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Sample records for huge electrocaloric effect

  1. Polarization rotation and the electrocaloric effect in barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. H.; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electrocaloric effect in the classic ferroelectric BaTiO3 through a series of phase transitions driven by applied electric field and temperature. We find both negative and positive electrocaloric effects, with the negative electrocaloric effect, where temperature decreases with applied field, in monoclinic phases. Macroscopic polarization rotation is evident through the monoclinic and orthorhombic phases under applied field, and is responsible for the negative electrocaloric effect.

  2. Electrocaloric effect in KH2PO4 family crystals

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    A.S. Vdovych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The proton ordering model for the KH2PO4 type ferroelectrics is modified by taking into account the dependence of the effective dipole moments on the proton ordering parameter. Within the four-particle cluster approximation we calculate the crystal polarization and explore the electrocaloric effect. Smearing of the ferroelectric phase transition by a longitudinal electric field is described. A good agreement with experiment is obtained.

  3. Direct and indirect measurements on electrocaloric effect: Recent developments and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-09-01

    It has been ten years since the discovery of the giant electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric materials showed that it is possible to employ this effect for substantial cooling applications. This last decade has been marked by increasing research interest, especially in characterizing and measuring the electrocaloric effect using both the so-called indirect and direct approaches. In this context, a comprehensive summary and careful reexamination of these approaches are very timely and of great importance to justify the assumptions used in different measurement techniques. This review is therefore dedicated to cover recent important and rapid advances from both the indirect and direct measurements and provides critical insights relevant for quantifying the electrocaloric effect. It involves electrocaloric materials from normal ferroelectrics, antiferroelectrics, and relaxors, and it fundamentally focuses on how the electrocaloric entropy changes in response to electric field in these typical electrocalorics. The article addresses recent developments, especially during the past three years, such as technical selection of proper polarization-electric field loops, negative electrocaloric effect in antiferroelectrics and relaxors, the controversial debate on the indirect method in relaxors, the important role of field dependence of specific heat, kinetic factors, and so on. Moreover, this review also is concerned with extracting reliable data by direct measurements. Four typical techniques and devices used recently, such as thermocouples, differential scanning calorimeters, specifically designed calorimeters, and scanning thermal microscopy, are briefly reviewed, while infrared cameras are emphasized. We hope that our review will not only provide a useful background to understand fundamentally the electrocaloric effect and what one really measures but also may act as a practical guide to exploit and develop electrocalorics towards the design of suitable devices.

  4. Why is the electrocaloric effect so small in ferroelectrics?

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    G. G. Guzmán-Verri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectrics are attractive candidate materials for environmentally friendly solid state refrigeration free of greenhouse gases. Their thermal response upon variations of external electric fields is largest in the vicinity of their phase transitions, which may occur near room temperature. The magnitude of the effect, however, is too small for useful cooling applications even when they are driven close to dielectric breakdown. Insight from microscopic theory is therefore needed to characterize materials and provide guiding principles to search for new ones with enhanced electrocaloric performance. Here, we derive from well-known microscopic models of ferroelectricity meaningful figures of merit for a wide class of ferroelectric materials. Such figures of merit provide insight into the relation between the strength of the effect and the characteristic interactions of ferroelectrics such as dipolar forces. We find that the long range nature of these interactions results in a small effect. A strategy is proposed to make it larger by shortening the correlation lengths of fluctuations of polarization. In addition, we bring into question other widely used but empirical figures of merit and facilitate understanding of the recently observed secondary broad peak in the electrocalorics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  5. Optimized electrocaloric effect by field reversal: Analytical model

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    Ma, Yang-Bin; Novak, Nikola; Albe, Karsten; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Applying a negative field on a positively poled ferroelectric sample can enhance the electrocaloric cooling and is a promising method to optimize the electrocaloric cycle. Experimental measurements show that the maximal cooling is not obtained, when the electric field is removed, but reversed to a value corresponding to the shoulder of the P-E loop. This phenomenon cannot be explained if a constant total entropy is assumed under adiabatic conditions. Thus, a direct analysis of entropy changes based on work loss is proposed in this work, which takes the entropy contribution of the irreversible process into account. The optimal reversed field determined by this approach agrees with the experimental observations. This study signifies the importance of considering irreversible process in the electrocaloric cycles.

  6. Giant Electrocaloric Effect in Ferroelectrics with Tailored Polaw-Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiming [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Electrocaloric effect (ECE) is the temperature and/or entropy change in a dielectric material caused by an electric field induced polarization change. Although ECE has been studied since 1930s, the very small ECE observed in earlier studies in bulk materials before 2007 makes it not attractive for practical cooling applications. The objectives of this DOE program are to carry out a systematical scientific research on the entropy change and ECE in polar-dielectrics, especially ferroelectrics based on several fundamental hypotheses and to search for answers on a few scientific questions. Especially, this research program developed a series of polar-dielectric materials with controlled nano- and meso-structures and carried out studies on how these structures affect the polar-ordering, correlations, energy landscapes, and consequently the entropy states at different phases and ECE. The key hypotheses of the program include: (i) Whether a large ECE can be obtained near the ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition in properly designed ferroelectrics which possess large polarization P and large ß (the coefficient in the thermodynamic Landau theory where the Gibbs free energy G = G = G0+ ½ a P2 +1/4 b P4 + 1/6 c P6 – EP, and a = ß (T-Tc), where b,c,ß and Tc are constants)? (ii) What determines/determine ß? Whether a ferroelectric material with built-in disorders, which disrupt the polar-correlations and enabling a large number of local polar-states, such as a properly designed ferroelectric relaxor, can achieve a large ECE? (iii) How to design a ferroelectric material which has flat energy landscape so that the energy barriers for switching among different phases are vanishingly small? What are the necessary conditions to maximize the number of coexisting phases? (iv) How to design ferroelectric materials with a large tunable dielectric response? That is, at zero electric field, the material possesses very

  7. Large enhancement of the electrocaloric effect in PLZT ceramics prepared by hot-pressing

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    Guangzu Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we demonstrate the optimization of the microstructures of the Pb0.85La0.1(Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 (PLZT relaxor ferroelectric ceramics and subsequent enhancements in their polarization and electrical resistivity by using a hot-pressing process. The resulting superior breakdown strength of hot-pressed PLZT enables the application of high electric field to induce a giant electrocaloric effect, in which the adiabatic change of temperature (ΔT and the isothermal change of entropy (ΔS are around 2 times greater than those of the samples prepared by the conventional sintering approach using muffle furnace. Moreover, the addition of extra PbO to make up the loss of Pb in the high-temperature sintering leads to the further improvements in the phase composition and electrical properties of PLZT, due to inhibition of the pyrochlore phase formation. The relationship among the sintering conditions, the content of excess PbO, and the microstructure as well as the electrical characteristics of PLZT have been investigated in a systematic manner. This work provides a facile approach to enhanced electrocaloric effect in bulk ceramics.

  8. Study of electro-caloric effect in Ca and Sn co-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Fatima, Iram; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2017-04-01

    The present work deals with the study of structural, ferroelectric, dielectric and electro-caloric effects in lead free ferroelectric polycrystalline Ba1-x Ca x Ti0.95Sn0.05O3 (x  =  2, 5 and 10%) i.e. Ca, Sn co-doped BaTiO3 (BTO). Phase purity of the samples is confirmed from x-ray data by using Rietveld refinement. 119Sn Mössbauer reveals homogenous phase as well as iso-valent substitution of Sn at Ti site. Enhancements in ferroelectric and dielectric properties have been observed. Indirect method which is based on Maxwell equation has been used to determine the electro-caloric (EC) effect in the studied ferroelectric ceramics and maximum EC coefficient is observed for Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.95Sn0.05O3.

  9. Large Electrocaloric Effect in Lead-Free (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 Ceramics Prepared via Citrate Route

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    Jing Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1 wt % Li-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15(Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 (BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method exhibit improved phase purity, densification and electrical properties, which provide prospective possibility to develop high-performance electrocaloric materials. The electrocaloric effect was evaluated by phenomenological method, and the BCZT-Li ceramics present large electrocaloric temperature change ∆T, especially large electrocaloric responsibility ξ = ∆Tmax/∆Emax, which can be comparable to the largest values reported in the lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. The excellent electrocaloric effect is considered as correlating with the coexistence of polymorphic ferroelectric phases, which are detected by the Raman spectroscopy. The large ξ value accompanied by decreased Curie temperature (around 73 °C of the BCZT-Li ceramics prepared by the citrate method presents potential applications as the next-generation solid-state cooling devices.

  10. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

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    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  11. Electrocaloric refrigeration: an innovative, emerging, eco-friendly refrigeration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C.; Greco, A.; Maiorino, A.; Masselli, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the refrigeration is responsible of about 15% of the overall energy consumption all over the world. Actually most of the refrigerant fluids working in vapor compression plants (VCPs) are environmentally harmful, since they presents high GWP (Global Warming Potential), which leads to a substantial warming of both earth surface and atmosphere. Electrocaloric refrigeration (ER) is an innovative, emerging refrigeration technique based on solid state refrigerant that shows a great potential. It fits in the context of environment-friendly refrigeration systems, whom are spreading increasingly to replace VCPs. ER is founded on electrocaloric effect that is a physical phenomenon found in materials with dielectric properties, electrocaloric materials. The thermodynamical cycle that best is addressed to the electrocaloric refrigeration is Active Electrocaloric Regeneration cycle (AER) that consists of two adiabatic and two isofield stages. The core of an electrocaloric refrigerator is the regenerator whom operates both as refrigerant and regenerator in an AER cycle. In this paper, we compare the energetic performance of a commercial R134a refrigeration plant to that of an electrocaloric refrigerator working with an AER cycle. The comparison is performed in term of TEWI index (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) that includes both direct and indirect contributions to global warming.

  12. Electrocaloric effect in BaTiO3 at all three ferroelectric transitions: Anisotropy and inverse caloric effects

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    Marathe, Madhura; Renggli, Damian; Sanlialp, Mehmet; Karabasov, Maksim O.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Grünebohm, Anna; Ederer, Claude

    2017-07-01

    We study the electrocaloric (EC) effect in bulk BaTiO3 (BTO) using molecular dynamics simulations of a first principles-based effective Hamiltonian, combined with direct measurements of the adiabatic EC temperature change in BTO single crystals. We examine in particular the dependence of the EC effect on the direction of the applied electric field at all three ferroelectric transitions, and we show that the EC response is strongly anisotropic. Most strikingly, an inverse caloric effect, i.e., a temperature increase under field removal, can be observed at both ferroelectric-ferroelectric transitions for certain orientations of the applied field. Using the generalized Clausius-Clapeyron equation, we show that the inverse effect occurs exactly for those cases where the field orientation favors the higher temperature/higher entropy phase. Our simulations show that temperature changes of around 1 K can, in principle, be obtained at the tetragonal-orthorhombic transition close to room temperature, even for small applied fields, provided that the applied field is strong enough to drive the system across the first-order transition line. Our direct EC measurements for BTO single crystals at the cubic-tetragonal and at the tetragonal-orthorhombic transitions are in good qualitative agreement with our theoretical predictions, and in particular confirm the occurrence of an inverse EC effect at the tetragonal-orthorhombic transition for electric fields applied along the [001] pseudocubic direction.

  13. Lead-free Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} ceramics with large electrocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbani, B. [LPMC, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cédex (France); LMCN, F.S.T.G. Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 549 Marrakech (Morocco); Dellis, J.-L.; Lahmar, A.; Gagou, Y.; El Marssi, M., E-mail: mimoun.elmarssi@u-picardie.fr [LPMC, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cédex (France); Courty, M.; Djellab, K. [LRCS, UMR7314, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cédex (France); Amjoud, M.; Mezzane, D. [LMCN, F.S.T.G. Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 549 Marrakech (Morocco); Kutnjak, Z. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-01-26

    The electrocaloric effect was investigated in lead-free Zr doped Ba{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2}(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} (BCTZ) ceramics synthesized by a conventional sintering process. Room-temperature x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the tetragonal structure is obtained in BCTZ for x ≤ 0.08 and a pseudo cubic phase for x > 0.08. The dielectric spectroscopy and calorimetry revealed that the Curie temperature decreases as a consequence of Zr doping and that the BCTZ exhibits a first order ferroelectric phase transition. The electrocaloric effect was determined by the calculation of the electrocaloric change of temperature (ΔT) using the Maxwell relation based on the P–E hysteresis loops measured at different temperatures. A large electrocaloric responsivity ΔT/ΔE = 0.34 × 10{sup −6 }Km/V was found for x = 0.04, which significantly exceeds of values found so far in other lead-free electrocaloric materials.

  14. The influence of the electrical boundary condition on domain structures and electrocaloric effect of PbTiO3 nanostructures

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    Z. Y. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric effect (ECE induced by the domain switching of PbTiO3 (PTO nanoparticles under the different electrical boundary conditions is carried out using the phase field model. The toroidal moment of polarization with vortex domain structures decreases to zero taking surface charge compensation into the electrical boundary condition, i.e. intermediate electrical boundary. There exists a critical parameter value 0.25, which decides the single domain and vortex domain structures of ferroelectric nanomaterial at the room temperature. The loops of toroidal moment as a function of the applied curled electric filed are obtained under the different electrical boundary conditions. The various domain structures in ferroelectric nanostructure are discussed in detail. Moreover negative and positive adiabatic temperature changes accompanying with vortex domain structure switching are obtained with the curled electric field under the intermediate electrical boundary. These results indicate that ferroelectric nanostructures can be practical used in field of cooling and heating technology through adjusting the surface electrical boundary.

  15. Electrocaloric Refrigeration for Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    hardening is unspecified. The error bars on the data are for a 7 W/cmK minimum conductivity and a 14 W/cmK maximum conductivity for OFHC copper at 15 K...shortly. Cooling to as low as 0.05 K was demonstrated in CN doped RbCl . Electrocaloric refrigeration using KCl:OH has been used for ther...ym thicknesses were used along with several bonding agents: epoxy (Epibond 100-A), Corning jlass code 750 AGB devitrifying glaze, and DuPont 822 5

  16. Electrocaloric effect and luminescence properties of lanthanide doped (Na{sub 1/2}Bi{sub 1/2})TiO{sub 3} lead free materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zannen, M. [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kiel D-24149 (Germany); Ferroelectric Materials Laboratory (LMF), LR Physics-Mathematics and Applications, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (FSS), University of Sfax, Street Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Lahmar, A., E-mail: abdel.ilah.lahmar@u-picardie.fr, E-mail: zdravko.kutnjak@ijs.si [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kiel D-24149 (Germany); Laboratory of Physics of Condensed Matter (LPMC), University of Picardie Jules Verne, Scientific Pole, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Asbani, B.; El Marssi, M. [Laboratory of Physics of Condensed Matter (LPMC), University of Picardie Jules Verne, Scientific Pole, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Khemakhem, H. [Ferroelectric Materials Laboratory (LMF), LR Physics-Mathematics and Applications, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (FSS), University of Sfax, Street Soukra km 3.5 BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Kutnjak, Z., E-mail: abdel.ilah.lahmar@u-picardie.fr, E-mail: zdravko.kutnjak@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Es Souni, M. [Institute for Materials and Surface Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Kiel D-24149 (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Polycrystalline lead-free Sodium Bismuth Titanate (NBT) ferroelectric ceramics doped with rare earth (RE) element are prepared using solid state reaction method. Optical, ferroelectric, and electrocaloric properties were investigated. The introduction of RE{sup 3+} ions in the NBT host lattice shows different light emissions over the wavelength range from visible to near infrared region. The ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loops exhibit an antiferroelectric-like character near room temperature indicating possible existence of a morphotropic phase boundary. The enhanced electrocaloric response was observed in a broad temperature range due to nearly merged phase transitions. Coexistence of optical and electrocaloric properties is very promising for photonics or optoelectronic device applications.

  17. Effect of inactive volume on thermocouple measurements of electrocaloric temperature change in multilayer capacitors of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Hirose, S.; Ando, A.; Crossley, S.; Nair, B.; Moya, X.; Mathur, N. D.

    2017-10-01

    On increasing the active/total volume ratio of 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 multilayer capacitors (MLCs), the electrocaloric temperature change measured using a thermocouple near the centre increases, until saturating to reveal the nominally adiabatic limit (|ΔT| ~ 2.7 K for rapid field changes of |ΔE|  =  28.8 V µm-1). For all MLCs that we studied, the practice of multiplying the measured temperature change by the total/active heat capacity ratio causes the adiabatic temperature change to be overestimated by a small numerical factor. These findings highlight the challenge associated with quantifying electrocaloric effects in MLCs of the type that are currently being used as working bodies in prototype cooling devices.

  18. Type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition induced electrocaloric effect in lead-free Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

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    Li, Feng; Chen, Guorui; Liu, Xing; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Li, Shandong; Li, Peng; Yang, Ke; Zeng, Huarong; Yan, Haixue

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the electrocaloric effect (ECE) of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (BNT-0.06BT) ceramic has been directly measured using a home-made adiabatic calorimeter. The maximum adiabatic temperature change (ΔT) approaches 0.86 K under an electric field of 5 kV/mm at 110 °C, which provides experimental evidence for optimizing the ECE near the type-I pseudo-first-order phase transition (PFOPT). Most importantly, a considerable ΔT value can be maintained over a wide temperature range well above the temperature of the PFOPT under a high electric field. In addition, ΔT is closely related to the structural transition and electric field strength. This work provides a guideline to investigate the high ECE in BNT-based ferroelectric ceramics for applications in cooling technologies.

  19. Electrocaloric enhancement near the morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free NBT-KBT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goupil, Florian; Bennett, James; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Berenov, Andrey; Bell, Andrew J.; Comyn, Tim P.; Alford, Neil McN.

    2015-10-01

    The electrocaloric effects (ECEs) of the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition 0.82(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.18(K0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT-18KBT) are studied by direct measurements. The maximum ECE ΔTmax = 0.73 K is measured at 160 °C under 22 kV/cm. This corresponds to an ECE responsivity (ΔT/ΔE) of 0.33 × 10-6 K m/V, which is comparable with the best reported values for lead-free ceramics. A comparison between the direct and indirect ECE measurements shows significant discrepancies. The direct measurement of both positive and negative electrocaloric effect confirms the presence of numerous polar phases near the MPB of NBT-based materials and highlights their potential for solid-state cooling based on high field-induced entropy changes.

  20. Thickness-dependent electrocaloric effect in mixed-phase Pb0.87Ba0.1 La0.02(Zr0.6Sn0.33Ti0.07)O3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, T M; Zhang, Q

    2016-08-13

    Full-perovskite Pb0.87Ba0.1La0.02(Zr0.6Sn0.33Ti0.07)O3 (PBLZST) thin films were fabricated by a sol-gel method. These revealed both rhombohedral and tetragonal phases, as opposed to the full-tetragonal phase previously reported in ceramics. The fractions of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases are found to be strongly dependent on film thickness. The fraction of tetragonal grains increases with increasing film thickness, as the substrate constraint throughout the film decreases with film thickness. The maximum of the dielectric constant (εm) and the corresponding temperature (Tm) are thickness-dependent and dictated by the fraction of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase, with εm reaching a minimum at 400 nm and Tm shifting to higher temperature with increasing thickness. With the thickness increase, the breakdown field decreases, but field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric (EAFE-FE) and ferroelectric-antiferroelectric (EFE-AFE) switch fields increase. The electrocaloric effect increases with increasing film thickness.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Highly efficient electrocaloric cooling with electrostatic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Ziyang; Tong, Kwing; Huber, David; Kornbluh, Roy; Ju, Yongho Sungtaek; Pei, Qibing

    2017-09-01

    Solid-state refrigeration offers potential advantages over traditional cooling systems, but few devices offer high specific cooling power with a high coefficient of performance (COP) and the ability to be applied directly to surfaces. We developed a cooling device with a high intrinsic thermodynamic efficiency using a flexible electrocaloric (EC) polymer film and an electrostatic actuation mechanism. Reversible electrostatic forces reduce parasitic power consumption and allow efficient heat transfer through good thermal contacts with the heat source or heat sink. The EC device produced a specific cooling power of 2.8 watts per gram and a COP of 13. The new cooling device is more efficient and compact than existing surface-conformable solid-state cooling technologies, opening a path to using the technology for a variety of practical applications.

  2. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malloy, Kevin J [UNM

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  3. Traveling ionospheric disturbances as huge natural lenses: Solar radio emission focusing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Artem; Chen, Yao; Stanislavsky, Aleksander; Zhang, Qing-He

    2017-09-01

    We present an in-depth study into spectral perturbations appearing in solar dynamic spectra and being manifestations of the focusing effect of low-frequency solar emission by the Earth's ionosphere. Such perturbations are considered to be the result of radio waves focusing by medium scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Using the Nançay Decametric Array (NDA) data set, we have conducted a statistical analysis of the spectral structures in solar dynamic spectra within 10-80 MHz. We have detected the spectral structures in the NDA spectral data for 129 observation days from 1999 to 2015. On spectrograms they appear as intensity variations different from well-known solar radio bursts. The sharp edges with enhanced intensity are distinctive characteristics of the structures for most events. Due to this spectral feature, they are termed as Spectral Caustics (SCs). We have classified the SCs observed by the NDA as several types, based on their spectral morphology, namely: inverted V like, V like, X like, fiber like, and fringe like. We have found that the rate of occurrence of SCs in dynamic spectra depends on the phase of the solar cycle. About 81% of all days with detected SCs fall on active phases of solar cycles 23 and 24 (48% and 33%, respectively). We have also established the seasonal dependence in occurrence of the SCs. It was found that about 95% of days with SCs belong to autumn-winter months, whereas only near 5% of days with SCs belong to spring-summer months. This is well correlated with the reported dependence in MSTID occurrence rate.

  4. Giant negative electrocaloric effect in PbZrO3/0.88BaTiO3-0.12Bi(Mg1/2,Ti1/2)O3 multilayered composite ferroelectric thin film for solid-state refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Wang, J. B.; Zhong, X. L.; Li, B.; Zhang, Y.; Jin, C.; Zheng, D. F.; Meng, X. J.

    2017-11-01

    A giant negative electrocaloric (EC) effect in a PbZrO3/(0.88BaTiO3-0.12 Bi(Mg1/2,Ti1/2)O3) (PZ/(BT-BMT)) multilayered composite ferroelectric (MCFE) thin film which is grown on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by the sol-gel method is investigated in this work. The negative EC effect in the PZ/(BMT-BT) MCFE thin film is greatly higher than that in the PZ AFE thin film with an adiabatic temperature change (ATC) ΔT = 1.5 K. The ATC ΔT of the PZ/(BMT-BT) MCFE thin film is -32 K under the applied electric field change ΔE = 1151 kV/cm. The result is conducive to enhance the EC refrigeration efficiency greatly.

  5. Structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and electrocaloric properties of 2% Gd2O3 doping (Na0.5Bi0.5)0.94Ba0.06TiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, O.; Slimani, A.; Seveyrat, L.; Sebald, G.; Perrin, V.; Sassi, Z.; Khemakhem, H.; Lebrun, L.

    2016-08-01

    Structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties, and electrocaloric effects of pure and Gd doped ( Na0.5 Bi 0.5 ) 0.94 Ba 0.06 TiO 3 ceramics prepared by the conventional solid-solid method have been carried out. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms a pure perovskite structure with the coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedra structures in both powders. The thermal and frequency dependences of the dielectric constants of both ceramics revealed relaxor behavior. The two compounds exhibited two phase transitions: ferroelectric/antiferroelectric (FE/AFE) transition followed by an antiferroelectric/paraelectric (AFE/PE) transition at higher temperatures. Remarkably, we noticed that the small amount of Gd doping (2%) highly enhanced the dielectric properties of the parent compound by about 71%. The phase diagram was as well influenced by the Gd doping, where the FE/AFE transition temperature rose from 90 in the parent compound to 115 °C in the doped one whereas the AFE/PE transition temperature was decreased from 320 to 270 °C, respectively. The direct electrocaloric measurements performed on both compounds showed that the ferroelectric/antiferroelectric phase transition was accompanied by a significant electrocaloric effect. The Gd3+ doping improved the electrocaloric properties of the parent compound, where a remarkable temperature variation of 1.4 K was obtained in the doped ceramic. The results of the direct electrocaloric measurements will be compared and discussed with those derived from the indirect method.

  6. Developing Electrocaloric (EC) Materials with Giant EC Response and Chip-Scale EC Cooling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiming

    2015-03-01

    The direct and efficient coupling between the electric signals and the elastic, thermal, optical and magnetic signals in ferroelectric based electroactive materials makes them attractive for exploiting a broad range of cross-coupling phenomena which have great promise for new device technologies. This talk will present the recent advances at Penn State in developing electrocaloric materials which may provide alternative cooling technology to replace the century old vapor compression cycle (VCC) based cooling which employs strong greenhouse gases as the refrigerants. Electrocaloric effect (ECE), which is the temperature and entropy change of insulating dielectric materials under electric fields, is attractive to realize efficient cooling devices. However, the relatively small ECE observed in dielectrics in the last century make it unimpressive for any practical applications. Experimental results on the ECE in the relaxor ferroelectric polymers and general theoretical considerations for achieving large ECE will be presented. This talk will also discuss considerations on and present recent works in using nanocomposites to further enhancing the ECE beyond the pure relaxor polymers, on the giant ECE in a class of dielectric liquid, and in bulk ferroelectric ceramics near the invariant critical point. The works related to developing the chip-scale EC cooling devices, exploiting the newly discovered large ECE in ferroelectric materials and featuring high cooling power density and high efficiency, will also be presented. This work has been supported by DoE BES and by ARO.

  7. Effect of a huge crustal conductivity anomaly on the H-component of geomagnetic variations recorded in central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio L.; Alves, Livia R.; Silva, Graziela B. D.; Espinosa, Karen V.

    2017-04-01

    We describe here an analysis of the H-component of the geomagnetic field recorded in several temporary stations operating simultaneously in the central-eastern region of Brazil during nighttime pulsation events in 1994 and the sudden commencement of the St. Patrick's Day magnetic storm in 2015. A significant amplification in the amplitude of the geomagnetic variations is consistently observed in one of these stations. Magnetovariational analysis indicates that the amplification factor is period dependent with maximum amplitude around 100 s. Integrated magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth soundings (GDS) have shown that this station is positioned just over a huge 1200-km-long crustal conductor (estimated bulk conductivity greater than 1 S/m). We propose that the anomalous signature of the geomagnetic field at this station is due to the high reflection coefficient of the incident electromagnetic wave at the interface with the very good conductor and by skin effects damping the electromagnetic wave in the conducting layers overlying the conductor. There are some indication from the GDS data that the conductor extends southward beneath the sediments of the Pantanal Basin. In this region is being planned the installation of a new geomagnetic observatory, but its preliminary data suggest anomalous geomagnetic variations. We understand that a detailed MT survey must be carried out around the chosen observatory site to evaluate the possible influence of induced currents on the local geomagnetic field.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Huge intrathoracic desmoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Majdi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors are soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures. Most reported thoracic desmoid tumors originate from the chest wall. However, intrathoracic desmoid tumors are rare. We present a case of a 35-year-old male patient complaining of mild shortness of breath. The patient was diagnosed to have a huge intrathoracic desmoid tumor, which was successfully resected.

  9. A Huge Thing

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The fiction of the world is a huge thing because it is in Derrida's words ‘the only thing that can make it possible that I can live and have or let you live, enjoy or have or let you enjoy, to carry you for a few minutes without anything happening,’ in a movement of farewell without beginning, without mourning, with the irresistible force of a whirlpool, or a maelstrom: what Poe calls ‘the immense sweeps and swelters of the whirl.’ The maelstrom sweeps, it is an immense sweep, a sweeping away...

  10. Upper limit of the electrocaloric peak in lead-free ferroelectric relaxor ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Le Goupil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric effect (ECE of two compositions (x = 0.06 and 0.07 of (1 − x(Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-xKNbO3 in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary is studied by direct measurements. ΔTmax = 1.5 K is measured at 125 °C under 70 kV/cm for NBT-6KN while ΔTmax = 0.8 K is measured at 75 °C under 55 kV/cm for NBT-7KN. We show that the “shoulder,” TS, in the dielectric permittivity, marks the upper limit of the ECE peak under high applied electric fields. These results imply that the range of temperature with high ECE can be quickly identified for a given composition, which will significantly speed up the process of materials selection for ECE cooling.

  11. Large electrocaloric efficiency over a broad temperature span in lead-free BaTiO3-based ceramics near room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tangyuan; Liu, Xinyu; Shi, Sheng; Yin, Yihao; Li, Hongfa; Wang, Qiongyan; Zhang, Yunlu; Bian, Jihong; Rajput, S. S.; Long, Changbai; Peng, Biaolin; Bai, Yang; Wang, Yunzhi; Lou, Xiaojie

    2017-11-01

    We report a large electrocaloric efficiency of 0.029 K cm kV-1 at 303 K and in a wide operating temperature range of 293 K to 313 K in a lead-free Ba0.9Sr0.1(Ti0.9Zr0.1)0.95Sn0.05O3 ceramic by using direct electrocaloric effect (ECE) measurements. Sn4+ doping in Ba0.9Sr0.1Ti0.9Zr0.1O3 not only tunes the rhombohedral-to-paraelectric phase transition temperature to room temperature but also slightly widens the phase transition region, by slightly strengthening the diffuse character and maintaining its good ferroelectricity. Also, polar nanoregions embedded in the matrix facilitate polarization rotation because of a flat energy landscape associated with the relaxor-to-ferroelectric phase transition, inducing enhanced entropy changes and consequently excellent ECE performance.

  12. Combined intrinsic elastocaloric and electrocaloric properties of ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassaf, H.; Patel, T.; Alpay, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    In multiferroic materials, adiabatic temperature changes can be obtained by the combined application of electric, stress, and magnetic fields. These external stimuli provide additional channels of entropy variations resulting in a multi-caloric response. In ferroelectric (FE) materials, caloric responses can be obtained with the application of electric and mechanical fields. Here, we compute the intrinsic elastocaloric and stress-mediated electrocaloric behavior of prototypical FE materials using the Landau-Devonshire theory of phase transformations with appropriate electrical and electro-mechanical boundary conditions. We show that an elastocaloric adiabatic temperature variation of 12.7 °C can be obtained in PbTiO3 with the application of uniaxial tensile stress of 500 MPa near its Curie point. This is 59% higher than its pure intrinsic electrocaloric response for an electric field difference of 100 kV/cm. Moreover, external stresses allow the maximum electro-elastocaloric response to be tuned towards room temperature. Our calculations show that relaxor FEs should exhibit large adiabatic temperature variations in relatively broad temperature ranges. These findings indicate that caloric responses in ferroic materials can be deterministically controlled and enhanced by utilizing a variety of external stimuli.

  13. The addition effects of alkaline earth ions in the chemical synthesis of ɛ-Fe2O3 nanocrystals that exhibit a huge coercive field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Jin, Jian; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2005-05-01

    An iron oxide/silica composite material, which was prepared by combining reverse-micelle and sol-gel techniques, exhibited a huge coercive field Hc of 20kOe (1.6×105Am-1) in our previous work. The key of this synthetic procedure was the added Ba2+ ions that created a single phase of ɛ-Fe2O3. In the present work, the addition effect of Ca2+ ions to this procedure was investigated. Consequently, rod-shape ɛ-Fe2O3 nanocrystals (40-120nm ×15-20nm) were obtained and a Hc value of 20kOe was observed. Thermodynamical analysis that considered the surface energy of nanoparticle suggested that a single ɛ-Fe2O3 phase was generated by retarding the crystal growth of Fe2O3 particles under the presence of alkaline earth ions.

  14. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Min; Chung, Suk Tae; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-04-15

    Mediastinal lipomatosis induced by steroid is an unusual byproduct of such therapy and has been reported after prolonged and large doses of steroid therapy. The radiologic findings of mediastinal lipomatosis in simple chest film are nonspecific, but with the advent of CT scan, differentiation the fatty lesion from other mediastinal decreases can be made easily. Recently we expended steroid induced huge mediastinal lipomatosis and report the case with review including radiologic findings.

  16. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Huge Pyogenic Granuloma of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Akbulut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular disorders of the skin and mucose membranes, generally developed by trauma and irritation. The lesions are generally small. They are most commonly seen in the skin and oral mucosa and rarely seen on penis. We present the case of a huge pyogenic granuloma on the penis.

  19. Huge Trionic Effects in Graphene Nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Rohlfing, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional materials are being intensively investigated due to their interesting properties for next-generation optoelectronic devices. Among these, armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons are very promising candidates with optical properties that are dominated by excitons. In the prese......One- and two-dimensional materials are being intensively investigated due to their interesting properties for next-generation optoelectronic devices. Among these, armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons are very promising candidates with optical properties that are dominated by excitons...

  20. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations.

  1. From tiny microalgae to huge biorefineries

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are an emerging research field due to their high potential as a source of several biofuels in addition to the fact that they have a high-nutritional value and contain compounds that have health benefits. They are also highly used for water stream bioremediation and carbon dioxide mitigation. Therefore, the tiny microalgae could lead to a huge source of compounds and products, giving a good example of a real biorefinery approach. This work shows and presents examples of experimental...

  2. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  3. Huge music archives on mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, H.; Bischl, B.; Botteck, M.

    2011-01-01

    and difficult to tackle on mobile platforms. Against this background, we provided an overview of algorithms for music classification as well as their computation times and other hardware-related aspects, such as power consumption on various hardware architectures. For mobile platforms such as smartphones......The availability of huge nonvolatile storage capacities such as flash memory allows large music archives to be maintained even in mobile devices. With the increase in size, manual organization of these archives and manual search for specific music becomes very inconvenient. Automated dynamic......, a careful balance of algorithm complexity, hardware architecture, and classification accuracy has to be found to provide a high quality user experience....

  4. Laparoscopic Management of Huge Ovarian Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alobaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Huge ovarian cysts are conventionally managed by laparotomy. We present 5 cases with huge ovarian cysts managed by laparoscopic endoscopic surgery without any complications. Materials and Methods. We describe five patients who had their surgeries conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City. Results. Patients age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Tumor markers were normal for all patients. The maximum diameter of all cysts ranged between 18 and 42 cm as measured by ultrasound. The cysts were unilocular; in some patients, there were fine septations. All patients had open-entry laparoscopy. After evaluation of the cyst capsule, the cysts were drained under laparoscopic guidance, 1–12 liters were drained from the cysts (mean 5.2 L, and then laparoscopic oophorectomy was done. The final histopathology reports confirmed benign serous cystadenoma in four patients and one patient had a benign mucinous cystadenoma. There was minimal blood loss during surgeries and with no complications for all patients. Conclusion. There is still no consensus for the size limitation of ovarian cysts decided to be a contraindication for laparoscopic management. With advancing techniques, proper patients selection, and availability of experts in gynecologic endoscopy, it is possible to remove giant cyst by laparoscopy.

  5. Astronomical background of global huge earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Han, Yan-Ben

    2006-03-01

    This paper analyzes the astronomical background of the global huge earthquakes with M≥8.5. The result shows that most of the earthquakes has occurred in the seismic belts (regions) where is being corresponding seismic active period with the lunar path, solar active falling period and accelerating period of earth rotation. This is as for the variation of long period of astronomical factors. For the variation of short period of astronomical factors, whether for local time or local sidereal time and lunar phase there is the phenomenon of occurrence of concentrating a interval time for the earthquakes. For the short variation of earth rotation this phenomenon is clear; either the earthquakes occur in most fast or in lowest of earth rotation. The above-mentioned results indicate that the eartquakes occurrence is affected by astronomical factors. The astronomical factors are one of motive force causing earthquake from external world. The astronomical factors with long period may act as modulation for the earthquake-pregnant process. And the astronomical factors with short period will causing huge fluctuations of the system and earthquake occur when it act on seismic structure of away from balance state.

  6. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  7. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlatsè, Akakpo-Numado Gamedzi; Anani, Mihluedo-Agbolan Komlan; Azanledji, Boume Missoki; Komlan, Adabra; Komla, Gnassingbe; Hubert, Tekou

    2014-01-01

    Huge umbilical hernias (HUH) are voluminous umbilical hernia (UH) that are frequent in black African children. Several surgical techniques are used in their treatment for umbilical reconstruction, but techniques using skin flaps provide better aesthetic results. In this study, we presented our technique of umbilicoplasty in HUH, and its results. It is a retrospective study on children treated for HUH, from January 2012 to December 2013. The UH was called HUH when its basis diameter (BD) exceeds 3 cm. Every HUH was characterised by its height, BD and morphology. Our technique was a two lateral flaps technique; the flaps are symmetrical and drawn so as to reconstitute the different parts of the umbilicus. The results were appreciated with criteria, including the peripheral ring and the central depression of the neo-umbilicus. Twelve children were concerned (7 boys and 5 girls). Their mean age was 5 years and 6 months. The mean BD was 5.6 cm (extremes 3 and 8 cm), and the mean height of the HUH was 7.45 cm (extremes 3 and 9 cm). All underwent umbilicoplasty. In early post-operative period, two children presented a transitory subcutaneous hematoma. Late complications were granulation tissue with two children, and cheloid scar with one. With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Our two lateral flaps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. It is simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result.

  8. Transarterial chemoembolization for huge hepatocellular carcinoma with diameter over ten centimeters: a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Tongchun; Le, Fan; Chen, Rongxin; Xie, Xiaoying; Zhang, Lan; Ge, Ningling; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Zhang, Boheng; Ye, Shenglong; Ren, Zhenggang

    2015-03-01

    Patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma >10 cm in diameter represent a special subgroup for treatment. To date, there are few data and little consensus on treatment strategies for huge hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we summarized the effects and safety of transarterial chemoembolization for huge hepatocellular carcinoma. A retrospective study was performed based on a large cohort of patients (n = 511) with huge hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent serial transarterial chemoembolization between January 2008 to December 2011 and were followed up until March 2013. We found median survival time was 6.5 months. On multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh class (A versus B) (p failure (n = 6). In conclusion, transarterial chemoembolization is a safe and effective treatment for selected patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma and is recommended as a component of combination therapy. In addition, patients with good liver function and low alpha-fetoprotein levels may acquire greater survival benefits from transarterial chemoembolization.

  9. Umbilicoplasty in children with huge umbilical hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akakpo-Numado Gamedzi Komlatsè

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Huge umbilical hernias (HUH are voluminous umbilical hernia (UH that are frequent in black African children. Several surgical techniques are used in their treatment for umbilical reconstruction, but techniques using skin flaps provide better aesthetic results. In this study, we presented our technique of umbilicoplasty in HUH, and its results. Patients and Methods: It is a retrospective study on children treated for HUH, from January 2012 to December 2013. The UH was called HUH when its basis diameter (BD exceeds 3 cm. Every HUH was characterised by its height, BD and morphology. Our technique was a two lateral flaps technique; the flaps are symmetrical and drawn so as to reconstitute the different parts of the umbilicus. The results were appreciated with criteria, including the peripheral ring and the central depression of the neo-umbilicus. Results : Twelve children were concerned (7 boys and 5 girls. Their mean age was 5 years and 6 months. The mean BD was 5.6 cm (extremes 3 and 8 cm, and the mean height of the HUH was 7.45 cm (extremes 3 and 9 cm. All underwent umbilicoplasty. In early post-operative period, two children presented a transitory subcutaneous hematoma. Late complications were granulation tissue with two children, and cheloid scar with one. With a mean follow-up of 10 months, we had 10 excellent results and two fair results according to our criteria. Conclusion: Our two lateral flaps umbilicoplasty is well-adapted to HUH in children. It is simple and assures a satisfactory anatomical and cosmetic result.

  10. Huge Symptomatic Brenner Tumour Simulating Uterine Fibroid: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Background. Brenner tumours are rare ovarian neoplasms which are frequently so small and symptomless as to be incidental findings at laparotomies for other conditions. The occurrence of a huge symptomatic Brenner tumour is even rarer in our environment. Our objective is to report a case of huge symptomatic Brenner ...

  11. Obesity: the 'huge' problem in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M Javed; Baweja, Paramdeep

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic in the United States. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and associated with reduced life expectancy. The adverse effects are related to direct impact of obesity on cardiovascular system and indirectly through its influence on risk factors. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the myocardium leads to structural and functional alteration. In addition, numerous hormones secreted by adipose tissue create pro-inflammatory and prothrombotic state. This predisposes to coronary heart disease, heart failure, and sudden death. Even those with normal weight but excessive body fat are at risk. Weight reduction and exercise are the main therapeutic options.

  12. Colonic Angiodysplasia with a Huge Submucosal Hematoma in the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic angiodysplasia (AD with bleeding as a comorbidity in the aging population is being increasingly reported. However, to our knowledge, there is no report on colonic AD accompanied by a huge hematoma. Herein, we report a case of colonic AD with a huge submucosal hematoma. A 75-year-old man with sudden melena was referred to our hospital. Helical computed tomographic angiography (CTA revealed bleeding from the sigmoid colon. Additionally, colonoscopy showed a huge submucosal hematoma with bleeding in the sigmoid colon. As endoscopic hemostasis was difficult, sigmoidectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was colonic AD. The present case indicates that colonic AD should be considered in the differential diagnosis for melena. In addition, the case shows that helical CTA, which is a noninvasive imaging modality, is useful for the diagnosis of colonic AD and is as effective as colonoscopy and angiography for diagnosis.

  13. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas mistaken for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cystic tumors of the pancreas are rare and can be confused with pseudocysts.We present a 50 year old woman with a huge mucinous cystadenoma of the pancreas initially diagnosed and managed with a cystojejunostomy and cyst wall biopsy. She required another laparotomy and tumor excision after histological ...

  14. Smart Cities as Support and Legacy of Huge Sport Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAURION, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the concept of a smart city and the importance of huge Sport events as an incentive to the creation of the infrastructure necessary for the development of cities that provide quality of life for all its citizens using information technology.

  15. A huge polypoid uterine myoma causing severe primary postpartum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of such was diagnosed in a 36-year old para 2+0 who had successful gestation to term delivery in co-existence with a huge fibroid polyp and had spontaneous vaginal delivery of a life baby. She however developed severe primary postpartum haemorrhage prompting emergency postpartum digital vaginal myomectomy ...

  16. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  17. Huge tumor-like subacromial bursitis associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, M; Wakitani, S; Yamamoto, T

    2001-09-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of a huge subacromial bursitis in rheumatoid arthritis. A solid tumor was initially suspected because it was very large with no apparent local sign of inflammation, and because no fluid retention was observed. We performed radiograms, a plain computed tomogram, a (99)mTc-MDP bone scintigram, a (67)Ga-citrate scintigram, and a digital subtraction arteriogram, which all indicated no evidence of tumor. Finally, a bursogram proved the mass to be a huge enlarged subacromial bursa. Surgical exploration revealed that the bursa contained 450 g of a yellowish, jelly-like substance, which was considered to be a thick collection of fibrin. No recurrence was noted at a follow-up 16 years after surgery.

  18. Hemifacial spasm caused by a huge tentorial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Bum-Tae; Shin, Won-Han

    2009-09-01

    A rare case of hemifacial spasm caused by an ipsilateral tentorial meningioma is described. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge tumor in the right cerebellar hemisphere, distant to the cerebello-pontine cistern. The facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex was stretched by the shift of the brainstem and the right cerebello-pontine cistern was effaced. After removing the tumor, the hemifacial spasm resolved completely. We review our case with the pertinent literature regarding the etiological mechanism.

  19. Hemifacial Spasm Caused by a Huge Tentorial Meningioma

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hun; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Bum-Tae; Shin, Won-Han

    2009-01-01

    A rare case of hemifacial spasm caused by an ipsilateral tentorial meningioma is described. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge tumor in the right cerebellar hemisphere, distant to the cerebello-pontine cistern. The facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex was stretched by the shift of the brainstem and the right cerebello-pontine cistern was effaced. After removing the tumor, the hemifacial spasm resolved completely. We review our case with the pertinent literature regarding the etiologic...

  20. A scaling law for distinct electrocaloric cooling performance in low-dimensional organic, relaxor and anti-ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuping; Huang, Limin; Soh, Ai Kah; Weng, George J; Liu, Shuangyi; Redfern, Simon A T

    2017-09-11

    Electrocaloric (EC) materials show promise in eco-friendly solid-state refrigeration and integrable on-chip thermal management. While direct measurement of EC thin-films still remains challenging, a generic theoretical framework for quantifying the cooling properties of rich EC materials including normal-, relaxor-, organic- and anti-ferroelectrics is imperative for exploiting new flexible and room-temperature cooling alternatives. Here, we present a versatile theory that combines Master equation with Maxwell relations and analytically relates the macroscopic cooling responses in EC materials with the intrinsic diffuseness of phase transitions and correlation characteristics. Under increased electric fields, both EC entropy and adiabatic temperature changes increase quadratically initially, followed by further linear growth and eventual gradual saturation. The upper bound of entropy change (∆Smax) is limited by distinct correlation volumes (V cr ) and transition diffuseness. The linearity between V cr and the transition diffuseness is emphasized, while ∆Smax = 300 kJ/(K.m(3)) is obtained for Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3. The ∆Smax in antiferroelectric Pb0.95Zr0.05TiO3, Pb0.8Ba0.2ZrO3 and polymeric ferroelectrics scales proportionally with V cr(-2.2), owing to the one-dimensional structural constraint on lattice-scale depolarization dynamics; whereas ∆Smax in relaxor and normal ferroelectrics scales as ∆Smax ~ V cr(-0.37), which tallies with a dipolar interaction exponent of 2/3 in EC materials and the well-proven fractional dimensionality of 2.5 for ferroelectric domain walls.

  1. Analyzing huge pathology images with open source software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroulers, Christophe; Ameisen, David; Badoual, Mathilde; Gerin, Chloé; Granier, Alexandre; Lartaud, Marc

    2013-06-06

    Digital pathology images are increasingly used both for diagnosis and research, because slide scanners are nowadays broadly available and because the quantitative study of these images yields new insights in systems biology. However, such virtual slides build up a technical challenge since the images occupy often several gigabytes and cannot be fully opened in a computer's memory. Moreover, there is no standard format. Therefore, most common open source tools such as ImageJ fail at treating them, and the others require expensive hardware while still being prohibitively slow. We have developed several cross-platform open source software tools to overcome these limitations. The NDPITools provide a way to transform microscopy images initially in the loosely supported NDPI format into one or several standard TIFF files, and to create mosaics (division of huge images into small ones, with or without overlap) in various TIFF and JPEG formats. They can be driven through ImageJ plugins. The LargeTIFFTools achieve similar functionality for huge TIFF images which do not fit into RAM. We test the performance of these tools on several digital slides and compare them, when applicable, to standard software. A statistical study of the cells in a tissue sample from an oligodendroglioma was performed on an average laptop computer to demonstrate the efficiency of the tools. Our open source software enables dealing with huge images with standard software on average computers. They are cross-platform, independent of proprietary libraries and very modular, allowing them to be used in other open source projects. They have excellent performance in terms of execution speed and RAM requirements. They open promising perspectives both to the clinician who wants to study a single slide and to the research team or data centre who do image analysis of many slides on a computer cluster. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here

  2. How a huge HEP experiment is designed course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-FAS

    2007-01-01

    More than twenty years after the idea of building the LHC machine was discussed in a workshop in Lausanne in 1984 for the first time, it is instructive to look back on the historical process which has led the community to where we are today with four huge detectors being commissioned and eagerly awaiting first beam collisions in 2008. The main design principles, detector features and performance characteristics of the ATLAS and CMS detectors will be briefly covered in these two lectures with, as an interlude, a wonderful DVD from ATLAS outreach depicting how particles interact and are detected in the various components of the experiments.

  3. Churn prediction on huge telecom data using hybrid firefly based classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A.Q. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Churn prediction in telecom has become a major requirement due to the increase in the number of telecom providers. However due to the hugeness, sparsity and imbalanced nature of the data, churn prediction in telecom has always been a complex task. This paper presents a metaheuristic based churn prediction technique that performs churn prediction on huge telecom data. A hybridized form of Firefly algorithm is used as the classifier. It has been identified that the compute intensive component of the Firefly algorithm is the comparison block, where every firefly is compared with every other firefly to identify the one with the highest light intensity. This component is replaced by Simulated Annealing and the classification process is carried out. Experiments were conducted on the Orange dataset. It was observed that Firefly algorithm works best on churn data and the hybridized Firefly algorithm provides effective and faster results.

