocardium. Conclusion Percutaneous epicardial ablation of GP using direct current and novel catheters is safe and feasible and may be used as an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation in order to minimize additional atrial myocardial ablation. PMID:26854009

  7. Progressive epicardial coronary blood flow reduction fails to produce ST-segment depression at normal heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chantal, Marilyn; Diodati, Jean G; Nasmith, James B; Amyot, Robert; LeBlanc, A Robert; Schampaert, Erick; Pharand, Chantal

    2006-12-01

    ST-segment depression is commonly seen in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Most authors have attributed it to transient reductions in coronary blood flow due to nonocclusive thrombus formation on a disrupted atherosclerotic plaque and dynamic focal vasospasm at the site of coronary artery stenosis. However, ST-segment depression was never reproduced in classic animal models of coronary stenosis without the presence of tachycardia. We hypothesized that ST-segment depression occurring during acute coronary syndromes is not entirely explained by changes in epicardial coronary artery resistance and thus evaluated the effect of a slow, progressive epicardial coronary artery occlusion on the ECG and regional myocardial blood flow in anesthetized pigs. Slow, progressive occlusion over 72 min (SD 27) of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 20 anesthetized pigs led to a 90% decrease in coronary blood flow and the development of ST-segment elevation associated with homogeneous and transmural myocardial blood flow reductions, confirmed by microspheres and myocardial contrast echocardiography. ST-segment depression was not observed in any ECG lead before the development of ST-segment elevation. At normal heart rates, progressive epicardial stenosis of a coronary artery results in myocardial ischemia associated with homogeneous, transmural reduction in regional myocardial blood flow and ST-segment elevation, without preceding ST-segment depression. Thus, in coronary syndromes with ST-segment depression and predominant subendocardial ischemia, factors other than mere increases in epicardial coronary resistance must be invoked to explain the heterogeneous parietal distribution of flow and associated ECG changes.

  8. Association of Epicardial Adipose Tissue and High?Risk Plaque Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta?Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nerlekar, Nitesh; Brown, Adam J.; Muthalaly, Rahul G.; Talman, Andrew; Hettige, Thushan; Cameron, James D.; Wong, Dennis T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is hypothesized to alter atherosclerotic plaque composition, with potential development of high?risk plaque (HRP). EAT can be measured by volumetric assessment (EAT?v) or linear thickness (EAT?t). We performed a systematic review and random?effects meta?analysis to assess the association of EAT with HRP and whether this association is dependent on the measurement method used. Methods and Results Electronic databases were systematically searched up to...

  9. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  10. Knockdown of Zebrafish Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance Results in Incomplete Retinal Lamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell polarity during eye development determines the normal retinal lamination and differentiation of photoreceptor cells in the retina. In vertebrates, blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves is known to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the tight junctions essential for epithelial cell polarity. In the current study, we generated a transgenic zebrafish Bves (zbves promoter-EGFP zebrafish line to investigate the expression pattern of Bves in the retina and to study the role of zbves in retinal lamination. Immunostaining with different specific antibodies from retinal cells and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the morphological defects in normal and Bves knockdown zebrafish. In normal zebrafish, Bves is located at the apical junctions of embryonic retinal neuroepithelia during retinogenesis; later, it is strongly expressed around inner plexiform layer (IPL and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. In contrast, a loss of normal retinal lamination and cellular polarity was found with undifferentiated photoreceptor cells in Bves knockdown zebrafish. Herein, our results indicated that disruption of Bves will result in a loss of normal retinal lamination.

  11. Effect of the Epicardial Adipose Tissue Volume on the Prevalence of Paroxysmal and Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Kageyuki; Maeda, Minetaka; Maimaituxun, Gulinu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Arasaki, Osamu; Fukuda, Daiju; Yagi, Shusuke; Hirata, Yukina; Nishio, Susumu; Iwase, Takashi; Takao, Shoichiro; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Harada, Masafumi; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2018-05-25

    Although increasing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), it is controversial whether there is a dose-response relationship of increasing EATV along the continuum of AF. We evaluated the effect of the EATV on the prevalence of paroxysmal AF (PAF) and persistent AF (PeAF) and the relationships with cardiac structure and functional remodeling.Methods and Results:Subjects who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography because of symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease were divided into sinus rhythm (SR) (n=112), PAF (n=133), and PeAF (n=71) groups. The EATV index (EATV/body surface area, mL/m 2 ) was strongly associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF on the model adjusted for known AF risk factors. The effect of the EATV index on the prevalence of PeAF, but not on that of PAF, was modified by the left atrial (LA) dimension, suggesting that extension of the LA dimension is related to EATV expansion in PeAF. The cutoff value of the EATV index for the prevalence was higher in PeAF than in PAF (64 vs. 55 mL/m 2 , PEATV index is associated with the prevalence of PAF and PeAF, and its cutoff values are predictive for PAF and PeAF development independently of other AF risk factors.

  12. Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: ryusuke@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: knakao@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.

  13. Epicardial clip occlusion of the left atrial appendage during cardiac surgery provides optimal surgical results and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfirst, Vojtech; Mokrácek, Aleš; Canádyová, Júlia; Frána, Radim; Zeman, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Occlusion of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has become an integral and important part of the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Different methods of surgical occlusion of the LAA have been associated with varying levels of short- and long-term success for closure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term results of epicardial placement and endocardial occlusion in patients undergoing cardiac operative procedures. A total of 101 patients (average age 65.7 years) undergoing cardiac operative procedures with the epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA were enrolled in the study. The AtriClip was placed via a sternotomy or a thoracotomy or from a thoracoscopic approach. Postoperative variables, such as thromboembolic events, clip stability and endocardial leakage around the device, were examined by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and/or computed tomography. Perioperative clip implantation was achieved in 98% of patients. TEE and/or computed tomography conducted during the follow-up period, comprising 1873 patient-months with a mean duration of 18 ± 11 months, revealed no clip migration, no leakage around the device and no clot formation near the remnant cul-de-sac. During the follow-up period, 4 of the cardiac patients experienced transitory ischaemic attacks, whereas no patient experienced a cerebrovascular attack. The Epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA appears to be a feasable and safe operative method with a high success rate. Long-term follow-up confirmed clip stability, complete occlussion of the LAA and absence of any atrial fibrilation-related thromboembolic events. These results need to be confirmed by a larger, multicentre study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Electrical Integration of Engineered Human Myocardium via Intramyocardial versus Epicardial Delivery in Infarcted Rat Hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaytlyn A Gerbin

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue engineering is a promising approach to provide large-scale tissues for transplantation to regenerate the heart after ischemic injury, however, integration with the host myocardium will be required to achieve electromechanical benefits. To test the ability of engineered heart tissues to electrically integrate with the host, 10 million human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived cardiomyocytes were used to form either scaffold-free tissue patches implanted on the epicardium or micro-tissue particles (~1000 cells/particle delivered by intramyocardial injection into the left ventricular wall of the ischemia/reperfusion injured athymic rat heart. Results were compared to intramyocardial injection of 10 million dispersed hESC-cardiomyocytes. Graft size was not significantly different between treatment groups and correlated inversely with infarct size. After implantation on the epicardial surface, hESC-cardiac tissue patches were electromechanically active, but they beat slowly and were not electrically coupled to the host at 4 weeks based on ex vivo fluorescent imaging of their graft-autonomous GCaMP3 calcium reporter. Histologically, scar tissue physically separated the patch graft and host myocardium. In contrast, following intramyocardial injection of micro-tissue particles and suspended cardiomyocytes, 100% of the grafts detected by fluorescent GCaMP3 imaging were electrically coupled to the host heart at spontaneous rate and could follow host pacing up to a maximum of 300-390 beats per minute (5-6.5 Hz. Gap junctions between intramyocardial graft and host tissue were identified histologically. The extensive coupling and rapid response rate of the human myocardial grafts after intramyocardial delivery suggest electrophysiological adaptation of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes to the rat heart's pacemaking activity. These data support the use of the rat model for studying electromechanical integration of human cardiomyocytes, and they

  15. Triiodothyronine promotes the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells through the MAPK/ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Song-Bai; Jing, Xiao-Dong; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Du, Jian-Lin; Liu, Ya-Jie; Qin, Qin; She, Qiang

    2017-04-29

    Thyroid hormone has important functions in the development and physiological function of the heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine (T3) can promote the proliferation of epicardial progenitor cells (EPCs) and to investigate the potential underlying mechanism. Our results showed that T3 significantly promoted the proliferation of EPCs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The thyroid hormone nuclear receptor inhibitor bisphenol A (100 μmol/L) did not affect T3's ability to induce proliferation. Further studies showed that the mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), MAPK3, and Ki67 in EPCs in the T3 group (10 nmol/L) increased 2.9-, 3-, and 4.1-fold, respectively, compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA expression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in the T3 group increased approximately 2-fold compared with the control group (P < 0.05), and there were more EPCs in the S phase of the cell cycle (20.6% vs. 12.0%, P < 0.05). The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the ability of T3 to promote the proliferation of EPCs and to alter cell cycle progression. This study suggested that T3 significantly promotes the proliferation of EPCs, and this effect may be achieved through activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Target vessel detection by epicardial ultrasound in off-pump coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masato; Asai, Tohru; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tomoaki; Shiraishi, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    The detection of embedded coronary arteries is difficult especially in off-pump coronary bypass surgery. From June 2010, we introduced high-frequency epicardial ultrasound (ECUS) to assess and evaluate embedded arteries during off-pump coronary bypass surgery. Between June 2010 and June 2011, a total of 89 consecutive patients underwent isolated coronary bypass surgery at our institution. The patients consisted of 72 men and 17 women with a mean age of 67.9 years. We routinely use the VeriQC system (MediStim, Oslo, Norway) to detect the target vessels in the operation. The patients were assigned to one of two groups, depending on whether ECUS was used in the operation (n = 10, ECUS group) or not (n = 79, non-ECUS group). We analyzed the impact of introducing the ECUS in terms of operative outcome. All patients underwent revascularization using the off-pump technique without emergent conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass during surgery. The total number of distal anastomoses was 299, and 12 target vessels could not be identified either visually or on palpation. Thus, the frequency of the embedded coronary arteries was 4.01% (12/299 cases). The preoperative profiles of the two groups were not significantly different. Operation time was significantly longer in the ECUS group (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in postoperative outcome between the two groups. In the present study, in which the target coronary arteries could not be detected either visually or on palpation in 12 (4.01%) of 299 cases, the use of high-frequency ECUS allowed all patients to undergo off-pump coronary bypass surgery without conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass during the operation. High-frequency ECUS is therefore useful in off-pump coronary bypass surgery.

  17. Lagrangian displacement tracking using a polar grid between endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chi; Varghese, Tomy

    2012-04-01

    Accurate cardiac deformation analysis for cardiac displacement and strain imaging over time requires Lagrangian description of deformation of myocardial tissue structures. Failure to couple the estimated displacement and strain information with the correct myocardial tissue structures will lead to erroneous result in the displacement and strain distribution over time. Lagrangian based tracking in this paper divides the tissue structure into a fixed number of pixels whose deformation is tracked over the cardiac cycle. An algorithm that utilizes a polar-grid generated between the estimated endocardial and epicardial contours for cardiac short axis images is proposed to ensure Lagrangian description of the pixels. Displacement estimates from consecutive radiofrequency frames were then mapped onto the polar grid to obtain a distribution of the actual displacement that is mapped to the polar grid over time. A finite element based canine heart model coupled with an ultrasound simulation program was used to verify this approach. Segmental analysis of the accumulated displacement and strain over a cardiac cycle demonstrate excellent agreement between the ideal result obtained directly from the finite element model and our Lagrangian approach to strain estimation. Traditional Eulerian based estimation results, on the other hand, show significant deviation from the ideal result. An in vivo comparison of the displacement and strain estimated using parasternal short axis views is also presented. Lagrangian displacement tracking using a polar grid provides accurate tracking of myocardial deformation demonstrated using both finite element and in vivo radiofrequency data acquired on a volunteer. In addition to the cardiac application, this approach can also be utilized for transverse scans of arteries, where a polar grid can be generated between the contours delineating the outer and inner wall of the vessels from the blood flowing though the vessel.

  18. Comparison of arrhythmogenicity and proinflammatory activity induced by intramyocardial or epicardial myoblast sheet delivery in a rat model of ischemic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommi Pätilä

    Full Text Available Although cell therapy of the failing heart by intramyocardial injections of myoblasts to results in regenerative benefit, it has also been associated with undesired and prospectively fatal arrhythmias. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injections of myoblasts could enhance inflammatory reactivity and facilitate electrical cardiac abnormalities that can be reduced by epicardial myoblast sheet delivery. In a rat model of ischemic heart failure, myoblast therapy either by intramyocardial injections or epicardial cell sheets was given 2 weeks after occlusion of the coronary artery. Ventricular premature contractions (VPCs were assessed, using an implanted three-lead electrocardiograph at 1, 7, and 14 days after therapy, and 16-point epicardial electropotential mapping (EEPM was used to evaluate ventricular arrhythmogenicity under isoproterenol stress. Cardiac functioning was assessed by echocardiography. Both transplantation groups showed therapeutic benefit over sham therapy. However, VPCs were more frequent in the Injection group on day 1 and day 14 after therapy than in animals receiving epicardial or sham therapy (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. EEPM under isoproterenol stress showed macroreentry at the infarct border area, leading to ventricular tachycardias in the Injection group, but not in the myoblast sheet- or sham-treated groups (p = 0.045. Both transplantation types modified the myocardial cytokine expression profile. In animals receiving epicardial myoblast therapy, selective reductions in the expressions of interferon gamma, interleukin (IL-1β and IL12 were observed, accompanied by reduced infiltration of inflammatory CD11b- and CD68-positive leukocytes, compared with animals receiving myoblasts as intramyocardial injections. Intramyocardial myoblast delivery was associated with enhanced inflammatory and immunomodulatory reactivity and increased frequency of VPCs. In comparison to intramyocardial injection, the epicardial

  19. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Manabu; Ieguchi, Makoto; Taguchi, Susumu; Yamasaki, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system. PMID:21139882

  20. A case report of surgical debulking for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamasaki

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Achievement of a safe outcome for an extensive mass with hypervascularity in the extremities requires a surgical team skilled in musculoskeletal oncology. We report debulking surgery for a huge mass of elephantiasis neuromatosa in the right leg of a 56-year old man using the novel Ligasure® vessel sealing system.

  1. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  2. A Huge Ovarian Cyst in a Middle-Aged Iranian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Iranian woman was found to have a huge ovarian cystic mass. Her presenting symptom was vague abdominal pain and severe abdominal distention. She underwent laparotomy and after surgical removal, the mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma on histology.

  3. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, in severe cases, symptoms of malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. If the condition prevents the digestion and/or absorption of fats from the diet, then excess fat is present in the stool and the ...

  4. Thickening of the epicardial adipose tissue can be alleviated by thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Irmak; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Ekici, Berkay; Kutuk, Utku; Corakci, Ahmet; Tore, Hasan Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder which has adverse cardiovascular effects. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a novel marker of cardiovascular risk, is increased in SCH. We aimed to investigate whether L-thyroxine treatment can reverse the thickening of EAT in SCH. Forty-four patients with SCH and 42 euthyroid control subjects were included. EAT thickness was measured using transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and after restoration of the euthyroid status with 3 months of L-thyroxine treatment. At baseline, mean EAT thickness was significantly greater in the SCH group when compared to the control group (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, p treatment (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mm, p treatment when compared to baseline (DEAT) significantly correlated to the difference in TSH levels before and after treatment (DTSH; r = 0.323; p = 0.032). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is increased in patients with SCH. This thickening was alleviated with restoration of the euthyroid status with L-thyroxine treatment in our study population of predominantly male, relatively old subjects with greater baseline EAT thickness.

  5. Aborted Sudden Cardiac Death in a Female Patient Presenting with Takotsubo-Like Cardiomyopathy due to Epicardial Coronary Vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Giusca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle (LV in the absence of relevant coronary artery stenosis, which typically occurs in elderly women after emotional stress. Catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and coronary microvascular impairment have previously been proposed as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas myocardial stunning resulting from epicardial coronary artery vasospasm is not generally accepted as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The prognosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is generally more favourable compared to myocardial infarction; however, severe complications such as rupture of the LV and life-threatening arrhythmias may occur. Herein, we describe a case of an 84-year-old female, who presented with aborted sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation. Echocardiography suggested LV apical ballooning with severely impaired LV-function, so that takotsubo cardiomyopathy was suspected. However, coronary angiography revealed epicardial spasm of the left anterior ascending, which resolved after intracoronary injection of 0.2 mg nitroglycerine. Cardiac magnetic resonance exhibited subendocardial late enhancement and echocardiography showed normalization of LV dysfunction during follow-up. The patient was put on conservative treatment with nitrates and calcium inhibitors and ICD implantation were deferred.

  6. Epicardial distribution of ST segment and T wave changes produced by stimulation of intrathoracic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, P; Cardinal, R; Nadeau, R A; Armour, J A

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three ventricular epicardial electrograms were recorded simultaneously in 8 atropinized dogs during stimulation of acutely decentralized intrathoracic autonomic ganglia or cardiopulmonary nerves. Three variables were measured: (1) isochronal maps representing the epicardial activation sequence, (2) maps depicting changes in areas under the QRS complex and T wave (regional inhomogeneity of repolarization), and (3) local and total QT intervals. Neural stimulations did not alter the activation sequence but induced changes in the magnitude and polarity of the ST segments and T waves as well as in QRST areas. Stimulation of the same neural structure in different dogs induced electrical changes with different amplitudes and in different regions of the ventricles, except for the ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerve which usually affected the dorsal wall of the left ventricle. Greatest changes occurred when the right recurrent, left intermediate medial, left caudal pole, left ventral lateral cardiopulmonary nerves and stellate ganglia were stimulated. Local QT durations either decreased or did not change, whereas total QT duration as measured using a root-mean-square signal did not change, indicating the regional nature of repolarization changes. Taken together, these data indicate that intrathoracic efferent sympathetic neurons can induce regional inhomogeneity of repolarization without prolonging the total QT interval.

  7. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  8. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  9. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  10. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  11. Churn prediction on huge telecom data using hybrid firefly based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A.Q. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Churn prediction in telecom has become a major requirement due to the increase in the number of telecom providers. However due to the hugeness, sparsity and imbalanced nature of the data, churn prediction in telecom has always been a complex task. This paper presents a metaheuristic based churn prediction technique that performs churn prediction on huge telecom data. A hybridized form of Firefly algorithm is used as the classifier. It has been identified that the compute intensive component of the Firefly algorithm is the comparison block, where every firefly is compared with every other firefly to identify the one with the highest light intensity. This component is replaced by Simulated Annealing and the classification process is carried out. Experiments were conducted on the Orange dataset. It was observed that Firefly algorithm works best on churn data and the hybridized Firefly algorithm provides effective and faster results.

  12. The therapy for huge goiter together with hyperthyroidism through 131I case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhua; Yu Wencai; Zeng Qingwen; Wu Congjun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: 214 cases of the treatment of huge goiter with hyperthyroidism are revised to collect clinic material for the improvement of therapy to hyperthyroidism indications through 131 I. Methods: In all of these cases, patients take a full dose of 131 I based on MC Garack's formula for one time. Results: Among them, 154 resolved, accounting for 72%, 139 of the cases were reduced to normal size, which accounted for 64.9% of the patients. Only 114 cases of patients had side-effect, and during one year 12.1% of them have symptoms of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The statistics shows that 131 I is convenient, safe, well and with reduces suffering from treating huge goiter with hyperthyroidism

  13. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, describing a young patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian cysts in young women who are associated with elevated levels of tumor markers and ascites require careful evaluation. Management of ovarian cysts depends on patient's age, size of the cyst, and its histopathological nature. Conservative surgery such as ovarian cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate in mucinous tumors of ovary. Multiple frozen sections are very important to know the malignant variation of this tumor and helps accurate patient management. Surgical expertise is required to prevent complications in huge tumors has distorted the anatomy, so gynecologic oncologist plays a prominent role in management. In this case, beside of the huge tumor and massive ascites uterine and ovaries were preserved by gynecologist oncologist and patient is well up to now.

  14. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Hongshan; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-01-01

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  15. On the huge Lie superalgebra of pseudo superdifferential operators and super KP-hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedra, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Lie superalgebraic methods are used to establish a connection between the huge Lie superalgebra Ξ of super (pseudo) differential operators and various super KP-hierarchies. We show in particular that Ξ splits into 5 = 2 x 2 + 1 graded algebras expected to correspond to five classes of super KP-hierarchies generalizing the well-known Manin-Radul and Figueroa O'Farrill-Ramos supersymmetric KP-hierarchies. (author). 10 refs

  16. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Basheir A.; Shreef, Khalid S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were...

  17. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  18. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong

    2017-04-01

    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  19. The efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy on huge hepatocellular carcinoma unsuitable for other local modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, Jenny Y; Lin, Li-Ching; Lin, Kuei-Li; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Yu-Wei; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients with unresectable huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable of other standard treatment option. Between 2009 and 2011, 22 patients with unresectable huge HCC (≧10 cm) were treated with SBRT. dose ranged from 26 Gy to 40 Gy in five fractions. Overall survival (OS) and disease-progression free survival (DPFS) were determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Tumor response and toxicities were also assessed. After a median follow-up of 11.5 month (range 2–46 months). The objective response rate was achieved in 86.3% (complete response (CR): 22.7% and partial response (PR): 63.6%). The 1-yr. local control rate was 55.56%. The 1-year OS was 50% and median survival was 11 months (range 2–46 months). In univariate analysis, Child-Pugh stage (p = 0.0056) and SBRT dose (p = 0.0017) were significant factors for survival. However, in multivariate analysis, SBRT dose (p = 0.0072) was the most significant factor, while Child-Pugh stage of borderline significance. (p = 0.0514). Acute toxicities were mild and well tolerated. This study showed that SBRT can be delivered safely to huge HCC and achieved a substantial tumor regression and survival. The results suggest this technique should be considered a salvage treatment. However, local and regional recurrence remain the major cause of failure. Further studies of combination of SBRT and other treatment modalities may be reasonable

  20. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  1. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  2. Dynamics of Endo- and Epicardial Focal Fibrillation Waves at the Right Atrium in a Patient With Advanced Atrial Remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-10-01

    Focal waves appear frequently at the epicardium during persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), however, the origin of these waves is under debate. We performed simultaneous endo-epicardial mapping of the right atrial wall during longstanding persistent AF in a patient undergoing cardiac surgery. During 10 seconds 53 and 59 focal waves appeared at random at respectively the endocardium and epicardium. Repetitive focal activity did not last longer than 3 cycles. Transmural asynchrony and conduction might be the origin of focal waves. Asynchronous propagation of fibrillation waves in 3 dimensions would stabilize the arrhythmia and could explain the limited success of persistent AF ablation. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, pericardial and epicardial adipose tissue and atrial tissue in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Gu, Jiwei; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2016-01-01

    (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from three different adipose tissue compartments [epicardial (EAT), pericardial (PAT) and subcutaneous (SAT)]. Furthermore, we studied the correlation between the content of EPA and DHA in these compartments and in atrial tissue (AT). METHODS We obtained AT from......OBJECTIVES The content in adipose tissue of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a marker of long-term fish consumption and data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFAs. We investigated the correlation between adipose tissue content of the major n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid...... auricles, EAT above the right ventricle, PAT, and SAT below the sternum from 50 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Samples were frozen at -80°C and the content of n-3 PUFAs determined by gas chromatography with results given in relative weight%. RESULTS EPA and DHA were significantly correlated in EAT...