  4. Huge gastric diospyrobezoars successfully treated by oral intake and endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Han, D S; Park, Y K; Son, B K; Paik, C H; Jeon, Y C; Sohn, J H

    2006-07-01

    A diospyrobezoar is a type of phytobezoar that is considered to be harder than any other types of phytobezoars. Here, we describe a new treatment modality, which effectively and easily disrupted huge gastric diospyrobezoars. A 41-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with lower abdominal pain and vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed three huge, round diospyrobezoars in the stomach. He was made to drink two cans of Coca-Cola every 6 h. At endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were partially dissolved and turned to be softened. We performed direct endoscopic injection of Coca-Cola into each bezoar. At repeated endoscopy the next day, the bezoars were completely dissolved.

  5. Huge Intracanal lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation (LDH is the most common cause of sciatica and only in about 10% of the affected patients, surgical intervention is necessary. The side of the patient (the side of most prominent clinical complaints is usually consistent with the side of imaging (the side with most prominent disc herniation on imaging scans. In this case series, we presented our experience in four cases with huge intracanal LDH that a mismatch between the patient’s side and the imaging’s side was present. In these cases, for deciding to do the operation, the physicians need to rely more on clinical findings, but for deciding the side of discectomy, imaging characteristic (imaging side may be a more important criterion.

  6. Distributed and parallel approach for handle and perform huge datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Big Data refers to the dynamic, large and disparate volumes of data comes from many different sources (tools, machines, sensors, mobile devices) uncorrelated with each others. It requires new, innovative and scalable technology to collect, host and analytically process the vast amount of data. Proper architecture of the system that perform huge data sets is needed. In this paper, the comparison of distributed and parallel system architecture is presented on the example of MapReduce (MR) Hadoop platform and parallel database platform (DBMS). This paper also analyzes the problem of performing and handling valuable information from petabytes of data. The both paradigms: MapReduce and parallel DBMS are described and compared. The hybrid architecture approach is also proposed and could be used to solve the analyzed problem of storing and processing Big Data.

  7. Huge endometrioma mimicking mucinous cystadenoma on MR : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Bong Soo; Nam, Kung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoo, Yun Sik; Lee, Mee Ran; Hwang, Woo Chul [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Endometriosis is a relatively common gynecologic disease affecting women during their reproductive years. For its diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to have greater specificity than other modalities. Although lesions may show variable signal intensity due to numerous stages of bleeding, the characteristic finding of endometrioma which distinguishes it from other ovarian cystic masses is relatively high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous signal intensity with prominent shading on 72-weighted images. We report an atypical case involving a huge endometrioma. Because of varying signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and scanty shading on T2-weighted images, the findings were misinterpreted and mucinous cystadenoma was diagnosed.

  8. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  9. Huge simultaneous trichobezoars causing gastric and small-bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars are concretions of foreign materials that impair gastrointestinal motility or cause intestinal obstruction in the stomach, small intestine or bowel of humans or animals. There are many types of them such as phyto, lacto and trichobezoars. Although bezoars are not rare, multiple giant bezoars which totally fill the stomach lumen and have extension to the small intestine (Rapunzel syndrome are very rare. This is a case report of a young girl who had a history of trichophagia and presented with partial gastric and intestinal obstructive signs. The patient was healthy, and her physical exam was almost normal and the only positive thing in her past medical history was trichophagia from several years ago. She had a big trapped bobble in her stomach and several air-fluid levels in abdominal radiograph and was investigated with endoscopy which confirmed the diagnosis of a huge gastric trichobezoar.

  10. Electromotive force and huge magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nam Hai; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki; Barnes, Stewart E; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2009-03-26

    The electromotive force (e.m.f.) predicted by Faraday's law reflects the forces acting on the charge, -e, of an electron moving through a device or circuit, and is proportional to the time derivative of the magnetic field. This conventional e.m.f. is usually absent for stationary circuits and static magnetic fields. There are also forces that act on the spin of an electron; it has been recently predicted that, for circuits that are in part composed of ferromagnetic materials, there arises an e.m.f. of spin origin even for a static magnetic field. This e.m.f. can be attributed to a time-varying magnetization of the host material, such as the motion of magnetic domains in a static magnetic field, and reflects the conversion of magnetic to electrical energy. Here we show that such an e.m.f. can indeed be induced by a static magnetic field in magnetic tunnel junctions containing zinc-blende-structured MnAs quantum nanomagnets. The observed e.m.f. operates on a timescale of approximately 10(2)-10(3) seconds and results from the conversion of the magnetic energy of the superparamagnetic MnAs nanomagnets into electrical energy when these magnets undergo magnetic quantum tunnelling. As a consequence, a huge magnetoresistance of up to 100,000 per cent is observed for certain bias voltages. Our results strongly support the contention that, in magnetic nanostructures, Faraday's law of induction must be generalized to account for forces of purely spin origin. The huge magnetoresistance and e.m.f. may find potential applications in high sensitivity magnetic sensors, as well as in new active devices such as 'spin batteries'.

  11. Histopathology and treatment of a huge overhanging filtering bleb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Ping-Bo; Qi, Xin; Duan, Xuan-Chu

    2016-10-06

    The giant filtering bleb encroaching onto the corneal surface is a rare occurrence in our and other's clinical experience (Kapoor and Syed, Int. Ophthalmol 31(5):403-404, 2011), even in patients having had a trabeculectomy with mitomycin C, and how it developed is debated. In this paper, we report a patient who developed a huge overhanging filtering bleb after trabeculectomy, and present our intraoperative photographs, histopathology and immunohistochemistry results. A 62-year-old female visited our hospital due to the giant filtering bleb encroaching onto the corneal surface which was about 6 mm × 8 mm × 3 mm. We dissected the filtering bleb from the cornea and present the histopathology and immunohistochemistry results of it. The results from histopathology and immunohistochemistry in this study are consistent with the filtering cicatrix hypothesis. However, our finding that the overhanging blebs had tight connections with the corneal tissue or corneoscleral limbus, rather than simply leaning on it, might be highly related to their development and still needs to be further studied.

  12. Single-Path Sigma from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Hsuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2014-05-01

    Ground-motion variability, which was used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in computing annual exceedence probability, is composed of random variability (aleatory uncertainty) and model uncertainty (epistemic uncertainty). Finding random variability of ground motions has become an important issue in PSHA, and only the random variability can be used in deriving the annual exceedence probability of ground-motion. Epistemic uncertainty will be put in the logic tree to estimate the total uncertainty of ground-motion. In the present study, we used about 18,859 records from 158 shallow earthquakes (Mw > 3.0, focal depth ≤ 35 km, each station has at least 20 records) form the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) network to analyse the random variability of ground-motion. First, a new ground-motion attenuation model was established by using this huge data set. Second, the residuals from the median attenuation were analysed by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability. Finally, the single-path variability was found by a moving-window method on either single-earthquake residuals or single-station residuals. A variogram method was also used to find minimum variability for intra-event residuals and inter-event residuals, respectively. Results reveal that 90% of the single-path sigma σSP are ranging from 0.219 to 0.254 (ln unit) and are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (σT =0.601). The single-site sigma (σSS) are also 39%-43% smaller. If we use only random variability (single-path sigma) in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 28% and 25% lower than the traditional one (using total sigma) in 475-year and in 2475-year return period, respectively, in Taipei.

  13. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Bejiçi, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the pediatrician. In the echo of the heart at the posterior and apico-lateral part of the left ventricle a tumoral mass was presented with the dimensions of 56 × 54 mm that forwarded the contractions of the left ventricle, the mass involved also the left ventricle wall and was not vascularized. The right ventricle was deformed and with the shifting of the SIV on the right the contractility was preserved. Aorta, the left arch and AP were normal with laminar circulation. The pericard was presented free. Radiography of thoracic organs was made; it resulted on cardiomegaly and significant bronchovascular drawing. It was completed with an MRI and it resulted on: Cardiomegaly due to large tumoral mass lesion (60×34 mm) involving lateral wall of left ventricle. It was isointense to the muscle on T1W images, markedly hyperintense on T2W images. There were a few septa or bant like hypointensities within lesion. On postcontrast study it showed avid enhancement. The left ventricle volume was decreased. Mild pericardial effusion was also noted. Surgical intervention was performed and it resulted on the histopathological aspect as a huge infantile rhadbomyoma. Conclusion: In most cases no treatment is required and these lesions regress spontaneously. Patients with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction or refractory arrhythmias respond well to surgical excision. Rhabdomyomas are frequently diagnosed by means of fetal echocardiography during the prenatal period. PMID:27147810

  14. MR-based truncation and attenuation correction in integrated PET/MR hybrid imaging using HUGE with continuous table motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Maike E; Oehmigen, Mark; Blumhagen, Jan O; Gratz, Marcel; Quick, Harald H

    2017-09-01

    . Quantification in truncated regions showed maximal differences up to 40% for both, MLAA and HUGE. Average differences in those regions in SUVmean for HUGE are 13.3% and 14.6% for MLAA. In a patient with I-124 radiotracer PET-based MLAA contour detection completely failed in this specific case, whereas HUGE as MR-based approach provided accurate truncation correction. The HUGE method for truncation correction combined with continuous table movement extends the lateral MR field-of-view and effectively reduces truncations along the outer contours of the patient's arms in whole-body PET/MR imaging. HUGE as a fully MR-based approach is independent of the choice of radiotracer, thus also offering robust truncation correction in patients that are not injected with Fluordesoxyglucose (FDG) as radiotracer. Therefore, this method improves the standard Dixon MR-based attenuation correction and PET image quantification in whole-body PET/MR imaging applications. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  15. Huge Benign Granulosa Cell Tumour In A 61 Year Old Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To re-appraise clinicians that huge ovarian lesions with features of malignancies may still be benign and that late presentation is a problem in genital cancer management that should be addressed. Subject, material and method: A case report of a huge benign granulosa cell tumour in a postmenopausal woman is ...

  16. Huge aneurysmal bone cyst mimicking a kidney tumor: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Termos

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: ABC can mimic renal cell carcinoma and other malignant bone tumors. In huge tumors with a difficult location as in our case, we recommend a two stage procedure for huge tumors to ensure a complete resection and hence lower recurrence rate and better outcome.

  17. Multicaloric effects in PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films with 90° domain structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Li, B.; Ou, Y.; Liu, L. F.; Tian, L.; Wang, W.

    2017-04-01

    The multicaloric effects of a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin film with 90° domain structure at room temperature are predicted using a phase-field simulation. The calculation results indicate that the giant negative multicaloric ΔT E,σ can reach -11 K which far exceeds the values associated with either elastocaloric or electrocaloric effects. In addition, the multicaloric effect is larger than the stress-mediated electrocaloric effect or electrically mediated elastocaloric effect, and the transition of the 90° domain structure to a monodomain greatly affects the caloric effects of PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin films.

  18. Predation among microorganisms: A huge potential of interspecies dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Justyna; Włodarczyk, Marcin

    2017-11-03

    There are many interactions between species (including bacteria) in the environment. One of them is predation, which always leads to the death of a prey. Described in this review Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (Alfaproteobacteria) are uniflagellate, rod shaped and curved obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria. Both species belong to the group of BALOs (Bdellovibrio and like organisms). B. bacteriovorus use periplasmic predatory strategy and M. aeruginosavorus are epibiotic hunters. BALOs have found application in both medicine in combating microorganisms responsible for food poisoning and outside of medicine (agriculture and food) as plant protection products and as measures used to prevent the spoiling of food. As a result of searching for effective therapies in the treatment of infections caused by drug-resistant strains of bacteria, it has been shown that predators feed on pathogenic bacteria without showing immunogenicity to humans. Predatory bacteria are able to destroy the multi - and single-species biofilms. Recent studies have indicated the possibility of B. bacteriovorus to destroy the biofilm formed by Staphylococcus aureus. It is postulated that a double predatory strategy of B. bacteriovorus and harmless BALOs towards mammalian cells could be used to treat infections in vivo, particularly in those cases when standard therapy fails.

  19. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheir A. Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed.

  20. Huge hepatocellular carcinoma with multiple intrahepatic metastases: An aggressive multimodal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yasuda

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Multimodal treatment involving hepatectomy and TACE might be a good treatment strategy for patients with huge HCC with multiple intrahepatic metastases if the tumors are localized in the liver without distant or peritoneal metastasis.

  1. Chronology of landslide and huge landslide survey; Jisuberi nendaigaku to kyodai jisuberi chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, H. [Institute of Agriculture Machining, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes chronology and survey of huge landslides. A huge landslide is as expansive as covering an area of one million m {sup 2} at a depth of 100 m and with moving soil amount of a hundred million m {sup 3}. Although a landslide is thought vaguely a prehistoric activity, but it is known that some huge landslides have made activities even during the past five decades. A landslide area forms a stagnant water zone such as a lake as a result of a swale formed in a pull-off area of the head of a landslide, and formation of a dam at the end of the slope. Most of landslides in Japan are the reactivated landslides caused by landslides occurred in the past repeating the movement. A landslide causes disasters and damages as a result of movement of substances on the slope when an unstable slope tries to achieve stability. On the other hand, however, landslides have created farm lands and water resources. It is difficult both technically and economically to stop the force of an acting huge landslide. Damage may be curbed to minimum if the actual possibility of a landslide in a region -- existence of a huge landslide and the relationship with landslides of normal scale -- is known thoroughly by public in general, and if a warning and evacuation system has been established by informing portent phenomena and abnormal measurements. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Collaborative treatment of huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Deog Gon; Chang, Yong Jin; Cho, Kyu Do; Hong, Jae Taek

    2015-11-10

    An intrathoracic meningocele is a relatively rare disease, and it commonly accompanies neurofibromatosis type 1. Patients tend to have no symptom but if its size is too large and compresses a lung and neighboring organs, it needs shunt drainage or surgical resection. Herein, we present the case of a 52 year-old female patient with huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, who has complained about chest discomfort and dyspnea at rest. As for a preliminary treatment, a neurosurgeon had performed a cystoperitoneal shunt, but the symptoms continued and the size of mass and the amount of pleural effusion did not change significantly. Therefore, the huge thoracic meningoceles were successfully treated through the thoracotomic approach in combination with lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. It is reported that double huge intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 was successfully treated by a shunting procedure followed by thoracotomic resection with collaboration of a neurosurgeon.

  3. Huge right atrial myxoma causing fixed tricuspid stenosis with constitutional symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuralay, Erkan; Cingöz, Faruk; Günay, Celalettin; Demirkiliç, Ufuk; Tatar, Harun

    2003-01-01

    Nonspecific constitutional symptoms are reported mostly in patients with left-atrial myxomas, which occur five times as often as its right-atrial counterpart. We present huge right-atrial myxoma, which obstructs tricuspid orifice with nonspecific constitutional symptoms without any pulmonary embolism attack.

  4. A Computational Method for Enabling Teaching-Learning Process in Huge Online Courses and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Higinio; Ferrández, Antonio; Gil, David; Peral, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses and e-learning represent the future of the teaching-learning processes through the development of Information and Communication Technologies. They are the response to the new education needs of society. However, this future also presents many challenges such as the processing of online forums when a huge number of…

  5. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10,000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems.

  6. Thoracoscopic plication for a huge thoracic meningocele in a patient with neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Chung; Chang, Ping-Hsien; Jhang, Shang-Wun; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2014-05-13

    Intrathoracic meningoceles associated with neurofibromatosis type I are rare, and the optimal treatment is still unknown. Herein, we present the case of a 48-year-old Asian female with a huge thoracic meningocele associated with cutaneous neurofibromatosis type I and kyphoscoliosis of the thoracic spine. The large thoracic meningocele was successfully treated through thoracoscopic plication.

  7. A Huge Ovarian Cyst in a Middle-Aged Iranian Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Moslemi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Iranian woman was found to have a huge ovarian cystic mass. Her presenting symptom was vague abdominal pain and severe abdominal distention. She underwent laparotomy and after surgical removal, the mass was found to be mucinous cystadenoma on histology.

  8. Unusual Huge Keratoacanthoma in Sites of in the Previous Split-Thickness Skin Grafted Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uygur

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a fairly common keratinizing, squamous neoplasm. The exact etiology of KA is unknown. However, ultraviolet radiation, trauma, chemical carcinogens, viral infections, immunosuppression, genetic factors, radiation and thermal burns have been accused of pathogenesis. In here, we represent an unusual huge KA arising from the previous reconstructed with split-thickness skin graft on the dorsal foot.

  9. Incidence of Secondary Hydrocephalus after Excision of Huge Encephaloceles in Neonates: Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaee, Ehab Ahmed El; Refaat, Mohamed Ibrahim; Reda, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

     Encephaloceles presents as a protrusion of the cranial contents through a defect in the cranium. The most common sites of occurrence are the occipital and frontonasal regions. The surgical outcome is reported to be satisfactory; however, the incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with encephaloceles is variable in the literature. This study investigated the relationship between the size of the encephaloceles and the occurrence of hydrocephalus.  Data of all neonates with encephaloceles who presented to our institution from September 2012 to September 2014 were collected. Surgery was performed during the first 2 weeks of age. Encephaloceles with a maximal diameter > 10 cm were included in the study, and the clinical picture, surgical technique, pre- and postoperative imaging, and follow-up were analyzed.  Nineteen cases were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 7 months. Sixteen cases were occipital; three were frontal. In all patients the maximum diameter was > 10 cm. However, in four patients it was > 18 cm. Postoperative ventriculomegaly occurred in seven cases. Of these, four patients needed a permanent ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation (21%). Wound dehiscence occurred in two patients who required secondary sutures with a favorable outcome. One patient died 2 weeks after the surgery due to a poor general condition and wound infection.  Early surgical excision provides effective treatment of huge encephaloceles. Overall, 21% of cases require cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion afterward depending on associated anomalies. Despite their size, giant encephaloceles can have an excellent prognosis with no need for further treatment or CSF diversion. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Clinical study of conjunctival papilla grinding technique in the treatment of severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis with huge conjunctival nipple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe and assess the efficacy and safety of conjunctival papilla grinding technique in the treatment of severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis(VKCwith giant conjunctival papilla. METHODS: The prospective and controlled study was performed in 17 patients(24 eyeswith VKC. Eight patients(12 eyeswith giant conjunctival papillae were treated with grinding technique and 9 patients(12 eyeswere performed with conjunctival papillectomy, respectively. A comparison was made on the changes of symptoms including itching, tearing, light sensitivity and grittiness and physical signs of conjunctival papilla and the corneal epithelium before and after surgery.RESULTS:The symptoms and signs in the first week, the second week and the forth week after the operation were obviously improved in the two groups, and differences in these aspects before and after surgery were of statistical significance(P0.01. However, by grading of the signs of huge conjunctival nipple in the first week, the second week and the forth week after the operation, and conditions of repair of corneal damage in the second postoperative week, the result showed that efficacy of the grinding group was better than that of the surgical removal group(PCONCLUSION:Conjunctival nipples grinding operation can make the rough conjunctival wound flat quickly, relieve symptoms, and promote the repair of keratoconjunctival epithelium. And it is an effective, safe, and simple method to treat the severe VKC with huge conjunctival nipples.

  11. [Resection of a Huge Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Imatinib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshihiro; Karasawa, Hideaki; Aoki, Takeshi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Abe, Tomoya; Nagao, Munenori; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Musha, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masanobu; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Naitoh, Takeshi; Ishioka, Chikashi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of a huge gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)that was safely resected followingpreoperative imatinib therapy. A 72-year-old woman was hospitalized with severe abdominal distension. Computed tomography revealed a 27×17 cm tumor in the left upper abdominal cavity. The patient was diagnosed with high risk GIST by EUS-FNA. We initiated preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib to achieve a reduction of operative risks and functional preservation. After 6 months of chemotherapy, CT showed a reduction in the tumor size and the patient underwent partial gastrectomy and partial resection of the diaphragm. Histologically, most of the tumor cells were replaced by hyalinized collagen and viable cells were scattered only around the blood vessels. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with imatinib has the potential to become an important therapeutic option for the treatment of huge GISTs.

  12. Successful Vaginal Delivery despite a Huge Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenoma Complicating Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Mandi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old patient with 9 months of amenorrhea and a huge abdominal swelling was admitted to our institution with an ultrasonography report of a multiloculated cystic space-occupying lesion, almost taking up the whole abdomen (probably of ovarian origin, along with a single live intrauterine fetus. She delivered vaginally a boy baby within 4 hours of admission without any maternal complication, but the baby had features of intrauterine growth restriction along with low birth weight. On the 8th postpartum day, the multiloculated cystic mass, which arose from the right ovary and weighed about 11 kg, was removed via laparotomy. A mucinous cystadenoma with no malignant cells in peritoneal washing was detected in histopathology examination. This report describes a rare case of a successful vaginal delivery despite a huge cystadenoma of the right ovary complicating the pregnancy.

  13. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  14. Huge mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, describing a young patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian cysts in young women who are associated with elevated levels of tumor markers and ascites require careful evaluation. Management of ovarian cysts depends on patient's age, size of the cyst, and its histopathological nature. Conservative surgery such as ovarian cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy is adequate in mucinous tumors of ovary. Multiple frozen sections are very important to know the malignant variation of this tumor and helps accurate patient management. Surgical expertise is required to prevent complications in huge tumors has distorted the anatomy, so gynecologic oncologist plays a prominent role in management. In this case, beside of the huge tumor and massive ascites uterine and ovaries were preserved by gynecologist oncologist and patient is well up to now.

  15. An Investigation of Areva Inc. Huge Financial Loss in the Aftermath of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeryami, Saeed; Moghadasi, Seyedmahdi; Rahimi, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Areva is a French multinational company, mainly known for its nuclear power activities. This Company is active in all parts of value chain of nuclear energy. After Fukushima disaster, this company faced a huge financial loss. This study investigates the reasons for the loss and how Areva could manage the loss better. Diversification, increasing the flexibility of its human resource management, not taking any unsafe bet after 2008 vulnerable global market, adopting more realistic and risk-ave...

  16. Interaction-induced huge magnetoresistance in a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockhorn, L.; Haug, R. J. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Gornyi, I. V. [Institut für Nanotechnologie, Karlsruher Institut of Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schuh, D. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [ETH Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-12-04

    A strong negative magnetoresistance is observed in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum well. We discuss that the negative magnetoresistance consists of a small peak induced by a combination of two types of disorder and a huge magnetoresistance explained by the interaction correction to the conductivity for mixed disorder.

  17. Huge congenital cervical immature teratoma mimicking lymphatic malformation in a 7-day-old male neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most cervical teratomas are benign. However, because of their location and size, these neoplasms cause airway obstruction, and the prognosis of patients is poor if left untreated. Early diagnosis by antenatal ultrasound, airway management, and a multidisciplinary team approach to treatment are therefore necessary. This report describes a 7-day-old male neonate who presented at our institution with a huge neck mass that was treated by surgical excision.

  18. Disaster Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Huge Glacial Debris Flows along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; You, Yong; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Dong; Chen, Jiangang; Chen, Huayong

    2017-04-01

    The Ranwu-Tongmai section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through the Palongzangbu River basin which locates in the southeast Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Due to widely distributed maritime glacier in this area, the huge glacier debris flows are very developed. Consequently, the disastrous glacier debris flows with huge scale (106-108 m3 for one debris flow event) and damage become one of the key influencing factors for the route alignment of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. The research on disaster characteristics and mitigation measures of huge glacial debris flows in the study area were conducted by the remote sensing interpretation, field investigation, parameter calculation and numerical simulation. Firstly, the distribution of the glaciers, glacier lakes and glacier debris flows were identified and classified; and the disaster characteristics for the huge glacier debris flow were analyzed and summarized. Secondly, the dynamic parameters including the flood peak discharge, debris flow peak discharge, velocity, total volume of a single debris flow event were calculated. Based on the disaster characteristics and the spatial relation with the railway, some mitigation principles and measures were proposed. Finally, the Guxiang Gully, where a huge glacier debris flow with 2*108m3 in volume occurred in 1953, was selected as a typical case to analyze its disaster characteristics and mitigation measures. The interpretation results show that the glacier area is about 970 km2 which accounts for 19% of the total study area. 130 glacier lakes and 102 glacier debris flows were identified and classified. The Sichuan-Tibet Railway passes through 43 glacier debris flows in the study area. The specific disaster characteristics were analyzed and corresponding mitigation measures were proposed for the route selection of the railway. For the Guxiang Gully, a numerical simulation to simulate the deposition condition at the alluvial fan was conducted. the simulation results show that the

  19. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting

    2016-07-21

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits excellent photocatalytic ability and stability after 10 cycles in degrading methyl orange under visible light irradiation, owing to its unique mesoporous network, abundant surface hydrides and efficient light harvesting. This work showcases the profound effects of surface area, crystallinity, pore topology on charge migration/recombination and mass transportation. Therein the ordered 1D channel array has outperformed the interconnected 3D porous network by greatly accelerating the mass diffusion and enhancing the accessibility of the active sites on the extensive surfaces. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Severe progressive scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyama Yoshiaki

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cavernous hemangioma consists mainly of congenital vascular malformations present before birth and gradually increasing in size with skeletal growth. A small number of patients with cavernous hemangioma develop scoliosis, and surgical treatment for the scoliosis in such cases has not been reported to date. Here we report a 12-year-old male patient with severe progressive scoliosis due to a huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, who underwent posterior correction and fusion surgery. Upon referral to our department, radiographs revealed a scoliosis of 85° at T6-L1 and a kyphosis of 58° at T4-T10. CT and MR images revealed a huge hemangioma extending from the subcutaneous region to the paraspinal muscles and the retroperitoneal space and invading the spinal canal. Posterior correction and fusion surgery using pedicle screws between T2 and L3 were performed. Massive hemorrhage from the hemangioma occurred during the surgery, with intraoperative blood loss reaching 2800 ml. The scoliosis was corrected to 59°, and the kyphosis to 45° after surgery. Seven hours after surgery, the patient suffered from hypovolemic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to postoperative hemorrhage from the hemangioma. The patient developed sensory and conduction aphasia caused by cerebral hypoxia during the shock on the day of the surgery. At present, two years after the surgery, although the patient has completely recovered from the aphasia. This case illustrates that, in correction surgery for scoliosis due to huge subcutaneous cavernous hemangioma, intraoperative and postoperative intensive care for hemodynamics should be performed, since massive hemorrhage can occur during the postoperative period as well as the intraoperative period.

  1. Huge Tracheal Diverticulum in a Patient with Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mondoni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal diverticulum is a rare benign entity. Tracheobronchomegaly (TBM, also known as Mounier-Kuhn syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by marked dilation of the trachea and main bronchi, associated with thinning or atrophy of the elastic tissue. Because of the weakened trachea and increased intraluminal pressure related to chronic cough, some patients may develop mucosal herniation leading to tracheal diverticulosis. We report the case of a patient with TBM with a huge tracheal diverticulum, diagnosed by bronchoscopy and computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction. To our knowledge this is the largest tracheal diameter described in a patient affected by this syndrome.

  2. Design of a superluminal ring laser gyroscope using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Han, Xiang; Wu, Suyong; Huang, Yun; Luo, Hui

    2014-11-18

    We propose and analyze a superluminal ring laser gyroscope (RLG) using multilayer optical coatings with huge group delay (GD). This GD assisted superluminal RLG can measure the absolute rotation with a giant sensitivity-enhancement factor of ~10(3); while, the broadband FWHM of the enhancement factor can reach 20 MHz. This superluminal RLG is based on a traditional RLG with minimal re-engineering, and beneficial for miniaturization according to theoretical calculation. The idea of using GD coatings as a fast-light medium will shed lights on the design and application of fast-light sensors.

  3. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  4. Climate change adaptation accounting for huge uncertainties in future projections - the case of urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological design parameters, which are currently used in the guidelines for the design of urban drainage systems (Willems et al., 2013) have been revised, taking the Flanders region of Belgium as case study. The revision involved extrapolation of the design rainfall statistics, taking into account the current knowledge on future climate change trends till 2100. Uncertainties in these trend projections have been assessed after statistically analysing and downscaling by a quantile perturbation tool based on a broad ensemble set of climate model simulation results (44 regional + 69 global control-scenario climate model run combinations for different greenhouse gas scenarios). The impact results of the climate scenarios were investigated as changes to rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves. Thereafter, the climate scenarios and related changes in rainfall statistics were transferred to changes in flood frequencies of sewer systems and overflow frequencies of storage facilities. This has been done based on conceptual urban drainage models. Also the change in storage capacity required to exceed a given overflow return period, has been calculated for a range of return periods and infiltration or throughflow rates. These results were used on the basis of the revision of the hydraulic design rules of urban drainage systems. One of the major challenges while formulating these policy guidelines was the consideration of the huge uncertainties in the future climate change projections and impact assessments; see also the difficulties and pitfalls reported by the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage - Working group on urban rainfall (Willems et al., 2012). We made use of the risk concept, and found it a very useful approach to deal with the high uncertainties. It involves an impact study of the different climate projections, or - for practical reasons - a reduced set of climate scenarios tailored for the specific type of impact considered (urban floods in our

  5. Surgical resection of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma in skull base by intraoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Li, Yun-Peng; Lei, De-Lin; Li, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma, also known as ossifying fibroma, usually occurs in the mandible and less commonly in the maxilla. The huge example in the skull base is even rare. We present a case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma arising below the skull base of a 30-year-old woman patient. Radiologic investigations showed a giant, lobulated, heterogeneous calcified hard tissue mass, which is well circumscribed and is a mixture of radiolucent and radiopaque, situated at the rear of the right maxilla to the middle skull base. The tumor expands into the right maxillary sinus and the orbital cavity, fusing with the right maxilla at the maxillary tuberosity and blocking the bilateral choanas, which caused marked proptosis and blurred vision. The tumor was resected successfully by intraoral approach, and pathologic examination confirmed the lesion to be a cemento-ossifying fibroma. This case demonstrates that cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxilla, not like in the mandible, may appear more aggressive because the extensive growth is unimpeded by anatomic obstacles and that the intraoral approach can be used to excise the tumor in the skull base.

  6. Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-11

    Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

  7. Successful removal of a huge hypervascular tentorial cavernous angioma after preoperative endovascular embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Sano, Masakazu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Nishino, Kazuhiko; Saito, Akihiko; Fukuda, Masafumi; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2014-07-01

    The authors report a rare case of a huge hypervascular tentorial cavernous angioma treated with preoperative endovascular embolization, followed by successful gross-total removal. A 15-year-old girl presented with scintillation, diplopia, and papilledema. Computed tomography and MRI studies revealed a huge irregularly shaped tumor located in the right occipital and suboccipital regions. The tumor, which had both intra- and extradural components, showed marked enhancement and invasion of the overlying occipital bone. Angiography revealed marked tumor stain, with blood supply mainly from a large branch of the left posterior meningeal artery. Therefore, this lesion was diagnosed as a tentorium-based extraaxial tumor. For differential diagnosis, meningioma, hemangiopericytoma, and malignant skull tumor were considered. Tumor feeders were endovascularly embolized with particles of polyvinyl alcohol. On the following day, the tumor was safely gross totally removed with minimum blood loss. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. To date, there have been no reports of tentorium-based cavernous angiomas endovascularly embolized preoperatively. A tentorial cavernous angioma is most likely to show massive intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, preoperative embolization appears to be quite useful for safe maximum resection. Hence, the authors assert that the differential diagnosis of tentorium-based tumors should include tentorial cavernous angioma, for which preoperative endovascular embolization should be considered.

  8. Unusual Large Sporadic Angiomyolipoma Co-existing with Huge Simple Renal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil V Jagtap

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal Angiomyolipoma (AML is an unusual benign mesenchymal tumor with no malignant potential. It is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscle and abnormal thick walled blood vessels. It can occur sporadically or may be associated with tuberous sclerosis. Sporadic angiomyolipoma (AML coexisting with simple renal cyst is extremely rare and only one case report is available in the literature. In our case, unique combination of sporadic AML along with simple renal cyst with huge size and weight was noted. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the second such case and first case from India. Due to its large size, complete nephrectomy was performed to avoid chances of rupture and retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Post-operative period was uneventful and the patient ahs been on regular follow-up.

  9. Brenner's tumor associated with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma reaching a huge size in postmenopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed Mohamed; Amin, Mariam Taher

    2015-01-01

    A case of a 70-year-old Egyptian postmenopausal woman presenting a Brenner's tumor associated with mucinous cystadenoma weighing 20.7 kg is reported here. Patient was admitted in our hospital with abdominal pain of one-month duration. On abdominal ultrasound, a huge heterogeneous mass was found to encompass the whole abdomen. At laparotomy, a giant, right heterogeneous mass was encountered and removed intact by right salpingo-oophorectomy. On the seventh postoperative day, she was discharged without any problem. Her pathology report disclosed a 52 x 41 x 36 cm, partially solid, partially cystic mass diagnosed as benign Brenner's tumor with mucinous cystadenoma weighing 20.7 kg. This is the largest ovarian mass that is ever reported in our hospital and one of the largest among the reported cases in the literature.

  10. The  Big, Large and Huge Case of State-Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    of organization, war, finance, law and politics. This offers a picture of structures, semantic differentiations and for elites as well as commoners that have interests in operations that paves ways for state formation as an evolutionary learning process. In order to fulfill that aim, aspects of Luhmann's theory......  Using communication theory as point of departure it is not evident how to study macro phenomena. Michel Foucault delimited his studies to a non-Grand Theory when he studied discursive events. At the same time Charles Tilly wrote about Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons when he...... tried to establish a perspective on a macro phenomena as European state formation. With Luhmann's system theory, the claim is that there is no such contradiction between Grand evolution and particular semantic history. Passing through some classic studies of the historical establishment of interaction...

  11. The big, large and huge case of state-building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    of organization, war, finance, law and politics. This offers a picture of structures, semantic differentiations and of elites and commoners who have an interest in operations that pave the way for state formation as an evolutionary learning process. In order to fulfill that aim, aspects of Luhmann's theory have......  Using communication theory as point of departure, it is not evident how to study macro phenomena. Michel Foucault limited his studies to a non-Grand Theory when studying discursive events. At the same time, Charles Tilly wrote about Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons when trying...... to establish a perspective on a macro phenomena as European state formation. With Luhmann's system theory, the claim is that there is no such contradiction between Grand evolution and particular semantic history. Passing through some classic studies of the historical establishment of interaction systems...

  12. Huge pelvic parachordoma: fine needle aspiration cytology and histological differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Kandil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Parachordoma is an extremely rare soft tissue tumor of unknown lineage. Parachordoma develops most often on the extremities. Only 2 cases have been reported as pelvic parachordoma. A 46-year old Egyptian woman with a huge painful pelvic mass was found to have a parachordoma with ectopic pelvic right kidney. There is only one report in the literature of fine needle aspiration cytology in this setting. The microscopic picture of parachordoma is not new to pathologists but the gross picture of this rare tumor has not previously been published; not even in the World Health Organization classification of soft tissues tumors. Diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry. The patient is in good clinical condition without any evidence of recurrence or metastasis after 84 months of follow up.

  13. Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for early gastric cancer accompanied by huge hiatal hernia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Chie; Yajima, Kazuhito; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Oohinata, Ryouki; Yuu, Ken; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Amaki, Misato; Nakano, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-02-01

    We herein present a case in which we used a totally laparoscopic approach for early gastric cancer accompanied by a huge hiatal hernia. An 80-year-old Japanese woman was referred with a chief complaint of dysphagia. A clinical diagnosis of early gastric cancer, T1b (SM) N0M0, stage IA, accompanied by hiatal hernia, was made. Distal gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out. After the gastrectomy, the hernial sac was excised and the hernial orifice was closed. Reconstruction using the Roux-en-Y method was selected. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on postoperative day 10. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. PRS: PERSONNEL RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR HUGE DATA ANALYSIS USING PORTER STEMMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Chiranjeevi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal recommendation system is one which gives better and preferential recommendation to the users to satisfy their personalized requirements such as practical applications like Webpage Preferences, Sport Videos preferences, Stock selection based on price, TV preferences, Hotel preferences, books, Mobile phones, CDs and various other products now use recommender systems. The existing Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC and item-based algorithm using PCC, are called as UPCC and IPCC respectively. These systems are mainly based on only the rating services and does not consider the user personal preferences, they simply just give the result based on the ratings. As the size of data increases it will give the recommendations based on the top rated services and it will miss out most of user preferences. These are main drawbacks in the existing system which will give same results to the users based on some evaluations and rankings or rating service, they will neglect the user preferences and necessities. To address this problem we propose a new approach called, Personnel Recommendation System (PRS for huge data analysis using Porter Stemmer to solve the above challenges. In the proposed system it provides a personalized service recommendation list to the users and recommends the most useful services to the users which will increase the accuracy and efficiency in searching better services. Particularly, a set of suggestions or keywords are provided to indicate user preferences and we used Collaborative Filtering and Porter Stemmer algorithm which gives a suitable recommendations to the users. In real, the broad experiments are conducted on the huge database which is available in real world, and outcome shows that our proposed personal recommender method extensively improves the precision and efficiency of service recommender system over the KASR method. In our approach mainly consider the user preferences so it will not miss out the any of the data

  15. Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2012-06-26

    Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

  16. The HUGE formula (hematocrit, urea, gender) for screening for chronic kidney disease in elderly patients: a study of diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Carlos G; de Los Rios, Eduardo; Vilas, Manuel; Terrasa, Sergio; Bratti, Griselda; Varela, Federico; Diez, Guillermo Rosa; Jauregui, Jose; Luna, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Chronically reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in old people does not always mean that they suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) since their GFR can just be reduced by aging. The HUGE equation has been recently described and validated in Spain for screening CKD without taking into account the patient's GFR value. This equation is based on patient's hematocrit, plasma urea levels and gender. The present study documented that the HUGE equation had and acceptable performance for screening CKD in elderly Argentine patients.

  17. Internalization of a novel, huge lectin from Ibacus novemdentatus (slipper lobster) induces apoptosis of mammalian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Fujiwara, T; Koide, Y; Hasan, I; Sugawara, S; Rajia, S; Kawsar, S M A; Yamamoto, D; Araki, D; Kanaly, R A; Ogawa, Y; Fujita, H; Ozeki, Y

    2017-02-01

    An N-acetyl sugar-binding lectin (termed iNoL) displaying cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells was isolated from the slipper lobster Ibacus novemdentatus (family Scyllaridae). iNoL recognized monosaccharides containing N-acetyl group, and glycoproteins (e.g., BSM) containing oligosaccharides with N-acetyl sugar. iNoL was composed of five subunits (330, 260, 200, 140, and 30 kDa), which in turn consisted of 70-, 40-, and 30-kDa polypeptides held together by disulfide bonds. Electron microscopic observations and gel permeation chromatography indicated that iNoL was a huge (500-kDa) molecule and had a polygonal structure under physiological conditions. iNoL displayed cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects against human cancer cell lines MCF7 and T47D (breast), HeLa (ovarian), and Caco2 (colonic), through incorporation (internalization) into cells. The lectin was transported into lysosomes via endosomes. Its cytotoxic effect and incorporation into cells were inhibited by the co-presence of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc). Treatment of HeLa cells with iNoL resulted in DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation, through activation of caspase-9 and -3. In summary, the novel crustacean lectin iNoL is incorporated into mammalian cancer cells through glycoconjugate interaction, and has cytotoxic (apoptotic) effects.

  18. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  19. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  20. Partial reactivation of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide: recognition, formation mechanism, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minggao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Yusheng; Huang, Runqiu; Rengers, Niek; Zhu, Xing

    2016-08-01

    About 18 years ago, a large-scale discontinuous layer in properties and colour was found in the new Fengjie town at the shore of the Three Gorges Reservoir area in China. There are many resettled residents and buildings on the sloping area, the safety of which is potentially affected by this layer, so it has become the focus of attention. Before this study started there were two viewpoints regarding the origin of this layer. One was that is was from a huge ancient slide and the other was that is was from a fault graben. In order to find out how it was formed and to be able to carry out a stability analysis of the slope the authors have carried out a research program, including geological field investigations and mapping, a deep drilling hole, a geotechnical centrifuge model test, and a simulation analysis. The results of the research led to the conclusion that the layer is the sliding plane of a huge deep-seated ancient rock slide, which we called the Sanmashan landslide. An important argument for the conclusion is the recognition of a regional compressive tectonic stress field in this area, which cannot lead to the formation of a fault graben because it needs a tensional tectonic stress field. Moreover, numerous unique geological features, sliding marks, and other relics of the ancient slide have been discovered in the field. The formation process of the ancient slide could be repeated in a large geotechnical centrifuge model test. The test shows that a deformation and failure process of "creep-crack-cut" has occurred. The type of the ancient slide can be classified as a "successive rotational rock slide". Finally, the role of seepage in the stability of the Sanmashan landslide has been analysed. Our final conclusions are that, during rainfall and filling-drawdown cycles in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the Sanmashan landslide as a whole is dormant and stable and the secondary landslides in the toe area of the slope are presently stable but can be reactivated. This

  1. The huge geothermal energy potential in the Danish subsurface - challenges and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars H.; Mathiesen, A.; Kristensen, Lars; Weibel, R.; Olivarius, M.; Bidstrup, T.; Nielsen, Carsten M.; Laier, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.

    2011-05-15

    The Danish subsurface contains huge geothermal resources that may contribute to a safe, sustainable and reliable supply of energy. Geothermal energy may thus play an important role in the energy strategy in Denmark. The exploitation of the resources is especially attractive in urban areas where it can be combined with district heating systems. The challenge is to find areas where the adequate geological conditions in the subsurface coincide with the presence of essential infrastructure on the surface. The most promising geothermal reservoirs occur within the thick Triassic-Lower Cretaceous successions in the Danish and North German Basins. The potential resource is determined by a number of geological parameters of which the burial depth, thickness, net/gross ratio, continuity (presence of faults or lateral lithological changes) and porosity and permeability of the reservoir sandstones, and the chemistry and temperature of the formation water are the most important. These parameters are all dependent on geological processes and can be investigated by geological and geophysical methods. In most places a preliminary assessment of the geothermal potential can be carried out based on interpretations of data and samples from existing wells, seismic surveys and temperature measurements from the local area. Subsequently the initial assessment, if promising, may be followed by acquisition of new data and further investigations following a stepwise maturation method with a number of decision gates proposed in this paper. (Author)

  2. Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in boron nitride – ethylene glycol nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Żyła, Gaweł, E-mail: gzyla@prz.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Fal, Jacek; Traciak, Julian [Department of Physics and Medical Engineering, Rzeszow University of Technology, Rzeszow, 35-905 (Poland); Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof [Department of Nanotechnology, Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Warsaw, 02-676 (Poland)

    2016-09-01

    Paper presents the results of experimental studies on thermophysical properties of boron nitride (BN) plate-like shaped particles in ethylene glycol (EG). Essentially, the studies were focused on the thermal conductivity of suspensions of these particles. Nanofluids were obtained with two-step method (by dispersing BN particles in ethylene glycol) and its’ thermal conductivity was analyzed at various mass concentrations, up to 20 wt. %. Thermal conductivity was measured in temperature range from 293.15 K to 338.15 K with 15 K step. The measurements of thermal conductivity of nanofluids were performed in the system based on a device using the transient line heat source method. Studies have shown that nanofluids’ thermal conductivity increases with increasing fraction of nanoparticles. The results of studies also presented that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids changes very slightly with the increase of temperature. - Highlights: • Huge thermal conductivity enhancement in BN-EG nanofluid was reported. • Thermal conductivity increase very slightly with increasing of the temperature. • Thermal conductivity increase linearly with volume concentration of particles.

  3. A Huge Capital Drop with Compression of Femoral Vessels Associated with Hip Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Takasago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A capital drop is a type of osteophyte at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head commonly observed in hip osteoarthritis (OA, secondary to developmental dysplasia. Capital drop itself is typically asymptomatic; however, symptoms can appear secondary to impinge against the acetabulum or to irritation of the surrounding tissues, such as nerves, vessels, and tendons. We present here a case of unilateral leg edema in a patient with hip OA, caused by a huge bone mass occurring at the inferomedial portion of the femoral head that compressed the femoral vessels. We diagnosed this bone mass as a capital drop secondary to hip OA after confirming that the mass occurred at least after the age of 63 years based on a previous X-ray. We performed early resection and total hip arthroplasty since the patient’s hip pain was due to both advanced hip OA and compression of the femoral vessels; moreover, we aimed to prevent venous thrombosis secondary to vascular compression considering the advanced age and the potent risk of thrombosis in the patient. A large capital drop should be considered as a cause of vascular compression in cases of unilateral leg edema in OA patients.

  4. How can we transfer scientific knowledge to citizens? : Case studies from huge earthquake and tsunami researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake and tsunamis took place coastal regions of Northeast Japan. Coastal infrastructure collapsed due to high waves of tsunamis. Marine ecosystems were also strongly disturbed by the earthquakes and tsunamis. TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) has started for monitoring recovering process of marine ecosystems. The project continues ten years. First five years are mainly monitored recovery process, then we should transfer our knowledge to fishermen and citizens for restoration of fishery and social systems. But, how can we actually transfer our knowledge from science to citizens? This is new experience for us. Socio-technology constructs a "high quality risk communication" model how scientific knowledge or technologies from scientific communities to citizens. They are progressing as follows, "observation, measurements and data", → "modeling and synthesis" → "information process" → "delivery to society" → " take action in society". These steps show detailed transition from inter-disciplinarity to trans-disciplinarity in science and technology. In our presentation, we plan to show a couple of case studies that are going forward from science to society.

  5. Management of a Prenatally Diagnosed Huge Teratoma Arising from the Soft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Tamura

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas arising from the oral cavity are relatively rare and can cause life-threatening airway obstruction immediately after birth. We report a case of a huge teratoma arising from the soft palate detected prenatally. To save the patient, a caesarean section and ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT were planned at 29 weeks of gestation. However, during EXIT, the patient's cardiopulmonary status deteriorated due to unstable cord blood flow secondary to uterine contractions. EXIT was abandoned, the patient was delivered and an emergency tracheotomy performed. The tumour was successfully excised 4 hours after tracheotomy. The tumour weighed 1,591 g and was 20 × 22 × 12 cm. The patient, a female, weighed 715 g. Histopathology showed Grade II teratoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and she is now 5 years old with no neurological sequelae. EXIT is indicated in patients who have a high risk for airway obstruction immediately after birth. However, if EXIT must be abandoned, as in this case, urgent tracheotomy is mandatory. Planned prevention of airway obstruction at delivery is indispensable for successful outcome and requires excellent coordination among obstetricians, neonatologists, anaesthesiologists and paediatric surgeons.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of CASR and cancer risk: evidence from meta-analysis and HuGE review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sohyun Jeong, Jae Hyun Kim, Myeong Gyu Kim, Nayoung Han, In-Wha Kim, Therasa Kim, Jung Mi Oh College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Background: CASR gene appears to be involved in cancer biology and physiology. However, a number of studies investigating CASR polymorphisms and cancer risks have presented inconclusive results. Thus, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effect of CASR polymorphisms on several cancer risks were performed to suggest a statistical evidence for the association of CASR polymorphisms with cancer risks.Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the HuGE databases were searched. Nineteen articles of case–control and cohort studies were included for the final analysis.Results: The colorectal cancer risk was reduced in proximal (odds ratio [OR] =0.679, P=0.001 and distal (OR =0.753, P=0.026 colon sites with GG genotype of CASR rs1042636 and increased in distal colon site (OR =1.418, P=0.039 with GG genotype of rs1801726 by additive genetic model. The rs17251221 demonstrated noticeable associations that carrying a homozygote variant increases breast and prostate cancer risk considerably.Conclusion: The significant association of CASR polymorphisms with several cancer risks was observed in this review. In particular, the act of CASR polymorphisms as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene differs by cancer site and can be the research target for tumorigenesis. Keywords: rs1042636, rs1801725, rs1801726, systematic review, colorectal cancer

  7. Minimally Invasive Anterior Decompression Technique without Instrumented Fusion for Huge Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament in the Thoracic Spine: Technical Note And Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Won; Yun, Sang-O; Hsieh, Chang-Sheng; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2017-09-01

    postoperative complications. There were no residual symptoms of the lower extremities. This surgical technique allows the surgeon to safely and effectively perform minimally invasive anterior decompression without instrumented fusion via a transthoracic approach for thoracic OPLL. It can be applied at the mid and lower level of the thoracic spine and could become a standard procedure for treatment of huge beak-type thoracic OPLL.

  8. Dichotomous Saturn in infrared images: huge northern hexagon against smaller southern hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    Saturn's polar dichotomy was observed as color hues: gold south and azure north. Now infrared images of NASA/JPL/University of Arizona allow to see substantial structural differences of two polar regions. First was observed a large centered on the south pole hurricane 8000 km across with a central eye about 1500 km across (PIA08333). Then on the northern night hemisphere was observed a huge centered on the pole hexagon about 25000 km across (PIA09186). The dichotomous structure of celestial bodies is their first characteristic feature marked as Theorem 1 of the wave planetology [1, 2, 3 & others]. Origin of this ubiquitous feature is due to an interference of warping waves 1 of four directions appearing in any rotating body (but all bodies rotate!) moving in elliptical orbit with periodically changing accelerations (I. Kepler has shown that all planetary bodies move in such orbits) [3]. The fundamental warping inertia-gravity wave 1 has overtones of which wave 2 - the first overtone is most prominent in structures of celestial bodies. It makes tectonic sectors superimposed on tectonic dichotomy (e.g., continents and secondary oceans of Earth; the Pacific basin is the primary ocean - one of the dichotomous segments of Earth). Interfering waves tend to produce in globes geometrical figures according to their lengths. Thus, wave 1 makes tetrahedron, wave 2 octahedron, wave 4 cube. Naturally, significant gravity of relatively large bodies (more than 400 to 500 km across) "smashes" this would -be figures in favor of a sphere. What is left, it is axes and planes of symmetry of this figures and perching but obliterated vertices (e.g., the Pamirs-Hindukush and antepodean to it the Easter Island). A tetrahedron - the simplest polyhedron of Plato - has three faces narrowing to a vertex and widening to a fourth face. Thus, tetrahedron is a dichotomous body because cut amidst any of its 4 axes it always has an opposition of a vertex (contraction) to a face (expansion). Traces

  9. Huge Left Ventricular Thrombus and Apical Ballooning associated with Recurrent Massive Strokes in a Septic Shock Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The most feared complication of left ventricular thrombus (LVT is the occurrence of systemic thromboembolic events, especially in the brain. Herein, we report a patient with severe sepsis who suffered recurrent devastating embolic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed apical ballooning of the left ventricle with a huge LVT, which had not been observed in chest computed tomography before the stroke. This case emphasizes the importance of serial cardiac evaluation in patients with stroke and severe medical illness.

  10. MIBI Uptake in a Huge Breast Mass Obscuring the Anterior and Lateral Myocardial Walls in Perfusion Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Forough Kalantari; Mehrshad Abbasi; Saeed Farzanefar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiac risk assessment with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a common practice for some elderly breast cancer patients who are candidates for operation. In rare cases the tumor may become visible in the images.Case presentation: This is the report of a case with a huge slow-growing breast tumor suspicious for malignancy and presenting with methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) uptake in the tumor. The patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for preoperative card...

  11. Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M.; Zhao, R.; Soukoulis, C. M.; Linden, S.; Wegener, M.

    2010-05-01

    Coupled split-ring-resonator metamaterials have previously been shown to exhibit large coupling effects, which are a prerequisite for obtaining large effective optical activity. By a suitable lateral arrangement of these building blocks, we completely eliminate linear birefringence and obtain pure optical activity and connected circular optical dichroism. Experiments at around 100-THz frequency and corresponding modeling are in good agreement. Rotation angles of about 30 degrees for 205nm sample thickness are derived.

  12. Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, M; Soukoulis, C M; Linden, S; Wegener, M

    2010-01-01

    Coupled split-ring-resonator metamaterials have previously been shown to exhibit large coupling effects, which are a prerequisite for obtaining large effective optical activity. By a suitable lateral arrangement of these building blocks, we completely eliminate linear birefringence and obtain pure optical activity and connected circular optical dichroism. Experiments at around 100-THz frequency and corresponding modeling are in good agreement. Rotation angles of about 30 degrees for 205nm sample thickness are derived.

  13. Arthroscopic Excision of a Huge Ununited Ossicle Due to Osgood-Schlatter Disease in an Adult Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhi-yao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical excision of the ununited ossicles has been suggested for unresolved sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter disease in adults resistant to conservative measures. We report a case where arthroscopy was used to excise the ossicles. A bird eye view from the superolateral portal was helpful in the arthroscopic procedure for excision of the deep low lesion. Case Report: A 32-year-old, male driver had anterior knee pain during walking and sports activity that had been treated conservatively for 3 months. On physical examination, there was a prominent tibial tubercle, but without palpable pain. There was obvious pain when the knee was approaching full extension. On image, a huge ununited ossicle was seen behind the patellar tendon, intruding into the joint space, and there was another two small ununited ossicles beneath the bow-shaped patellar tendon. Arthroscopy was performed through a three portals technique, and a bird eye view was achieved from the superolateral portal. The ossicles were separated from the surrounding soft tissue with a motorized shaver. The small ununited ossicles were removed by use of a grasper. The huge ossicle was removed by use of a motorized bur, and the contouring of the irregular surface of the tibial tubercle was performed. After 3 months, the patient returned to sports activities without any restrictions. Conclusion: This report shows that a huge ossicle can cause impingement in anterior knee compartment, and it can be easily removed arthroscopically under assistance of an additional portal. Keywords: Osgood-Schlatter disease; Knee; Arthroscopy; Superolateral portal.

  14. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  15. Endovascular treatment of huge saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm in a young Behcet patient: mid-term result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkoz Riza

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm formation is among the arterial complications of Behcet's disease. Weakness and fragility of aortic walls leads to the development of arterial complications like pseudoaneurysms. Case Presentation A case of huge saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm in a young Behcet patient who was successfully treated with endovascular stent graft placement is reported, diagnostic and interventional procedures are discussed, and mid-term follow-up results are presented. Conclusions Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm complications of young Behcet patients who are not suitable for open surgery and need intervention could be an alternative treatment modality even without performing preprocedural angiography.

  16. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    Physical extremes can be distinguished in "sudden physical extremes" (e.g. earthquakes, tsunami) and "progressive physical extremes" (e.g. drought, desertification, landslides). They differ for frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration and timing of occurrence. If a physical extreme, by interacting with human systems, induces negative consequences, its outcome can be a "disaster". The disasters are, in both above cases, characterized by a few phases: physical extreme occurrence, emergency, response, and recovery. However, in the case of a progressive physical extreme, the disaster develops with an overlap in the time of the above-mentioned phases. When the events are repetitive, the emergency planning (which follows a cycle) succeeds with preparedness and mitigation with the intent of reducing the risk. Both the sudden and progressive physical extremes produce cascading effects of consequences on social, environmental and economic systems. Disasters consequent to sudden and progressive extremes show, however, some differences, mainly attributable to the "visibility" of the effects and to their time scale of evolution. As matter of fact, a disaster consequent to a progressive physical extreme produces "emerging signals" that are often invisible. Moreover, the emergency phase can arise with a time delay compared to the occurrence of the physical extreme, depending on the spatial scale of impacted system. The above differences allow defining "creeping disasters" the potential disasters related to progressive physical extremes. This study deals with some peculiar "cascading disasters" consequent to drought, which is the main "creeping disaster", namely the groundwater drought and the consequent salinization of coastal aquifers. In regional flow systems, their effects are invisible in the immediate to common people (and often even to managers) because of the concealed nature of groundwater; moreover, they are difficult to assess because of the shift over time of

  17. Ubiquitous UAVs: a cloud based framework for storing, accessing and processing huge amount of video footage in an efficient way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Nectarios; Skitsas, Michael; Psaroudakis, Chrysostomos; Koutras, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, video surveillance cameras are used for the protection and monitoring of a huge number of facilities worldwide. An important element in such surveillance systems is the use of aerial video streams originating from onboard sensors located on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Video surveillance using UAVs represent a vast amount of video to be transmitted, stored, analyzed and visualized in a real-time way. As a result, the introduction and development of systems able to handle huge amount of data become a necessity. In this paper, a new approach for the collection, transmission and storage of aerial videos and metadata is introduced. The objective of this work is twofold. First, the integration of the appropriate equipment in order to capture and transmit real-time video including metadata (i.e. position coordinates, target) from the UAV to the ground and, second, the utilization of the ADITESS Versatile Media Content Management System (VMCMS-GE) for storing of the video stream and the appropriate metadata. Beyond the storage, VMCMS-GE provides other efficient management capabilities such as searching and processing of videos, along with video transcoding. For the evaluation and demonstration of the proposed framework we execute a use case where the surveillance of critical infrastructure and the detection of suspicious activities is performed. Collected video Transcodingis subject of this evaluation as well.

  18. Transformation of thiolated chitosan-templated gold nanoparticles to huge microcubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yudie [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Honglin, E-mail: hlliu@iim.ac.cn [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yang, Liangbao, E-mail: lbyang@iim.ac.cn [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Bai; Liu, Jinhuai [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mercapto groups were grafted to chitosan molecule by a reactive amine reduction. • Functional polymer with well-defined monomer units controls AuNPs assembly. • Assembled morphologies depend on the ratio of AuNPs to thiolate groups. • Microcubes with side length of ∼20 μm was synthesized through a dialysis step. • A edge-to-middle growth mechanism of gold microcubes was observed. - Abstract: The L-cysteine molecules were successfully grafted to the 2-amino group of chitosan by a reactive amine reduction, and the as-synthesized thiolated chitosan (TC) molecules were used as the templates to direct the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles and induce the transformation of these assemblies to gold microcubes through a deep-going dialysis. We found that the ratio of gold nanoparticles to TC molecules could greatly affect the shape of the assembled clusters. Different stages of these clusters and microstructures during the dialysis process were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the microcubes with average side length of about 20 μm were successfully synthesized. According to the morphology evolution of the assembly, it could be concluded that the microcubes were formed from external to internal. The SERS area mapping images of microcubes and some clusters were also collected to study the formation mechanism of gold microcubes. Our work demonstrates a simple and highly effective way to assemble gold nanoparticles into microcubes with unique properties.

  19. Maternal syphilis and accomplishing sexual partner treatment: still a huge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallé, Jessica; Baumgarten, Vanessa Z; Ramos, Mauro C; Jimenez, Mirela F; Acosta, Lisiane; Bumaguin, Daniela B; Antonello, Vicente S

    2017-08-01

    Congenital syphilis (CS) is a preventable epidemic disease for which control is hindered by socioeconomic and health system issues. Inadequately treated maternal syphilis (MaS) commonly has serious adverse obstetric outcomes. This study - which is a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian large urban public Mother and Child hospital, making use of secondary data - evaluated the occurrence of treatment of sexual partners (SP) among women with MaS. The results showed that 771 MaS cases were identified from 2007 to 2014. No information on SP treatment was available in 570 (73.9%) cases. Of the 201 cases presenting information, 25 (12.4%) SP were treated. Out of 164 women having six or more prenatal visits, 25 (15.2%) SP received treatment. Data analyzed biennially have shown a growing trend of cases without collected information, ranging from 27.2% in 2007-2008 to 87.5% in 2013-2014. No linear trend in proportions of treated SP (maximum 7.4% SP treated) was found. Thus, in this study, it has been concluded that the proportion of SP adequately treated was consistently low, and the quality of information deteriorated during the studied period. Prenatal care per se, as provided, was not effective in delivering adequate treatment of SP. Creative integrated services with SP active participation are greatly needed if CS is to be controlled.

  20. Ionospheric perturbations associated with two huge earthquakes in Japan, using principal component analysis for multiple subionospheric VLF/LF propagation paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Solovieva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The presence of ionospheric perturbations in possible association with two huge earthquakes (Noto-hanto peninsula and Niigata-chuetu-oki earthquakes in 2007 was studied on the basis of a conventional statistical study for a particular propagation path from the JJI transmitter in Miyazaki, Kyushu, to Moshiri in Hokkaido. This is based on automatic routine-based signal processing, in which the trend as the average nighttime amplitude is significantly decreased, with almost simultaneous significant enhancement in the night-time fluctuation as the night-time integration of negative fluctuation from the average. It is, however, shown that this routine-based signal analysis sometime suffers from artificial (or man-made effects. Thus, in this study, we propose an additional use of principal component analysis (PCA for simultaneous observation of a few VLF/LF propagation paths. With the application of this PCA method to multi-path data, the artificial effects can be reasonably removed, and also only the geophysical effects associated with earthquakes are detected, by focusing mainly on the third principal component. The satisfactory separation of the principal components is made possible by pre-analysis of the VLF data (extraction from the raw data of the average over a whole year. This PCA method enables us to identify the seismogenic effects in association with earthquakes with smaller magnitudes, down to M 5.5 or M 5.0.

     

  1. Playing games with a thrombus: a dangerous match. Paradoxical embolism from a huge central venous cathether thrombus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sylvie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thromboembolism is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The association between paraneoplastic hypercoagulability of oncological patients and long-term central venous catheters (CVC may result in CVC associated thrombosis. Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO, especially when associated with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA is a risk factor for paradoxical embolism. We report a case of paradoxical embolism with stroke in an oncological patient with a huge CVC thrombus playing "ping-pong" with an hypermobile ASA with a PFO. We review the management of hypercoagulability in oncologic patients and discuss the potential role of routine transthoracic echocardiography before the implantation of long term central venous catheters to identify predisposing conditions to paradoxical embolism and select patients for anticoagulant therapy.

  2. MIBI Uptake in a Huge Breast Mass Obscuring the Anterior and Lateral Myocardial Walls in Perfusion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Kalantari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac risk assessment with myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI is a common practice for some elderly breast cancer patients who are candidates for operation. In rare cases the tumor may become visible in the images.Case presentation: This is the report of a case with a huge slow-growing breast tumor suspicious for malignancy and presenting with methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI uptake in the tumor. The patient was referred to the nuclear medicine department for preoperative cardiac risk assessment with MPI.Conclusion: There was high uptake in the tumor was note worthy in two different aspects: 1high MIBI uptake in the tumor is more suggestive of malignant rather than benign tumors and thus, underscores the importance of extra-cardiac uptake sites in pre-operation MPI; and 2high uptake in the left breast tumor may obscure the MPI image and hinder proper interpretation.

  3. Role of average speed in N₂O exhaust emissions as greenhouse gas in a huge urban zone (MVMZ): would we need a cold sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, S; Mac-Beath, I; Mejia, I; Camposeco, R; Bazan, G; Morán-Pineda, M; Carrera, R; Gómez, R

    2012-05-15

    Nowadays, the drastic pollution problems, some of them related with greenhouse gas emissions, have promoted important attempts to face and diminish the global warming effects on the Mexico Valley Metropolitan Zone (MVMZ) as well as on the huge urban zones around the world. To reduce the exhaust gas emissions, many efforts have been carried out to reformulate fuels and design new catalytic converters; however, it is well known that other variables such as socio-economic and transport structure factors also play an important role around this problem. The present study analyzes the roles played by several commonly-used three-way catalytic converters (TWC) and the average traffic speed in the emission of N(2)O as greenhouse gas. According to this study, by increasing the average traffic flow and avoiding constant decelerations (frequent stops) during common trips, remarkable environmental and economic benefits could be obtained due to the diminution of N(2)O and other contaminant emissions such as ammonia (NH(3)) and even CO(2) with the concomitant reduced fossil fuel consumption. The actions mentioned above could be highly viable to diminish, in general, the global warming effects and contamination problems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the estimation method of hydrodynamic forces acting on a huge floating structure; Choogata futai ni hataraku haryoku ryutairyoku no suiteiho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M.; Zhu, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A floating structure such as an international airport is anticipated to have a length of about 5,000 m and a width of about 1,000 m. A singular point method may be used as a method to estimate force that such a floating body is subjected to from waves. In order to derive a solution with practically sufficient accuracy, 1250 elements are required in the length direction and 250 elements in the width direction, or a total of 312,500 elements. Calculating this number of elements should use finally a linear equation system handling complex coefficients comprising 312,500 elements, which would require a huge amount of calculation time. This paper proposes a method to derive solution on wave forces acting on a super-large floating structure or fluid force coefficients such as added mass coefficients and decay coefficients at a practically workable calculation amount and still without degrading the accuracy. The structure was assumed to be a box-shaped structure. Strengths of the singular points to be distributed on each element were assumed to be almost constant except for edges in lateral, oblique and longitudinal waves. Under this assumption, the interior of the floating structure excepting its edges was represented by several large elements to have reduced the number of elements. A calculation method proposed based on this conception was verified of its effectiveness. 2 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Hypercalcemia and huge splenomegaly presenting in an elderly patient with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirgari Farrokh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypercalcemia is the major electrolyte abnormality in patients with malignant tumors. It can be due to localized osteolytic hypercalcemia or elaboration of humoral substances such as parathyroid hormone-related protein from tumoral cells. In hematological malignancies, a third mechanism of uncontrolled synthesis and secretion of 1-25(OH2D3 from tumoral cells or neighboring macrophages may contribute to the problem. However, hypercalcemia is quite unusual in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Case presentation An 85-year-old Caucasian woman presented with low grade fever, anorexia, abdominal discomfort and fullness in her left abdomen for the last six months. She was mildly anemic and complained of fatigability. She had huge splenomegaly and was hypercalcemic. After correction of her hypercalcemia, she had a splenectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed a malignant lymphoma. Her immunohistochemistry was positive for leukocyte common antigen, CD20 and parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Conclusion Immunopositivity for parathyroid hormone-related peptide clearly demonstrates that hypersecretion of a parathyroid hormone-like substance from the tumor had led to hypercalcemia in this case. High serum calcium is seen in only seven to eight percent of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, apparently due to different mechanisms. Evaluation of serum parathyroid hormone-related protein and 1-25(OH2D3 can be helpful in diagnosis and management. It should be noted that presentation with hypercalcemia has a serious impact on prognosis and survival.

  6. ESR1 Gene Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Yu-Mei Wang

    Full Text Available Many published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the ESR1 gene and prostate cancer susceptibility are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE review and meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship.A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM databases was conducted from their inception through July 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of association.Twelve case-control studies were included with a total 2,165 prostate cancer cases and 3,361 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, ESR1 PvuII (C>T and XbaI (A>G polymorphisms showed no association with the risk of prostate cancer. However, in the stratified analyses based on ethnicity and country, the results indicated that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may significantly increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. Furthermore, we also performed a pooled analysis for all eligible case-control studies to explore the role of codon 10 (T>C, codon 325 (C>G, codon 594 (G>A and +261G>C polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk. Nevertheless, no significant associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer were observed.Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that ESR1 PvuII (C>T polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G polymorphism may increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population.

  7. An instrumented flume to investigate the initiation mechanism of the post-earthquake huge debris flow in the southwest of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, W.; Xu, Q.; Rui, C.; Huang, R. Q.; van Asch, T. W J; Zhu, X.; Xu, Q. Q.

    2015-01-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in SW China in the Sichuan Province generated many co-seismic landslides, which delivered a huge amount of loose co-seismic landslide deposits. It caused a dramatic increase in debris flow occurrence in the subsequent years. The mechanism of these runoff debris flows has

  8. A Rare Case of Progressive Palsy of the Lower Leg Caused by a Huge Lumbar Posterior Endplate Lesion after Recurrent Disc Herniation

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    Masatoshi Morimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A lesion of the lumbar posterior endplate is sometimes identified in the spinal canal of children and adolescents; it causes symptoms similar to those of a herniated disc. However, the pathology of the endplate lesion and the pathology of the herniated disc are different. We present a rare case of a 23-year-old woman who developed progressive palsy of the lower leg caused by huge lumbar posterior endplate lesion after recurrent disc herniation.

  9. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure in waves. 2nd Report; Choogata futai no harochu dansei kyodo no suiteiho ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Fujino, M. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    On the hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, a mutual interaction theory based on the area division method is used for the analysis of a fluid problem and a mode analysis method is used for the analysis of deformation. On the continuous deformation of a floating structure, the structure is considered as a set of partial structures obtained when the plane shape was divided into squares and discretely handled as a series of rigid motions in the small partial structures obtained by dividing the partial structures more finely. The experimental result in a water tank and the distribution method at a singular point were compared on the deformation of the elastic floating structure estimated by calculation based on this formulation. The result showed that the estimation method on the hydroelastic problem proposed in this paper is valid. On the prediction of hydroelastic behaviors of a huge floating structure, various calculation examples indicate that the hydroelastic behavior is not only the relation between the structure length and wavelength, but also that the bending rigidity of a structure is a very important factor. For a huge floating structure in the 5,000 m class, up to shorter wavelength of about {lambda}/L = 1/100 must be investigated. 6 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Huge rectovesical fistula due to long-term retention of a rectal foreign body: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyasu, Yoshiyuki; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2017-01-01

    Most patients with foreign bodies in their rectums present to medical institutions within a few days. In this report, we describe a foreign body in the rectum in situ for 5 months that resulted in a huge rectovesical fistula 4cm in diameter, requiring emergency laparotomy. A 59-year-old man, who had undergone rectal foreign body extraction via the anal canal without any complications 7 years previously, presented with abdominal pain and diarrhea. Computed tomography revealed a cup-shaped rectal foreign body and huge rectovesical fistula. We performed an emergency laparotomy. There was no contaminated ascites. The adhesion around the fistula was too stiff to be dissected. We incised the rectal wall, excised the ceramic cup-shaped foreign body, and detected a fistula approximately 4cm in diameter. We performed sigmoid colostomy, and the incised rectal wall and the bladder wall were sutured, and the residual rectum was supposed to function as a part of the bladder. After the surgery, no severe complications occurred. The patient told us that he inserted the foreign body himself 5 months earlier, and urine had appeared in the stool in the previous month. A long-term retained rectal foreign body is very rare and could create an abnormal huge fistula between the pelvic organs because of prolonged pressure on the walls of the pelvic organs. In patients with a long-term retained rectal foreign body, we should prepare for surgical treatment of not only the rectum but also the other pelvic organs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A Huge Morel-Lavallée Lesion Treated Using a Quilting Suture Method: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bommie F; Kang, In Sook; Jeong, Yeon Jin; Moon, Suk Ho

    2014-06-01

    The Morel-Lavallée lesion is a collection of serous fluid that develops after closed degloving injuries and after surgical procedures particularly in the pelvis and abdomen. It is a persistent seroma and is usually resistant to conservative methods of treatment such as percutaneous drainage and compression. Various methods of curative treatment have been reported in the literature, such as application of fibrin sealant, doxycycline, or alcohol sclerodhesis. We present a case of a huge recurrent Morel-Lavallée lesion in the lower back and buttock region that was treated with quilting sutures, fibrin sealant, and compression, with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Gaining access to Vietnam's cigarette market: British American Tobacco's strategy to enter 'a huge market which will become enormous'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinh, H V; Mackenzie, R; Gilmore, A B; Minh, N T; Collin, J

    2008-01-01

    British American Tobacco (BAT) has made concerted efforts since the late 1980s to establish a major presence in Vietnam, among the world's 10 fastest growing tobacco markets. Until 2000, Vietnam's tight regulation of the industry has been largely driven by trade and investment policy, resulting in a stronger domestic industry but increased production and consumption of tobacco products. BAT gained market access, and achieved a dominant market share among TTCs, through leaf development, licensed manufacturing, and the contraband trade. With impending trade liberalization in Vietnam, the company is now well placed to further expand sales. The ambitious National Tobacco Control Policy, adopted in 2000, signals a shift in political priority towards the protection of public health. Effective implementation and enforcement of its comprehensive measures will depend on the public health community's ability to draw support from regional and global experience, notably the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC).

  13. A HuGE Review and Meta-Analyses of Genetic Associations in New Onset Diabetes after Kidney Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Angela Benson

    Full Text Available New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT is a serious complication following solid organ transplantation. There is a genetic contribution to NODAT and we have conducted comprehensive meta-analysis of available genetic data in kidney transplant populations.Relevant articles investigating the association between genetic markers and NODAT were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. SNPs described in a minimum of three studies were included for analysis using a random effects model. The association between identified variants and NODAT was calculated at the per-study level to generate overall significance values and effect sizes.Searching the literature returned 4,147 citations. Within the 36 eligible articles identified, 18 genetic variants from 12 genes were considered for analysis. Of these, three were significantly associated with NODAT by meta-analysis at the 5% level of significance; CDKAL1 rs10946398 p = 0.006 OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11-1.85 (n = 696 individuals, KCNQ1 rs2237892 p = 0.007 OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.10-1.86 (n = 1,270 individuals, and TCF7L2 rs7903146 p = 0.01 OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.07-1.85 (n = 2,967 individuals.Evaluating cumulative evidence for SNPs associated with NODAT in kidney transplant recipients has revealed three SNPs associated with NODAT. An adequately powered, dense genome-wide association study will provide more information using a carefully defined NODAT phenotype.

  14. Recording Cultural Heritage Using Terrestrial Laserscanning - Dealing with the System, the Huge Datasets they Create and Ways to Extract the Necessary Deliverables you can Work with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofori, E.; Bierwagen, J.

    2013-07-01

    Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS) Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany"), the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D - Animations) as well as the

  15. Huge seafloor movements associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake observed by GPS/acoustic combination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sato, M.; Ujihara, N.; Watanabe, S.; Fujita, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard, have been developing precise seafloor positioning systems using the GPS/acoustic combination technique under technical cooperation with the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo and carrying out campaign observations along the major trenches in the Pacific Ocean, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough. The primary purpose of these observations is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where huge earthquakes repeatedly occur. On 11 March 2011, a large interplate earthquake [Mw = 9.0] occurred at the plate boundary off Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Various studies have been under way to understand the mechanism of occurrence of this earthquake. For example, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has reported coseismic displacements on land, on the basis of the dense GPS network. The largest displacement has been detected at the Oshika peninsula, amounting to about 5 m toward ESE and about 1 m downward. Because the Oshika peninsula is located about 130 km away from the epicenter of the earthquake, it is preferable to measure crustal movements closer to the focal regions, that is, on the seafloor, to better constrain the focal mechanism of the event. In order to monitor crustal movements offshore, we have been carrying out seafloor geodetic observations. Five sea-floor reference points were installed off the Tohoku region between 2000 and 2004 with campaign observations carried out three times a year on average. After the event, we conducted observations at these sites. Comparison between before and after the event yielded coseismic displacements of 5 to 24 m toward ESE and -0.8 to 3 m upward. In particular, at reference point near the epicenter, we detected a huge coseismic displacement of about 24 m toward ESE and about 3 m upward. This is more than four times larger than that

  16. RECORDING CULTURAL HERITAGE USING TERRESTRIAL LASERSCANNING – DEALING WITH THE SYSTEM, THE HUGE DATASETS THEY CREATE AND WAYS TO EXTRACT THE NECESSARY DELIVERABLES YOU CAN WORK WITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Christofori

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording Cultural Heritage objects using terrestrial laserscanning becomes more and more popular over the last years. Since terrestrial Laserscanning System (TLS Manufacturers have strongly increased the amount and speed of data captured with a single scan at each system upgrade and cutting down system costs the use of TLS Systems for recording cultural heritage is an option for recording worth to think about beside traditional methods like Photogrammetric. TLS Systems can be a great tool for capturing complex cultural heritage object within a short amount of time beside the traditional methods but can be a nightmare to handle for further process if not used right while capturing. Furthermore TLS Systems still have to be recognized as survey equipment, even though some of the manufactures promote them as everyday tool. They have to be used in an intelligent way having in mind the clients and the individual cultural objects needs. Thus the efficient way to use TLS Systems for data recording becomes a relevant topic to deal with the huge Amount of data the Systems collect while recording. Already small projects can turn into huge Pointcloud Datasets that End user, like Architects or Archaeologist neither can't deal with as their technical equipment doesn't fit the requirements of the Dataset nor do they have the software tools to use the Data as the current software tools still are high prized. Even the necessary interpretation of the Dataset can be a tough task if the people who have to work on with the Pointcloud aren't educated right in order to understand TLS and the results it creates. The use of TLS Systems has to have in mind the project requirements of the individual Heritage Object, like the required accuracy, standards for Levels of Details (e.g. "Empfehlungen für die Baudokumentation, Günther Eckstein, Germany", the required kind of Deliverables (Visualization, 2D Drawings, True Deformation Drawings, 3D Models, BIM or 4D

  17. Evidence of Quaternary rock avalanches in the central Apennines: new data and interpretation of the huge clastic deposit of the L'Aquila basin (central Apennines, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Tallini, Marco; Della Seta, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Active extensional tectonics and widespread seismicity affect the axial zone of the central Apennines (Italy) and led to the formation of several plio-quaternary intermontane basins, whose morpho-evolution was controlled by the coupling of tectonic and climatic inputs. Common features of the Apennines intermontane basins as well as their general morpho-evolution are known. Nonetheless, the complex interaction among regional uplift, local fault displacements and morpho-climatic factors caused differences in the denudational processes of the single intermontane basins. Such a dynamic response left precious records in the landscape, which in some cases testify for the occurrence of huge, catastrophic rock slope failures. Several Quaternary rock avalanches have been identified in central Apennines, which are often associated with Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) and thus strictly related to the geological-structural setting as well as to the Quaternary morpho-structural evolution of the mountain chain. The L'Aquila basin is one of the intermontane tectonic depression aligned along the Middle Aterno River Valley and was the scene of strong historical earthquakes, among which the last destructive event occurred on April 6, 2009 (Mw 6.3). We present here the evidence that the huge clastic deposit on which the city of L'Aquila was built up is the body of a rock avalanche detached from the southern slope of the Gran Sasso Range. The clastic deposit elongates for 13 km to the SW, from the Assergi Plain to L'Aquila and is characterized by typical morphological features such as hummocky topography, compressional ridges and run-up on the opposite slope. Sedimentological characters of the deposit and grain size analyses on the matrix let us confirm the genetic interpretation, while borehole data and significant cross sections allowed us reconstructing the 3D shape and volume of the clastic body. Finally, morphometric analyses of the Gran Sasso Range southern

  18. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  19. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

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    Koji Seike

    Full Text Available Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010 and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012. During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae, varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  20. Dystrophic calcinosis with both a huge calcified mass in the cervical spine and calcification in the chest wall in a patient with rheumatoid overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kei; Takaoka, Hirokazu; Iyama, Ken-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Dystrophic calcinosis in soft tissue occurs in damaged or devitalized tissues in the presence of normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism. It is often noted in subcutaneous tissues in patients with collagen vascular diseases and may involve a relatively localized area or be widespread. A 74-year-old Japanese woman with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis developed a huge tumor-like mass at the atlanto-axial vertebral joint region that caused severe cervical pain and difficulty in activities of daily living. She also had subcutaneous dystrophic calcification in the soft tissue of the chest wall. Calcinosis associated with systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized phenomenon, but a destructive paraspinal tumor in the cervical spine associated with overlap syndrome is extremely unique. Because calcinosis in spinal locations can be complicated by neurological involvement, patients with progressive symptoms may require surgical intervention. Surgical resection and biological therapy improved this patient's life and activities of daily living. Calcinosis is common in the conditions reviewed here, and different agents have been used for treatment. However, calcinosis management is poorly organized and lacks an accepted classification, systematic studies, and clinical therapeutic trials. The association of calcinosis and collagen vascular diseases is clinically and etiologically important. Although a combination of calcinosis and rheumatoid overlap syndrome is rare, various collagen vascular diseases may occur simultaneously. A perceptive diagnostic approach toward these diseases is critical, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent dystrophic calcinosis.

  1. Huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Shivaprasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile primary hypothyroidism causing cystic ovaries and pseudoprecocious puberty (Van-Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS is well documented in literature. There are only a few reports of primary hypothyroidism presenting as ovarian cysts in adults. Here we present a case of huge bilateral ovarian cysts in adulthood as the presenting feature of VWGS due to chronic uncontrolled juvenile hypothyroidism. Large uniloculor right ovarian cyst (119 × 81 × 90 mm and a multicystic left ovary (55 × 45 × 49 mm were detected in a 24 year lady with secondary amenorrhea, galactorrhea, and palpable abdominal mass with history of neonatal jaundice, delayed milestones, short stature, and precocious menarche at age of 7.5 years age. She had elevated levels of cancer antigen (CA-125 which normalized post levothyroxine supplementation. Elevated CA-125 may lead to misdiagnosis of ovarian carcinoma and inadvertent treatment. Bilateral ovarian cysts in adults are a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism. It is necessary to screen for primary hypothyroidism in patients presenting with bilateral ovarian cysts to prevent unnecessary evaluation and treatment.

  2. The huge plastic potential of adult brain and the role of connectomics: new insights provided by serial mappings in glioma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffau, Hugues

    2014-09-01

    While prominent in the traditional literature, the localizationist and static view of brain processing does not explain numerous observations of functional recovery following cerebral damages. Here, the goal is to revisit this classical modular and inflexible model by proposing a dynamic organization of brain circuits, which allows postlesional cerebral adaptative phenomena able to maintain neurological and cognitive functions, even in adults. In this state of mind, recent data provided by serial mappings performed in patients who underwent awake surgery for diffuse glioma infiltrating eloquent structures will be reviewed. Firstly, the use of intraoperative electrical mapping enables the realization of on-line anatomo-functional correlations both at cortical and subcortical levels, supporting a network distribution of the brain, and resulting in the reappraisal of cognitive models - notably regarding language. Secondly, combination of neuropsychological assessments and functional neuroimaging before and after operation demonstrates that it is possible to achieve massive resections of "critical" regions without eliciting permanent sequelae, thanks to reorganization of cerebral circuits. Thirdly, repeated surgeries in cases of tumor relapse show functional remapping in the same patients over time. Taken together, these findings open the window toward a huge plastic potential of human central nervous system (CNS) in adults. However, a better understanding of cerebral connectomics leads to the conclusion that the white matter connectivity constitutes a main limitation of such brain plasticity, explaining the lack of recovery in patients with extensive subcortical damages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidental tenosynovial huge cell tumors of the flexor hallucis longus muscle: seldom differential diagnosis of metabolic lesions using F18-FDG PET/CT; Inzidenteller tenosynovialer Riesenzelltumor des Musculus flexor hallucis longus. Seltene Differenzialdiagnose stoffwechselaktiver Laesionen in der F-18-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koestner, W.; Daemmrich, M.; Derlin, T.

    2016-03-15

    Tenosynovial huge cell tumors are seldom benign tumors in extremities originating from bone joint synovia and tendon sheats. In F18-FDG PET/CT imaging the tenosynovial huge cell tumors show increased metabolic activity and can trigger false diagnoses.

  4. Novel regenerative therapy using cell-sheet covered with omentum flap delivers a huge number of cells in a porcine myocardial infarction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudo, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2011-11-01

    A key challenge to applying cell transplantation to treat severely damaged myocardium is in delivering large numbers of cells with minimum cell loss. We developed a new implantation method using skeletal myoblast (SMB) sheets, wrapped with an omentum flap as a blood supply to deliver huge numbers of SMBs to the damaged heart. We examined whether this method could be used to deliver a large amount of cells to deteriorated porcine myocardium. Cell sheets were obtained by culturing mini-pig autologous SMB cells on temperature-responsive culture dishes. Myocardial infarction was induced by placing an ameroid constrictor around the left anterior descending artery. The mini-pigs were divided into 4 treatment groups (n = 6 in each): cell sheets with omentum, cell sheets only, omentum only, and sham operation. Each animal implant consisted of 30 cell sheets (1.5 × 10(7) cells per sheet). Six 5-layer constructs were each placed on a different area, immediately adjacent to but not overlapping one another, to cover the infarct and border regions. The new regenerative cell delivery system using SMB sheets covered and wrapped with omentum resulted in (1) a significantly reduced infarct size causing, at least in part, a thin scar with thick well-vascularized cardiac tissue; (2) increased angiogenesis, as determined by a significantly higher vascular density; and (3) improved cardiac function, as determined by echocardiography, compared with the conventional method (SMB sheet implantation). This cell delivery system shows potential for repairing the severely failed heart. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalila El Ati

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379. Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg/height(m(2 and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR; models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural, age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy. RESULTS: BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2 versus men (25.3(0.1, P<0.0001 as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001 and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001. Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5] areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6], than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]. They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3] or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]. Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. CONCLUSION: The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in

  6. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a North African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati, Jalila; Traissac, Pierre; Delpeuch, Francis; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Béji, Chiraz; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Bougatef, Souha; Kolsteren, Patrick; Maire, Bernard; Ben Romdhane, Habiba

    2012-01-01

    Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(kg)/height(m)(2) and obesity was BMI≥30, WHtR = waist circumference to height ratio defined abdominal obesity as WHtR≥0.6. Gender obesity inequality measure was women versus men Prevalence Proportion Odds-Ratio (OR); models featuring gender x covariate interaction assessed variation of gender obesity inequalities with area (urban versus rural), age, marital status or socio-economic position (profession, education, household income proxy). BMI was much higher among women (28.4(0.2)) versus men (25.3(0.1)), P<0.0001) as was obesity (37.0% versus 13.3%, OR = 3.8[3.1-7.4], P<0.0001) and abdominal obesity (42.6% versus 15.6%, 4.0[3.3-4.8], P<0.0001). Gender obesity inequalities (women versus men adjusted OR) were higher in urban (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.7]) than rural (OR = 2.0[0.7-5.5]) areas. These gender obesity inequalities were lower for subjects with secondary education or more (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]), than among those with no schooling (OR = 6.9[2.0-23.3]). They were also lower for those with upper/intermediate profession (OR = 1.4[0.5-4.3]) or even employees/workers OR = 2.3[1.0-5.4] than those not professionaly active at all (OR = 3.3[1.3-8.6]). Similar results were observed for addominal obesity. The huge overall gender obesity inequities (women much more corpulent than men) were higher in urban settings, but lower among subjects of higher education and professional activity. Reasons for gender inequalities in obesity and their variation with socio

  7. Association between heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Song, Fangfang; Li, Xiangyang; Rong, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Wang, Di; Xu, Jiqu; Fu, Juan; Zhao, Yanting; Liu, Liegang

    2010-09-15

    Several studies have recently focused on the association between heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene promoter polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, results have been conflicting. This systematic Human Genome Epidemiology review and meta-analysis was undertaken to integrate previous findings and summarize the effect size of the association of HMOX1 gene promoter polymorphisms with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. The authors retrieved all studies matched to search terms from the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases that had been published through December 31, 2009. The articles were then checked independently by 2 investigators according to the eligibility and exclusion criteria. For all alleles and genotypes, odds ratios were pooled using either fixed-effects or random-effects models. An increased odds ratio for type 2 diabetes was observed in persons with the (GT)(n) L (long) allele as compared with those with the (GT)(n) S (short) allele (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.24; P = 0.02). Furthermore, the diabetes odds ratio for persons with the LL genotype, versus those with the SS genotype, was significantly increased (odds ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.50; P = 0.02). Persons carrying longer (GT)(n) repeats in the HMOX1 gene promoter may have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.

  8. Resistance of a Rodent Malaria Parasite to a Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitor Induces an Apoptotic Parasite Death and Imposes a Huge Cost of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muregi, Francis W.; Ohta, Isao; Masato, Uchijima; Kino, Hideto; Ishih, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Background The greatest impediment to effective malaria control is drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, and thus understanding how resistance impacts on the parasite's fitness and pathogenicity may aid in malaria control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings To generate resistance, P. berghei NK65 was subjected to 5-fluoroorotate (FOA, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, TS) pressure in mice. After 15 generations of drug pressure, the 2% DT (the delay time for proliferation of parasites to 2% parasitaemia, relative to untreated wild-type controls) reduced from 8 days to 4, equalling the controls. Drug sensitivity studies confirmed that FOA-resistance was stable. During serial passaging in the absence of drug, resistant parasite maintained low growth rates (parasitaemia, 15.5%±2.9, 7 dpi) relative to the wild-type (45.6%±8.4), translating into resistance cost of fitness of 66.0%. The resistant parasite showed an apoptosis-like death, as confirmed by light and transmission electron microscopy and corroborated by oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Conclusions/Significance The resistant parasite was less fit than the wild-type, which implies that in the absence of drug pressure in the field, the wild-type alleles may expand and allow drugs withdrawn due to resistance to be reintroduced. FOA resistance led to depleted dTTP pools, causing thymineless parasite death via apoptosis. This supports the tenet that unicellular eukaryotes, like metazoans, also undergo apoptosis. This is the first report where resistance to a chemical stimulus and not the stimulus itself is shown to induce apoptosis in a unicellular parasite. This finding is relevant in cancer therapy, since thymineless cell death induced by resistance to TS-inhibitors can further be optimized via inhibition of pyrimidine salvage enzymes, thus providing a synergistic impact. We conclude that since apoptosis is a process that can be pharmacologically modulated, the parasite's apoptotic machinery may

  9. Huge anterior sacral meningocele simulating bladder retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Emanuele; Rosso, Rodolfo; Leucci, Giuliana; Luparello, Vincenzo; Collura, Devis; Giacobbe, Alessandro; Muto, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Anterior sacral meningocele (ASM) is a rare congenital disorder involving herniation of the dural sac through a defect in the anterior surface of the sacrum. We report the case of a young patient with an enormous ASM that simulated bladder retention in terms of symptoms as well as on physical examination and at ultrasonography. After introducing a catheter that excluded urinary retention, computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the ASM. The patient underwent surgical repair of the ASM through a sacral laminectomy and recovered normal lower urinary tract function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  11. Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate 2.56 Tbit/s/port dual-polarization DWDM/DQPSK variable-length optical packet (20 Gbit/s × 64 wavelengths × 2 polarizations) switching and buffering by using a 2×2 optical packet switch (OPS) system. The optical data plane of the OPS system was constructed of multi-connected electro-optical switches and fiber delay lines. The accumulated polarization dependent loss of each optical path in the data plane was less than 5 dB. This low-polarization-dependence OPS system enabled us to handle DWDM/DQPSK optical packets (1.28 Tbit/s/port) with time-varying polarization after transmission through 100 km fiber in the field. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Syncope Caused by Huge Hiatal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vanerio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 84-year-old white female had a brief loss of consciousness while playing bridge. A few minutes before the episode she had eaten pizza and significant amount of carbonated soft drinks. After recovery, her friends noticed that she was alert, but pale and sweating. Upon arrival at the emergency room, sitting blood pressure was 160/60 mmHg with a normal sinus rhythm. A chest X-Ray was performed, which was essential to make the diagnosis. The X-Ray showed a large retrocardiac opacity with air and liquid level compatible with a giant hiatus hernia. After a copious snack the hiatal hernia compressed the left atrium, decreasing the left cardiac output, elucidating the mechanism of the syncopal episode. In patients presenting with swallow syncope (particularly after a copious meal, validating the importance of a careful history, a chest X-Ray should be always be performed.

  13. Corporate Donors Can Make a Huge Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Drew A.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to educate corporate America on the need to finance higher education by using a need-based giving standard. Corporations need to realize that two-year colleges significantly affect their work force and economy. Only 25 percent of the jobs in the United States require a degree from a four-year college, yet up to 75 percent of the jobs…

  14. A Huge Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor of Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundari Shreedhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT is a benign, nonneoplastic (hamartomatous lesion with a slow progressing growth. It occurs in both intraosseous and peripheral forms. This paper reports the case of a female aged 16 years who presented with a swelling in anterior maxilla; canine was missing, and a supernumerary tooth was present in the mid line. Radiology revealed a well-defined radiolucent area associated with impacted canine and root resorption of adjacent teeth, which was diagnosed histopathologically as AOT. The patient was treated surgically and later rehabilitated with fixed prosthesis.

  15. Disseminated cysticercosis with huge muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is caused by cysticercus cellulose, which is the larva of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm. The larvae are carried in the blood stream after penetrating the walls of the alimentary tract and they lodge in different tissues like the skin, skeletal muscles, brain, fundus and heart, to cause disseminated cysticercosis. Cases of disseminated cysticercosis have rarely been reported in the literature. They may inhabit the muscles and cause muscular hypertrophy, which, at times, may assume gross proportions. Morbidity is usually caused by the involvement of the central nervous system or the eyes.

  16. A RARE CASE OF HUGE CERVICAL FIBROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tatyaba Palve

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PRESENTATION OF CASE Leiomyomas are the most common tumor of uterus and the female pelvis. It is impossible to determine true incidence, all though frequently quoted incidence of 50% seems reasonable at post mortem examination1 . However only 1- 2% of it are confined to cervix. Cervical leiomyomata are mostly single and are subserous or interstitial in origin. Generally these tumours presents with retention of urine, constipation, sensation of something coming out of vagina, & rarely at times present with abdominal mass which may mimic ovarian cancer. 47 year old unmarried nulligravida with complaints of severe dysmenorrhagia since one year and lump in abdomen which has grown over period of one year. There was no bowel and bladder complaints, On physical examination pallor present, on abdominal examination 26-28 week firm solid mass arising from pelvis with restricted mobility was present, Clinically no ascites, patient was investigated on OPD basis.

  17. The Bullwhip Effect in Different Manufacturing Paradigm: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shamila Nabi Khan; Mohammad Ajmal Khan; Ramsha Sohail

    2014-01-01

    Slight fluctuation in the customer demand produces huge fluctuations in the inventory and production levels of the upstream member of the supply chain. This is known as demand amplification or the bullwhip effect. The bullwhip effect produces huge inefficiencies along the supply chain, captures much-needed working capital by high inventory levels and results in dissatisfied customers. Analyzing a set of nine case studies, results show that agile manufacturing is best suited to deal with a tur...

  18. Live-born diploid fetus complicated with partial molar pregnancy presenting with pre-eclampsia, maternal anemia, and seemingly huge placenta: A rare case of confined placental mosaicism and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Kaoru; Kondoh, Eiji; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Fujita, Kohei; Mogami, Haruta; Chigusa, Yoshitsugu; Konishi, Ikuo

    2016-08-01

    A partial molar pregnancy almost always ends in miscarriage due to a triploid fetus. We describe a rare case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy with a seemingly huge placenta, which continued to delivery of a live-born diploid baby. A 27-year-old primigravida suffered from severe pre-eclampsia and progressive anemia. The uterus was enormously enlarged for the gestational age. A cesarean section was performed because of deterioration of maternal status at 25 weeks' gestation, when more than 3000 mL blood spouted concurrently with the delivery of the placenta. The histological examination showed congestion in the decidua, which indicated disturbance of maternal venous return from the intervillous space. The chromosome complement of the placenta and the neonate were 69,XXX and 46,XX, respectively. We also reviewed all published cases of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy. A literature search yielded 18 cases of a singleton, diploid fetus with partial molar pregnancy. The mean gestational age at delivery was 24.5 ± 6.2 weeks, and fetuses survived outside the uterus in only four cases (22.2%). Intriguingly, previous reports numbered 10 cases with diploid placenta as well as five cases with no karyotyping of the placenta, indicating that they may have included a complete mole in a twin pregnancy or placental mesenchymal dysplasia. In conclusion, this was the first case of placentomegaly that presented manifestations of excessive abdominal distension and maternal severe anemia, and the second case of a singleton, partial molar pregnancy confirmed by chromosome analysis resulting in a diploid living baby. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. The Ma Gene for Complete-Spectrum Resistance to Meloidogyne Species in Prunus Is a TNL with a Huge Repeated C-Terminal Post-LRR Region1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Michel; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Bosselut, Nathalie; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Voisin, Roger; Kleinhentz, Marc; Lafargue, Bernard; Abad, Pierre; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Chalhoub, Boulos; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne species are major polyphagous pests of most crops worldwide, and cultivars with durable resistance are urgently needed because of nematicide bans. The Ma gene from the Myrobalan plum (Prunus cerasifera) confers complete-spectrum, heat-stable, and high-level resistance to RKN, which is remarkable in comparison with the Mi-1 gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), the sole RKN resistance gene cloned. We report here the positional cloning and the functional validation of the Ma locus present at the heterozygous state in the P.2175 accession. High-resolution mapping totaling over 3,000 segregants reduced the Ma locus interval to a 32-kb cluster of three Toll/Interleukin1 Receptor-Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) genes (TNL1–TNL3), including a pseudogene (TNL2) and a truncated gene (TNL3). The sole complete gene in this interval (TNL1) was validated as Ma, as it conferred the same complete-spectrum and high-level resistance (as in P.2175) using its genomic sequence and native promoter region in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed hairy roots and composite plants. The full-length cDNA (2,048 amino acids) of Ma is the longest of all Resistance genes cloned to date. Its TNL structure is completed by a huge post-LRR (PL) sequence (1,088 amino acids) comprising five repeated carboxyl-terminal PL exons with two conserved motifs. The amino-terminal region (213 amino acids) of the LRR exon is conserved between alleles and contrasts with the high interallelic polymorphisms of its distal region (111 amino acids) and of PL domains. The Ma gene highlights the importance of these uncharacterized PL domains, which may be involved in pathogen recognition through the decoy hypothesis or in nuclear signaling. PMID:21482634

  20. “Little Cogs of the Huge State Machine”. Formation and Development of Nursery Care System in 1920-1930s (on the Materials of the Republic of Germans in the Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila A. Falaleeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to insufficiently studied aspects of the history of the Volga Germans. On the basis of the documents kept in the State Historical Archives of the Volga Germans, the author reveals the peculiarities of formation and development of the nursery care system in the USSR of Volga Germans in 1920-1930s. In the article measures on preparing medical and pedagogical staff are reviewed. It was concluded that the establishment of nurseries led not only to improvement of children’s health, but also released labour force of peasant women for the national economy. The author found that the first information about the opening of nurseries in the German autonomy is related to 1921 – from that moment an active process of formation of the Soviet system of nursery facilities in the region had begun. Due to large-scale famine of the early 1920s, existence of nurseries was under threat, despite the active government policy on this issue. Only in 1925 the matter of protection of motherhood and childhood stabilized, and with active support of female population of Volga Germans started to rapidly gain the momentum. In the mid-1930s more than 5 000 children in ASSR NP became pupils of nurseries. All the year round a woman was able to break free from the hassle of taking care of children and the young generation from the first years of life was brought up under state control. The operation of nurseries caused both a need and an interest among German women, in contrast to many other social projects of the Soviet power against women. The author concludes that the mass distribution of nurseries in the territory of ASSR NP and their introduction into the social environment, allows considering them as significant administrative practices aimed at the destruction of traditional ways of life of women, effective even in the national autonomy.