  4. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  5. Huge residual resistivity in the quantum critical region of CeAgSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Miho; Kirita, Shingo; Asai, Rihito; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C; Okubo, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mineko; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Inada, Yoshihiko; Settai, Rikio; Galatanu, Andre; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Ebihara, Takao; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the effect of pressure on the electrical resistivity of a high-quality single crystal CeAgSb 2 which has a small net ferromagnetic moment of 0.4μ B /Ce. The magnetic ordering temperature T ord = 9.7 K decreases with increasing pressure p and disappears at a critical pressure p c ≅ 3.3 GPa. The residual resistivity, which is close to zero up to 3 GPa, increases steeply above 3 GPa, reaching 55μΩ cm at p c . A huge residual resistivity is found to appear when the magnetic order disappears. (letter to the editor)

  6. Acute abdomen in early pregnancy caused by torsion of bilateral huge multiloculated ovarian cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiyakala Rajendran; Suthanthira Devi

    2015-01-01

    The association of pregnancy and torsion of bilateral huge benign ovarian cyst is rare. We report a case of multigravida at 13 weeks of pregnancy presenting with acute onset of lower abdominal pain. Ultrasound revealed bilateral multiloculated ovarian cysts of size 10x10 cm on right side and 15x10cm on left side with evidence of torsion and a single live intrauterine fetus of gestational age 13 weeks 4 days. Emergency laparotomy was done with vaginal susten 200 mg as perioperative tocolysis. ...

  7. Value of epicardial potential maps in localizing pre-excitation sites for radiofrequency ablation. A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Rok

    1998-06-01

    Using computer simulations, we systematically investigated the limitations of an inverse solution that employs the potential distribution on the epicardial surface as an equivalent source model in localizing pre-excitation sites in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. A model of the human ventricular myocardium that features an anatomically accurate geometry, an intramural rotating anisotropy and a computational implementation of the excitation process based on electrotonic interactions among cells, was used to simulate body surface potential maps (BSPMs) for 35 pre-excitation sites positioned along the atrioventricular ring. Two individualized torso models were used to account for variations in torso boundaries. Epicardial potential maps (EPMs) were computed using the L-curve inverse solution. The measure for accuracy of the localization was the distance between a position of the minimum in the inverse EPMs and the actual site of pre-excitation in the ventricular model. When the volume conductor properties and lead positions of the torso were precisely known and the measurement noise was added to the simulated BSPMs, the minimum in the inverse EPMs was at 12 ms after the onset on average within cm of the pre-excitation site. When the standard torso model was used to localize the sites of onset of the pre-excitation sequence initiated in individualized male and female torso models, the mean distance between the minimum and the pre-excitation site was cm for the male torso and cm for the female torso. The findings of our study indicate that a location of the minimum in EPMs computed using the inverse solution can offer non-invasive means for pre-interventional planning of the ablative treatment.

  8. Surgical resection of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma in skull base by intraoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Li, Yun-Peng; Lei, De-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma, also known as ossifying fibroma, usually occurs in the mandible and less commonly in the maxilla. The huge example in the skull base is even rare. We present a case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma arising below the skull base of a 30-year-old woman patient. Radiologic investigations showed a giant, lobulated, heterogeneous calcified hard tissue mass, which is well circumscribed and is a mixture of radiolucent and radiopaque, situated at the rear of the right maxilla to the middle skull base. The tumor expands into the right maxillary sinus and the orbital cavity, fusing with the right maxilla at the maxillary tuberosity and blocking the bilateral choanas, which caused marked proptosis and blurred vision. The tumor was resected successfully by intraoral approach, and pathologic examination confirmed the lesion to be a cemento-ossifying fibroma. This case demonstrates that cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxilla, not like in the mandible, may appear more aggressive because the extensive growth is unimpeded by anatomic obstacles and that the intraoral approach can be used to excise the tumor in the skull base.

  9. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans

  10. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  11. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  12. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  13. Sleeping money: investigating the huge surpluses of social health insurance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JunQiang; Chen, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The spreading of social health insurance (SHI) worldwide poses challenges for fledging public administrators. Inefficiency, misuse and even corruption threaten the stewardship of those newly established health funds. This article examines a tricky situation faced by China's largest SHI program: the basic health insurance (BHI) scheme for urban employees. BHI accumulated a 406 billion yuan surplus by 2009, although the reimbursement level was still low. Using a provincial level panel database, we find that the huge BHI surpluses are related to the (temporarily) decreasing dependency ratio, the steady growth of average wages, the extension of BHI coverage, and progress in social insurance agency building. The financial situations of local governments and risk pooling level also matter. Besides, medical savings accounts result in about one third of BHI surpluses. Although these findings are not causal, lessons drawn from this study can help to improve the governance and performance of SHI programs in developing countries.

  14. Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Kimura, Sachiko; Ochi, Satoko; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who showed a huge midline mass in the brain at prenatal assessment. After birth, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a conglomerate mass with an infolded microgyrus at the midline, which was suspected as a midline brain-in-brain malformation. MRI also showed incomplete cleavage of his frontal cortex and thalamus, consistent with lobar holoprosencephaly. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy of the mass on the second day of life. The mass consisted of normal central nervous tissue with gray and white matter, representing a heterotopic brain. The malformation was considered to be a subcortical heterotopia. With maturity, focal signal changes and decreased cerebral perfusion became clear on brain imaging, suggesting secondary glial degeneration. Coincident with these MRI abnormalities, the child developed psychomotor retardation and severe epilepsy focused on the side of the intracranial mass.

  15. Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Kandil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up.

  16. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  17. PRS: PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR HUGE DATA ANALYSIS USING PORTER STEMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Chiranjeevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal recommendation system is one which gives better and preferential recommendation to the users to satisfy their personalized requirements such as practical applications like Webpage Preferences, Sport Videos preferences, Stock selection based on price, TV preferences, Hotel preferences, books, Mobile phones, CDs and various other products now use recommender systems. The existing Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC and item-based algorithm using PCC, are called as UPCC and IPCC respectively. These systems are mainly based on only the rating services and does not consider the user personal preferences, they simply just give the result based on the ratings. As the size of data increases it will give the recommendations based on the top rated services and it will miss out most of user preferences. These are main drawbacks in the existing system which will give same results to the users based on some evaluations and rankings or rating service, they will neglect the user preferences and necessities. To address this problem we propose a new approach called, Personnel Recommendation System (PRS for huge data analysis using Porter Stemmer to solve the above challenges. In the proposed system it provides a personalized service recommendation list to the users and recommends the most useful services to the users which will increase the accuracy and efficiency in searching better services. Particularly, a set of suggestions or keywords are provided to indicate user preferences and we used Collaborative Filtering and Porter Stemmer algorithm which gives a suitable recommendations to the users. In real, the broad experiments are conducted on the huge database which is available in real world, and outcome shows that our proposed personal recommender method extensively improves the precision and efficiency of service recommender system over the KASR method. In our approach mainly consider the user preferences so it will not miss out the any of the data

  18. Endocardial-epicardial distribution of myocardial perfusion reserve assessed by multidetector computed tomography in symptomatic patients without significant coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; George, Richard T; Mehra, Vishal C

    2016-01-01

    (MPR) in humans. We aimed to test the hypothesis that MPR in all myocardial layers is determined by age, gender, and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with ischaemic symptoms or equivalent but without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 149 patients enrolled...... in endocardial-epicardial distribution of perfusion reserve may be demonstrated with static CT perfusion. Low MPR in all myocardial layers was observed specifically in obese patients....

  19. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar; Shimabukuro Michio; Nishiuchi Takeshi; Ueno Junji; Takao Shoichiro; Fukuda Daiju; Hirata Yoichiro; Kurobe Hirotsugu; Soeki Takeshi; Iwase Takashi; Kusunose Kenya; Niki Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi Koji; Taketani Yoshio; Yagi Shusuke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-se...

  20. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Blazeby, Emma; Shang, Congxiao; Xu, Hualong; Zhang, Xixiang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits

  1. High-resolution 3D coronary vessel wall imaging with near 100% respiratory efficiency using epicardial fat tracking: reproducibility and comparison with standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew D; Keegan, Jennifer; Firmin, David N

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the performance and reproducibility of 3D spiral coronary artery wall imaging with beat-to-beat respiratory-motion-correction (B2B-RMC) compared to navigator gated 2D spiral and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) acquisitions. High-resolution (0.7 × 0.7 mm) cross-sectional right coronary wall acquisitions were performed in 10 subjects using four techniques (B2B-RMC 3D spiral with alternate (2RR) and single (1RR) R-wave gating, navigator-gated 2D spiral (2RR) and navigator-gated 2D TSE (2RR)) on two occasions. Wall thickness measurements were compared with repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Reproducibility was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). In all, 91% (73/80) of acquisitions were successful (failures: four TSE, two 3D spiral (1RR) and one 3D spiral (2RR)). Respiratory efficiency of the B2B-RMC was less variable and substantially higher than for navigator gating (99.6 ± 1.2% vs. 39.0 ± 7.5%, P B2B-RMC permits coronary vessel wall assessment over multiple thin contiguous slices in a clinically feasible duration. Excellent reproducibility of the technique potentially enables studies of disease progression/regression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  3. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They're mainly found in fish such as salmon, trout and herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid ... fats are found in many fried foods and baked goods such as pastries, pizza dough, pie crust, ...

  4. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... albacore tuna, and trout Corn oil Soybean oil Safflower oil To get the health benefits, you need to ... sunflower seeds to salads. Cook with corn or safflower oil instead of butter and solid fats.

  5. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    % of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat......The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper...

  6. Impact of Ischemic and Valvular Heart Disease on Atrial Excitation:A High-Resolution Epicardial Mapping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Lanters, Eva A H; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; Yaksh, Ameeta; Bekkers, Jos A; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-03-08

    The influence of underlying heart disease or presence of atrial fibrillation (AF) on atrial excitation during sinus rhythm (SR) is unknown. We investigated atrial activation patterns and total activation times of the entire atrial epicardial surface during SR in patients with ischemic and/or valvular heart disease with or without AF. Intraoperative epicardial mapping (N=128/192 electrodes, interelectrode distances: 2 mm) of the right atrium, Bachmann's bundle (BB), left atrioventricular groove, and pulmonary vein area was performed during SR in 253 patients (186 male [74%], age 66±11 years) with ischemic heart disease (N=132, 52%) or ischemic valvular heart disease (N=121, 48%). As expected, SR origin was located at the superior intercaval region of the right atrium in 232 patients (92%). BB activation occurred via 1 wavefront from right-to-left (N=163, 64%), from the central part (N=18, 7%), or via multiple wavefronts (N=72, 28%). Left atrioventricular groove activation occurred via (1) BB: N=108, 43%; (2) pulmonary vein area: N=9, 3%; or (3) BB and pulmonary vein area: N=136, 54%; depending on which route had the shortest interatrial conduction time ( P <0.001). Ischemic valvular heart disease patients more often had central BB activation and left atrioventricular groove activation via pulmonary vein area compared with ischemic heart disease patients (N=16 [13%] versus N=2 [2%]; P =0.009 and N=86 [71%] versus N=59 [45%]; P <0.001, respectively). Total activation times were longer in patients with AF (AF: 136±20 [92-186] ms; no AF: 114±17 [74-156] ms; P <0.001), because of prolongation of right atrium ( P =0.018) and BB conduction times ( P <0.001). Atrial excitation during SR is affected by underlying heart disease and AF, resulting in alternative routes for BB and left atrioventricular groove activation and prolongation of total activation times. Knowledge of atrial excitation patterns during SR and its electropathological variations, as demonstrated in

  7. Epicardial, Biatrial Ablation With Integrated Uni-bipolar Radiofrequency Technology in Stand-alone Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Fabrizio; Muneretto, Claudio; Merati, Elisa; Polvani, Gianluca; Moltrasio, Massimo; Tondo, Claudio; Curnis, Antonio; Cerini, Manuel; Metras, Alexandre; Bisleri, Gianluigi

    Although minimally invasive approaches for surgical treatment of stand-alone atrial fibrillation have gained popularity for the past decade, ablation technology and extensive lesion sets play a major role in the achievement of a successful procedure, especially in presence of persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation. We evaluated clinical outcomes after totally endoscopic biatrial epicardial ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation with a novel integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency device. Forty-nine (49) consecutive patients with stand-alone atrial fibrillation underwent right-sided monolateral thoracoscopic surgical ablation with a novel integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency energy delivery and temperature-controlled technology. Atrial fibrillation was persistent in 13 (26.5%) of 49 and long-standing persistent in 36 (73.5%) of 49 patients. Mean ± SD age was 60.6 ± 10.3 years. Median duration of atrial fibrillation was 74 months. Mean ± SD left atrial diameter was 44.7 ± 4.0 mm. Epicardial en bloc isolation of all pulmonary veins (box lesion) and additional ablation of the right atrial free wall was successfully performed via minimally invasive approach without any intraoperative and postoperative major complications. Intraoperative entrance and exit block was achieved in 77.5% (38/49) and 91.8% (45/49) of patients, respectively. Mean ± SD ablation time was 16.3 ± 4.8 minutes. No intensive care unit stay was required. Postoperative sinus rhythm was achieved in 93.8% (30/32) patients, and no pacemaker implantation was required. At 13 months, 87.7% (43/49) of patients were in sinus rhythm; 71.4% (35/49) were free from antiarrhythmic drugs and 75.5% (37/49) from oral anticoagulation. Integrated uni-bipolar radiofrequency ablation technology showed to be effective for the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with a total endoscopic approach. A versapolar suction device with extensive right-left atrial lesion set may further improve

  8. [Association of human epicardial adipose tissue volume and inflammatory mediators with atherosclerosis and vulnerable coronary atherosclerotic plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liangliang; Gong, Jianbin; Li, Demin; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Dong; Wang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relation of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) determined by dual-source CT (DSCT) cardiac angiography and EAT-derived inflammatory factors to coronary heart disease (CHD) and vulnerable plaque. A total of 260 patients underwent cardiac computed tomography to evaluate stenosis of coronary artery, and blood samples were obtained from each patient. CHD was confirmed in 180 patients by DSA and CHD was excluded in the remaining 80 patients (NCHD). Vascular remodeling index and plaque vulnerability parameters (fatty volume, fibrous volume and calcification volume and fiber volume) were measured in CHD patients and correlation with EATV was analyzed. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and intrathoracic adipose tissue (TAT) were collected from 40 CHD patients undergoing CABG surgery, and, mRNA and protein expressions of leptin and MMP9 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. (1) The EATV was significantly higher in the CHD group than in NCHD group ((121.2 ± 40.6) mm³ vs. (74.7 ± 18.1) mm³, P = 0.01). (2) Subgroup analysis of the CHD patients demonstrated that EATV was significantly higher in patients with positive remodeling than in patients without positive remodeling ((97.6 ± 42.0) cm³ vs. (75.5 ± 25.4) cm³, P = 0.01). Lipid plaque volume was positively correlated with EATV (r = 0.34, P = 0.002); however, fiber plaque volume was negatively correlated with EATV (r = -0.30, P = 0.008). (3) Logistic regression analysis indicated that EATV was an independent risk factor for positive vascular remodeling (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30-2.32, P = 0.01). (4) mRNA and protein expression of leptin and MMP9 in EAT was significantly upregulated in 40 CHD patients who received CABG surgery compared to 40 NCHD patients (P 0.05) in mRNA and protein expression of leptin and MMP9 from the SAT between CHD and NCHD patients. (5) In the CHD group, leptin and MMP9 levels in EAT and EATV were positively correlated with lipid plaque volume and fibrous plaque

  9. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  10. Crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum whole hemagglutinin reveals a huge triskelion-shaped molecular complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatsu, Sho; Sugawara, Yo; Matsumura, Takuhiro; Kitadokoro, Kengo; Fujinaga, Yukako

    2013-12-06

    Clostridium botulinum HA is a component of the large botulinum neurotoxin complex and is critical for its oral toxicity. HA plays multiple roles in toxin penetration in the gastrointestinal tract, including protection from the digestive environment, binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, and disruption of the epithelial barrier. At least two properties of HA contribute to these roles: the sugar-binding activity and the barrier-disrupting activity that depends on E-cadherin binding of HA. HA consists of three different proteins, HA1, HA2, and HA3, whose structures have been partially solved and are made up mainly of β-strands. Here, we demonstrate structural and functional reconstitution of whole HA and present the complete structure of HA of serotype B determined by x-ray crystallography at 3.5 Å resolution. This structure reveals whole HA to be a huge triskelion-shaped molecule. Our results suggest that whole HA is functionally and structurally separable into two parts: HA1, involved in recognition of cell-surface carbohydrates, and HA2-HA3, involved in paracellular barrier disruption by E-cadherin binding.

  11. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  12. Propranolol in treatment of huge and complicated infantile hemangiomas in egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Basheir A; Shreef, Khalid S

    2014-01-01

    Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  13. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żyła, Gaweł; Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian; Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  14. A rare life-threatening disease: unilateral kidney compressed by huge chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HY

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hao-Yuan Lu,1,* Wei Wei,2,* Qi-Wei Chen,1,* Qing-Gui Meng,1 Gao-Hua Hu,1 Xian-Lin Yi,1,3 Xian-Zhong Bai1 1Department of Urology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021, China; 2Department of Radiology, Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University and Guangxi Cancer Research Institute, Nanning 530021,China; 3Hubei Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Microbiology, Wuhan Institute of Biotechnology, Wuhan 430075, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: To study an uncommon life-threatening disease, spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal hemorrhage. Case descriptions: A 69-year-old male presented with pain in the left waist and back of 1 month duration. The renal abscess was suspected by magnetic resonance imaging before operation. The perirenal hematoma was cleaned by operation. In another case, the patient had a functional solitary left kidney compressed by a huge retroperitoneal mass and uropenia appeared. Results: The first patient died of adult respiratory distress syndrome after surgery. The second patient died of cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary embolism on the second day after evacuation of retroperitoneal hematoma. Conclusion: Conservative surgery, such as selective arterial embolization, is a reasonable approach in patients with chronic spontaneous retroperitoneal and perirenal space hemorrhage and with poor general condition. We strongly recommend drainage or interventional therapy, but not a major surgery, in patients with poor condition. Keywords: kidney, spontaneous, retroperitoneal, hemorrhage, surgery

  15. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw, 02-676 (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  16. Localization of heart vectors produced by epicardial burns and ectopic stimuli; validation of a dipole ranging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideker, R E; Bandura, J P; Larsen, R A; Cox, J W; Keller, F W; Brody, D A

    1975-01-01

    Location of the equivalent cardiac dipole has been estimated but not fully verified in several laboratories. To test the accuracy of such a procedure, injury vectors were produced in 14 isolated, perfused rabbit hearts by epicardial searing. Strongly dipolar excitation fronts were produced in 6 additional hearts by left ventricular pacing. Twenty computer-processed signals, derived from surface electrodes on a spherical electrolyte-filled tank containing the test preparation, were optimally fitted with a locatable cardiac dipole that accounted for over 99% of the root-mean-square surface potential. For the 14 burns (mean radius 5.0 mm), the S-T injury dipole was located 3.4 plus or minus 0.7 (SD) mm from the burn center. For the 6 paced hearts, the dipole early in the ectopic beat was located 3.7 mm (range 2.6 to 4.6 mm) from the stimulating electrode. Phase inhomogeneities within the chamber appeared to have a small but predictable effect on dipole site determination. The study demonstrates that equivalent dipole location can be determined with acceptable accuracy from potential measurements of the external cardiac field.

  17. Left ventricular epicardial activation increases transmural dispersion of repolarization in healthy, long QT, and dilated cardiomyopathy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Rong; Lü, Jiagao; Pu, Jun; Liu, Nian; Zhou, Qiang; Ruan, Yanfei; Niu, Huiyan; Zhang, Cuntai; Wang, Lin; Kam, Ruth

    2005-10-01

    Benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are well established. However, less is understood concerning its effects on myocardial repolarization and the potential proarrhythmic risk. Healthy dogs (n = 8) were compared to a long QT interval (LQT) model (n = 8, induced by cesium chloride, CsCl) and a dilated cardiomyopathy with congestive heart failure (DCM-CHF, induced by rapid ventricular pacing, n = 5). Monophasic action potential (MAP) recordings were obtained from the subendocardium, midmyocardium, subepicardium, and the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) was calculated. The QT interval and the interval from the peak to the end of the T wave (T(p-e)) were measured. All these characteristics were compared during left ventricular epicardial (LV-Epi), right ventricular endocardial (RV-Endo), and biventricular (Bi-V) pacing. In healthy dogs, TDR prolonged to 37.54 ms for Bi-V pacing and to 47.16 ms for LV-Epi pacing as compared to 26.75 ms for RV-Endo pacing (P canine models in addition to their intrinsic transmural heterogeneity in the intact heart. This mechanism may contribute to the development of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes (TdP) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients treated with CRT.

  18. Brain fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Hisato; Yanagimoto, Masahiro; Goto, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Recently CT and MR imaging have demonstrated that cerebral edema is present in cases of fat embolism syndrome. To simulate this we have made a model of brain-fat embolism in rats under MR imaging. In 20 rats, we did intravenous injection of heparinized blood, 1.5 ml·kg -1 taken from femoral bone marrow cavity. Twenty four hours after the injection, we examined the MR images (1.5 tesla, spin-echo method) of brains and histologic findings of brains and lungs were obtained. In 5 of 20 rats, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and low signal intensity on T1-weighted images were observed in the area of the unilateral cerebral cortex or hippocampus. These findings showed edema of the brains. They disappeared, however, one week later. Histologic examinations showed massive micro-fat emboli in capillaries of the deep cerebral cortex and substantia nigra, but no edematous findings of the brain were revealed in HE staining. In pulmonary arteries, we also found large fat emboli. We conclude that our model is a useful one for the study of brain fat embolism. (author)

  19. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  20. Fats for diabetics. (Letter).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Opinion. Comments on the treatment of type 2 diabetes from the interaction between nature and nurture. Effective form of treatment for type 2 diabetes; Composition of the diet for diabetics; Identification of unsaturated fats in the diabetic diet; Risks faced by diabetic patients.

  1. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  2. The Iqmulus Urban Showcase: Automatic Tree Classification and Identification in Huge Mobile Mapping Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, J.; Bredif, M.; Gierlinger, T.; Krämer, M.; Lindenberg, R.; Liu, K.; Michel, F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2016-06-01

    Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in these point clouds with the same efficiency. This is where the FP7 IQmulus project enters the scene. IQmulus is an interactive facility for processing and visualizing big spatial data. In this study the potential of IQmulus is demonstrated on a laser mobile mapping point cloud of 1 billion points sampling ~ 10 km of street environment in Toulouse, France. After the data is uploaded to the IQmulus Hadoop Distributed File System, a workflow is defined by the user consisting of retiling the data followed by a PCA driven local dimensionality analysis, which runs efficiently on the IQmulus cloud facility using a Spark implementation. Points scattering in 3 directions are clustered in the tree class, and are separated next into individual trees. Five hours of processing at the 12 node computing cluster results in the automatic identification of 4000+ urban trees. Visualization of the results in the IQmulus fat client helps users to appreciate the results, and developers to identify remaining flaws in the processing workflow.

  3. THE IQMULUS URBAN SHOWCASE: AUTOMATIC TREE CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION IN HUGE MOBILE MAPPING POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Böhm

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in these point clouds with the same efficiency. This is where the FP7 IQmulus project enters the scene. IQmulus is an interactive facility for processing and visualizing big spatial data. In this study the potential of IQmulus is demonstrated on a laser mobile mapping point cloud of 1 billion points sampling ~ 10 km of street environment in Toulouse, France. After the data is uploaded to the IQmulus Hadoop Distributed File System, a workflow is defined by the user consisting of retiling the data followed by a PCA driven local dimensionality analysis, which runs efficiently on the IQmulus cloud facility using a Spark implementation. Points scattering in 3 directions are clustered in the tree class, and are separated next into individual trees. Five hours of processing at the 12 node computing cluster results in the automatic identification of 4000+ urban trees. Visualization of the results in the IQmulus fat client helps users to appreciate the results, and developers to identify remaining flaws in the processing workflow.

  4. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  5. The impact of obesity on the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, left ventricular mass and coronary microvascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkum, M.J.; Danad, I.; Romijn, M.A.J.; Stuijfzand, W.J.A.; Leonora, R.M.; Rossum, A.C. van; Knaapen, P.; Tulevski, I.I.; Somsen, G.A.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Kuijk, C. van; Raijmakers, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction. However, its injurious effect may also impact the underlying myocardium. This study aimed to determine the impact of obesity on the quantitative relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM), EAT and coronary microvascular function. A total of 208 (94 men, 45 %) patients evaluated for CAD but free of coronary obstructions underwent quantitative [ 15 O]H 2 O hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR) was calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure to hyperaemic myocardial blood flow. Obese patients [body mass index (BMI) > 25, n = 133, 64 % of total] had more EAT (125.3 ± 47.6 vs 93.5 ± 42.1 cc, p < 0.001), a higher LVM (130.1 ± 30.4 vs 114.2 ± 29.3 g, p < 0.001) and an increased CMVR (26.6 ± 9.1 vs 22.3 ± 8.6 mmHg x ml -1 x min -1 x g -1 , p < 0.01) as compared to nonobese patients. Male gender (β = 40.7, p < 0.001), BMI (β = 1.61, p < 0.001), smoking (β = 6.29, p = 0.03) and EAT volume (β = 0.10, p < 0.01) were identified as independent predictors of LVM. When grouped according to BMI status, EAT was only independently associated with LVM in nonobese patients. LVM, hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery calcium score were independent predictors of CMVR. EAT volume is associated with LVM independently of BMI and might therefore be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than BMI. However, EAT volume was not related to coronary microvascular function after adjustments for LVM and traditional risk factors. (orig.)

  6. The impact of obesity on the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue, left ventricular mass and coronary microvascular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkum, M.J.; Danad, I.; Romijn, M.A.J.; Stuijfzand, W.J.A.; Leonora, R.M.; Rossum, A.C. van; Knaapen, P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulevski, I.I.; Somsen, G.A. [Cardiology Centers of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lammertsma, A.A.; Kuijk, C. van; Raijmakers, P.G. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-15

    Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary microvascular dysfunction. However, its injurious effect may also impact the underlying myocardium. This study aimed to determine the impact of obesity on the quantitative relationship between left ventricular mass (LVM), EAT and coronary microvascular function. A total of 208 (94 men, 45 %) patients evaluated for CAD but free of coronary obstructions underwent quantitative [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Coronary microvascular resistance (CMVR) was calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure to hyperaemic myocardial blood flow. Obese patients [body mass index (BMI) > 25, n = 133, 64 % of total] had more EAT (125.3 ± 47.6 vs 93.5 ± 42.1 cc, p < 0.001), a higher LVM (130.1 ± 30.4 vs 114.2 ± 29.3 g, p < 0.001) and an increased CMVR (26.6 ± 9.1 vs 22.3 ± 8.6 mmHg x ml{sup -1} x min{sup -1} x g{sup -1}, p < 0.01) as compared to nonobese patients. Male gender (β = 40.7, p < 0.001), BMI (β = 1.61, p < 0.001), smoking (β = 6.29, p = 0.03) and EAT volume (β = 0.10, p < 0.01) were identified as independent predictors of LVM. When grouped according to BMI status, EAT was only independently associated with LVM in nonobese patients. LVM, hypercholesterolaemia and coronary artery calcium score were independent predictors of CMVR. EAT volume is associated with LVM independently of BMI and might therefore be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than BMI. However, EAT volume was not related to coronary microvascular function after adjustments for LVM and traditional risk factors. (orig.)

  7. Association between epicardial adipose tissue volumes on 3-dimensional reconstructed CT images and recurrence of atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Koichi; Okumura, Yasuo; Watanabe, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Whether epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is independently associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and outcome after catheter ablation (CA) for AF remains unclear. Three-dimensional volume-rendering reconstructed images of EAT (total EAT) and EAT surrounding the left atrium (LA-EAT) were measured on 320-row multidetector computed tomography in 40 patients with AF (paroxysmal AF [PAF], n=24; persistent AF [PerAF], n=16) who underwent CA, and in 37 age-matched control patients. EAT volumes were as follows for the control, PAF and PerAF patients: total EAT, 138.3±45.2 cm 3 vs. 158.3±47.2 cm 3 vs. 226.4±93.3 cm 3 (P 3 vs. 41.3±15.3 cm 3 vs. 66.8±35.1 cm 3 (P 3 vs. 106.2±27.3 cm 3 , P=0.021; LA-EAT: 34.0±10.6 cm 3 vs. 21.8±6.9 cm 3 , P=0.0006). EAT volumes were greater in the 15 AF patients (37.5%) with post-ablation recurrence than in patients without recurrence (total EAT: 239.0±90.2 cm 3 vs. 153.5±42.7 cm 3 , P=0.0002; LA-EAT: 69.6±35.5 cm 3 vs. 40.7±13.9 cm 3 , P=0.0008). EAT volume increases in AF patients independent of conventional risk factors and is greater in patients with lone AF than in non-AF patients. EAT volume might be useful for predicting AF recurrence after CA. (author)

  8. [Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue and clinical prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y Y; Li, X; Lin, W H; Liu, J J; Jing, R; Lu, Y J; Di, C Y; Shi, H Y; Gao, P

    2018-01-16

    Objective: To further evaluate the clinical value of epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) in predicting the prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: From July 2013 to July 2016 in TEDA International Cardiovascular Disease Hospital, a total of 474 patients diagnosed with CHD were included in this study.According to the result of EATV, patients were divided into three groups, group A (EATV≤75 ml), group B (75 mlEATVEATV≥150 ml). Then the level of body mass index (BMI), hypersensitive c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were tested for all the three groups.All the patients were followed up for 1 year for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The clinical value of EATV in predicting the occurrence of MACE events was evaluated. Results: The BMI, level of hs-CRP, TNF-α in group B were higher than group A, group C were significantly higher than group B, with statistically significant difference across all the comparisons ( P EATV was positively correlated with hs-CRP, IL-6, TNF-α ( r =0.675-0.700, P EATV level was 120.39 ml to predict MACE (area under cure: 0.751, 95% CI : 0.634-0.868, P EATV>120.39 ml can be used as an independent risk factor for predicting the occurrence of MACE. Conclusion: The level of EATV is closely related to the occurrence of MACE events, and EATV>120.39 ml is an independent risk factor for MACE in patients with CHD after PCI.

  9. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  10. Optimize fat Replacers in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M HassaniMoosaAbadi

    2018-03-01

    CONCLUSION: In order to solve some problems related to the elimination or reduction of fat , cardiovascular diseases prevention and health improvement, it is possible to use fat alternatives in communities’ food, furthermore, the obtained results indicated that the production of low-calorie foods is similar to the texture of high fat products.

  11. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  12. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  13. Fat Quality Influences the Obesogenic Effect of High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High fat and/or carbohydrate intake are associated with an elevated risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The harmful effects of a high fat diet could be different, depending on dietary fat quality. In fact, high fat diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids are considered less deleterious for human health than those rich in saturated fat. In our previous studies, we have shown that rats fed a high fat diet developed obesity and exhibited a decrease in oxidative capacity and an increase in oxidative stress in liver mitochondria. To investigate whether polyunsaturated fats could attenuate the above deleterious effects of high fat diets, energy balance and body composition were assessed after two weeks in rats fed isocaloric amounts of a high-fat diet (58.2% by energy rich either in lard or safflower/linseed oil. Hepatic functionality, plasma parameters, and oxidative status were also measured. The results show that feeding on safflower/linseed oil diet attenuates the obesogenic effect of high fat diets and ameliorates the blood lipid profile. Conversely, hepatic steatosis and mitochondrial oxidative stress appear to be negatively affected by a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Patients ≥ 75 years with acute coronary syndrome but without critical epicardial coronary disease: prevalence, characteristics, and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent; Farah, Ahmed; von Korn, Hubertus; Memisevic, Nedim; Richter, Stefan; Tukhiashvili, Ketevan; Lauer, Bernward; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objective Absence of significant epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute onset of chest pain and elevation of myocardial necrosis markers is occasionally observed. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics and outcome of such patients with advanced age. Methods We retrospectively analysed 4,311 patients with acute onset of chest pain plus necrosis marker elevation. Two hundred and seventy two patients without CAD on angiogram (6.3%) were identified. Out of them, 50 (1.2%) patients ≥ 75 years (Group I) were compared with (1) 222 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients without CAD on angiogram < 75 years (Group II), and (2) 610 consecutive patients ≥ 75 years with Non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (Group III). Results Group I compared to Group III patients made up for more females (64.0% vs. 49.2%; P < 0.0001), and had more severe anginal symptoms on presentation [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class I/II, 26.0% vs. 49.8%; P = 0.02]. Group I patients also had lower troponin levels (0.62 ± 0.8 ng/mL vs. 27 ± 74 ng/mL; P < 0.02), lower leukocyte count (9.4 ± 3.13 × 109 vs. 12 ± 5.1 × 109; P = 0.001) and better preserved left ventricular function (56.7% ± 14.3% vs. 45% ± 11%; P < 0.0001). Event-free survival (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, recurrent angina, and re-hospitalisation) was more frequent in Group I and II patients compared to Group III patients (64.9%, 66.7%, and 41.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Conclusions ACS in patients ≥ 75 years without CAD is very infrequent, associated with a (1) similar outcome compared to ACS patients < 75 years without CAD, and (2) significant better outcome compared to NSTEMI patients ≥ 75 years. PMID:25678899

  15. Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT Thickness Is Associated with Cardiovascular and Liver Damage in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ludovica Fracanzani

    Full Text Available Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT has been proposed as a cardiometabolic and hepatic fibrosis risk factor in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EAT in NAFLD by analyzing 1 the association between EAT, the other metabolic parameters and the severity of steatosis 2 the relationship between cardiovascular (cIMT, cplaques, E/A, liver (presence of NASH and significant fibrosis damage and metabolic risk factors including EAT 3 the relationship between EAT and genetic factors strongly influencing liver steatosis.In a cross-sectional study, we considered 512 consecutive patients with NAFLD (confirmed by biopsy in 100. EAT, severity of steatosis, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and plaques were evaluated by ultrasonography and results analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression models. Variables independently associated with EAT (mm were female gender (p = 0.003, age (p = 0.001, BMI (p = 0.01, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009, steatosis grade 2 (p = 0.01 and 3 (p = 0.04, fatty liver index (p = 0.001 and statin use (p = 0.03. Variables independently associated with carotid IMT were age (p = 0.0001, hypertension (p = 0.009, diabetes (p = 0.04, smoking habits (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.02, with carotid plaques age (p = 0.0001, BMI (p = 0.03, EAT (p = 0.02, and hypertension (p = 0.02, and with E/A age (p = 0.0001, diabetes (p = 0.005, hypertension (p = 0.04 and fatty liver index (p = 0.004. In the 100 patients with available liver histology non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was independently associated with EAT (p = 0.04 and diabetes (p = 0.054 while significant fibrosis with EAT (p = 0.02, diabetes (p = 0.01 and waist circumference (p = 0.05. No association between EAT and PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 polymorphisms was found.In patients with NAFLD, EAT is associated with the severity of liver and vascular damage besides with the known metabolic risk factors.

  16. Myocardial blood flow reserve is impaired in patients with aortic valve calcification and unobstructed epicardial coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Karen; Nam, Michael C Y; Anstey, Chris; Boos, Christopher J; Carlton, Edward; Senior, Roxy; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Khattab, Ahmed; Shamley, Delva; Byrne, Christopher D; Stanton, Tony; Greaves, Kim

    2017-12-01

    Although calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is associated with coronary atherosclerosis, it is not known whether early CAVD is associated with coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD). We sought to investigate the relationship between myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) - a measure of CMD, and early CAVD in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease. We also determined whether this relationship was independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hs-CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation. 183 patients with chest pain and unobstructed coronary arteries were studied. Aortic valve calcification score (AVCS), coronary total plaque length (TPL), and coronary calcium score were quantified from multislice CT. MBFR was assessed using vasodilator myocardial contrast echocardiography. Hs-CRP was measured from venous blood using a particle-enhanced immunoassay. Mean (±SD) participant age was 59.8 (9.6) years. Mean AVCS was 68 (258) AU, TPL was 15.6 (22.2) mm, and median coronary calcification score was 43.5AU. Mean MBFR was 2.20 (0.52). Mean hs-CRP was 2.52 (3.86) mg/l. Multivariable linear regression modelling incorporating demographics, coronary plaque characteristics, MBFR, and inflammatory markers, demonstrated that age (β=0.05, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.08, P=0.007), hs-CRP (β=0.09, CI: 0.02, 0.16, P=0.010) and diabetes (β=1.03, CI: 0.08, 1.98, P=0.033), were positively associated with AVCS. MBFR (β=-0.87, CI: -1.44, -0.30, P=0.003), BMI (β=-0.11, CI: -0.21, -0.01, P=0.033), and LDL (β=-0.32, CI: -0.61, -0.03, P=0.029) were negatively associated with AVCS. TPL and coronary calcium score were not independently associated with AVCS when included in the regression model. Coronary microvascular function as determined by measurement of myocardial blood flow reserve is independently associated with early CAVD. This effect is independent of the presence of coronary artery disease and also systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Huge increase in gas phase nanoparticle generation by pulsed direct current sputtering in a reactive gas admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Peter, Tilo; Mohammad Ahadi, Amir; Hinz, Alexander; Strunskus, Thomas; Zaporojtchenko, Vladimir; Biederman, Hynek; Faupel, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Using reactive DC sputtering in a gas aggregation cluster source, we show that pulsed discharge gives rise to a huge increase in deposition rate of nanoparticles by more than one order of magnitude compared to continuous operation. We suggest that this effect is caused by an equilibrium between slight target oxidation (during "time-off") and subsequent sputtering of Ti oxides (sub-oxides) at "time-on" with high power impulse.

  18. Reconstruction of juxta-articular huge defects of distal femur with vascularized fibular bone graft and Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Davy; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chiu, Fang-Yao; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chen, Tain-Hsiung

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of reconstructing huge defects (mean, 15.8 cm) of the distal femur with Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis and free twin-barreled vascularized fibular bone graft (TVFG). We retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of five patients who had cases of distal femoral fractures with huge defects and infection that were treated by the Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis. After radical debridement, two of the five cases had free TVFG and monolocal distraction osteogenesis, and another two cases had multilocal distraction osteogenesis with knee fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. The other case with floating knee injury had bilocal distraction osteogenesis and a preserved knee joint. The mean defect of distal femur was 15.8 cm (range, 14-18 cm) in length. The mean length of distraction osteogenesis by Ilizarov's apparatus was 8.2 cm. The mean length of TVFG was 8 cm. The average duration from application of Ilizarov's apparatus to achievement of bony union was 10.2 months (range, 8-13 months). At the end of the follow-up, ranges of motion of three knees were 0 to 45 degrees, 0 to 60 degrees, and 0 to 90 degrees. Two cases had knee arthrodesis with bony fusion because of loss of the joint congruity. There were no leg length discrepancies in all five patients. In addition, three patients had pin tract infections and one case had a 10 degree varus deformity of the femur. Juxta-articular huge defect (>10 cm) of distal femur remains a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. Ilizarov's technique provides the capability to maintain stability, eradicate infection, restore leg length, and to perform adjuvant reconstructive procedure easily. In this study, we found that combining Ilizarov's distraction osteogenesis with TVFG results in improved patient outcome for patients with injuries such as supracondylar or intercondylar infected fractures or nonunion of distal femur with huge bone defect.

  19. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  20. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  1. The causes and the nursing interventions of the complications due to repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lingfang; Sun Ge

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the causes of the complications occurred after repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations and to discuss their nursing interventions. Methods: A total of 54 embolization procedures were performed in 17 patients with huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The causes of complications were carefully examined and the preventive measures were discussed. The prompt and necessary nursing interventions were formulated in order to prevent the complications or serious consequences. Results: Among the total 17 patients, one patient gave up the treatment because of the cerebral hemorrhage which occurred two months after receiving 3 times of embolization therapy. One patient experienced cerebral vascular spasm during the procedure, which was relieved after antispasmodic medication and no neurological deficit was left behind. Two patients developed transient dizziness and headache, which were alleviated spontaneously. One patient presented with nervousness, fear and irritability, which made him hard to cooperate with the operation and the basis intravenous anesthesia was employed. No complications occurred in the remaining cases. Conclusion: The predictive nursing interventions for the prevention of complications are very important for obtaining a successful repeated embolization therapy for huge cerebral arteriovenous malformations, which will ensure that the patients can get the best treatment and the complications can be avoided. (authors)

  2. [Radical Resection of Huge Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with lmatinib - ACase Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Yoko; Kato, Hiroaki; Shiraishi, Osamu; Tanaka, Yumiko; Iwama, Mitsuru; Yasuda, Atsushi; Shinkai, Masayuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Imano, Motohiro; Imamoto, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Takushi

    2017-11-01

    The usefulness and safety of imatinibfor neoadjuvant chemotherapy for resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) has not been established. We reported a case of a huge GIST of the stomach that was safely resected following preoperative imatinibtherapy. A 69-year-old man was hospitalized with abdominal fullness which increased rapidly from a month ago. A CT scan showed a huge tumor containing solid and cystic component which was accompanied by an extra-wall nodule. The tumor was strongly suspected to be originated from the stomach and EUS-FNA revealed GIST. We diagnosed GIST of the stomach and initiated preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib because there was a risk for the break of tumor capsule and composite resection of the other organs without prior chemotherapy. After the administration of imatinib4 00 mg/day for 6months, the solid component was decreased in size and its' activity by PET-CT had declined, but the size of the cystic component was not changed and the patient's complaint of fullness was not reduced. Then, after a week cessation of imatinib, we performed surgical removal of the tumor with partial gastrectomy without surgical complication during and after the operation. Imatinibwas resumed 2 weeks later postoperatively and 1 year and 8 months has passed since the operation without recurrence. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinibhas the potential to become an important therapeutic option for the treatment of huge GISTs.

  3. Facial fat necrosis following autologous fat transfer and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat transfer (AFT is an increasingly popular cosmetic procedure practiced by dermatologic surgeons worldwide. As this is an office based procedure performed under local or tumescent anaesthesia with fat transferred within the same individual and limited associated down time its is considered relatively safe and risk free in the cosmetic surgery arena. We describe a case of AFT related fat necrosis causing significant facial dysmorphia and psychosocial distress. We also discuss the benefits and risks of AFT highlighting common causes of fat graft failure.

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  5. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut butter and peanut oil Polyunsaturated fat: Polyunsaturated fat, another type of unsaturated fat, protects your heart. Sources of ... paste • safflower oil • walnuts • salad dressings Omega-3 fats: This type of fat helps prevent clogging of the arteries. ...

  6. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated 99mTc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of 99m Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  7. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  8. Is the epicardial left ventricular lead implantation an alternative approach to percutaneous attempt in patients with Steinert disease? A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAPA, ANDREA ANTONIO; RAGO, ANNA; PETILLO, ROBERTA; D’AMBROSIO, PAOLA; SCUTIFERO, MARIANNA; FEO, MARISA DE; MAIELLO, CIRO; PALLADINO, ALBERTO

    2017-01-01

    Steinert’s disease or Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder characterized by myotonia, muscle and facial weakness, cataracts, cognitive, endocrine and gastrointestinal involvement, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. Although mild myocardial dysfunction may be detected in this syndrome with age, overt myocardial dysfunction with heart failure is not frequent. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is an effective treatment to improve morbidity and reduce mortality in patients with DM1 showing intra-ventricular conduction delay and/or congestive heart failure. We report the case of a patient with Steinert disease showing an early onset ventricular dysfunction due to chronic right ventricular apical pacing, in which an epicardial left ventricular lead implantation was performed following the failure of the percutaneous attempt. As no relief in symptoms of heart failure, nor an improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction and reverse remodelling was observed six months later, the patient was addressed to the heart transplantation.