  1. The interleukin 10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis of 73 studies including 15,942 cases and 22,336 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin; Liu, Qing; Huang, Chen; Wu, Minghua; Li, Guiyuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the interleukin 10 (IL-10) -819C/T (rs1800871) polymorphism and cancer risk. A total of 73 studies, including 15,942 cancer cases and 22,336 controls, were identified in this meta-analysis. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Overall, no significant association was identified between the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. In the subgroup analyses, the T allele and TT genotype were associated with a moderately reduced cancer risk in the Asian population (T allele vs. C allele: OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.87, 0.99; TT vs. CC: OR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.76, 0.98; TT vs. CT/CC: OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.82, 0.98). Individuals who were homozygous for the T allele (TT) were found to be associated with significantly reduced gastric cancer risk in the Asian population. The heterozygous variant (CT) and the dominant model (TT/CT vs. CC) were associated with an increased risk for cervical and ovarian cancer. However, the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism was not significantly associated with breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, prostate cancer, lymphoma, or melanoma. The depressed cancer risk of the TT genotype occurred in the studies of hospital-based case-control studies and the studies recruited less than 500 subjects, but no statistically significant results were found in the stratified analyses using genotyping method. The results suggest that the IL-10 -819TT genotype may be a protective factor for cancer in Asians, especially gastric cancer. In contrast, the CT genotype and the dominant model could be risk factors for cervical and ovarian cancer. The importance of stratifying by ethnicity, cancer type, study design, and sample size needs to be standardized in future studies, together with considering the association between the IL-10 -819C/T polymorphism and cancer risk. Furthermore, the linkage

  2. The Bullwhip Effect in Different Manufacturing Paradigm: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamila Nabi Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Slight fluctuation in the customer demand produces huge fluctuations in the inventory and production levels of the upstream member of the supply chain. This is known as demand amplification or the bullwhip effect. The bullwhip effect produces huge inefficiencies along the supply chain, captures much-needed working capital by high inventory levels and results in dissatisfied customers. Analyzing a set of nine case studies, results show that agile manufacturing is best suited to deal with a turbulent market with unpredictable demand.

  3. Cost effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology for breast masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is an excellent method for diagnosing palpable lesions. It is very cost effective and saves huge amounts of money for the patients when compared with open surgical biopsy. Objective: A prospective study carried out to evaluate the cost effectiveness of FNAC for ...

  4. Antibiofilm effects of Citrus limonum and Zingiber officinale oils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microbial cells growing in biofilms, play a huge role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains belonging to 3 different Klebsiella species (K. ornithinolytica, K. oxytoca and K. terrigena), cooccurences' effect on biofilm formation amount and anti-biofilm effects of ...

  5. Hubble Spies Huge Cluster of Stars Formed by Ancient Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    This release marks the beginning of a new outlet for the Space Telescope Science Institute, the 'Hubble Minute'. Hubble Minute is an edited vignette suitable for use in newscasts, magazine shows, and as an interstitial program. The Minute explains how scientists are determining when M82 and M81 collided, and how dating the crash may result in a better understanding of how our own galaxy formed.

  6. Vesicovaginal fistula following an induced abortion with a huge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a 26 year old P +1 woman who developed vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) following an induced 1 abortion is presented. She presented with five year history of continous leakage of urine following a voluntary termination of pregnancy at about 11 weeks of gestation using metallic instruments in a chemist shop by a ...

  7. Huge-scale molecular dynamics simulation of multibubble nuclei

    KAUST Repository

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    We have developed molecular dynamics codes for a short-range interaction potential that adopt both the flat-MPI and MPI/OpenMP hybrid parallelizations on the basis of a full domain decomposition strategy. Benchmark simulations involving up to 38.4 billion Lennard-Jones particles were performed on Fujitsu PRIMEHPC FX10, consisting of 4800 SPARC64 IXfx 1.848 GHz processors, at the Information Technology Center of the University of Tokyo, and a performance of 193 teraflops was achieved, which corresponds to a 17.0% execution efficiency. Cavitation processes were also simulated on PRIMEHPC FX10 and SGI Altix ICE 8400EX at the Institute of Solid State Physics of the University of Tokyo, which involved 1.45 billion and 22.9 million particles, respectively. Ostwald-like ripening was observed after the multibubble nuclei. Our results demonstrate that direct simulations of multiscale phenomena involving phase transitions from the atomic scale are possible and that the molecular dynamics method is a promising method that can be applied to petascale computers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing huge pathology images with open source software

    OpenAIRE

    Deroulers, Christophe; Ameisen, David; Badoual, Mathilde; Gerin, Chloé; Granier, Alexandre; Lartaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Digital pathology images are increasingly used both for diagnosis and research, because slide scanners are nowadays broadly available and because the quantitative study of these images yields new insights in systems biology. However, such virtual slides build up a technical challenge since the images occupy often several gigabytes and cannot be fully opened in a computer¿s memory. Moreover, there is no standard format. Therefore, most common open source too...

  9. 61 HUGE BENIGN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN A 61 YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    ,. *St Louis Clinic, Ekurede-Urhobo, ... diagnosis was made because of fear of surgery. She had laparotomy, total abdominal hysterectomy ... peri-menopausal bleeding and virilising symptoms1. Significant clinical changes of hyperestrogenism ...

  10. A huge ovarian cyst in a hysterectomized bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontas, B H; Milani, C; Romagnoli, S; Bertolini, G; Caldin, M; Caliari, D; Zappulli, V; Mollo, A

    2011-12-01

    A 11-year-old, spayed, female mixed breed-dog was presented with an abdominal mass that was detected 1 month ago. Upon abdominal palpation a large, firm, oval shaped, movable mass was found in the mid-abdominal region. Survey radiograph of the abdomen demonstrated an oval soft tissue dense mass located on the right side of the abdominal cavity. A large, heteregenous and cystic mass with solid components occupying the majority of the abdomen and a small, cystic mass with solid components caudal to the left kidney were identified by transabdominal ultrasonography. Computed tomography scans revealed bilateral ovarian masses, and a small volume of retroperitoneal fluid on the right side. A cystic, but otherwise solid mass located in the right ovary and small retained left ovary encapsulated in the ovarian bursa were excised surgically by midline laparotomy. Histopathological examination of the excised mass from the right side revealed a large cystic structure consistent with an ovarian cyst and multiple corpora lutea and follicles at different maturational stages were detected in the left ovary. The precise origin of the ovarian cyst could not be determined by morphological appearance. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a cyst of surface epithelial origin. At re-examination 6 months after the surgery, the bitch appeared healthy and the clinical findings were all normal. To our knowledge, the cyst described here is the largest reported in an incompletely ovariohysterectomized bitch. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. A Huge Responsibility: Three Keys to Teaching Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Based on her 20 years of teaching Spanish, Leslie Davison strives for a holistic approach to teaching and learning that is authentic and relevant to her young language learners. Herein, she shares three keys to teaching elementary level students in a way that ensures they will have a "Can Do" attitude in terms of language proficiency and…

  12. Huge increases in bacterivores on freshly killed barley roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.; Griffiths, B.; Ekelund, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    to the roots was very high during the first three weeks resulting in anaerobic conditions in the soil. After a period of low respiratory activity and enzyme content, these quantities increased from 6 to 20 weeks, but not enough to maintain anaerobic conditions. Numbers of protozoa peaked earlier than...... the nematodes. Based on yield coefficients of microbes and bacterivores, the increase in bacterivores was in accordance with root-induced respiration activity. In soil adhering to roots, numbers of bacterial grazers (protozoa and nematodes) were up to 80 and 30 times higher, respectively, than...

  13. MRI Verification of a Case of Huge Infantile Rhabdomyoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Naser; Kreshnike, Kreshnike Dedushi; Mu?aj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxhaj, Astrit; Jerliu, Naim; Beji?i, Ramush

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac rhabdomyoma is type of benign myocardial tumor that is the most common fetal cardiac tumor. Cardiac rhabdomyomas are usually detected before birth or during the first year of life. They account for over 60% of all primary cardiac tumors. Case report: A 6 month old child with coughing and obstruction in breathing, was hospitalized in the Pediatric Clinic in UCCK, Pristine. The difficulty of breathing was heard and the pathological noise of the heart was noticed from the p...

  14. The next bit thing in physics is huge and costly

    CERN Multimedia

    Overbye, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The price of exploring inner space went up. An international consortium of physicists proposed the next big thing in physics: the International Linear Collider and it would cost about $ 6.7 billion. (1 page)

  15. Decomposing Huge Networks into Skeleton Graphs by Reachable Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research team developed new techniques for accelerating critical link...natural extensions of the conventional centralities and general enough to include their definitions as a special case. Second, we DISTRIBUTION A

  16. Pseudo-Meig's Syndrome associated with huge Uterine Leiomyoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pseudo-Meigs syndrome consists of pleural effusion, ascites, and benign tumors of the ovary other than fibromas. These benign tumors include the tumors of fallopian tube or uterus, mature teratomas, struma ovarii, and ovarian leiomyomas. In a postmenopausal woman presence of complex pelvic mass, ...

  17. Opening of huge perspectives; Ouverture sur de vastes perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-11-01

    On the important South-African market, pushed by the end of the apartheid and the integration of black populations in the country's economy, Total is consolidating its positions in all its activities. Between 1992 and 1997, Total investments have been increased by 50 pc for its gas service station network (750 stations) which represents 13 pc of the market. The chemical activities are also gaining importance and its Natref refinery is the sole refinery in the inner country.

  18. Huge Facial Desmoid Tumors with Neck Extension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghazipour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Desmoid tumors are very rare, benign fibrous neoplasms arise from the musculoaponeurotic structures throughout the body.   Case Report: The patient was a   seven-year old boy with a large mandibular mass growing over a period of six months. His CT-scan showed a large mass, 13 cm in diameter in the cheek area extending to the neck and trachea. Biopsy was compatible with desmoid fibromatosis.  He was given neoadjovant treatment with vinblastin and methotrexate. The patient underwent a tracheostomy. Then a complete hemimandibulectomy and submandibular gland excision was performed.  Finally reconstruction with latisimus dorsi free flap was performed.   Conclusion: Despite rarity desmoid tumors should be kept in mind of an otorhinolaryngologist as a differential diagnosis in children with head and neck mass.  

  19. Passenger vehicles sustain huge damage in 5 Mph tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-15

    Seventeen new cars, all 1999 and 2000 models, turned in mostly disappointing results in 5 mph crash tests conducted to assess how well the bumpers resist costly damage in the kinds of impacts that frequently occur in commuter traffic and parking lots...

  20. Fighting Poverty: Attentive Policy Can Make a Huge Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy M.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implication of the implementation of anti-poverty policy in both the United Kingdom and the United States. International studies of child poverty usually find that the United States and United Kingdom are at the bottom of the league table in terms of child poverty. Indeed, the U.S. and U.K do not fare well in…

  1. Fidgety movements – tiny in appearance, but huge in impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Einspieler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To describe fidgety movements (FMs, i.e., the spontaneous movement pattern that typically occurs at 3–5 months after term age, and discuss its clinical relevance. Sources: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Science Direct, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. The search strategy included the MeSH terms and search strings (‘fidgety movement*’ OR [(‘general movement*’ AND (‘three month*’ OR (‘3 month*’], as well as studies published on the General Movements Trust website (www.general-movements-trust.info. Summary of the data: Virtually all infants develop normally if FMs are present and normal, even if their brain ultrasound findings and/or clinical histories indicate a disposition to later neurological deficits. Conversely, almost all infants who never develop FMs have a high risk for neurological deficits such as cerebral palsy, and for genetic disorders with a late onset. If FMs are normal but concurrent postural patterns are not age-adequate or the overall movement character is monotonous, cognitive and/or language skills at school age will be suboptimal. Abnormal FMs are unspecific and have a low predictive power, but occur exceedingly in infants later diagnosed with autism. Conclusions: Abnormal, absent, or sporadic FMs indicate an increased risk for later neurological dysfunction, whereas normal FMs are highly predictive of normal development, especially if they co-occur with other smooth and fluent movements. Early recognition of neurological signs facilitates early intervention. It is important to re-assure parents of infants with clinical risk factors that the neurological outcome will be adequate if FMs develop normally.

  2. Impact of Design Effects in Large-Scale District and State Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that sampling design effects have potentially huge unrecognized impacts on the results reported by large-scale district and state assessments in the United States. When design effects are unrecognized and unaccounted for they lead to underestimating the sampling error in item and test statistics. Underestimating the sampling…

  3. Effectiveness measures for cross-sectional studies: a comparison of value-added models and contextualised attainment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenkeit, J.

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to value-added models (VAM) to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. Contextualised

  4. Zinc effects on the embryos and larvae of the sharptooth catfish, Claias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, A

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available .002-330mg/l. This zinc water had huge effects on the life stages of the fishes depending on which degree of water zinc mg/l the fish was exposed. Results from this study indicated that the free embryo stage from hatching up to 48hrs thereafter, of C...

  5. A review of effects of nutrient elements on crop quality | Njira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of low soil fertility and poor plant nutrition does not only affect crop yields but also crop quality. ... From this review it can be concluded that crop quality is a very important area to consider advancing and putting up resources for research since it has a huge bearing on human health and socioeconomic effect on ...

  6. Technology & environment : some possible damaging effects of technological change in advanced and opulent societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    An interesting problem is the analysis of effects of the predominant impact of technological change on the health of societies. This study considers technological change as the human activity that generates a huge impact on societies and causes environmental disorders affecting the health of

  7. The effect of indole acetic acid on the performance of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor soil fertility and nutrient depletion continue to present huge challenges to successful crop production in southern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. Consequently, a study was conducted at Ilorin - Nigeria in a southern Guinea savanna zone during the wet seasons of 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the effects of indole ...

  8. A scaling law for distinct electrocaloric cooling performance in low-dimensional organic, relaxor and anti-ferroelectrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuping Shi; Limin Huang; Ai Kah Soh; George J Weng; Shuangyi Liu; Simon A T Redfern

    2017-01-01

    ... of phase transitions and correlation characteristics. Under increased electric fields, both EC entropy and adiabatic temperature changes increase quadratically initially, followed by further linear growth and eventual gradual saturation...

  9. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) films by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition: a synchrotron X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, W R; Philiph, R L; Chan, D W W; Ayers, C T; Perez, E M; Beckman, S P; Strzalka, J; Chaudhary, S; Vaknin, D

    2015-11-21

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene - P(VDF-TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF-TrFE) (70 : 30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir-Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF-TrFE) films. This development has significant implications for the potential use of P(VDF-TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.

  10. Not All Promotions are Made Equal: From the Effects of a Price War to Cross-chain Cannibalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Sotgiu (Francesca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge amount of money allocated every year to sales promotions, brand managers still do not know how often and in what circumstances promotions are truly effective. This dissertation proposes an approach that allows managers to assess the impact of individual promotion events

  11. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to study the effectiveness of a protocol-based lifestyle program to prevent type 2 diabetes in people with impaired fasting glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Arlette E.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Jonkers, Ruud; Martens, Marloes; de Weerdt, Inge; Rutten, Guy E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective diabetes prevention strategies that can be implemented in daily practice, without huge amounts of money and a lot of personnel are needed. The Dutch Diabetes Federation developed a protocol for coaching people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; according to WHO criteria: 6.1

  12. The Effectiveness of Brain-Based Teaching Approach in Dealing with the Problems of Students' Conceptual Understanding and Learning Motivation towards Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2012-01-01

    Teachers of science-based education in Malaysian secondary schools, especially those in the field of physics, often find their students facing huge difficulties in dealing with conceptual ideas in physics, resulting thus in a lack of interest towards the subject. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Brain-Based Teaching…

  13. The Effect of Language Learning Anxiety on the Learner of Turkish as a Foreign Language: The Case of Jawaharlal Nehru University, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscan, Adem

    2011-01-01

    There exist quite many studies on the anxiety especially when it comes to the effect of foreign language learning anxiety on the learners. These studies show that there is a huge amount of foreign language learning anxiety impact on the learners. The present study focuses on the influence of foreign language anxiety on the Indian learners that…

  14. The effect of web advertising visual design on online purchase intention: An examination across gender

    OpenAIRE

    Shaouf, A; Lu, K.; Li, X

    2016-01-01

    With web advertising growing to be a huge industry, it is important to understand the effectiveness of web advertisement. In this study we investigate the effects of web advertising visual design (WAVD) purchasing intention within the framework of an integrated model. Nine hypotheses were developed and tested on a dataset of 316 observations collected via a questionnaire survey. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) indicate that while web advertising visual cues influence consume...

  15. THE NON-QUALITY OF COUNTERFEIT PRODUCTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON CONSUMERS AND THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia PASCU; Petronela-Sonia NEDEA; Oana-Maria MILEA

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the intellectual property rights (IPR) has huge effects on the free movement of merchandise and of the occupying degree of work places, affecting both economic development and consumers’ health, and the rightful trademark owners and the companies which legally exploit them are the main “actors” to undertake the effects of this phenomenon which, in the last few years, has grown with more than 1000% according to data published by the World Trade Organization. In the last 20 years, the ...

  16. Not All Promotions are Made Equal: From the Effects of a Price War to Cross-chain Cannibalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sotgiu, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDespite the huge amount of money allocated every year to sales promotions, brand managers still do not know how often and in what circumstances promotions are truly effective. This dissertation proposes an approach that allows managers to assess the impact of individual promotion events rather than the average effect of total promotional efforts. As such, more detailed information is gained on how promotions should be implemented. Moreover, sales promotions are not only evaluated ...

  17. Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eggshell particles (ES on the microstructures and properties of Al–Cu–Mg/ES particulate composites have been studied. A total of 2–12 wt.% ES particles were added. The microstructures of the Al–Cu–Mg/eggshell particulate composites produced were examined by a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS. The physical and mechanical properties measured included: density, tensile strength, hardness values and impact energy. The results revealed that the tensile strength increased by 8.16% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 14.28% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES, the hardness values increased by 10.01% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 25.4% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES with decrease in the density by 6.50% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 7.4% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES. The impact energy decreased by 23.5% at 12 wt.% uncarbonized ES and 24.67% at 12 wt.% carbonized ES particles, respectively. These increases in strength and hardness values are attributed to the distribution of hard phases of the ES particles in the ductile Al–Cu–Mg alloy matrix. These results showed that using the carbonized eggshell as reinforcement in the Al–Cu–Mg alloy gives better physical and mechanical properties as compared to uncarbonized ES particles. Hence addition of ES particles upto 12 wt.% can be used as a low cost reinforcement for the production of metal matrix composites for engineering applications.

  18. The effect of plyometric training on handspring vault performance in adolescent female gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the huge amount of force exerted by both the upper and lower extremity musculature in gymnastic vaulting, there is scant research investigating the benefits that plyometric training can induce. The handspring vault is of paramount importance for a gymnast’s vaulting development, and requires both technical skill and power production to achieve success. The aim of this study was to determine the effects that plyometric training can have when added to habitual training on hands...

  19. [Repair of a huge Bochdalek hernia by direct suture and mesh reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Yamashita, Kazuki; Waki, Naohisa; Kawai, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Masahiro; Nishi, Hideyuki

    2014-12-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with complaints of sudden abdominal pain and vomiting. After a thorough examination, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided Bochdalek hernia with strangulation of the stomach and spleen. The impaction was cleared by drainage of the stomach contents by a nasogastric tube;then, surgical repair through thoracic approach was performed. The herinia port size was large, and the defect of diaphragm was successfully repaired by both direct closure and mesh reconstruction.

  20. Quantum Darwinism in an Everyday Environment: Huge Redundancy in Scattered Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Charles; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    We study quantum Darwinism---the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment---for an object illuminated by a blackbody. In the cases of point-source, small disk, and isotropic illumination, we calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment. We demonstrate that this realistic model exhibits fast and extensive proliferation of information about the object into the environment and results in redundancies orders of magnitude larger than the exactly soluble models considered to date. We also demonstrate a reduced ability to create records as initial environmental mixedness increases, in agreement with previous studies. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD program and, in part, by the Foundational Questions Institute (FQXi).

  1. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  2. Taming the big data tidal wave finding opportunities in huge data streams with advanced analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Franks, Bill

    2012-01-01

    You receive an e-mail. It contains an offer for a complete personal computer system. It seems like the retailer read your mind since you were exploring computers on their web site just a few hours prior…. As you drive to the store to buy the computer bundle, you get an offer for a discounted coffee from the coffee shop you are getting ready to drive past. It says that since you're in the area, you can get 10% off if you stop by in the next 20 minutes…. As you drink your coffee, you receive an apology from the manufacturer of a product that you complained about yesterday on your Facebook pa

  3. Conception in an infertile patient following obliteration of a huge anterior sacral meningocele: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Liechty, Peter; Matz, Paul; Oakes, W Jerry

    2010-02-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old woman with a large anterior sacral meningocele who had been unable to conceive. Following neurosurgical consultation, she underwent repair of her meningocele which resulted in complete resolution of her meningocele and 1 year later, she delivered her first child. This case demonstrates that following surgical treatment, female patients with anterior sacral meningoceles may be able to conceive and bear children.

  4. Genome network medicine: innovation to overcome huge challenges in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukos, Dimitrios H

    2014-01-01

    The post-ENCODE era shapes now a new biomedical research direction for understanding transcriptional and signaling networks driving gene expression and core cellular processes such as cell fate, survival, and apoptosis. Over the past half century, the Francis Crick 'central dogma' of single n gene/protein-phenotype (trait/disease) has defined biology, human physiology, disease, diagnostics, and drugs discovery. However, the ENCODE project and several other genomic studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, computational strategies, and imaging techniques to visualize regulatory networks, provide evidence that transcriptional process and gene expression are regulated by highly complex dynamic molecular and signaling networks. This Focus article describes the linear experimentation-based limitations of diagnostics and therapeutics to cure advanced cancer and the need to move on from reductionist to network-based approaches. With evident a wide genomic heterogeneity, the power and challenges of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify a patient's personal mutational landscape for tailoring the best target drugs in the individual patient are discussed. However, the available drugs are not capable of targeting aberrant signaling networks and research on functional transcriptional heterogeneity and functional genome organization is poorly understood. Therefore, the future clinical genome network medicine aiming at overcoming multiple problems in the new fields of regulatory DNA mapping, noncoding RNA, enhancer RNAs, and dynamic complexity of transcriptional circuitry are also discussed expecting in new innovation technology and strong appreciation of clinical data and evidence-based medicine. The problematic and potential solutions in the discovery of next-generation, molecular, and signaling circuitry-based biomarkers and drugs are explored. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. TRAINING TREE ADJOINING GRAMMARS WITH HUGE TEXT CORPUS USING SPARK MAP REDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Krishna Menon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tree adjoining grammars (TAGs are mildly context sensitive formalisms used mainly in modelling natural languages. Usage and research on these psycho linguistic formalisms have been erratic in the past decade, due to its demanding construction and difficulty to parse. However, they represent promising future for formalism based NLP in multilingual scenarios. In this paper we demonstrate basic synchronous Tree adjoining grammar for English-Tamil language pair that can be used readily for machine translation. We have also developed a multithreaded chart parser that gives ambiguous deep structures and a par dependency structure known as TAG derivation. Furthermore we then focus on a model for training this TAG for each language using a large corpus of text through a map reduce frequency count model in spark and estimation of various probabilistic parameters for the grammar trees thereafter; these parameters can be used to perform statistical parsing on the trained grammar.

  6. A huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of paranasal sinus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdim, Ibrahim; Yazici, Zahide Mine; Yilmazer, Rasim; Sever, Nurten; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2012-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma is a well-bordered, slow-growing, benign fibro-osseous disease. Although its localization is generally in the mandible, it can be seen in any area of the craniofacial region. Radiology and histopathology help to diagnose the condition. Treatment is based on close observation and/or surgical excision. In this case, we report the case of a 62-year-old male patient who had a large radiological appearance, cemento-ossifying fibroma in the paranasal sinuses.

  7. Huge Parathyroid Adenoma with Dysphagia Presentation; A Case Report from Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bizhan Ziaeean; Sahar Sohrabi-Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Parathyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the parathyroid glands. The cause of most parathyroid adenomas is unknown. Parathyroid adenoma increases the secretion of parathyroid hormone and results in primary hyperparathyroidism. High amounts of parathyroid hormone in the blood cause the imbalance of calcium, which leads to various complications such as kidney stones, depression, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, myalgia, bone and joint pain, hoarseness, etc. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is...

  8. Intragenomic matching reveals a huge potential for miRNA-mediated regulation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Jacobsen, Anders; Nygaard, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    machine classification of miRNA precursors, we explore the potential for regulation by miRNAs in three plant genomes: Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, and Oryza sativa. We find that the intragenomic matching in conjunction with a supervised learning approach contains enough information to allow...

  9. Algorithms, data structures, and numerics for likelihood-based phylogenetic inference of huge trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo-Carrasco Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid accumulation of molecular sequence data, driven by novel wet-lab sequencing technologies, poses new challenges for large-scale maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic analyses on trees with more than 30,000 taxa and several genes. The three main computational challenges are: numerical stability, the scalability of search algorithms, and the high memory requirements for computing the likelihood. Results We introduce methods for solving these three key problems and provide respective proof-of-concept implementations in RAxML. The mechanisms presented here are not RAxML-specific and can thus be applied to any likelihood-based (Bayesian or maximum likelihood tree inference program. We develop a new search strategy that can reduce the time required for tree inferences by more than 50% while yielding equally good trees (in the statistical sense for well-chosen starting trees. We present an adaptation of the Subtree Equality Vector technique for phylogenomic datasets with missing data (already available in RAxML v728 that can reduce execution times and memory requirements by up to 50%. Finally, we discuss issues pertaining to the numerical stability of the Γ model of rate heterogeneity on very large trees and argue in favor of rate heterogeneity models that use a single rate or rate category for each site to resolve these problems. Conclusions We address three major issues pertaining to large scale tree reconstruction under maximum likelihood and propose respective solutions. Respective proof-of-concept/production-level implementations of our ideas are made available as open-source code.

  10. USDA's Vick tells radio audience wind farms mean huge water savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since most of the electricity in the U.S. is generated using coal and natural gas as fuel, almost every wind farm announcement includes the estimated amount of carbon dioxide which was not released to the atmosphere. According to Wikipedia, 2.25 tons of CO2 and 1.14 tons of CO2 were released for eve...

  11. Nanoparticle-on-mirror cavity modes for huge and/or tunable plasmonic field enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ma, Lingwei; Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2017-03-01

    We present a careful numerical study of nanoparticle (NP) faceting, highlighting the great influence of small morphological changes of NP-mirror cavities on near-field enhancement in the nanoparticle-on-mirror (NPOM) system. Using a 3D finite element method (FEM) plasmon mapping method, the active transverse cavity modes can be confirmed. For the dominant mode, we have found that, by increasing the facet width, the resonance can be tuned linearly to the red with little decrease of the peak near-field intensity. It is further demonstrated that by increasing the NP size, the near-field intensity can be strongly enhanced. Understanding of such extreme optics benefits significantly both the optimized design of potential plasmonic devices and the fundamental understanding of nano-optics. Collaborative experimental considerations are expected with the rapid development of nanotechnology.

  12. GASPACHO: a generic automatic solver using proximal algorithms for convex huge optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Bart; Luong, Hiêp; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-08-01

    Many inverse problems (e.g., demosaicking, deblurring, denoising, image fusion, HDR synthesis) share various similarities: degradation operators are often modeled by a specific data fitting function while image prior knowledge (e.g., sparsity) is incorporated by additional regularization terms. In this paper, we investigate automatic algorithmic techniques for evaluating proximal operators. These algorithmic techniques also enable efficient calculation of adjoints from linear operators in a general matrix-free setting. In particular, we study the simultaneous-direction method of multipliers (SDMM) and the parallel proximal algorithm (PPXA) solvers and show that the automatically derived implementations are well suited for both single-GPU and multi-GPU processing. We demonstrate this approach for an Electron Microscopy (EM) deconvolution problem.

  13. '… a huge monster that should be feared and not done': Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultures of violence in youth sexuality are closely connected to prevailing gender norms and practices which, for example, render women as passive victims who are incapable of ... Keywords: Life Orientation, sex, sexuality education, young people, heterosexual practices, gender equality, violence, health, danger.

  14. [Huge Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Pleura Combined with Peripheral Pulmonary Artery Aneurysm: A Case Resport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanda; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Weixing; Zhang, Chunfang

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of pleura (SFTP) is uncommon, accounts for less than 5% of all pleural tumors. Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is also not common, 80% of which often occurs in the main pulmonary trunk and peripheral PAA is rare. SFTP combined with PAA in one patient has not been reported. This paper reports a case of SFTP combined with peripheral PAA, and SFTP maybe accelerate PAA formation.

  15. Intellectual Property and the Changing of Information Professional Curricula: a huge necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Goulart Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Information society represents a profound changing in the organization of the society and economy – a new paradigm – but, most of all it is a global phenomenon with potential for transforming social, economical and technical environment and activities performed by information specialists, because social reality is always affected by the infra-structure of available information. In this regard, the theme Intellectual Property has become one of the pillars of the new context of technology development and interchange communication between countries and people everywhere because the objects of intellectual property in all its extension, which are creations of the human mind and intellect, can be seen as pieces of information which can be incorporated in intangible objects at the same time in an unlimited number of copies, at different locations anywhere in the world. And all these objects have specific information inside and are reunited in databases with special characteristics, which have to be understood by the information professional and the knowledge on how to comprehend, handle and recover is a fundamental necessity. And most important is that this professional will have to acquire knowledge in multidisciplinar subjects, as economy, innovation, information technologies, human sciences, ethics and law. - In this context, some studies concerning “network society” (Castells, 2002 “cyberculture” (Lévy 1999, and information literacy of informational professional (Vitorino, 2007 and (Azevedo and Beraquet, 2010 put light on a necessity to review competences in the specific area of graduation because they bring other ways of thinking and implement a strong relation with reality, considering the existence of new informational economies. It is no longer possible for this specialist not to understand a student or teacher request concerning an advise on patent search, the environment of innovation or tendencies on the trademark world or copyright involved in all the media they have in hands, specially when they are virtual. So, this paper will deal with the new characteristics demanded for the information professional, which comprises, at least: a be pro-active; b have a comprehensive approach on leadership, finances, communication and technical management, in order to best get, use and organize the information; c be strongly acquainted with information technologies and how databases are structured and work; dunderstand the scientific methods of research and have the capacity to analyze and filter literature in databases; ehave a researcher and planned attitude, because he is going to understand technical and scientific information when dealing with patents, trademarks, utility models, geographical indications and others; e be a multidisciplinary professional, able to understand the “talk of every man in the vast world”; e learn how to make “technical” searches in public and private databases in order to help students and teachers in their work; f understand the legislative complex of laws governing the rights involved in the world of research and intellectual property. These conditions are in line with the diversity encountered as the reality and there is no longer time to comply with curricula not adjusted to it. The proposed paper will present a curricula that could preview 2 or 3 semesters of subjects, performed during the complete course, to accomplish and training future professionals for this context. The discussion with other specialists dealing with intellectual property, education and methodology of distance learning will promote an interchange of visions ant the best approaches to each education entity. It is important to give to this new students a base to promote a high understand and possibility to be included as an integral specialist.

  16. The Strong-Willed Child: A Huge Challenge for Parents and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    People are born with certain temperament traits. Some children are easy going and easy to get along with. Some are not. This article describes the temperament traits of the strong-willed child. The strong-willed is viewed as stubborn to parents and teachers. The child's goal is to always be in control of his own behaviors, regardless of the needs…

  17. Anesthetic concerns in a huge congenital sublingual swelling obscuring airway access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of intraoral pathology poses a great challenge during management of pediatric airway. We report management of big intraoral cystic swelling physically occupying the entire oral cavity restricting access to airway. Preintubation aspiration of swelling was done to decrease its size and make room for airway manipulation, followed by laryngoscopy and intubation in lateral position. Airway patency is at risk in postoperative period also, in this case, though the swelling decreased in size postoperatively but presence of significant edema required placement of tongue stitch and modified nasopharyngeal airway. Case report highlights simple maneuvers to manage a difficult case.

  18. NSMRL: A Small Command with A Huge Presence for the Submarine Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, J. C; Lamb, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    "To protect the health and enhance the performance of our warfighters through focused submarine, diving and surface research solutions" is the mission of the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL...

  19. How to Fill a Narrow 27 km Long Tube with a Huge Number of Accelerator Components?

    CERN Document Server

    Muttoni, Yvon; Valbuena, Roger

    2005-01-01

    As in large scale industrial projects, research projects, such as giant and complex particle accelerators, require intensive spatial integration studies using 3D CAD models, from the design to the installation phases. The future management of the LHC machine configuration during its operation will rely on the quality of the information, produced during these studies.This paper presents the powerful data-processing tools used in the project to ensure the spatial integration of several thousand different components in the limited space available.It describes how the documentation and information generated have been made available to a great number of users through a dedicated Web site and how installation nonconformities were handled.

  20. How to fill a narrow 27 KM long tube with a huge number of accelerator components?

    CERN Document Server

    Muttoni, Y; Valbuena, R

    2005-01-01

    As in large scale industrial projects, research projects, such as giant and complex particle accelerators, require intensive spatial integration studies using 3D CAD models, from the design to the installation phases. The future management of the LHC machine configuration during its operation will rely on the quality of the information, produced during these studies. This paper presents the powerful data-processing tools used in the project to ensure the spatial integration of several thousand different components in the limited space available. It describes how the documentation and information generated have been made available to a great number of users through a dedicated Web site and how installation nonconformities were handled.

  1. Behing the scenes: UltaLight project: moving huge amounts of data

    CERN Multimedia

    LaRose, Christina

    2007-01-01

    "In January 2007, scientists and engineers completed the largest particle accelerator in the world, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), an underground ring 27 kilometers around located at the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  2. The Iqmulus urban showcase : Automatic tree classification and identification in huge mobile mapping point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehm, J; Bredif, M.; Gierlinger, T.; Krämer, M.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Liu, K.; Michel, F.; Sirmacek, B.

    2016-01-01

    Current 3D data capturing as implemented on for example airborne or mobile laser scanning systems is able to efficiently sample the surface of a city by billions of unselective points during one working day. What is still difficult is to extract and visualize meaningful information hidden in

  3. Ekseko Orins a Huge Amount of "Pure Gold" / Toivo Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Toivo

    2004-01-01

    Seakasvatusfirmast Ekseko AS - kõige konkurentsivõimelisemast ettevõttest põllu- ja metsamajandusettevõtete hulgas. Kavatsusest hakata sõnnikust elektrit tootma. Tabel: Põllu- ja metsamajandusettevõtted. Lisa: Ekseko 2003

  4. Of huge mice and tiny elephants: Exploring the relationship between inhibitory processes and preschool math skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eMerkley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive mechanisms underpinning the well-established relationship between inhibitory control and early maths skills remain unclear. We hypothesised that a specific aspect of inhibitory control drives its association with distinct math skills in very young children: the ability to ignore stimulus dimensions that are in conflict with task-relevant representations. We used an Animal Size Stroop task in which three- to six-year-olds were required to ignore the physical size of animal pictures to compare their real-life dimensions. In Experiment 1 (N=58, performance on this task correlated with standardised early mathematics achievement. In Experiment 2 (N=48, performance on the Animal Size Stroop task related to the accuracy of magnitude comparison, specifically for trials on which the physical size of dot arrays was incongruent with their numerosity. This highlights a process-oriented relationship between interference control and resolving conflict between discrete and continuous quantity, and in turn calls for further detailed empirical investigations of whether, how and why inhibitory processes matter to emerging numerical cognition.

  5. Mazeikiu oil refiner slammed by anti-monopoly authorities, faces huge fines

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Konkurentsiamet leidis uurimise käigus, et Mazeikiu Nafta ja selle haru Mazeikiu Naftos Prekybos Namai võivad oma strateegia ja hindadega olla kuritarvitanud oma juhtpositsiooni Leedu, Läti ja Eesti turul, mõjutanud kütuse hinda ja diskrimineerinud teatud ettevõtteid kasutades erinevaid kitsendusi

  6. Une hypergammaglobulinémie considérable A huge hypergammaglobulinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Gómez, Francisco; Duband, S.; Koenig, M.; Cathébras, P.

    2008-01-01

    Producción Científica Un homme de 22 ans était adressé en médecine interne pour le bilan d’une fièvre prolongée avec frissons, altération de l’état général et pesanteur de l’hypochondre droit, évoluant depuis six mois environ. Son seul antécédent remarquable était la notion d’une splénectomie à l’âge de sept ans pour un abcès splénique à Salmonella sp. Les examens faits en ville avaient révélé une cytolyse modérée (transaminases à 2N) et une lymphocytose (5 à 6 G/l). ...

  7. Creating and Exploring Huge Parameter Spaces: Interactive Evolution as a Tool for Sound Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a program is presented that applies interactive evolution to sound generation, i.e., preferred individuals are repeatedly selected from a population of genetically bred sound objects, created with various synthesis and pattern generation algorithms. This simplifies aural exploratio...

  8. Tailored design of architecturally controlled Pt nanoparticles with huge surface areas toward superior unsupported Pt electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Imura, Masataka; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-06-27

    Herein, we report a very simple and rapid method to synthesize two types of Pt nanoparticles with open porous structures (i.e., Pt nanodendrites and multiarmed Pt nanostars) in high yield. The present synthesis is performed by a simple sonication treatment of an aqueous solution containing K2PtCl4 and a nonionic block copolymer with branched alkyl chains in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) at room temperature. Nanodendrites and multiarmed nanostars with different Pt nanostructures are selectively synthesized by simply controlling the dissolved block copolymer amounts in the reactive system. As-prepared 3D Pt nanodendrites and multiarmed Pt nanostars with well-defined morphologies are highly porous and self-supported structures assembled by staggered nanoarms as building blocks, thereby realizing extremely high surface areas (around 80 m(2) g(-1)). The present synthesis has a remarkable advantage in its simplicity for the synthesis of Pt nanocatalysts, in comparison with other previous approaches. Our Pt nanodendrites and Pt nanostars not only improve the active Pt surface area but also show superior electrochemical performance, which make them promising electrocatalysts for future.

  9. Iceberg killing fields limit huge potential for benthic blue carbon in Antarctic shallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David K A

    2017-07-01

    Climate-forced ice losses are increasing potential for iceberg-seabed collisions, termed ice scour. At Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) sea ice, oceanography, phytoplankton and encrusting zoobenthos have been monitored since 1998. In 2003, grids of seabed markers, covering 225 m 2 , were established, surveyed and replaced annually to measure ice scour frequency. Disturbance history has been recorded for each m 2 of seabed monitored at 5-25 m for ~13 years. Encrusting fauna, collected from impacted and nonimpacted metres each year, show coincident benthos responses in growth, mortality and mass of benthic immobilized carbon. Encrusting benthic growth was mainly determined by microalgal bloom duration; each day, nanophytoplankton exceeded 200 μg L -1 produced ~0.05 mm radial growth of bryozoans, and sea temperature >0 °C added 0.002 mm day -1 . Mortality and persistence of growth, as benthic carbon immobilization, were mainly influenced by ice scour. Nearly 30% of monitored seabed was hit each year, and just 7% of shallows were not hit. Hits in deeper water were more deadly, but less frequent, so mortality decreased with depth. Five-year recovery time doubled benthic carbon stocks. Scour-driven mortality varied annually, with two-thirds of all monitored fauna killed in a single year (2009). Reduced fast ice after 2006 ramped iceberg scouring, killing half the encrusting benthos each year in following years. Ice scour coupled with low phytoplankton biomass drove a phase shift to high mortality and depressed zoobenthic immobilized carbon stocks, which has persevered for 10 years since. Stocks of immobilized benthic carbon averaged nearly 15 g m -2 . WAP ice scouring may be recycling 80 000 tonnes of carbon yr -1 . Without scouring, such carbon would remain immobilized and the 2.3% of shelf which are shallows could be as productive as all the remaining continental shelf. The region's future, when glaciers reach grounding lines and iceberg production diminishes, is as a major global sink of carbon storage. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intellectual Property and the Changing of Information Professional Curricula: a huge necessity

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Goulart Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Information society represents a profound changing in the organization of the society and economy – a new paradigm – but, most of all it is a global phenomenon with potential for transforming social, economical and technical environment and activities performed by information specialists, because social reality is always affected by the infra-structure of available information. In this regard, the theme Intellectual Property has become one of the pillars of the new context of technolo...

  11. Links to Literature--Huge Trees, Small Drawings: Ideas of Relative Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Gail

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a unit integrating science, mathematics, and environmental education centered around "The Great Kapok Tree," by Lynne Cherry (1990). Ratios are used to make scale drawings of trees in a rain forest. Other activities include a terrarium and problem-solving activities based on eating habits of rain forest animals. (KMC)

  12. Huge Renal Hydatid Cyst-an Unusual Presentation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Nodoushan, Jamal; Zare, Samad; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mostafa; Babaei Zarch, Mojtaba; Imani, Fatemeh; Ehsani, Fatemeh

    2017-03-16

    Isolated renal hydatid cyst is a rare entity accounting for only 2-4% of cases. A 60-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of pain in right flank. He had a history of eating raw sheep liver. Imaging revealed an expansive cystic mass measuring approximately300×180 mm in the right side of abdomen. The patient was treated by open surgery in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. In this case, we reported an unusual presentation of hydatid cyst disease. Physicians should be aware of its clinical presentations and complications.

  13. A huge low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of small bowel mesentery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... Histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of low- grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. ... Key word: Low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, Nigeria, Hyper immune splenomegaly syndrome. African Health Sciences 2013; 13(3): .... clinicopathological analysis of eleven cases in support of a new entity.

  14. Private Data -- The Real Story: A Huge Problem with Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Milgram

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A very influential paper on improving math outcomes was published in 2008. The authors refused to divulge their data claiming that agreements with the schools and Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act rules (FERPA prevented it.● It turns out that this is not true.● The claimed legal foundations do not say what these authors said they do, this this is a widespread misconception among education researchers.When we found the identities of the schools by other means, serious problems with the conclusions of the article were quickly revealed.● The 2008 paper was far from unique in this respect.● There are many papers that have had enormous influences on K-12 mathematics curricula, and could not be independently verified because the authors refused to reveal their data.In this article we describe how we were able to find the real data for the 2008 paper, and point out the legal constraints that should make it very difficult for authors of such papers to withhold their data in the future.

  15. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  16. [Sex-specific effects in the intergenerational transmission of divorce risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, A; Engelhardt, H

    1995-06-01

    "In an empirical analysis the article investigates the intergenerational transmission of divorce risk with multivariate event-history techniques using data on the 10,000 respondents of the German Family Survey. In both younger and older cohorts the transmission effect is confirmed. Surprisingly, however, there are huge sex differences in the impact of parents' divorces on their children. Sons of divorced parents have a much higher risk of divorce than girls.... The transmission effect cannot be explained by the decreased standard of living typically observed in all types of single-parent families. The data suggest, however, that differences in intervening variables may partially explain the transmission effect." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  17. Sampling: Making Electronic Discovery More Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available With the huge volumes of electronic data subject to discovery in virtually every instance of litigation, time and costs of conducting discovery have become exceedingly important when litigants plan their discovery strategies.  Rather than incurring the costs of having lawyers review every document produced in response to a discovery request in search of relevant evidence, a cost effective strategy for document review planning is to use statistical sampling of the database of documents to determine the likelihood of finding relevant evidence by reviewing additional documents.  This paper reviews and discusses how sampling can be used to make document review more cost effective by considering issues such as an appropriate sample size, how to develop a sampling strategy, and taking into account the potential value of the litigation in relation to the costs of additional discovery efforts. 

  18. The Effects of 1929 Economic Depression and 2008 Global Crisis on Turkey’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat IŞIK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; effects of 1929 Economic Depression and 2008 Global Crisis on Turkey’s economy is studied with the help of selected indicators. Turkey, which had an agriculture oriented economy during 1929 Depression, experienced a deflationist process caused by fallings at agricultural product prices; shrank in the economy and widely decreases at foreign trade volume. 2008 Global Crisis effected Turkish economy negatively in terms of multiple economic variables such as huge depreciations in the stock market, shrinkages in foreign trade volume, degradations in real sector and consumer confidence indexes etc.

  19. The Factors that Effect to Take Part in Betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Çelik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of its’ nature, betting in sports includes factors such as huge revenue, hot money flow, entertainment, thrill, dreams and happening of these dreams. Herewith, these factors pointed out in society effects people’s betting motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that effects participators/players to take part in betting. While the universe of the study composed players in Ankara, the sampling group consisted of a legal bookmaker of Spor Toto Teşkilat Bakanlığı and Türkiye Jokey Kulübü that is easily accessible and has a huge rate of revenue. In total, 80 participators (15 students, 20 workers, 20 civil servants, 15 handicraftsmen and 10 self employments participated to study and filled in the questionnaire that expert opinion was taken, validity and reliability were done, According to the results acquired, it was determined that participators take part in betting to enhance the quality of life, bring enjoy and attraction of their life, getting rid of stress and most importantly making money because of some reasons such as economic crisis and financial difficulty in their society, their low income level and their debts.

  20. O efeito SERS na análise de traços: o papel das superfícies nanoestruturadas The SERS effect in trace analysis: the role of nanostructured surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Sant'Ana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering - SERS - underwent huge advances since a single-molecule Raman spectrum was obtained in 1997. New theoretical and experimental approaches emerged since then leading to a better understanding of the enhancement mechanisms and to a significant improvement in the Raman signal. This review presents the current status of the SERS effect and the promising ways of designing and preparing high performance SERS-active substrates.

  1. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin on LPS-stimulated bovine mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guang-Min; Kubota, Hirokazu; Okita, Miki; Maeda, Teruo

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle worldwide and not only causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry but also threatens public health. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of melatonin in mastitis, we examined the ability of melatonin to protect bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that melatonin inhibited the LPS-binding protein?CD14?TLR4 signaling pathway in bMECs, which had opposing effects on pro...

  2. Global cost-effectiveness of GDM screening and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Louise K K; Kahn, James G; Marseille, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    a systematic search and abstraction of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility studies from 2002 to 2014. We standardized all findings to 2014 US dollars. We found that cost-effectiveness ratios varied widely. Most variation was found to be due to differences in geographic setting, diagnostic criteria...... and intervention approaches, and outcomes (e.g., inclusion or exclusion of long-term type 2 diabetes risk and associated costs). We concluded that incorporation of long-term benefits of GDM screening and treatment has huge impact on cost-effectiveness estimates. Based on the large methodological heterogeneity...... and varying results in the existing body of evidence, we find it unreasonable to outline any global recommendations. For future economic studies, we recommend inclusion of long-term outcomes and adaptation to local preferences, as well as examination of the impact of the diagnostic criteria recently proposed...

  3. Jahn-Teller contribution to the magneto-optical effect in thin-film ferromagnetic manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovský, D.; Caicedo, J. M.; Herranz, G.; Infante, I. C.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2009-02-01

    We have investigated the magneto-optical response in the visible spectrum of thin-film ferromagnetic manganites. We observe a huge enhancement of the magnetorefractive effect (MRE) around the Curie temperature, which is linked to the colossal magnetoresistance. It is found that the unusually large MRE at visible frequencies is accompanied by an increase in the magnetic field of the optical conductivity. We argue that these remarkable phenomena are related to the field-induced suppression of Jahn-Teller dynamical charge localization.

  4. Antiplatelet therapies for secondary stroke prevention: an update on clinical and cost–effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlisberger, Julia M; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Stroke exacts a huge toll physically, mentally and economically. Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of secondary stroke prevention, and proven drugs available to successfully realize this therapeutic strategy for the long term include aspirin, dipyridamole plus aspirin and clopidogrel. However, government agencies, corporations, health plans and patients desire more information about the clinical- and cost–effectiveness of these established therapies in real-world settings. This paper provides an update on evidence-based secondary stroke prevention with antiplatelet medications, discusses cost-related issues and offers perspective about the future. PMID:26274799

  5. Void shape effects and voids starting from cracked inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    to 10−10, which means that the metal undergoes huge strains before coalescence. This is accounted for in the present analyses by using remeshing techniques. The evolution of the void shape during the large deformations is a natural outcome of the numerical analysis. Also the effect of different initial...... second phase particle. As the particle deforms relatively little the void growth is here dominated by strong blunting of the metal at the tip of the initial penny-shaped crack. These analyses are used to estimate how well the void shape evolution would be approximated by assuming that the presence...... void shapes is considered, as well as the effect of different spacings between the voids in the axial and transverse directions. While these first analyses are carried out for voids in a homogeneous metal, a second set of cell model studies are carried out for voids that initiate from a crack in a hard...

  6. Career Skills Workshop: Achieving Your Goals Through Effective Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.

  7. Optimized electron beam writing strategy for fabricating computer-generated holograms based on an effective medium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Wiebke; Kämpfe, Thomas; Rockstroh, Werner; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-04-25

    Recent research revealed that using the effective medium approach to generate arbitrary multi-phase level computer-generated holograms is a promising alternative to the conventional multi-height level approach. Although this method reduces the fabrication effort using one-step binary lithography, the subwavelength patterning process remains a huge challenge, particularly for large-scale applications. To reduce the writing time on variable shaped electron beam writing systems, an optimized strategy based on an appropriate reshaping of the binary subwavelength structures is illustrated. This strategy was applied to fabricate a three-phase level CGH in the visible range, showing promising experimental results.

  8. The Effect of Urban Heat Island on Climate Warming in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qunfang; Lu, Yuqi

    2015-07-27

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic economic development since 1978 and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA) has been one of the three largest urban agglomerations in China. We present evidence of a significant urban heat island (UHI) effect on climate warming based on an analysis of the impacts of the urbanization rate, urban population, and land use changes on the warming rate of the daily average, minimal (nighttime) and maximal (daytime) air temperature in the YRDUA using 41 meteorological stations observation data. The effect of the UHI on climate warming shows a large spatial variability. The average warming rates of average air temperature of huge cities, megalopolises, large cities, medium-sized cities, and small cities are 0.483, 0.314 ± 0.030, 0.282 ± 0.042, 0.225 ± 0.044 and 0.179 ± 0.046 °C/decade during the period of 1957-2013, respectively. The average warming rates of huge cities and megalopolises are significantly higher than those of medium-sized cities and small cities, indicating that the UHI has a significant effect on climate warming (t-test, p urbanization rate, population, built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature (p urbanization is 0.124 ± 0.074 °C/decade in the YRDUA. Urbanization has a measurable effect on the observed climate warming in the YRD aggravating the global climate warming.

  9. Late Miocene diversification and phylogenetic relationships of the huge toads in the Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) species group (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Colli, Guarino Rinaldi; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the phylogeny and biogeography of the Rhinella marina group, using molecular, morphological, and skin-secretion data, contributing to an understanding of Neotropical faunal diversification. The maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyzes of the combined data recovered a monophyletic R. marina group. Molecular dating based on Bayesian inferences and fossil calibration placed the earliest phylogenetic split within the R. marina group at ∼ 10.47 MYA, in the late Miocene. Two rapid major diversifications occurred from Central Brazil, first northward (∼ 8.08 MYA) in late Miocene and later southward (∼ 5.17 MYA) in early Pliocene. These results suggest that barriers and dispersal routes created by the uplift of Brazilian Central Shield and climatic changes explain the diversification and current species distributions of the R. marina group. Dispersal-vicariance analyzes (DIVA) indicated that the two major diversifications of the R. marina group were due to vicariance, although eleven dispersals subsequently occurred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Remarkable vocal identity in wild-living mother and neonate saiga antelopes: a specialization for breeding in huge aggregations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibiryakova, Olga V.; Volodin, Ilya A.; Frey, Roland; Zuther, Steffen; Kisebaev, Talgat B.; Salemgareev, Albert R.; Volodina, Elena V.

    2017-04-01

    Saiga antelopes Saiga tatarica tatarica give birth in large aggregations, and offspring follow the herd soon after birth. Herding is advantageous as anti-predator strategy; however, communication between mothers and neonates is strongly complicated in large aggregations. Individual series of nasal and oral contact calls of mother and neonate saiga antelopes were selected from recordings made with automated recording systems placed near the hiding neonates on the saiga breeding grounds in Northern Kazakhstan during synchronized parturitions of 30,000 calving females. We used for comparison of the acoustic structure of nasal and oral contact calls 168 nasal calls of 18 mothers, 192 oral calls of 21 mothers, 78 nasal calls of 16 neonates, and 197 oral calls of 22 neonates. In the oral calls of either mothers or neonates, formant frequencies were higher and the duration was longer than in the nasal calls, whereas fundamental frequencies did not differ between oral and nasal calls. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) based on six acoustic variables, accurately classified individual identity for 99.4% of oral calls of 18 mothers, for 89.3% of nasal calls of 18 mothers, and for 94.4% of oral calls of 18 neonates. The average value of correct classification to individual was higher in mother oral than in mother nasal calls and in mother oral calls than in neonate oral calls; no significant difference was observed between mother nasal and neonate oral calls. Variables mainly responsible for vocal identity were the fundamental frequency and the second and third formants in either mothers or neonates, and in either nasal or oral calls. The high vocal identity of mothers and neonates suggests a powerful potential for the mutual mother-offspring recognition in dense aggregations of saiga antelopes as an important component of their survival strategy.

  11. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for a huge herniated disc causing acute cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Subash C; Tonogai, Ichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goda, Yuichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Mineta, Kazuaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nitta, Akihiro; Hama, Shingo; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgery for lumbar disc herniation that requires surgical intervention has been well described. The methods vary from traditional open discectomy to minimally invasive techniques. All need adequate preanesthetic preparation of patients as general anesthesia is required for the procedure, and nerve monitoring is necessary to prevent iatrogenic nerve injury. Conventional surgical techniques sometimes require the removal of the corresponding lamina to assess the nerve root and herniated disc, and this may increase the risk for posterior instability of the vertebral body. Should this occur, fusion surgery may be needed, further increasing morbidity and cost. We present here a case of lumbar herniated disc fragments causing acute cauda equina syndrome that were endoscopically resected through a transforaminal approach in an awake patient under local anesthesia. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy under local anesthesia proved to be a better alternative to open back surgery as it made immediate intervention possible, was associated with fewer perioperative complications and morbidity, minimized soft tissue damage, and allowed early rehabilitation with a better outcome and greater patient satisfaction. In addition to these advantages, percutaneous endoscopic discectomy protects other approaches that may be needed in subsequent surgeries, whether open or minimally invasive.

  12. An essay of reflection: Why does preeclampsia exist in humans, and why are there such huge geographical differences in epidemiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Dekker, Gustaaf; Iacobelli, Silvia; Chaouat, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    This workshop had four main objectives: (A) Trying to look at the preeclampsia (PE) problem "from the Space Shuttle": why preeclampsia has emerged in humans (a specific human reproductive feature among 4300 mammal species)? (B) Epidemiology: there are major geographical differences concerning early onset PE and late onset PE throughout the world. (C) Vascular: The very promising use of pravastatin in the treatment of the vascular maternal syndrome (based on the metabolism of carbon monoxide (CO), the role of inositol phosphate glycans P-type (IPG-P), a major role in comprehending the insulin resistance phenotype in preeclampsia. (D) Immunology: the specialty of these workshops since their start in 1998; our understanding of the role of the immune system and the regulation of the deep implantation of the human trophoblast (and the obligatory compromises between the fetal/placental unit and the mother) have reached a kind of "maturity," following the pivotal studies exploring the biology of repetitive sperm exposure in the female genital tract. The meeting of people who never meet each other in the course of their normal professional lives (obstetricians, evolutionists, geneticists, immunologists, fundamentalist vascular biologists, epidemiologists, anthropologists, neonatologists, etc.) permitted some fruitful reflections to be made again this year. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Same day postoperative examination after cataract surgery under local anesthesia--huge economic impact without increased risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Modi; Movshovitz, Ina; Jabaly, Haneen

    2014-07-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most common surgeries in medicine. Re-evaluating the regimen for followup might save thousands of visits to the clinic and many working days every year. To check the safety of same day postoperative follow-up as a substitute for the common practice in Israel of examination on the next day. Retrospective examination of the digital files of patients after cataract surgery, who had their first postoperative examination on the same day of the surgery and the second examination after 1 week, during 2 years in a private clinic. Six hundred and sixty two files of patients were included in the study. Twenty nine had intraocular pressure (IOP) above 22 mmHg during the same day examination; 2 of those also had high pressure after 1 week. Two patients with residual lens material were re-operated one week later. Two had small corneal erosion, and one had anterior synechia; all were immediately treated in the clinic. Four patients were admitted, 3 for endophthalmitis, with no bacterial growth, and one for TASS [Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome). Two patients had vitrectomy, and 2 had conservative treatment; all ended up with good visual acuity. All 4 patients were examined after calling the surgeon complaining of visual acuity deterioration, and arrived at the hospital early with no delay in the diagnosis. A change in the follow-up regimen after cataract surgery did not increase the risk for complications. It is safe and economical and should be considered nationally.

  14. Colleges Scrabble for Money to Reduce Huge Maintenance Backlog, Estimated to Exceed $70-Billion; New Federal Help Seen Unlikely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmuck, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Catching up with deferred maintenance and improvements at colleges and universities has become a serious problem of time and money, and new federal state, and local safety regulations are increasing costs. Some contend administrators have failed to provide leadership at their own institutions. (MSE)

  15. Huge poor-rich inequalities in maternity care: an international comparative study of maternity and child care in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Ronsmans, Carine; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals for maternal health has been slow, and accelerated progress in scaling up professional delivery care is needed. This paper describes poor-rich inequalities in the use of maternity care and seeks to understand these inequalities through

  16. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  17. Simple model of the slingshot effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Fiore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed quantitative description of the recently proposed “slingshot effect.” Namely, we determine a broad range of conditions under which the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse normally onto a low-density plasma (or matter locally completely ionized into a plasma by the pulse causes the expulsion of a bunch of surface electrons in the direction opposite to the one of propagation of the pulse, and the detailed, ready-for-experiments features of the expelled electrons (energy spectrum, collimation, etc. The effect is due to the combined actions of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation. Our predictions are based on estimating 3D corrections to a simple, yet powerful plane 2-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model where the equations to be solved are reduced to a system of Hamilton equations in one dimension (or a collection of which become autonomous after the pulse has overcome the electrons. Experimental tests seem to be at hand. If confirmed by the latter, the effect would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or Laser-Wake-Field ones.

  18. Effects of R&D Cooperation to Innovation Performance in Open Innovation Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic nonlinear characteristics of internal and external environment in modern organization shows up increasingly, which make innovative research breakthrough organizational boundaries and present a pattern of open mode, the traditional mode of innovation is facing huge challenges like increasing innovation cycle, huge R&D input and inefficient knowledge transfer. And cooperation with external organizations to implement R&D is definitely a possibility to solve the open innovation environment challenge. Since organizations often have multiple dimensions of cooperation with different types of organization for research and development for the influence of organizational innovation performance or for exploring cooperation at the same time in different areas, and in different types of institutions. This paper studied the innovation performance of relevant government agencies except such innovation organization as enterprises, universities, and research institutions for the first time. This paper tracked on a survey of China's national engineering technology research center in related situation from 2002 to 2011 and collected related data to research and development cooperation and innovation performance for empirical research. Study found that universities have advantages in richness, in knowledge itself and knowledge accessible extent, cooperation with university in R&D is the best choice to promote the innovation performance of the organization. While cooperating with domestic universities and domestic enterprises to carry out research and development has bad effect in organizational innovation performance; while cooperation with domestic institutions and foreign institutions in the research and development plays a positive role in promoting innovation.

  19. Effects of Ag Nanocubes with Different Corner Shape on the Absorption Enhancement in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corner shape of silver (Ag nanocubes (NCs on optical absorptions of organic solar cells (OSCs are theoretically investigated by finite element method (FEM calculations. The absorption of sun light in the active layer is calculated. Significant absorption enhancements have been demonstrated in metallic region with different shapes of Ag NCs, among them corner radius (R is zero result in the best light absorption performance of up to 55% enhancement with respect to bare OSCs. The origins of increased absorption are believed to be the effects of the huge electric field enhancement and increased scattering upon the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. Apart from using R=0, we show that R=3, 6, and 11.29 of Ag NCs in metallic region of active layer may also result in the maximum comparable absorption enhancement of 49%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In addition, a significant effect of the period of NCs is observed.

  20. Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y

    2015-07-01

    In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.

  1. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josten Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  2. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  3. Transgenerational effect of infection in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, R; Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

    2015-03-01

    Transgenerational effects of infection have a huge potential to influence the prevalence and intensity of infections in vectors and, by extension, disease epidemiology. These transgenerational effects may increase the fitness of offspring through the transfer of protective immune factors. Alternatively, however, infected mothers may transfer the costs of infection to their offspring. Although transgenerational immune protection has been described in a dozen invertebrate species, we still lack a complete picture of the incidence and importance of transgenerational effects of infection in most invertebrate groups. The existence of transgenerational infection effects in mosquito vectors is of particular interest because of their potential for influencing parasite prevalence and intensity and, by extension, disease transmission. Here we present what we believe to be the first study on transgenerational infection effects in a mosquito vector infected with malaria parasites. The aim of this experiment was to quantify both the benefits and the costs of having an infected mother. We find no evidence of transgenerational protection in response to a Plasmodium infection. Having an infected mother does, however, entail considerable fecundity costs for the offspring: fecundity loss is three times higher in infected offspring issued from infected mothers than in infected offspring issued from uninfected mothers. We discuss the implications of our results and we call for more studies looking at transgenerational effects of infection in disease vectors. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of La3+ Doping Effect on Piezoelectric Coefficients of BLT Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodecka-Dus B.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of La3+ admixture in barium lanthanum titanate (BLT ceramics system with colossal permittivity on performance of prospective piezoelectric cold plasma application were studied. Usage of cold atmospheric pressure plasma appears promising in terms of industrial and healthcare applications. Performed investigation provide consistent evaluation of doping lanthanum amount on piezoelectric coefficients values with simultaneous capability of charge accumulation for effective plasma generation. Modification of ferroelectric materials with heterovalent ions, however with the lower radii than the original atoms, significantly affects their domain mobility and consequently electromechanical properties. To determine the piezoelectric coefficients, the resonance-antiresonance method was implemented, and values of piezoelectric and dielectric parameters were recorded. Finally the results indicated that addition of 0.4 mol.% of La3+ ions to the ceramic structure maximally increased the values of piezoelectric coefficient to d33 = 20 pC/N and to huge dielectric constant to ε33T = 29277.

  5. Side effects of extra tRNA supplied in a typical bacterial protein production scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant protein production is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed to make the process more efficient. One commonly used generic solution is to supply extra copies of low-abundance tRNAs to compensate for the presence of complemen...... on the same plasmid and not the tRNAs per se. These phenomena seem to have been largely overlooked despite the huge popularity of the T7/pET-based systems for bacterial protein production....... of complementary rare codons in genes-of-interest. Here we show that such extra tRNA, supplied by the commonly used pLysSRARE2 plasmid, can cause two side effects: (1) growth and gene expression can be impaired, and (2) apparent positive effects can be caused by differential expression of the lysozyme gene encoded...

  6. Combatting Global Infectious Diseases: A Network Effect of Specimen Referral Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonjungo, Peter N; Alemnji, George A; Kebede, Yenew; Opio, Alex; Mwangi, Christina; Spira, Thomas J; Beard, R Suzanne; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-02-13

    The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa clearly demonstrated the critical role of laboratory systems and networks in responding to epidemics. Because of the huge challenges in establishing functional laboratories at all tiers of health systems in developing countries, strengthening specimen referral networks is critical. In this review article, we propose a platform strategy for developing specimen referral networks based on 2 models: centralized and decentralized laboratory specimen referral networks. These models have been shown to be effective in patient management in programs in resource-limited settings. Both models lead to reduced turnaround time and retain flexibility for integrating different specimen types. In Haiti, decentralized specimen referral systems resulted in a 182% increase in patients enrolling in human immunodeficiency virus treatment programs within 6 months. In Uganda, cost savings of up to 62% were observed with a centralized model. A platform strategy will create a network effect that will benefit multiple disease programs.

  7. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  8. Empirical evaluation of augmented prototyping effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a scientific field well known for more than twenty years. Although there is a huge number of projects that present promising results, the real usage of augmented reality applications for fulfilling common tasks is almost negligible. We believe that one of the principal reasons is insufficient usability of these applications. The situation is analogous to the desktop, mobile or cloud application development or even to the web pages design. The first phase of a technology adoption is the exploration of its potential. As soon as the technical problems are overcome and the technology is widely accepted, the usability is a principal issue. The usability is utmost important also from the business point of view. The cost of augmented reality implementation into the production process is substantial, therefore, the usability that is directly responsible for the implemented solution effectiveness must be appropriately tested. Consequently, the benefit of the implemented solution can be measured.This article briefly outlines common techniques used for usability evaluation. Discussed techniques were designed especially for evaluation of desktop applications, mobile solutions and web pages. In spite of this drawback, their application on augmented reality products is usually possible. Further, a review of existing augmented reality project evaluations is presented.Based on this review, a usability evaluation method for our augmented prototyping application is proposed. This method must overcome the fact that the design is a creative process. Therefore, it is not possible to take into account common criteria such as time consumption.

  9. Effects of endocrine disruptors on the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The modern societies are exposing us to a huge variety of potentially harmful pollutants. Among these endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been especially scrutinized as several were proven to display reprotoxic effects in rodent models. In the context of high and growing concerns about the reprotoxicity of EDs, it is crucial to carry out studies in order to assess their impact on the human reproductive function. However, such evidence remains scarce. The fetal period is critical for the proper development of the testis and is known as a period of high sensitivity to many EDs. Our team has shown in 2009 that a phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), has a potential deleterious effect on the development of human male germ cells. This result was the first direct experimental proof of the toxic effect of an ED in human testis. More recently, we also reported that bisphenol A (BPA) impaired testosterone production in the human fetal testis. Here, we will summarize the known effects of EDs on the various cell types composing the human developing testis and discuss their relevancy to propose future directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. PLZT Microfibers Technology Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozielski L.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocaloric (EC structures for a new generation of cooling or heating elements utilize the temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization in some ferroelectric materials to convert waste heat into electricity and vice versa. A (Pb0.93La0.07 (Zr0.65Ti0.35O3 material, have the largest recorded pyroelectric coefficient. An effective predicted form for such applications is fiber, due to small heat capacitance and quick response time, even for nano second laser excitation. Consequently, the presented work provides a description of the optimization of structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of obtained fibers, finally concluding on necessity of sintering temperature reduction in 100°C in contrast to bulk form to effectively prevent its destruction.

  11. Toward zero waste to landfill: an effective method for recycling zeolite waste from refinery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchuen, K.; Anuwattana, R.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    One-third of landfill waste of refinery plant in Thailand was spent chloride zeolite, which wastes a huge of land, cost and time for handling. Toward zero waste to landfill, this study was aimed at determining an effective method for recycling zeolite waste by comparing the chemical process with the electrochemical process. To investigate the optimum conditions of both processes, concentration of chemical solution and reaction time were carried out for the former, while the latter varied in term of current density, initial pH of water, and reaction time. The results stated that regenerating zeolite waste from refinery industry in Thailand should be done through the chemical process with alkaline solution because it provided the best chloride adsorption efficiency with cost the least. A successful recycling will be beneficial not only in reducing the amount of landfill waste but also in reducing material and disposal costs and consumption of natural resources as well.

  12. Effect of incentives on the financial attractiveness of solar industrial process heating in India★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ashish K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a huge industrial demand for process heating at temperatures that can be provided with commercially available solar collectors. Government of India with support from multi-lateral agencies has initiated an ambitious programme for promoting large scale adoption of Solar Industrial Process Heating (SIPH in the industrial sector of the country. This paper presents the details of an attempt to study the effect of several existing and potential incentives on the financial attractiveness of SIPH systems in India. A case of solar process heating in dairy industry has been presented to demonstrate the relative efficacy of different incentives on the economics of SIPH systems in terms of their impact on levelized cost of useful thermal energy delivered. Finally, policy implications of the results obtained have been discussed.

  13. The effect of high leverage points on the logistic ridge regression estimator having multicollinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Syaiba Balqish; Midi, Habshah

    2014-06-01

    This article is concerned with the performance of logistic ridge regression estimation technique in the presence of multicollinearity and high leverage points. In logistic regression, multicollinearity exists among predictors and in the information matrix. The maximum likelihood estimator suffers a huge setback in the presence of multicollinearity which cause regression estimates to have unduly large standard errors. To remedy this problem, a logistic ridge regression estimator is put forward. It is evident that the logistic ridge regression estimator outperforms the maximum likelihood approach for handling multicollinearity. The effect of high leverage points are then investigated on the performance of the logistic ridge regression estimator through real data set and simulation study. The findings signify that logistic ridge regression estimator fails to provide better parameter estimates in the presence of both high leverage points and multicollinearity.

  14. [New FP Therapy Was Effective for a Case of Massive Hepatocellular Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keita; Maeno, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Shunji; Munechika, Taro; Yonemitsu, Kimihiro; Nomi, Masako; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Nagao, Shuji; Yanagisawa, Jun

    2015-11-01

    A 62 year-old woman was hospitalized with the diagnosis of pneumonia, and a huge mass was recognized in the right lobe of the liver during a CT scan. AFP and PIVKA-Ⅱ were elevated to 101.05 ng/mL and 2,177 mAU/mL. The liver function test indicated Child-Pugh classification A, liver damage degree B, and ICG R15 34%. We judged a radical cure resection impossible. We treated the patient with arterial injections of modified new FP therapy. No side effect occurred during the first course. Liver dysfunction with fever and hematuria occurred during the second course, leading to discontinuation of therapy. Because a prominent reduction in the size of the tumor was achieved, liver resection is scheduled. New FP therapy can be expected to attain a favorable result that may allow for curative resection of the tumor.

  15. Purcell effect in an organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductor microcavity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Hu, Tao; Wu, Lin; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cao, Runan; Xu, Fei [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Da, Peimei; Zheng, Gengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lu, Jian, E-mail: lujian@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zhanghai@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China)

    2016-01-11

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors with the attractive physics properties, including strong photoluminescence (PL), huge oscillator strengths, and low nonradiative recombination losses, are ideal candidates for studying the light-matter interaction in nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate the coupling of the exciton state and the cavity mode in the lead halide perovskite microcavity system at room temperature. The Purcell effect in the coupling system is clearly observed by using angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra. Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved PL reveals that the spontaneous emission rate of the halide perovskite semiconductor is significantly enhanced at resonance of the exciton energy and the cavity mode. Our results provide the way for developing electrically driven organic polariton lasers, optical devices, and on-chip coherent quantum light sources.

  16. Effect of Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 on germination and growth of Pinus devoniana Lindley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Montejo-Mayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil microorganisms are essential for growth, emergence and development in all plants. In our study we decided to evaluate the effect that A. agilis UMCV2 rhizobacteria had on germination and growth of plants of economic-forest interest as P. devoniana to an age of 65 days. Our results show that the UMCV2 bacteria promoted growth of P. devoniana at this early stage of development, further highlighting that despite the short time of interaction between these two, the bacterium was able to increase the rate of germination, increase the size of shoot and generate a proliferation of lateral roots. The data shows a huge potential for using inoculum both in the greenhouse and in open ground and generate a growth promoting species of interest in both agricultural and forest, thereby reducing production periods depending on the crop.

  17. What Is the Best Strategy for Enhancing the Effects of Topically Applied Ozonated Oils in Cutaneous Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, I.; Burgassi, S.; Paccagnini, E.; Gentile, M.; Bocci, V.; Travagli, V.

    2013-01-01

    Owing to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and ageing, there are several million patients undergoing skin lesions degenerated into infected ulcers with very little tendency to heal and implying a huge socioeconomical cost. Previous medical experience has shown that the daily application of ozonated oil eliminates the infection and promotes a rapid healing. The purpose of the study is the optimization of the antimicrobial effect of ozonated oils by testing in vitro four bacterial species and one yeast without or in the presence of different amounts of human serum. The results obtained suggest that a gentle and continuous removal of debris and exudate is an essential condition for the potent bactericidal effect of ozonated oils. In fact, even small amounts of human serum inactivate ozone derivatives and protect bacteria. The application of ozonated oil preparations is very promising in a variety of skin and mucosal infections. Moreover, ozonated oils are far less expensive than antibiotic preparations. PMID:24282818

  18. Effects of wall shear stress on unsteady MHD conjugate flow in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad; Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Ulhaq, Sami; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an arbitrary wall shear stress on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of a Newtonian fluid with conjugate effects of heat and mass transfer. The fluid is considered in a porous medium over a vertical plate with ramped temperature. The influence of thermal radiation in the energy equations is also considered. The coupled partial differential equations governing the flow are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. Exact solutions for velocity and temperature in case of both ramped and constant wall temperature as well as for concentration are obtained. It is found that velocity solutions are more general and can produce a huge number of exact solutions correlative to various fluid motions. Graphical results are provided for various embedded flow parameters and discussed in details.

  19. What is the best strategy for enhancing the effects of topically applied ozonated oils in cutaneous infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, I; Burgassi, S; Paccagnini, E; Gentile, M; Bocci, V; Travagli, V

    2013-01-01

    Owing to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and ageing, there are several million patients undergoing skin lesions degenerated into infected ulcers with very little tendency to heal and implying a huge socioeconomical cost. Previous medical experience has shown that the daily application of ozonated oil eliminates the infection and promotes a rapid healing. The purpose of the study is the optimization of the antimicrobial effect of ozonated oils by testing in vitro four bacterial species and one yeast without or in the presence of different amounts of human serum. The results obtained suggest that a gentle and continuous removal of debris and exudate is an essential condition for the potent bactericidal effect of ozonated oils. In fact, even small amounts of human serum inactivate ozone derivatives and protect bacteria. The application of ozonated oil preparations is very promising in a variety of skin and mucosal infections. Moreover, ozonated oils are far less expensive than antibiotic preparations.

  20. Investigating effects of near fault rupture directivity on seismic hazard assessment of the site of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanloo, Kamran; Saberi, Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alinejad, Majid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazarchi, Ehsan [Tabriz Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    It is estimated that the occurrence of a major-earthquake in Tehran, Iran, which is not far-fetched, would face the country with a huge amount of collapsed structures, economical losses and fatalities. The issue becomes more important while the site of interest is attributed to the nuclear facilities and any under-estimation in predicting the design ground motion may cause a real disaster. In this study, using calculations coded in MATLAB, PSHA was conducted for the site of TRR. It was concluded that most of the hazard for considered site in a 10000-year period comes from distances lower than 20 km and considering rupture directivity effects of the North Tehran fault, as the nearest seismicity source to considered site, using narrowband method affected the response spectrum significantly. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate the near fault rupture directivity effects into the higher levels of seismic hazard assessment attributed to important sites.

  1. What Is the Best Strategy for Enhancing the Effects of Topically Applied Ozonated Oils in Cutaneous Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zanardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to diabetes, atherosclerosis, and ageing, there are several million patients undergoing skin lesions degenerated into infected ulcers with very little tendency to heal and implying a huge socioeconomical cost. Previous medical experience has shown that the daily application of ozonated oil eliminates the infection and promotes a rapid healing. The purpose of the study is the optimization of the antimicrobial effect of ozonated oils by testing in vitro four bacterial species and one yeast without or in the presence of different amounts of human serum. The results obtained suggest that a gentle and continuous removal of debris and exudate is an essential condition for the potent bactericidal effect of ozonated oils. In fact, even small amounts of human serum inactivate ozone derivatives and protect bacteria. The application of ozonated oil preparations is very promising in a variety of skin and mucosal infections. Moreover, ozonated oils are far less expensive than antibiotic preparations.

  2. Demonstration of scientific and economic feasibility of a solid-state heat engine. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-16

    A new experimental approach to the testing and data recording setup for ferroelectric converters is described. Thermocouple thermometry allowed low frequency thermal cycles to be measured. This lower frequency, in turn, allowed the employment of a Peltier effect module to pump heat into and out of the ferroelectric sample. The Peltier module is driven by a bipolar power supply whose output current (0 to +- 10 amp) is proportional to an input voltage. Thus, the amount of heat delivered to the sample is well controlled in amplitude and time. Perioudic heat pumping waveforms (of any reasonable shape) are generated by a TRS-80 computer. The experimental setup is described, and results of electrocaloric experiments are presented. (WHK)

  3. INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTANTS ON THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. LIXANDRU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The general heating of our planet has become a proved fact today, and its consequences are observed in more climatic disturbances which affect almost the whole Earth. At the base of this climatic process there is the excessive development of the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a natural physical phenomenon which has gradually developed with the geophysical and biological evolution of the Earth, and its consequence is the thermical constancy of +150C as medium global temperature. The main physical factories which contribute at the realization of greenhouse effect are CO2, watery vapors, NOx and CH4. Naturally, the greenhouse gases have the perfectly global self-regulation cycles. This capacity of self-regulation seems to be troubled by the huge amounts of polluted gaseous thrown in the air by different and usual human activities. In this sense, the agriculture has an important role and the main pollution sources are the rice plantations, inorganic fertilizations and animal farms.

  4. Effect on industry structure by fossil fuel burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Multi-industrial sector dynamic operation general equilibrium model of Korean economy has been developed. It is able to analyze carbon dioxide emission, energy use and macro economy, and reciprocal actions between each industrial sector and to measure economic effects by environmental policy for the purpose of reducing carbon dioxide. Using this model, it analyzed its effect on industries in Korea of limiting carbon dioxide emission by experimenting each policy instrument, policy object, application of tax revenue for limiting carbon dioxide. The spreading effect on each industry has a large difference for each industry. The production reduction of energy industry or large energy consuming industry (basic chemical industry, transportation and storage, steel industry, construction) shows relatively huge to other industries. Production reduction for each industry, i.e. a wide difference of economic burden between industries, will need some consideration when introducing energy carbon tax, especially in the initial stage, since it could cause an equity problem between industries. Moreover, studies on differentiating tax rate, tax return and exemption that can mitigate an equity problem between industries should be implemented. (author). 66 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Wet-Spun Superelastic Graphene Aerogel Millispheres with Group Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yao, Weiquan; Gao, Weiwei; Chen, Hao; Gao, Chao

    2017-09-01

    Graphene aerogel has attracted great attention due to its unique properties, such as ultralow density, superelasticity, and high specific surface area. It shows huge potential in energy devices, high-performance pressure sensors, contaminates adsorbents, and electromagnetic wave absorbing materials. However, there still remain some challenges to further promote the development and real application of graphene aerogel including cost-effective scalable fabrication and miniaturization with group effect. This study shows millimeter-scale superelastic graphene aerogel spheres (GSs) with group effect and multifunctionality. The GSs are continuously fabricated on a large scale by wet spinning of graphene oxide liquid crystals followed by facile drying and thermal annealing. Such GS has an unusual core-shell structure with excellent elasticity and specific strength. Significantly, both horizontally and vertically grouped spheres exhibit superelasticity comparable to individual spheres, enabling it to fully recover at 95% strain, and even after 1000 compressive cycles at 70% strain, paving the way to wide applications such as pressure-elastic and adsorbing materials. The GS shows a press-fly behavior with an extremely high jump velocity up to 1.2 m s(-1) . For the first time, both free and oil-adsorbed GSs are remotely manipulated on water by electrostatic charge due to their ultralow density and hydrophobic properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The Effect of Urban Heat Island on Climate Warming in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunfang Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta (YRD has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic economic development since 1978 and the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA has been one of the three largest urban agglomerations in China. We present evidence of a significant urban heat island (UHI effect on climate warming based on an analysis of the impacts of the urbanization rate, urban population, and land use changes on the warming rate of the daily average, minimal (nighttime and maximal (daytime air temperature in the YRDUA using 41 meteorological stations observation data. The effect of the UHI on climate warming shows a large spatial variability. The average warming rates of average air temperature of huge cities, megalopolises, large cities, medium-sized cities, and small cities are 0.483, 0.314 ± 0.030, 0.282 ± 0.042, 0.225 ± 0.044 and 0.179 ± 0.046 °C/decade during the period of 1957–2013, respectively. The average warming rates of huge cities and megalopolises are significantly higher than those of medium-sized cities and small cities, indicating that the UHI has a significant effect on climate warming (t-test, p < 0.05. Significantly positive correlations are found between the urbanization rate, population, built-up area and warming rate of average air temperature (p < 0.001. The average warming rate of average air temperature attributable to urbanization is 0.124 ± 0.074 °C/decade in the YRDUA. Urbanization has a measurable effect on the observed climate warming in the YRD aggravating the global climate warming.

  7. Effect of Ethanolamines on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Nitrite Containing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of nitrite and 3 kinds of ethanolamines on ductile cast iron using chemical and electrochemical methods was evaluated. This work attempts to clarify the synergistic effect of nitrite and ethanolamines. The effects of single addition of TEA, DEA, and MEA, and mixed addition of nitrite plus TEA, DEA or MEA on the corrosion inhibition of ductile cast iron in a tap water were evaluated. A huge amount of single addition of ethanolamine was needed. However, the synergistic effect by mixed addition was observed regardless of the combination of nitrite and triethanolamines, but their effects increased in a series of MEA + nitrite > DEA + nitrite > TEA + nitrite. This tendency of synergistic effect was attributed to the film properties and polar effect; TEA addition couldn't form the film showing high film resistance and semiconductive properties, but DEA or MEA could build the film having relatively high film resistance and n-type semiconductive properties. Moreover, it can be explained that this behaviour was closely related to electron attractive group within the ethanolamines, and thus corrosion inhibition power depends upon the number of the electron attractive group of MEA, DEA, and TEA.

  8. Monitoring the effect of restoration measures in Indonesian peatlands by radar satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenicke, J; Englhart, S; Siegert, F

    2011-03-01

    In the context of the ongoing climate change discussions the importance of peatlands as carbon stores is increasingly recognised in the public. Drainage, deforestation and peat fires are the main reasons for the release of huge amounts of carbon from peatlands. Successful restoration of degraded tropical peatlands is of high interest due to their huge carbon store and sequestration potential. The blocking of drainage canals by dam building has become one of the most important measures to restore the hydrology and the ecological function of the peat domes. This study investigates the capability of using multitemporal radar remote sensing imagery for monitoring the hydrological effects of these measures. The study area is the former Mega Rice Project area in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, where peat drainage and forest degradation is especially intense. Restoration measures started in July 2004 by building 30 large dams until June 2008. We applied change detection analysis with more than 80 ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR images, acquired between 2004 and 2009. Radar signal increases of up to 1.36 dB show that high frequency multitemporal radar satellite imagery can be used to detect an increase in peat soil moisture after dam construction, especially in deforested areas with a high density of dams. Furthermore, a strong correlation between cross-polarised radar backscatter coefficients and groundwater levels above -50 cm was found. Monitoring peatland rewetting and quantifying groundwater level variations is important information for vegetation re-establishment, fire hazard warning and making carbon emission mitigation tradable under the voluntary carbon market or REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Field-effect enhanced triboelectric colloidal quantum dot flexible sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingju; Xu, Qiwei; Fan, Shicheng; Dick, Carson R.; Wang, Xihua

    2017-10-01

    Flexible electronics, which is of great importance as fundamental sensor and communication technologies for many internet-of-things applications, has established a huge market encroaching into the trillion-dollar market of solid state electronics. For the capability of being processed by printing or spraying, colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) play an increasingly important role in flexible electronics. Although the electrical properties of CQD thin-films are expected to be stable on flexible substrates, their electrical performance could be tuned for applications in flexible touch sensors. Here, we report CQD touch sensors employing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) triboelectric films. The electrical response of touching activity is enhanced by incorporating CQD field-effect transistors into the device architecture. Thanks to the use of the CQD thin film as a current amplifier, the field-effect CQD touch sensor shows a fast response to various touching materials, even being bent to a large curvature. It also shows a much higher output current density compared to a PDMS triboelectric touch sensor.

  10. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  11. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  12. High concentration of H2 and O2 nanobubbles in water electrolytes and their collective optical effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, A. V.; Uvarov, I. V.; Lokhanin, M. V.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2017-09-01

    Water electrolysis with a fast change of the polarity pumps in the liquid a huge amount of hydrogen and oxygen gases. In contrast with the DC electrolysis the gases do not form visible bubbles but change significantly the refractive index of the liquid nearby the electrodes from n = 1.35 to the values smaller than 1.19. The decrease of n is registered as distortion of the images of the electrodes. We argue that all the gas is collected in H2 and O2 nanobubbles with a size smaller than 200 nm. The concentration of nanobubbles with a size of 100 nm is estimated as 1021 m-3. Due to a significant contribution from the Laplace pressure the effective supersaturation reaches 500 for hydrogen and 150 for oxygen.

  13. The Effect of Reflow on Wettability of Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Weltsch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface conditions on Printed Circuit Board (PCB final finishes have an important impact on the wetting behaviour with lead-free solder. The improvement of wettability in liquid Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 Solder alloy on PCB substrate was measured with a sessile drop method at 523 K temperature. Wetting properties was determined in normal atmospheric air and inert atmosphere. The wetting angles increasing with the number of reflows both atmosphere. The effect of the atmosphere has a huge importance of the oxidation which manifests itself of the measured wetting angles. One of the most important factors to the wetting properties is the amount of oxygen in the soldering atmosphere. Using the inert atmosphere is crucial to Pb-free solders, particularly after reflows.

  14. THE EFFECT OF REFLOW ON WETTABILITY OF Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 SOLDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Weltsch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface conditions on Printed Circuit Board (PCB final finishes have an important impact on the wetting behavior with lead-free solder. The improvement of the wettability in liquid Sn 96.5 Ag 3 Cu 0.5 Solder alloy on PCB substrate was measured with a sessile drop method at 523 K temperature. Wetting properties were determined in normal atmospheric air and inert atmosphere. The wetting angles increasing with the number of reflows both atmosphere. The effect of the atmosphere has a huge importance of the oxidation which manifests itself of the measured wetting angles. One of the most important factors affecting the wetting properties is the amount of oxygen in the soldering atmosphere. Using the inert atmosphere is crucial in case of Pb-free solders, particularly after reflows.

  15. Petrophysical and rock-mechanics effects of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Hjuler, Morten Leth; Christensen, Helle Foged

    2014-01-01

    reservoirs. North Sea chalk is characterized by high porosity but also high specific surface causing low permeability. A high porosity provides room for CO2 storage, while a high specific surface causes a high risk for chemical reaction and consequently for mechanical weakening. In order to address...... this issue we studied two types of chalk from South Arne field, North Sea: (1) Ekofisk Formation having >12% non-carbonate and (2) Tor Formation, which has less than 5% non-carbonate. We performed a series of laboratory experiments to reveal the changes in petrophysical and rock-mechanics properties due......Enhanced oil recovery by CO2 injection (CO2-EOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process which has a prospective for being used, at the same time, as an effective technique for carbon dioxide storage. There is a huge potential for additional oil production and CO2 storage in the North Sea depleted chalk...

  16. The Effect of Deep Cryogenic Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quantong Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of quenching on the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy was investigated. The as-cast alloy was homogenized at 535 °C for 24 h, followed by quenching in air, water, and liquid nitrogen. Then, all of the samples were peak-aged at 225 °C for 14 h. The microstructures were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was analyzed by using weight loss rate and gas collection. Electrochemical characterizations revealed that the T4-deep cryogenic sample displayed the strongest corrosion resistance among all of the samples. A new square phase was discovered in the microstructure of the T6-deep cryogenic sample; this phase was hugely responsible for the corrosion property. Cryogenic treatment significantly improved the corrosion resistance of Mg-7Y-1.5Nd alloy.

  17. Effect of feed velocity change on amount of material removal for free abrasive polishing with sub-aperture pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Songlin; He, Xiaoying; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min

    2016-10-01

    The polishing convolution theory is widely used in CCOS optical manufacture. In the paper, it is found that the practical amount of material removal is largely different to the theoretical results when the polishing pad does an accelerated motion. The change of the feed rate will cause a huge deviation while the change of the direction will not cause the deviation. Several experiments have finished by using ABB robot polisher and laser interferometer. The cause of the deviation primarily lies in the accumulation of the abrasive grains. To ensure the stability of the amount of material removal in the sub-aperture polishing process, the large change of feed rate should be avoided and the effect on the change of direction can be neglected.

  18. Research of Effective Width of FRP U-shaped Hoop Reinforcement Properties of Concrete Beams by Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baokun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste fiber reinforced composite material (hereinafter referred to as FRP U-shaped hoop of reinforced concrete beams interfacial debonding is an important reinforcement technology research. For the effective width of the CFRP U-shaped hoop reinforcement, it is still a lack of in-depth research, only relying on the test research huge workload, this article (ANSYS and the numerical simulation in the whole process of the shear load release properties of finite element calculation software. According to the results of finite element analysis, the author studied the CFRP U-shaped hoop to increase the width of the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the impact.

  19. The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luling; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is surging, so is the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to the large quantity, high potential risk and valuable capacity of WEEE, many countries are taking measures to regulate the management of WEEE. The environmental pollution and human health-harming problems caused by irregular treatment of WEEE in China make the government pay more and more attention to its management. This paper reviews the development of WEEE management in China, introduces the new policy which is established for WEEE recycling and especially analyzes the effectiveness of the policy, including huge recovery, formation of new recycling system, strict supervision to related enterprises, and the stimulation to public awareness. Based on the current achievement, some recommendations are given to optimize the WEEE management in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimized Peptide Vaccines Eliciting Extensive CD8 T Cell Responses with Therapeutic Anti-Tumor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunological tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax that utilizes synthetic peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists that function as a potent immunological adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant anti-tumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2180-188) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective anti-tumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type I-IFN but not IFNγ. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients. PMID:19903852

  1. Optimized peptide vaccines eliciting extensive CD8 T-cell responses with therapeutic antitumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    A major challenge for developing effective therapeutic vaccines against cancer is overcoming immunologic tolerance to tumor-associated antigens that are expressed on both malignant cells and normal tissues. Herein, we describe a novel vaccination approach, TriVax, that uses synthetic peptides representing CD8 T-cell epitopes, Toll-like receptor agonists that function as potent immunologic adjuvants and costimulatory anti-CD40 antibodies to generate large numbers of high-avidity antigen-reactive T cells capable of recognizing and killing tumor cells. Our results show that TriVax induced huge numbers of long-lasting antigen-specific CD8 T cells that displayed significant antitumor effects in vivo. The administration of a TriVax formulation containing a CD8 T-cell epitope derived from a melanosomal antigen (Trp2(180-188)) elicited antigen-specific CD8 T cells that induced systemic autoimmunity (vitiligo). More important, TriVax immunization was effective in eliciting potent protective antitumor immunity as well as remarkable therapeutic effects against established B16 melanoma. This therapeutic effect was mediated by CD8 T cells via perforin-mediated lysis and required the participation of type-I IFN but not IFNgamma. These results suggest that similar strategies would be applicable for the design of effective vaccination for conducting clinical studies in cancer patients.

  2. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    populations of Nigeria's cattle, sheep, goat, pigs and poultry to be 18, 33.2, 53.8, 8.3 and 97.3 million, respec- tively. These livestock generate huge quantities of ... to produce methane gas which is used to produce energy, as well as use the digested manure to fertilize crops and by so doing, lessen their risk of polluting the.

  3. Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Coffee Extracts with Different Roasting Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soohan; Kim, Min Hyung; Park, Jae Hee; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2017-06-01

    During roasting, major changes occur in the composition and physiological effects of coffee beans. In this study, in vitro antioxidant effects and anti-inflammatory effects of Coffea arabica green coffee extracts were investigated at different roasting levels corresponding to Light, Medium, City, and French roast. Total caffeine did not show huge difference according to roasting level, but total chlorogenic acid contents were higher in light roasted coffee extract than other roasted groups. In addition, light roasted coffee extract had the highest antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. To determine the in vitro antioxidant property, coffee extracts were used to treat AML-12 cells. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration and mRNA expression levels of genes related to GSH synthesis were negatively related to roasting levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts were investigated in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The cellular antioxidant activity of coffee extracts exhibited similar patterns as the AML-12 cells. The expression of mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 was decreased in cells treated with the coffee extracts and the expression decreased with increasing roasting levels. These data suggest that coffee has physiological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and these effects are negatively correlated with roasting levels in the cell models.

  4. The Medicare Access And CHIP Reauthorization Act: Effects On Medicare Payment Policy And Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Liu, Jodi L; White, Chapin

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, Congress repealed the Sustainable Growth Rate formula for Medicare physician payment, eliminating mandatory payment cuts when spending exceeded what was budgeted. In its place, Congress enacted the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA), which established a two-track performance-based payment system that encourages physicians to participate in alternative payment models. MACRA could have huge effects on health care delivery, but the nature of those effects is highly uncertain. Using the RAND Corporation's Health Care Payment and Delivery Simulation Model, we estimated the effects of MACRA on Medicare spending and utilization and examined how effects would differ under various scenarios. We estimate that MACRA will decrease Medicare spending on physician services by -$35 to -$106 billion (-2.3 percent to -7.1 percent) and change spending on hospital services by $32 to -$250 billion (0.7 percent to -5.1 percent) in 2015-30. The spending effects are critically dependent on the strength of incentives in the alternative payment models, particularly the incentives for physicians to reduce hospital spending and physician responses to MACRA payment rates. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. The Dual Action of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG, the Main Constituent of Green Tea, against the Deleterious Effects of Visible Light and Singlet Oxygen-Generating Conditions as Seen in Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana C. Farcasanu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea extracts (GTEs as well as their main component, the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, are known for their versatile antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumoral or anti-inflammatory effects. In spite of the huge beneficial action, there is increasing evidence that under certain conditions green tea and its components can be detrimental to living organisms. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with various defects in the response to oxidative stress, we found that GTEs or EGCG act in synergy with visible light, exhibiting either deleterious or protective effects depending on the solvent employed. Similar synergistic effects could be observed under singlet oxygen-generating conditions, such as light exposure in the presence of photosensitizers or UV-A irradiation, therefore solvent variance may represent a powerful tool to modulate the preparation of green tea extracts, depending on the intended target.

  6. EFFECTS OF INTENSIVE STRENGTH TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE (Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Gračanin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each physical activity, as a specific type of “body stress”, initiates complexes biochemical, physical, psychological and functional organism reactions. As a result of adaptation to working pressures, it is primarily implied to capacity of an organism to perform physical activity of certain volume and intensity. Consequently, any type of exercise has a positive impact on cardiovascular system. Blood pressure and heart rate decrease, because the heart grows stronger and, hence, more efficient and capable to pump more blood per one heart beat. Strength training exercises cause maximal mobilization of muscle during a short period of time, with huge loss of energy. This paper analysis researches published during the 1997-2010 period of time, which dealt with the topic of effects of intensive strength trainings exercises on cardiovascular endurance. The aim of this research is gathering and analyzing of accessible researches and conclusions reached. Based on the analyzed data’s, it can be concluded that intensive strength exercises above all improve physical activity capacity of an organism, improves level of muscle strength, increase cardiovascular endurance and enhances organism recovery. Accordingly, overall physical and mental organism balance is improved, which are the key components for life quality.