  9. Coronary microembolization with normal epicardial coronary arteries and no visible infarcts on nitrobluetetrazolium chloride-stained specimens: Evaluation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hang; Yun, Hong; Zeng, Meng Su [Dept. of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Ma, Jian Ying; Chen, Zhang Wei; Chang, Shu Fu [Dept. of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    To assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of coronary microembolization in a swine model induced by small-sized microemboli, which may cause microinfarcts invisible to the naked eye. Eleven pigs underwent intracoronary injection of small-sized microspheres (42 µm) and catheter coronary angiography was obtained before and after microembolization. Cardiac MRI and measurement of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) were performed at baseline, 6 hours, and 1 week after microembolization. Postmortem evaluation was performed after completion of the imaging studies. Coronary angiography pre- and post-microembolization revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. Systolic wall thickening of the microembolized regions decreased significantly from 42.6 ± 2.0% at baseline to 20.3 ± 2.3% at 6 hours and 31.5 ± 2.1% at 1 week after coronary microembolization (p < 0.001 for both). First-pass perfusion defect was visualized at 6 hours but the extent was largely decreased at 1 week. Delayed contrast enhancement MRI (DE-MRI) demonstrated hyperenhancement within the target area at 6 hours but not at 1 week. The microinfarcts on gross specimen stained with nitrobluetetrazolium chloride were invisible to the naked eye and only detectable microscopically. Increased cTnT was observed at 6 hours and 1 week after microembolization. Coronary microembolization induced by a certain load of small-sized microemboli may result in microinfarcts invisible to the naked eye with normal epicardial coronary arteries. MRI features of myocardial impairment secondary to such microembolization include the decline in left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion at cine and first-pass perfusion imaging, and transient hyperenhancement at DE-MRI.

  10. Research on fast Fourier transforms algorithm of huge remote sensing image technology with GPU and partitioning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Li, Xue-You; Li, Jia-Guo; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Jan; Du, Quan-Ye

    2014-02-01

    Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) is a basic approach to remote sensing image processing. With the improvement of capacity of remote sensing image capture with the features of hyperspectrum, high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution, how to use FFT technology to efficiently process huge remote sensing image becomes the critical step and research hot spot of current image processing technology. FFT algorithm, one of the basic algorithms of image processing, can be used for stripe noise removal, image compression, image registration, etc. in processing remote sensing image. CUFFT function library is the FFT algorithm library based on CPU and FFTW. FFTW is a FFT algorithm developed based on CPU in PC platform, and is currently the fastest CPU based FFT algorithm function library. However there is a common problem that once the available memory or memory is less than the capacity of image, there will be out of memory or memory overflow when using the above two methods to realize image FFT arithmetic. To address this problem, a CPU and partitioning technology based Huge Remote Fast Fourier Transform (HRFFT) algorithm is proposed in this paper. By improving the FFT algorithm in CUFFT function library, the problem of out of memory and memory overflow is solved. Moreover, this method is proved rational by experiment combined with the CCD image of HJ-1A satellite. When applied to practical image processing, it improves effect of the image processing, speeds up the processing, which saves the time of computation and achieves sound result.

  11. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  12. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mancio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS. However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. Aims To determine the association of body mass index (BMI and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Results Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05. At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.9; p = 0.021 and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.031 compared with obese/low VAF patients. Conclusions In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  13. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancio, Jennifer; Fonseca, Paulo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Ferreira, Wilson; Carvalho, Monica; Ferreira, Nuno; Braga, Pedro; Rodrigues, Alberto; Barros, Antonio; Falcao-Pires, Ines; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Bettencourt, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05). At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.9; p = 0.021) and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-5.8; p = 0.031) compared with obese/low VAF patients. In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  14. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  15. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Elective hemi transurethral resection of prostate: a safe and effective method of treating huge benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidi, S.S.; Feroz, I.; Aslam, M.; Fawad, A.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of elective hemi-resection of prostate in patients with huge gland, weighing more than 120 grams. Study Design: Multi centric, analytical comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital and Dr. Ziauddin Hospital, Karachi, from August 2006 to July 2009. Methodology: All benign cases were included in this study and divided into two groups. In group A, patients having huge prostate (> 120 grams) were placed and hemi TURP was performed. In group B, patients having 60 to 100 grams prostate were placed and conventional Blandy's TURP was performed. Results of both groups were compared in terms of duration of surgery, amount of tissue resected, operative bleeding, postoperative complications, duration of postoperative catheterization, re-admission and re-operations. Effectiveness of procedure was assessed by a simple questionnaire filled by the patients at first month, first year and second year. Patients satisfaction in terms of their ability to void, control urination, frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, haematuria, recurrent UTI, re-admission and re-operations were also assessed. Fisher exact test was applied to compare the safety and efficacy of variables. Results: In group A and B, average age range was 72 and 69 years, average weight of prostate was 148 and 70 grams, average duration of surgery was 102 and 50 minutes respectively. Average weight of resected tissue was 84 and 54 grams and haemoglobin loss was two grams and one gram respectively. Total hospital stay was 5 and 4 days. Total duration of indwelling Foley's catheter (postoperative) was 5 days and 2 days. Patient satisfaction in term of urine flow, urinary control, improvement in frequency and nocturia were comparable in both groups. UTI and re-admission was more in hemi resection group. At the end of 2 years follow-up, there is no statistical difference between the safety and efficacy

  17. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting

    2016-07-21

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability and stability after 10 cycles in degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation, owing to its unique mesoporous network, abundant surface hydrides and efficient light harvesting. This work showcases the profound effects of surface area, crystallinity, pore topology on charge migration/recombination and mass transportation. Therein the ordered 1D channel array has outperformed the interconnected 3D porous network by greatly accelerating the mass diffusion and enhancing the accessibility of the active sites on the extensive surfaces. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Analysis of the Huge Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to Southern China in the Spring of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Si-Si; Bao, Yun-Xuan; Wu, Yan; Lu, Min-Hong; Tuan, Hoang-Anh

    2018-02-08

    Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) is a migratory rice pest that periodically erupts across Asia, and early immigration is an important cause of its outbreak. The early immigration of S. furcifera into southern China shows evident annual fluctuations. In the spring of 2012, the huge size of the immigrant population and the large number of immigration peaks were at levels rarely seen prior to that year. However, little research has been done on the entire process of round-trip migration to clarify the development of the population, the long-distance migration and the final eruption. In this study, the light-trap data for S. furcifera in southern China and Vietnam in 2011-2016 were collected, and the trajectory modeling showed that the early immigrants to southern China came from the northern and central Vietnam, Laos, and northeastern Thailand. Analysis of the development of the population, the migration process and meteorological factors revealed the reasons for the huge size of the early immigration: 1) the expansion of the source area could be seen as a precondition; 2) the large size of the returned population in the last autumn and the warm temperature of southern Vietnam and Laos in the last winter increased the initial populations; 3) the sustained strong southwest winds were conducive to the northward migration of the population during the major immigration period in early May. Therefore, the large-scale immigration of S. furcifera to southern China in the spring of 2012 resulted from the combined effects of several factors involved in the process of round-trip migration. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  20. Fat in the dural sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiguchi, S.; Ando, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Ito, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fat density in the dural sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in eight cases. Of the eight cases, five had fat deposit in the torcular Herophili, and three in the superior sagittal sinus. This finding was incidentally found by CT and there was no common underlying disease in these cases. It is suggested that this finding represents normal adipose tissue in the dural sinus. (orig.)

  1. Fat Grafting for Facial Filling and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sydney R; Katzel, Evan B

    2015-07-01

    Plastic surgeons have come to realize that fat grafting can rejuvenate an aging face by restoring or creating fullness. However, fat grafting does much more than simply add volume. Grafted fat can transform or repair the tissues into which it is placed. Historically, surgeons have hesitated to embrace the rejuvenating potential of fat grafting because of poor graft take, fat necrosis, and inconsistent outcomes. This article describes fat grafting techniques and practices to assist readers in successful harvesting, processing, and placement of fat for optimal graft retention and facial esthetic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran

    2008-01-01

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  3. Association of epicardial adipose tissue thickness and inflammation parameters with CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akdag S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Serkan Akdag, Hakki Simsek, Musa Sahin, Aytac Akyol, Ramazan Duz, Naci Babat Department of Cardiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty, Van, Turkey Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet-to- lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR have been shown to be helpful in predicting adverse cardiovascular events. However, to date, in the literature, there have been no studies demonstrating the relationship between EAT, MPV, PLR, NLR, and thromboembolism risk in atrial fibrillation (AF. Therefore, we examined the relationship between EAT, MPV, PLR, NLR, and CHA2DS2-VASc score used for the evaluation of thromboembolism risk in patients with AF.Methods: The study included 96 consecutive patients with AF and 52 age- and sex-matched control subjects. We calculated CHA2DS2-VASc risk score for each patient and measured baseline EAT thickness, MPV, PLR, NLR, left atrial volume index, and left ventricular ejection fraction.Results: The group with high CHA2DS2-VASc score had higher EAT (7.2±1.5 vs 5.9±1.2 mm, P<0.001, MPV (9.1±1.1 vs 8.4±1.0 fL, P=0.004, PLR (152.3±28.4 vs 126.7±25.4, P=0.001, and NLR (4.0±1.6 vs 3.2±1.3, P<0.001 compared to group with low-intermediate CHA2DS2-VASc score. Moreover, CHA2DS2-VASc score was found to be positively correlated with EAT (r=0.623, P<0.001, MPV (r=0.350, P=0.004, PLR (r=0.398, P=0.001, and NLR (r=0.518, P<0.001.Conclusion: Our study results demonstrated that EAT thickness, MPV, PLR, and NLR were associated with the thromboembolic risk exhibited by CHA2DS2-VASc score in patients with nonvalvular AF. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, epicardial adipose tissue, platelet, neutrophil, mean platelet volume

  4. [Autologous fat grafting in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Degardin, N; Casanova, D

    2016-10-01

    Lipofilling or fat grafting transfer is defined as a technique of filling soft tissue by autologous fat grafting. The basic principle of lipofilling is based on a harvest of adipose tissue, followed by a reinjection after treatment. Lipofilling main objective is a volume defect filling, but also improving cutaneous trophicity. Lipofilling specificities among children is mainly based on these indications. Complications of autologous fat grafting among children are the same as those in adults: we distinguish short-term complications (intraoperative and perioperative) and the medium and long-term complications. The harvesting of fat tissue is the main limiting factor of the technique, due to low percentage of body fat of children. Indications of lipofilling among children may be specific or similar to those in adults. There are two types of indications: cosmetic, in which the aim of lipofilling is correcting a defect density, acquired (iatrogenic, post-traumatic scar) or malformation (otomandibular dysplasia, craniosynostosis, Parry Romberg syndrom, Poland syndrom, pectus excavatum…). The aim of functional indications is correcting a velar insufficiency or lagophthalmos. In the paediatric sector, lipofilling has become an alternative to the conventional techniques, by its reliability, safety, reproducibility, and good results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Fat Quantification in the Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh; Hooker, Jonathan C; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-12-01

    Fatty liver disease is characterized histologically by hepatic steatosis, the abnormal accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes. It is classified into alcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and is an increasingly important cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Assessing the severity of hepatic steatosis in these conditions is important for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as hepatic steatosis is potentially reversible if diagnosed early. The criterion standard for assessing hepatic steatosis is liver biopsy, which is limited by sampling error, its invasive nature, and associated morbidity. As such, noninvasive imaging-based methods of assessing hepatic steatosis are needed. Ultrasound and computed tomography are able to suggest the presence of hepatic steatosis based on imaging features, but are unable to accurately quantify hepatic fat content. Since Dixon's seminal work in 1984, magnetic resonance imaging has been used to compute the signal fat fraction from chemical shift-encoded imaging, commonly implemented as out-of-phase and in-phase imaging. However, signal fat fraction is confounded by several factors that limit its accuracy and reproducibility. Recently, advanced chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging methods have been developed that address these confounders and are able to measure the proton density fat fraction, a standardized, accurate, and reproducible biomarker of fat content. The use of these methods in the liver, as well as in other abdominal organs such as the pancreas, adrenal glands, and adipose tissue will be discussed in this review.

  6. Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirgari Farrokh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypercalcemia is the major electrolyte abnormality in patients with malignant tumors. It can be due to localized osteolytic hypercalcemia or elaboration of humoral substances such as parathyroid hormone-related protein from tumoral cells. In hematological malignancies, a third mechanism of uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH2D3 from tumoral cells or neighboring macrophages may contribute to the problem. However, hypercalcemia is quite unusual in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman presented with low grade fever, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and fullness in her left abdomen for the last six months. She was mildly anemic and complained of fatigability. She had huge splenomegaly and was hypercalcemic. After correction of her hypercalcemia, she had a splenectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed a malignant lymphoma. Her immunohistochemistry was positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD20 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Conclusion Immunopositivity for parathyroid hormone-related peptide clearly demonstrates that hypersecretion of a parathyroid hormone-like substance from the tumor had led to hypercalcemia in this case. High serum calcium is seen in only seven to eight percent of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently due to different mechanisms. Evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein and 1-25(OH2D3 can be helpful in diagnosis and management. It should be noted that presentation with hypercalcemia has a serious impact on prognosis and survival.

  7. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Thaweekul, Yuthadej; Mairiang, Karicha

    2016-12-01

    A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  9. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  10. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction. PMID:26307983

  11. Epicardial adipose tissue volume a diagnostic study for independent predicting disorder of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Deng, Y; Gong, J; Chen, X; Zhang, Q; Wang, J

    2016-05-30

    The aim of the study was to determine whether epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV), a new cardiometabolic risk factor, is associated with circadian changes of blood pressure (BP) in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Ninety patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for 24 h. EATV was measured using cardiac computed tomography. These patients were categorized into three groups according to their BP patterns (group 1, n=46, dipper hypertension, also called normal pattern; group 2, n=24, non-dipper hypertension; group 3, n=20, anti-dipper hypertension; group 2 and 3 are also called abnormal pattern). Data were collected retrospectively and compared between hypertensive patients with normal pattern and abnormal pattern. The normal pattern hypertensive patient had significant lower mean EATV and BP ((EATV, 91.3±29.4 cm3) than those of abnormal pattern patients including group 2 (EATV, 116.2±31.06cm3, EATV, 124.8±28.5cm3, PEATV with abnormal blood pressure mode was 0.500 (pEATV was elevated in newly diagnosed and untreated patients with non-dipper hypertension and anti-dipper hypertension. EATV measured by cardiac computed tomography can be used to indicate the increased risk of circadian rhythm of blood pressure.

  12. Impact of Body Mass Index on the relationship of epicardial adipose tissue to metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in an Asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Myeong-Ho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that the thickness of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, measured by echocardiography, was increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD. Several studies on obese patients, however, failed to demonstrate any relationship between EAT and CAD. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI affected the link between EAT and MS and CAD. Methods We consecutively enrolled 643 patients (302 males, 341 females; 59 ± 11 years, who underwent echocardiography and coronary angiography. The EAT thickness was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle at the end of diastole. All patients were divided into two groups: high BMI group, ≥27 kg/m2 (n = 165, and non-high BMI group, 2 (n = 478. Results The median and mean EAT thickness of 643 patients were 3.0 mm and 3.1 ± 2.4 mm, respectively. In the non-high BMI group, the median EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS compared to those without MS (3.5 vs. 1.9 mm, p Conclusions While EAT thickness was significantly increased in patients with MS and CAD, the power of EAT thickness to predict MS and CAD was stronger in patients with BMI 2. These findings showed that the measurement of EAT thickness by echocardiography might be especially useful in an Asian population with a non-high BMI, less than 27 kg/m2.

  13. Fat and fat-free mass at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2011-01-01

    LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because they und......LBW increases the risk of a number of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. However, birth weight (BW) cannot describe variability in infant body composition (BC). Variability in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth may be particularly important in low-income countries because...... they undergo nutritional transition. There is a need for data on birth BC and its predictors from low-income countries in transition. We assessed absolute FM and FFM at birth and examined the role of gender, parity, GA, and LBW as predictors of birth BC. FM and FFM were assessed within 48 h of birth on 350...... Ethiopian newborns using air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Female gender and being an infant of primi- or secundiparous mothers predicted lower BW and lower birth FFM but not FM, compared with male gender and infants of multiparous mothers, respectively. There was a positive linear relationship...

  14. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptogenic transient ischemic attack after nose blowing: association of huge atrial septal aneurysm with patent foramen ovale as potential cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze,1 Uwe Kirsch,1 Marc-Alexander Ohlow,2 Thorsten Scholle,3 Jochen Leonhardi,3 Bernward Lauer,2 Gerhard Oltmanns,4 Hendrik Schmidt5,6 1Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sondershausen, Sondershausen, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany; 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sömmerda; Sömmerda, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Diabetology, Klinikum Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine III, Martin-Luther-Univeristy Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany Abstract: Association of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA with patent foramen ovale (PFO is considered an important risk factor for cardioembolism frequently forwarding paradoxical embolism in patients with cryptogenic or unexplained cerebral ischemic events. We herein describe the case of a 69-year-old male patient reporting uncontrolled movements of the right arm due to a muscle weakness, slurred speech, and paresthesia in the oral region some seconds after he had blown his nose. These neurological symptoms had improved dramatically within a few minutes and were completely regressive at admission to our hospital about two hours later. On transesophageal echocardiography (TEE a huge ASA associated with PFO was detected. Diagnosis of the large-sized ASA was also confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Due to the early complete recovery from his neurological symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack (TIA. After nine days he was discharged in a good clinical condition under the treatment with oral anticoagulation. It is concluded that in cryptogenic or unexplained stroke or TIA TEE should always be performed to rule out ASA and PFO as potential sources for paradoxical embolism in those inconclusive clinical situations. Keywords: congenital cardiac abnormality, atrial septal

  16. ESR1 Gene Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Wang

    Full Text Available Many published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ESR1 gene and prostate cancer susceptibility are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE review and meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship.A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM databases was conducted from their inception through July 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of association.Twelve case-control studies were included with a total 2,165 prostate cancer cases and 3,361 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, ESR1 PvuII (C>T and XbaI (A>G polymorphisms showed no association with the risk of prostate cancer. However, in the stratified analyses based on ethnicity and country, the results indicated that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may significantly increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. Furthermore, we also performed a pooled analysis for all eligible case-control studies to explore the role of codon 10 (T>C, codon 325 (C>G, codon 594 (G>A and +261G>C polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk. Nevertheless, no significant associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer were observed.Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population.

  17. Playing with bone and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Zvonic, Sanjin; Floyd, Z. Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells...

  18. Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary saturated fat (SF intake has been shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and therefore has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This evidence coupled with inferences from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials, had led to longstanding public health recommendations for limiting SF intake as a means of preventing CVD. However the relationship between SF and CVD risk remains controversial, due at least in part to the intrinsic limitations of clinical studies that have evaluated this relationship. A recent meta analysis showed that current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and low consumption of total SF. They found weak positive associations between circulating palmitic and stearic acids (found largely in palm oil and animal fats, respectively and CVD, whereas circulating margaric acid (a dairy fat significantly reduced the risk of CVD.(2,3 Saturated fat are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogenous with methodological limitations.

  19. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  20. Differentiation of lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat by GCMS and EA-IRMS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizar, Nina Naquiah; Nazrim Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Hashim, Dzulkifly Mat

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to differentiate lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Elemental Analyzer-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The comparison of overall fatty acid data showed that lard and chicken fat share common characteristics by having palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid as major fatty acids while beef and mutton fats shared common characteristics by possessing palmitic, stearic and oleic acid as major fatty acids. The direct comparisons among the fatty acid data, therefore, may not be suitable for discrimination of different animal fats. When the fatty acid distributional data was subjected to Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was demonstrated that stearic, oleic and linoleic acids as the most discriminating parameters in the clustering of animal fats into four subclasses. The bulk carbon analysis of animal fats using EA-IRMS showed that determination of the carbon isotope ratios (δ¹³C) would be a good indicator for discriminating lard, chicken fat, beef fat and mutton fat. This would lead to a faster and more efficient method to ascertain the source of origin of fats used in food products.

  1. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  2. Novel nuances of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Larsen, Therese Juhlin; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    the types of thermogenic adipocytes in humans. We recently published a contradictory mRNA expression signature of human supraclavicular fat defined by an upregulation of the brite marker TBX1 along with the classical brown markers ZIC1 and LHX8, as well as genes indicating brown fat activity including UCP1......, there was no difference in UCP1, PGC-1α, PRDM16, suggesting both depots had equal brown fat potency. Taken together, supraclavicular brown fat derived from adult humans seems to represent a type of brown fat with distinct features from both subcutaneous white/brite and interscapular brown fat. Therefore......There is a current debate in the literature on whether human fat derived from the supraclavicular region should be classified as brown, or as the white fat-derived less potent, brite/beige. This commentary addresses whether the existing classification defined in mice is sufficient to describe...

  3. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on hepatic fat and associated cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, L; Bonci, E; Di Martino, M; Versacci, P; Andreoli, G; Silvestri, L M; Chiesa, C

    2015-08-01

    Very little information is available on whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has a beneficial effect on liver fat and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial we investigated whether 6-month treatment with DHA improves hepatic fat and other fat depots, and their associated CVD risk factors in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Of 58 randomized children, 51 (25 DHA, 26 placebo) completed the study. The main outcome was the change in hepatic fat fraction as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes were changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), and left ventricular (LV) function, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), and insulin sensitivity. At 6 months, the liver fat was reduced by 53.4% (95% CI, 33.4-73.4) in the DHA group, as compared with 22.6% (6.2-39.0) in the placebo group (P = 0.040 for the comparison between the two groups). Likewise, in the DHA group VAT and EAT were reduced by 7.8% (0-18.3) and 14.2% (0-28.2%), as compared with 2.2% (0-8.1) and 1.7% (0-6.8%) in the placebo group, respectively (P = 0.01 for both comparisons). There were no significant between-group changes for LV function as well as BMI-SDS and ALT, while fasting insulin and triglycerides significantly decreased in the DHA-treated children (P = 0.028 and P = 0.041, respectively). DHA supplementation decreases liver and visceral fat, and ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in children with NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  5. Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Seo, Jeong Jin; Nam, Jong Hee

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, there is no description of the fat-containing Krukenberg tumor. We report on a case of Krukenberg tumor associated with luteinized fat, which showed hyperintensity on T1-weighted MR image. The diagnosis was surgically confirmed. Hyperintense portion of the Krukenberg tumor on T1-weighted image showed diminished signal intensity on fat-saturated, T1-weighted images. Krukenberg tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses when fat signal is seen. (orig.)

  6. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  7. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation...

  8. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Wijk, R.A. de; Huntjens, L.A.H.; Engelen, L.; Polet, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat

  9. Speciation of animal fat: Needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy; Ofori, Jack Appiah

    2017-05-24

    The use of pork fat is a concern for Muslims and Jews, who for religious reasons avoid consuming anything that is pig-derived. The use of bovine materials, including beef fat, is prohibited in Hinduism and may also pose a risk of carrying the infectious agent for bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Vegetable oils are sometimes adulterated with animal fat or pork fat with beef fat for economic gain. The development of methods to determine the species origin of fat has therefore become a priority due to the complex and global nature of the food trade, which creates opportunities for the fraudulent use of these animal fats as food ingredients. However, determining the species origin of fats in processed foods or composite blends is an arduous task as the adulterant has a composition that is very similar to that of the original fat or oil. This review examines some of the methods that have been developed for fat speciation, including both fat-based and DNA-based methods, their shortcomings, and the need for additional alternatives. Protein-based methods, specifically immunoassays targeting residual proteins in adipose tissue, that are being explored by researchers as a new tool for fat speciation will also be discussed.