  7. HFCs contribution to the greenhouse effect. Present and projected estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libre, J.M.; Elf-Atochem, S.A. [Central Research & Development, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviews data that can be used to calculate hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) contribution to the greenhouse effect and compare it to other trace gas contributions. Projections are made for 2010 and 2100 on the basis of available emission scenarios. Industrial judgement on the likelihood of those scenarios is also developed. Calculations can be made in two different ways: from Global Warming Potential weighted emissions of species or by direct calculation of radiative forcing based on measured and projected atmospheric concentrations of compounds. Results show that HFCs corresponding to commercial uses have a negligible contribution to the greenhouse effect in comparison with other trace gases. The projected contributions are also very small even if very high emission scenarios are maintained for decades. In 2010 this contribution remains below 1%. Longer term emissions projections are difficult. However, based on the IPCC scenario IS92a, in spite of huge emissions projected for the year 2100, the HFC contribution remains below 3%. Actually many factors indicate that the real UFC contribution to the greenhouse effect will be even smaller than presented here. Low emissive systems and small charges will likely improve sharply in the future and have drastically improved in the recent past. HFC technology implementation is likely to grow in the future, reach a maximum before the middle of the next century; the market will stabilise driven by recycling, closing of systems and competitive technologies. This hypothesis is supported by previous analysis of the demand for HTCs type applications which can be represented by {open_quotes}S{close_quotes} type curves and by recent analysis indicating that the level of substitution of old products by HFCs is growing slowly. On the basis of those data and best industrial judgement, the contribution of HFCs to the greenhouse effect is highly likely to remain below 1% during the next century. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Yue Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  9. Electric Field Stiffening Effect in c-Oriented Aluminum Nitride Piezoelectric Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Shang, Zhengguo; Gong, Jia; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Hong; Tang, Bin; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ya; Mu, Xiaojing

    2018-01-17

    Aluminum nitride offers unique material advantages for the realization of ultrahigh-frequency acoustic devices attributed to its high ratio of stiffness to density, compatibility with harsh environments, and superior thermal properties. Although, to date, aluminum nitride thin films have been widely investigated regarding their electrical and mechanical characteristics under alternating small signal excitation, their ultrathin nature under large bias may also provide novel and useful properties. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of electric field stiffening effect in c-oriented aluminum nitride piezoelectric thin films. By analyzing resonance characteristics in a 2.5 GHz aluminum nitride-based film bulk acoustic resonator, we demonstrate an up to 10% linear variation in the equivalent stiffness of aluminum nitride piezoelectric thin films when an electric field was applied from -150 to 150 MV/m along the c-axis. Moreover, for the first time, an atomic interaction mechanism is proposed to reveal the nature of electric field stiffening effect, suggesting that the nonlinear variation of the interatomic force induced by electric field modulation is the intrinsic reason for this phenomenon in aluminum nitride piezoelectric thin films. Our work provides vital experimental data and effective theoretical foundation for electric field stiffening effect in aluminum nitride piezoelectric thin films, indicating the huge potential in tunable ultrahigh-frequency microwave devices.

  10. IUPAP C-10 Award Talk: From Topological Insulators to Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cui-Zu

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can be considered as the quantum Hall (QH) effect without external magnetic field, which can be realized by time reversal symmetry breaking in a topologically non-trivial system. A QAH system carries spin-polarized dissipationless chiral edge transport channels without the need for external energy input, hence may have huge impact on future electronic and spintronic device applications for ultralow-power consumption. The many decades quest for the experimental realization of QAH phenomenon became a possibility in 2006 with the discovery of topological insulators (TIs). In 2013, the QAH effect was observed in thin films of Cr-doped TI for the first time. Two years later in a near ideal system, V-doped TI, contrary to the negative prediction from first principle calculations, a high-precision QAH quantization with more robust magnetization and a perfectly dissipationless chiral current flow was demonstrated. In this talk, I will introduce the route to the experimental observation of the QAH effect in above-mentioned two systems, and discuss the zero magnetic field dissipationless edge current flow as well as the origin of the dissipative channels in the QAH state. Finally I will talk about our recent progress on the QAH insulator-Anderson insulator quantum phase transition and its scaling behaviors.

  11. Ferromagnetic cluster glass behavior and large magnetocaloric effect in Ho2PtSi3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D. X.; Homma, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Honda, F.; Yamamura, T.; Aoki, D.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of Ho2PtSi3, a new ternary intermetallic compound with the orthorhombic Ba2LiSi3-type structure, are studied by dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, magnetic relaxation, specific heat, and magnetic memory effect measurements. The experimental results indicate that this system undergoes a magnetic phase transition from a paramagnetic state to a ferromagnetic cluster state at a temperature TC 6.5 K followed by a cluster glass transition at Tf 5.8 K. The typical cluster glass features observed below Tf for Ho2PtSi3 include (1) broad peak in specific heat curve, (2) frequency dependent cusp in ac susceptibility curve, (3) evident irreversible magnetism, (4) long-time magnetic relaxation behavior, and (5) zero-field-cooling magnetic memory effect. On the other hand, the large values of magnetic entropy change, relative cooling power and adiabatic temperature change are estimated near TC under a field change. These results suggest that Ho2PtSi3 can be classified as a huge ferromagnetic cluster glass system with large magnetocaloric effect.

  12. An Approach for Effect Analysis of Electromagnetic Pulse in Operating NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Sun; Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Minyi; Lee, Euijong [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Recently, there is a growing Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) threat caused by North Korea’s nuclear weapons and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). KHNP CRI is currently conducting a research project that will evaluate the safety of domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) against EMP effects and prepare safety measures to counter vulnerable points. We will instead use simulation tools to evaluate the electromagnetic shielding ability and the conductivity of cables through vulnerable points in NPPs. Through a study of electromagnetic simulation techniques and tools, this paper suggests a simulation method for analysis of EMP effects in operating NPPs. Although 3D tools are relatively accurate, is difficult to use only 3D tools to simulate EMP effects for huge and complex structures such as NPPs. It is more efficient in terms of cost and time to use a 3D tool and an EMT tool for the simulation of such structures. We have compared the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and have selected the most appropriate tools; we will proceed in our next paper with the simulation of EMP effects.

  13. Enhancing the Efficiency of Silicon-Based Solar Cells by the Piezo-Phototronic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Laipan; Wang, Longfei; Pan, Caofeng; Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Chen, Baodong; Yang, Leijing; Su, Li; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-02-28

    Although there are numerous approaches for fabricating solar cells, the silicon-based photovoltaics are still the most widely used in industry and around the world. A small increase in the efficiency of silicon-based solar cells has a huge economic impact and practical importance. We fabricate a silicon-based nanoheterostructure (p(+)-Si/p-Si/n(+)-Si (and n-Si)/n-ZnO nanowire (NW) array) photovoltaic device and demonstrate the enhanced device performance through significantly enhanced light absorption by NW array and effective charge carrier separation by the piezo-phototronic effect. The strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charges created at n-doped Si-ZnO interfaces can effectively modulate the corresponding band structure and electron gas trapped in the n(+)-Si/n-ZnO NW nanoheterostructure and thus enhance the transport process of local charge carriers. The efficiency of the solar cell was improved from 8.97% to 9.51% by simply applying a static compress strain. This study indicates that the piezo-phototronic effect can enhance the performance of a large-scale silicon-based solar cell, with great potential for industrial applications.

  14. Effect of three safeners on sulfur assimilation and iron deficiency response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Celletti, Silvia; Astolfi, Stefania; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Panfili, Ivan; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Safeners are agrochemicals used in agriculture to protect crops from herbicide injuries. They act by stimulating herbicide metabolism. As graminaceous plants, to cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, activate sulfur (S) metabolism and release huge amounts of Fe-chelating compounds, or phytosiderophores (PSs), we investigated, in barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, L.) grown in Fe deficiency, the effects of three safeners on two enzymes of S assimilation, cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), and PS release. Finally, we monitored the root Fe content in plants treated with the most effective safener. Generally, all the safeners activated S metabolism and increased Cys and GSH contents. In addition, the safened plants excreted higher levels of PSs. Given that mefenpyr-diethyl (Mef) was the most effective in causing these effects, we assessed the Fe concentration in Mef-treated barley and found higher Fe levels than those in untreated plants. The three safeners, in different ways but specifically, activated S reductive metabolism and regulated Cys and GSH contents, PS release rate and Fe content (Mef-treated barley). The results of this research provide new indications of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in the safening action. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  16. Contribution of Nutrients and some Trace Metals from a Huge Egyptian Drain to the SE-Mediterranean Sea, west of Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. EL-RAYIS

    2006-06-01

    The present work is a monthly study over a year of levels of concentration of some mainly trace elements (nutrients and some heavy metals in the proper water of the drain before mixing and in the effl uent from the lake, and calculations of both the concentrations and the corresponding expected loads of these elements contributed by the drain to the sea. The results revealed that the respective loads to the sea are 77380 ton/year for total suspended matter, 823 tons/year for dissolved PO4 -P, 4745 tons/year for inorganic N, 23.7 tons/year for Fe, 3.28 tons/year for Mn, 5.84 tons/year for Cu, 2.9 ton/year for Cd, and 24 tons/year for Zn. The elements loaded by the lake effl uent represent values ranging between 8 and 57.5% of the total load contributed by the drain to the sea. The plant nutrients (ammonia and reactive phosphorus are of values exceeding 44%.

  17. The GLOBE 3D Genome Platform : Towards a novel System-Biological Paper-Tool to integrate the Huge Complexity of Genome Organization and Function - Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); M. Lesnussa (Michael); F.N. Kepper (Nick); H.J.F.M.M. Eussen (Bert); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe combination of genome sequence and structure, its annotation and experimental data in an accessible and comprehensible way is a major challenge. Increasingly, there are a large number of extremely divergent data sets: the sequence itself, genes, regulatory regions, various

  18. Pooled analysis and meta-analysis of glutathione S-transferase M1 and bladder cancer: A HuGE review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Lawrence S.; Taioli, Emanuela; Pfeiffer, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is a known risk factor for bladder cancer. The product of the GSTM1 gene, glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), is involved in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke; a homozygous deletion of this gene in approximately 50% of Caucasians and Asians...

  19. Meta- and pooled analyses of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: A Huge-GSEC review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania); R.J. Hung (Rayjean); G. Ricciardi (Gualtiero); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); M.P.A. Ebert (Matthias); J.Y. Fang; C.M. Gao; T. Götze (Tobias); F. Graziano (Francesco); M. Lacasaña-Navarro (Marina); D. Lin (Dongxin); L. López-Carrillo (Lizbeth); Y.L. Qiao; H. Shen (Hongbing); R. Stolzenberg-Solomon (Rachael); T. Takezaki (Toshiro); Y.R. Weng; F.F. Zhang; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); P. Boffetta (Paolo); E. Taioli (Emanuela)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractMethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of folate, whose role in gastric carcinogenesis is controversial. The authors performed a meta-analysis and individual data pooled analysis of case-control studies that examined the association between C677T

  20. Capture and Fission rate of 232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu from spallation neutrons in a huge block of lead.

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2000-01-01

    The study is centered on the research of the incineration possibility of nuclear waste, by the association of a particle accelerator with a multiplying medium of neutrons, in the project "Energy Amplifier" of C. Rubbia. It consists of the experimental determination of the rates of capture and fission of certain elements (232-Th, 238-U, 237-Np and 239-Pu) subjected to a fluence of fast spallation neutrons. These neutrons are produced by the interaction of high kinetic energy protons (several GeV) provided by the CERN-PS accelerator, on a large lead solid volume. The measurement techniques used in this work, are based on the activation of elements in the lead volume and the subsequent gamma spectroscopy of the activated elements, and also by the detection of fission fragment traces. The development, of a Monte Carlo code makes it possible, on one hand, to better understand the relevant processes, and on the other hand, to validate the code, by comparison with measurements, for the design and the construction of...

  1. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  2. Small Changes, But Huge Impact? The Right Anterior Insula's Loss of Connection Strength during the Transition of Old to Very Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Angela M.; Mérillat, Susan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    A major contribution to our understanding of the aging brain comes either from studies comparing young with older adults or from studies investigating pathological aging and using the healthy aging older adults as control group. In consequence, we know relatively well, what distinguishes young from old brains or pathological aging from healthy but that does not mean that we really understand the structural and functional transformations characterizing the healthy aging brain. By analyzing task-free fMRI data from a large cross-sectional sample of 186 older adults (mean age = 70.4, 97 female), we aimed to elucidate age-related changes in the intrinsically active functional architecture of the brain in our study group covering an age range from 65 to 85 years. First, we conducted an intrinsic connectivity contrast analysis (ICC) in order to detect the brain regions whose degree of connectedness was significantly correlated with increasing age. Secondly, using connectivity analyses we investigated how the clusters highlighted by the ICC analysis functionally related to the other major resting-state networks. The most important finding was the right anterior insula's loss of connectedness in the older participants of the study group because of the region's causal role in the switching from the task-negative to the task-positive state of the brain. Further, we found a higher functional dedifferentiation of two of the brain's major intrinsic connectivity networks, the DMN, and the cingulo-opercular network, caused by a reduction of functional connection strength, especially in the frontal regions. At last, we showed that all these age-related changes have the potential to impair older adult's performance of working memory tasks. PMID:27242508

  3. The baffling multitude of disease models for the study of human disease--how can the scientist navigate the huge amount of data and receive guidance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michael C; Grieder, Franziska B

    2008-01-01

    Funding from external sources is the lifeline for most biomedical research scientists. In the USA, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), composed of 27 institutes and centers, is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research. One of these centers, the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) provides financial support and resources to clinical or translational scientists working to understand human disease. Through the Division of Comparative Medicine, the NCRR funds projects focused on the development and use of model organisms to understand, diagnose, prevent and treat disease. Here, officials within the NCRR's Division of Comparative Medicine discuss some of the funding opportunities and resources available to researchers who use model organisms, and their perspectives on the future of model organism research.

  4. Structural Conservation Despite Huge Sequence Diversity Allows EPCR Binding by the PfEMP1 Family Implicated in Severe Childhood Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Clinton K.Y.; Turner, Louise; Jespersen, Jakob S.

    2015-01-01

    The PfEMP1 family of surface proteins is central for Plasmodium falciparum virulence and must retain the ability to bind to host receptors while also diversifying to aid immune evasion. The interaction between CIDRa1 domains of PfEMP1 and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is associated...

  5. Malignant transformation in von recklinghausen disease in a rural farmer presenting as huge metastatic soft tissue chest wall tumour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpe, E E

    2014-01-01

    Although von Recklinghausen disease is relatively common at an incidence of 1 in 4000 live births, malignant transformation in a neurofibromatosis is quite rare estimated at about 5% therefore the importance of life-long follow up of all patients von Recklinghausen disease. This is a case report of a 45-year old Nigerian-Ibibio male farmer who presented with six months history of rapid growth in one of the numerous skin nodules which had been present since his teenage age. The clinical diagnosis of malignant change in von Recklinghausen's disease was confirmed by histopathologic examination of an incisional biopsy specimen. Radiological investigations also showed the metastatic status of the disease. The patient could not afford the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents prescribed. He therefore left the hospital and failed to return when a free-treatment voucher was ready for treatment in the following two days. He is assumed dead at home. Lifelong follow up for von Recklinghausen disease is emphasized to enable early detection of malignant change and also expansion of the national health insurance scheme to benefit the unemployed citizens.

  6. Ethnic Tourism -- A Helicopter from "Huge Graveyard" to Paradise? Social impacts of ethnic tourism development on the minority communities in Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Wu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 1980s, ethnic tourism has been oneof the key industries promoted by the government of Guizhouprovince in Southwestern China. This industry has broughttremendous changes to the communities of local ethnic peoplesin destination areas, especially in improving their economiclife. However, although ethnic tourism does bring manypositive results to local peoples, it also has a negative sideas well. This paper investigates, from a local perspective,some of these impacts, taking the Miao/Hmong communities as acase study. The author contends that if ethnic governments andresidents want to sustain their culture and society, they musthave an awareness and understanding of both the positive andnegative impacts of tourism when considering a project intheir community.

  7. Invited Commentary: Little Steps Lead to Huge Steps-It's Time to Make Physical Inactivity Our Number 1 Public Health Enemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Timothy S

    2016-11-01

    The analysis plan and article in this issue of the Journal by Evenson et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(9):621-632) is well-conceived, thoughtfully conducted, and tightly written. The authors utilized the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data set to examine the association between accelerometer-measured physical activity level and mortality and found that meeting the 2013 federal Physical Activity Guidelines resulted in a 35% reduction in risk of mortality. The timing of these findings could not be better, given the ubiquitous nature of personal accelerometer devices. The masses are already equipped to routinely quantify their activity, and now we have the opportunity and responsibility to provide evidenced-based, tailored physical activity goals. We have evidenced-based physical activity guidelines, mass distribution of devices to track activity, and now scientific support indicating that meeting the physical activity goal, as assessed by these devices, has substantial health benefits. All of the pieces are in place to make physical inactivity a national priority, and we now have the opportunity to positively affect the health of millions of Americans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 10 Levels thoracic no-intrumented laminectomy for huge spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma removal. Report of the first case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visocchi Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: To our knowledge, the present case is the most extensive laminectomy for a SSDH removal never described before. No postoperative instability occurs in 10 levels thoracic laminectomy in case the articular processes are spared. When major neurological deficits are documented, early decompressive laminectomy with evacuation of hematoma should be considered the best treatment for SSDH.

  9. The first module of CMS superconducting magnet is leaving towards CERN: a huge solenoid, which will hold the world record of stored energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first module of the five which will make up the CMS superconducting magnet is sailing today from Genova port to CERN. The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the experiments that will take place at the accelerator LHC. The device will arrive after 10-days of travel (1 page)

  10. A WRF-Chem model study of the impact of VOCs emission of a huge petro-chemical industrial zone on the summertime ozone in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Lv, Zhao Feng; Li, Yue; Wang, Li Tao; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Liu, Huan

    2018-02-01

    In China, petro-chemical manufacturing plants generally gather in the particular industrial zone defined as PIZ in some cities, and distinctly influence the air quality of these cities for their massive VOCs emissions. This study aims to quantify the local and regional impacts of PIZ VOCs emission and its relevant reduction policy on the surface ozone based on WRF-Chem model, through the case study of Beijing. Firstly, the model simulation under the actual precursors' emissions over Beijing region for July 2010 is conducted and evaluated, which meteorological and chemical predictions both within the thresholds for satisfactory model performance. Then, according to simulated H2O2/HNO3 ratio, the nature of photochemical ozone formation over Beijing is decided, the VOCs-sensitive regime over the urban areas, NOx-sensitive regime over the northern and western rural areas, and both VOCssbnd and NOx-mixed sensitive regime over the southern and eastern rural areas. Finally, a 30% VOCs reduction scenario (RS) and a 100% VOCs reduction scenario (ZS) for Beijing PIZ are additional simulated by WRF-Chem. The sensitivity simulations imply that the current 30% reduction policy would bring about an O3 increase in the southern and western areas (by +4.7 ppb at PIZ site and +2.1 ppb at LLH station), and an O3 decrease in the urban center (by -1.7 ppb at GY station and -2.5 ppb at DS station) and in the northern and eastern areas (by -1.2 ppb at MYX station), mainly through interfering with the circulation of atmospheric HOx radicals. While the contribution of the total VOCs emission of PIZ to ozone is greatly prominent in the PIZ and its surrounding areas along south-north direction (12.7% at PIZ site on average), but slight in the other areas of Beijing (<3% in other four stations on average).

  11. Huge nasopalatine duct cyst treatment with the help of cystectomy and bilateral fenestration surgery of the nasal cavity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kobashi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine duct cyst (NPDC is the most common non-odontogenic, epithelial cyst occurring in the maxilla, and it arises from the epithelial remnants of the nasopalatine duct. It accounts for approximately 2% of all maxillary cysts. A 44-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic swelling in the upper vestibular gingiva and hard palate. Computed tomography confirmed these findings, revealing a cystic mass in the midline of the maxilla that superiorly extended along the nasal septum and inferiorly along the floor of the nasal cavity. It had a maximum diameter of 42 mm. The cyst was treated by cystectomy and bilateral fenestration surgery of the nasal cavity under general anesthesia. The patient had no postoperative complications and showed no evidence of stenosis of the opening or infection in the cavity 6 months after surgery. Keywords: Nasopalatine duct cyst, Non-odontogenic epithelial cyst, Cystectomy, Fenestration surgery

  12. Successful treatment of a fracture of a huge Achilles tendon ossification with autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Hisatoshi; Fukui, Naoshi; Takamure, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Satoru; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Takagi, Kentaro; Horita, Ayako; Saito, Ikuo; Mori, Toshihito

    2015-11-24

    Fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon is a rare entity, and no standard treatment has been established. This is the first report to describe the use of a hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap for Achilles tendon reconstruction. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon. She presented to our clinic with acute right hindfoot pain, which started suddenly while going up the stairs. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ossification on the right Achilles tendon extending over 14 cm in length; the ossification was fractured at 5 cm proximal to the calcaneus insertion. Surgical treatment included removal of the ossified tendon and reconstruction with an autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap. One year after surgery, she was able to walk with little pain or discomfort and to stand on her right tiptoe. Our novel surgical procedure may be useful in the treatment of fractured ossified Achilles tendons and large Achilles tendon defects.

  13. Effects of Perceived Risks, Reputation and Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM) on Collaborative Consumption of Uber Car Sharing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati Hawapi, Mega; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Kohar, Umar Haiyat Abdul; Abu Talib, Noraini

    2017-06-01

    Current transition from traditional economic model of selling and buying to sharing economic business creates a huge impact on consumers’ preferences to participate in collaborative consumption. The market entrance of sharing economic business is relatively new, thus it builds scepticism among consumers. Consumers’ trust becomes the most crucial aspect in determining their willingness to participate in collaborative consumption. This study will reveal the effects of perceived risks (performance and social), reputation and Electronic Word-of Mouth (E-WOM) on Malaysian consumers’ intention of collaborative consumption, especially for Uber car sharing service. This study inspires to enrich the literature for collaborative consumption and perceived risk theory. From the practical perspective, this study may provide insights in assisting the collaborative consumption service providers especially Uber car users on factors influencing the intention to engage in such service.

  14. Origin of an enhanced colossal magnetoresistance effect in epitaxial Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. G.; Kaminsky, G. G.; Kim, J. M.; Eom, T. W.; Park, J. S.; Lee, Y. P.; Svetchnikov, V. L.; Levtchenko, G. G.; Nikolaenko, Yu. M.; Khokhlov, V. A.

    2011-04-01

    Nd0.52Sr0.48MnO3 films of various thicknesses have been prepared by dc magnetron sputtering on single crystal LaAlO3 (001) substrates. Reducing the film thickness leads to a significant suppression of ferromagnetic (FM) ordering and the Curie point falls below the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature. When this occurs, a huge rise of the magnetoresistance ratio from 400 to 60 000% is observed in an applied magnetic field of 5 T. We surmise that this new kind of the enhanced colossal magnetoresistance effect originates in the FM/AFM competition and the collapse of the charge-ordered state at high magnetic fields, rather than in the regular double-exchange mechanism.

  15. From Theory to Development: Role of Multiphysics Modeling and its Effect on Education in Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tejinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    .... Finite element modeling(FEM) tools are very powerful tools and due to there huge advantages, electronics graduates should study these tools in their course curriculum to know how to tackle various types of physics problems...

  16. Effects of Pulsatile Blood Flow on Oxygenator Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraven, Lotte; Kaesler, Andreas; Flege, Christian; Kopp, Rüdger; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2018-02-13

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is mainly used for the therapy of acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive lung disease. In the last years, the development of these systems underwent huge steps in optimization, but there are still problems with thrombus formation, clogging, and thus insufficient gas exchange. One idea of ECMO optimization is a pulsatile blood flow through the oxygenator, but this is still a controversy discussion. Analyzing available publications, it was not possible to identify a general statement about the effect of pulsatile blood flow on the gas exchange performance. The variety of parameters and circuit components have such a high influence on the outcome that a direct comparison of the studies is difficult. For this reason, we performed a structured study to evaluate the effects of pulsatile blood flow on the gas exchange performance of oxygenator. In in vitro tests according to DIN EN ISO 7199, we tested a small oxygenator (0.25 m 2 exchange surface, polymethylpentene fibers, 33 mL priming volume) with constant and pulsatile blood flow in comparison. Therefore, we varied the mean blood flow from 250 to 1200 mL/min, the amplitude of 0, 20, and 50%, and the frequency of 30, 60, and 90 bpm. The results demonstrate that the gas transfer for pulsatile and constant blood flow was similar (oxygen: 36-64 mL O2 /L Blood ; carbon dioxide 35-80 mL CO2 /L Blood ) for the same mean blood flow ranges. Over all, the results and analyses showed a statistically nonsignificant difference between pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow. Consequently, we conclude that the implementation of pulsatile blood flow has only a small to no effect on the gas exchange performance in an oxygenator. As the results were obtained using an oxygenator with a coiled fiber bundle, the test must be verified for a stacked fiber oxygenator. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Investigating the Effect of Soil Moisture on Net Ecosystem Exchange in Shale Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Z. G.; Davis, K. J.; He, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon sinks have the ability to absorb more carbon dioxide than what they emit. The terrestrial biome acts as a huge carbon sink, however, this ability is dependent on different environmental factors. This study focused on the effects of soil moisture on net ecosystem exchange(NEE) in the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, PA. It was hypothesized that the strength of the carbon sink would grow with wetter soils. Data was collected from the eddy-covariance flux tower, a COSMOS soil moisture probe, automated soil respiration chambers and sap flow probes for May to August between the years 2011-2016. Since temperature and photosynthetically active radiation(PAR) also have an effect on carbon fluxes, these variables were isolated to properly study soil moisture and carbon fluxes. Generally, less carbon dioxide was absorbed with increasing soil moisture. Since NEE is a combination of photosynthesis and respiration, the effect of soil moisture was studied separately for each process. The sap flow data showed a decrease in activity with increasing soil moisture, hence photosynthesis was most likely reduced. Additionally, more carbon dioxide was emitted from respiration with increasing soil moisture. These findings could possibly explain why the forest at Shale Hills tends to release more carbon dioxide with increasing soil moisture.

  18. MRI and image quantitation for drug assessment - growth effects of anabolic steroids and precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Wu, Ed; Vasselli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    MRI and image quantitation play an expanding role in modern drug research, because MRI offers high resolution and non-invasive ability, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast. Moreover, with development of effective image segmentation and analysis methods, in-vivo and serial tissue growth measurements could be assessed. In the study, MR image acquisition and analysis protocol were established and validated for investigating the effects of anabolic steroids and precursors on muscle growth and body composition in a guinea pig model. Semi-automatic and interactive segmentation methods were developed to accurately label the tissue of interest for tissue volume estimation. In addition, a longitudinal tissue area outlining procedure was proposed for study of tissue geometric features in relation to tissue growth. Finally, a fully automatic data retrieval and analysis scheme was implemented to facilitate the overall huge amount of image quantitation, statistical analysis, as well as study group comparisons. As a result, highly significant differences in muscle and organ growth were detected between intact and castrated guinea pigs using the selected anabolic steroids, indicating the viability of employing such protocol to assess other anabolic steroids. Furthermore, the anabolic potential of selected steroid precursors and their effects on muscle growth, in comparison with that in respective positive control groups of castrated guinea pigs, were evaluated with the proposed protocol.

  19. Contact behavior modelling and its size effect on proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Diankai; Peng, Linfa; Yi, Peiyun; Lai, Xinmin; Janßen, Holger; Lehnert, Werner

    2017-10-01

    Contact behavior between the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and bipolar plate (BPP) is of significant importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Most current studies on contact behavior utilize experiments and finite element modelling and focus on fuel cells with graphite BPPs, which lead to high costs and huge computational requirements. The objective of this work is to build a more effective analytical method for contact behavior in fuel cells and investigate the size effect resulting from configuration alteration of channel and rib (channel/rib). Firstly, a mathematical description of channel/rib geometry is outlined in accordance with the fabrication of metallic BPP. Based on the interface deformation characteristic and Winkler surface model, contact pressure between BPP and GDL is then calculated to predict contact resistance and GDL porosity as evaluative parameters of contact behavior. Then, experiments on BPP fabrication and contact resistance measurement are conducted to validate the model. The measured results demonstrate an obvious dependence on channel/rib size. Feasibility of the model used in graphite fuel cells is also discussed. Finally, size factor is proposed for evaluating the rule of size effect. Significant increase occurs in contact resistance and porosity for higher size factor, in which channel/rib width decrease.

  20. Effective production control in an automotive industry: MRP vs. demand-driven MRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofa, Mohamad Jihan; Widyarto, Wahyu Oktri

    2017-06-01

    Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has deficiencies when dealing with current business environments, marked by a more complex network, a huge variety of products with longer lead time, and uncertain demands. This drives Demand-Driven MRP (DDMRP) approach to deal with those challenges. DDMRP is designed to connect the availability of materials and supplies directly from the actual condition using bills of materials (BOMs). Nevertheless, only few studies have scientifically proved the performance of DDMRP over MRP for controlling production and inventory control. Therefore, this research fills this gap by evaluating and comparing the performance of DDMRP and MRP in terms of level of effective inventory in the system. The evaluation was conducted through a simulation using data from an automotive company in Indonesia. The input parameters of scenarios were given for running the simulation. Based on the simulation, for the observed critical parts, DDMRP gave better results than MRP in terms of lead time and inventory level. DDMRP compressed the lead time part from 52 to 3 days (94% reduced) and, overall, the inventory level was in an effective condition. This suggests that DDMRP is more effective for controlling the production-inventory than MRP.

  1. Early-stage effects of residual charges in a metal target on emitted electrons induced by femtosecond laser–metal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Sha [Advanced Optowave Corp., Ronkonkoma, NY 11779 (United States); Wu, Benxin, E-mail: wu65@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Electron emissions from a metal target surface may be induced due to the irradiation of the target by a femtosecond (fs) laser pulse. The emitted electrons will leave behind residual charges (which are positive) in the metal target near its surface. The residual charges may affect the evolution of the emitted electrons, which is called the “residual charge effect”. An intuitive belief could be that the residual charge effect is insignificant, because the huge number of free electrons in the interior region of the metal may quickly neutralize the residual charges. In this paper, the early-stage (at a time scale of less than ∼1 picosecond) residual charge effect has been investigated. The study shows that contrary to the above intuitive belief, the early-stage residual charge effect is very significant under the studied conditions, which has greatly slowed down the expansion of emitted electrons and enhanced their recombination back into the surface of the target. The study implies that to accurately study the early-stage fs laser-induced electron emission and other closely related processes, the residual charge effect should not be neglected. - Highlights: • Laser-induced electron emission may leave positive residual charges in a metal. • An intuitive belief could be that the residual charge effect is insignificant. • This study shows the residual charge effect is significant during the early stage. • The residual charge effect slows down the expansion of emitted electrons. • The residual charge effect enhances the recombination of emitted electrons.

  2. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the side effects of medications. WHY ARE THESE STUDIES IMPORTANT? WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD? The authors point out that placebo effects make the study of new treatments very difficult. This is because ...

  3. EFFECT OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TOOL-BASED MICROMILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yeakub Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutting fluid plays an important role in machining processes to achieve dimensional accuracy in reducing tool wear and improving the tool life. Conventional flood cooling method in machining processes is not cost effective and consumption of huge amount of cutting fluids is not healthy and environmental friendly. In micromachining, flood cooling is not recommended to avoid possible damage of the microstructures. Therefore, one of the alternatives to overcome the environmental issues to use minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL in machining process. MQL is eco-friendly and has economical advantage on manufacturing cost. However, there observed lack of study on MQL in improving machined surface roughness in micromilling. Study of the effects of MQL on surface roughness should be carried out because surface roughness is one of the important issues in micromachined parts such as microfluidic channels. This paper investigates and compares surface roughness with the presence of MQL and dry cutting in micromilling of aluminium alloy 1100 using DT-110 milling machine. The relationship among depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed on surface roughness is also analyzed. All three machining parameters identified as significant for surface roughness with dry cutting which are depth of cut, feed rate, and spindle speed. For surface roughness with MQL, it is found that spindle speed did not give much influence on surface roughness. The presence of MQL provides a better surface roughness by decreasing the friction between tool and workpiece.

  4. Effect of embelin on lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K Sahu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective and anti-polyuric role of embelin on lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI in albino rats. Methods: NDI induced by lithium chloride (4 meq/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days which leads to huge amount of urine excretion. After induction of NDI, embelin (50 and 100mg/kg was administered orally, once daily for 21 day in rats and N-acetyl cysteine (10mg/kg, twice daily, i.p. was used as a standard drug for treatment of NDI. The body weight, urine protein, urine creatinine, plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen were assessed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day. At the end of the study glutathione (GSH content in kidney was assessed and histopathology of kidney was performed. Results: Embelin 50 and 100 mg/ kg showed increase in the body weight and decrease in plasma and urine creatinine, blood urea nitrogen levels, and urine protein level. Embelin acts as a potent antioxidant; it increases the level of glutathione in kidney. Histopathological examination of the kidney indicated that embelin 50 and 100 mg/kg were reduced the vascular degeneration of tubules as well as slight degeneration and dilatation of renal tubules, however N-actyl cysteine (NAC treated rats showed normal glomeruli and renal tubule with slight degeneration. Conclusions: Embelin seemed to be effective in NDI by its predominant effect on promoting antioxidant status and decrease the urine excretion may be due to the blocking of sodium channels.

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Butterfly Effect Using Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasawneh, Mahmoud T.; Zhang, Jun; Shearer, Nevan E. N.; Rodriquez-Velasquez, Elkin; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides insights about the behavior of chaotic complex systems, and the sensitive dependence of the system on the initial starting conditions. How much does a small change in the initial conditions of a complex system affect it in the long term? Do complex systems exhibit what is called the "Butterfly Effect"? This paper uses an agent-based modeling approach to address these questions. An existing model from NetLogo library was extended in order to compare chaotic complex systems with near-identical initial conditions. Results show that small changes in initial starting conditions can have a huge impact on the behavior of chaotic complex systems. The term the "butterfly effect" is attributed to the work of Edward Lorenz [1]. It is used to describe the sensitive dependence of the behavior of chaotic complex systems on the initial conditions of these systems. The metaphor refers to the notion that a butterfly flapping its wings somewhere may cause extreme changes in the ecological system's behavior in the future, such as a hurricane.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF CAPITAL MARKET DERIVATIVES IN HOUSING DELIVERY OF NIGERIA EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Adjekophori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The capital market is unarguably the most robust institution in any economy notable for mobilizing the necessary fund for financing long-term productive project. It controls relatively large amounts of capital and represent the largest institutional providing long-term credits for capital project like real estate that requires huge capital outlay. This study therefore, attempts an investigation into the effectiveness of capital market derivatives in housing delivery in Lagos. An empirical survey research was conducted in Lagos, using a random sampling technique with a structured questionnaire to collect data from 147 respondents comprising 89 stockbrokers and 58 real estate developers in Lagos mega-city. Data collected were analyzed with SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that 56.7% of the observed variations in housing delivery (R2= 0.567; p< 0.05 is explained by capital market derivatives, which suggests that, proper utilization of capital market derivatives will enhance and improve housing delivery in Nigeria. However, this is not been adequately used by developers of real estate projects in the study. Thus, the study recommends amongst other remedial steps that a synergetic effort should be created between the capital market and real estate developers which will enhance effective housing delivery, the development of people and the Nation.

  7. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzaneh-Gord

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the current study, based on the laws of thermodynamics, conservation of mass and real/ideal gas assumptions, a theoretical analysis has been constructed to study the effects of gas types and models on performance of the stations. It is intended to determine the optimized reservoir pressures for these stations. The results reveal that the optimized pressure differs between the gas types. For ideal and real gas models in both stations (CNG and CHG, the optimized non-dimensional low pressure-reservoir pressure is found to be 0.22. The optimized non-dimensional medium-pressure reservoir pressure is the same for the stations, and equal to 0.58.

  8. Effect of Nonmagnetic Impurity in Nearly Antiferromagnetic Fermi Liquid: Magnetic Correlations and Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontani, Hiroshi; Ohno, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    In nearly AF metals such as high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), heavy fermion systems and organic superconductors, a single nonmagnetic impurity frequently causes nontrivial widespread change of the electronic states. To elucidate this long-standing issue, we study a Hubbard model with a strong onsite impurity potential based on an improved fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation, which we call the GV^I-FLEX method. We find that (i) both local and staggered susceptibilities are strongly enhanced around the impurity. By this reason, (ii) the quasiparticle lifetime as well as the local DOS are strongly suppressed in a wide area around the impurity (like a Swiss cheese hole), which causes the ``huge residual resistivity'' beyond the s-wave unitary scattering limit. We stress that the excess quasiparticle damping rate caused by impurities has strong momentum-dependence due to non-s-wave scatterings induced by many-body effects, so the structure of the ``hot spot/cold spot'' in the host system persists against impurity doping. This result could be examined by the ARPES measurements. In addition, (iii) only a few percent of impurities can causes a ``Kondo-like'' upturn of resistivity (dρ/dT<0) at low temperatures when the system is very close to the AF quantum critical point (QCP). We also discuss the impurity effect in the superconducting state.

  9. 3D Simulation of Dam-break effect on a Solid Wall using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Naa, Christian; Putra, Anggy Trisnawan

    2013-01-01

    Dam is built for water supply, water flow or flooding control and electricity energy storage, but in other hand, dam is one of the most dangerous natural disaster in many countries including in Indonesia. The impact of dam break in neighbour area and is huge and many flooding in remote area, as happen in Dam Situ Gintung in Tangerang (close to Jakarta) in 2009. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is one of numerical method based on Lagrangian grid which is ap- plied in astrophysical simulation may be used to solve the simulation on dam break effect. The development of SPH methods become alternative methods to solving Navier Stokes equation, which is main key in fluid dynamic simulation. In this paper, SPH is developed for supporting solid par- ticles in use for 3D dam break effect (3D-DBE) simulation. Solid particle have been treated same as fluid particles with additional calculation for converting gained position became translation and rotation of solid object in a whole body. With this capability, the r...

  10. THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS ON OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS WITH VARIOUS FIBER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIN M. KARFAA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to evaluate the performance of an opticalwavelength division multiplexing (WDM network transmission system in the presenceof crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities. The most significant nonlinear effects inthe optical fiber which are Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM,and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS are investigated. Four types of optical fiber areincluded in the analysis; these are: single-mode fiber (SMF, dispersion compensationfiber (DCF, non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF, and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber(NZDSF. The results represent the standard deviation of nonlinearity induced crosstalknoise power due to FWM and SRS, XPM power penalty for SMF, DCF, NZDF, andNZDSF types of fiber, besides the Bit Error Rate (BER for the three nonlinear effectsusing standard fiber type (SMF. It is concluded that three significant fiber nonlinearitiesare making huge limitations against increasing the launched power which is desired,otherwise, lower values of launched power limit network expansion including length,distance, covered areas, and number of users accessing the WDM network, unlesssuitable precautions are taken to neutralize the nonlinear effects. Besides, various fibertypes are not behaving similarly towards network parameters.

  11. A Simple and Effective Physical Characteristic Profiling Method for Methamphetamine Tablet Seized in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin; Liu, Cuimei

    2017-06-23

    Methamphetamine (MA) tablet production confers chemical and physical properties. This study developed a simple and effective physical characteristic profiling method for MA tablets with capital letter "WY" logos, which realized the discrimination between linked and unlinked seizures. Seventeen signature distances extracted from the "WY" logo were explored as factors for multivariate analysis and demonstrated to be effective to represent the features of tablets in the drug intelligence perspective. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate efficiency of different pretreatments and distance/correlation metrics, while "Standardization + Euclidean" and "Logarithm + Euclidean" algorithms outperformed the rest. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to the data set of 200 MA tablet seizures randomly selected from cases all around China in 2015, and 76% of them were classified into a group named after "WY-001." Moreover, the "WY-001" tablets occupied 51-80% tablet seizures from 2011 to 2015 in China, indicating the existence of a huge clandestine factory incessantly manufacturing MA tablets. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The effects of pre-processing strategies in sentiment analysis of online movie reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Harnani Mat; Mustapha, Norwati; Murad, Masrah Azrifah Azmi; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd

    2017-10-01

    With the ever increasing of internet applications and social networking sites, people nowadays can easily express their feelings towards any products and services. These online reviews act as an important source for further analysis and improved decision making. These reviews are mostly unstructured by nature and thus, need processing like sentiment analysis and classification to provide a meaningful information for future uses. In text analysis tasks, the appropriate selection of words/features will have a huge impact on the effectiveness of the classifier. Thus, this paper explores the effect of the pre-processing strategies in the sentiment analysis of online movie reviews. In this paper, supervised machine learning method was used to classify the reviews. The support vector machine (SVM) with linear and non-linear kernel has been considered as classifier for the classification of the reviews. The performance of the classifier is critically examined based on the results of precision, recall, f-measure, and accuracy. Two different features representations were used which are term frequency and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Results show that the pre-processing strategies give a significant impact on the classification process.

  13. Effect of Hybridization on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Erlang Mountainous Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Yin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03 of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01. The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (p<0.05. Abdominal fat yield also increased (p<0.05 compared to the offspring of the two pure-lines. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in meat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.

  14. Effect of hybridization on carcass traits and meat quality of erlang mountainous chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H D; Gilbert, E R; Chen, S Y; Wang, Y; Zhang, Z C; Zhao, X L; Zhang, Yao; Zhu, Q

    2013-10-01

    Native chickens hold a significant share of the market in China. In response to the huge demand from the market, the productivity of Chinese native chickens needs to be improved. Cross breeding is an effective method to increase productivity, although it might affect meat quality. In this study, two pure lines (SD02 and SD03) of Erlang mountainous chickens were hybridized with a yellow feather and faster growing line (SD01). The effect of hybridization on carcass and meat quality (physiochemical and textural traits) was measured in the F1 population at d 91 of age. The hybrids exhibited higher body weight and dressed weight, and amount of semi-eviscerated, eviscerated, breast muscle and abdominal fat (pmeat quality traits except for the myofiber diameter and density and the shear force of the breast muscle. Overall, the offspring of cross-lines were similar to pure lines in meat color, pH value, inosinic acid, crude protein, crude fat, dry matter, moisture content and amino acid composition in the breast muscle. These results suggest that productivity can be improved via cross-breeding while maintaining meat quality of the Erlang mountainous chicken.

  15. Aerodynamics and deposition effects of inhaled submicron drug aerosol in airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiyazuddin, Md; Mujahid, Md; Hussain, Talib; Siddiqui, Hefazat H; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-01-01

    Particle engineering is the prime focus to improve pulmonary drug targeting with the splendor of nanomedicines. In recent years, submicron particles have emerged as prettyful candidate for improved fludisation and deposition. For effective deposition, the particle size must be in the range of 0.5-5 μm. Inhalers design for the purpose of efficient delivery of powders to lungs is again a crucial task for pulmonary scientists. A huge number of DPI devices exist in the market, a significant number are awaiting FDA approval, some are under development and a large number have been patented or applied for patent. Even with superior design, the delivery competence is still deprived, mostly due to fluidisation problems which cause poor aerosol generation and deposition. Because of the cohesive nature and poor flow characteristics, they are difficult to redisperse upon aerosolization with breath. These problems are illustrious in aerosol research, much of which is vastly pertinent to pulmonary therapeutics. A technical review is presented here of advances that have been utilized in production of submicron drug particles, their in vitro/in vivo evaluations, aerosol effects and pulmonary fate of inhaled submicron powders.

  16. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  17. Effect of three-body transformed Hamiltonian (tilde{H} _3 H 3) using full connected triple excitation coupled cluster operators on valence ionisation potentials of {Cl}_{2}Cl2 and {F}_{2}F2 computed via EIP-VUMRCCSDuptau τ scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kalipada

    2018-03-01

    Valence universal multireference coupled cluster (VUMRCC) method via eigenvalue independent partitioning has been applied to estimate the effect of three-body transformed Hamiltonian (\\widetilde{{H}}_3) on ionisation potentials through full connected triple excitations S3^{(1,0) }. \\widetilde{H}_3 is constructed using CCSDT1-A model of Bartlett et al for the ground-state calculation. Contribution of transformed Hamiltonian through full connected triples \\overline{\\widetilde{H}_3 S_3^{( {1,0} ) }} involves huge amount of computational operations that is time-consuming. Investigation on Cl2 and F2 molecules using cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets shows that the above effect varies from 0.001 eV to around 0.5 eV, suggesting that inclusion of \\overline{\\widetilde{H} _3 S_3^{( {1,0} ) } } is essential for highly accurate calculations.

  18. Large entropic effects on the thermochemistry of silicon nanodusty plasma constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Prasenjit; Truhlar, Donald G

    2014-02-19

    Determination of the thermodynamic properties of reactor constituents is the first step in designing control strategies for plasma-mediated deposition processes and is also a key fundamental issue in physical chemistry. In this work, a recently proposed multistructural statistical thermodynamic method is used to show the importance of multiple structures and torsional anharmonicity in determining the thermodynamic properties of silicon hydride clusters, which are important both in plasmas and in thermally driven systems. It includes five different categories of silicon hydride clusters and radicals, including silanes, silyl radicals, and silenes. We employed a statistical mechanical approach, namely the recently developed multistructural (MS) anharmonicity method, in combination with density functional theory to calculate the partition functions, which in turn are used to estimate thermodynamic quantities, namely Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity, for all of the systems considered. The calculations are performed using all of the conformational structures of each molecule or radical by employing the multistructural quasiharmonic approximation (MS-QH) and also by including torsional potential anharmonicity (MS-T). For those cases where group additivity (GA) results are available, the thermodynamic quantities obtained from our MS-T calculations differ considerably due to the fact that the GA method is based on single-structure data for isomers of each stoichiometry, and hence lack multistructural effects; whereas we find that multistructural effects are very important in silicon hydride systems. Our results also indicate that the entropic effect on the thermochemistry is huge and is dominated by multistructural effects. The entropic effect of multiple structures is also expected to be important for other kinds of chain molecules, and its effect on nucleation kinetics is expected to be large.

  19. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... placebo effect to use as part of medical therapy. REFERENCES 1. de la Fuente-Fernandez R, Ruth TJ, Sossi V, et al. Expec- tation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease. Science 2001;293:1164– 1166. 2. Diederich NJ, ...

  20. An Appraisal of Transportation Facilities Effects on Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor-cycles are used by some farmers while pick-up vans and small trucks are equally used with huge amount of transport money during haulage. Perishable crops like tomatoes, okra, pepper and yams get damaged in the course of transporting as a result of excessive heat and poor winding and bending roads resulting in ...

  1. Effects of both wellbore and reservoir properties on pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The task of clean oil production from a horizontal well under complete external fluid drive is a huge challenge to the operator who intends to exclude unwanted fluid production. In order to determine guidelines for drilling or modifying a horizontal well to achieve economic production therefore, dimensionless pressures and ...

  2. Bioinformatics tools for development of fast and cost effective simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of current molecular biology techniques has led to the generation of huge amount of gene sequence information under the expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing projects on a large number of plant species. This has opened a new era in crop molecular breeding with identification and/or development ...

  3. Preliminary study on the inducement effect of colchicine during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... growth to limited extent only (Tate et al., 2005). Triploid plants have fast growth, organs huge and high content of secondary metabolites, etc. ... pollen (Kathleen et al., 1987), can be induced by colchicine treatment on flower buds. There are many plants which have obtained 2n gametes by using these ...

  4. 151 THE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF OIL PRODUCTION IN GBARAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indus in Pakistan, Ganges in Bangladesh, Mekong in Vietnam. The Niger Delta however has huge oil and ... Newsletter (2007) recorded that the Gbaran Ubie Integrated Oil and Gas Development Project. (IOGP) is initiated by SHELL to .... Market survey by Nwadiaro (2003) reveals that the prices of commodities in the urban ...

  5. Efficient simulation of autofluorescence effects in microscopic lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Herbert; Rodenko, Olga; Esslinger, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    . The efficiency of calculations in this case is extremely low and a huge number of rays must be calculated. In stray light calculations the concept of important sampling is used to reduce computational effort. The idea is to calculate only rays, which have the chance to reach the target surface. The fluorescence...... of the lens design are discussed....

  6. The Effects of Terrorism on Tourism: (Interrelations, Motives & Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romagnoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at explaining the relationship between terrorism and tourism, and the consequences that the former has on the latter. Untangling this relationship may be a useful tool to understand terrorist goals and motives. The pivotal question to be answered is which effects terrorism has on the tourism industry. In the modern era, terrorism has become an integrated risk, a maybe-to-include package of travelling for tourists. The operating environment for the tourism sector evolved in a huge way after the attacks to the Twin Towers in September of 2001. Terrorism and tourism data have become more and more important since that dramatic episode; both of them are twofold and interconnected with regard to their basic features, namely crossing national borders involving national and international protagonists and both using travel and communication technologies. Terrorists do not act randomly, but they have precise purposes. The article will explain the multiform and multifold ways through which an attack may occur and be better understood. Terrorism crowds the media; it physically hits and psychologically vexes minds. Tourists are an appealing target for terrorists because they are seen as a country’s symbolic ambassadors, while tourism destinations are perfect and visible spots to deploy a terrorist attack. Terrorists are capable of using tourists as the means to get the media’s attention and bombard the world with their message. Risk perception, attitude and preferences are one of the main determinants for a tourist in the destination choice momentum. A potential tourist who negatively conceives a destination as risky may choose to cancel his/her holiday or not even consider it because of security and safety motives.

  7. [Multiple sclerosis: socioeconomic effects and impact on quality of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Guillermo Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects young adults. Survival is long, more than 35 years, and consequently the disease has a huge socioeconomic impact. The present article discusses the enormous difficulties of carrying out economic assessments in this field but also describes the advances made in research on this topic and the advantages of performing socioeconomic evaluations with increasingly sophisticated tools. We also discuss the need to quantify indirect and intangible costs to translate them into quality of life and subsequently into economic cost, expressed in euros in the case of Spain. The available data indicate that the enormous cost of the disease (1200 million euros per year) is due more to disability-related expenditure than to treatment, which-although expensive-does not represent more than 16-18% of the total expenditure (approximately 200 million euros per year). The increase represented by the cost of MS is not based on higher treatment expenditure but on an increase in the incidence and-especially-the prevalence of the disease. Above all, in the last few years, there has been a considerable rise in the percentage of patients with an indication for treatment. Reflection is therefore needed on the use of drug therapy in MS, since a saving in the most effective products seems to increase the overall cost of MS, while expenditure on these drugs represents a saving in the long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  9. Optical Diode Effect at Spin-Wave Excitations of the Room-Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kézsmárki, I; Nagel, U; Bordács, S; Fishman, R S; Lee, J H; Yi, Hee Taek; Cheong, S-W; Rõõm, T

    2015-09-18

    Multiferroics permit the magnetic control of the electric polarization and the electric control of the magnetization. These static magnetoelectric (ME) effects are of enormous interest: The ability to read and write a magnetic state current-free by an electric voltage would provide a huge technological advantage. Dynamic or optical ME effects are equally interesting, because they give rise to unidirectional light propagation as recently observed in low-temperature multiferroics. This phenomenon, if realized at room temperature, would allow the development of optical diodes which transmit unpolarized light in one, but not in the opposite, direction. Here, we report strong unidirectional transmission in the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO_{3} over the gigahertz-terahertz frequency range. The supporting theory attributes the observed unidirectional transmission to the spin-current-driven dynamic ME effect. These findings are an important step toward the realization of optical diodes, supplemented by the ability to switch the transmission direction with a magnetic or electric field.

  10. STING activator c-di-GMP enhances the anti-tumor effects of peptide vaccines in melanoma-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zili; Celis, Esteban

    2015-08-01

    Therapeutic vaccines to induce anti-tumor CD8 T cells have been used in clinical trials for advanced melanoma patients, but the clinical response rate and overall survival time have not improved much. We believe that these dismal outcomes are caused by inadequate number of antigen-specific CD8 T cells generated by most vaccines. In contrast, huge CD8 T cell responses readily occur during acute viral infections. High levels of type-I interferon (IFN-I) are produced during these infections, and this cytokine not only exhibits anti-viral activity but also promotes CD8 T cell responses. The studies described here were performed to determine whether promoting the production of IFN-I could enhance the potency of a peptide vaccine. We report that cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which activates the stimulator of interferon genes, potentiated the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of a peptide vaccine against mouse B16 melanoma. The synergistic effects of c-di-GMP required co-administration of costimulatory anti-CD40 antibody, the adjuvant poly-IC, and were mediated in part by IFN-I. These findings demonstrate that peptides representing CD8 T cell epitopes can be effective inducers of large CD8 T cell responses in vaccination strategies that mimic acute viral infections.

  11. The effect of changing disk parameters on whirling frequency of high speed rotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, A. M. Abdul; Rasid, Z. A.; Abu, A.; Rudin, N. F. Mohd Noor; Yakub, F.

    2017-12-01

    The requirement for efficiency improvement of machines has caused machine rotor to be designed to rotate at high speeds. It is known that whirling natural frequency of a shaft changes with the change of shaft speed and the design needs to avoid points of resonance where the whirling frequency equals the shaft speed. At high speeds, a shaft may have to carry a huge torque along and this torsional effect has been neglected in past shaft analyses. Whirling behaviour of high speed rotating shaft is investigated in this study with consideration of the torsional effect of the shaft. The shaft system under study consists of a shaft, discs and two bearings, and the focus is on the effect of the disc parameters. A finite element formulation is developed based on Nelson’s 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) per node element that includes the torsional degree of freedom. Bolotin’s method is applied to the derived Mathieu-Hill type of equation to get quadratic eigenvalues problem that gives the forward and backward frequencies of the shaft. Campbell’s diagrams are drawn in studying the effect of discs on the whirling behaviour of the shaft. It is found that the addition of disks on the shaft decreases the whirling frequency of the shaft and the frequency is lower for mass located at the centre of the shaft compared to the one located near to the end. The effect of torsional motion is found to be significant where the difference between critical speed of 4DOF and 5DOF models can be as high as 15%.

  12. Protective Effects of Terpenes on the Cardiovascular System: Current Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Zuzarte, Monica; Marques, Carla; Salgueiro, Ligia; Girao, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide that seriously affect patient's life quality and are responsible for huge economic and social burdens. It is widely accepted that a plant-based diet may reduce the risk of CVDs by attenuating several risk factors and/or modulating disease's onset and progression. Plants are rich in secondary metabolites, being terpenes the most abundant and structurally diverse group. These compounds have shown broad therapeutic potential as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Despite their popularity, scientific evidence on terpenes cardiovascular effects remains sparse, limiting their potential use as cardioprotective and/or cardiotherapeutic agents. Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the present review aims to gather the knowledge and some of the most scientific evidence accumulated over the past years on the effect of terpenes in the cardiovascular field with focus on CVDs namely ischemic heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmias and hypertension. Several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar were consulted. The bibliographic research focused primarily on English written papers published over the last 15 years. A systematic and comprehensive update on the cardiovascular effects of terpenes is provided. Moreover, whenever known, the possible mechanisms of action underlying the cardiovascular effects are pointed out as well as an attempt to identify the most relevant structure- activity relationships of the different classes of terpenes. Overall, this review enables a better understanding of the cardiovascular effects of terpenes, thus paving the way towards future research in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design.

  13. Examining the possible influence of societal violence on governance effectiveness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible influence of violent protests on the effectiveness of governance in South Africa. South Africa continues to experience huge number of labour as well as popular municipal service delivery protests. The popular social view with ensuing protests has often pointed at governance inefficiency as the cause of violent protests. This paper adopts a slightly different view in its analysis of violent protests and instead looks at possible influence of violence as possible instigator of ineffective governance. The paper is conceptually rooted in reviews – combined with simple regression test of possible relationship between violent protest and governance effectiveness. The authors also present an examination of probable relationship between violent protests and governance effectiveness using observation of macro-economic data trends from the World Bank. The findings reveal a probable weakening in governance effectiveness or its perception thereof as a result of violent protests. Amongst others, violent protests produces a psyche of perpetual victimhood that leads to further violence resulting in less value attached to lives, destruction of economic property, increases pollution, production stoppages for goods and services and in turn depletes government revenue generation and frustrates international investors. We postulate that under condition explained above, government effectiveness in managing public resources becomes weakened and may lead to wastage and inefficiency as the resources and revenues employed in controlling violent protests are unplanned and do not often lead to constructive and sustainable public policy. We suggest that this condition therefore may result in reduction in economic growth which in turn perpetuates the same weaknesses that led to society protests and violence.

  14. Ranking the effects of urban development projects on social determinants of health: health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Nouri, Jafar; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hosein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2014-05-30

    Health impact assessment (HIA) offer a very logical and interesting approach for those aiming to integrate health issues into planning processes. With a lot of works and plans waiting to be done (e.g., developing and updating plans, counseling planning commissions, cooperation with other organizations), planners find it difficult to prioritize health among a variety of possible issues and solutions they confront. In the present article, first, the list of social determinants of health associated with Chitgar man-made lake was extracted out using a qualitative method and with content analysis approach, and then they were prioritized using analytic hierarchy process. 28 social determinants of health including "intermediary" and "structural" determinants were extracted out. Regarding positive effects of lake on these determinants, "recreational services" and "traffic" received the highest and the lowest weights with 0.895 and 0.638 respectively among structural determinants and with consideration to "construction" option. Furthermore, among intermediary determinants for "construction" option, sub-criteria of both "physical activity" and "air quality" received the final highest weight (0.889) and "pathogenesis" indicated the lowest weight with 0.617. Moreover, lake demonstrated the highest negative effects on "housing" among "structural" determinants which it takes the highest weight (0.476) in "non-construction" option. Additionally, lake had the highest negative effects on "noise pollution" among "intermediary determinants" and it takes the highest weight (0.467) in "non-construction" option. It has been shown that urban development projects such as green spaces, man-made lakes … have a huge range of effects on community's health, and having not considered these effects by urban planners and mangers is going to confront urban health with many challenges.

  15. CHILLING EFFECT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas K Grose

    2016-01-01

    .... When they are jammed together, just heating them activates that effect, says Cola, who plans to scale up his research to see if the heat can be transferred longer distances in larger pieces of the material. -T.G....

  16. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  17. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  18. Effective leadership

    OpenAIRE

    VÁVROVÁ, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I describe problems of effective leadership in organization in relation with organization's objectives filling. I focus here on main principles of leadership process. I characterize process of leadership and personality of leader, who is active executor of this process in organization. The effective leadership is here evaluated mainly from organization theory point of view and in relation with requirements to management, especially its relation with leadership and its de...

  19. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  20. EFFECTS OF ELECTRODE DEFORMATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING ON 304 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL WELD GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachimani Charde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance spot welding process is accomplished by forcing huge amounts of current flow from the upper electrode tip through the base metals to the lower electrode tip, or vice versa or in both directions. A weld joint is established between the metal sheets through fusion, resulting in a strong bond between the sheets without occupying additional space. The growth of the weld nugget (bond between sheets is therefore determined from the welding current density; sufficient time for current delivery; reasonable electrode pressing force; and the area provided for current delivery (electrode tip. The welding current and weld time control the root penetration, while the electrode pressing force and electrode tips successfully accomplish the connection during the welding process. Although the welding current and weld time cause the heat generation at the areas concerned (electrode tip area, the electrode tips’ diameter and electrode pressing forces also directly influence the welding process. In this research truncated-electrode deformation and mushrooming effects are observed, which result in the welded areas being inconsistent due to the expulsion. The copper to chromium ratio is varied from the tip to the end of the electrode whilst the welding process is repeated. The welding heat affects the electrode and the electrode itself influences the shape of the weld geometry.

  1. Evaluation of the nutritional effects of fasting on cardiovascular diseases, using fuzzy data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbasi Joshaghan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in information technology and data collection methods have enabled high-speed collection and storage of huge amounts of data. Data mining can be used to derive laws from large data volumes and their characteristics. Similarly, fuzzy logic by facilitating the understanding of events is considered a suitable complement to scientific data mining. Materials and Methods: The present study used clustering to identify the independent characteristics of data. Related fuzzy sets, linguistic variables, and data classifications were defined, and the index was introduced based on the characteristics extracted from useful results. By considering the disease risk factors, the results were analyzed. Results: Two factors contributing to the health improvement or deterioration were defined: ‘age’ and ‘the appropriateness or inappropriateness between insulin level and blood sugar’. In addition, according to the results, fasting had a positive effect on fatty substances of the blood (cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusion: The results can help us determine whether or not an individual with a cardiovascular disease should fast in the month of Ramadan. However, due to variations in some features such as blood pressure throughout the day, there are uncertainties in some input data; therefore, the results could be far from reality. If it is possible to generate fuzzy data, then we can obtain more accurate results.

  2. Effect of Electron Energy Distribution on the Hysteresis of Plasma Discharge: Theory, Experiment, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Hysteresis, which is the history dependence of physical systems, indicates that there are more-than-two stable points in a given condition, and it has been considered to one of the most important topics in fundamental physics. Recently, the hysteresis of plasma has become a focus of research because stable plasma operation is very important for fusion reactors, bio-medical plasmas, and industrial plasmas for nano-device fabrication process. Interestingly, the bi-stability characteristics of plasma with a huge hysteresis loop have been observed in inductive discharge plasmas Because hysteresis study in such plasmas can provide a universal understanding of plasma physics, many researchers have attempted experimental and theoretical studies. Despite long plasma research, how this plasma hysteresis occurs remains an unresolved question in plasma physics. Here, we report theory, experiment, and modeling of the hysteresis. It was found experimentally and theoretically that evolution of the electron energy distribution (EED) makes a strong plasma hysteresis. In Ramsauer and non-Ramsauer gas experiments, it was revealed that the plasma hysteresis is observed only at high pressure Ramsauer gas where the EED deviates considerably from a Maxwellian shape. This hysteresis was presented in the plasma balance model where the EED is considered. Because electrons in plasmas are usually not in a thermal equilibrium, this EED-effect can be regarded as a universal phenomenon in plasma physics. This research was partially supported by Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science.

  3. [Microbial response mechanism for drying and rewetting effect on soil respiration in grassland ecosystem: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun-Long; Qi, Yu-Chun; Dong, Yun-She; Peng, Qin; Sun, Liang-Jie; Jia, Jun-Qiang; Guo, Shu-Fang; Yan, Zhong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    As one of the most important and wide distribution community type among terrestrial ecosystems, grassland ecosystem plays a critical role in the global carbon cycles and climate regulation. China has extremely rich grassland resources, which have a huge carbon sequestration potential and are an important part of the global carbon cycle. Drying and rewetting is a common natural phenomenon in soil, which might accelerate soil carbon mineralization process, increase soil respiration and exert profound influence on microbial activity and community structure. Under the background of the global change, the changes in rainfall capacity, strength and frequency would inevitably affect soil drying and wetting cycles, and thus change the microbial activity and community structure as well as soil respiration, and then exert important influence on global carbon budget. In this paper, related references in recent ten years were reviewed. The source of soil released, the trend of soil respiration over time and the relationship between soil respiration and microbial biomass, microbial activity and microbial community structure during the processes of dry-rewetting cycle were analyzed and summarized, in order to better understand the microbial response mechanism for drying and rewetting effecting on soil respiration in grassland ecosystem, and provide a certain theoretical basis for more accurate evaluation and prediction of future global carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems and climate change.

  4. Effect of the accuracy of pH control on hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chungman; Jang, Sujin; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kang, Won-Seok; Kwak, Seung-Shin; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2015-03-01

    pH, known as the most important parameter in H2 fermentation, cannot be precisely controlled in a scaled-up fermenter as in a lab fermenter. In the preset work, to assess the effect of pH control accuracy on H2 fermentation, the pH was controlled at 6.0±0.1, 6.0±0.3, 6.0±0.5, 6.0±0.7, and 6.0±0.9 during batch fermentation of food waste. Up to deviation of ±0.3, a high H2 yield of 1.67-1.73 mol H2/mol hexose(added) was attained with producing butyrate as a major metabolite (>70% of total organic acids produced). A huge drop of H2 production, however, was observed at deviation >±0.5 with lowered substrate utilization and increased production of lactate. Next generation sequencing results showed that Clostridium was found to be the dominant genus (76.4% of total number of sequences) at deviation of ±0.1, whereas the dominant genus was changed to lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus and Lactobacillus with increase of deviation value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Effective NoSQL-Based Vector Map Tile Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within a digital map service environment, the rapid growth of Spatial Big-Data is driving new requirements for effective mechanisms for massive online vector map tile processing. The emergence of Not Only SQL (NoSQL databases has resulted in a new data storage and management model for scalable spatial data deployments and fast tracking. They better suit the scenario of high-volume, low-latency network map services than traditional standalone high-performance computer (HPC or relational databases. In this paper, we propose a flexible storage framework that provides feasible methods for tiled map data parallel clipping and retrieval operations within a distributed NoSQL database environment. We illustrate the parallel vector tile generation and querying algorithms with the MapReduce programming model. Three different processing approaches, including local caching, distributed file storage, and the NoSQL-based method, are compared by analyzing the concurrent load and calculation time. An online geological vector tile map service prototype was developed to embed our processing framework in the China Geological Survey Information Grid. Experimental results show that our NoSQL-based parallel tile management framework can support applications that process huge volumes of vector tile data and improve performance of the tiled map service.

  6. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Effects of Açaí, an Amazon Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Roberto S; Resende, Ângela Castro

    2016-07-01

    Despite being used for a long time as food and beverage by Brazilian people who live on the Amazon bay, only in the beginning of this century, açaí berries have been the object of scientific research. Açaí berries are rich in polyphenols that probably explains its versatile pharmacological actions and huge consumption, not only in Brazil but also in Europe and United States. In this review, not all but some pharmacological aspects of açaí berries are analyzed. Chemical and pharmacological differences between extracts obtained from the skin and seed of açaí are considered. Polyphenols from the seed of açaí increase endothelial nitric oxide production leading to endothelium-dependent relaxation, reduce reactive oxygen species and regulate key targets associated with lipid metabolism in different conditions such as hypertension, renal failure, and metabolic syndrome. We review the novel mechanisms of actions of açaí on different targets which could trigger the health benefits of açaí such as antioxidant, vasodilator, antihypertensive, cardioprotector, renal protector, antidyslipidemic, antiobesity, and antidiabetic effects in cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances.

  7. Effect of Different Organic Wastes on Soil Propertie s and Plant Growth and Yield: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture plays a great role in recycling essential plant nutrients, sustaining soil security as well as protecting the environment from unwanted hazards. This review article deals with the effect of different kinds of organic wastes on soil properties and plant growth and yield. Municipal solid waste is mainly used as a source of nitrogen and organic matter, improving soil properties and microbial activity that are closely related to soil fertility. Biowaste and food waste increase pH, nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, water holding capacity, and microbial biomass in soil. Sewage sludge contains various amounts of organic matter and huge amounts of plant nutrients. Manure is a common waste which improves soil properties by adding nutrients and increases microbial and enzyme activity in soil. It also reduces toxicity of some heavy metals. These organic wastes have a great positive impact on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as stimulate plant growth and thus increase the yield of crops.

  8. FIR: An Effective Scheme for Extracting Useful Metadata from Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Sheng; Lin, Zue-Cheng; Chang, Jing-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the use of social media for health information exchange is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. In medical areas, social media allows non-experts to access, interpret, and generate medical information for their own care and the care of others. Researchers paid much attention on social media in medical educations, patient-pharmacist communications, adverse drug reactions detection, impacts of social media on medicine and healthcare, and so on. However, relatively few papers discuss how to extract useful knowledge from a huge amount of textual comments in social media effectively. Therefore, this study aims to propose a Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory network based Information Retrieval (FIR) scheme by combining Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART) network, Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), and association rules (AR) discovery to extract knowledge from social media. In our FIR scheme, Fuzzy ART network firstly has been employed to segment comments. Next, for each customer segment, we use LSI technique to retrieve important keywords. Then, in order to make the extracted keywords understandable, association rules mining is presented to organize these extracted keywords to build metadata. These extracted useful voices of customers will be transformed into design needs by using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) for further decision making. Unlike conventional information retrieval techniques which acquire too many keywords to get key points, our FIR scheme can extract understandable metadata from social media.

  9. Access to Network Login by Three-Factor Authentication for Effective Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vaithyasubramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s technology development in the field of computer along with internet of things made huge difference in the transformation of our lives. Basic computer framework and web client need to make significant login signify getting to mail, long range interpersonal communication, internet keeping money, booking tickets, perusing online daily papers, and so forth. The login user name and secret key mapping validate if the logging user is the intended client. Secret key is assumed an indispensable part in security. The objective of MFA is to make a layered safeguard and make it more troublesome for an unauthenticated entity to get to an objective, for example, a physical area, processing gadget, system, or database. In the event that one element is bargained or broken, the assailant still has two more boundaries to rupture before effectively breaking into the objective. An endeavor has been made by utilizing three variable types of authentication. In this way managing additional secret key includes an additional layer of security.

  10. Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws. A Severe Side Effect of Bisphosphonate Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Janovská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonates (BP are potent inhibitors of bone resorption used mainly in the treatment of metastatic bone disease and osteoporosis. By inhibiting bone resorption, they prevent complications as pathological fracture, pain, tumor-induced hypercalcemia. Even though patient’s benefit of BP therapy is huge, various side effects may develop. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ is among the most serious ones. Oncologic patients receiving high doses of BP intravenously are at high risk of BRONJ development. BPs impair bone turnover leading to compromised bone healing which may result in the exposure of necrotic bone in the oral cavity frequently following tooth extraction or trauma of the oral mucosa. Frank bone exposure may be complicated by secondary infection leading to osteomyelitis development with various symptoms and radiological findings. In the management of BRONJ, conservative therapy aiming to reduce the symptoms plays the main role. In patients with extensive bone involvement resective surgery may lead to complete recovery, provided that the procedure is correctly indicated. Since the treatment of BRONJ is difficult, prevention is the main goal. Therefore in high risk patients dental preventive measures should be taken prior to bisphosphonate administration. This requires adequate communication between the prescribing physician, the patient and the dentist.

  11. Automated and effective content-based image retrieval for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vibhav Prakash; Srivastava, Subodh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, huge number of mammograms has been generated in hospitals for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can contribute more reliable diagnosis by classifying the query mammograms and retrieving similar mammograms already annotated by diagnostic descriptions and treatment results. Since labels, artifacts, and pectoral muscles present in mammograms can bias the retrieval procedures, automated detection and exclusion of these image noise patterns and/or non-breast regions is an essential pre-processing step. In this study, an efficient and automated CBIR system of mammograms was developed and tested. First, the pre-processing steps including automatic labelling-artifact suppression, automatic pectoral muscle removal, and image enhancement using the adaptive median filter were applied. Next, pre-processed images were segmented using the co-occurrence thresholds based seeded region growing algorithm. Furthermore, a set of image features including shape, histogram based statistical, Gabor, wavelet, and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features, was computed from the segmented region. In order to select the optimal features, a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) feature selection method was then applied. Finally, similar images were retrieved using Euclidean distance similarity measure. The comparative experiments conducted with reference to benchmark mammographic images analysis society (MIAS) database confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed work concerning average precision of 72% and 61.30% for normal & abnormal classes of mammograms, respectively.

  12. Effect of a nonmagnetic impurity in a nearly antiferromagnetic Fermi liquid: Magnetic correlations and transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontani, Hiroshi; Ohno, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    In nearly antiferromagnetic (AF) metals such as high- Tc superconductors (HTSCs), a single nonmagnetic impurity frequently causes nontrivial widespread change of the electronic states. To elucidate this long-standing issue, we study a Hubbard model with a strong onsite impurity potential based on an improved fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation, which we call the GVI -FLEX method. This model corresponds to the HTSC with dilute nonmagnetic impurity concentration. We find that (i) both local and staggered susceptibilities are strongly enhanced around the impurity. By this reason, (ii) the quasiparticle lifetime as well as the local density of states are strongly suppressed in a wide area around the impurity (like a Swiss cheese hole), which causes the “huge residual resistivity” beyond the s -wave unitary scattering limit. We stress that the excess quasiparticle damping rate caused by impurities has strong k -dependence due to non- s -wave scatterings induced by many-body effects, so the structure of the “hot spot/cold spot” in the host system persists against impurity doping. This result could be examined by the ARPES measurements. In addition, (iii) only a few percent of impurities can cause a “Kondo-like” upturn of resistivity (dρ/dTheavy fermion systems and organic superconductors.

  13. Energy saving effect of desiccant ventilation system using Wakkanai siliceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yuki; Togawa, Jun-ya; Nagano, Katsunori; Kazuyo, Tsuzuki

    2017-10-01

    The nuclear power station accident resulting from the Great East Japan Earthquake disaster has resulted in a constrained electricity supply. However, in this Asian region there is high temperature and high humidity and consequently dehumidification process requires a huge amount of energy. This is the reason for the increasing energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors. Accordingly, a high efficiency air-conditioning system is needed to be developed. The desiccant ventilation system is effective to reduce energy consumption for the dehumidification process. This system is capable of dehumidifying without dew condensing unlike a conventional air-conditioning system. Then we focused on Wakkanai Siliceous Shale (WSS) as a desiccant material to develop a new desiccant ventilation system. This is low priced, high performance, new type of thing. The aim of this study is to develop a desiccant ventilation unit using the WSS rotor which can be regenerated with low-temperature by numerical calculation. The results of performance prediction of the desiccant unit, indicate that it is possible to regenerate the WSS rotor at low-temperature of between 35 - 45 °C. In addition, we produced an actual measurement for the desiccant unit and air-conditioning unit. This air-conditioning system was capable to reduce roughly 40 % of input energy consumption.

  14. Effective Technological Delivery in Nigerian Polytechnics:Need for Academic Manpower Development Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Adeyemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Technical education, especially as provided in the Nigerian polytechnics, leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. The production function of the polytechnics in terms of producing quality middle-level manpower through effective teaching delivery depends largely on the quantity and quality of teachers available. However, teacher adequacy is a function of many factors, which include funding, student enrollment overtime, and staff turnover. This article, however, revealed a mismatch between enrollment and available teachers, with huge staff shortfall over the years when the student enrollment was matched with the available teachers, using the ideal teacher-student ratios. Student and teacher projections were carried out based on five-percent annual increase and average teacher-student ratio of 1:12, so as to meet the vision 2010 target year set by the Nigerian government for total development. The projection showed that the polytechnics would require a large additional number of teachers. An all-inclusive funding approach for the polytechnics was recommended so as to increase their financial status, which would allow for improved facilities, workshops, equipment and also improved conditions of service of teachers. We believe that if this was done, more teachers would be attracted from across the world, those who left would return, and new and younger ones will be encouraged to join the teaching force. Such development would to a great extent meet and sustain the anticipated growth for the target year.

  15. Effects of environmental variation on host-parasite interaction in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsack, Jörn P; Franke, Frederik; Erin, Noémi I; Kuske, Andra; Büscher, Janine; Stolz, Hendrik; Samonte, Irene E; Kurtz, Joachim; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Recent research provides accumulating evidence that the evolutionary dynamics of host-parasite adaptations strongly depend on environmental variation. In this context, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has become an important research model since it is distributed all over the northern hemisphere and lives in very different habitat types, ranging from marine to freshwater, were it is exposed to a huge diversity of parasites. While a majority of studies start from explorations of sticklebacks in the wild, only relatively few investigations have continued under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, it has often been described that sticklebacks differ in parasite burden between habitats, but the underlying co-evolutionary trajectories are often not well understood. With the present review, we give an overview of the most striking examples of stickleback-parasite-environment interactions discovered in the wild and discuss two model parasites which have received some attention in laboratory studies: the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathacaeum, for which host fish show habitat-specific levels of resistance, and the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, which manipulates immunity and behavior of its stickleback host to its advantage. Finally, we will concentrate on an important environmental variable, namely temperature, which has prominent effects on the activity of the immune system of ectothermic hosts and on parasite growth rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of state and trait anxiety on sleep structure: A polysomnographic study in 1083 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András; Montana, Xavier; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Hubain, Philippe; Szűcs, Anna; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-10-30

    Anxiety affects millions of people and has been shown to co-occur in combination with sleep disturbances, generating heavy medical costs and a huge socio-medico-economic burden. Sleep-studies in anxiety disorders are inconsistent and the effects of state and trait anxiety are unexplored. We selected 1083 patients from the database of a hospital sleep laboratory. The patients had polysomnography for different sleep disorders; their sleep initiation (sleep onset latency), sleep maintenance (total sleep time), non-rapid eye movement sleep-, and rapid eye movement sleep parameters; as well as their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck depression scale were measured. In order to be included in our study, individuals needed to score in the low or high range on the State and/or Trait Subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. We found that both state and trait anxiety affected non-rapid eye movement sleep parameters. Sleep onset latency changes predominantly associated to state anxiety while rapid eye movement parameters related to trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethylene Detection Based on Organic Field-Effect Transistors With Porogen and Palladium Particle Receptor Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besar, Kalpana; Dailey, Jennifer; Katz, Howard E

    2017-01-18

    Ethylene sensing is a highly challenging problem for the horticulture industry because of the limited physiochemical reactivity of ethylene. Ethylene plays a very important role in the fruit life cycle and has a significant role in determining the shelf life of fruits. Limited ethylene monitoring capability results in huge losses to the horticulture industry as fruits may spoil before they reach the consumer, or they may not ripen properly. Herein we present a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)-based organic field effect transistor as a sensing platform for ethylene with sensitivity of 25 ppm V/V. To achieve this response, we used N-(tert-Butoxy-carbonyloxy)-phthalimide and palladium particles as additives to the P3HT film. N-(tert-Butoxy-carbonyloxy)-phthalimide is used to increase the porosity of the P3HT, thereby increasing the overall sensor surface area, whereas the palladium (<1 μm diameter) particles are used as receptors for ethylene molecules in order to further enhance the sensitivity of the sensor platform. Both modifications give statistically significant sensitivity increases over pure P3HT. The sensor response is reversible and is also highly selective for ethylene compared to common solvent vapors.

  18. Mask writing time explosion and its effect on CD control in e-beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Choi, Jin; Min, Seong Jun; Kim, Hee Bom; Kim, Byung Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku

    2010-05-01

    As semiconductor features shrink in size and pitch, the extreme control of CD uniformity and MTT is needed for mask fabrication with e-beam lithography. And because of huge shot density of data, the writing time of e-beam lithography for mask fabrication will be increased rapidly in future design node. The beam drift caused by charging of optic system and current density drift can affect the beam size, position and exposure dose stability. From the empirical data, those are the function of writing time. Although e-beam lithography tool has the correction function which can be applied during writing, there are remained errors after correction which result in CD uniformity error. According to the writing time increasing, the residual error of correction will be more important and give the limit of CD uniformity and MTT. In this study, we study the beam size and exposure dose error as a function of time. Those are mainly caused by charging and current density drift. And we present the predicted writing time of e-beam lithography below 32nm node and estimate its effect on CD control error. From the relation between writing time and CD control error, we achieve the limit of CD uniformity with e-beam mask writer. And we suggest the method to achieve required CD uniformity at 22nm node and beyond.

  19. Magnetoanisotropic Josephson effect due to interfacial spin-orbit fields in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Andreas; Högl, Petra; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    We study theoretically the effects of interfacial Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions—with allowing for tunneling barriers between the ferromagnetic and superconducting layers—by solving the Bogoljubov-de Gennes equation for realistic heterostructures and applying the Furusaki-Tsukada technique to calculate the electric current at a finite temperature. The presence of spin-orbit couplings leads to out-of-plane and in-plane magnetoanisotropies of the Josephson current, which are giant in comparison to current magnetoanisotropies in similar normal-state ferromagnet/normal metal (F/N) junctions. Especially huge anisotropies appear in the vicinity of 0 -π transitions, caused by the exchange-split bands in the ferromagnetic metal layer. We also show that the direction of the Josephson critical current can be controlled (inducing 0 -π transitions) by the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and, more crucial, by the orientation of the magnetization. Such a control can bring new functionalities into Josephson junction devices.

  20. NONPERFORMING LOANS PORTFOLIO AND ITS EFFECT ON BANK PROFITABILITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Huge nonperforming loans portfolio erodes the ability of banks to make profits. In the 1990s and beyond many Nigerian banks became weak and highly unprofitable due to excessive nonperforming loans portfolio accumulated by bank promoters and management that led to their demise. Insider dealing was the major cause of large nonperforming loan portfolio in Nigeria, involving over-extension of loans to promoters, directors and significant others that became bad and irrecoverable. To clean up the mess in the banking sector and return the banks to the paths of sound management and profitability, the CBN had to inject about N700bn in a bailout exercise while purging the system of bad and irresponsible management teams .The exploratory research design was adopted. Data generated were organized and coded before they were classified. To achieve the objective of the study data analyses were done through descriptive and regression analyses using the statistical package for the social sciences for the regression. With the regression result of Y = 78.353 – 4.04x it was found that nonperforming loans portfolio has negative effect on bank profitability.

  1. [Effective delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2008-12-01

    Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills.

  2. Seismomagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Local changes in the earth's magnetic field that are associated with active faults have long been viewed as offering a potential method of analyzing earthquakes. Considerable efforts have been made to determine the effects theoretically and, in the field, to develop a sensitive method of identifying characteristic stress patterns. In particular, if related magnetic changes can be identified before an earthquake, the so-called seismomagnetic effect could be useful in earthquake prediction. After several years of observing magnetic changes whose magnitudes seem to have been constantly reevaluated in the light of more sensitive measurements, Hao, Hastie, and Stacey (Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors, 28, 129, 1982) recently examined the theory and concluded that actual effects are probably a lot weaker than had been previously thought.

  3. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  4. Complex nature of SNP genotype effects on gene expression in primary human leucocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesen Lotte C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide association studies have been hugely successful in identifying disease risk variants, yet most variants do not lead to coding changes and how variants influence biological function is usually unknown. Methods We correlated gene expression and genetic variation in untouched primary leucocytes (n = 110 from individuals with celiac disease – a common condition with multiple risk variants identified. We compared our observations with an EBV-transformed HapMap B cell line dataset (n = 90, and performed a meta-analysis to increase power to detect non-tissue specific effects. Results In celiac peripheral blood, 2,315 SNP variants influenced gene expression at 765 different transcripts (cis expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs. 135 of the detected SNP-probe effects (reflecting 51 unique probes were also detected in a HapMap B cell line published dataset, all with effects in the same allelic direction. Overall gene expression differences within the two datasets predominantly explain the limited overlap in observed cis-eQTLs. Celiac associated risk variants from two regions, containing genes IL18RAP and CCR3, showed significant cis genotype-expression correlations in the peripheral blood but not in the B cell line datasets. We identified 14 genes where a SNP affected the expression of different probes within the same gene, but in opposite allelic directions. By incorporating genetic variation in co-expression analyses, functional relationships between genes can be more significantly detected. Conclusion In conclusion, the complex nature of genotypic effects in human populations makes the use of a relevant tissue, large datasets, and analysis of different exons essential to enable the identification of the function for many genetic risk variants in common diseases.

  5. The development of WEEE management and effects of the fund policy for subsidizing WEEE treating in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Luling; He, Wenzhi, E-mail: hithwz@163.com; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The paper systematically introduces recycling system of WEEE management in China. • The paper introduces the new policy about WEEE management in China. • This paper analyzes the results of its implementation. • This paper evaluates the effectiveness to WEEE management in China. - Abstract: The consumption of electrical and electronic equipment is surging, so is the generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Due to the large quantity, high potential risk and valuable capacity of WEEE, many countries are taking measures to regulate the management of WEEE. The environmental pollution and human health-harming problems caused by irregular treatment of WEEE in China make the government pay more and more attention to its management. This paper reviews the development of WEEE management in China, introduces the new policy which is established for WEEE recycling and especially analyzes the effectiveness of the policy, including huge recovery, formation of new recycling system, strict supervision to related enterprises, and the stimulation to public awareness. Based on the current achievement, some recommendations are given to optimize the WEEE management in China.

  6. Investigation on the Effect of Pulsed Energy on Strength of Fillet Lap Laser Welded AZ31B Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. N. M.; Ishak, M.; Aiman, M. H.; Idris, S. R. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.

    2017-09-01

    AZ31B magnesium alloy have been hugely applied in the aerospace, automotive, and electronic industries. However, welding thin sheet AZ31B was challenging due to its properties which is easily to evaporated especially using conventional fusion welding method such as metal inert gas (MIG). Laser could be applied to weld this metal since it produces lower heat input. The application of fiber laser welding has been widely since this type of laser could produce better welding product especially in the automotive sectors. Low power fiber laser was used to weld this non-ferrous metal where pulse wave (PW) mode was used. Double fillet lap joint was applied to weld as thin as 0.6 mm thick of AZ31B and the effect of pulsed energy on the strength was studied. Bond width, throat length, and penetration depth also was studied related to the pulsed energy which effecting the joint. Higher pulsed energy contributes to the higher fracture load with angle of irradiation lower than 3 °

  7. Scaling of graphene field-effect transistors supported on hexagonal boron nitride: radio-frequency stability as a limiting factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Pedro C.; Pasadas, Francisco; Iglesias, José M.; Martín, María J.; Rengel, Raúl; Li, Changfeng; Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Lipsanen, Harri; Jiménez, David

    2017-12-01

    The quality of graphene in nanodevices has increased hugely thanks to the use of hexagonal boron nitride as a supporting layer. This paper studies to which extent hBN together with channel length scaling can be exploited in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) to get a competitive radio-frequency (RF) performance. Carrier mobility and saturation velocity were obtained from an ensemble Monte Carlo simulator that accounted for the relevant scattering mechanisms (intrinsic phonons, scattering with impurities and defects, etc). This information is fed into a self-consistent simulator, which solves the drift-diffusion equation coupled with the two-dimensional Poisson’s equation to take full account of short channel effects. Simulated GFET characteristics were benchmarked against experimental data from our fabricated devices. Our simulations show that scalability is supposed to bring to RF performance an improvement that is, however, highly limited by instability. Despite the possibility of a lower performance, a careful choice of the bias point can avoid instability. Nevertheless, maximum oscillation frequencies are still achievable in the THz region for channel lengths of a few hundreds of nanometers.

  8. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  9. An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujarathi, Ritesh A; Dwivedi, Rambabu; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-04-01

    India is currently witnessing rising numbers of people in the middle-class who are obese. A lot of the Indian population has started relying on processed foods that contain a huge percentage of trans-fat, sugars, and other unhealthy and artificial ingredients. Obesity is considered the core of many diseases. Increased weight carries significant health risks for some cancers, diabetes, heart diseases and strokes. Junk food, alcohol and sedentary lifestyle are leading us to silent self destruction, making one in every five Indian men and women either obese or overweight. To determine the effect of Gomutra Haritaki on Sthaulya. An observational pilot study on the effect of Gomutra Haritaki, diet control and exercise in the management of Sthaulya (obesity) was conducted on 21 patients. Enrolled patients were screened on the basis of clinical findings and allocated into two groups. Trial group received Gomutra Haritaki (6 g/day in three divided doses) while control group received placebo capsules in the same dose for 8 weeks. Statistically highly significant relief was found in weight reduction (P impact of diet and exercise in the management of Sthaulya.

  10. Spin-dependent Seebeck Effect, Thermal Colossal Magnetoresistance and Negative Differential Thermoelectric Resistance in Zigzag Silicene Nanoribbon Heterojunciton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zu-Quan; Gu, Lei

    2015-05-22

    Spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of hot topics in spin caloritronics, which examine the relationships between spin and heat transport in materials. Meanwhile, it is still a huge challenge to obtain thermally induced spin current nearly without thermal electron current. Here, we construct a hydrogen-terminated zigzag silicene nanoribbon heterojunction, and find that by applying a temperature difference between the source and the drain, spin-up and spin-down currents are generated and flow in opposite directions with nearly equal magnitudes, indicating that the thermal spin current dominates the carrier transport while the thermal electron current is much suppressed. By modulating the temperature, a pure thermal spin current can be achieved. Moreover, a thermoelectric rectifier and a negative differential thermoelectric resistance can be obtained in the thermal electron current. Through the analysis of the spin-dependent transport characteristics, a phase diagram containing various spin caloritronic phenomena is provided. In addition, a thermal magnetoresistance, which can reach infinity, is also obtained. Our results put forward an effective route to obtain a spin caloritronic material which can be applied in future low-power-consumption technology.

  11. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin on LPS-stimulated bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Min Yu

    Full Text Available Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle worldwide and not only causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry but also threatens public health. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of melatonin in mastitis, we examined the ability of melatonin to protect bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. We found that melatonin inhibited the LPS-binding protein-CD14-TLR4 signaling pathway in bMECs, which had opposing effects on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Melatonin decreased LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and positive acute-phase proteins (APPs, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, chemokine CC motif ligand (CCL2, CCL5, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and α-1 antitrypsin, and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra and the negative APP fibrinogen. In addition, melatonin increased dityrosine levels but suppressed nitrite levels by upregulating the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the Nrf2 antioxidant defense pathway. Finally, melatonin administration increased the viability of LPS-stimulated bMECs. These results suggest that melatonin protects bMECs from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidant stress damage and provide evidence that melatonin might have therapeutic utility in mastitis.

  12. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin on LPS-stimulated bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Min; Kubota, Hirokazu; Okita, Miki; Maeda, Teruo

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy cattle worldwide and not only causes huge economic losses in the dairy industry but also threatens public health. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of melatonin in mastitis, we examined the ability of melatonin to protect bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) from the harmful effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that melatonin inhibited the LPS-binding protein-CD14-TLR4 signaling pathway in bMECs, which had opposing effects on pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators. Melatonin decreased LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and positive acute-phase proteins (APPs), including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor, chemokine CC motif ligand (CCL)2, CCL5, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and α-1 antitrypsin, and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra and the negative APP fibrinogen. In addition, melatonin increased dityrosine levels but suppressed nitrite levels by upregulating the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the Nrf2 antioxidant defense pathway. Finally, melatonin administration increased the viability of LPS-stimulated bMECs. These results suggest that melatonin protects bMECs from LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidant stress damage and provide evidence that melatonin might have therapeutic utility in mastitis.

  13. Environmental effects on allergen levels in commercially grown non-genetically modified soybeans: assessing variation across North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severin E. Stevenson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is a hugely valuable soft commodity that generates tens of billions of dollars annually. This value is due in part to the balanced composition of the seed which is roughly 1:2:2 oil, starch and protein by weight. In turn, the seeds have many uses with various derivatives appearing broadly in processed food products. As is true with many edible seeds, soybeans contain proteins that are anti-nutritional factors and allergens. Soybean, along with milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts and wheat, elicit a majority of food allergy reactions in the United States. Soybean seed composition can be affected by breeding, environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, moisture, insect/pathogen load, and/or soil nutrient levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and environment on allergen and anti-nutritional proteins in soybean. To address genetic and environmental effects, four varieties of non-GM soybeans were grown in six geographically distinct regions of North America (Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, Ontario, and Pennsylvania. Absolute quantification of proteins by mass spectrometry can be achieved with a technique called multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, during which signals from an endogenous protein are compared to those from a synthetic heavy-labeled internal standard. Using MRM, eight allergens were absolutely quantified for each variety in each environment. Statistical analyses show that for most allergens, the effects of environment far outweigh the differences between varieties brought about by breeding.

  14. Disposal of metal treated Salvinia biomass in soil and its effect on growth and photosynthetic efficiency of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Srivastava, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation technologies generate huge quantities of biomass, the disposal of which is a serious concern. Wastewater samples collected from electroplating industries were treated with Salvinia biomass. The effect of application of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil on growth and physiological indices of 10-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum was evaluated. Controls (A) consisted of soil supplemented with untreated plant biomass. Seed germination, seedling height, total chlorophyll, glucose and protein levels, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), non-photochemical quenching (qn), quantum yield (Y), and electron transport rate (ETR) were not significantly affected in seedlings raised in soils supplemented with metal loaded biomass from most of the samples (B-F) in comparison to control. However, significant decline was noted in total chlorophyll, glucose, and quantum yield in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Among elemental levels, C(%) remained largely unaffected, N(%) showed slight enhancement but a decrease in H(%) was noted in plants grown in soil supplemented with biomass from sample E. Our results, therefore, suggest that metal accumulated Salvinia biomass obtained after phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated wastewater can be supplemented in soil. Further studies are required to assess long-term effects of disposal of metal loaded Salvinia plant biomass in soil.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Nicotine Patches for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: A Placebo Randomized Controlled Trial (SNAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Holly N; Parrott, Steve; Wu, Qi; Li, Jinshuo; Cooper, Sue; Coleman, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the most important, preventable cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight with huge financial costs to the National Health Service. However, there are very few published economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy and previous studies are predominantly U.S.-based and do not present incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). A number of studies have demonstrated cost-effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the general population, but this has yet to be tested among pregnant smokers. A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside the smoking, nicotine, and pregnancy trial to compare NRT patches plus behavioral support to behavioral support alone, for pregnant women who smoked. At delivery, biochemically verified quit rates were slightly higher at 9.4% in the NRT group compared to 7.6% in the control group (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.96), at an increased cost of around £90 per participant. Higher costs in the NRT group were mainly attributable to the cost of NRT patches (mean = £46.07). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with NRT was £4,926 per quitter and a sensitivity analysis including only singleton births yielded an ICER of £4,156 per quitter. However, wide confidence intervals indicated a high level of uncertainty. Without a specific willingness to pay threshold, and due to high levels of statistical uncertainty, it is hard to determine the cost-effectiveness of NRT in this population. Furthermore, future research should address compliance issues, as these may dilute any potential effects of NRT, thus reducing the cost-effectiveness. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in China: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hui; Zhang, Luo; Tobe, Ruo-Yan Gai; Qi, Fang-Hua; Sun, Long; Teng, Yue; Ke, Qing-Lin; Mai, Fei; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Ru-Lan; Tu, Lin; Li, Hong-Hui; Gu, Yan-Qing; Xu, Sai-Nan; Yue, Xiao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Dong; Qi, Bei-Er; Cheng, Xiao-Huan; Tang, Wei; Xu, Ling-Zhong; Han, De-Min

    2012-04-17

    Neonatal hearing screening (NHS) has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This study also showed that both strategies especially universal strategy

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  19. Comparative study of the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline media containing red mud and grey slurries. the effect of Al{sup 3}+; Estudio comparativo del comportamiento electroquimico del hierro en medio alcalino en presencia de lodos rojos y lodos grises. Efecto del Al{sup 3}+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, C. M.; Freire, L.; Novoa, X. R.; Pena, G.; Perez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Red mud (Rm) is the main by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite, and grey slurries (GS) are generated during the granite rocks transformation processes. the huge volume of those wastes generated every year suppose a serious environmental problem. Recent works by our group demonstrate the efficiency of both types of muds as corrosion inhibitors for iron and steel in alkaline media containing chlorides. The elemental analysis of these slurried shows that Al{sup 3}+ is the main common element. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the effect of the soluble Al{sup 3}+ in the electrochemical behaviour of iron in alkaline media, in presence and absence of chlorides. The electrochemical study using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) together with surface analysis techniques allowed to conclude that Al{sup 3}+ blocks the surface of steel in alkaline media chloride increasing the steel resistance to chlorides attack. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  1. Assessing the effect of leachate of copper slag from the ISASMELT process on cell growth and proximate components in microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, V.; Sreepada, R.A; Suryavanshi, U.; Shanmuganathan, P.; Sumathy, A

    Dumping or disposal of huge quantities of slag (containing significant amounts of heavy metals) generated during matte smelting and refining of copper (Cu) is likely to result in environmental toxicity. Detailed chemical studies of Cu...

  2. Quantification of the aerosol direct radiative effect from smoke over clouds using passive space-borne spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.; Tilstra, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    The solar radiative absorption by smoke layers above clouds is quantified, using the unique broad spectral range of the space-borne spectrometer Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the shortwave infrared (SWIR). Aerosol radiative effects in the UV are separated from cloud radiative effects in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). In the UV, aerosol absorption from smoke is strong, creating a strong signal in the measured reflectance. In the SWIR, absorbing and scattering effects from smoke are negligible, allowing the retrieval of cloud parameters from the measured spectrum using existing retrieval techniques. The spectral signature of the cloud can be modelled using a radiative transfer model (RTM) and the cloud parameters retrieved in the SWIR. In this way, the aerosol effects can be determined from the measured aerosol-polluted cloud shortwave spectrum and the modelled aerosol-unpolluted cloud shortwave spectrum. This can be used to derive the aerosol direct radiative effect (DRE) over marine clouds, independent of aerosol parameter retrievals, significantly improving the current accuracy of aerosol DRE estimates. Only cloud parameters are needed to model the aerosolunpolluted cloud reflectance, while the effects of the aerosol absorption are in the aerosol-polluted cloud reflectance measurements. In this paper we present a case study of the above method using SCIAMACHY data over the South Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on 13 August 2006, when a huge plume of smoke was present over persistent cloud fields. The aerosol DRE over clouds was as high as 128 ± 8 Wm-2 for this case, while the aerosol DRE over clouds averaged through August 2006 was found to be 23 ± 8 Wm-2 with a mean variation over the region in this month of 22 Wm-2.