  10. The Osceola Mudflow from Mount Rainier: Sedimentology and hazard implications of a huge clay-rich debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, J.W.; Scott, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    altered rock in the preavalanche mass determines whether a debris avalanche will transform into a cohesive debris flow or remain a largely unsaturated debris avalanche. The distinction among cohesive lahar, noncohesive lahar, and debris avalanche is important in hazard assessment because cohesive lahars spread much more widely than noncohesive lahars that travel similar distances, and travel farther and spread more widely than debris avalanches of similar volume. The Osceola Mudflow is documented here as an example of a cohesive debris flow of huge size that can be used as a model for hazard analysis of similar flows.

  11. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective

  12. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  13. Feasibility of epicardial adipose tissue quantification in non-ECG-gated low-radiation-dose CT: comparison with prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Viteri-Ramirez, Guillermo; Saiz-Mendiguren, Ramon; Slon-Roblero, Pedro J.; Paramo, Maria [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Bastarrika, Gorka [Dept. of Radiology, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Cardiac Imaging Unit, Clinica Univ. de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)], e-mail: bastarrika@unav.es

    2012-06-15

    Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This parameter is generally assessed on ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) images. Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and reliability of EAT quantification on non-gated thoracic low-radiation-dose CT examinations with respect to prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition. Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive asymptomatic smokers (47 men; mean age 64 {+-} 9.8 years) underwent low-dose CT of the chest and prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisitions (64-slice dual-source CT). The two examinations were reconstructed with the same range, field of view, slice thickness, and convolution algorithm. Two independent observers blindly quantified EAT volume using commercially available software. Data were compared with paired sample Student t-test, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed for EAT volume quantification with low-dose-CT (141.7 {+-} 58.3 mL) with respect to ECG-gated CT (142.7 {+-} 57.9 mL). Estimation of CCC showed almost perfect concordance between the two techniques for EAT-volume assessment (CCC, 0.99; mean difference, 0.98 {+-} 5.1 mL). Inter-observer agreement for EAT volume estimation was CCC: 0.96 for low-dose-CT examinations and 0.95 for ECG-gated CT. Conclusion: Non-gated low-dose CT allows quantifying EAT with almost the same concordance and reliability as using dedicated prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition protocols.

  14. Expression of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Belmonte, Luis M.; Moreno-Santos, Inmaculada; Cabrera-Bueno, Fernando; Sánchez-Espín, Gemma; Castellano, Daniel; Such, Miguel; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Carrasco-Chinchilla, Fernando; Alonso-Pulpón, Luis; López-Garrido, Miguel; Ruiz-Salas, Amalio; Becerra-Muñoz, Víctor M.; Gómez-Doblas, Juan J.; de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo; Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) genes are crucial in lipid biosynthesis and cardiovascular homeostasis. Their expression in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and their influence in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes mellitus remain to be determined. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of SREBP genes in EAT in patients with CAD according to diabetes status and its association with clinical and biochemical data. Methods: SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 mRNA expression levels were measured in EAT from 49 patients with CAD (26 with diabetes) and 23 controls without CAD or diabetes. Results: Both SREBPs mRNA expression were significantly higher in patients with CAD and diabetes (pcardiovascular risk factor for coronary artery disease in patients with type-2 diabetes (SREBP-1: OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5, p=0.02; SREBP-2: OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2-3, p=0.02) and were independently associated with the presence of multivessel CAD, left main and anterior descending artery stenosis, and higher total and LDL cholesterol levels, and lower HDL cholesterol levels, in patients with CAD and diabetes. Conclusions: SREBP genes are expressed in EAT and were higher in CAD patients with diabetes than those patients without CAD or diabetes. SREBP expression was associated as cardiovascular risk factor for the severity of CAD and the poor lipid control. In this preliminary study we suggest the importance of EAT in the lipid metabolism and cardiovascular homeostasis for coronary atherosclerosis of patients with diabetes and highlight a future novel therapeutic target. PMID:28367087

  15. Feasibility of epicardial adipose tissue quantification in non-ECG-gated low-radiation-dose CT: comparison with prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Yarza, Isabel; Viteri-Ramirez, Guillermo; Saiz-Mendiguren, Ramon; Slon-Roblero, Pedro J.; Paramo, Maria; Bastarrika, Gorka

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is an important indicator of cardiovascular risk. This parameter is generally assessed on ECG-gated computed tomography (CT) images. Purpose: To evaluate feasibility and reliability of EAT quantification on non-gated thoracic low-radiation-dose CT examinations with respect to prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition. Material and Methods: Sixty consecutive asymptomatic smokers (47 men; mean age 64 ± 9.8 years) underwent low-dose CT of the chest and prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisitions (64-slice dual-source CT). The two examinations were reconstructed with the same range, field of view, slice thickness, and convolution algorithm. Two independent observers blindly quantified EAT volume using commercially available software. Data were compared with paired sample Student t-test, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), and Bland-Altman plots. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed for EAT volume quantification with low-dose-CT (141.7 ± 58.3 mL) with respect to ECG-gated CT (142.7 ± 57.9 mL). Estimation of CCC showed almost perfect concordance between the two techniques for EAT-volume assessment (CCC, 0.99; mean difference, 0.98 ± 5.1 mL). Inter-observer agreement for EAT volume estimation was CCC: 0.96 for low-dose-CT examinations and 0.95 for ECG-gated CT. Conclusion: Non-gated low-dose CT allows quantifying EAT with almost the same concordance and reliability as using dedicated prospectively ECG-gated cardiac CT acquisition protocols

  16. Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Epicardial Left Ventricular Lead Placement by Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery in Nonresponders to Biventricular Pacing and Previous Chest Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carsten; Chung, Jane M; Mackall, Judith A; Cakulev, Ivan T; Patel, Aaron; Patel, Sunny J; Hoit, Brian D; Sahadevan, Jayakumar

    2018-06-14

    The aim of the study was to study the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of transesophageal echocardiography-guided intraoperative left ventricular lead placement via a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach in patients with failed conventional biventricular pacing. Twelve patients who could not have the left ventricular lead placed conventionally underwent epicardial left ventricular lead placement by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Eight patients had previous chest surgery (66%). Operative positioning was a modified far lateral supine exposure with 30-degree bed tilt, allowing for groin and sternal access. To determine the optimal left ventricular location for lead placement, the left ventricular surface was divided arbitrarily into nine segments. These segments were transpericardially paced using a hand-held malleable pacing probe identifying the optimal site verified by transesophageal echocardiography. The pacing leads were screwed into position via a limited pericardiotomy. The video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach was successful in all patients. Biventricular pacing was achieved in all patients and all reported symptomatic benefit with reduction in New York Heart Association class from III to I-II (P = 0.016). Baseline ejection fraction was 23 ± 3%; within 1-year follow-up, the ejection fraction increased to 32 ± 10% (P = 0.05). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median length of hospital stay was 7 days with chest tube removal between postoperative days 2 and 5. In patients who are nonresponders to conventional biventricular pacing, intraoperative left ventricular lead placement using anatomical and functional characteristics via a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach is effective in improving heart failure symptoms. This optimized left ventricular lead placement is feasible and safe. Previous chest surgery is no longer an exclusion criterion for a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery approach.

  17. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  18. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  19. Desire to eat high- and low-fat foods following a low-fat dietary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Frederick G; Vander Weg, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    This study examined changes in desires to eat high-fat and low-fat foods across an obesity treatment program. The hypotheses under examination were (1) preferences for low-fat foods would increase across time and (2) preferences for high-fat foods would decrease across time. Single-group, prospective examination of desires to eat 48 foods, categorized according to fat content, before and after the 16-week treatment program. University clinic, Memphis, Tennessee. 118 obese (mean weight = 194.4 lbs) women (mean age = 45.24 years) participating in an obesity treatment program. A 16-week cognitive-behavioral program for obesity. Desires to eat 48 foods varying in fat content and whether or not participants actually ate these foods. Analysis of variance, multiple regression, and paired t tests. The results indicate that during the program, preferences for low-fat foods increased, whereas preferences for high-fat foods decreased. These changes mirrored the changes in consumption of both low-fat and high-fat foods. Within a behavioral economic perspective, the reinforcement value of low-fat foods may increase following a low-fat dietary intervention, whereas the reinforcing properties of high-fat foods may decline. This is desirable as low-fat foods hold many advantages over high-fat foods in terms of weight maintenance.

  20. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  1. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. Case pre...

  2. Gluteal fat thickness in pelvic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Mi; Jung, Se Young; Lee, Jae Mun; Park, Seog Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    Many calcifications due to fat necrosis in the buttocks detected on the pelvis roentgenograms suggest that the majority of injections intended to be intramuscular actually are delivered into fat. We measured thickness of adult gluteal fat to decide whether the injection using needle of usual length is done into fat or muscle. We measured the vertical thickness of the subcutaneous fat at a point of 2-3cm above the femoral head cut slice with randomly collected 116 cases of adults in the department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College. We found that 32% female cases might actually receive on intra adipose injection when a needle of maximum 3.8cm length is inserted into the buttock. If deposition into muscle is desirable, we need to choose needle whose length is appropriate for the site of injection and the patient's deposits of fat.

  3. Atrial fibrillation driven by micro-anatomic intramural re-entry revealed by simultaneous sub-epicardial and sub-endocardial optical mapping in explanted human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Brian J; Zhao, Jichao; Csepe, Thomas A; Moore, Brandon T; Li, Ning; Jayne, Laura A; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Lim, Praise; Bratasz, Anna; Powell, Kimerly A; Simonetti, Orlando P; Higgins, Robert S D; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Weiss, Raul; Hummel, John D; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2015-09-14

    The complex architecture of the human atria may create physical substrates for sustained re-entry to drive atrial fibrillation (AF). The existence of sustained, anatomically defined AF drivers in humans has been challenged partly due to the lack of simultaneous endocardial-epicardial (Endo-Epi) mapping coupled with high-resolution 3D structural imaging. Coronary-perfused human right atria from explanted diseased hearts (n = 8, 43-72 years old) were optically mapped simultaneously by three high-resolution CMOS cameras (two aligned Endo-Epi views (330 µm2 resolution) and one panoramic view). 3D gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (GE-MRI, 80 µm3 resolution) revealed the atrial wall structure varied in thickness (1.0 ± 0.7-6.8 ± 2.4 mm), transmural fiber angle differences, and interstitial fibrosis causing transmural activation delay from 23 ± 11 to 43 ± 22 ms at increased pacing rates. Sustained AF (>90 min) was induced by burst pacing during pinacidil (30-100 µM) perfusion. Dual-sided sub-Endo-sub-Epi optical mapping revealed that AF was driven by spatially and temporally stable intramural re-entry with 107 ± 50 ms cycle length and transmural activation delay of 67 ± 31 ms. Intramural re-entrant drivers were captured primarily by sub-Endo mapping, while sub-Epi mapping visualized re-entry or 'breakthrough' patterns. Re-entrant drivers were anchored on 3D micro-anatomic tracks (15.4 ± 2.2 × 6.0 ± 2.3 mm2, 2.9 ± 0.9 mm depth) formed by atrial musculature characterized by increased transmural fiber angle differences and interstitial fibrosis. Targeted radiofrequency ablation of the tracks verified these re-entries as drivers of AF. Integrated 3D structural-functional mapping of diseased human right atria ex vivo revealed that the complex atrial microstructure caused significant differences between Endo vs. Epi activation during pacing and sustained AF driven by intramural re-entry anchored to fibrosis-insulated atrial bundles. Published on

  4. Epicardial potentials computed from the body surface potential map using inverse electrocardiography and an individualised torso model improve sensitivity for acute myocardial infarction diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael J; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Bond, Raymond R; McCann, Aaron J; Scott, Peter J; Adgey, Jennifer A; Harbinson, Mark T

    2017-12-01

    Epicardial potentials (EPs) derived from the body surface potential map (BSPM) improve acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis. In this study, we compared EPs derived from the 80-lead BSPM using a standard thoracic volume conductor model (TVCM) with those derived using a patient-specific torso model (PSTM) based on body mass index (BMI). Consecutive patients presenting to both the emergency department and pre-hospital coronary care unit between August 2009 and August 2011 with acute ischaemic-type chest pain at rest were enrolled. At first medical contact, 12-lead electrocardiograms and BSPMs were recorded. The BMI for each patient was calculated. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) was sampled 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients were excluded from analysis if they had any ECG confounders to interpretation of the ST-segment. A cardiologist assessed the 12-lead ECG for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction by Minnesota criteria and the BSPM. BSPM ST-elevation (STE) was ⩾0.2 mV in anterior, ⩾0.1 mV in lateral, inferior, right ventricular or high right anterior and ⩾0.05 mV in posterior territories. To derive EPs, the BSPM data were interpolated to yield values at 352 nodes of a Dalhousie torso. Using an inverse solution based on the boundary element method, EPs at 98 cardiac nodes positioned within a standard TVCM were derived. The TVCM was then scaled to produce a PSTM using a model developed from computed tomography in 48 patients of varying BMIs, and EPs were recalculated. EPs >0.3 mV defined STE. A cardiologist blinded to both the 12-lead ECG and BSPM interpreted the EP map. AMI was defined as cTnT ⩾0.1 µg/L. Enrolled were 400 patients (age 62 ± 13 years; 57% male); 80 patients had exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 320 patients, the BMI was an average of 27.8 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 . Of these, 180 (56%) had AMI. Overall, 132 had Minnesota STE on ECG (sensitivity 65%, specificity 89%) and 160 had BSPM STE (sensitivity 81%, specificity 90

  5. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  7. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Maureen J.

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. Here I review the possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMA...

  8. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  9. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  10. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-effect evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wechem, S.N. van; Brug, J.; Assema, P. van; Kistemaker, C.; Riedstra, M.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the nationwide Fat Watch campaign aiming at a reduction in fat consumption was organized from 1991 onwards. This study describes the effects of the first three consecutive campaign years on attention to fat, diet and health, attitudes, self-efficacy expectations and intentions

  11. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  12. A fat gluino in disguise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  13. A fat gluino in disguise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, J.; Wiesler, D.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate how a sizeable width-to-mass ratio for a gluino, as is for example realized in GMSB scenarios, could affect the discovery potential of gluinos at the LHC. More importantly, the influence of the gluino being ''fat'' on the standard mass and spin determination methods at the LHC are investigated. For this purpose, we focus on gluino production at the LHC, where we do not factorize the first step in the gluino decay cascade, but treat the following decay cascades step in factorization, including full spin correlations. The effects of sizeable width-to-mass ratios from a few up to 15-20 per cent on the endpoint of several mass determination methods as well as on means for discrimination between BSM spin paradigms like SUSY and UED are studied.

  14. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  15. Pork fat hydrolysed by Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, B. B.; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Zeuthen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is used as a starter culture in the production of fermented sausages. Its ability to hydrolyse pork fat was investigated. Within 15 days of incubation an interaction of bacterial growth, lipase production and lipase activity in a pork fat containing medium caused liberation...

  16. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  17. Dietary fat and obesity : An epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C.

    1998-01-01

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  18. Dietary fat and obesity : an epidemiologic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    The observation that dietary fat has an effect on weight gain and the development of obesity that is larger than would be expected on the basis of fat's energy value is mainly experimental. Several methodologic problems limit the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of the association between

  19. Coming out as Fat: Rethinking Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C.; Ward, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the surprising case of women who "come out as fat" to test and refine theories about social change, social mobilization, stigma, and stigma resistance. First, supporting theories about "social movement spillover," we find that overlapping memberships in queer and fat activist groups, as well as networks between these groups,…

  20. Bone and fat connection in aging bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Gustavo

    2008-07-01

    The fat and bone connection plays an important role in the pathophysiology of age-related bone loss. This review will focus on the age-induced mechanisms regulating the predominant differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes. Additionally, bone marrow fat will be considered as a diagnostic and therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. There are two types of bone and fat connection. The 'systemic connection', usually seen in obese patients, is hormonally regulated and associated with high bone mass and strength. The 'local connection' happens inside the bone marrow. Increasing amounts of bone marrow fat affect bone turnover through the inhibition of osteoblast function and survival and the promotion of osteoclast differentiation and activation. This interaction is regulated by paracrine secretion of fatty acids and adipokines. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be quantified using noninvasive methods and could be used as a therapeutic approach due to its capacity to transdifferentiate into bone without affecting other types of fat in the body. The bone and fat connection within the bone marrow constitutes a typical example of lipotoxicity. Additionally, bone marrow fat could be used as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach for osteoporosis in older persons.

  1. Large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Walstra, P.

    2005-01-01

    Compression and wire-cutting experiments on dispersions of fully hydrogenated palm oil in sunflower oil with varying fraction solid fat were carried out to establish which parameters are important for the large deformation behavior of fat crystal networks. Compression experiments showed that the

  2. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P [Department of Electrical Eng., State University of Santa Catarina, Joinville (Brazil)

    2012-12-20

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20 Degree-Sign C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, E A; Bertemes-Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  5. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  6. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. (a) Product. Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

  7. FAT PHOBIA IN MEXICAN NUTRITION STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacardía Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Bezares-Sarmiento, Vidalma Del Rosario; León-González, Juan Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Nutritionists play a major role in the prevention and treatment of obesity. Currently, fat phobia among nutrition students and health workers is resulting in health and social consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the fat phobia among nutrition college students of two schools from different regions in Mexico. Six hundred and thirty 18 to 25 yo nutrition students participated in the study. Fat phobia was assessed using the F-scale, containing 14 pairs of adjectives that described people with obesity. Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.45, which could be considered a moderate amount of fat phobia. Only twelve per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5), while negative attitude (≥ 2.5) was observed among 88% of all students showing a high prevalence of fat phobia towards obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies in Fat Grafting: Part II. Effects of Injection Mechanics on Material Properties of Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashroo, David; Raphel, Jordan; Chung, Michael T.; Paik, Kevin J.; Parisi-Amon, Andreina; McArdle, Adrian; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Zielins, Elizabeth R.; Tevlin, Ruth; Duldulao, Chris; Walmsley, Graham G.; Hu, Michael S.; Momeni, Arash; Domecus, Brian; Rimsa, Joe R.; Greenberg, Lauren; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.; Wan, Derrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While fat grafting can address many soft tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, we compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low shear device or the modified Coleman technique. Methods Lipoaspirate was obtained from nine patients and processed for injection using either a modified Coleman technique or with an automated, low shear device. Fat was passed through a 2 mm cannula and compared to minimally processed fat. A rheometer was used to measure the storage modulus and shear rate at which tissues began to lose their solid-like properties. Viscosity was also measured and gross properties of treatment groups were qualitatively evaluated with a glass slide test. Results Fat injected through an automated, low shear device closely matched physical properties of minimally processed fat. The storage modulus (G′) of fat for the device group was greater than the modified Coleman group and the onset of breakdown was delayed. Similarly, viscosity measurement of fat from the automated device closely matched minimally processed fat and was greater than the modified Coleman group. Conclusions The physical properties of lipoaspirate processed using an automated, low shear device with a 2 mm cannula preserved the intactness of fat more than the modified Coleman technique. Our rheological data demonstrate less damage using an automated device compared to modified Coleman technique and potentially support its use for improved fat graft integrity. PMID:25028817

  9. A Huge Morel-Lavallée Lesion Treated Using a Quilting Suture Method: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bommie F; Kang, In Sook; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Moon, Suk Ho

    2014-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a collection of serous fluid that develops after closed degloving injuries and after surgical procedures particularly in the pelvis and abdomen. It is a persistent seroma and is usually resistant to conservative methods of treatment such as percutaneous drainage and compression. Various methods of curative treatment have been reported in the literature, such as application of fibrin sealant, doxycycline, or alcohol sclerodhesis. We present a case of a huge recurrent Morel-Lavallée lesion in the lower back and buttock region that was treated with quilting sutures, fibrin sealant, and compression, with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Comparison of fat maintenance in the face with centrifuge versus filtered and washed fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asilian, Ali; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Iraji, Razieh

    2014-06-01

    Autogenous fat injection of the face is a viable and lasting remedy for soft tissue loss and has become a mainstay in facial rejuvenation. Fat transfer as either a stand-alone technique or as an adjunct to other filler technique and lifting depending on patient needs. Although soft tissue augmentation with autologous fat transfer has been increasingly used by esthetic surgeon, but there is no agreement concerning the best way of processing the harvested fat before injection. This study compared the clinical results obtained using simple filtered and washed fat via metal sieve with those achieved by means of pure centrifuged fat. A prospective single-blind analysis on 32 healthy patients undergoing nasolabial fold fat transplantation from 2009 to 2011 (simple sampling). Patients assigned in two groups randomly. The face of half (16 subjects) was injected with centrifuged, another half with simple filtered and washed fat to evaluate the effect of preparation methods on fat graft viability. Objective method was used to evaluate the results, involving the evaluation of postoperative photographs (in month 1, 6 and 12) by an esthetic surgeon (according to the nasolabial scale). Subjective method was a self-assessment obtained from patients about general level of satisfaction and improvement of skin texture, statistical analysis were performed by means of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test. Acquired data were analyzed using SPSS version 15 and a value of P > 0.05 was considered as significant. There was no significant difference in the survival of grafted fat between the Group 1 (fat-processing with centrifuge at 3400 rpm for 1-min) and Group 2 (washing the fat in the sieve). Our data suggest that the centrifuge of the fat does not enhance survival of grafted fat (P > 0.05).

  11. Lessons from the war on dietary fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas B; Parker, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Conventional dietary guidelines put forth by health care institutions and providers for the past 40 years have stressed the importance of reducing the amount of dietary fat consumed. Such a diet is purported to mitigate metabolic risk factors and optimize the ability to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight. However, over the past 35 years obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically though the level of dietary fat consumed by U.S. adults has fallen. This review examines the potential reasons for this paradox. Various meta-analyses, controlled trials, and cohort studies have demonstrated that reducing dietary fat intake provides for very little weight loss unless accompanied by equal or greater reductions in total energy intake. Due to both psychological (e.g., the tendency for people to eat more of what they consider low fat) and physiological (e.g., the low satiety that accompanies carbohydrate intake) factors, reducing total caloric intake while simultaneously reducing fat intake is a difficult challenge. Further, reductions in total carbohydrate intake, increases in protein intake, and adoption of a Mediterranean diet seem to be more effective in inducing weight loss than reductions in fat intake. Traditional claims that simply reducing dietary fat will improve metabolic risk factors are also not borne out by research. There is some evidence that replacing dietary saturated fat with unsaturated fat may improve metabolic risk factors, but that research is not conclusive. • Over the past 40 years, Americans have decreased the percentage of calories they get from dietary fat while rates of overweight and obesity have risen dramatically. • It appears that a decrease in total dietary fat in ad libitum diets may induce a very small decrease in body weight. • Evidence suggests that reductions in total dietary fat intake often occur in conjunction with an increase in total caloric intake. • It seems reasonable to conclude that guiding the

  12. Invisible fat on CT: making it visible by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Karaosmanoğlu, Ali Devrim; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Presence of fat in a lesion significantly narrows the differential diagnosis. Small quantities of macroscopic fat and intracellular fat are invisible on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal any fatty change in a lesion and can also differentiate macroscopic fat from intracellular and intravoxel fat. Hypodensity on CT may be a sign of invisible fat and MRI can help to diagnose even minute amounts of fat in liver, pancreas, adrenal, musculoskeletal, and omental pseudolesions and lesions. This article will review the superiority of MRI over CT in demonstrating fat in abdominal lesions.

  13. [Combine fats products: methodic opportunities of it identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorova, E V; Kulakova, S N; Mikhaĭlov, N A

    2006-01-01

    At present time very topical problem is falsification of milk fat. The number of methods was considered to detection of milk fat authention and possibilities his difference from combined fat products. The analysis of modern approaches to valuation of milk fat authention has showed that the main method for detection of fat nature is gas chromatography analysis. The computer method of express identification of fat products is proposed for quick getting of information about accessory of examine fat to nature milk or combined fat product.

  14. Subpleural thoracic fat as defined with CT of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.J.; Glazer, H.S.; Molina, P.L.; Sagel, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) examinations of the chest (n=202) were reviewed to determine the location, thickness, and extent of subpleural fat. Patient age, thickness of subcutaneous fat, and adjacent pleural or parenchymal abnormalities were recorded. Subpleural fat was most often identified in the paravertebral region (48%) and in the apices (23%). Fatty deposits anterolaterally were seen in seven individuals. Subpleural fat thickness ranged from 1 to 19 mm, except in the apex, where fat sometimes filled the space. A direct relationship between subcutaneous fat thickness and a higher incidence of subpleural fat was observed in the paravertebral region. Subpleural fat occurs commonly in the paravertebral regions but is unusual in other areas

  15. Teratoma with intraventricular free fat on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Naohisa; Fuchinoe, Tokuro; Yahagi, Yasuji; Nakamura, Toshihiko

    1983-01-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on computed tomography(CT). We are reporting a case of teratoma with intraventricular free fat diagnosed preoperatively by CT. The case is a 19-year-old female who was admitted to our hospital because of contineous severe headache, nausea and vomiting. At the time of admission, her physical and neurological examination was negative except for bilateral papilledema. CT demonstrated marked enlargement of the right lateral ventricle. In addition, there was negative absorption value (-90 H.U.), suggesting free fat, within right frontal horn layering above the CSF with a fluid level. Metrizamide ventriculography demonstrated complete obstruction and revealed an irregular shadow defect at the right foramen of Monro. At surgery, yellowish cheese-like material, white hair was found on the surface of the CSF. Tumor arose from the floor of the right foramen of Monro and extended upward. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 17 days after surgery. Intraventricular free fat is likely that to be released from the teratoma cyst ruptured spontaneously when the patient complained of severe headache 40 days prior to admission. There have been several published reports of the CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors, however, teratoma with intraventricular free fat is very rare. It was concluded that fat-containing tumors should be highly suspected, when negative absorption values were found on CT. (author)

  16. Multiple huge epiphrenic esophageal diverticula with motility disease treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic esophagectomy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Higashi, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Koji; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Epiphrenic esophageal diverticulum is a rare condition that is often associated with a concomitant esophageal motor disorder. Some patients have the chief complaints of swallowing difficulty and gastroesophageal reflux; traditionally, such diverticula have been resected via right thoracotomy. Here, we describe a case with huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with motility disorder, which were successfully resected using a video-assisted thoracic and laparoscopic procedure. A 63-year-old man was admitted due to dysphagia, heartburn, and vomiting. An esophagogram demonstrated an S-shaped lower esophagus with multiple epiphrenic diverticula (75 × 55 mm and 30 × 30 mm) and obstruction by the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Esophageal manometry showed normal peristaltic contractions in the esophageal body, whereas the LES pressure was high (98.6 mmHg). The pressure vector volume of LES was 23,972 mmHg 2  cm. Based on these findings, we diagnosed huge multiple epiphrenic diverticula with a hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter and judged that resection might be required. We performed lower esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction using a video-assisted thoracic and hand-assisted laparoscopic procedure. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the esophagogram demonstrated good passage, with no leakage, stenosis, or diverticula. The most common causes of mid-esophageal and epiphrenic diverticula are motility disorders of the esophageal body; appropriate treatment should be considered based on the morphological and motility findings.

  17. A case of huge colon carcinoma and right renal angiomyolipoma accompanied by proximal deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and tumor thrombus in the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kuno, Hirofumi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Shin; Akasu, Takayuki; Moriya, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    A preoperative inferior vena cava (IVC) filter is reported to be effective in surgical cases with proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or in which pulmonary embolism (PE) has already developed, and considered to be at high risk of developing secondary fatal PE during or after surgery. However, guidelines for using an IVC filter have yet to be established. The patient in the present report had two huge tumors, ascending colon cancer and renal angiomyolipoma, which occupied the entire right half of the abdomen, coexisting PE, DVT and tumor thrombus in the right renal vein. Secondary PE is fatal in the perioperative period, therefore, the vena cava filters were preoperatively inserted into the supra- and the infrarenal IVC. We successfully removed the tumors without complications. The patient is alive without tumor recurrence and PE or recurrent DVT 1 year and 6 months after surgery. The coexistence of two huge abdominal tumors as potential causes of PE and DVT is extremely rare, and we could have safely undergone the operation, using two vena cava filters in the supra- and infrarenal IVC.

  18. [Transcatheter embolization for huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula using metallic "spider" and spring embolus--application of hand-made metallic "spider" using partial monorail technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, S; Sako, M; Fujita, Y; Hasegawa, Y; Sugimoto, K; Suzuki, Y; Kono, M

    1992-07-25

    We performed transcatheter embolization in two cases with huge pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a metallic "spider" and spring embolus. Conventional spring embolus or detachable balloon could not be used in these cases. Metallic spider was indicated for pulmonary AVF with a feeding artery diameter of more than 16 mm to prevent embolus passing through the AVF. In the first case, we used large handmade metallic spiders of 25 mm in diameter followed by embolization by numerous spring coils. At that time, a partial monorail technique was newly devised to carry the large metallic spider into the feeding artery, otherwise the spider could not pass into a 9F catheter. After embolization, symptoms and PaO2 in arterial blood improved remarkably in both cases. In the second case, a spring coil migrated into the normal pulmonary artery, but no infarction resulted. In conclusion, the metallic spider was very useful for embolization of hugee pulmonary AVF to avoid the embolus passing through and to tangle spring coils together with it. If commercially available "spiders" are too small, ones can be made easily.

  19. Application of fats in some food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vallerio Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major

  20. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  1. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Duplex ultrasound evidence of fat embolism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Naddaf, MD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat embolism syndrome is a potentially fatal disease process most commonly associated with long-bone and pelvic fractures. Reports describing ultrasound evidence of fat emboli are restricted to echocardiography. We propose a new objective finding on venous duplex ultrasound imaging of the lower extremities as a useful diagnostic criterion by presenting the case reports of two patients with acute long-bone fractures, possibly leading to earlier orthopedic fixation and allocation of resources to those patients at higher risk of fat embolism syndrome.

  3. CT findings of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ishibashi, Takao.

    1986-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

  4. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  5. Monounsaturated fats and immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yaqoob

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies suggest that olive oil is capable of modulating functions of cells of the immune system in a manner similar to, albeit weaker than, fish oils. There is some evidence that the effects of olive oil on immune function in animal studies are due to oleic acid rather than to trace elements or antioxidants. Importantly, several studies have demonstrated effects of oleic acid-containing diets on in vivo immune responses. In contrast, consumption of a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich diet by humans does not appear to bring about a general suppression of immune cell functions. The effects of this diet in humans are limited to decreasing aspects of adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although there are trends towards decreases in natural killer cell activity and proliferation. The lack of a clear effect of MUFA in humans may be attributable to the higher level of monounsaturated fat used in the animal studies, although it is ultimately of importance to examine the effects of intakes which are in no way extreme. The effects of MUFA on adhesion molecules are potentially important, since these molecules appear to have a role in the pathology of a number of diseases involving the immune system. This area clearly deserves further exploration

  6. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  7. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  8. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  9. [Obesity, fat and bones: friends or foes ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Emmanuel

    2017-04-19

    Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat. Thus, fat mass and its distribution should be taken into account beyond BMD and classical clinical risk factors in the assessment of fracture risk.

  10. Percentage Energy from Fat Screener: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    A short assessment instrument to estimate an individual's usual intake of percentage energy from fat. The foods asked about on the instrument were selected because they were the most important predictors of variability in percentage energy.

  11. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat...

  12. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corn oil Safflower oil Walnuts Sunflower, sesame, and pumpkin seeds; flaxseed Fatty fish (salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, ... pork) Chicken with the skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack ...

  13. Hemifacial atrophy treated with autologous fat transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old male developed right hemifacial atrophy following marphea profunda. Facial asymmetry due to residual atrophy was treated with autologous fat harvested from buttocks with marked cosmetic improvement.

  14. Fat intake and energy-balance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-12-30

    This paper focuses on the effects of dietary fats or fatty acids on key targets of metabolic intermediates for body-weight control, i.e. satiety, thermogenesis, fat oxidation and body composition. With respect to sensory satiety, it appeared, e.g. that linoleic acid tasters showed a different mechanism for meal termination than non-tasters did. They stopped eating linoleic acid containing food based upon satiety, whereas the non-tasters stopped eating based upon the change in pleasantness of taste. Moreover, in the normal range of body mass index, an inverse relationship was shown between % 'tasters' and BMI. In a high fat diet vs. a low fat high protein high carbohydrate diet, metabolic satiety appeared to be continuously lower and correlated positively to diet-induced energy expenditure. However, with respect to the intermeal interval, satiety appeared to be more sustained following a high fat vs. a high CHO preload, resulting in a lower meal frequency. Covert fat replacement during breakfast by sucrose polyester was successful in combination with dietary restraint, yet overt fat replacement in snacks was successful in the dietary-unrestrained subjects, i.e. those who habitually ate snacks. With respect to fat oxidation, from a respiration-chamber experiment on the effects of diacylglycerol compared (DG) to triacylglycerol (TG) intake, it was concluded that consumption of DG increased fat oxidation and beta-hydroxy-butyrate levels, but did not affect energy metabolism or triacylglycerol level. Parameters of appetite were all lowered by DG compared to TG. With respect to body composition, the effects of 13 weeks CLA supplementation in overweight subjects during weight regain were assessed. Although CLA did not affect %body-weight regain, the regain of fat-free mass was increased by CLA, independently of %body-weight regain and physical activity, and as a consequence resting metabolic rate was increased. At the same time, appetite was reduced and satiety and

  15. Autologous fat transplantation for labia majora reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, P M; Herold, C; Rennekampff, H O

    2011-10-01

    A case of autologous fat transplantation for labia majora augmentation after ablative surgery is presented. The patient reported pain and deformity of the left labium majus after resection for Bowen's disease. The symptoms had not been solved by classic plastic surgical reconstructions including a pudendal thigh fasciocutaneous flap. Use of autologous fat transplantation facilitated an improved aesthetic result while preserving residual sensation to the external genitalia and improving symptoms of mucosal exposure and dryness.

  16. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    biological plausibility add weight to the prospect of a causal connection. Our results may have relevance to public policy determinations regarding dietary trans fats. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00330980.

  17. Huge opportunity for solar cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In Europe more than 400 solar cooling systems have been installed. By contrast, only a small number of solar cooling installations exist in Australia - primarily adsorption and absorption systems for commercial and hospitals - although these systems are growing. As with other renewable energy technologies, cost is a challenge. However solar cooling is currently competitive with other technologies, with some suggesting that system costs have been decreasing by about 20% per annum in recent times. Australia is also leading efforts in the development of residential solar desiccant technology, currently commercialising Australian-developed technology. Commercial and industrial enterprises are increasingly aware of the impact of demand charges, the potential to install technology as a hedge against future energy price rises and opportunities associated with increased on-site generation and reduced reliance on the grid, often necessitating on-site demand reduction and management. They are also driven by environmental and corporate social responsibility objectives as well as the opportunity for energy independence and uninterruptible operation. Interestingly, many of these interests are mirrdred at residential level, inspiring CSIRO's commercialisation of a domestic scale solar air conditioner with Australian manufacturer Brevis Climate Systems. Australia and other countries are increasingly aware of solar cooling as technology which can reduce or replace grid-powered cooling, particularly in applications where large building thermal energy requirements exist. In these applications, heating, cooling and hot water are generated and used in large amounts and the relative amounts of each can be varied dynamically, depending on building requirements. Recent demonstrations of solar cooling technology in Australia include Hunter TAFE's Solar Desiccant Cooling System - which provides heating, cooling and hot water to commercial training kitchens and classrooms - GPT's Charlestown Square Shopping Centre and Echuca Hospital. These systems join a number of others already in operation at the large commercial and industrial scale, as well as a smaller number of systems providing cooling to cafes and offices. The development in this area is being supported by CSIRO's Solar Cooling research team which provides development, modelling and design expertise across the spectrum of solar cooling variants, sizes and applications - from remote community food preservation in India, to large commercial and residential systems in Australia. The group also has industry test facilities to support the development and testing of solar air conditioning systems as well as conventional air conditioning technologies. The Australian Institute of Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH's) Solar Cooling Special Technical Group is also involved in developing the solar cooling industry in Australia with the aim of combating climate change by reducing greenhouse emissions from the residential and commercial building sectors. The group coordinates industry and research efforts and organises information exchange, educational and training events for interested technical and business representatives. Fact file- Solar cooling systems are essentially comprised of two parts - solar thermal collectors and a sorption chiller which convert the heat into useful cooling. Though a number of collector and chiller combinations exist, no one single approach has yet dominated. Corresponding with the type of chiller used, solar cooling systems are often grouped into three categories: absorption, adsorption and desiccant. During design, an appropriate collector technology will be chosen, typically either a parabolic, flat plate or evacuated tube collector. The optimal configuration is also determined in design, to align equipment characteristics with the conditions, environment and requirements presented by each application. Thus solar cooling has a number of variants which use different components or the same components in an alternate configuration. A number of variants are technically proven and available for commercial and industrial installations. Each variant uses standard 'off the shelf' FIVAC industry components which are available in both Australia and overseas. A typical solar cooling system is also able to supply broader energy needs of a building including space heating and hot water.

  18. Is fat perception a thermal effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, J F; de Wijk, R A; Huntjens, L A H; Engelen, L; Polet, I A

    2007-04-01

    It has been generally assumed that fat is detected by its flavour and by its lubrication of the oral mucosa. A recent study reported a correlation of -.99 between perceived temperature of a product and its fat content. This was significantly higher than correlations of sensory scores for fat flavour, mouthfeel, and afterfeel. This suggested a third detection mechanism; fat may be detected via its effect on the thermal conductivity of the food. In 3 studies, thermal sensitivity in humans was investigated to verify whether oral thermal receptors are sufficiently rapid and accurate to play a role in the perception of fats. The thermal sensitivity of the lips and oral mucosa of the anterior and middle one-third of the tongue were assessed using a Peltier device. Subjects detected 0.5 Hz fluctuations in temperature of 0.08'C on the lower lip, 0.26 degrees C and 1.36 degrees C at the tip and dorsum of the tongue, demonstrating that the lips are sufficiently sensitive to detect small differences in temperature. In two further experiments subjects ingested custards and mayonnaises and then spat out samples after 5, 10, or 20 sec. The temperature of the food and oral mucosa was measured before and after spitting and the rates of heating were calculated. Results suggest assessment of thermal conductivity of food may be used to assess fat content.

  19. Fat intake and injury in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Kristen E; Burton, Harold W; Dorn, Joan M; Leddy, John J; Horvath, Peter J

    2008-01-03

    Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 +/- 20 vs. 80 +/- 50 g/d) and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 +/- 5 vs. 30 +/- 8 %) compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  20. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  1. Quantification of liver fat: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goceri, Evgin; Shah, Zarine K; Layman, Rick; Jiang, Xia; Gurcan, Metin N

    2016-04-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver causes metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes or dyslipidemia by affecting insulin resistance, and increasing the risk of cardiac complications and cardiovascular disease mortality. Fatty liver diseases are often reversible in their early stage; therefore, there is a recognized need to detect their presence and to assess its severity to recognize fat-related functional abnormalities in the liver. This is crucial in evaluating living liver donors prior to transplantation because fat content in the liver can change liver regeneration in the recipient and donor. There are several methods to diagnose fatty liver, measure the amount of fat, and to classify and stage liver diseases (e.g. hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis): biopsy (the gold-standard procedure), clinical (medical physics based) and image analysis (semi or fully automated approaches). Liver biopsy has many drawbacks: it is invasive, inappropriate for monitoring (i.e., repeated evaluation), and assessment of steatosis is somewhat subjective. Qualitative biomarkers are mostly insufficient for accurate detection since fat has to be quantified by a varying threshold to measure disease severity. Therefore, a quantitative biomarker is required for detection of steatosis, accurate measurement of severity of diseases, clinical decision-making, prognosis and longitudinal monitoring of therapy. This study presents a comprehensive review of both clinical and automated image analysis based approaches to quantify liver fat and evaluate fatty liver diseases from different medical imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fat intake and injury in female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to determine the relationship between energy intake, energy availability, dietary fat and lower extremity injury in adult female runners. We hypothesized that runners who develop overuse running-related injuries have lower energy intakes, lower energy availability and lower fat intake compared to non-injured runners. Methods Eighty-six female subjects, running a minimum of 20 miles/week, completed a food frequency questionnaire and informed us about injury incidence over the next year. Results Injured runners had significantly lower intakes of total fat (63 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 50 g/d and percentage of kilocalories from fat (27 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 8 % compared with non-injured runners. A logistic regression analysis found that fat intake was the best dietary predictor, correctly identifying 64% of future injuries. Lower energy intake and lower energy availability approached, but did not reach, a significant association with overuse injury in this study. Conclusion Fat intake is likely associated with injury risk in female runners. By documenting these associations, better strategies can be developed to reduce running injuries in women.

  3. Computed tomography of peripancreatic fat planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittich, G.R.; Van Sonnenberg, E.; Willson, S.A.; Tobin, R.S.; Cubberley, D.A.; Marx, M.Q.

    1987-01-01

    Obliteration of peripancreatic fat planes usually is considered an indicator of peripancreatic tumour infiltration in the presence of a malignant mass, or of inflammation of peripancreatic tissues in patients with pancreatitis. However, absence of peripancreatic fat planes also may be found in patients without evidence of pancreatic disease. Hence, CT scans of 125 patients without clinical or computed tomographic evidence of pancreatic disease were evaluated to assess normal variations in the anatomy of the pancreas and its relation to surrounding vessels and bowel loops. The fat plane separating the superior mesenteric artery from the pancreas was preserved in 100% of patients. Conversely, fat planes between the pancreas and the superior mesenteric vein, inferior vena cava, and adjacent bowel loops were partially or totally obliterated in 13% to 50% of patients. It is concluded that the absence of fat around the superior mesenteric artery is highly suggestive of pathologic changes of the pancreas, while the lack of fat planes between the pancreas and other splanchnic vessels or bowel loops frequently is normal, and therefore, is an unreliable sign of pancreatic disease. The applications of these findings to the assessment of tumour resectability by CT, and to CT scanning techniques, are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Permeabilization of enterocytes induced by absorption of dietary fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina

    2013-01-01

    the physiological process of dietary fat absorption, and short exposures to the fat mixture caused fat droplet accumulation within villus enterocytes. Lucifer yellow (LY), a fluorescent membrane-impermeable polar tracer was included to monitor epithelial integrity. Both in controls and during fat absorption LY...

  5. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  6. Three pillars for achieving quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulations of huge systems: Divide-and-conquer, density-functional tight-binding, and massively parallel computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Masato; Irle, Stephan; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-08-05

    The linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC) quantum chemical methodology is applied to the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) theory to develop a massively parallel program that achieves on-the-fly molecular reaction dynamics simulations of huge systems from scratch. The functions to perform large scale geometry optimization and molecular dynamics with DC-DFTB potential energy surface are implemented to the program called DC-DFTB-K. A novel interpolation-based algorithm is developed for parallelizing the determination of the Fermi level in the DC method. The performance of the DC-DFTB-K program is assessed using a laboratory computer and the K computer. Numerical tests show the high efficiency of the DC-DFTB-K program, a single-point energy gradient calculation of a one-million-atom system is completed within 60 s using 7290 nodes of the K computer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Deep earth fluids and huge metallogenetic belt and fatal geological disaster: 60th anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian engaging in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Guangxi; Tao Shizhen; Liu Yinhe

    2012-01-01

    Professor Du Le-tian has been researching for a long time on scientific relationship between deep earth fluids and hydrocarbon accumulation and metallogenesis, as well as gestation and prediction of disasters. He has contributed greatly to the development of that scientific field. From 6 to 8, July, 2012, 'Workshop on Deep Earth Fluids and Huge Metallogenetic Belt, Fatal Geological Disaster, as well as 60 th Anniversary of Professor Du Le-tian Engaging in Geology' was successfully convened in Beijing, totally with 76 delegates present who were experts, scholars or students from USA, Hong Kong, or various institutes, colleges or universities of China. In the workshop, the scientific presentations discussed were counted up to 49, on aspects of geological processes of deep earth fluids, relationship between earth degassing and hydrocarbon accumulation or metallogenesis, gestating mechanism of volcanic eruptions and strong earthquakes as well as their relations with mine gas outburst, high-temperature and high-pressure experimental earth science, etc.. (authors)

  8. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  9. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  10. Physical interactions between cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and nowadays is cultivated only in Amazonian region. The seeds that come to about 16% of the dry weight can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product and the content of fat in the seeds is about 60% dry weight. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they show difference in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyse some physical and crystallization properties of the cupuassu fat, cocoa butter and some mixtures between the two fats. The analyses performed were: dropping point, solid fat content, hardness index and Jensen cooling curve. The results suggested some advantages of the use of cupuassu fat, as lower crystallization time and smoothness than cocoa butter. The mixtures showed compatibility, cocoa butter showed bigger solid fat content at room temperature than cupuassu fat and the mixtures. Cupuassu fat had a lower dropping point than cocoa butter. The possible use of cupuassu fat and the mixtures could be in fillings and cold weather chocolate productsCupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Sterculiaceae es una fruta nativa amazónica que hoy día sólo se cultiva en esta región. Las semillas con un 16%, aproximadamente, del peso seco, tienen, aproximadamente, el 60% de grasa y pueden usarse como sustituto de manteca de cacao. En general, estas grasas son similares a las del cacao, aunque muestran diferencias en algunas de sus propiedades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades físicas y de cristalización de la grasa de cupuassu, de la manteca de cacao y de mezclas de las dos grasas. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de goteo, contenido en grasa sólida, índice de dureza y la curva de enfriamiento de Jensen. El tiempo de cristalización inferior y la mayor suavidad que muestra la grasa de cupuassu frente a la manteca de cacao, sugieren algunas ventajas del uso de la misma

  11. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  13. Authentication of feeding fats: Classification of animal fats, fish oils and recycled cooking oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Rozijn, M.; Koot, A.H.; Perez-Garcia, R.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Codony, R.