  3. Health effects of World Trade Center (WTC) Dust: An unprecedented disaster's inadequate risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton; Cohen, Mitchell D; Chen, Lung-Chi

    2015-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) twin towers in New York City collapsed on 9/11/2001, converting much of the buildings' huge masses into dense dust clouds of particles that settled on the streets and within buildings throughout Lower Manhattan. About 80-90% of the settled WTC Dust, ranging in particle size from ∼2.5 μm upward, was a highly alkaline mixture of crushed concrete, gypsum, and synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) that was readily resuspendable by physical disturbance and low-velocity air currents. High concentrations of coarse and supercoarse WTC Dust were inhaled and deposited in the conductive airways in the head and lungs, and subsequently swallowed, causing both physical and chemical irritation to the respiratory and gastroesophageal epithelia. There were both acute and chronic adverse health effects in rescue/recovery workers; cleanup workers; residents; and office workers, especially in those lacking effective personal respiratory protective equipment. The numerous health effects in these people were not those associated with the monitored PM2.5 toxicants, which were present at low concentrations, that is, asbestos fibers, transition and heavy metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, and dioxins. Attention was never directed at the very high concentrations of the larger-sized and highly alkaline WTC Dust particles that, in retrospect, contained the more likely causal toxicants. Unfortunately, the initial focus of the air quality monitoring and guidance on exposure prevention programs on low-concentration components was never revised. Public agencies need to be better prepared to provide reliable guidance to the public on more appropriate means of exposure assessment, risk assessment, and preventive measures.

  4. Modularity and its effects on innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård

    fields: Modularity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Findings: Modularization can provide huge advantages for entrepreneurs. However, the true benefits can first be pursued when the product and production processes are mature enough. At this point of time the entrepreneur will need to accept more...... systematic work and management type of tasks, although it conflicts with the typical characteristics associated with the entrepreneur. If not managed properly, modularization can foster the modularity trap over time. At this stage intrapreneurial activities can help the organization stay ahead of the game....... Keywords: Modularity, Innovation, Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship, Modularity trap...

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  6. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  7. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  8. Assessment of health and economic effects by PM2.5 pollution in Beijing: a combined exposure-response and computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.

  9. A numerical study on the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance, combustion, and emission behavior on a single cylinder diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Dhinesh; Sokkalingam Arumugam, Sabari Rajan; Subramani, Lingesan; Joshua Stephen Chellakumar, Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani; Mani, Annamalai

    2018-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to study the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance behavior, combustion characteristics, and emission magnitude on a single cylinder diesel engine. A base combustion bowl and 11 different combustion bowls were created by varying the aspect ratio, reentrancy ratio, and bore to bowl ratio. The study was carried out at engine rated speed and a full throttle performance condition, without altering the compression ratio. The results revealed that the combustion bowl parameters could have a huge impact on the performance behavior, combustion characteristics, and emission magnitude of the engine. The bowl parameters, namely throat diameter and toroidal radius, played a crucial role in determining the performance behavior of the combustion bowls. It was observed that the combustion bowl parameters, namely central pip distance, throat diameter, and bowl depth, also could have an impact on the combustion characteristics. And throat diameter and toroidal radius, central pip distance, and toroidal corner radius could have a consequent effect on the emission magnitude of the engine. Of the different combustion bowls tested, combustion bowl 4 was preferable to others owing to the superior performance of 3% of higher indicated mean effective pressure and lower fuel consumption. Interestingly, trade-off for NO x emission was higher only by 2.85% compared with the base bowl. The sensitivity analysis proved that bowl depth, bowl diameter, toroidal radius, and throat diameter played a vital role in the fuel consumption parameter and emission characteristics even at the manufacturing tolerance variations.

  10. Modeling and design aspects of active caloric regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    A cooling device based on a solid caloric material using, for example, the elastocaloric, magnetocaloric, barocaloric or electrocaloric effect has the potential to replace vapor-compression based systems for a variety of applications. Any caloric device using a solid refrigerant may benefit from using a regenerative cycle to increase the operating temperature span. This presentation shows how all active caloric regenerators can be modeled using similar techniques and how they are related to passive regenerator performance. The advantages and disadvantages of using a regenerative cycle are also discussed. The issue of hysteresis in caloric materials is investigated from a system/thermodynamic standpoint and the effects on cooling power and efficiency are quantified using a numerical model of an active regenerator using model caloric materials with assumed properties. The implementation in a working device will be discussed for elastocaloric and magnetocaloric cooling devices. It is shown that demagnetization effects for magnetocaloric systems and stress concentration effects in elastocaloric system reduce the overall effect in the regenerator and care must be taken in regenerator design for both technologies. Other loss mechanisms outside the regenerator such as heat leaks are also discussed. Finally, experimental results for active magnetic regenerative cooler are given for a range of operating conditions. The most recently published device uses a regenerator consisting of Gd and three alloys of GdY and has demonstrated a COP over 3.

  11. The effect of macromolecular crowding on the electrostatic component of barnase-barstar binding: a computational, implicit solvent-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena W Qi

    Full Text Available Macromolecular crowding within the cell can impact both protein folding and binding. Earlier models of cellular crowding focused on the excluded volume, entropic effect of crowding agents, which generally favors compact protein states. Recently, other effects of crowding have been explored, including enthalpically-related crowder-protein interactions and changes in solvation properties. In this work, we explore the effects of macromolecular crowding on the electrostatic desolvation and solvent-screened interaction components of protein-protein binding. Our simple model enables us to focus exclusively on the electrostatic effects of water depletion on protein binding due to crowding, providing us with the ability to systematically analyze and quantify these potentially intuitive effects. We use the barnase-barstar complex as a model system and randomly placed, uncharged spheres within implicit solvent to model crowding in an aqueous environment. On average, we find that the desolvation free energy penalties incurred by partners upon binding are lowered in a crowded environment and solvent-screened interactions are amplified. At a constant crowder density (fraction of total available volume occupied by crowders, this effect generally increases as the radius of model crowders decreases, but the strength and nature of this trend can depend on the water probe radius used to generate the molecular surface in the continuum model. In general, there is huge variation in desolvation penalties as a function of the random crowder positions. Results with explicit model crowders can be qualitatively similar to those using a lowered "effective" solvent dielectric to account for crowding, although the "best" effective dielectric constant will likely depend on multiple system properties. Taken together, this work systematically demonstrates, quantifies, and analyzes qualitative intuition-based insights into the effects of water depletion due to crowding on the

  12. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  13. Effects of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gowthaman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the effect of both inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure on performance and emission behaviour of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI fuelled with diesel fuel. In this investigation, HCCI engine operates with different inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure, and analysis the effect of these variables on HCCI engine performance and emissions. The inlet air temperatures are varied between 40 °C and 70 °C and the injection pressure in the port fuel injector is varied from 3 bar to 5 bar respectively. From the results, the optimum inlet air temperature and fuel injection pressure for efficient HCCI engine operation are identified. The result shows that, brake thermal efficiency of HCCI is nearer to the value of conventional diesel engine, and can be obtained if HCCI engine operates with 5 bar injection pressure and 60 °C air temperature and a simultaneous reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx and smoke emissions compared to conventional diesel engine. However, when inlet air is heated for improvement of vaporisation of diesel fuel, the higher inlet air temperature limits the operation range of HCCI engine, due to high knocking intensity, high NOx emissions and misfire of charge. The fuel injection pressure is also limited due to high level of HC and NOx emissions.

  14. Clinical effects of thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Jiang, L; Miao, J H; Liang, T S; Kan, Q C; Yang, D K

    2016-01-01

    Malignant fluid, a commonly seen tumor associated complication, mainly includes peritoneal effusion, malignant pleural effusion and pericardial effusion. It can produce huge negative influence on the quality of life of patients and even lead to death. Treatment of malignant effusion is one of the effective measures for improving life expectancy of patients. To evaluate the effect of thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of Kangai injection in treating malignant pleural effusion, 195 patients who received treatment from April 2010 to October 2014 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were selected and divided into an observation group and two control groups (group A and B). The observation group was treated by thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of kangai injection. Control group A was treated by intracavitary infusion of kangai injection and control group B was treated by hyperthermal perfusion in combination with intracavity chemotherapy. Clinical effects, quality of life, treatment safety and untoward reactions were compared between the groups. It was found that differences of WBC, RBC and PLT levels before and after treatment had no statistical significance comparisons within group and comparisons between groups (P>0.05); hepatic and renal functions of the groups had no remarkable difference before or after treatment (P>0.05). The clinical effect of the observation group was superior to that of control groups A and B (P less than 0.05); the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of the observation group was much higher than that of control groups A and B (79.34±10.58 vs 71.11±9.64), but the difference of the ZPS score between groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). It can be concluded that thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of traditional Chinese medicine can be safely applied as it has positive effects and remarkably improves quality of life, therefore it is clinically

  15. The importance of tests applied to evaluate the effectiveness of antiplatelet therapy in patients with recurrent coronary stent thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdinić Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stent thrombosis is potentially lethal complication with huge economic burden. The role of insufficient response to antiplatelet therapy is still unclear reason for its occurrence. Case report. We presented 54-year-old man with recurrent stent thrombosis on the 4th, 9th and 12th day after the primary percutaneous coronary intervention in spite of double antiaggregation therapy (aspirin+ clopidogrel. All possible procedural causes were excluded and reimplantation of intracoronary stent was insufficient to resolve the problem, so four platelet tests were performed: flow cytometry, Platelet Function Analyzer-100 test, aggregometry, and determination of gene polymorphism for P2Y12 receptor (directly involved in the mechanism of thienopyridine, and GPIIbIIIa receptor (final receptor in aggregation. The patient was the carrier of the major haplotype H1H1 for P2Y12 receptor and minor A1A2 for GPIIbIIIa receptor. The results of all the performed tests showed insufficient antiplatelet effect of aspirin and sufficient response to thienopyridin (not to clopidogrel, but to ticlopidine. Conclusion. Performance of platelet function tests is necessary in the case of major adverse cardiac events especially stent thrombosis, after implantation of intracoronary stent.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness and salt stress of Pteris vittata in the remediation of arsenic contamination caused by tsunami sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Endo, Ginro; Hatayama, Masayoshi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, one of the negative effects of the tsunami phenomenon that devastated the Pacific coast of the Tohoku district in Japan was the deposition of a wide range of arsenic (As) contamination to the soil. To remediate such a huge area of contamination, phytoremediation by Pteris vittata, an As-hyperaccumulator, was considered. To evaluate the efficacy of applying P. vittata to the area, the salt tolerance of P. vittata and the phytoextraction of As from soil samples were investigated. For the salt tolerance test, spore germination was considerably decreased at an NaCl level of more than 100 mM. At 200 mM, the gametophytes exhibited a morphological defect. Furthermore, the growth inhibition of P. vittata was observed with a salinity that corresponded to 66.2 mS/m of electric conductivity (EC) in the soil. A laboratory phytoremediation experiment was conducted using As-contaminated soils for 166 days. P. vittata grew and accumulated As at 264 mg/kg-DW into the shoots. Consequently, the soluble As in the soil was evidently decreased. These results showed that P. vittata was applicable to the phytoremediation of As-contaminated soil with low salinity as with the contamination caused by the 2011 tsunami.

  17. Effect of the Changeable Organic Semi-Transparent Solar Cell Window on Building Energy Efficiency and User Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehyun Tak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV are one of the most important sustainability technologies for building energy, and the semi-transparent solar cell is one of the most promising photovoltaic systems for building integration because it can generate electricity and is transparent with a range of beneficial optical properties. On the other hand, the utilization of semi-transparent solar cells for a building facade is limited, as the optimal transparency and power conversion efficiency (PCE % of the solar cell vary according to the purpose of the space, facing orientation, and number of occupants. This study designed a changeable organic semi-transparent solar cell window (COSW, in which the transparency can be altered by adjusting its temperature and solvent vapor pressure. A simulation test with the proposed COSW was conducted to examine the effects of the proposed window on energy consumption, electricity production, and occupant comfort. The results show that the proposed window has a huge potential for energy conservation and occupant comfort. Compared to the double-glazed Low-E windows, the proposed window reduces the energy consumption by approximately 14.80 kW/m2 (53.29 MJ/m2, 11.51 kW/m2 (41.45 MJ/m2, and 15.02 kW/m2 (54.07 MJ/m2, for the south-facing, east-facing, and west-facing facades, respectively, and increases user satisfaction, particularly in spring and autumn.

  18. Menthol-induced bleaching rapidly and effectively provides experimental aposymbiotic sea anemones (Aiptasia sp.) for symbiosis investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jennifer L; Sproles, Ashley E; Oakley, Clinton A; Grossman, Arthur R; Weis, Virginia M; Davy, Simon K

    2016-02-01

    Experimental manipulation of the symbiosis between cnidarians and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) is crucial to advancing the understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in host-symbiont interactions, and overall coral reef ecology. The anemone Aiptasia sp. is a model for cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, and notably it can be rendered aposymbiotic (i.e. dinoflagellate-free) and re-infected with a range of Symbiodinium types. Various methods exist for generating aposymbiotic hosts; however, they can be hugely time consuming and not wholly effective. Here, we optimise a method using menthol for production of aposymbiotic Aiptasia. The menthol treatment produced aposymbiotic hosts within just 4 weeks (97-100% symbiont loss), and the condition was maintained long after treatment when anemones were held under a standard light:dark cycle. The ability of Aiptasia to form a stable symbiosis appeared to be unaffected by menthol exposure, as demonstrated by successful re-establishment of the symbiosis when anemones were experimentally re-infected. Furthermore, there was no significant impact on photosynthetic or respiratory performance of re-infected anemones. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Effect of High Pressure and Temperature on Structural, Thermodynamic and Thermoelectric Properties of Quaternary CoFeCrAl Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2017-12-01

    Employing first-principles based on density functional theory we have investigated the structural, magneto-electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeCrAl. Electronic band structure displays that CoFeCrAl is an indirect band gap semiconductor in spin-down state with the band gap value of 0.65 eV. Elastic constants reveal CoFeCrAl is a mechanically stable structure having a Debye temperature of 648 K along with a high melting temperature (2130 K). The thermoelectric properties in the temperature range 50-800 K have been calculated. CoFeCrAl possesses a high Seebeck coefficient of - 46 μV/K at room temperature along with the huge power factor of ˜ 4.8 (1012 μW cm-1 K-2 s-1) which maximizes the figure-of-merit up to ˜ 0.75 at 800 K temperature and suggesting CoFeCrAl as potential thermoelectric material. The effect of high pressure and high temperature on the thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and heat capacity were also studied by using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.

  20. Is sleep education an effective tool for sleep improvement and minimizing metabolic disturbance and obesity in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Teresa; Taheri, Shahrad

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in recent years. Obesity is associated with a range of adverse physiological, psychological and social outcomes and places a huge economical burden on healthcare systems around the world. Insufficient sleep duration is common in adolescents and exacerbated by contemporary lifestyles, but may be a contributor to obesity onset and metabolic disruption. We briefly review the current evidence surrounding the associations between sleep and obesity as well as diabetes. Sleep improvement programs have been suggested as a potential avenue to raise awareness of the importance of sleep and ultimately enhance sleep behaviors/routines. A review of the current literature supporting the efficacy of such programs is tentative. Furthermore, very few studies have investigated if sleep enhancement has downstream positive effects on metabolic function or body weight in adolescents. We highlight biological and social factors that intensify sleep loss in adolescents and recommend that these be targeted components in future interventions aimed at improving adolescent sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect on Public Policy from Macro to Nano Aspects of the Deadliest Illness of Mankind: Important Role of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Arjun

    2013-04-01

    The effect on public policy of macro to nano aspects of the deadliest Illness known to mankind is given. The focus is on the important role of physics which has been ignored so far to solve its problems. It is now acknowledged that the deadliest illness is actually a group of illnesses which are lumped together as mental illnesses. They are the most widespread and damaging illnesses in the world. Their impact on the entire society globally is huge because they afflict majority of the people irrespective of race, religion, sex, age, education and economic status. In USA alone, the number afflicted according to the official count is about 80 million (out of a total population of 315 million), and it is projected to increase to about 25 to 30% of the population within two decades. A model is given in this paper to address some of the key issues from macro to nano aspects of the deadliest illness. The information given in this paper is scientific though easy to understand. It will help the elected policy makers, public, physicists, neuroscientists, doctors, and care giving personnel world wide. The model explains the missing links in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Additional evidence from other recent studies shall also be given.

  2. Effective surface passivation of multi-shelled InP quantum dots through a simple complexing with titanium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jung-Ho; Kim, Min-Seok; Han, Chang-Yeol; Jang, Eun-Pyo; Do, Young Rag; Yang, Heesun

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent efficiency of various visible quantum dots (QDs) has been incessantly improved to meet industrially high standard mainly through the advance in core/shell heterostructural design, however, their stability against degradable environments appears still lacking. The most viable strategy to cope with this issue was to exploit chemically inert oxide phases to passivate QD surface in the form of either individual overcoating or matrix embedding. Herein, we report a simple but effective means to passivate QD surface by complexing its organic ligands with a metal alkoxide of titanium isopropoxide (Ti(i-PrO)4). For this, highly efficient red-emitting InP QDs with a multi-shell structure of ZnSeS intermediate plus ZnS outer shell are first synthesized and then the surface of resulting InP/ZnSeS/ZnS QDs is in-situ decorated with Ti(i-PrO)4. The presence of Tisbnd O species from Ti(i-PrO)4 on QD surface is verified by x-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Two comparative dispersions of pristine versus Ti(i-PrO)4-complexed QDs are exposed for certain periods of time to UV photon and heat and their temporal changes in photoluminescence are monitored, resulting in a huge improvement in QD stability from the latter ones through Ti(i-PrO)4-mediated better surface passivation.

  3. Evaluation of the Cerebral State Index in Cats under Isoflurane Anaesthesia: Dose-Effect Relationship and Prediction of Clinical Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the cerebral state index (CSI in reflecting different levels of isoflurane anaesthesia was evaluated in ten cats subjected to four end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (EtIso, each maintained for 15 minutes (0.8%, 1.2%, 1.6%, or 2.0% EtIso. The CSI, hemodynamic data, ocular reflexes, and eye position were recorded for each EtIso concentration. Pharmacodynamic analysis of CSI with EtIso was performed, as well as prediction probability analysis with a clinical scale based on the eye reflexes. The CSI values showed great variability. Between all parameters, burst suppression ratio showed the better fitting with the sigmoidal concentration-effect model (R2=0.93 followed by CSI (R2=0.82 and electromyographic activity (R2=0.79. EtIso was the variable with better prediction of the clinical scale of anaesthesia (prediction probability value of 0.94. Although the CSI values decrease with increasing isoflurane concentrations, the huge variability in CSI values may be a strong limitation for its use in cats and it seems to be no better than EtIso as a predictor of clinical signs.

  4. Effect of KOH activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge & corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2017-12-07

    Series sludge-straw based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons were studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that as the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw and potassium hydroxide was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacity, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times of sample prepared by the non-activated raw materials, respectively. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reduce the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to their desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Implication Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both were great production, wide distribution, readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by them. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceed with the study of prepared AC by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economical and environmental benefits.

  5. Analysis of Climate Change Effects on Baseflow Index and Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Severe water shortages have been observed globally and the damage from climate change is predicted to increase consistently. Especially, groundwater which accounts for 95% of water resources that ecosystems rely on is very important. In order to protect the health of ecosystems from groundwater, research on climate change adaptation is necessary. This research aims at analyzing the effects of baseflow on Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems(GDEs) through Baseflow Index(BFI) utilizing run-off discharge according to the climate change. In order to analyze the effects on GDEs, Nakdong basin was selected for demonstration. So as to compute the baseflow in the basin, Soil and Water Assessment Tool(SWAT) was employed. This research compared and analyzed distribution of BFI over the past 30 years and expected BFI in connection with climate change. RCP 8.5 provided by IPCC was utilized and the result showed that changes of BFI in four periods, P1(1980-2009), F1(2010-2039), F2(2040-2069) and F3(2070-2099), varied according to weather conditions. So as to analyze the correlation between baseflow each period and GDEs, this research employed ecosystems health index and carried out correlation analysis according to each GDEs. Analysis showed that correlation between baseflow and Benthic Macro-invertebrate(BMI) was over R2 0.7 and correlation to the rest was low. This means BMI prove to be sensitive in BFI. The purpose of this research is to figure out the characteristics of baseflow about the impact of climate change and analyze the impact of baseflow on GDEs through the correlation analysis between baseflow and ecosystems health index. BMI has high correlation to baseflow and the rest do not. Generally, however, GDEs are hugely inter-related to water so that baseflow which accounts for over 40 percent cannot be excluded. Therefore, based on this research, management system on baseflow ought to be established with more endeavors to protect and preserve ecosystems.

  6. Effective extraction and assembly methods for simultaneously obtaining plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanjun; Fan, Shihang; Hua, Wei; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-01-01

    In conventional approaches to plastid and mitochondrial genome sequencing, the sequencing steps are performed separately; thus, plastid DNA (ptDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) should be prepared independently. However, it is difficult to extract pure ptDNA and mtDNA from plant tissue. Following the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, many researchers have attempted to obtain plastid genomes or mitochondrial genomes using high-throughput sequencing data from total DNA. Unfortunately, the huge datasets generated consume massive computing and storage resources and cost a great deal, and even more importantly, excessive pollution reads affect the accuracy of the assembly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an effective method that can generate base sequences from plant tissue and that is suitable for all plant species. Here, we describe a highly effective, low-cost method for obtaining plastid and mitochondrial genomes simultaneously. First, we obtained high-quality DNA employing Partial Concentration Extraction. Second, we evaluated the purity of the DNA sample and determined the sequencing dataset size employing Vector Control Quantitative Analysis. Third, paired-end reads were obtained using a high-throughput sequencing platform. Fourth, we obtained scaffolds employing Two-step Assembly. Finally, we filled in gaps using specific methods and obtained complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes. To ensure the accuracy of plastid and mitochondrial genomes, we validated the assembly using PCR and Sanger sequencing. Using this method,we obtained complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes with lengths of 153,533 nt and 223,412 nt separately. A simple method for extracting, evaluating, sequencing and assembling plastid and mitochondrial genomes was developed. This method has many advantages: it is timesaving, inexpensive and reproducible and produces high-quality sequence. Furthermore, this method can produce plastid and mitochondrial genomes

  7. Effective extraction and assembly methods for simultaneously obtaining plastid and mitochondrial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjun Hao

    Full Text Available In conventional approaches to plastid and mitochondrial genome sequencing, the sequencing steps are performed separately; thus, plastid DNA (ptDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA should be prepared independently. However, it is difficult to extract pure ptDNA and mtDNA from plant tissue. Following the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, many researchers have attempted to obtain plastid genomes or mitochondrial genomes using high-throughput sequencing data from total DNA. Unfortunately, the huge datasets generated consume massive computing and storage resources and cost a great deal, and even more importantly, excessive pollution reads affect the accuracy of the assembly. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an effective method that can generate base sequences from plant tissue and that is suitable for all plant species. Here, we describe a highly effective, low-cost method for obtaining plastid and mitochondrial genomes simultaneously.First, we obtained high-quality DNA employing Partial Concentration Extraction. Second, we evaluated the purity of the DNA sample and determined the sequencing dataset size employing Vector Control Quantitative Analysis. Third, paired-end reads were obtained using a high-throughput sequencing platform. Fourth, we obtained scaffolds employing Two-step Assembly. Finally, we filled in gaps using specific methods and obtained complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes. To ensure the accuracy of plastid and mitochondrial genomes, we validated the assembly using PCR and Sanger sequencing. Using this method,we obtained complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes with lengths of 153,533 nt and 223,412 nt separately.A simple method for extracting, evaluating, sequencing and assembling plastid and mitochondrial genomes was developed. This method has many advantages: it is timesaving, inexpensive and reproducible and produces high-quality sequence. Furthermore, this method can produce plastid and mitochondrial

  8. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of single clove garlic against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Khalid Mohammed; Al-Shaibani, Elham Shukri; Alhadi, Fatima A; Al-Soudi, Safa'a Abdulrzaq; D'souza, Myrene R

    2017-08-17

    The increase in demand and consumption of single clove garlic or 'Solo garlic' (Allium sativum) has resulted in an increase in research on its therapeutic properties. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activities, oxidant-scavenging efficiency and preventive effects of SCG (single clove garlic) and MCG (multi clove garlic) on CCl 4 -induced acute hepatotoxicity in male rabbits. For this purpose, rabbits were orally administered with 3 ml of CCl 4 /kg of body weight, followed by 0.8 g of MCG or SCG/kg twice a week for three successive weeks. Oxidative hepatotoxicity was then assessed. SCG extracts exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than the MCG extract. Scavenging ability of SCG showed significant (p garlic storage constituents varies with the number of cloves present. CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity demonstrated histological changes including severe damage in the structure of liver tissues which correlated well to oxidative stress levels. Simultaneously, administration of SCG resulted in a significant reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TB) levels in addition to improvement in some histological parameters. Low levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) (p < 0.001), along with a huge reduction in peroxidase (POx) (p < 0.001) revealed protection against oxidative toxicity in the liver homogenate. Higher levels of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.05) when compared to the MCG test (TM) group indicates that removal of H 2 O 2 is based on CAT activity in SCG test (TS) group rather than the POx activity demonstrated in the former group. The present study indicates that SCG possesses more protective ability than MCG against CCl 4 -induced liver injury and might be an effective alternative medicine against acute oxidative liver toxicity.

  9. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  10. Big infrastructures effects on local developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Vendemmia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to clarify the consequences generated by regional infrastructures strategies on local city growth.Do regional infrastructure strategies activate transformation processes at a local level? And may these  processes generate virtuous rules for local development in bottom-up transformations?To answer at these questions, in my opinion,  the Metropolitan Area of Naples represents an interesting case study. In these area, and due to the lack of Institutions, the processes, object of this work, are clearly visible: a coexistence between “top-down” projects and “bottom-up” transformations is highlighted. In 2010 Naples lies on a huge conurbation: the high-way infrastructures reduced the distance, increasing the accessibility of the region but without building a clear relation with the surroundings; as a consequence, the city sprawls, messing  up the previous rural structure. At the same time, the industrial areas produced visible fractures on the configuration of the territory.The different technologies produced physical changes in the Metropolitan Area, as well as in citizens life style. We are trying to understand, here, the relations between this two dynamics in order to measure the influences and forecast the transformations.An important fact is that nowadays and worldwide, we are assisting to the replacement of the industrial sector with global services and transport; commercial activities are transforming the landscape, finding their location in places that have well defined characteristics: big plots, high visibility, global connectivity and easy accessibility. In Naples they have been established in the same area where agriculture, industries and residential suburbs have already layered. Even though, here, they symbolize territorial references: “land-marks” (Lynch, 2006. New infrastructure have to been built in order to support this renewed uses of the territory. If the city can be described “as points of

  11. Numerical study of sea level and kuroshio volume transport change contributed by steric effect due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Woo, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    For direct consideration of seawater volume change by steric effect due to global warming, this study uses a MOM (Modular Ocean Model) version4 oceanic general circulation model, which does not use Boussinesq approximation. The model was improved to regional scale by increasing the grid resolution. Global simulation model results of CM2.1, HADCM3, MIROC3.2 provided by the IPCC AR4 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) were used as initial and boundary conditions, and SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) A1B was selected as a global warming scenario. The Northwestern Pacific region, which includes the Korean Peninsula, was selected as the study area, and the Yellow Sea which has a complex coastline, was expressed in detail by increasing grid resolution. By averaging the results of the three numerical experiments, we found that temperature & mean sea level(MSL) are increased by approximately 3℃/35cm from 2000 to 2100, respectively. Interestingly, The East Sea (Japan sea) appeared to show the largest change of MSL due to steric effect compared with Yellow and East China Sea. Numerical results showed that larger influence on East/Japan Sea is caused by the temperature and volume transport change in Tsushima Warm Current, which passes through the Korea Strait. A direct simulation of steric effect results in higher sea level rise compared with in-direct simulation of steric effect. Also, the Kuroshio Current, which is one of the major currents in the Northwestern Pacific, showed a decrease in transport as global warming progressed. Although there were differences between models, approximately 4 5SV of transport was reduced in 2100. However, there was no huge change in the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current.

  12. A retrospective study on acute health effects due to volcanic ash exposure during the eruption of Mount Etna (Sicily) in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Daniele; Ciancio, Nicola; Campisi, Raffaele; Di Maria, Annalisa; Bivona, Laura; Poletti, Venerino; Mistretta, Antonio; Biggeri, Annibale; Di Maria, Giuseppe

    2013-08-07

    Mount Etna, located in the eastern part of Sicily (Italy), is the highest and most active volcano in Europe. During the sustained eruption that occurred in October-November 2002 huge amounts of volcanic ash fell on a densely populated area south-east of Mount Etna in Catania province. The volcanic ash fall caused extensive damage to infrastructure utilities and distress in the exposed population. This retrospective study evaluates whether or not there was an association between ash fall and acute health effects in exposed local communities. We collected the number and type of visits to the emergency department (ED) for diseases that could be related to volcanic ash exposure in public hospitals of the Province of Catania between October 20 and November 7, 2002. We compared the magnitude of differences in ED visits between the ash exposure period in 2002 and the same period of the previous year 2001. We observed a significant increase of ED visits for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and ocular disturbances during the ash exposure time period. There was a positive association between exposure to volcanic ash from the 2002 eruption of Mount Etna and acute health effects in the Catania residents. This study documents the need for public health preparedness and response initiatives to protect nearby populations from exposure to ash fall from future eruptions of Mount Etna.

  13. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  14. The alternative strategy for designing covalent drugs through kinetic effects of pi-stacking on the self-assembled nanoparticles: a model study with antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Libo; Suo, Siqingaowa; Zhang, Han; Jia, Hongying; Liu, Ke Jian; Zhang, Xue Ji; Liu, Yang

    2016-11-01

    It is still a huge challenge to find a new strategy for rationally designing covalent drugs because most of them are discovered by serendipity. Considering that the effect of covalent drugs is closely associated with the kinetics of the reaction between drug molecule and its target protein, here we first demonstrate an example of the kinetic effect of pi-stacking of drug molecules on covalent antimicrobial drug design. When PEGylated 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (PEG-ACA) is used as a substrate drug, pi-stacking of the ACA group via the self-assembly of PEG-ACA on the surface of gold nanoparticles (i.e. Au@ACA) exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli fourfold higher than a PEG-ACA monomer does. The reason can be reasonably attributed to the kinetic rate enhancement for the covalent reaction between Au@ACA and penicillin binding proteins. We believe that the self-assembly of functional groups onto the surface of gold nanoparticles represents a new strategy for covalent drug design.

  15. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  16. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Hanif

    Full Text Available The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata] through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%, 600°C for syngas (22 wt%, and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%. Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products.

  17. A Case Study of Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis of Building Levees to Mitigate the Joint Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR will magnify the impacts of storm surge; the resulting severe flooding and inundation can cause huge damage to coastal communities. Community leaders are considering implementing adaptation strategies, typically hard engineering projects, to protect coastal assets and resources. It is important to understand the costs and benefits of the proposed project before any decision is made. To mitigate the flooding impact of joint effects of storm surge and SLR, building levee segments is chosen to be a corresponding adaptation strategy to protect the real estate assets in the study area—the City of Miami, FL, USA. This paper uses the classic Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA to assess the cost efficiency and proposes corresponding improvements in the benefit estimation, by estimating the avoided damages of implementing levee projects. Results show that the city will benefit from implementing levee projects along the Miami River in both a one-time 10 year storm event with SLR and cumulative long-term damage scenarios. This study also suggests that conducting CBA is a critical process before making coastal adaptation planning investment. A more meaningful result of cost effectiveness is estimated by accounting for the appreciation and time value. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify how the choice of discount rate influences the result. Uncertain factors including the rate of SLR, storm intensification, land use changes, and real estate appreciation are further analyzed.

  18. Photo-thermal study of a layer of randomly distributed gold nanoparticles: from nano-localization to macro-scale effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Luigia; Palermo, Giovanna; Veltri, Alessandro; Cataldi, Ugo; Bürgi, Thomas; Ritacco, Tiziana; Giocondo, Michele; Umeton, Cesare; De Luca, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    We present an experimental characterization and a comprehensive theoretical modeling of macroscopic plasmonic heat production that takes place in a single layer of small gold nanoparticles (GNPs), randomly distributed on a glass substrate, covered with different host media and acted on by a resonant radiation. We have performed a detailed experimental study of the temperature variations of three different systems, obtained by varying the density of nanoparticles. Due to the macroscopic dimension of the spot size, the used laser irradiates a huge number of nanoparticles, inducing a broad thermo-plasmonic effect that modifies the thermal conductivity of the entire system; starting from the state of art, we have implemented a simple model that enables to evaluate the resulting new thermal conductivity. We have also extended our theoretical approach to the macroscale, including an analysis of the effects predicted for different NP densities and laser spot size values, as well as for different values of the laser intensity, which can be as low as 0.05 W cm-2 . Theoretically predicted temperature variations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  19. Educational Effectiveness at the End of Upper Secondary School: Further Insights Into the Effects of Statewide Policy Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    For several decades, educational policy reforms have been understood as major instruments of educational governance that can impact existing educational practices, for instance, in terms of changes in teaching strategies, learning materials, and students’ achievements (Fullan, 1983). However, in contrast to their huge sociopolitical relevance, scientific evaluations of such reforms are scarce (e.g., OECD, 2015). Rigorous evaluations and deeper investigations of reforms are of special socie...

  20. Material-based figure of merit for caloric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, L. D.; Mudryk, Y.; Slaughter, J.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The efficient use of reversible thermal effects in magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, and elastocaloric materials is a promising avenue that can lead to a substantially increased efficiency of refrigeration and heat pumping devices, most importantly, those used in household and commercial cooling applications near ambient temperature. A proliferation in caloric material research has resulted in a wide array of materials where only the isothermal change in entropy in response to a handful of different field strengths over a limited range of temperatures has been evaluated and reported. Given the abundance of such data, there is a clear need for a simple and reliable figure of merit enabling fast screening and down-selection to justify further detailed characterization of those material systems that hold the greatest promise. Based on the analysis of several well-known materials that exhibit vastly different magnetocaloric effects, the Temperature averaged Entropy Change is introduced as a suitable early indicator of the material's utility for magnetocaloric cooling applications, and its adoption by the caloric community is recommended.

  1. Ultrafast Electric Field Pulse Control of Giant Temperature Change in Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Liu, S.; Lindenberg, A. M.; Rappe, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    There is a surge of interest in developing environmentally friendly solid-state-based cooling technology. Here, we point out that a fast cooling rate (≈1011 K /s ) can be achieved by driving solid crystals to a high-temperature phase with a properly designed electric field pulse. Specifically, we predict that an ultrafast electric field pulse can cause a giant temperature decrease up to 32 K in PbTiO3 occurring on few picosecond time scales. We explain the underlying physics of this giant electric field pulse-induced temperature change with the concept of internal energy redistribution: the electric field does work on a ferroelectric crystal and redistributes its internal energy, and the way the kinetic energy is redistributed determines the temperature change and strongly depends on the electric field temporal profile. This concept is supported by our all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 . Moreover, this internal energy redistribution concept can also be applied to understand electrocaloric effect. We further propose new strategies for inducing giant cooling effect with ultrafast electric field pulse. This Letter offers a general framework to understand electric-field-induced temperature change and highlights the opportunities of electric field engineering for controlled design of fast and efficient cooling technology.

  2. The Impact of Information Richness on Information Security Awareness Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R. S.; Chen, Charlie C.; Harris, Albert L.; Huang, Hui-Jou

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress in the use of the internet has resulted in huge losses in many organizations due to lax security. As a result, information security awareness is becoming an important issue to anyone using the Internet. To reduce losses, organizations have made information security awareness a top priority. The three main barriers…

  3. Effects of weathering on color loss of natural fiber : thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; Colin. Felton; Thomas. Lundin

    2000-01-01

    The technology currently exists to manufacture natural fiber-thermoplastic composites from recycled materials. Development of commodity building products from these composites would open huge markets for waste-based materials in the United States. To date, the construction industry has only accepted wood-thermoplastic composite lumber and only for limited applications...

  4. The Effectiveness of Social Media Network Telegram in Teaching English Language Pronunciation to Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xodabande, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the expansion of digital technologies, multimedia, and social networks, dramatically transformed our lives. Education in general and the area of foreign language teaching and learning have also benefited hugely from those developments and advances. As a result, the face of language learning is changing and new technologies provide…

  5. The effect of a tribo-modified surface layer on friction in elastomer contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokhtari, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Friction between rubber and a counter surface has interested many researchers because of its huge practical importance. Rubber components are applied in various industrial applications such as tires, rubber seals, wiper blades, conveyor belts and syringes. The friction between a rubber surface in

  6. Fraud and punishment:enhancing deterrence through more effective sanctions: main report

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Shepherd, David; Brooks, Graham; Wakefield, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Fraud is an extremely diverse problem which presents a huge cost (currently estimated by the National Fraud Authority as £73 billion each year) to society. It is preferable to pre-empt fraud, however part of any strategy to tackle it needs to involve sanctions and punishment.

  7. Research on the Learning Effects of Multimedia Assisted Instruction Using Information Technology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    As technology advances, whether from the previous multi-media teaching, online teaching, or now interactive whiteboard, the various changes in both hardware and software resources as well as information are very huge. The information is quickly circulating under the changes in the old and new technology, and the new knowledge has been created.…

  8. Effects of weathering on color loss of natural fiber thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Falk; C. Felton; T. Lundin

    2001-01-01

    The technology currently exists to manufacture natural fiber thermoplastic composites from recycled materials. Development of commodity-building products from these composites would open up huge markets for waste-based materials in the US. To date, the construction industry has only accepted wood thermoplastic composite lumber (and only for limited applications). In...

  9. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  10. Effective Teaching/Effective Urban Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Dyan; Charner-Laird, Megin; Kirkpatrick, Cheryl L.; Szczesiul, Stacy Agee; Gordon, Pamela J.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the ways in which 17 novice teachers define and describe effective urban teaching and the stark contrasts that these teachers draw between effective urban teaching and effective teaching. The authors find that descriptions of students played a considerable role when participants made distinctions between effective teaching…

  11. An introduction to superconductivity. The Meissner effect and the derivation of phenomenological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeney, Lucas

    2016-09-23

    The purpose of this work was to give the reader insight into the topic of conventional superconductors. It started out with defining the superconductive state itself as a state of ideal conductivity and ideal diamagnetism. An important phenomenon to keep in mind in this regard is the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect. It then went on to attempt to understand those properties on a macroscopic level. This was achieved in the framework of the two major macroscopic theories, the London theory and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. While the London theory focused on the electrodynamic qualities of the superconductive state, the Ginzburg-Landau theory dealt with events close to the superconducting phase transition in a thermodynamic scope. The highlight of this section was the investigation of the Abrikosov lattice, the geometric disposition of the flux tubes in the intermediate Shubnikov phase. We closed with the BCS theory as the premier microscopic theory of superconductivity. Main subjects of this section were the concept of Cooper pairs and the calculation of various energy gap equations. We also looked at real properties of superconductors such as the specific heat to test our rather abstract calculations and came to outstanding agreements. The principles presented in this document should serve as a foundation to work on more advanced problems in superconductivity. Especially the large field of unconventional superconductivity is of huge interest in current research, as most of the high T{sub c} superconductors fall in that category. As unconventional superconductors can not be explained with BCS theory, the search for a uniform theory to describe them is still on-going. Unconventional superconductors include but are not limited to cuprates (T{sub c}

  12. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on dark fermentative biohydrogen production: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhoo, M A Zumar; Mohee, Romeela; Hassan, M Ali

    2015-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of vanadium contamination on the framework and micropore structure of ultra stable Y-zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etim, U J; Xu, B; Ullah, Rooh; Yan, Z

    2016-02-01

    Y-zeolites are the main component of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst for conversion of crude petroleum to products of high demand including transportation fuel. We investigated effects of vanadium which is present as one of the impurities in FCC feedstock on the framework and micropore structure of ultra-stable (US) Y-zeolite. The zeolite samples were prepared and characterized using standard techniques including: (1) X-ray diffraction, (2) N2 adsorption employing non local density functional theory method, NLDFT, (3) Transmittance and Pyridine FTIR, (4) Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), and (5) (27)Al and (29)Si MAS-NMR. Results revealed that in the presence of steam, vanadium caused excessive evolution of non inter-crystalline mesopores and structural damage. The evolved mesopore size averaged about 25.0nm at 0.5wt.% vanadium loading, far larger than mesopore size in zeolitic materials with improved hydrothermal stability and performance for FCC catalyst. A mechanism of mesopore formation based on accelerated dealumination has been proposed and discussed. Vanadium immobilization experiments conducted to mitigate vanadium migration into the framework clearly showed vanadium is mobile at reaction conditions. From the results, interaction of vanadium with the passivator limits and decreases mobility and activity of vanadium into inner cavities of the zeolite capable of causing huge structure breakdown and acid sites destruction. This study therefore deepens insight into the causes of alteration in activity and selectivity of vanadium contaminated catalyst and hints on a possible mechanism of passivation in vanadium passivated FCC catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the effects of seasonality and socioeconomic impact on the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Beier, John C.; Cantrell, Robert Stephen; Cosner, Chris; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV) among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate that, in Northeastern Africa, human activities, including those associated with the Eid al Adha feast, along with a combination of climatic factors such as rainfall level and hydrological variations, contribute to the transmission and dispersal of the disease pathogen. Moreover, sporadic outbreaks may occur when the two events occur together: 1) abundant livestock are recruited into areas at risk from RVF due to the demand for the religious festival and 2) abundant numbers of mosquitoes emerge. These two factors have been shown to have impacts on the severity of RVF outbreaks. Our numerical results present the transmission dynamics of the disease pathogen over both short and long periods of time, particularly during the festival time. Further, we investigate the impact on patterns of disease outbreaks in each patch brought by festival- and seasonal-driven factors, such as the number of livestock imported daily, the animal transportation speed from patch to patch, and the death rate induced by ceremonial sacrifices. In addition, our simulations show that when the time for festival preparation starts earlier than usual, the risk of massive disease outbreaks rises, particularly in patch 3 (the place where the religious ceremony will be held).

  15. Modelling the effects of seasonality and socioeconomic impact on the transmission of rift valley Fever virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an important mosquito-borne viral zoonosis in Africa and the Middle East that causes human deaths and significant economic losses due to huge incidences of death and abortion among infected livestock. Outbreaks of RVF are sporadic and associated with both seasonal and socioeconomic effects. Here we propose an almost periodic three-patch model to investigate the transmission dynamics of RVF virus (RVFV among ruminants with spatial movements. Our findings indicate that, in Northeastern Africa, human activities, including those associated with the Eid al Adha feast, along with a combination of climatic factors such as rainfall level and hydrological variations, contribute to the transmission and dispersal of the disease pathogen. Moreover, sporadic outbreaks may occur when the two events occur together: 1 abundant livestock are recruited into areas at risk from RVF due to the demand for the religious festival and 2 abundant numbers of mosquitoes emerge. These two factors have been shown to have impacts on the severity of RVF outbreaks. Our numerical results present the transmission dynamics of the disease pathogen over both short and long periods of time, particularly during the festival time. Further, we investigate the impact on patterns of disease outbreaks in each patch brought by festival- and seasonal-driven factors, such as the number of livestock imported daily, the animal transportation speed from patch to patch, and the death rate induced by ceremonial sacrifices. In addition, our simulations show that when the time for festival preparation starts earlier than usual, the risk of massive disease outbreaks rises, particularly in patch 3 (the place where the religious ceremony will be held.

  16. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision

  17. [Metabolism and effects of vitamin D. Definition of vitamin D deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest for vitamin D in the medical and scientific community as well as in the public media as illustrated by a huge number of publications. Most experts claim that vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is widespread with potential important public health consequences. It may seem surprising for many persons that a deficiency in a vitamin may be so frequent in countries where food is so diversified and easily available. In fact, vitamin D is not a vitamin stricto sensu as it is mainly synthesized in the skin under the action of UVB rays, while its food sources are scarce. Furthermore, UVB rays are absent during a marked part of the year at latitudes greater than 35-40°, while pollution, cloud cover reduce the number of UVB reaching the earth, and many factors such as age, skin pigmentation, covering clothes, sun creams reduce the capacity of the skin to synthesize vitamin D3. Vitamin D must be hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25OH2D), the active metabolite. As 1,25OH2D is released into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor present in several distant tissues, it may be considered as a hormone, vitamin D being thus a pre-prohormone. In the present article, we review briefly the metabolism and various effects of vitamin D as well as vitamin D treatments. We define vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency considering separately the population and the patient level and propose our opinion according to which patients may beneficiate from vitamin D testing. © Société de Biologie, 2014.

  18. Correlated EEMD and Effective Feature Extraction for Both Periodic and Irregular Faults Diagnosis in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiejunyi Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent fault diagnosis of complex machinery is crucial for industries to reduce the maintenance cost and to improve fault prediction performance. Acoustic signal is an ideal source for diagnosis because of its inherent characteristics in terms of being non-directional and insensitive to structural resonances. However, there are also two main drawbacks of acoustic signal, one of which is the low signal to noise ratio (SNR caused by its high sensitivity and the other one is the low computational efficiency caused by the huge data size. These would decrease the performance of the fault diagnosis system. Therefore, it is significant to develop a proper feature extraction method to improve computational efficiency and performance in both periodic and irregular fault diagnosis. To enhance SNR of the acquired acoustic signal, the correlation coefficient (CC method is employed to eliminate the redundant intrinsic mode functions (IMF, which comes from the decomposition procedure of pre-processing known as ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, because the higher the correlated coefficient of an IMF is, the more significant fault signatures it would contain, and the redundant IMF would compromise both the SNR and the computational cost performance. Singular value decomposition (SVD and sample Entropy (SampEn are subsequently used to extract the fault feature, by exploiting their sensitivities to irregular and periodic fault signals, respectively. In addition, the proposed feature extraction method using sparse Bayesian based pairwise coupled extreme learning machine (PC-SBELM outperforms the existing pairwise-coupling probabilistic neural network (PC-PNN and pairwise-coupling relevance vector machine (PC-RVM by 1.8% and 2%, respectively, to achieve an accuracy of 93.9%. The experiments conducted on the periodic and irregular faults in the gears and bearings have demonstrated that the proposed hybrid fault diagnosis system is effective.

  19. Effective Low-Power Wearable Wireless Surface EMG Sensor Design Based on Analog-Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Balouchestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Electromyography (sEMG is a non-invasive measurement process that does not involve tools and instruments to break the skin or physically enter the body to investigate and evaluate the muscular activities produced by skeletal muscles. The main drawbacks of existing sEMG systems are: (1 they are not able to provide real-time monitoring; (2 they suffer from long processing time and low speed; (3 they are not effective for wireless healthcare systems because they consume huge power. In this work, we present an analog-based Compressed Sensing (CS architecture, which consists of three novel algorithms for design and implementation of wearable wireless sEMG bio-sensor. At the transmitter side, two new algorithms are presented in order to apply the analog-CS theory before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC. At the receiver side, a robust reconstruction algorithm based on a combination of ℓ1-ℓ1-optimization and Block Sparse Bayesian Learning (BSBL framework is presented to reconstruct the original bio-signals from the compressed bio-signals. The proposed architecture allows reducing the sampling rate to 25% of Nyquist Rate (NR. In addition, the proposed architecture reduces the power consumption to 40%, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD to 24%, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE to 2%, and the computation time from 22 s to 9.01 s, which provide good background for establishing wearable wireless healthcare systems. The proposed architecture achieves robust performance in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR for the reconstruction process.

  20. Numerical investigation of the effects of rising angle on intermediate turbine duct and nearby turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongrui; Ji, Lucheng; Liu, Jun; Du, Qiang; Liu, Guang; Wang, Pei; Du, Meimei

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency, ultra-high bypass ratio engine attracts more and more attention because of its huge advantage, which has larger diameter low pressure turbine (LPT). This trend will lead to aggressive (high diffusion) intermediate turbine duct (ITD) design. It is necessary to guide the flow leaving high pressure turbine (HPT) to LPT at a larger diameter without any severe loss generating separation or flow disturbances. In this paper, eight ITDs with upstream swirl vanes and downstream LPT nozzle are investigated with the aid of numerical method. These models are modified from a unique ITD prototype, which comes from a real engine. Key parameters like area ratio, inlet height, and non-dimensional length of the ITDs are kept unchanged, while the rising angle (radial offset) is the only changed parameter which ranges from 8 degrees to 45 degrees. In this paper, the effects of rising angle (RA) on ITD, as well as nearby turbines, will be analyzed in detail. According to the investigation results, RA could be as large as 40 degrees in such model of this paper to escape separation; When RA increases, local inlet flow field of LPT nozzle appears to be with apparent variation; while a positive result is that outlet flow field could be kept almost unchanged through modifying blade profile. On the other hand, it seems optimistic that the overall total pressure loss could be kept nearly equivalent among different RA cases. And a valuable conclusion is that outer wall curvature is more important for pressure loss, which advises a clear direction for optimizing ITD.