    2010-01-01

    Classification of fats and oils involves the recognition of one/several markers typical of the product. The ideal marker(s) should be specific to the fat or oil. Not many chemical markers fulfill these criteria. Authenticity assessment is a difficult task, which in most cases requires the

  14. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Rocha, J.L.; Sala, G.; Velde, van de F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the spatial distribution of fat on the perception of fat-related sensory attributes using a model system that consisted of layered agar/gelatin gels containing oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion droplets dispersed in the gel matrix. Four layers of gel varying in the

  15. The influence of fat score and fat trimming on primal cut composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the primal cut composition of South African lamb carcasses with different fat scores, and to identify cuts suitable for fat trimming. Sixty grain fed Dorper lambs (rams and ewes) were divided into three groups and slaughtered at 30, 36 and 42 kg. Chilled carcass sides were ...

  16. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks. Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intra-abdominal fat, by comparison with fat segmentation of an abdominal CT scan in the -30 to -190 HU range. There was a significant (P abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference, as well as the bioimpedance parameter, the R/S ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that these were the only independant variables and allowed the derivation of a formula to estimate intra-abdominal fat: IAF = 0.02 × MAC - 0.757 × R/S + 0.036. Circumabdominal bioimpedance spectroscopy may prove a useful method of assessing intra-abdominal fat, and may be suitable for use in studies to enhance other measures of body composition, such as mid-upper arm circumference.

  17. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  18. INCREASED FAT INTAKE MAY STABILIZED CKD PROGRESSION IN LOW-FAT INTAKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yu Chang

    2012-06-01

    Inadequate calories intake will induce excessive protein catabolism, which can cause accumulation of uremic toxins and acceleration of renal failure. Increasing fats intake is an easy way to achieve adequate calories acquirement and may stabilize the progression of CKD especially in low-fat intake patients.

  19. Fat ViP MRI: Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging of water-fat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Roberto; Hitti, Eric; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gambarota, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    Virtual Phantom Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ViP MRI) is a method to generate reference signals on MR images, using external radiofrequency (RF) signals. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ViP MRI to generate complex-data images of phantoms mimicking water-fat systems. Various numerical phantoms with a given fat fraction, T2* and field map were designed. The k-space of numerical phantoms was converted into RF signals to generate virtual phantoms. MRI experiments were performed at 4.7T using a multi-gradient-echo sequence on virtual and physical phantoms. The data acquisition of virtual and physical phantoms was simultaneous. Decomposition of the water and fat signals was performed using a complex-based water-fat separation algorithm. Overall, a good agreement was observed between the fat fraction, T2* and phase map values of the virtual and numerical phantoms. In particular, fat fractions of 10.5±0.1 (vs 10% of the numerical phantom), 20.3±0.1 (vs 20%) and 30.4±0.1 (vs 30%) were obtained in virtual phantoms. The ViP MRI method allows for generating imaging phantoms that i) mimic water-fat systems and ii) can be analyzed with water-fat separation algorithms based on complex data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat watch: A nationwide campaign in the Netherlands to reduce fat intake-process evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelie, J.; Feen van der, Lille, J.C.J.F. de; Riedstra, M.; Hardeman, W.; Wedel, M.; Brug, J.; Pruyn, J.F.A.; Löwik, M.R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fat Watch was a four-year campaign carried out in cooperation with retailers and industry, aiming at a reduction of fat consumption by 10% among the Dutch population. Mass media and supermarkets were the main conveyers of the message. Supermarkets participated well in the first (53%) and in the

  1. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  2. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  3. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Khodarahm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations.

  4. Massive Cerebral Infarction Following Facial Fat Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Qi; Zhang, Hengshu

    2016-10-01

    Autologous facial fat injection is becoming popular around the world. Semiliquid fat grafts are used for correction of deformities or aesthetic purposes. Fat transfer is a mini-invasive surgical procedure, but causes severe complications occasionally. A 30-year-old female patient presented to our hospital with sudden unconsciousness and left limb weakness 8 h after facial fat injection. Brain arteriography (CTA) and venography were performed immediately after her admission. Frontal temporoparietal decompressive craniectomy plus multiple treatments was scheduled for the patient. The patient was diagnosed with extensive cerebral infarction of the right hemisphere. CTA showed that both external and internal carotid arteries were obstructed. A sectional filling defect could be seen at the telecentric segment of the right carotid artery. No development was observed during the full course of the treatment at the carotid bifurcation, external carotid artery, or internal carotid artery. Routine cosmetic procedures of facial fat injections could cause devastating and even fatal complications to patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the A5 online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  5. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  6. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (pheartburn significantly (pheartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  7. Fat Taste Sensitivity Is Associated with Short-Term and Habitual Fat Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Costanzo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests individuals less sensitive to fat taste (high fat taste thresholds (FTT may be overweight or obese and consume greater amounts of dietary fat than more sensitive individuals. The aims of this study were to assess associations between FTT, anthropometric measurements, fat intake, and liking of fatty foods. FTT was assessed in 69 Australian females (mean age 41.3 (15.6 (SD years and mean body mass index 26.3 (5.7 kg/m2 by a 3-alternate forced choice methodology and transformed to an ordinal scale (FT rank. Food liking was assessed by hedonic ratings of high-fat and reduced-fat foods, and a 24-h food recall and food frequency questionnaire was completed. Linear mixed regression models were fitted. FT rank was associated with dietary % energy from fat ( β ^ = 0.110 [95% CI: 0.003, 0.216], % energy from carbohydrate ( β ^ = −0.112 [−0.188, −0.035], and frequency of consumption of foods per day from food groups: high-fat dairy ( β ^ = 1.091 [0.106, 2.242], meat & meat alternatives ( β ^ = 0.669 [0.168, 1.170], and grain & cereals ( β ^ = 0.771 [0.212, 1.329] (adjusted for energy and age. There were no associations between FT rank and anthropometric measurements or hedonic ratings. Therefore, fat taste sensitivity appears to be associated with short-term fat intake, but not body size in this group of females.

  8. Do Fat Supplements Increase Physical Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Di Felice

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA belong to a popular class of food supplements known as “fat supplements”, which are claimed to reduce muscle glycogen breakdown, reduce body mass, as well as reduce muscle damage and inflammatory responses. Sport athletes consume fish oil and CLA mainly to increase lean body mass and reduce body fat. Recent evidence indicates that this kind of supplementation may have other side-effects and a new role has been identified in steroidogenensis. Preliminary findings demonstrate that fish oil and CLA may induce a physiological increase in testosterone synthesis. The aim of this review is to describe the effects of fish oil and CLA on physical performance (endurance and resistance exercise, and highlight the new results on the effects on testosterone biosynthesis. In view of these new data, we can hypothesize that fat supplements may improve the anabolic effect of exercise.

  9. Why does starvation make bones fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Maureen J

    2011-01-01

    Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Postoperative hypoxemia due to fat embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Bhalla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the reported incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES is low (approximately 1%, it is likely that microscopic fat emboli are showered during manipulation of long bone fractures. Even though there continues to be debate regarding the etiology and proposed mechanism responsible for FES, significant systemic manifestations may occur. Treatment is generally symptomatic based on the clinical presentations. We report a 10-year-old girl who developed hypoxemia following treatment of a displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal tibia. The subsequent evaluation and hospital course pointed to fat embolism as the most likely etiology for the hypoxemia. We discuss the etiology for FES, review the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for its clinical manifestations, present currently accepted diagnostic criteria, and discuss its treatment.

  11. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  12. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  13. RECORDING CULTURAL HERITAGE USING TERRESTRIAL LASERSCANNING – DEALING WITH THE SYSTEM, THE HUGE DATASETS THEY CREATE AND WAYS TO EXTRACT THE NECESSARY DELIVERABLES YOU CAN WORK WITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Christofori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany", the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D

  14. [Fat grafting in facial burns sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, R; Bouguila, J; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Dionyssopoulos, A; Foyatier, J-L

    2012-06-01

    Fat graft is now part of the armamentarium in face plastic surgery. It is successfully used in burn scars. The aim of our study is the discussion of the value of this technique in optimizing cosmetic result of burns face sequelae. Fifteen adult patients (10 females and five males) with scars resulting from severe burns 2 to 9 years previously were selected. The patients were treated by injection of adipose tissue harvested from abdominal subcutaneous fat and processed according to Coleman's technique. Two to three injections were administered at the dermohypodermal junction. Ages, sexes, aetiology of burn, facial burn sequelae, recipient sites, quantity of fat injected, aesthetic results are discussed. Patient age ranged from 21 to 55 years (average: 38). The mean follow-up of the study was 66 months (23-118). Patients received 7.5 (5-11) facial restorative surgeries before fat graft. Patients underwent two sessions of fat transfer, 33cc average per session. We did not report any complications. The clinical appearance, discussed by three surgeons and subjective patient feelings, after a 6-month follow-up period, suggests considerable improvement in the mimic features, skin texture, and thickness. The result is good in 86% of cases and acceptable in the other cases. Burns sequelae offer local conditions which justify special cannula can cross fibrosis and explaining the value of multiplying the sessions. Indications for lipostructure include four distinct nosological situations, sometimes combined. Lipostructure can restore a missing relief, filling a localized depression, reshape a lack of face volume or smooth a scarring skin. Fat graft seems to complete and improve the results of the standard surgical approach in burned face. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G

    1978-08-01

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  16. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  17. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  18. A unique case of a huge mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of non-endobronchial origin with a peripheral growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yabuki

    Full Text Available We report a case of a huge solitary non-endobronchial pulmonary tumor in a 76-year-old male smoker. The tumor measured 11 × 10 × 8 cm. It was ill-defined, and it was located periphery of the right lower lobe with the subpleural cystic spaces. He underwent right lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection and is free from tumor 30 months after surgery. Microscopically, it was composed of a proliferation of squamous and ciliated columnar epithelial cells with a few mucous cells. These cells were arranged in a papillary growth fashion extending along the fibrously thickened alveolar septa together with metaplastic bronchiolar and squamous epithelia displaying an usual interstitial pneumonia-pattern. Although the histologic features of the tumor were that of a mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSCGP, it was peripherally located and showed a lepidic growth, and it was much larger than previously reported MSCGPs. It is possible that the tumor developed in association with bronchial metaplasia in the periphery of the lung, and then extended along the surface of the reconstructed air spaces, which resulted in its unique histologic appearance. Further investigations of respiratory papilloma are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of these lesions. Keywords: Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma, Non-endobronchial, Cytology, Interstitial pneumonia, Pulmonary tumor

  19. Huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile primary hypothyroidism causing cystic ovaries and pseudoprecocious puberty (Van-Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS is well documented in literature. There are only a few reports of primary hypothyroidism presenting as ovarian cysts in adults. Here we present a case of huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of VWGS due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism. Large uniloculor right ovarian cyst (119 × 81 × 90 mm and a multicystic left ovary (55 × 45 × 49 mm were detected in a 24 year lady with secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and palpable abdominal mass with history of neonatal jaundice, delayed milestones, short stature, and precocious menarche at age of 7.5 years age. She had elevated levels of cancer antigen (CA-125 which normalized post levothyroxine supplementation. Elevated CA-125 may lead to misdiagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and inadvertent treatment. Bilateral ovarian cysts in adults are a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism. It is necessary to screen for primary hypothyroidism in patients presenting with bilateral ovarian cysts to prevent unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  20. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  1. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M; Kagemoto, H; Hamada, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  3. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. On the estimation method of hydrodynamic forces acting on a huge floating structure; Choogata futai ni hataraku haryoku ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fatness-Associated FTO Gene Variant Increases Mortality Independent of Fatness - in Cohorts of Danish Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Kring, SI; Berentzen, TL

    2009-01-01

    The A-allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene is associated with increased fatness. We hypothesized that the SNP is associated with morbidity and mortality through the effect on fatness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a population of 362,200 Danish young...... prior to death suggested a general protective effect of the TT genotype, whereas there were only weak associations with disease incidence, except for diseases of the nervous system. CONCLUSION: Independent of fatness, the A-allele of the FTO SNP appears to increase mortality of a magnitude similar...

  6. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  7. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure.......Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  8. Formation of trans fats during food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Oman; Aladedunye, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    An investigation was completed to determine how typical cooking procedures used in food preparation, such as baking and stir-frying, affect trans fats formation. Canola oil was used as the main fat ingredient. Zucchini cake and gingersnap cookies were baked at 180o C and 200o C, while stir-fried chicken was prepared at 200o C and 275o C. The lipids from the food were extracted following the Folch procedure, and analyzed for trans fatty acids according to ISO official method 15304. Minimal changes were observed in the amount of trans fats during baking. Application of extreme temperatures during baking, which caused carbonization of the outer layer of products, yielded an insignificant increase in the amount of trans isomers. As with baking, stir-frying did not result in significant isomerization of the fatty acids, even when the oil was heated to 275o C and smoking heavily before the food was placed in it. Irrespective of the cooking procedure, linolenic acid was the most prone to isomerization with the highest amount of trans isomers formation. Baking and stir-frying at normal and/or extreme temperatures do not significantly affect the amounts of trans fats. Likewise, heating oil to the smoking point during stir-frying may decrease the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids because of oxidative degradation.

  9. Facial rejuvenation: Serial fat graft transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad Mohamed Saad Ibrahiem

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... This a clinical study carried out to test the aesthetic outcome of serial injection of the cryo-preserved fat cells for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes. Methods: Clinical ..... ucts, devices, or drugs mentioned in this manuscript that might create a ... Adipose stem cells and regenerative medicine. 7th ed.

  10. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  11. Understanding hydrodeoxygenation of oils and fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Production of diesel fuels from renewable feedstock is increasing. One auspicious route could be by hydrodeoxygenating waste fats and oils to result long-chain alkanes, a process well suited for existing fuel infrastructure. This was studied over metal oxide-supported platinum-group metals...

  12. Investigation of Hydrodeoxygenation of Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long-chain a...

  13. Ghrelin receptor controls obesity by fat burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence show that brown fat in the body produces heat to burn energy, thus prompting weight loss. Ghrelin is the only known hormone which increases appetite and promotes weight gain. We have reported that mice that lack the receptor which mediates the functions of ghrelin are lean. Our fu...

  14. Relationship between waist circumference, visceral fat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was higher in women for enlarged waist circumference according to the pathological IDF or NCEP / ATP III threshold (p < 0.0001) contrasting with lower rates for pathological accumulation of visceral fat in men (p = 0.0001). The highest values for sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a ...

  15. Fat in the normal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Kera, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    The cavernous sinuses of 17 patients examined by metrizamide CT cisternography with 1.5 mm-thick silces were reviewed. Most of the cavernous sinuses contained fatty components. Anterior lateral end and posterior end of the cavernous sinus are the comon sites where the fat is visible. (orig.)

  16. Pulmonary fat embolism: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douvlou, E.; Vakhnina-Vassila, O.; Vlahou, I.; Petrocheilou, G.; Markantonatos, D.; Petinelli, A.; Stathopoulou, S.; Kokkinis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Fat embolism is a clinical syndrome that usually occurs from the first to third day after a bone fracture or/and an orthopaedic surgery. The target organs are the lungs and more rarely the brain and the skin. Objectives and tasks: The aim of this presentation is to discuss the imaging diagnostic criteria of lung fat embolism in CT on the occasion of a case. Material and methods: A 30-years-old male patient was admitted to the Orthopaedic Department after a motorbike accident. A fracture of the head of his right femur was diagnosed and the patient underwent a surgery 3 days later. During the first postoperative day, the patient presented severe dyspnoea, tachycardia, a significant fall of PO 2 (59 mmHg) and a parallel increase in d-Dimmers (7.8 mg/l). The patient was then referred for a chest CT scan. Results: Contrast enhanced CT excluded the presence of thrombus in the pulmonary arteries and raised the diagnosis of lung fat embolism (septal thickening with a nodular pattern and diffuse ground-glass opacities along with the presence of small quantity of bilateral pleural effusions). Conclusion: Chest CT prior and the use of intravenous contrast media after is the most reliable diagnostic method to confirm or exclude pulmonary fat embolism syndrome

  17. Anthropometrical Profile, Skinfold Tickness and Subcutaneous Fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The threatening health problems resulting from excess subcutaneous fat depositions have been reported by the world Health Organization. Also noteworthy is that childhood obesity is a pointer to adult obesity. This necessitated a study on the anthropometrical profiles of adolescents of Southeast Nigeria using ...

  18. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  19. Rheological properties of cupuassu and cocoa fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioielli, L. A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa butter is an important ingredient in chocolate formulation as it dictates the main properties (texture, sensation in the mouth, and gloss. In the food industry, the texture of fat-containing products strongly depends on the macroscopic properties of the fat network formed within the finished product. Cupuassu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , Sterculiaceae is an Amazonian native fruit and the seeds can be used to derive a cocoa butter like product. In general, these fats are similar to those of cocoa, although they are different in some physical properties. The objective of this study was to analyze several properties of the cupuassu fat and cocoa butter (crystal formation at 25 ° C, rheological properties, and fatty acid composition and mixtures between the two fats (rheological properties, in order to understand the behavior of these fats for their use in chocolate products. Fat flow was described using common rheological models ( Newton , Power Law, Casson and Bingham plastic.La manteca de cacao es un ingrediente muy importante en la formulación de chocolates y es responsable de la mayor parte de sus propiedades (textura, palatibilidad y brillo. En la industria de alimentos, la textura de productos que contienen grasa depende enormemente de las propiedades macroscópicas de la red cristalina de la grasa en el producto final. El cupuaçu es una fruta nativa de la región amazónica y sus semillas pueden ser usadas para obtener una grasa semejante a la manteca de cacao. En general, esta grasa es similar a la manteca de cacao, pero difiere en algunas de sus propiedades fisicas . El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar algunas propiedades de la grasa de cupuaçu y de la manteca de cacao (formación de cristales a 25 °C, propiedades reológicas y composición en ácidos grasos y de algunas mezclas entre las dos grasas (propiedades reológicas, a fin de conocer el comportamiento de estas grasas para ser usadas en productos de la industria

  20. Long-term fat diet adaptation effects on performance, training capacity, and fat utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that adaptation to a fat-rich carbohydrate-poor diet results in lower resting muscle glycogen content and a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise when compared with a carbohydrate-rich diet. The net effect of such an adaptation could potentially be a sparing of muscle...... glycogen, and because muscle glycogen storage is coupled to endurance performance, it is possible that adaptation to a high-fat diet potentially could enhance endurance performance. Therefore, the first issue in this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence for a potential endurance...... performance enhancement after long-term fat-rich diet adaptation. Attainment of optimal performance is among other factors dependent also on the quality and quantity of the training performed. When exercise intensity is increased, there is an increased need for carbohydrates. On the other hand, consumption...

  1. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage for composition measurement of no radiation exposure ... Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with .... spiral CT scan with 3-mm slices covering the abdomen,.

  2. Improving low fat meatball characteristics by adding whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdaroğlu, Meltem

    2006-01-01

    In this study whey powder (WP) at levels of 0%, 2% and 4% was added to beef meatballs formulated with 5%, 10% and 20% fat levels. Raw and cooked meatballs were analyzed for protein, fat, moisture, ash and pH. Meatballs were evaluated for cooking characteristics, juiciness, colour parameters (L*,a*,b*) and sensory properties. Addition of WP did not affect fat and protein contents of meatballs. Addition of 2% or 4% WP significantly increased cooking yield regardless of the fat level. Both fat level and WP level significantly affected fat retention values of meatballs. Incorporating WP had no effect on meatball juiciness. Addition of WP increased fat and moisture retention of meatballs. Twenty percent fat resulted in higher L* and lower a* values. Adding WP resulted in higher L* values but WP had no effect on a* and b* values. WP had no detrimental effect on sensory properties.

  3. Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis association of milk fat and protein percent in quantitative trait locus ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Protein and fat percent as content of milk are high-priority criteria for financial aims and selection of programs in dairy cattle.

  4. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  5. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  6. Food sources of fat may clarify the inconsistent role of dietary fat intake for incidence of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Ulrika; Hellstrand, Sophie; Brunkwall, Louise; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Sonestedt, Emily; Wallström, Peter; Gullberg, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fats could affect glucose metabolism and obesity development and, thereby, may have a crucial role in the cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicated that replacing saturated with unsaturated fats might be favorable, and plant foods might be a better choice than animal foods. Nevertheless, epidemiologic studies suggested that dairy foods are protective. We hypothesized that, by examining dietary fat and its food sources classified according to fat type and fat content, some clarification regarding the role of dietary fat in T2D incidence could be provided. A total of 26,930 individuals (61% women), aged 45-74 y, from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort were included in the study. Dietary data were collected by using a modified diet-history method. During 14 y of follow-up, 2860 incident T2D cases were identified. Total intake of high-fat dairy products (regular-fat alternatives) was inversely associated with incident T2D (HR for highest compared with lowest quintiles: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.87; P-trend fat fermented milk (P-trend fat dairy products was associated with increased risk, but this association disappeared when low- and high-fat dairy were mutually adjusted (P-trend = 0.18). Intakes of both high-fat meat (P-trend = 0.04) and low-fat meat (P-trend fat content and T2D (P-trend = 0.24), but intakes of saturated fatty acids with 4-10 carbons, lauric acid (12:0), and myristic acid (14:0) were associated with decreased risk (P-trend fat dairy products suggests that dairy fat partly could have contributed to previously observed protective associations between dairy intake and T2D. Meat intake was associated with increased risk independently of the fat content. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  9. Quantitative assessment of fat infiltration in the rotator cuff muscles using water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Lansdown, Drew A; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Lee, Sonia; Maroldi, Roberto; Ma, C Benjamin; Link, Thomas M; Krug, Roland

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate a chemical shift-based fat quantification technique in the rotator cuff muscles in comparison with the semiquantitative Goutallier fat infiltration classification (GC) and to assess their relationship with clinical parameters. The shoulders of 57 patients were imaged using a 3T MR scanner. The rotator cuff muscles were assessed for fat infiltration using GC by two radiologists and an orthopedic surgeon. Sequences included oblique-sagittal T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted fast spin echo, and six-echo gradient echo. The iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) was used to measure fat fraction. Pain and range of motion of the shoulder were recorded. Fat fraction values were significantly correlated with GC grades (P 0.9) showing consistent increase with GC grades (grade = 0, 0%-5.59%; grade = 1, 1.1%-9.70%; grade = 2, 6.44%-14.86%; grade = 3, 15.25%-17.77%; grade = 4, 19.85%-29.63%). A significant correlation between fat infiltration of the subscapularis muscle quantified with IDEAL versus 1) deficit in internal rotation (Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient [SRC] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.60, P infiltration measures of the supraspinatus muscle were significantly correlated with a deficit in abduction (SRC coefficient = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.60, P water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is possible and significantly correlates with shoulder pain and range of motion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  11. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  12. Superposition model analysis of nickel(II) ions in trigonal bipyramidal complexes exhibiting huge zero field splitting (aka ‘giant magnetic anisotropy’)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Açıkgöz, Muhammed [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States); Gnutek, Paweł [Institute of Physics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn-Teller distortions of five-fold coordinated Ni-complexes revealed by DFT geometry optimization, the ZFSPs are predicted for several structural models and wide ranges of model parameters. - Highlights: • Semiempirical study of potential SMM [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br). • Superposition model analysis of zero field splitting (ZFS) parameters carried out. • Jahn-Teller distortions revealed by DFT geometry optimization considered. • SPM predicts D(ZFS) of observed magnitudes with positive or negative signs. • Results corroborate giant ZFS, which shall not be equated with magnetic anisotropy. - Abstract: Potential single-ion magnet Ni{sup 2+} systems: [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) reveal unusually high zero field splitting (ZFS). The ZFS parameter (ZFSP) D{sub expt} = −120 to −180 cm{sup −1} was determined indirectly by high-magnetic field, high-frequency electron magnetic resonance (HMF-EMR). Modeling ZFSPs using the density functional theory (DFT) codes predicts D values: −100 to −200 cm{sup −1}. Such ZFSP values may seem controversial in view of the D values usually not exceeding several tens of cm{sup −1} for Ni{sup 2+} ions. To corroborate or otherwise these results and elucidate the origin of the huge ZFS (named inappropriately as ‘giant uniaxial magnetic anisotropy’) and respective wavefunctions, we have undertaken semiempirical modeling based on the crystal field (CF) and spin Hamiltonians (SH) theory. In this paper, a feasibility study is carried out to ascertain if superposition model (SPM) calculations may yield such huge D values for these Ni{sup 2+} systems. Using crystal structure data for [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Cl](ClO{sub 4}) and [Ni(Me{sub 6}tren)Br](Br) as well as taking into account the Jahn

  13. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Luňáková; Matej Pospiech; Bohuslava Tremlová; Alena Saláková; Zdeňka Javůrková; Josef Kameník

    2016-01-01

    Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains consid...

  14. MRI Findings of Pericardial Fat Necrosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Hyeok; Ryu, Dae Shick; Jung, Sang Sig; Jung, Seung Mun; Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Dae Hee

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial fat necrosis is an infrequent cause of acute chest pain and this can mimic acute myocardial infarction and acute pericarditis. We describe here a patient with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of pericardial fat necrosis and this was correlated with the computed tomography (CT) findings. The MRI findings may be helpful for distinguishing pericardial fat necrosis from other causes of acute chest pain and from the fat-containing tumors in the cardiophrenic space of the anterior mediastinum.

  15. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  16. Dioxin monitoring in fats oils for the feed industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Sterrenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present project was to determine the most critical steps in the production of fats and oils. First, production processes of vegetables oils, animal fat, fish oil, biodiesel and fat blending were studied and experts from the industry as well as in-house dioxin experts were consulted to

  17. GIANT FAT CONTAINING BREAST MASSES: REPORT OF SIX ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-02

    Feb 2, 2003 ... and be mistaken for fibroadenoma(6). Oil cysts (traumatic lipid cyst) represent a focal form of fat necrosis(1). It is produced by saponification of fat by tissue lipase after local destruction of fat cells with release of lipids and associated haemorrhage and fibrotic proliferation. It may result from direct breast.

  18. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed fat shortening. 319.701 Section... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may... descending order of predominance. ...

  19. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  20. Association between fatness and coronary heart disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and lipid profile (cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose) by the fasting blood test. Weak correlations were obtained between fatness and the CHD risk factors for both genders. Positive correlations were reported for fatness against all the CHD variables except ...

  1. Raman hyperspectral imaging and analysis of fat spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, van G.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Heussen, P.C.M.; Sovago, M.; Malssen, van K.F.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure of fat spreads is of fundamental importance to their sensorial properties such as texture, mouthfeel and spreadability. Fat spreads are water in oil emulsions,with a continuous phase supported by a fat crystal network. Confocal Raman microscopy offers the possibility for the

  2. Quantifying Long-term Retention of Excised Fat Grafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herly, Mikkel; Ørholt, Mathias; Glovinski, Peter V.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Predicting the degree of fat graft retention is essential whenplanning reconstruction or augmentation with free fat grafting. Most surgeonsobserve volume loss over time after fat grafting; however, the portion lost toresorption after surgery is still poorly defined, and the time to re...

  3. Fatal Fat Embolism After Penis Enlargement by Autologous Fat Transfer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, Brita; Råsten-Almqvist, Petra

    2017-09-01

    Fat embolism is an incidental finding in cases of long bone fractures or other trauma, but it is also associated with liposuction and autologous fat transfer, a procedure where fat from liposuction is injected back into the same patient's face, breast, buttocks or penis. We here present a case of sudden death by fat embolism in a healthy young male, caused by a simple penis enlargement procedure, in which fat was injected into the penis shaft. We suggest that the risk of fat embolization might be higher when pretraumatized tissue is subjected to fat injection, like in this case, where a penis elongation was performed before the fat injection. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Possibilities to develop low-fat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufeanu Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has proved a relationship between high fat consumption and rise in obesity, atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases and high blood pressure. Therefore is recommended the moderate consumption of fat, such that the total fat does not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Our body needs fats because are providers of calories, essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and also they are necessary ingredients of the foods. The development of products with low-fat content can be considerate a challenge because the lipids offers aroma, texture, appearance, flavour and mouth feel, qualities that customers want in food products. A fat reduction can be achieved by using different fat replacers to ensure the functionality of the replaced fat. Functional components of fat replacers can have a significant role in promotion of wellbeing, in treating and preventing diseases. Thus, fat replacers should be recognized as safe and healthy, which have sensorial and functional properties. This paper reviews the fat replacers used to obtain foods as meat-based or dairy products. Some ways to obtain healthier meat products by reducing saturated fats content consist in the utilization of unsaturated vegetable oils, vegetable products, fibre. The utilization of fibre in products such bolognas, sausages or hamburgers, can improve the texture profile, binding properties and the characteristics regarding the cooking process. A fat reduction in dairy products can be achieved by replacing it with starches, polysaccharides, gums or fibres from cereal, vegetables and fruits. In acidified milk products, fibres have benefits as: low syneresis, sensory characteristics accepted by consumers, improvement of texture and rheological properties. In cheeses production, the fat reduction can be realised by replacing it with carbohydrate or protein-based replacers in order to obtain a final product with proper characteristics.

  5. Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. One of the candidate factors for determining the increase of fat oxidation after a switch from a reduced-fat diet to a high-fat diet is the size of the glycogen storage. Therefore, we studied the effect of low glycogen stores on

  6. An Entertainment-Education Study of Stereotypes and Prejudice against Fat Women: An Evaluation of "Fat Pig"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of "Fat Pig" on the attitudes of high school students towards fat women and investigate the perspective of dietitians as health professionals on the messages in "Fat Pig." Design: Performance analysis, pre-post analysis of students' responses to self-administrated pre-constructed…

  7. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  8. Utilization of konjac glucomannan as a fat replacer in low-fat and skimmed yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuhong; Corke, Harold; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-09-01

    Konjac glucomannan (KGM) has been reported to be beneficial to human health, as well as having potential functional properties as a fat replacer in dairy products. In this study, 0.5% KGM solution was added to prepare low-fat (LFKGM) and skimmed (SKKGM) yogurts, and their physicochemical properties were compared with those of full-fat yogurt control (FFC), low-fat yogurt control (LFC), and skimmed yogurt control (SKC). Properties and composition were determined and the microscopic structures of all yogurts were observed during storage at 4°C for 21d. Generally, addition of KGM to yogurts had no significant effect on composition, pH, and titratable acidity at each storage day. The LFKGM and SKKGM had higher whiteness, greenness, and yellowness hues compared with those of the LFC and SKC. The proteolysis of LFKGM and SKKGM was similar to that of FFC, whereas it was lower than in LFC and SKC after 14d of storage. Addition of KGM had no positive effects on the water-holding capacity, but led to a decrease in syneresis and spontaneous whey separation in LFKGM and SKKGM compared with those of LFC and SKC. The spontaneous whey separation of LFKGM was similar to that of FFC. Presence of KGM in skimmed yogurt affected textural characteristics, while having little effect on texture of low-fat yogurt. Additionally, LFKGM and SKKGM showed stronger and more stable gel structures than those of FFC, LFC, and SKC. Overall, no substantial changes were found in the characteristics for each yogurt during storage, except for pH and gel structures. Results indicated that KGM may be a good fat replacer to develop reduced-fat yogurts with desired characteristics. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  10. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...... with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  12. Data transfer over the long fat networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Morita, Y.; Karita, Y.; Watase, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The necessity to distribute the data over the wide area network (WAN) to the physicists' home institutes will increase, and the effective utilization of the network becomes crucial. However, networks in the future WAN will typically have a large bandwidth at an order of gigabit per second, with a latency of several hundreds seconds so that the large bandwidth-delay product extends to tens of magabytes and numerous problems are encountered. Such networks are called 'long fat networks (LFNs)'. In order to study the data transfer operating on a long fat network, the authors have built the PC clusters connected with the router which can simulate bandwidth limitations, delays, packet losses, and multipath effects. This router is running on FreeBSD with DUMMYNET kernel option. On these machines the authors have measured the performance of the bulk data transfer with numerous conditions and studied the efficient transfer methods

  13. Determination of solid fat content by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Tsukasa; Kato, Chihiro; Suzuki, Kazuaki

    1984-01-01

    To establish a standard method for determing solid fat content, the NMR method was tested at six laboratories and the results were examined for collaboration. Two types of instruments, pulse NMR and wide-line NMR were used. Standard deviation in results at six laboratories was less than 1.5 for the step wise method, but more than 1.5 for the rapid method. The standard deviation in results at a single laboratory was much less than either of these cases. No significant difference could be observed in the values obtained using both instruments. Solid fat content values measured for a mixture of fully hydrogenated rapeseed and rapeseed oil agreed well with the percentage of solid by weight. (author)

  14. Histologic features of mesotherapy-induced orbital fat inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Cameron B; Minckler, Donald S; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2009-01-01

    A 67-year-old man developed acute orbital inflammation after receiving cosmetic mesotherapy (Lipo-Dissolve) to the inferior orbital fat compartments. The injection was intended to cause lipolysis and shrinkage of fat lobules with subsequent cosmetic improvement. Injections of a mixture of bile salts, phospholipid, and alcohol preservative bilaterally in inferior orbital fat lobules led to an acute inflammatory reaction characterized histologically 12 days later by mild lymphocytic infiltration, fat necrosis, and fibrosis in the target areas. Benign proliferation of peripheral nerve trunks consistent with a traumatic neuroma was also noted histologically on one side. Inflammation including fat necrosis and traumatic neuroma are all possible consequences of mesotherapy.

  15. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  16. Intra-abdominal fat area measurement using chest CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Kouji; Ishii, Akira; Saitou, Kumi; Andou, Tomonori; Kitamura, Naoko; Sakuma, Koutarou

    2007-01-01

    Intra-abdominal fat obesity, which is linked with the metabolic syndrome, is usually characterized by measuring intra-abdominal fat area at the umbilical level of abdominal CT scan. In recent year, the chances of chest CT scanning are increased, as lung cancer screening survey or individual medical examination. Thus, we presented a method of measuring the areas of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat at the lower slice of chest CT scan. Fat areas found with this method were significantly correlated with those obtained at the umbilical level. (author)

  17. [Effect of fats on cardiovascular disease prevention in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Stender, Steen; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2014-05-05

    In Denmark death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) has decreased, mainly due to a 72% reduction since 1990 in death from ischaemic heart disease from reduced smoking, elimination of industrial trans fatty acids in the diet, and more effective medical treatment. Replacement of saturated fat by carbohydrate and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat may increase CVD, but it is reduced by substitution with n-3 fats, monounsaturated fat, or low glycaemic index carbohydrates. Despite a high saturated fat content dark chocolate and cheese may reduce CVD and diabetes risk and eggs may be neutral, and less restrictive dietary recommendations are indicated.

  18. Quantification of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Scott B.; Sirlin, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular fat accumulation is common feature of liver disease. Intracellular fat (steatosis) is the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but also may occur with alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, and chemotherapy. This article reviews emerging magnetic resonance imaging techniques that attempt to quantify liver fat. The content provides an overview of fatty liver disease and diseases where fat is an important disease feature. Also discussed is the current use and limitation of non-targeted biopsy in diffuse liver disease, and why quantitative non-invasive biomarkers of liver fat would be beneficial. PMID:21094444

  19. Fat in the liver: diagnosis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls, Carlos [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); Iannacconne, Ricardo [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); Ospedale la Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Roma (Italy); Alba, Esther [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Murakami, Takamichi; Hori, Masatoshi [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Passariello, Roberto [Ospedale la Sapienza, Department of Radiology, Roma (Italy); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France)

    2006-10-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide an update on imaging techniques useful for detection and characterization of fat in the liver. Imaging findings of liver steatosis, both diffuse steatosis and focal fatty change, as well as focal fatty sparing, are presented. In addition, we will review computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings of focal liver lesions with fatty metamorphosis, including hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatocellular adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, angiomyolipoma, lipoma, and metastases. (orig.)

  20. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379. Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg/height(m(2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR; models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural, age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy. RESULTS: BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2 versus men (25.3(0.1, P<0.0001 as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001 and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001. Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5] areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6], than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]. They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3] or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]. Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. CONCLUSION: The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in

  1. Huge heterogeneity in survival in a subset of adult patients with resected, wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase status, WHO grade II astrocytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulen, Gaëtan; Gozé, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Duffau, Hugues

    2018-04-20

    21 patients with a long-term follow-up greater than 5 years have died. There were no significant differences between the clinical, radiological, or molecular characteristics of the survivors relative to the patients who died. CONCLUSIONS Huge heterogeneity in the survival data for a subset of 31 patients with resected IDH-wt AII tumors was observed. These findings suggest that IDH mutation status alone is not sufficient to predict risk of malignant transformation and survival at the individual level. Therefore, the therapeutic management of AII tumors, in particular the decision to administer early adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy following surgery, should not solely rely on routine molecular markers.

  2. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)(2) and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), PGender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio-economic position should be sought so that appropriate policies to reduce these inequalities can be implemented in Tunisia and similar settings.

  3. Treatment of the Infection after Fat Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus stain, polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and mycobacterial cultures were conducted for diagnosis under suspicion of atypical mycoplasma infection. Then, combination antibiotics therapy, surgical treatment, and steroid injection were performed for treatment. Both patients were diagnosed with Mycobacterium chelonae in PCR test. They were positive to mycobacterial cultures. Combination antibiotics therapy was repeated to improvement of symptom. However, they could not be free from side effects such as deformation in facial contour, scar and pigmentation even after full recovery. When chronic wound infections after autologous fat injection, we must suspect atypical or mycobacterial infection and conduct examinations for a early diagnosis and proper antibiotic therapy that is effective to the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  4. Studies of fat absorption using radioiodinated triolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelp, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Fat absorption has been classically measured by comparing the fat content of the faeces with that of the diet, using chemical assay methods, and this procedure is usually assumed to give the ''right'' answer which the results of other methods should approach. The care and expense associated with the balance method, however, have led to the development of other methods, notably the use of 131 I-triolein as a tracer for fat. This technique has often given poor agreement with the chemical method, and the possible reasons therefore include: errors in the balance method, radiochemical impurity of the 131 I-triolein preparation, and faulty technique with 131 I-triolein. This paper reviews these sources of error and their importance in a series of tests on 44 subjects. It is concluded that the 131 I-triolein test does have diagnostic utility, and further studies may show this to be greatest when faecal excretion of 131 I activity is compared with that of a simultaneously administered non-absorbable marker such as 131 Ba. (author)

  5. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  6. Longitudinal changes in abdominal fat distribution with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Kanaley, Jill A

    2009-03-01

    Increases in abdominal fat have been reported with menopause, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution (visceral vs subcutaneous) is still unclear. The objective of the study was to determine if abdominal fat content (volume) or distribution is altered with menopause. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 8 healthy women, both in the premenopausal state and 8 years later in the postmenopausal state. Physical activity (PA) and blood lipids were also measured. Body weight and waist circumference did not change with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: body weight, 63.2 +/- 3.1 vs 63.9 +/- 2.5 kg; waist circumference, 92.1 +/- 4.6 vs 93.4 +/- 3.7 cm); however, total abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat all significantly (P fat distribution was not significantly different after menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: subcutaneous, 73% +/- 3% vs 71% +/- 3%; visceral, 26% +/- 3% vs 28% +/- 3%). Lean mass, fat mass, and PA, along with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, did not change with menopause. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein both increased (P abdominal fat content increased with menopause despite no change in PA, body weight, or waist circumference; however, menopause did not affect the relative abdominal fat distribution in these women.

  7. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  8. A case report for fatal Churg-Strauss syndrome complications: first reported death due to rapid progression of prominently huge hepatic capsular hematoma and multi-system organ hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiejing; Tong, Hongyan; Chen, Feifei; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare disease that has an extremely low incidence rate. CSS prognosis is good, in general; and there are no reports of multiple-organ hemorrhage in CSS. We report a unique case of CSS, wherein, an elderly man experienced multiple organ hemorrhage -- a particularly huge hematoma under the capsule of the liver and poor prognosis. PMID:25419420

  9. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  10. Oral lipase activities and fat-taste receptors for fat-taste sensing in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a functional fat-taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and that chickens can detect fat taste in a behavioral test. However, although triglycerides need to be digested to free fatty acids to be recognized by fat-taste receptors such as GPR120, it remains unknown whether lipase activities exist in chicken oral tissues. To examine this question, we first cloned another fat-taste receptor candidate gene, CD36, from the chicken palate. Then, using RT-PCR, we determined that GPR120 and CD36 were broadly expressed in chicken oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Also by RT-PCR, we confirmed that several lipase genes were expressed in both oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Finally, we analyzed the lipase activities of oral tissues by using a fluorogenic triglyceride analog as a lipase substrate. We found there are functional lipases in oral tissues as well as in the stomach and pancreas. These results suggested that chickens have a basic fat-taste reception system that incorporates a triglycerides/oral-lipases/free fatty acids/GPR120 axis and CD36 axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fighting fat: how do fat stereotypes influence beliefs about physical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy; Martin, Scott B; Rhea, Debbie

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine college students' beliefs about youth obesity, the roles of schools and physical education in addressing obesity, and the training they receive to work with overweight youth. Physical education-related (n = 212) and nonphysical education-related (n = 218) majors completed a demographic questionnaire, a Modified Fat Stereotypes Questionnaire (M-FSQ), and a Perceptions of Physical Education Questionnaire. On the basis of M-FSQ scores, participants were identified as endorsing stereotypes (n = 360) or not endorsing stereotypes (n = 70). The importance of youth being normal weight was rated most highly among participants in physical education-related majors and among those who endorsed fat stereotypes. Participants who endorsed fat stereotypes, compared to those who did not, were more likely to believe that all school professionals should be involved in treating childhood obesity. Participants who endorsed fat stereotypes, compared to those who did not, more strongly agreed that physical educators should be role models by maintaining normal weight and educating parents on childhood obesity, and PE classes should focus on lifelong fitness. No group differences in perceived competencies to develop exercise, weight loss, nutritional, and educational programs for overweight youth were found. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which these types of differences result from educational curricula that link weight and health and, possibly, reinforce negative stereotypes of overweight children. Methods for effectively intervening in educational training environments to reduce fat stereotypes among preprofessionals need to be investigated.

  12. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or...

  13. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  14. Low-fat vs. high-fat bedtime snacks in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darrell; Chase, H Peter; Kollman, Craig; Xing, Dongyuan; Caswell, Kimberly; Tansey, Michael; Fox, Larry; Weinzimer, Stuart; Beck, Roy; Ruedy, Katrina; Tamborlane, William

    2008-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether, in a group of children with type 1 diabetes using insulin pump, a prebedtime snack with a relatively high fat content provides greater protection from nocturnal hypoglycemia than a snack containing the same amount of carbohydrate and protein but a lower fat content. Ten subjects, aged 6 to carbohydrate-low-fat (30 g CHO, 2.5 g protein, and 1.3 g fat; 138 kcal) snack or a carbohydrate-high-fat (30 g CHO, 2 g protein, and 20 g fat; 320 kcal) snack. Subjects used their usual evening snack algorithm to determine the size (in 15-g carbohydrate increments) and insulin dosage. Average glucose on 128 valid study nights before snack was similar in both groups. The proportion of nights with hypoglycemia (a sensor or meter glucose value fat vs. 20% low fat), as was the proportion of nights with hyperglycemia (a glucose >or=200 mg/dL and at least 50 mg/dL above baseline, 35% high fat vs. 30% low fat). There were no statistical differences between the high- and low-fat snacks on the frequency of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. This study highlights the feasibility of web-based research in patients' home environment.

  15. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  17. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  18. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  19. Saturated Fat Is More Metabolically Harmful for the Human Liver Than Unsaturated Fat or Simple Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Panu K; Sädevirta, Sanja; Zhou, You

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (i.e., increased intrahepatic triglyceride [IHTG] content), predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Adipose tissue lipolysis and hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) are the main pathways contributing to IHTG. We hypothesized that dietary...... macronutrient composition influences the pathways, mediators, and magnitude of weight gain-induced changes in IHTG. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We overfed 38 overweight subjects (age 48 ± 2, BMI 31 ± 1 kg/m2, liver fat 4.7 ± 0.9%) 1,000 extra kcal/day of saturated (SAT) or unsaturated (UNSAT) fat or simple...

  20. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Elizabeth F; Eutsler, Eric P; Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia.